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by James Moore APOLOGIA AND WARNING The special difficulties of Gurdjieffian chronology seem likely to prevail over investigative scholarship. The very date of his birth is in dispute, although Gurdjieff himself stipulates 1866. Between then and 1912 we are chasteningly reliant on Gurdjieff's own four impressionistic accounts, which - in the nature of myth - are innocent of consistency, Aristotelian logic and chronological discipline. Notoriously problematical are 'the missing twenty years' from 1887 to 1907; the journals of the epoch's great Central Asian geographers (Sven Hedin, Sir Aurel Stein, Albert von Le Coq, Paul Pelliot and Count Kozui Otani) do not provide the collateral support for Gurdjieff's account which, here and there, might be expected. My chronology for this period is hence offered provisionally and I have not followed it slavishly in my relevant chapter, The Long Search. Nevertheless, punctuating Gurdjieff's narrative and certainly not offending it, are a few objective historical events which I differentiate by italicizing. Where Gurdjieff himself actually stipulates a date, I bracket in the chronology a source reference (using the simple code explained in the References section). Although from 1913 to 1949 our chronology appears to stand on the much firmer ground afforded by primary documents, independent witness, cross reference, and reasonable inference, the difficulty remains that Gurdjieffian memoirists focus on interior content. For a school which places a premium on relationship, they seem (with the honourable exception of P. D. Ouspensky) strangely oblivious to the correlative value of an honest date.
Date 1866 1870-72 1873 summer ?Jan.
Event G. born in Cappadocian Greek quarter of Alexandropol on Russian side of Russo-Turkish order. Birth of G.'s only brother Dmitri Ivanovitch Gurdjieff (?1870) and eldest sister (?1871). G.'s father Giorgios Giorgiades, impoverished when rinderpest wipes out his large cattle herd, opens a lumber-yard. Birth of two further sisters. Giorgiades' lumber-yard fails and he opens a small carpentry shop. G. precociously begins to contribute to family income. Russia declares war on Turkey (24 Apr.) and captures Turkish border citadel town of Kars (18 Nov.). Giorgiades moves his family to Kars, and re-establishes his carpentry shop in the Greek quarter. Father Dean Borsh of Russian military cathedral assumes responsibility for G.'s private education, co-opting as tutors four graduates of the Theological Seminary. G. reads intensively in library of Kars military hospital. G. falls under moral influence of his tutor Dean Bogachevsky. G.'s eldest and favourite sister dies. G. narrowly escapes death in shooting accident on Lake Alageuz.
visits Constantinople (where he meets Ekim Bey) to study the Mevlevi and Bektashi dervishes. Leaving home. supposedly a wisdom school founded in Babylon c. G. digging haphazardly in the ruined city of Ani. He develops close friendships with Sarkis Pogossian and Abram Yelov. via Hadji Bektash. is prime mover in the foundation (1895) of the 'Seekers of Truth'. G. Sultan Abdul Hamid II instigates massacre of Armenians throughout Turkey. and Aksehir. Konya. Abyssinia and the Sudan with Skridlov. sets out with Pogossian for Kurdistan. visits Switzerland and subsequently bases himself in Rome. but also as an agent of the Ethniki Hetairia. G. visits Thebes with Lubovedsky. Returning to Constantinople. goes to Crete. he makes pilgrimage on foot to Echmiadzin and studies for three months at Sanaine Monastery under Father Yevlampios. G. He returns to Alexandropol. narrowly escapes death on an artillery range. En route however. and Skridlov visit remains of Babylon at Nippur. The Greek 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888-9 1890-93 1894-5 1896 . and Mecca and Medina alone and in disguise. and Pogossian. seeking traces of the ancient 'Imastun brotherhood'. find reference to the 'Sarmoung Brotherhood'. G. quixotically resolved to 'find the Sarmoung'.He becomes fascinated by witnessing certain 'paranormal phenomena'. Again centred on Alexandropol. In Cairo. G. a heterogeneous and youthful grouping seeking traditional and esoteric knowledge. the Dashnakzutiun) G. a Hellenist Spartacist society. G. 1882 1883 In an adolescent duel of sorts with Piotr Karpenko. makes a strong bond with two elder seekers: Prince Yuri Lubovedsky and Professor Skridlov. During breaks from casual work as a stoker for the Transcaucasian Railway Company. As a political envoy (probably of the newly constituted Armenian Social Revolutionary Party. As a courier of the Armenian protectionist society. summer G. his chance discovery near Zakho of a 'map of pre-sand Egypt' diverts him circuitously to Alexandria (where Pogossian leaves him). where his parents now again live. G. G. 2500 BC. crystallizes his motivational question as to significance of organic and human life. Iraq. G. the Armenakans. moves to Tiflis but fails to enter the Archdeacon's choir or the Georgian Theolo gical Seminary. G. meets Vitvitskaia and escorts her to Russia.
symbolism and Sacred Dances). G. sets out (2 Jan. 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 . explores the Gobi (?Taklamakan) desert with Skridlov and the Seekers of Truth (Expedition 3). G. ? Disguised as a Transcaspian Buddhist.) G. becomes a Tsarist political agent and ? establishes some connection with the Buryat Mongol Agwhan Dordjieff. a high Tibetan official. sets out [M183] from Nakhichevan (1 Jan. G. Francis Younghusband invades Tibet (5 Jul. G. unconscious. G. G. befriends Soloviev a physical and social derelict. stays in Merv. presented to Tsar Nicholoas II (23 July) in Livadia. In New Bokhara (Easter) G. travels from Orenburg through Sverdlovsk to Siberia (Expedition 2). He takes an oath to abjure hypnotism and animal magnetism except for scientific and altruistic purposes.'s sorrow. G. G. Following a period of monastic study. ? He marries a Tibetan. After Soloviev's accidental death [M165]. returns to Baku and studies Persian magic. While in the Sfakia region.) from India. (Episode of Skridlov and Father Giovanni. (Episode of Karpenko and the ez-ezounavouron. enters Upper Tibet and studies with the 'Red Hat' Lamas. G. returned to Keriya Oasis. In dervish disguise he and Skridlov travel up the river Amu Darya (Oxus) into Kafiristan. returns to Tibet. With the Seekers G.) against Turks. Shot a second time [TS9] during a mountain clan affray.) To facilitate wider travels in Central Asia.population revolts (Feb.) through Turkestan to Tabriz and Baghdad (Expedition 1).'s profoundest insights. To G. (Episode of Ekim Bey and the Persian dervish.) from Chardzhou with Seekers (Expedition 4) through the Pamirs to India [M252]. Col. ? G. recovers in the Yangi Hissar oasis on the edge of the Taklamakan desert. G. Lubovedsky promptly leaves to end his days under spiritual supervision elsewhere.) The Seekers then disband and separate. to Jerusalem. He recuperates at Alexandropol. 1897 Accompanying the Seekers of Truth. and Soloviev gain access to the chief Sarmoung Monastery (purported source of G. Guided blindfold by intermediaries on a twelve-day pony-trek from Bokhara. Unexpectedly they find Lubovedsky already there but in failing health. is shot [TS7] and evacuated. G. In Ashkhabad he and Vitvitskaia (only woman member of the Seekers) earn large sums with his 'Universal Traveling Workshop'.
c. etc.). (St Peterburg renamed Petrograd on Sept. G. the Uzbek capital of Russian Turkestan. Having recuperated. He amasses considerable wealth by trading in oil. in Golos Moskvi (attracting Ouspensky's attention). is accidentally shot a third time [TS9] in a skirmish between Cossacks and Gourians. while studying the reaction among his Europeanized Russian 'guinea-pigs'.. Glimpses of Truth. sets out again (winter) for Central Asia but. near the Chiatura railway tunnel. Vladimir Pohl. cloisonné. ?After two years in an indeterminate Central Asian Sufi community. G. 1). G. he renews his oath [H11] to abjure hypnotism. 13 Dec. arrives in Moscow and attracts his first associates (his cousin Sergei Mercourov. interests Dr Leonid Stjoernval. Anguished at the untimely killing of an initiated lama. and Rachmilievitch). 1913 1914 spring Aug. identifying its author P. The Struggle of the Magicians. G. G. settles in Tashkent. G.1904 British massacre Tibetans at Guru (31 Mar. Hydropsy obliges him to leave Tibet and return to his parents in Alexandropol. carpets. G. advertises his ballet. supervises his pupils' writing of sketch. 1905-7 1908-10 1911 1912 mid. informally takes his first English pupil.) Younghusband enters Lhasa (3 Aug. comforting Vitvitskaia on her deathbed. 1 Nov. under the assumed name of 'Prince Ozay'. cattle. Germany declares war on Russia.D. cultivates Lev Lvovitch (?and Shamzaran Badmieff). reads Tertium Organum. He briefly visits Samara. ? G. the musical student Paul Dukes. On 13 Sept. In St Petersburg (having abandoned 'Prince Ozay' persona) G. G. G. winter In St Petersburg G. . binding himself for twenty-one years to lead an 'artificial life'. In St Petersburg. synthesizes disparate stands of accumulated knowledge into a cohesive system employing a special and at points quasi-scientific. resolves to combat the mass suggestibility and hysteria which occasion wars. Based in Tashkent as a 'Professor-instructor' in supernatural sciences. fish. With difficulty he goes via Ashkabad to Yangi Hissar where he again recuperates. New Year G. Slowly he gravitates west towards metropolitan Russia. marries Julia Ostrowska in St Petersburg. vocabulary. Ouspensky as a prospective pupil. etc. begins teaching in a deliberately charlatanesque mode.
returns to Essentuki (Jan. (late) Aug. c.). With thirteen pupils summoned from Moscow and Petrograd (incl. sets out for Petrograd but on reconsideration settles in Essentuki in Caucasus. moves to Tuapse on Back Sea Coast. conveys virtually his entire 'System' of ideas to a group which expands from six (incl. 1916 Feb. 16 Mar. 1918 spring G. leaves Essentuki with a following of fourteen (which does not include G.-Aug. Aug. G. Perceiving Alexandropol as under Turkish threat. Aug. Revolution: forced abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. Ouspensky separates from G. (A week later Ouspensky returns to Petrograd. G. Aug. G. at Essentuki. begins to waver.'s eldest sister and her family reach him in Essentuki as refugees.'s family or Ouspensky). On a visit to Finland. Ouspensky's trust in G. 23 Mar. invites his family to join him (all comply except his father and eldest sister). 7 Nov. Parting from his pupils.-Aug.) and begins intensive work. lives in retirement with his family in Alexandropol. intermittently visits Petrograd where he lectures and meets Ouspensky and his associates. Jul. and Andrei Zaharoff) to thirty. (end) The de Hartmanns join G. formation of Kerensky government. Dec. They go by train to Maikop Jul.-Jun. G. promotes in Ouspensky an intense telepathic experience. G. a 'transfigured' G. setting out via Moscow for Alexandropol with Julia Ostrowska. accepts as pupil the composer. 16 1917 Feb. accepts Ouspensky as pupil. Ouspensky and Zaharoff). (Mar. Period of concentrated activity: increasingly centred on Petrograd. 1917 his wife Olga). and his nucleus (augmented in Oct. G. In Petrograd G. (early) Jul. bringing news that Turks have shot his father in Alexandropol on 15 May. plants a fabricated newspaper story of his forthcoming 'scientific expedition' to Mount Induc. by Dr and Mme Stjoernval) wander up and down Black Sea coast to avoid embroilment in Civil War. Stjoernval. Posing as a scientist. G. (OS 26 Oct. G. G. G. undertakes six weeks' intensive psycho-somatic experimentation at Essentuki. Thomas de Hartmann (and in Feb. G. (mid) Jul.) Bolshevik revolution brings Lenin to power.). Ourspensky.-Dec. 6 .1915 April autumn In Moscow G.) G. finally leaves Petrograd. he summons his pupils (12 Feb. As Essentuki becomes increasingly threatened by Civil War.
1919 Jan.. Having returned to Tbilisi. Thomas and Olga de Hartmann. Marked deterioration in socio-political conditions in Georgia.-Aug. Ouspensky (in Constantinople since Feb. and ? Julia Ostrowska). G. settles in Constantinople (7 Jun. G. (mid) G. Prompted by the arrival in Tbilisi of his brother Dmitri. gives first public demonstration of his Sacred Dances (Movements in Tbilisi Opera House (22 Jun. and the de Hartmanns). they study the ceremony of the Mevlevi dervishes. Alexandre and Jeanne Salzmann.-Sept. G. He accepts as pupil Major Frank Pinder (Mar. Zaharoff. works on the scenario and music of The Struggle of the Magicians. G. leave him).). rents substantial accommodation at 13 Abdullatif Yemeneci Sokak near the Galata Tower.) confides his own group of pupils to G. meets and accepts as pupils the artist Alexandre Salzmann and his wife Jeanne (Easter).). G. He summers in Borjom (Jul.where hostilities detain them three weeks. G. With Ouspensky and Thomas de Hartmann respectively. giving public lectures and semi-public rehearsals of the Sacred Dances. Jun. G. After accepting Elizabeta Galumnian and Olga Hinzenberg ('Olgivanna') as pupils. sends Olga de Harmann (early May) on a return trip to Essentuki to retrieve possessions and carry messages. G. Crossing Red and White lines five times. leads his party on foot over northern Caucasus range to Black Sea port of Sochi (where many pupils. G. Aug.) his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man (founder members: Dr Leonid Stjoernval. leads a party of thirty pupils on foot from Tbilisi to Black Sea port of Batoum. continues to teach his 'System' under the auspices of the Georgian Menshevik social democratic republic. where they embark for Constantinople (Istanbul). Oct.-Aug. G.) and rents an apartment in Koumbaradji Street in Péra. with his residual nucleus (Mme Ostrowska. Sept.). and in viability of G.'s Institute. G. In collaboration with Jeanne Salzmann. where they settle. re-animates his Institute. G. . incl. spring summer autumn winter 1920 spring May (late) Jun. They entrain for the Georgian capital Tbilisi. begins intensive work on The Struggle of the Magicians. constitutes (mid-Sept. voyages south from Sochi to Poti. the Stjoernvals.
) Having settled in the suburb on Schmargendorf. Accompanied by the Salzmanns. On receipt of visas. G. arrives Budapest. with his nucleus travels by train from Turkey to Germany. accepts and applies for visas. Bulgaria (15th). departs Constantinople (13th). (mid) G. G. (Around this time. Sept. and through Harald Dohrn seeks part possession. 1 . G. 13 Mar. to seek a large property. gives his inaugural lecture in Europe. Hungary (17th) and departs (21st). R. J. transits Czechoslovakia and arrives Berlin (22nd). renews contact with the Sultan's nephew. German. inviting him to settle at Hellerau near Dresden. Bennett. 14 G. notably the editor A. adopts Olga de H. G. closes his Institute and retires to the island of Prinkipo. learns that his sister Anna Anastasieff and all her children (excepting her son Valentin) have just been massacred by Turks at Baytar. arrives Sofia. acquires and moves to his most famous seat: the Prieuré des Basses Loges at Fontainebleau-Avon. G. Jul. Oct. G. visits the Dalcroze Institute at Hellerau.'s second and last visit to London. G. capturing the allegiance of Ouspensky's many prominent pupils. (early) G. a legal case ensues. Prince Mehmet Sabaheddin. Orage. While influential pupils seek UK residential status for G.) Nov. Thanks to Alexandre Salzmann. 24 winter 1922 Feb.. G. On the basis of generous financial help from England. he returns to Berlin.(Ouspensky disassociates himself and withdraws to Prinkipo. loses civil action to acquire Hellerau possession. receives a letter from Jacques-Dalcroze in Geneva. as his private secretary. and is effectively barred from settling in Britain.G. Dec. May (mid) Following several months of declining public interest. Nov. issues his third prospectus in English. brings his pupils from Germany to Paris. he confirms his ascendancy and clashes with Ouspensky. In Berlin G. hires facilities at the Dalcroze Institute. Aug. and delegates Olga de H. Ouspensky leaves Constantinople for London but his wife Sophie chooses to accompany G. 1921 Jan. G. On G. pays his first brief visit to Londo n. and French. Jun. arrives Belgrade. and briefly meets Capt. 15 Late spring G. Serbia (16th).
he institutes the building of a large Study House in the Prieuré grounds. formally 'disbands' his Institute (26 Aug. extricates his mother and sister from Russia and domiciles them at the Prieuré. is simultaneously occupied with Prieuré administration and Parisian business ventures.) his magnum opus: Beelzebub. G. Nursed by his wife and mother.-Feb.g. G. G. empowers Orage to supervise the Work in America (Oct. Having resolved in future to propagate his ideas by writing. Sacred Dances. Boston. it has a mixed reception.. Nov. With c. 1924 spring summer autumnwinter . averts a major fire at the Prieuré. are regularly attended by local dignitaries and occasionally by cultural figures. Dec. Gorham Munson. At his new Paris apartment. etc. Bowyer) and academics (notably Prof. Muriel Draper. given in the Prieuré Study House. Jane Heap. 9 Rue du Commandant-Marchand. G. G. founds New York branch of his Institute (8 Apr. returns to France (Jun. G.) and Philadelphia. learns to drive. G. G. he entertains Ezra Pound. Premièred (16th) at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. e.) on the s. acquires notoriety after Katherine Mansfield dies (9th) and is buried on the same day (12th) that the Study House is opened. Feb.'s 'open evenings' of his music. thirty-five pupil-dancers. 16 1923 Jan.s.). G. he makes a slow and painful recovery-against medical expectation. G. Driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau. Paris for America. Still convalescent. commences (16 Dec. S. Denis Saurat) interview G. G.). where public demonstrations in New York (Jan. Diaghilev and Sinclair Lewis. G. begins intense work on the Sacred Dances.Oct.) secure the interest of significant new pupils (notably Margaret Anderson. and Jean Toomer).). Reporters (notably E. May summer Dec. G. He loses occupancy of Commandant-Marchand and acquires a new apartment at 47 Boulevard Peréire. Although fatigued. G. Nott. C. G.).) but in fact disperses only his less dedicated pupils. produces his first major public demonstration of Sacred Dances in Europe. On 17 Oct. and Chicago (Mar. at the Prieuré and produce popular but not unsympathetic accounts. has a near fatal motor-car crash (8 Jul. At end of Nov. sails (4 Jan. he accepts as a permanent Prieuré guest the terminally ill new Zealand authoress Katherine Mansfield. C.
To stimulate his writing G.'s long stylistic struggle. New Mexico. his future secretary Solita Solano. but (1 Feb.1925 Mar. G. 8 Feb. Short of money. Between arrival in New York (23 Jan.). makes a brief. again prompts Mme Ouspensky to visit England. They resist his promptings to make independent lives. Accompanied only by the de Hartmanns. embarks on s. accompanied by his young bride Jessie.'s mother dies of chronic liver disease at the Prieuré (end Jun. commences his second book Meetings. summer Orage's report that the first installment of Beelzebub in unintelligible. renews contacts with pupils and amasses funds. R. begins intensive period of musical composition with Thomas de Hartmann (29 Jul. G.). Jul. but fails to impress. G.s Paris for his second visit to America. G. Provisionally satisfied with Beelzebub. heralds G. Mabel Dodge Luhan offers G. Convinced by a serious decline in health that he has insufficient time to undertake a necessary and radical revision of Beelzebub he undergoes a crisis (6 Nov. G. but mandates her to start an 'artists' group' in Montmartre. vows to 'banish' on various pretexts all those who make his life too comfortable. Ouspensky attends her funeral.) and departure for France (5 Apr. Neither orthodox radiotherapy nor G. struggles intensely but unavailingly for Julia Ostrowska's life but she dies (26 Jun.). He repudiates the poet Waldo Frank. spring summer . G. 1927 spring summer autumn 1928 Jan. and final visit to the Prieuré. Orage. G. Aleister Crowley briefly visits Prieuré and G.) G.) and contemplates suicide. Many American pupils and voyeurists visit Prieuré. A. G.). Alexandre Salzmann defends G. culminates his musical collaboration with Thomas de Hartmann (1 May).'s wife Mme Ostrowska contracts cancer.-Jun. emphatically repudiates him. encourages senior pupils away on extended visits: Mme Ouspensky to England. winter 1926 Jan. against ideological attacks of French occultist René Guénon. He discourages Jane Heap from settling at the Prieuré. G. stormy. G.) he declines. substantial property at Taos. meets. (mid) May 5 summer (early) summer (late) autumn 1929 Jan.'s unorthodox treatment gives satisfactory results. G. and the Salzmanns to Frankfurt. is obliged to relinquish his flat in Boulevard Péreire (16 Apr.
13 spring summer autumn winter 1932 Jan. a member of Jane Heap's group.'s first French pupil). sails for France. brief visit to the USA. Orage himself returns (10 Dec. The Wall Street stock market crash (Oct.). Orage refuses an opportunity to renew contact with G. G. is involved in a theatrical incident with a revolver.'s American followers. G. refuses Ouspensky access to the Prieuré. In New York he intentionally creates difficulties.) aboard s. G.) on fifth. G. Returning to New York. effectively breaks with Orage. sails for Cherbourg on the s. G. creating a final breach.).) leaving Orage disillusioned. Kathryn Hulme. autumn 1930 spring autumn (late) winter 1931 Jan. he takes a room in the Grand Hôtel. facilitates the departure of Fritz Peters from the Prieuré (Sept. He appoints Louise Goepfert as his secretary (Jun. G. In Paris Alexandre Salzmann attracts René Daumal (subsequently G. intentionally alienates Olga. . On a fourth trip to America. he shows her the Prieuré. G.(early) He finally prevails on the de Hartmanns to leave the Prieuré and helps them settle in Courbevoie. G. May 11 Aug. G.'s action. sails (Feb. Arriving in New York (13 Nov. In New York the author-adventurer Nadir Khan ('Achmed Abdullah') mistakes G. the behaviourist. On visits to Frankfurt and Berlin with Louise Goepfert and Olga de Hartmann. is approached by the American lesbian authoress. In Paris G. ) affects G. G. he demands (1 Dec. briefly receives Thornton Wilder at the Prieuré. including John Watson. and engineering a painful and final parting from Olga de Hartmann. now run down. Bremen on his third trip to America.). After burning all his personal papers.) of Orage's pupils that they repudiate their teacher. repudiating himself. Mar. G. Mme Ouspensky leaves Asnières and moves permanently to England. G. for the Lama Agwhan Dordjieff. 16 Feb.s.). leaves for Chicago (29 Dec. G. adjoining the Café de la Paix. After a final parting from Orage. has an inconclusive encounter with certain intellectuals. supervises the enforced closure of the Prieuré and dispersal of its final occupants. focusing on Jean Toomer's Chicago group. He sails for France (Apr. sabotaging negotiations with Alfred Knopf to publish Beelzebub.s.) from holiday in England and surprisingly endorses G. leaving the American groups in disarray. sails (Nov. Bremen.
Wisconsin (Jun. from a Senator Bronson Cutting. Leningrad and Central Asia. gives two unfortunate interviews to the popular writer Rom Landau. returns to New York.). Mabel Dodge Luhan refuses G. Profoundly depressed when Cutting dies (6 May) in an air crash.-May Jun.-Jul. Rom Landau publishes his bestseller God is My Adventure.). begins drafting his controversial. and wishing to avoid a spate of empty condolences. critically ill.'s completion (9 Apr. G. writes bizarre 'Supplementary Announcement' to Herald. Doubly disappointed. Three of her American women pupils immediately gravitate to G. deeply impressing her husband Frank Lloyd Wright. he abandons writing and disappears. Back in New York (Sept. Sept. pays an extended visit to Olgivanna at Taliesin. Chicago and certain Southern States. and confusing him with Dordjieff. Apr. Alexandre Salzmann. May? autumn 1934 spring summer autumnwinter 1935 Jan. Jane Heap moves (18th) from Paris to London. intentionally alienating Fritz Peters on the train journey. vilifying G.Sept. 1926. alienating Jean Toomer and his Chicago group. G. autobiographical tract Herald.). at the Café Henri IV in Fontainebleau.) for the ranch she originally volunteered in Jan. G. On a disastrous sixth visit to America G. visits the Chicago groups (May). who constitutes his first Parisian group (21st) in Hôtel Napoleon Bonaparte. Conjectural events attend G. 7 Apr. commences his seventh visit to the USA. G.'s request (18 Aug. G. loses the Prieuré irrevocably after the mortgagees foreclose. Oct. gives an impression of venality. From his apartment at the Henry Hudson Hotel. G. generous financial support to repurchase the Prieuré. travels to Washington. 13 winter G. G.-Aug. 1933 Mar. . meets G. makes putative but unsubstantiated journeys to? Germany. G.) of the Prologue to Life is Real.). applies unsuccessfully to return to Russia. G. repudiates Herald and calls in all copies (Oct. G. Shocked to learn of Orage's death (5 Nov. Boston. he renews contact with New York pupils of Orage. He travels to Washington anticipating. reappears in Paris. G. Death of Alexandre Gustav Salzmann (3 Mar.). G.
which he stocks with provisions. Outbreak (1 Sept. winter 1937 spring Aug. Jeanne de Salzmann's group.'s secretary. resumes extensive car trips. but Ouspensky disapproves and the plan is dropped. (Apr.Christmas 1936 spring G. Kathryn Hulme and 'Wendy'. His brother Dmitri contracts cancer. takes new apartment in Rue Labie near the Salle Pleyel. sails (19 May) on s. G. G. Henri and Henriette Tracol. Jun. but he alleviates her condition. Solita Solano. G. G. G. G.). G. 'The Rope' and subsidiary lesbian groupings effectively dissolve (as Kathryn Hulme and Wendy settle in America. gives Georgette Leblanc. grows in size and influence.s. Having temporarily suspended group work with his lesbian pupils. constitutes 'The Rope' (early Jan. As Jeanne de Salzmann adds the author Luc Dietrich to her existing circle of pupils (René and Vera Daumal. (end) Aug.s. G. Unable to afford a château he has located on the Marne.'s effort to help him. finds Georgette Leblanc seriously ill. G.). sails (Mar. Paris on his brief penultimate trip to America. moves to a small Paris apartment at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard. Dmitri dies. Margaret Anderson and Monique entrée to his current work.) of the Second World War.). Having resisted pressure to settle in New Jersey. etc. though not to 'The Rope'. Dr Leonid Stjoernval dies near Reims.) on s.) He makes many tours by car to European locales. and Anderson and Leblanc in Normandy). Jul. . G. remains in Paris (throughout War) at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard. The international crisis steadily worsens. an exclusively lesbian group meeting in Rue Labie (initially comprising Elizabeth Gordon. despite G. With Allied resistance collapsing. Philippe Lavastine. contemplates trip to England to assist Mme Ouspensky medically. Solita Solano becomes G. autumn 1938 1939 spring Accompanied by Solita Solano. G. G. consolidates his contact with Philippe Lavastine and René Daumal. Normandie for France. On reconvening his lesbian group (Oct. G.'s followers attempt summer autumn 1940 spring Jun. meeting at 54 Rue du Four.). makes his first token contact with René Daumal and Jeanne de Salzmann's Sèrves group. implicitly confirms her as his deputy.
They are harboured by Christian group members. is arrested for currency offences but discharged.'s relationship with Katherine Mansfield is pilloried in the magazines l'Illustration (19 Jan.) predicate the ultimate liberation of Paris. Death of René Daumal (21 May) and Luc Dietrich (12 Aug. Jeanne de Salzmann formally presents her French group to G. Jeanne de Salzmann presents Luc Dietrich to G. G.'s residential housekeeper. still at Mendham. Georgette Leblanc dies (20 Oct. Bennett in his work (after twenty-five years) and cures his wife Winifred 1941 1942 Jun. Ouspensky returns to England (Jan.).) and VE Day (6 May). G. spring May 29 To obtain further credit. G.(12th) to relocate him in the countryside but he returns to 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard (14th) just as Germans occupy Paris. G. He attracts unwarranted criticism over the death of Irène-Carole Reweliotty (11 Aug. winter Food being scarce and the weather exceptionally harsh.) of cancer. G. fabricates story that he has been give a Texas oil-well. First influx of London pupils to Paris from Jane Heap's group. G. (late) Jul.'s advice is vindicated as Parisian Jews are deported in 'Operation spring Wind'. G.16-17 Nov. Jan. G. active in teaching enneagram-based Movements at the Salle Pleyel and developing his ritual 'Toasts to the Idiots'. 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 . summons Ouspensky's pupils (Jun. G. He reintegrates J. invites him to Paris but Ouspensky declines. Lise Tracol becomes G. Hitler's suicide (30 Apr.'s French group meeting at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard enlarges. (Oct.).) precedes liberation of Paris (25 Aug. Further influx of French pupils. G. G. summer Mme Ouspensky advises her husband's British followers at Lyne to contact G.) from America. begins helping an extended family of needy neighbors. Germans overrun France's Unoccupied Zone.) and America's declaration of war on Germany (11 Dec.) ends war. advises his Jewish pupils to 'go underground' when the Germans oblige them to wear the yellow Star of David. When Ouspensky dies (2 Oct. Hitler's invasion of Russia (22 Jun.) but they still vacillate.) Mme Ouspensky.) Japan's surrender (14 Aug. In autumn G. makes overtures to G. René and Vera Daumal no longer have access to G. receives first visits of American pupils (Kathryn Hulme and Fritz Peters).).
. Bennett. G. Geneva (Jul. nominates three literary executors (J. Ouspensky.(Aug. announces he will sail for New York on 20 Oct. where Dr Welch performs an abdominal puncture. G.30am (29th). Bennett (but not Nicoll) commingle with French. and René Zuber). he buys La Grand Paroisse. Orage. G. G. Under the leadership of Jeanne de Salzmann. G. his groups re-dedicate themselves to practise and transmit his ideas.) in Queen Mary with large entourage (including Iovanna Lloyd Wright). 1949 spring summer Sept. sails for New York (arr.).) and promptly issues a general invitation to Paris: pupils of Jane Heap.) to meet Mme Stjoernval.3 Key to References [Excerpt] H The Herald of Coming Good M Meetings with Remarkable Men TS Life Is Real Only Then. gives his final instructions to Jeanne de Salzmann (27th).) to see the Lascaux cave paintings. and dies around 10. Oct. is buried in the family plot at Fontainebleau-Avon. makes car expeditions to Vichy (Jun. Here he raises funds and authorizes Mme Ouspensky to publish Fragments.). Announcing Beelzebub's imminent publication. winter Eager to buy the Château de Voisins and to publish Beelzebub.). and finally Montignac (Aug. G. ostensibly as a new centre. Mme Ouspensky. Having choreographed (No. 17 Dec. Seriously ill. Religious services are held on successive days.'s health fails. becomes unconscious (28th). Under intense pressures G. he collapses at Movements class (14th). Nov. G. Receipt of Beelzebub's proofs (21st) suggests the apotheosis of his life's work. 39) his last Movement (11th). G. Nursed by Lise Tracol and surrounded by doctors. recovers astonishingly after serious injury in a car crash (8 Aug. he supervises the Toasts to the Idiots for the last time (24th). Lord Pentland. He sails for France (Feb. his condition fluctuates. When "I Am" . His ideas are favourably mentioned on Italian radio in connection with the Montessori system. He is taken by ambulance to the American Hospital at Neuilly (26th).
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