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1 Describe generation of a single phase sinusoidal alternating current A loop of wire is rotated in a magnetic field that will generate sinusoidal wave with respect to different angles. It is at the max when it¶s at 90 and 270 degrees and it is at the minimum when it¶s at 0, 180 and 360 degrees. 1.2 Define the following terms: a. Cycle b. Frequency c. Period d. Phase e. In phase or phase difference f. Phase lead or lag

a. Continued rotation of a conductor in a magnetic field that produces succession of waves of voltage b. No. of cycles occurring in one second, donated by µf¶ c. Time taken in seconds for one complete cycle f=1/T d. Same frequency in which two or more voltages/ currents can be compared e. Individual voltages/current rise/fall in the same direction f. Individual voltages/current rise/fall in different directions 1.3 Define/convert between AC values a. instantaneous value b. peak value c. peak to peak value d. average value e. RMS value

as measured vertically from a point on the time axis representing that instant b. effective or RMS value of an alternating current is 0. parallel c. current and power 1. series/ parallel Completed in other previous calculation problems .5 Convert between decibels and voltage.4 Describe the decibel system for voltage. difference between the peak positive and peak negative value during a cycle d.g AC sine wave equivalent to 0. e. Kirchhoff¶s law. series b.707 of its peak value. voltages or currents. current and power in following AC resistive circuits: a.7 Draw and describe the power wave for a purely resistive AC circuit and state the formula for power P=EI 1.6 Describe the effects of resistance on voltage and current in an AC circuit In a purely resistive AC circuit the voltage and current are IN PHASE. Ohm¶s law. 1. max value that is reached (either positive or negative) during a cycle is the peak value c. considering a half cycle only. and the usual circuit rules for current and voltage apply exactly as in DC circuits. current and power relationship It¶s a dimensionless logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of two powers.8 Calculate values of voltage. value at a particular instant of time.637 of the peak value e. 1.a. 1.

Odd harmonics are frequencies that are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency of the waveform Even harmonics are frequencies that are even multiples of the fundamental frequency of the waveform Topic 2 Inductance in AC circuits 2. core length.9 Measure values of V.1.3 State the formula for inductive reactance and explain how it is derived. no. It is the opposition to current flow due to an inductance. of turns in the coil and the cross sectional area of the core. frequency of AC resistive circuits.1 Determine the phase relationship between the applied voltage and circuit current in a purely inductive AC circuit. Since V=IR Similarly. 2. and effect that odd and even harmonics have on fundamental wave shapes.10 Describe Harmonics. the opposition to current provided by a pure inductance in an AC circuit is given by the relationship 2. I. It is the property of an inductor whereby a change in current causes the inductor to produce an opposing voltage (emf) . using an oscilloscope and multimeter Completed in other previous calculation problems 1.2 describe the property of inductive reactance and impedance It is the core material.

2.7 Determine total impedance in a RL parallel circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit.6 Determine current and voltage in a RL parallel circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit. 2.2.4 Determine current and voltage in a RL series circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit.5 Determine total impedance in a RL series circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit. . 2.

. current and voltage will change polarity in step. the power factor will be unity (1).8 Describe effects of a change in frequency on inductive reactance. the amount of charge that the capacitor can hold will increase and therefore the current through the capacitor will also increase.10 Describe consumption of power in a purely inductive AC circuit. As Any change in the size of the capacitor C will change the capacitive reactance Xc. When the capacitance value of a capacitor increases. Topic 3 Capacitance in AC circuits 3. A purely resistive load is connected to a power supply. Completed in experiments 2.2 State meaning of terms capacitive reactance and impedance. Inductive loads such as transformers and motors (any type of wound coil) consume reactive power with current waveform lagging the voltage.1 Describe effects of capacitance on the phase relationship of the voltage and current in an AC circuit V=IR 3. impedance. and current flow in an RL parallel AC circuit. 3.3 State the formula for capacitive reactance and explain how it is derived.9 Describe effects of a change in frequency on inductive reactance. Completed in experiments 2. impedance and current flow in an RL parallel AC circuit.2. and the electrical energy flows in a single direction across the network in each cycle.

3. and impedance for an RC series circuit.3. . 3. resistance.5 Determine total impedance of a RC parallel circuit and draw phasor diagram of capacitive reactance.4 Determine current and voltage in a RC series circuit and draw phasor diagram of voltage and current of an RC series circuit.6 Determine current and voltage in a RC parallel circuit and draw phasor diagram of voltage and current of an RC series circuit.

. 3.7 Determine the total impedance of a RC parallel circuit. The opposition which a capacitor offers to ac is therefore inversely proportional to frequency and to capacitance. 3.8 Describe the effects of a change in frequency on Capacitive reactance. more electrons will pass a given point in a given time (greater current flow). Increasing the frequency will also decrease the opposition offered by a capacitor.3. As a result. In a purely capacitive circuit the positive and negative powers are equal and opposite so thy cancel each other out and total power is zero.10 Describe consumption of power in a purely capacitive AC circuit. impedance and current flow in an RC series circuit.9 Describe the effects of a change in frequency on Capacitive reactance. This opposition is called CAPACITIVE REACTANCE. Due to the phase difference of 90 degree between the voltage and current both a positive and negative power are produced. 3. Also completed in practical experiments. You may say that capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency or. the capacitive reactance decreases with increasing capacitance. impedance and current flow in an RC parallel circuit. The symbol for capacitive reactance is XC. This occurs because the number of electrons which the capacitor is capable of handling at a given voltage will change plates more often. for a given frequency.

2 Perform calculations involving all possible variables in series LCR circuits including: a. apparent power If the voltage and current are not in phase. impedance b. supply current c.3 Describe. Phase angle Completed in other previous calculation problems 4. 4. voltage across capacitor f.Topic 4 4. voltage across inductor e. applied voltage g. voltage across resistor d.1 Draw phasor diagram of voltage and impedance for series LCR circuits. its product is known as apparent power Pa which is measured in volt-amperes (VA) Apparent power = EA x I (in VA) . give the formula for and calculate: a.

i.5 Draw frequency and response curve for a series LCR circuit 4. true power The power consumed in the resistive part of the circuit is known as µTrue Power¶ (PT) and is measured in watts True Power = VR x I c.e BW = f2-f1 . Half power points It occurs when XT (total reactance) equals the resistance. the circuit impedance (Z) decreases until it reaches a minimum. give formulas for and calculate: a.4 Draw impedance and current graphs for a series LCR circuit 4. perform calculations using the formula for series resonance Completed in other previous calculation problems 4. describe. b. At this point half the applied voltage is dropped across the resistor and the other half across the reactive component.8 In relation to a series resonant RCL circuits. power factor ratio of true power to apparent power pf = True power/ apparent power 4. bandwidth BWW of a series resonant RCL circuit is the range of frequencies between the half power points.7 State. reactive power Power which is required to build up a magnetic field around an inductor and to charge a capacitor and is then returned to the energy source is known as Reactive power Reactive Power = Vx x I (VAR) d. 4.b.6 Describe the conditions that exist in the series LCR circuit at resonance As frequency increases.

impedance b.c. d. 5.3 In relation to parallel RCL circuits. applied voltage g. describe give the formula for and calculate following: a. quality factor (Q) representing quality or value of merit of reactive circuit is simply the ratio of the inductive reactance to the circuit resistance.1 Draw the current phasor diagram for parallel LCR circuits. its product is known as apparent power Pa which is measured in volt-amperes (VA) Apparent power = EA x I (in VA) . apparent power If the voltage and current are not in phase. voltage across inductor e. voltage across capacitor f. voltage across resistor d. Phase angle Completed in other previous calculation problems 5. supply current c.2 Perform calculations involving all variables in parallel LCR circuits: a. voltage magnification factor The amount by which the voltage is magnified is known as magnification factor Topic 5 Parallel LCR circuits 5.

reactive power Power which is required to build up a magnetic field around an inductor and to charge a capacitor and is then returned to the energy source is known as Reactive power Reactive Power = Vx x I (VAR) d. power factor ratio of true power to apparent power pf = True power/ apparent power 5.b.4 Describe conditions that exist in parallel LCR circuit at resonance The resonant frequency of a parallel resonant circuit is calculated with the same formula used for series resonant circuits: . true power The power consumed in the resistive part of the circuit is known as µTrue Power¶ (PT) and is measured in watts True Power = VR x I c.

7 In relation to a parallel resonant RCL circuits.6 State. give the formulas for and calculate the following: a.5 Draw the impedance and current frequency response curves for a parallel LCR circuit 5. Dynamic Impedance Because the input supplies a current at resonance. It is still a high value (maximum) and is called the Dynamic impedance Zd of the circuit.5. the impedance Z is no longer infinite at fr. . and perform calculations using formula for parallel resonance 5. describe.

c. Half-power points The difference between half-power frequencies is the bandwidth of the resonance. Q can be found by formula: e. Quality Factor (Q) If the BW and the resonant frequency are known. current magnification factor Amount by which the current is magnified is known as magnification factor and is equal the Q of the circuit. Bandwidth The BW of a parallel LCR circuit depends upon the Q of the circuit. . d. the narrower the BW.b. the higher the Q.

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