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Chronology of Gurdjieff

Chronology of Gurdjieff

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Chronology of Gurdjieff's Life

by James Moore APOLOGIA AND WARNING The special difficulties of Gurdjieffian chronology seem likely to prevail over investigative scholarship. The very date of his birth is in dispute, although Gurdjieff himself stipulates 1866. Between then and 1912 we are chasteningly reliant on Gurdjieff's own four impressionistic accounts, which - in the nature of myth - are innocent of consistency, Aristotelian logic and chronological discipline. Notoriously problematical are 'the missing twenty years' from 1887 to 1907; the journals of the epoch's great Central Asian geographers (Sven Hedin, Sir Aurel Stein, Albert von Le Coq, Paul Pelliot and Count Kozui Otani) do not provide the collateral support for Gurdjieff's account which, here and there, might be expected. My chronology for this period is hence offered provisionally and I have not followed it slavishly in my relevant chapter, The Long Search. Nevertheless, punctuating Gurdjieff's narrative and certainly not offending it, are a few objective historical events which I differentiate by italicizing. Where Gurdjieff himself actually stipulates a date, I bracket in the chronology a source reference (using the simple code explained in the References section). Although from 1913 to 1949 our chronology appears to stand on the much firmer ground afforded by primary documents, independent witness, cross reference, and reasonable inference, the difficulty remains that Gurdjieffian memoirists focus on interior content. For a school which places a premium on relationship, they seem (with the honourable exception of P. D. Ouspensky) strangely oblivious to the correlative value of an honest date.

Date 1866 1870-72 1873 summer ?Jan.

Event G. born in Cappadocian Greek quarter of Alexandropol on Russian side of Russo-Turkish order. Birth of G.'s only brother Dmitri Ivanovitch Gurdjieff (?1870) and eldest sister (?1871). G.'s father Giorgios Giorgiades, impoverished when rinderpest wipes out his large cattle herd, opens a lumber-yard. Birth of two further sisters. Giorgiades' lumber-yard fails and he opens a small carpentry shop. G. precociously begins to contribute to family income. Russia declares war on Turkey (24 Apr.) and captures Turkish border citadel town of Kars (18 Nov.). Giorgiades moves his family to Kars, and re-establishes his carpentry shop in the Greek quarter. Father Dean Borsh of Russian military cathedral assumes responsibility for G.'s private education, co-opting as tutors four graduates of the Theological Seminary. G. reads intensively in library of Kars military hospital. G. falls under moral influence of his tutor Dean Bogachevsky. G.'s eldest and favourite sister dies. G. narrowly escapes death in shooting accident on Lake Alageuz.

1874-76 1877


1879-80 1881

G. G. G. summer G. As a political envoy (probably of the newly constituted Armenian Social Revolutionary Party. visits Constantinople (where he meets Ekim Bey) to study the Mevlevi and Bektashi dervishes. crystallizes his motivational question as to significance of organic and human life. Abyssinia and the Sudan with Skridlov. G. G. the Armenakans. goes to Crete. The Greek 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888-9 1890-93 1894-5 1896 . Sultan Abdul Hamid II instigates massacre of Armenians throughout Turkey. seeking traces of the ancient 'Imastun brotherhood'. via Hadji Bektash. digging haphazardly in the ruined city of Ani. Leaving home. is prime mover in the foundation (1895) of the 'Seekers of Truth'. the Dashnakzutiun) G. and Pogossian. visits Thebes with Lubovedsky. and Mecca and Medina alone and in disguise. G. Returning to Constantinople.He becomes fascinated by witnessing certain 'paranormal phenomena'. and Skridlov visit remains of Babylon at Nippur. In Cairo. a heterogeneous and youthful grouping seeking traditional and esoteric knowledge. sets out with Pogossian for Kurdistan. narrowly escapes death on an artillery range. G. but also as an agent of the Ethniki Hetairia. a Hellenist Spartacist society. As a courier of the Armenian protectionist society. Konya. and Aksehir. meets Vitvitskaia and escorts her to Russia. find reference to the 'Sarmoung Brotherhood'. G. Iraq. Again centred on Alexandropol. En route however. G. He returns to Alexandropol. 1882 1883 In an adolescent duel of sorts with Piotr Karpenko. moves to Tiflis but fails to enter the Archdeacon's choir or the Georgian Theolo gical Seminary. visits Switzerland and subsequently bases himself in Rome. G. During breaks from casual work as a stoker for the Transcaucasian Railway Company. G. 2500 BC. he makes pilgrimage on foot to Echmiadzin and studies for three months at Sanaine Monastery under Father Yevlampios. his chance discovery near Zakho of a 'map of pre-sand Egypt' diverts him circuitously to Alexandria (where Pogossian leaves him). He develops close friendships with Sarkis Pogossian and Abram Yelov. makes a strong bond with two elder seekers: Prince Yuri Lubovedsky and Professor Skridlov. quixotically resolved to 'find the Sarmoung'. supposedly a wisdom school founded in Babylon c. where his parents now again live.

(Episode of Skridlov and Father Giovanni.) against Turks. G. sets out (2 Jan. presented to Tsar Nicholoas II (23 July) in Livadia. Lubovedsky promptly leaves to end his days under spiritual supervision elsewhere. He takes an oath to abjure hypnotism and animal magnetism except for scientific and altruistic purposes. and Soloviev gain access to the chief Sarmoung Monastery (purported source of G. With the Seekers G. ? G. In Ashkhabad he and Vitvitskaia (only woman member of the Seekers) earn large sums with his 'Universal Traveling Workshop'. ? Disguised as a Transcaspian Buddhist. After Soloviev's accidental death [M165].) The Seekers then disband and separate. sets out [M183] from Nakhichevan (1 Jan. Col. Francis Younghusband invades Tibet (5 Jul.) G. enters Upper Tibet and studies with the 'Red Hat' Lamas. to Jerusalem.'s profoundest insights. G. 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 . In dervish disguise he and Skridlov travel up the river Amu Darya (Oxus) into Kafiristan.) through Turkestan to Tabriz and Baghdad (Expedition 1). (Episode of Ekim Bey and the Persian dervish. a high Tibetan official. returns to Tibet. Following a period of monastic study. becomes a Tsarist political agent and ? establishes some connection with the Buryat Mongol Agwhan Dordjieff. stays in Merv. returns to Baku and studies Persian magic. Guided blindfold by intermediaries on a twelve-day pony-trek from Bokhara. He recuperates at Alexandropol. unconscious. symbolism and Sacred Dances).'s sorrow. explores the Gobi (?Taklamakan) desert with Skridlov and the Seekers of Truth (Expedition 3). G.population revolts (Feb. Shot a second time [TS9] during a mountain clan affray. G. returned to Keriya Oasis. G. While in the Sfakia region. 1897 Accompanying the Seekers of Truth. ? He marries a Tibetan.) To facilitate wider travels in Central Asia. G. In New Bokhara (Easter) G. G.) from India. is shot [TS7] and evacuated. (Episode of Karpenko and the ez-ezounavouron. G. G. Unexpectedly they find Lubovedsky already there but in failing health. To G. travels from Orenburg through Sverdlovsk to Siberia (Expedition 2). G. befriends Soloviev a physical and social derelict. recovers in the Yangi Hissar oasis on the edge of the Taklamakan desert. G.) from Chardzhou with Seekers (Expedition 4) through the Pamirs to India [M252].

New Year G. Hydropsy obliges him to leave Tibet and return to his parents in Alexandropol. G. interests Dr Leonid Stjoernval. informally takes his first English pupil. G. begins teaching in a deliberately charlatanesque mode. ?After two years in an indeterminate Central Asian Sufi community. Anguished at the untimely killing of an initiated lama. cultivates Lev Lvovitch (?and Shamzaran Badmieff). identifying its author P. cloisonné. advertises his ballet.D.1904 British massacre Tibetans at Guru (31 Mar. With difficulty he goes via Ashkabad to Yangi Hissar where he again recuperates. cattle. Based in Tashkent as a 'Professor-instructor' in supernatural sciences. marries Julia Ostrowska in St Petersburg. G. G. the musical student Paul Dukes.). near the Chiatura railway tunnel. Vladimir Pohl. sets out again (winter) for Central Asia but. in Golos Moskvi (attracting Ouspensky's attention). 1). 1905-7 1908-10 1911 1912 mid. . G. supervises his pupils' writing of sketch.. arrives in Moscow and attracts his first associates (his cousin Sergei Mercourov. vocabulary. he renews his oath [H11] to abjure hypnotism. Having recuperated. binding himself for twenty-one years to lead an 'artificial life'. In St Petersburg. G. 13 Dec. fish. the Uzbek capital of Russian Turkestan. Glimpses of Truth. etc. 1913 1914 spring Aug. On 13 Sept. winter In St Petersburg G. (St Peterburg renamed Petrograd on Sept. carpets. resolves to combat the mass suggestibility and hysteria which occasion wars. G. Slowly he gravitates west towards metropolitan Russia. c. settles in Tashkent. Germany declares war on Russia. is accidentally shot a third time [TS9] in a skirmish between Cossacks and Gourians. and Rachmilievitch). etc. He briefly visits Samara. under the assumed name of 'Prince Ozay'.) Younghusband enters Lhasa (3 Aug. In St Petersburg (having abandoned 'Prince Ozay' persona) G. 1 Nov. ? G. Ouspensky as a prospective pupil. comforting Vitvitskaia on her deathbed. while studying the reaction among his Europeanized Russian 'guinea-pigs'. G. The Struggle of the Magicians. G. He amasses considerable wealth by trading in oil. reads Tertium Organum. synthesizes disparate stands of accumulated knowledge into a cohesive system employing a special and at points quasi-scientific.

With thirteen pupils summoned from Moscow and Petrograd (incl.) Bolshevik revolution brings Lenin to power. G. Posing as a scientist.) and begins intensive work. he summons his pupils (12 Feb. returns to Essentuki (Jan. Aug. setting out via Moscow for Alexandropol with Julia Ostrowska. Ouspensky separates from G. 16 1917 Feb. intermittently visits Petrograd where he lectures and meets Ouspensky and his associates. Ourspensky. conveys virtually his entire 'System' of ideas to a group which expands from six (incl. sets out for Petrograd but on reconsideration settles in Essentuki in Caucasus. c. G. lives in retirement with his family in Alexandropol. Ouspensky's trust in G. undertakes six weeks' intensive psycho-somatic experimentation at Essentuki. (Mar. G. moves to Tuapse on Back Sea Coast. G. accepts as pupil the composer. 1918 spring G. finally leaves Petrograd. (end) The de Hartmanns join G. Perceiving Alexandropol as under Turkish threat. plants a fabricated newspaper story of his forthcoming 'scientific expedition' to Mount Induc. begins to waver.-Dec. Parting from his pupils. Dec. G. a 'transfigured' G. On a visit to Finland. formation of Kerensky government. Thomas de Hartmann (and in Feb. accepts Ouspensky as pupil. and his nucleus (augmented in Oct. Period of concentrated activity: increasingly centred on Petrograd.-Jun. bringing news that Turks have shot his father in Alexandropol on 15 May. promotes in Ouspensky an intense telepathic experience. (OS 26 Oct.) G.-Aug. 23 Mar. (early) Jul. 7 Nov. G. by Dr and Mme Stjoernval) wander up and down Black Sea coast to avoid embroilment in Civil War. at Essentuki. Aug. G. G.1915 April autumn In Moscow G. and Andrei Zaharoff) to thirty.-Aug. G. 6 . In Petrograd G. 16 Mar. 1916 Feb. (mid) Jul. 1917 his wife Olga).). Aug. invites his family to join him (all comply except his father and eldest sister).'s eldest sister and her family reach him in Essentuki as refugees. (A week later Ouspensky returns to Petrograd. As Essentuki becomes increasingly threatened by Civil War. Ouspensky and Zaharoff).'s family or Ouspensky). (late) Aug. Stjoernval. G. Revolution: forced abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. G. Jul.). leaves Essentuki with a following of fourteen (which does not include G. They go by train to Maikop Jul.

He accepts as pupil Major Frank Pinder (Mar.) and rents an apartment in Koumbaradji Street in Péra. sends Olga de Harmann (early May) on a return trip to Essentuki to retrieve possessions and carry messages.) confides his own group of pupils to G.-Aug. rents substantial accommodation at 13 Abdullatif Yemeneci Sokak near the Galata Tower. They entrain for the Georgian capital Tbilisi. re-animates his Institute. and the de Hartmanns). G. G. settles in Constantinople (7 Jun. . Ouspensky (in Constantinople since Feb. G. 1919 Jan. G. G. G. Thomas and Olga de Hartmann. where they settle. G. continues to teach his 'System' under the auspices of the Georgian Menshevik social democratic republic. spring summer autumn winter 1920 spring May (late) Jun. voyages south from Sochi to Poti. leads his party on foot over northern Caucasus range to Black Sea port of Sochi (where many pupils. giving public lectures and semi-public rehearsals of the Sacred Dances. incl.'s Institute. they study the ceremony of the Mevlevi dervishes. leads a party of thirty pupils on foot from Tbilisi to Black Sea port of Batoum. with his residual nucleus (Mme Ostrowska.) his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man (founder members: Dr Leonid Stjoernval. Prompted by the arrival in Tbilisi of his brother Dmitri. and ? Julia Ostrowska). and in viability of G.where hostilities detain them three weeks. Sept. G. After accepting Elizabeta Galumnian and Olga Hinzenberg ('Olgivanna') as pupils. constitutes (mid-Sept. Zaharoff. Crossing Red and White lines five times. G.-Sept. In collaboration with Jeanne Salzmann.-Aug. gives first public demonstration of his Sacred Dances (Movements in Tbilisi Opera House (22 Jun. With Ouspensky and Thomas de Hartmann respectively. He summers in Borjom (Jul. where they embark for Constantinople (Istanbul). Oct. G. Marked deterioration in socio-political conditions in Georgia. leave him). G.. G. meets and accepts as pupils the artist Alexandre Salzmann and his wife Jeanne (Easter).). Having returned to Tbilisi.). the Stjoernvals. Aug. begins intensive work on The Struggle of the Magicians. Alexandre and Jeanne Salzmann. works on the scenario and music of The Struggle of the Magicians.). (mid) G. Jun.

(mid) G. adopts Olga de H.G. Hungary (17th) and departs (21st).'s second and last visit to London. Accompanied by the Salzmanns. 13 Mar. transits Czechoslovakia and arrives Berlin (22nd). and delegates Olga de H.) Nov. 14 G. visits the Dalcroze Institute at Hellerau. 15 Late spring G. notably the editor A. R.(Ouspensky disassociates himself and withdraws to Prinkipo. Thanks to Alexandre Salzmann.) Having settled in the suburb on Schmargendorf.. Orage. a legal case ensues. as his private secretary. renews contact with the Sultan's nephew. brings his pupils from Germany to Paris. and is effectively barred from settling in Britain. Dec. Ouspensky leaves Constantinople for London but his wife Sophie chooses to accompany G. Bennett. 1 . G. Aug. Jun. arrives Budapest. On the basis of generous financial help from England. (Around this time. May (mid) Following several months of declining public interest. accepts and applies for visas. G. G. While influential pupils seek UK residential status for G. departs Constantinople (13th). Jul. 1921 Jan. In Berlin G. hires facilities at the Dalcroze Institute. Sept. learns that his sister Anna Anastasieff and all her children (excepting her son Valentin) have just been massacred by Turks at Baytar. Oct. Prince Mehmet Sabaheddin. J. receives a letter from Jacques-Dalcroze in Geneva. loses civil action to acquire Hellerau possession. G. inviting him to settle at Hellerau near Dresden. to seek a large property. with his nucleus travels by train from Turkey to Germany. and briefly meets Capt. G. he returns to Berlin. arrives Belgrade. capturing the allegiance of Ouspensky's many prominent pupils. arrives Sofia. G. Nov. Serbia (16th). closes his Institute and retires to the island of Prinkipo. Bulgaria (15th). and through Harald Dohrn seeks part possession. G. 24 winter 1922 Feb. (early) G. On G. and French. G. pays his first brief visit to Londo n. issues his third prospectus in English. acquires and moves to his most famous seat: the Prieuré des Basses Loges at Fontainebleau-Avon. gives his inaugural lecture in Europe. On receipt of visas. he confirms his ascendancy and clashes with Ouspensky. German. G.

) but in fact disperses only his less dedicated pupils. and Jean Toomer). May summer Dec. Boston.g. G. Premièred (16th) at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées.) on the s. C. are regularly attended by local dignitaries and occasionally by cultural figures. Diaghilev and Sinclair Lewis.. 9 Rue du Commandant-Marchand. G. at the Prieuré and produce popular but not unsympathetic accounts. begins intense work on the Sacred Dances. G.'s 'open evenings' of his music. He loses occupancy of Commandant-Marchand and acquires a new apartment at 47 Boulevard Peréire. Muriel Draper. Paris for America. it has a mixed reception. 1924 spring summer autumnwinter . Dec. he entertains Ezra Pound. Still convalescent. empowers Orage to supervise the Work in America (Oct. On 17 Oct. G. C. e.-Feb. Sacred Dances. has a near fatal motor-car crash (8 Jul.) secure the interest of significant new pupils (notably Margaret Anderson. Nott. G. G. Reporters (notably E. G. At end of Nov. Feb.) and Philadelphia. commences (16 Dec. G. Driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau. Denis Saurat) interview G.s. learns to drive. he institutes the building of a large Study House in the Prieuré grounds. where public demonstrations in New York (Jan. produces his first major public demonstration of Sacred Dances in Europe. given in the Prieuré Study House. G.). S. G. Gorham Munson. founds New York branch of his Institute (8 Apr. G.). he accepts as a permanent Prieuré guest the terminally ill new Zealand authoress Katherine Mansfield. Nursed by his wife and mother.). Jane Heap.) his magnum opus: Beelzebub. At his new Paris apartment.Oct. returns to France (Jun. G. formally 'disbands' his Institute (26 Aug. he makes a slow and painful recovery-against medical expectation. and Chicago (Mar. Nov. 16 1923 Jan. sails (4 Jan. G. is simultaneously occupied with Prieuré administration and Parisian business ventures. G. etc. With c. thirty-five pupil-dancers.). G. acquires notoriety after Katherine Mansfield dies (9th) and is buried on the same day (12th) that the Study House is opened. Having resolved in future to propagate his ideas by writing. Bowyer) and academics (notably Prof. averts a major fire at the Prieuré. Although fatigued. extricates his mother and sister from Russia and domiciles them at the Prieuré.

G.). G.'s mother dies of chronic liver disease at the Prieuré (end Jun. his future secretary Solita Solano. Ouspensky attends her funeral.). G. G.) and departure for France (5 Apr. but (1 Feb. Alexandre Salzmann defends G. (mid) May 5 summer (early) summer (late) autumn 1929 Jan. G. begins intensive period of musical composition with Thomas de Hartmann (29 Jul. New Mexico.-Jun. He discourages Jane Heap from settling at the Prieuré. Short of money. meets. renews contacts with pupils and amasses funds. spring summer . again prompts Mme Ouspensky to visit England.).) and contemplates suicide. A. Aleister Crowley briefly visits Prieuré and G. G. encourages senior pupils away on extended visits: Mme Ouspensky to England. substantial property at Taos.'s unorthodox treatment gives satisfactory results.1925 Mar. against ideological attacks of French occultist René Guénon. accompanied by his young bride Jessie. winter 1926 Jan. G. They resist his promptings to make independent lives. and final visit to the Prieuré. struggles intensely but unavailingly for Julia Ostrowska's life but she dies (26 Jun. 8 Feb. is obliged to relinquish his flat in Boulevard Péreire (16 Apr.'s long stylistic struggle. Mabel Dodge Luhan offers G. embarks on s. and the Salzmanns to Frankfurt. but fails to impress. Convinced by a serious decline in health that he has insufficient time to undertake a necessary and radical revision of Beelzebub he undergoes a crisis (6 Nov. To stimulate his writing G. but mandates her to start an 'artists' group' in Montmartre.) G. 1927 spring summer autumn 1928 Jan. R.). Accompanied only by the de Hartmanns. G. G. G.s Paris for his second visit to America. Neither orthodox radiotherapy nor G. G. heralds G. Jul. vows to 'banish' on various pretexts all those who make his life too comfortable.) he declines. makes a brief. commences his second book Meetings. summer Orage's report that the first installment of Beelzebub in unintelligible. Between arrival in New York (23 Jan. He repudiates the poet Waldo Frank. emphatically repudiates him. Provisionally satisfied with Beelzebub. culminates his musical collaboration with Thomas de Hartmann (1 May).'s wife Mme Ostrowska contracts cancer. Orage. Many American pupils and voyeurists visit Prieuré. stormy.

he shows her the Prieuré. he demands (1 Dec. Returning to New York.'s action. In Paris Alexandre Salzmann attracts René Daumal (subsequently G. G.s. In New York he intentionally creates difficulties. Mme Ouspensky leaves Asnières and moves permanently to England. and engineering a painful and final parting from Olga de Hartmann.s. Bremen on his third trip to America. now run down. sails (Nov. Mar. In Paris G. focusing on Jean Toomer's Chicago group.) aboard s. On visits to Frankfurt and Berlin with Louise Goepfert and Olga de Hartmann. Orage refuses an opportunity to renew contact with G. Kathryn Hulme. 13 spring summer autumn winter 1932 Jan. After burning all his personal papers.).'s American followers. Bremen. G. G. G. G. G. leaving the American groups in disarray. ) affects G. He sails for France (Apr.(early) He finally prevails on the de Hartmanns to leave the Prieuré and helps them settle in Courbevoie. he takes a room in the Grand Hôtel. G. briefly receives Thornton Wilder at the Prieuré.). effectively breaks with Orage. sails (Feb. creating a final breach. has an inconclusive encounter with certain intellectuals. is approached by the American lesbian authoress.). Arriving in New York (13 Nov. sails for Cherbourg on the s. brief visit to the USA. G. G. . sails for France. repudiating himself. After a final parting from Orage. He appoints Louise Goepfert as his secretary (Jun.) leaving Orage disillusioned.) on fifth. Orage himself returns (10 Dec. including John Watson. the behaviourist. In New York the author-adventurer Nadir Khan ('Achmed Abdullah') mistakes G. refuses Ouspensky access to the Prieuré. G.) of Orage's pupils that they repudiate their teacher. G.). May 11 Aug. 16 Feb.) from holiday in England and surprisingly endorses G. sabotaging negotiations with Alfred Knopf to publish Beelzebub. On a fourth trip to America. The Wall Street stock market crash (Oct. a member of Jane Heap's group. for the Lama Agwhan Dordjieff. G. intentionally alienates Olga. facilitates the departure of Fritz Peters from the Prieuré (Sept. is involved in a theatrical incident with a revolver. leaves for Chicago (29 Dec. supervises the enforced closure of the Prieuré and dispersal of its final occupants. G.'s first French pupil). adjoining the Café de la Paix. autumn 1930 spring autumn (late) winter 1931 Jan.

Jane Heap moves (18th) from Paris to London. Chicago and certain Southern States. From his apartment at the Henry Hudson Hotel. makes putative but unsubstantiated journeys to? Germany. G. G. deeply impressing her husband Frank Lloyd Wright. G.'s request (18 Aug. vilifying G. G. G.). 1926. On a disastrous sixth visit to America G. Mabel Dodge Luhan refuses G. G. G. Alexandre Salzmann. Doubly disappointed. Apr. Three of her American women pupils immediately gravitate to G.'s completion (9 Apr.). Sept. begins drafting his controversial. loses the Prieuré irrevocably after the mortgagees foreclose. critically ill. pays an extended visit to Olgivanna at Taliesin. applies unsuccessfully to return to Russia. Back in New York (Sept. generous financial support to repurchase the Prieuré. reappears in Paris. He travels to Washington anticipating.) of the Prologue to Life is Real.).Sept. Profoundly depressed when Cutting dies (6 May) in an air crash. G.) for the ranch she originally volunteered in Jan.).-May Jun. G. at the Café Henri IV in Fontainebleau. from a Senator Bronson Cutting. G. and wishing to avoid a spate of empty condolences. Rom Landau publishes his bestseller God is My Adventure. . writes bizarre 'Supplementary Announcement' to Herald.-Aug. Wisconsin (Jun. Boston. and confusing him with Dordjieff. meets G. gives two unfortunate interviews to the popular writer Rom Landau. alienating Jean Toomer and his Chicago group. 7 Apr. autobiographical tract Herald. he abandons writing and disappears. he renews contact with New York pupils of Orage. Death of Alexandre Gustav Salzmann (3 Mar. gives an impression of venality. intentionally alienating Fritz Peters on the train journey. travels to Washington. 13 winter G. Oct. commences his seventh visit to the USA. May? autumn 1934 spring summer autumnwinter 1935 Jan. Conjectural events attend G. G. Leningrad and Central Asia. returns to New York.).-Jul. visits the Chicago groups (May). 1933 Mar. repudiates Herald and calls in all copies (Oct. who constitutes his first Parisian group (21st) in Hôtel Napoleon Bonaparte. G. Shocked to learn of Orage's death (5 Nov.

As Jeanne de Salzmann adds the author Luc Dietrich to her existing circle of pupils (René and Vera Daumal. implicitly confirms her as his deputy.'s effort to help him. His brother Dmitri contracts cancer. Kathryn Hulme and 'Wendy'. finds Georgette Leblanc seriously ill.) He makes many tours by car to European locales. G. contemplates trip to England to assist Mme Ouspensky medically. G. G. consolidates his contact with Philippe Lavastine and René Daumal. G. resumes extensive car trips. sails (19 May) on s.s. Philippe Lavastine.).). Having resisted pressure to settle in New Jersey. Jun.) on s. an exclusively lesbian group meeting in Rue Labie (initially comprising Elizabeth Gordon. G. G. Dmitri dies. makes his first token contact with René Daumal and Jeanne de Salzmann's Sèrves group. The international crisis steadily worsens. sails (Mar. G.'s secretary. Solita Solano. moves to a small Paris apartment at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard. takes new apartment in Rue Labie near the Salle Pleyel. constitutes 'The Rope' (early Jan. (end) Aug. G. remains in Paris (throughout War) at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard. which he stocks with provisions.'s followers attempt summer autumn 1940 spring Jun. Unable to afford a château he has located on the Marne. G. Henri and Henriette Tracol. Jul.s. G. On reconvening his lesbian group (Oct. Solita Solano becomes G. grows in size and influence.) of the Second World War. Margaret Anderson and Monique entrée to his current work.Christmas 1936 spring G. though not to 'The Rope'. Having temporarily suspended group work with his lesbian pupils. (Apr. . Outbreak (1 Sept. With Allied resistance collapsing. but he alleviates her condition.). G. Paris on his brief penultimate trip to America. 'The Rope' and subsidiary lesbian groupings effectively dissolve (as Kathryn Hulme and Wendy settle in America. meeting at 54 Rue du Four. G. winter 1937 spring Aug. gives Georgette Leblanc. and Anderson and Leblanc in Normandy). Normandie for France.). G. Dr Leonid Stjoernval dies near Reims. autumn 1938 1939 spring Accompanied by Solita Solano. despite G. Jeanne de Salzmann's group. etc. but Ouspensky disapproves and the plan is dropped.

makes overtures to G. winter Food being scarce and the weather exceptionally harsh. Lise Tracol becomes G.) of cancer. He attracts unwarranted criticism over the death of Irène-Carole Reweliotty (11 Aug.) and VE Day (6 May).) predicate the ultimate liberation of Paris. summons Ouspensky's pupils (Jun.) Mme Ouspensky. advises his Jewish pupils to 'go underground' when the Germans oblige them to wear the yellow Star of David. (late) Jul. They are harboured by Christian group members. G.) Japan's surrender (14 Aug.). G. fabricates story that he has been give a Texas oil-well. G. active in teaching enneagram-based Movements at the Salle Pleyel and developing his ritual 'Toasts to the Idiots'. spring May 29 To obtain further credit.'s relationship with Katherine Mansfield is pilloried in the magazines l'Illustration (19 Jan. First influx of London pupils to Paris from Jane Heap's group.) and America's declaration of war on Germany (11 Dec.). begins helping an extended family of needy neighbors. Hitler's suicide (30 Apr.(12th) to relocate him in the countryside but he returns to 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard (14th) just as Germans occupy Paris.16-17 Nov. Germans overrun France's Unoccupied Zone. In autumn G.'s residential housekeeper. G. Jeanne de Salzmann formally presents her French group to G. G. summer Mme Ouspensky advises her husband's British followers at Lyne to contact G. receives first visits of American pupils (Kathryn Hulme and Fritz Peters). G.) from America. is arrested for currency offences but discharged. Hitler's invasion of Russia (22 Jun. G. René and Vera Daumal no longer have access to G.) but they still vacillate. 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 . Georgette Leblanc dies (20 Oct. G. Jeanne de Salzmann presents Luc Dietrich to G. Ouspensky returns to England (Jan. G. Jan. He reintegrates J.'s French group meeting at 6 Rue des Colonels Rénard enlarges. G.'s advice is vindicated as Parisian Jews are deported in 'Operation spring Wind'. When Ouspensky dies (2 Oct. G. Further influx of French pupils. (Oct. invites him to Paris but Ouspensky declines.) precedes liberation of Paris (25 Aug. Bennett in his work (after twenty-five years) and cures his wife Winifred 1941 1942 Jun. still at Mendham.) ends war. Death of René Daumal (21 May) and Luc Dietrich (12 Aug.).

He is taken by ambulance to the American Hospital at Neuilly (26th). ostensibly as a new centre. where Dr Welch performs an abdominal puncture. G. Here he raises funds and authorizes Mme Ouspensky to publish Fragments. is buried in the family plot at Fontainebleau-Avon.'s health fails. sails for New York (arr. G.). G.30am (29th). and dies around 10. Bennett. Having choreographed (No. his condition fluctuates. his groups re-dedicate themselves to practise and transmit his ideas. G.3 Key to References [Excerpt] H The Herald of Coming Good M Meetings with Remarkable Men TS Life Is Real Only Then.(Aug. winter Eager to buy the Château de Voisins and to publish Beelzebub.) in Queen Mary with large entourage (including Iovanna Lloyd Wright). He sails for France (Feb. Geneva (Jul. G. Oct. Lord Pentland. nominates three literary executors (J. Seriously ill. Under the leadership of Jeanne de Salzmann.). His ideas are favourably mentioned on Italian radio in connection with the Montessori system. announces he will sail for New York on 20 Oct. gives his final instructions to Jeanne de Salzmann (27th).). When "I Am" . Bennett (but not Nicoll) commingle with French. Receipt of Beelzebub's proofs (21st) suggests the apotheosis of his life's work. Announcing Beelzebub's imminent publication.) to meet Mme Stjoernval. and finally Montignac (Aug. Under intense pressures G. he supervises the Toasts to the Idiots for the last time (24th). 39) his last Movement (11th). makes car expeditions to Vichy (Jun. G. G. becomes unconscious (28th). Mme Ouspensky.) and promptly issues a general invitation to Paris: pupils of Jane Heap. Ouspensky.. G. 17 Dec. and René Zuber). 1949 spring summer Sept. Nursed by Lise Tracol and surrounded by doctors. Orage. Religious services are held on successive days. Nov. he buys La Grand Paroisse. he collapses at Movements class (14th). recovers astonishingly after serious injury in a car crash (8 Aug.) to see the Lascaux cave paintings.

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