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Augast 9, 1856.) . The Saturday Review. 337 go the prisoner than this, or more likely to awaken him to a eae oF responaitlty, were not tht sue publisty of lo exo- tatloa melee the macnner of his dakth soem allsmportant to Geant’ the ‘onsonuences of death A very sceondary CoD. titration, "A mun sto fron hiv youth.up has heard every pot- fosseloudin thepraie of eritinalsio die unmoved, caren a great deal more for whet Dil nod Tom wil ey of him when hela gone than for whet the elengyman'anys to him while ho is here. Bat {emake tho crimieal fepentsa pot the oad of enpital janis trent Tte great, thougl n0t its only sim, in to dolerolhers mn commiling evimen like Yont which has led the quilty man {othe geald, “We must bur attention on thn whieh i tho Seal object to bo elected. We want to make a great exoraplo—~ Tint ir our purpose. We hare noihing to coosider but the way fn which the example may bp mado meet eBexcous, Supposing tere were 20 poreeptible ciference in the deterring effets of priate and public exceutions, the advantage the prisoner would Rosive hom te former wougl sillee to turd the scale. ‘ut the Smallest inereno inthe ofceney of the puniahmentas a warning ould more tan counterbalance the greatest good to the mun Mito ie fo bo hageds 3 ‘Tho Committe justly obsorve thatthe effet of public exoen- tions on the spectators must be n malice of speculation, This to true thal tho evidence thoy-recived a atwrost entcely worth ies Tho great junieation pf Capital Punishment rests on its iunknosn, Hot on tee known, rutin, ‘Those who desire its aboli tion point to the number af murders committed annually an obj hat i prorifobe wae.» Bub those ao mith the resent aystemn to be anbintained eannot point to any number of precisol toeelaed lance a wh ah ialended “sander has en prevented by the thought of tho. punishment awaiting ito comntssion. ‘Thy tust argue from the general frets of human Satire ra ce etngs they ould thems entertain, from the opinions ‘which a great-vanely of men ave expressed in different ages. So, toos we chaot prove by particular facts that the publiy of the execution ands fo the fenfulnsss of the warns dog-Pe ean only argue from,rhat werknow about ourselves aad olliors that iis Help, or is ot likly, to do so, ‘The leading arganiont forthe privacy of exceutions is derived fromiicbaaiou of te craps who ometo sen xeayons. We are told of tho profaue leagunge, the coarse oaths and jests, that iy bg hestd on every side—to petty thes that are commited In'wight of the srop--tho morbid’ eumosty. that simulntes th great masa of (ho spectators. Now, no one mould astert Ua this indecent behaviour is occasioned. by the nature of the apectaclo. Vegubouds*do" not swear and stent because they seen. man banged-—they ‘merely. eontinus to. do. what they would do, whatever were the occasion thet ealled them fogecher, All iho evidence thatenn be produced merely snouts Ao'thig thaba large maltiade of persons in the lowest class of societg—in the clas, dat is, whith, most Requires a werning.— ave collected togeters thet they feel tr ‘atimmalus which is ob runichted by tho meeting of aay grea} nomber of peoples and that toy conduc: themselves as they Would conduct themeslves if they wore assembled to’see any plensant or innocent exhibition. ‘But do'the facts of lumix wuature lead “us to suppose that men must necessarily alter their behaviour on solemn occasions if they. in auyt way feel the solnnity ? Who hes not been at a funeral and een sorrowing relitiges enjoy a very comfortable lunch; and yet not questioned the sincerity of their grief? Tt is ‘the t2hdéney of all numerous gatherings off men to make each individual conceal his betfer emotions. A respectable man does not like to be'seen to shod tears, and a-blackguard does not like a thoysand other blackgunrds to suppose him to be affected by ‘he spectacle of death. "If we looked only to outward and imine- diate signs, we should hardly beliove that anybody was impressod by anything. : We come, then, to tho’guestion, whether to see sn execution or to hear of it is most li¥ely to serre as a warning, and to deter from ithe commission of erime. "The only evidence. bearing at. this ah we can fid"in the Reforb consists of statements ‘beard bythe vritnosies from persans in tho. crowd to tho efloct ‘that i 7 u they could never have believed the donth they lind seen was 20 eagy, quick, and painless an end, and that they do not think hasgig would be noch. to go through., IF it wore realy the fear af the physical;pain of death that, deterred men from comn- nittifg murder, tharo would be. great weight in this evidence; bubefery one Tenors that death means 9 great doal moro haa in A ie fadusanee of" a" eorcuin-amuunt of bodily fan [abo ‘dies quits this world und goow to anether, and sho consideration of these two points that. makes men yarijing to die. ‘The fle thought of a young man. who, Jn a bospital or a battle-fleld, seas a frequency of epeedy deaths, TR probably be, that death is avery ety end, and not much to go through ; but his love of life is aa strong after obsereation hhas freed this reflection on him as it waa before. Some of the ‘itudeses mentioned thatthe spectators of diferent executions at the dame placa wore often sgan to-be the same. persons who Had ade Befre, and tas as obvious they got wed to eit rade cues sion hy got od Ea te eget pecan oy Th io more think lightly of dying than a doctor would. It is pos: ibintaa Wi oay ameer death ; but it could never awaken Jess, and for a yery long time it must avalon a great deal more. And it must be remembered that the npeetuloeof an execationwignessn not ony a deaths Dut aioe deat nad fica fle nonigy sending he criminals end may lmger in tho ‘shod begond the shock of the death tea ne a These it alo, soother consideration of « similar-ind. A stnmefat death fa publie muck harder to go through an one In'private, ‘Lat my ono pictaro to haneef dying ea criminal i left of howard fenton fs with ing gue gaol Would ‘not Palmer far rather here. taney hembok ll Hike Athenian than ave been led out fo face half ” inal who is executed Qublie knows that his end wll bo heenly watered by hs old neighbours ned assoiatsy by tho relative of tho man he. hae itd, by hse Snonheby handed, perhaps of foe ‘thom be fg known and. Toked. Jown wypoa, belorgfompation tri guilt brought him to mich isoree fte, ‘Tho preatnt caren required to prevent any criminal above the lowest rank ffom committing suede aie ho knows Unt he i to be hanged, * Slrery presution in taten = the pongyvetinere varity cl ts, “lese the prnoues ahouit-defety he endy of justien”™ ‘Eo tie upscen bythe muilfitade js considered so small a thing im comparigon thal it has received tho atereotype, name of de- feng the cue of justices” There. cannot etpely bo any doubt tht ninen inthe postion of Palscr would be more ike to be deterred by tla thought, of w puote than of private creation, “We must ednfes that wo do nat doe anything i this report to rake us think tae tho warning giren by. private executions fan equal thet given by executions under {ie present system, Ahk Cen iP the! present eyetem is rele, suggestions which might ho adopted with advantage will bo fount either Jn tho ‘Report ici dr in the Appendiss'h- grentersolemmity ight bo'gven fo pubiieexcentions, A clengymen wo gave orideneo Stroup nt favour of change slated that, fo" some ine. Niele renson, ho sould not invo. an. appropriate service in ia church fess the exceution nae penoter We ave tt Toes ‘to understand why the ocasion sod 101 Be proved Although «great many rereenn Took at tho man boing banged, Tein tbo peoposel nati the exgeution were privators body of tralesmer or ether syosinatial eteensehould sitend eiler cane Pultoriy otast to wines the genes In eather fori, tis plan Inigut be ung beveliial fa publie exceutions Te grentresson ‘rig the crowd bstrvea vo bedly i becuse no repegtate person Tice to bo pronnt at tho onal ceremony, Lf persons of higher ation werd there, tho crowd would chore better, an mould erhape be tiore iapressed, ns external and evil solemnity Ens atfaye a grent efron mone Siven those who now lameyt lint thoy eonsder'th domoratiang eonsequences. of pubis xceutions inust adit thaby these consequetees could be dou vay with, or mitigted, publio exeeutions are in themselves preferable. ‘NEWSPAPER ENGLISH, ANY of ourroaders must have observed the gréallyinerenied a Lrt~—<“~sists—s—s—sr——SOSOSOSOS genie among uindoeted oaleeduate pope,” OF hemsny ympioms Uy which geatloman may Uo recoptised, none s more certain than his babifual plainness of specet. Theres linge ‘ss of words which shopkeepers and baginen tio without any par ular affectation, but simply. because thoy think it a prook of tducation and good manners--just as they éag "Sint oF © ME." fener then people of higher rank. A Trad of ours once heard the falloning conversation in the cominorsal room of 1 count fun" Sir-hove you visited the Exhibition of the Tadustey of all Nations "=-'"f have taken an opportunity of doing so, sinjand Srna deoply gratified by what I remufked’=—"May Taney an, Iehaf it ras that principally attracted your allealionP"=—" Tho Zpesinens of Manehestor cottons and. dhe statue af Goilrey of ulin." Who, sir, was Godtrey of Bullion?" Godtrey of Bullion, sir," was. tho. party who placed himself At the. head of those partis who. proceeded from Franco’ with a view to iberate tho Holy Land from the othet parties who. held it—the =the ——, 0s a singular fac, that am at present unable to recal the appellation which thozo' parties selected.” After, somo ‘more conversation, in the course of which one of these Euphists asked the other whether Jacab Frithfut was ‘a, Vook of fietion ‘of a nareative of fact," they parted, as thoy éxpréssed it, “to etize to the exabraces of Marpheus.” Tho harm done by this kind of folly is greater than might be ‘supposed at Seat sight. Tt induces vaguoness and innecuracy of thought. ‘The fury which fecommended Dove to merey would never havo stuliiied themselves aa they did if thoy hed not been able to shelter their folly under the unmenning phrase, “ defect {ntelleot"--just as Westron’s jury talked nonsense about h ditary predisposition to insanity." A considerable curtailment of the nonsense which infests the world would bo oflected by the disuse of tho "great swelling swords” which enable so many people to talle about what they do ot understand. :‘The origin Df this kind of Jangungo is nsily dotected. Our intellg sniddlo cates anol fimmous for extensive reading, and Skis easy to observe in their dinloct, whenever it becomes at all pro nounced, traces of tho fact that they form tie style on tho news papers, and more especially-on thielr penny-e-lining department, 338 The Saturday Review. [August 9, 1856. ‘Wo have frequonly had occasion to speak of the etyle and cha- racterof“Our Own Correspondent;"bat that greatinan’y iulluence an never be fully understood until hie pecutiae portion, ahead Stan exteusivo ad influential profession, is properly Tecomiaed ‘Wall kaow wat the aoracy-general or arcibishop of corre: spondents enn do, Dut we do not think that the fulluense of tho jinior members of the body whieh he ropresents is fully under. Hood, Ph Tray, when el upon to fash a maxima ‘of bricks, and supplied with only a minimus of pray are a type of tho “gentleman connected vith the press who hin to Al ie thro or ties nowspapor column with ar aecount of the sayings and doings at some political meeting. or other public ceremony. ‘K'nman th a agit cdveation, © fluent pen, ands conala tious of naar! airerdnen i wnt of note aah fin amuting story ont of an aur of th special purpono of which he Tie ‘no. more eoneeption than, he lis of Hebrew, Ha" deserbon'n review at Spithead. on. Mondty, a review ai “Aldershot on Tuesday, a f&e'at the Crystal Palace on Wodn day, an agricultural toting on ‘Thacsday, an Administrative Reform Atsociation dinaer“on, Friday, aid’ ny. exocution, on Saturday, im the profoundest ignorance of military or naval warlive, hydentlies, agsieulture, polities, and. mecianies and Jot he leaves on the minds of kis’ sendors m wonderful pres: Bon of his oxlraordiuary vivacity ‘snd. deep information. as fan irreverent ertconed aaid of « bribiant rerierer, his ari ln are worth reading. ico “tp ac. the digo af then. {hoy are all-got upon the same priuciple, and sustained by ihe tame arlifues. "On some futnee oceason we may pethane srg aden’ 2tnfon to wo a th ore rable species of this genus of writers; but ab present we confine Garscltor to the’ manner in which, from the necesities ef the nae, they are obliged to eocrupt the English language- One of the idiapensable requisites of this slyle of writing is a lax. phraseology something. which eominite tho ‘person, wo aos it to a8 for facts, and therefore lays him open to a9 Tow eontradictions as possible. Te fa great art to bo ale to male a ipber of unt whol ett onl fo nal fact ad the best ‘ray of doing this i 19 cmploy words which Ihave no precise meating, rather than those whic have.” We Iuaeealveady shown how sel this ate 'it to. juries in wording recorimendationa to mercy. We have lite doubt that those Who si upon then fea % trom penay-alinoa, A. gentleman Of the lass in question not long since delighted the feaders of fie Timer by an account of the: meoting (of course po called st gathering’ in inverted commas) at Mie. Mechta farm. at ‘Tiptree, in Eases. "Ha bulletin is all of auch pluses as these =" rctical_ngriullunsis”""lieral. application of capital ational and. adequate. ‘recognition "and, amoagat other things, it éontains to following’ curious. roms" sll ef this doseription preoludes the oporation of atmonptario changen -ontontil to a helt and bvatiunt vegetation’ To. wes eck plitases as “men actually employed in farming,” or «apengion 2 grt deal af tonaey," would ook tame by th sido! fhe hark fio plirses which re’ have eopied; bil the thea and foustes aro uot less remarkable for their want of definite meaning than for their extreme grandeur, We may take the following as an. thor example of the samo thing. Mr. Alea, we avo. ald, ex: hibited» machino for bringing rockets to Uh port of Veach ost advantageous for ella a communieatian’ with wrecke, tthe writer i sai, “from which tho wreck might be reschea ‘oat eal,” he would have misted an opportunity ot stag woede of Latin erigin where plain Buglish would have Gone. Squal well, and’ of employing. fiteen syllables where seron. Souk Thave been enough, Lis a coxamooplace ‘hag to speal of = “dangerous habit ;* bat who can refuse to shure Tear thal Feasts oan sep ith dangr to he pubis aention the date of the building of tho Hotel de Villoat Brosele ‘oul require somo knowledge, and might look pedantis but it Fes adaihttl fone of tae tan ane about the Bulgin fbtes to allude to “that renowned monymment of medimval ae tecture.” A" bloody balile” is couree-“an “ onsangacd bate” Jntereatiog, Anybody could have sid that there wore no beds to ‘bo had at Soalampton the night before the naval review; tat ne one but a writerin tho ‘imee could have tld us that on that mgt any perenas wore unable to take “ horizontal refesiaaent We must’ nob, however, eupposo that. the. penny-vain prinsole affects only the words tod. thay quit su sroug of Tnituence on the siyle. “A certain jaunty afetation at case® the Constant introduction, apropee da dott, of quotations ef ond ‘few withering. soreasme at the standibg ebjests of the tacks of the Homspaper in whi the article sppeare's haderoee eEuggeration of minuto dolls, and sor of afecaton of sant Science are amongst its most charactoristie fertures, "Os theres Of ast month, an article appeared in tho Times, ob a Meee at Audershott, whieh curiously exemplites these peculiarities The ‘ere Dogan by saying dint it was no wentee, tad very hot 4nd lio does it In the following elopant style» Notibag cad revel tho beauty. of the “wealuer. ‘The leat, no doubt, Was occasionally oppressive, but the sky was ae"Ulus anon ainellget" @ rel comnelian), “and not ‘one. wandering slow {interposed between the aun and his nobly: Wee © the sun nobly, nd low could you got bettoen Te and hn? ft at oe of those slorote days when ob the expressive phragoof an Oriental wsiter" (we should like Go know ‘lo he is)" the green blood dauces in The venus of Uso Soon | regret, entertaining ahigh estimate trees’ and you can almost fancy that you ace the corn-ielda growing.” “Nine lines and a half at rid. aro—the eatabished Hewspaper phrase once desrly beloved by Puxch would bo, avoording foosker"™—r5. rbd or just the prcwote box oF quack pills, including tho stamp; and’wo think the taformaation is deat at the price. “After this ingenious and rather expensive exor- dium, comes the business of the day. We are introduced to certain stables, which, “at fest sight, remind the apectator of ths ngenows lite damicite improvised by Mobinaon Crass" and whiek supply the writer with xa opportunity for. displagiy ich wikwos indignation about Lord Taueua and Sit Riekand Airey. Afier a time, we come upon a eritiviam of te arranges meuts for spectators, which gives one friend an opportunity of tmealioning the exelusion of “ the great body of the publi —thoy of whom if has been proudly atid that they are the true source of all legitimate poster,” and of romonstrating in a characteristic style about the rough manners of somo " here troopor who, flourishing his polished sabro in the air, Ubreatens to eut tem ['*wo" and others] off in the flower of their days tuoless they at once belake themselves to some remote region, from which the roldiers, like Shakspeare's famous sarophire patherer, ook “no Digger than their heads,"”” ‘Thore is am amusing: maioeté in the next sentenco—* And the worst of it ia, that. you have no elinea Ivan antagonist." we do not ospect high literary. exeelleneo in reports mhich ore neeossarily written in haste; but we bare Tight to criticize clahorate and systematic allonecs against gacd tase and eonmon sonse, "Wo seriously blige thet the fh, jaunty style of newspeper accounts of ordinary occurrences Fass good deal to'do‘with the. provalones of sar fultsia writings of much higher pretension. Itis a zreat merit to be able to tell 2 plain story in a plain mianner, and no one knows so well aa those who see imuclt of the current literature of te day how rare a merit it is. ‘The sizle of newspaper reporters 3 imitated by hundrods of persons wlio liare not tho ramme excuse for adopting it. A newspaper must be read. It rust also be read on the day of publication, and in order to attain that abject, great port of it is alvays written in a vulgar, garish style Such artitices as theso aro mere bids for popularity; and altbouyh, in a0.far as they nierely affect more or less the eireulation of the paper in which they appear, they may bo sufficiently wuime portant, they bécome a scrions evil when they infeot our liters. toro and enfeoblo our every-day language. COMPETITION IN ART, AND AR. OW! MANCHESTER DESIGN. MANCHESTER nowspaper, writing under the offical inspirations of the Executive Committee of the fortheoining Exhibition of Art Trensures in e857, has recently taken us to task for sundry alleged misstatements with rexpect to the com. petition for the Exhibition Building, and Mr. Owen Jones slinre in that competition. We must remind our contempaca tat, as to the ficts, his strietures should have bien addressed, not daly to'tho quarter whoneo, a8 he acknowledges, one of oar statements was taken, but to that authoritntive record of the architoctural history of the day—the Builder—in which, from ime to tine, the progress ond fasta of the Manchester competi 1s we hare atated them, appeared, and, with reference to which ‘uncontradicted statements our observations were directed. Tha Manchester authoritios, howover, consider our criticisms’ parti culetly injurious’ to the cause of the Exhibition, on account of ur influence and circulation in those’ quarters from which the ‘treasures to be collected in 1857 must be derived. We certainly f the object of the Man chester Exhibition, that its authorities should have stumbled 40 completely in the beginning of their work, and should, as: the facts of the competition and their (reatment of Mr. Owen Jon show, have displayed, in all that relates to the building which to receive the Art Treasures, 60 litle respect for the claims of art. The statements of tho Sadurday Review were thes £, That the competition was of selected artista, and avas not to be anonymious. 2, That Mr. Owen Jones's design was the best. 3: That it us rejected in favour of some one who Lad not competed. ‘Tha the-design was exhibited—not-as the hes inthe eom- tition, nor as the selected one, but—as the design approved by riage Albert, os ae fee a That Mr. Owen Jones rejected the twenty guineas wl ‘ere offered to him. e ‘These statements a Manchester newspaper vontradicis, or rather, it insinuates a sort of eontradietion of them. We will proceed o speak of them in detail -— 8 No. 1 we withdraw.as to its first half. Tn that, we were ia gertor.. ‘The competition was not confined to certain artists, but it was required to be not noaymous, In condemning us, he Manchosies journal fl nto an exer fi ova. ‘Tho aver ‘mont inviting competition expressly required each design to be futhentented wih ia author's name. ‘fhe fash however, that ‘the competition invited was opon to all the world only males the eonductof the Committee, in adopting a design which was in theit [possession before the competition was invited, more unpardonable. ‘Asto'Nos. 2 and 3, a8 we havo eaid, our facts wore taken JONESS from tho Builder. Ta that journal of June 21, it was stated that