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P. 1

Menghitung Pressure Loss|Views: 266|Likes: 5

Published by Mahrus Ali

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/40996127/Menghitung-Pressure-Loss

11/17/2012

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To calculate the pressure drop and flowrates in a section of uniform pipe running from Point A to Point

Note that a positive ∆z means that B is higher than A, whereas a negative ∆z means that B is lower th

Inputs Pressure at A (absolute): Average fluid velocity in pipe, V: Pipe diameter, D: Pipe relative roughness, e/D: Pipe length from A to B, L: Elevation gain from A to B, ∆z: Fluid density, ρ: Fluid viscosity (dynamic), µ: Answers Reynolds Number, R:1.00 × 105 Friction Factor, f: 0.0180 Pressure at B: 95.5 kPa Pressure Drop: 4.50 kPa Volume Flowrate: 7.85 l/s Mass Flowrate: 7.85 kg/s

þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ kPa þÿ m/s þÿ cm þÿ m/m þÿ m þÿ m þÿ kg/l þÿ cP

þÿ kPa

þÿ l/s þÿ kg/s

C lc la A a a u te g in

D fa ltV lu e u a e

s

Hint: To Calculate a Flowrate You can solve for flowrate from a known pressure drop using this calculator (instead of solving for a p

Proceed by guessing the velocity and inspecting the calculated pressure drop. Refine your velocity gu Equations used in the Calculation

Changes to inviscid, incompressible flow moving from Point A to Point B along a pipe are described by

where p is the pressure, V is the average fluid velocity, ρ is the fluid density, z is the pipe elevation ab

Bernoulli's equation states that the total head h along a streamline (parameterized by x) remains con that velocity head can be converted into gravity head and/or pressure head (or vice-versa), such that stays constant. No energy is lost in such a flow. For real viscous fluids, mechanical energy is converted into heat (in the viscous boundary layer along

where D is the pipe diameter. As the flow moves down the pipe, viscous head slowly accumulates tak

For pipe flow, we assume that the pipe diameter D stays constant. By continuity, we then know that th

where L is the pipe length between points A and B, and ∆z is the change in pipe elevation

The viscous head term is scaled by the pipe friction factor f. In general, f depends on the Reynolds Nu

The roughness measure e is the average size of the bumps on the pipe wall. The relative roughness For laminar flow (R < 2000 in pipes), f can be deduced analytically. The answer is,

For turbulent flow (R > 3000 in pipes), f is determined from experimental curve fits. One such fit is pr

The solutions to this equation plotted versus R make up the popular Moody Chart for pipe flow,

The calculator above first computes the Reynolds Number for the flow. It then computes the friction fa .

ning from Point A to Point B. . Refine your velocity guess until the calculated pressure drop matches your data. (instead of solving for a pressure drop from a known flowrate or velocity). p. The pipe is assumed to be relatively straight (no shar means that B is lower than A. g a pipe are described by Bernoulli's equation. enter the parameters below.

z is the pipe elevation above some datum. With D and V constant we can integra pipe elevation (zB . the total uity. pends on the Reynolds Number R of the pipe flow. and velocity heads. Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli's principle d slowly accumulates taking available head away from the pressure. For comm rve fits. . such that the total head h ous boundary layer along the pipe walls) and is lost from the flow.zA). Note that ∆z will be negative if the pipe at B is lower than at A. One such fit is provided by Colebrook. and the relative roughness e/D of the pipe wall. gravity. we then know that the fluid velocity V stays constant along the pipe. Chart for pipe flow. and g is the gravity acceleration constant. This means (or vice-versa). Still. The relative roughness e/D is therefore the size of the bumps compared to the diameter of the pipe. terized by x) remains constant.

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vely straight (no sharp bends). such that changes in pressure are due mostly to elevation changes and wall frict .

nstant we can integrate the viscous head equation and solve for the pressure at Point B. Note that perfectly smooth pipes would ha .e Bernoulli's principle of conserved head (or energy) to calculate flow parameters. Still. one can keep track of t heads. f the pipe. the total head h (or energy) remains constant. Still. For commercial pipes this is usually a very small number.

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hanges and wall friction. (The default calculation is for a smooth horizontal pipe carrying water. with answers ro .

e can keep track of this lost head by introducing another term (called viscous head) into Bernoulli's equation to mooth pipes would have a roughness of zero. .

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water. with answers rounded to 3 significant figures.) .

.ernoulli's equation to get.

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m: 1 12 10 8 6 Kekentalan Fluida (dinamik).Kekentalan Fluida (dinamik). m: 1 4 2 0 .

V: Diameter Pipa. µ: Daya Listrik Pompa: 100 0. pA: Kecepatan rata-rata fluida di dalam pipa pipe. ∆z: Massa jenis Fluida.02 0.00E+04 Faktor Gesekan. Re: 5.93 3.5 99. f: 0.5 3.93 390. e/D: Panjang Pipa dari titik A ke B.15% kPa kPa liter/detik kg/detik Watt . D: Material Pipa. e: Kekasaran Relatif Pipa. L: Perbedaan Ketinggian dari A ke B.74 78.5 10 45 0 50 10 1000 1 500 kPa m/detik cm mikron m m kg/m3 cP Watt Jawaban Bilangan Reynolds.00 Tekanan di titik B. pB: Pressure Drop: Volume Flowrate: Mass Flowrate: Daya Hidrolik: Efisiensi Pompa: 0. ρ: Kekentalan Fluida (dinamik).Masukan Data Tekanan di titik A (absolute).

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10.5 5 1.3 mm 3.9 mm 1.000 0.3.000 .000 0.0.2 .000 .9 .30.5 150 45 150 45 400 120 500 150 850 260 600 .000 0. e x 106 ft mikron 5 1.3 .9 mm .Material Pipa Perunggu (tarik dingin) Tembaga (tarik dingin) Baja komersial Besi kasar Besi cor (aspal) Baja galvanis Besi cor Wood stave Beton Baja berrivet Kekasaran Absolut.

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