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Tan, 2, 1838.] The Saturday Review. \ 16 thes bave been reptinted in Hachette Bjiothdpec des Ohemins | of the Weatasp Protectorate “Mr. Congreve leaves it entirely we"er® "Wo commond p. 43 e! sep| of Hortense to those | the Fredehmin aod the Brahmin, and the rest of the coma who hare the courage to entertain, wn affeetion for bad puns | sioners,todef;rmine: |“ Onocnnnot butfear that the Western Pro- Tovo periahe of human, speech. ‘Feu Bhersier in moa! extra: | tectorate, on {joking in ame twenty yearalbenco, may fnd aothing agan peice of Kerra ney, Tao gol te dpprte Brower | Ie fo prota tthe ipo Sede ae Jug Daladoor ta : TRprecad os foting sb the trap ange | © M-Cogneeksb w bre aa Serpette rrr rer rc errr “We may stato, in conclusion, as the Jatest Hterary novelty, | tinean, Sho hus been the great promulgator of the Comtist phir © * shat the fist volute of tho Dictionnaire Aistorige de fa Langus | losephy among. us, and she eeriatly would be 00 more incliied ‘Frog al whch he Seadoo bem war foro may | than Ms Concoro fo hin oe na perilous lonoar of the ‘hing but new tales, many of our sstqyee saat iconciled injvhe interval Between our evacuation and the advent “ 19 ears, will soon be published, with a profhor by M. Patin, Tho | vanguard”. Now abe, too, has brought out a-book ou. India, iterary! world wil look forward to ‘hil first issue of long. | A vory nice Mite bok it is, though it deals rather too much expected work with-an interest which, we\fear, will be somowhat | wonderment that mon turned out as they did, and that event damped when they learn thet the a in, question, though | wero what tha fere—as though it were always open to destiny sneriag vows four Inne pags wil estan no mary tun [Tolan rede mio of sy, nd havo no are the fortith part of the leon A! however, will vanish fall.” And what is Mise Martinenw's-viow of the matter? Just vrlien wo add-that ‘the history. of each Wword—as the title, in| therovorsa of Mr. Congrove's. Mr. Congreve considers all our fal, implies—is to be. traced: down froja the exzliest to the ons i Tadia, including oven tho conquest of the Punjab precont times with fulness hitherto unjijualled in the annals iy datasiva wis, as more robberies, which morality ro- Erlesieogeaphy. ug nmetiatly to restore. ‘He considers our rulo.as puraly , Drojudicie 19 the counlny, and sooms to zogand that "ancient -posrrivE PiNILO8OTHY ON THE INDLAN QuuSHION+ | polytheleticokganization,” both in ite political and religious aspect, HER, CONGREVE as publaied 4 pamper, on Zeta | Neate ecemging 29 maroatan Nothing ena bo more evening Mier ache ia" Cllvaier. ip comes frvatd tn | Source Clan is omdetaa on of see tadiee amie speak ‘on the great question of the day af the representative of | orery point og'view—moral, religious, gocial, military, and com- Conte's options inthis country. ‘The time for proclsiming | crettuP” Notfine as welune acke eqn be move pecceplony then ‘the doctrines of Positivism hs arrived, aud he ‘'may not decline | his Tojunction; yo bandon it without the lenat delay. Sts Mar the Dee nal ieeepee ia ot sitneto polit oe a, who Sofending every sot of. Haglishanen or of the owed ax # political philosophy, is “to bubordinte polities t | Enetch Govelament in. Leda, or overating the goodness of ou ‘oraiin ther word, fo vat poll goon and speculation | Selat tite tenis dur conquer, on ha vias, ax naar eon Ly moral considerations.” If this it llywo ennnot think that | ferent, glolfows to us td besefcalto the natives. Sho (une ge honour of the vanguard wl be onal rory pros, or ht | pe evda tha Buen war, td ce abate of any fare Mr, Congrara haw much nage fo dinelaimll wih to guard in evftience ‘on the ather side) the annexation of Oude. In regard vel agains tho resentment of « bigoted word, and ery id faut | ¥3 the Durmode war she sirongly repels the imputation of *ea- payer de ea personne. A bigoted world iy in fects mutch inore | Dacity.* Andehe annexation of C Ee ‘says, was dono " with- {olerant, nay fond, of novel and even cbebntric opinions than | For Lioodshed without spparent revilaaee, wd coidently fo the tr Congreve, who views Soglish soeetfsathorexially than | S04 pi0odsbed, Whe" s2Derent ee onliton ot Outs sympathetically, may imagine, But st Ppsltiviam limited itael | {igor its native Iaogs, cho thinks, is "as fair a Warning as we to the aumnnintion of the neinple the the laws of morality | contd hive of frat "ust become of Uadia, i tha most ought to be observed in polities, even ee cares jepeeful times, if our civilizing an ionaté rule were 1 Gtllzation” would be more ikely to-complan ofthe tram than | PMLCL He eae aan ae ways, “tat = of the innovation. ; {it one of the. finest specihens—eill the difficulties “However, ifthe general principle is not pry startling, the appli- of himan government- that the world has see cadion wervuit on, mukioaimend.-Afeb pasting that the ve-|""As tothe bubollcent osereion of out ule on the francs of a. congussfof Luis, notch auppresion of amifnyamong thoSepoye, | andsed tllions of nalives, there can be ao question. The doubt {the question now before tus,—aftor (eaten i, not of tho blessing of our Tule to 3 ‘natives, bué whether it. in which the fortitude and herojem of our pountrymen have been | might siot have been greater to ourselves.” So herd we have the ‘tho,admiration of tho world, *has'every repulsive feature, none | tivo principal srepresentatives of, Positivism in Englqnd. directly of tho palliations thet ordinholy attend pr war,” and applying | at isu, Mistorially, mor ‘o the exploits of Wilson and Havelock thd ihe Sella ger placust | Miss Mactinea evidently thinks Christianity, arzived at through alles habitura: triumphorafter rebukink, bur feroeious desize | the medium of edvestion, would be a gopd thing for the Hindoos, of ‘reialiation, and insinuating (without: thut referenes to facta | we may add réligiously—respecting the first great practical ques- ‘whjes wo vouture to think the spirit of any philosophy’ requires) | tion to whieh fhe principles of the'schdol are applied. ‘The dis- Tage Hindsonromon and ghildcen have sepsirod at tho hande of | eropaoy i no the les ign fea beens Mis Marine’ book ‘out countrymen treatment deserving the ste punishment as the | is 1 historieal sketch, not pamphlet, and ehe for thé most atzositios of tho Sepore: ‘Mr. Congreve ogi toptaethe policy rather quietly ‘assumes than asserts that which -her- fellow. * ‘Tush tint the dot of Wrglnd adopt fowaede Fada | Pont ovement dein, hin the wity of roi "his policy, he says, "is simple in the pxtreme, It is that we | conviction on all,moral and social. subjects which Positivism led withdraw from our ogcupation of India withont any unnecessary | us to expect, after the blindness of the’ ‘theological. and the. delay, within |the shortest, period compatible with duo arzangé- | sgnarchy” of gio metaphysical era? Ono might as well: judge ments for the security of European’ life and} property, and with | of political élions for oneself by the old [rules of justice and dock messases ay thall be dgamed.advisqble in the interest of | expediency. "flow ia st possible to believe, in face of such dis- Tnijan independence snd good govesamekt. ‘The zelations of | sgrooments in his school as this, that (Comte, whatever bi ‘Western Burope and India aro to bo set{led by |a Commission, | merits ag a thinker may havo been in his saner hours, gaye the like that which hes just given dich (gonéral satisfaction in tho | World any key to the solution of questions of politcal and cial settlement of the Danubian, Beincipalitios | It is to-eonsist of one, | morality, ich i his not possessed ainee we were taught to.do commissioner apieoo from Tingle , Portugal, and Den- | uavo otliert as ro would they should dg nt tons (ie thre Iast-montioned-Slges, ating, Mike! cumelves, | If wa might resume to say which of th two views was most Indian settlements, the. magnitude of whieh, eompared with our | jn accordanco' with: Positivism, wa should. say decidedly that of ‘empire, is not thought worth, consideratiog)--one lfrom Surdinia | Nisa Martinedd, , ‘The Indian ompire seems to us to bo just one of fs tho represeitative of what] in the forma} ethnography of Posi. | those great hiatdrcal facts which itis the greatest merit of Post: fist, whiob eaniot ehip the shell of the Rovian Minpire, iacalled | tiviem to fendh’tho ‘world to accept ad make the beat of M. the “fifth great nationality,” fhe Italien —df the Sultan of Turkey, | Comte hinisolf,it appears, dissuaded the publication of Judia,whea sho in ausimod'to be the datuenl head |not-only of Western | ho sanctioned the publication of Gibraltar) and we can hardly = Lldnism, but of the Binpire of Timuy-laad of sn-entinent | chink that tho opinion of the, philosoplier on tho subject would > Brahinin who, wo presumo, Will be chargefl ith the interests not | hare beon changed by what he would /hard seea to be a mutiny, only of his orn, Uut of the lower eastes| and perhaps also of | in tho Bengal army, though’ Mr. Congreve! catching’ at the ex: + Hhe' Siktie and the-Parsees, nob-to montign Bheels and Santala. | pression rebel’ disdriets, 1m am artiola in |the Timer, chooses Nothing i eid aboot Ruma or about the Alfyhans~their un | to represent it os & general vising of the people of India against a aggressive intentions must be supposed U} tp usdumed. A dis- | hated yoko, like the rising of Hungary against Austria, or of {aut viow is opened of a fature Protectorate ar Western Europe, | Poland against Russie. Whether st was vise in aut fathers to | Baar a ach dire on nov beoatee'it nigh avaln natioral sna: | acquire teretory and political power in Tndia inetd of continuing ceptibilities among those who have quibtly ‘submitted to tho | merely to trade witht, and whother we are real gainers inpower _ ~ “Protectorate” of tho’ Mogul Emperors, #he Makrattas, andthe | or wealth by what they did,’ is no doubt an intricate question, Sultans of Mysore.” Whit the “good gbvernmeat" of “inde: | Hut they adled in tho opisit of thir time, whiah, wocording tq jont” India is to be—how: Mahomollans, “Hindoos, Silks, | all Pasilive doctrine, is an historical’ justification, The spirit of. Rantals, Bheels, with tho various phindering intogoste of an’ old | unscrupulous aggrandizement was still abroo ssa and nd very miscellaneous ‘Alsntia of ‘nation axe to, be raled’ and | breaking out in conquests of Silesia and partitions of Poland. If is Sioa pai wa, | Hanee-nas fot eonauering, twas only beonuse aie waa wank. jpbonte Karr, Paris: Ha- | She tried to commit burglary on Prassia, but found 9 Frederic in. Socially, ond, politically —and as se a Te cocen ye, | aetag acer eee gee Te : | Batak nate aa tata, Bib, Bde and Co, 185 fot a Cinpesas, 7. [and self” upland had saved Europe from the clave ef orl Satay Hort Sern | ei ronee hos ogu, had barely enopped the claw of Bpaia eo han to allegea supernatural title, ‘The plinse ““trusleeship’ 16 The Saturd: lay. Review. (Jan. 2, 1858. and 60 backwards to Uho primitive robber ages of the world. Te'waa a mera struggle for tho political earease of Hindostan’ ‘between us and the French, who liad commenced under Duploix the very eareer of territorial aggrandizement which we hayo run, ‘nd who, if they bad been successful, would, in thore days of ‘monopoly, have excluded our commerce from India a8 well ax our arm.” Russia has continued those " operations” in, Northora and Central Asia which in Gidraliar Mr. Gongrero designated fs “Thor proper work.” France has seized Algeria, about which Mr. Congroe eye noting —perbape becaust is oacuation wat of yotammended by 3 Coy. Ont stabbed our dominion could not help growing, not daly by virtue of ita strength, apa ‘hich ope dofperand Rordo aftr another bused wed Crake ems selves, but also aa a power of order in the midst of that vast anarchy, or sather, multitude of ephemeral tyrannies— that ‘great eud deplorable confusion” which Mr. Congreve, with all his reapect for the “ancient. polytitistic ong pelled to own followed tho aie ‘tho! Mogul empire. ‘To sersist in talkdag of “the seizure of Kndin” isto ignore the gradual Sharetr of one teguntions on wi the denon of the mort question principally turns. Werecofamend Mr. Congreve 0 ohisiory ofour conquesiabacloards, beginning with that ofthe Punjab; perhaps that process wile medify his present notion, which is evideutly that of m sudden, deliberate, unpro: ‘yoked, and complote weizure of tho territories of .9 single independent nation. Mr. Congreve lmows ire nre not the first conquerors of India. Tndisa society, in fact, consisteof a number of strata, as it were, of conquest, superposed one on another. ‘The lower castes were probably, in their’ origin, a. primitive ‘Face conquered by the higher eastes ; and there appear to be re ‘ains of ail moro aboriginal possessor of thoscll Why a tho last deposit of this geological serie alone to be removed in favour ‘of tho last deposit but one? “as ‘not India to bo réstored to ‘the Bheels and the Suntals?.-Bevides, it must bo, emumbored hat wo have acquired a til to Lidia of another Kind, by react ing it dating out posscation from ollie, jd far work, con: cerors. te ours uot only by congue but. by preservation. fade not boon there, the Sut of Mysore, the Malrittas, tho Site, would have been plundering and Rarfyingtho "ancient polytbeiste ergenisation from Cape Comérin Lahore, Mr, Eangree ann condemn al wong, for is type of ole exoellnjes in tho Roman onypive tte to which our Eagan fampire is a0 near an approach that Me Newman has called upou' Soren ft aman provide nf sme pero hiyle in which Ms. Congrove alle on us to sbendon teat [| together. "Our abandonment would simply revi the tito (wl MEP Congreve'scommivson would bave no ght toupersede) of i eatrap, Or a numberof ttraps, of the fujeant Mogul; anda trorge than the Goth would take tho pléce|of those who. are af Teles good Bomann 0 0 aa Congreve gatas some advantage by eontrasiing our high- thanded conduct towards the barbie 9f Hindont with Sr brauton of the strict observanecof interne onal low fom mations Gite as barbarous, auch a the|Chinese. But this, at most, oan | Ergumentum ad hominem, whic, cannot stile the practical ques tion, "The expressions ‘used shout.“ Providence” having given Tada fata ob hands, od ou bing toreore bound io Koop ere fomotines naiaeous ant profligate onbogiy and might afost as wallb wed theft jai ie kespngyourepoone; Pat ine Tatinoal moral to bo drain perlipe is’ nok that weshould leave nies peyote Matomedin at nul hat pope tea eave olf canting, Besides, many of those swho talk im thi way sean rather to scknomledge a religious uy towarda our etpire, tr, Congreve tay, be a new inrengon but the idea is to bo found in the language and conduct of every conscientious Ting” Tshman. who hay faken part in governing Hindostan, ole lating on the subject of fadia. “Tt is not roxy philosophical, ‘hou you have a great practical question -bulore, yon, to. b | Uwellidg too much on phrases. Can Afr. Congrove fimugino that Hb ratibal opponents aocopt Lord Ellanborough'e phrase * We ‘havestalced os conquetors,- an trae cxprension of ther foliage ‘eapeting our posion in’Hindostan? WGrorybody Knows tak Loti Eulccbordugh. will good ablites and. feet knowledge ef ‘Tada, ix eedly given to talling fatian. | He has veny reoetly stp moro fuslina about "Normans an Saxons ‘But this rodomontade. would not practially infiuonce hs own conduct, such le tat ofthe nation, : ‘Mr. Congrove says ve must not be judges in our own cause, bu allow somé cisiatoreated arbitrator 10 dpeido whothor we ought fo retaia India or not. Lot him” propose to his avout) France, end to Stuena, to submit the caso, of thee rerpostve| iniions to foreign arbitention, and wre may safely under !Rreplain denunciation of nalional errors or crimes, Lxt us have Re He would bold different language, oh tor our civilisation were aubuituted. that whieh Lite just been fustrated by tho doufoee trial, and whieh counts. « ould nd Moy among te rua, and gine Soe among ia teachers of soeial morality. He ia-quito out of aympathy=-wo venture, with finoere respect for his moral earnestness and for his talents, to sty morbidly oat ofsympathy—with Gnglish society. ‘We do not want u stronger proof of ths than iho solemn and elaborate appeal with which his pamphlet concludes, from the judgment of edueated men to that of ‘women and working men + te best subjects for my sviones,” said 2 quack. mesmers, “aro parsous with prominent eyes anda vacant expression of coun, tenes. p sympathios of tho softer sex aro relied on for apprecistiag id sulted! the true daatinct, perverted in ita modo of expression, wehiely|would make tho marriage union triumph, over death.” Perhaps infuatiowde might be commended 10 ‘maternal felig by 4omo similar spiituslization, Somo baba. ‘ane take theit horse} and dogs with them into tho next v.rld fs well as theig wives, and thus make the equitn gird. casi union trismph ove [ath Tk ould bo unveinlineutacy to say shat the quality fs in working men oa which Ar. Congreve relies for confjunding the ease of Hongary and Italy with that of Hindostan. | He s4ys ho hns ceased to bo revolutionry ; but we cannot imakiae siything more revolationsry than an apptal, fa pretty stipulating kind, 1o the lower classe to take tho aat- tlement of thd most diliealt of all poiteal questions, out of the Juands of tho upper. | The normal stato of working meh, aecord- {ng to BE. Conltd, should, if wo remember rightly, bo Zeureuno ‘ntoxeiwico abut pohtial philosophy, . Mr. Congreve, of eure, both in thie appeal sid whatacpms to usiho equally revolutionary appeal to ladih to gite theit htabands curtain leciares about the {Thien questi, justifies himaelf by the superior moral instincts lof thoso who aré appealed to. . Bat Mr, Buekle, another Positiv hg, will tll hip that ibis through the intellectual, not through the moral nathre of man, that ti great advances of humanity wo made. We have always thought that the Postivista enor ‘mously exaggerated tho sovial value of scionoe, and. education ; ‘butin Mr, Congrore [Positiviam suddenly tarna vowsd and stares sua in tho faco with aa exaggeration of an oxuctly opposite kind, [No Jesuit, sobking to eretinize humanity Lor pious purposes, ‘could more opbulysolieit tho fooling to rio against the ineellect of man, Heaven foybid we should desir to oafares on Mr. Con- ero, or any bihor ma, the tyranny of patsiotian, orto forbid ‘pon _our_naiooal pide Rely opal councls by ail moans. Dut when a, man's tho- Foughly dspatiofied with hs country, he ught to put that fag very strongly baforphunelf and thoee Wom ho addreses in deco tho quostion whether tho influence of his countey abrond sh toe extended of uinninished. Tt is only against English aggran Hest al Ms Congr domes Gata, Re mg fy Us is ddde in’ pple of ssfsacryfcc and saffneform, but seding tole would Ue partly tap viedo an gon, "Awan igdishmong, yh sagt, “1 cannot at take intorest in tho mii: ~ festations of Roglinutesling” That ferrid orator, the late Arch bishop of Canterbury, wo belie, once sad, in 8 speech ata pa: Te meeting, that “he had n grost predilection for the Chugeh ‘Tothe England of Milton and Croiel, with ts Civts Bowron iiea—the very heyday of our odious haional peide—the authar of Gibralter in ba wo hero ead: before, strangely complimentary; ‘But one may'prnise the past fo any patent without violating. Mts ‘Tilney’ aaodonitnn| Po a young Denia, navet fo prilp any one ‘exeopt to the disparagement of some ou cls. ay we, without offence, nk Air. Congiere to, consider with he: does-any good by writing dhese pamplict? “His Feet aly "yell known to all Who were ‘with, him at Brin ot bt aki afar here gael reenter many, His strong moral qualities, and desire to do good to land ra ies i a hea oo ede aera Saray! eapasity has ‘been. proved “by his recent ot Adios Hidies. Dat we flue le if oly peste [imself when io ealls upon thenation to abaadon ite great moral song i ne age, aus Honea opp nate. ‘Tholast purple on of thirty tve-pages, part of which specs. ie Barus Pre pt, tothe whan nmsnelinted Pat airert nova leben Thilosophy, xnoat scom ah-almovk insane attack on tho national roligion; ond both are written} hoxever ‘usintentjonally,in-alatylo calculated to isitato|to tho last degree. ote whom ¢ shouldbe the.authoYs. abject to: win by gentle means to she teceplion of what le must know to be most stacling {oetsines and most unwoleome propositions, (Tt ia the same in aif te Conger wiles on fst ttes. UF he wants toca {o swallow a bitter pil, he begins by giving ita smart slap in the | face, He lia not yet written any eouaiderable, work’ on social philosophy, thougls jo daré say Ie lias i6 in im, with pal {Eke {o-be bound by the saver. ‘But the enlightened opinin of Europe js an arbitrator, ot impusial, ut edverve. Sie ang te enlihaed “pon “of Harpe ei re ot our keeping’ Iidia|lanot the water in the Deus Monday ‘whom we quoted sote timo since, as tit a judge ai Me Gongrere?. "Ms, Congrove is. nota fair judge. ‘ightly_o-| srrvagly,hocbstna inglahtvisaionj and ny Ono eutparoies| havi Ga Yee of sealog Roglsh svlzutan intewlased into Tndia,quitoea much an any daliko of coxguoat on tho port of the pneayrat of Cant at tho Roman Spire, Sat moron hy to dovoance. tho seteution of our conquers, ‘He would hold Aiserea language if Wogland were sill the ‘England of Crom tnd eal, to-do no.” The phioeaphy in the fame of wl hisses speac i nob yet widely fused such less gene- tally sopeptad und ean leo him ne authordy whatever: “Tho ‘world isseay to bp instructed or humused By any one but: it doesnot caro be advised, much less dictated to, by any but ect samen. A pilosophor ‘who expoola thet ho shall get | Gibraltar relinguiaied. abd India ovacusted by a few stinging {fords in a halferonn pampllet, might as woll expect to move Stonoongo with tweozsrs; or effact a breach in the groat Redan . |° ‘8 eannonade of batterpudding. To proportion means to? | ' I ' ; ‘wollen epoch anda hero strangely, chosen by ono who ie sevety, ah k nds ought t bo the rule ofall philogophy, and eepesaly of that ‘hich asmsigs Yo bp the most eal loopy ofall