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16 The Saturday Review. Dilay 3, 1856. ‘Tho provinegaliad fained compacativo freedom aa well a positive onder. Under the'Casarg there were: doubles oppressive, pro- ttrators and proconstiey bat they were exceptional and not the onual or tiennil fight oflocaate winch lind, under the senate taton up every green thing in every proviny of te empire. Thc {nproved condition of the dopondenties of Rome is elaborately toed by Mfr. Morivala; nor ean we ascribo i alfogothor to fear or adultion thatthe provincial no frequently eraved permission to erect altars and siatues fo their imperial patron and protector. Tho length of dpe ascorde oun enable ho ool to complete his designs, but also calmly to survey fisir penetea eration. He bad renovated with’ a marble surface the ld SReusean ciy, and he hed equally infused now vigows into tho Old Babine sontitalion of tho State,” Dioguoa, uur one oF ‘nother form, was the characteristic of tho sgoad Cats genius He kad non of th impulaive otal ofthe gre J "nas Title of tke agatematie, though genctally palpable: imimuation of ‘iberius’ Amin must hake been «shrewd iidelan to diva to: tho real purpose of Augustuy, “Ho wag yar She st coumumate of pata acre Mia ower of chncenlment was unquestousbly sided inte highest dogree by & passiooless Lemporeent. Ti sbeurd to call im a cowards tbat bis courage was of tho seflective kind-—it sclded an in danger, butt would not loadhim into dangor. THis moderation — perkape his most valuable and eonspicuos qualty-wes not the Inoderation of tho philosopher, but of the stave ome, torn ‘by factions, needed repove ae much aa reform—Rome, justly proud of a constitution Which bad lasted five eenturies, and had Fae hen tem of tho'verld revrened the psy sa Yas Atrongly attached to-formu™Htoine, possessing thd nehes of the envi was prodigal in liet_ploasurey, and more jelous of ine ferference with ihess thas of ironds oa her iberie, Augustus soothed anikroconiled hes factions by surrounding tho city and Al ite ring of provincer with an ample verge of peace. Tle Aifeced' a profound roverenes for the names and uanges of the Commonweatth—-he profeed to be guided by the masta aud the esample of the Cust and Fabriit eren_whilo-doviing. and conliduling schemes’ of government which they would bare accounted hateful as Taruin's, and punsboble ap the imputed ‘reasons of Baliga snd Alani. ‘Pally, wlio be eusbed the place he kept it contented and chee, soething ep 37s smenty, and catering for its employment nad it pleavares ‘iy public wor by al frase and equ and forge apettcle, But the most’ skilfully coutsiged political aystem, wulesit be oseasionally invigorated ty the breozes of fico action, beeomes fedious in tho end. Long before Augustus uttered Kis vale to Hivia, and stquived front the by-statdere at is deall-bod his ual ‘Pleudite the Roma had Grows weary of the hstionie decorum of the second, Coser. “ilo survived the, geveration which suflored in the civil ars, aswell ag the generaton whieh Teard in oyliood the last echoes ofthe sti.” © Young tomo” did" not appreeiste the quietude which, ho had cstablched, nd was ipaiout of the apathy whieh be esneted, ovat least Shorished, She was not prepared for freedom, but she demandod exc elon wit gobble at an Aor nould Succeed an Atjurath-~that the wily and. eagasious Augustus athould find or edneate a successor able or wilhag to carry-on his well-balanced bypoeriay. His saccessor professed, infec, to be sed on lotions by the precopis al prstoof Aug Su the carer of ‘ein war gut dana an ae ted him to be a Sival or a copyistof his predecessor ‘The fied hg alo rg oe eee Eberius i the matehless portraiture by actus. Mz: Mesrale luis shoirn good rensons for calling in question the veracity of the likeness. He has ‘Dion, Suetonius, an other authorities—he lias confronted ‘Tacitus with Tueitus hi welf. “Tho:ead intelli sivoness in-Mx. Meriv ing tyrant” Toses wome of hia rep fade ‘Tho worst aspect of Tiberias is that which ie wore in his relations to the senate, ‘Thoix hatred. awaliened his fears—their servility excited his cojtompt. Fear forrors of. tnd contempy cr rather cistrust were tho (f ‘Tiberius, He’ was a-qallant solder, but-a timid. statesman: ‘He dreaded change, and rigorously suppressed it—the fate of the fist Copan mae ‘ever before is egey end he met the fn inary dogger of the sense wit tho practic “ane a atthe excewioner. He despised the people as much bs hi lated the aristocracy he. nether. conned ety ae ‘Vuguatus fad done, wit ans employment yor atte them by latetig «pein the Uante athe trem Psa Jn garb and dole in his honsehold no Augusta cl egual ped—and iadeed narer soos Ho was domi (rset, ace eee closel gaint the crowd whe feel Agar Sn he nda Capen for even ear scouded sks person of te Bineror ftom the public gas ‘We have “not space to, inquire into: the, imputed viets or rity of the "major Aerohamy “but wp mist dire out Fender sttontion tlhe eaten 4 lich tho provinees held Fuler wliom Home itself Taiiered, dreaded, Ind ominated ven uci is forced fo admit that everjwharo bayond ths 15 of tha exptal, Liberea was poputas, “He dicoursged and lary oppretion~waw asoaibie fo compass ~requanty vieved ties and dstct which famine pest lence or elvlbions of ature had visit and le kept mgt ined to have eourled—his popula Phe doors of jis daily grected Aus rer his on provurator and freedmmen charged with provinil offices. Mr. Blerivale's pages stould be open before ail who fend the nals of Tecan “Without making the worte appent the belter cause, he hus shown ample reason lor doubting whetuer ‘oath edge ern! eure soponed inye been ihe Lstovan who dels wit clin antaity eonountrs siffetion exactly opposite to those wich. pesles the modern nna. Tholatier ws benslderd Uy She uaa of documentary Gridengs—t former by th ota Sbwnerof is independent of tho writor hone pais or blame. may be groundlos or whose tied my Sst” 1 pla food ta crest th pnacgy rie of Pattee by the eengure of Tastes put eho janow able to probe the eonaure of ‘acitus hime? "He i in Tenry very teppect "ti oot aad crown’ of itgrana,be they autnt or fnodeen,” THe i the greats of wordpeier, 8 tone rable avd sngacions ot polite piloephers, the ahredee, and mest adroit of special Headers, the most consummate of tite the orting of hs Bute canter Sito guide noran impartial jes ats. Merivte es request pene ‘Two ean eapectally afected the veracity of Tacitus, nthe frat pee, by tomporament or by predic, hereditary ot soqsinedal if it well known how Svtnate end perdurable the politia!preaice of fhe Romane in all ngs woke —he was tn atstocat oft olf repubtcan stamp, regneding with eyen of lafavo tho Gasars altogether nnd Tedtigieg, would eee fa Sots of restored sents fnokof renovated conmosaly, And funiker, levees prefered ta honours a oee hy a dyusaty wih, ot belg of the houshold of Cavan was well telnet des Tepredekoworg, whose tengo st era od whoo Blo fo ths thane flake. "Hiab oon ‘esteg tobe sbore ir four neat af fe lara fay and of eajan, Eo eal hs patrons, ho embrces every pasion for ering the genuine Gaeirs, and roprenenting. thot notions alike t8 gods.aud men, ME. Meriate has tendered no sight story by his percopion ef he teusketyas grogad avy of tho aatements én the annals of Tiers, Cains and Claudins Ges, PURE LITERATURES ‘OT very long ago, some good people, seandalized at the enor- rr —C—==CF=—————— ‘which coustitute 20 important past of the tending of the poor, fommod. Soi forthe Ditsio of Pro tert View of supplanting the papers wich thoy considered objeetion- able by publications of a usefal or ab any rate of a hatraless, character, We are auable tosay how fue thei operations lave beet trocessfal, but the character of the publications srhieh they cite Inte throws curiovs ight upon the mental eondition of ox of the ott influential clases of lngtish society—that grect class which, Petitions Parliament agoinat“aecularizing. the Sabbath,” and ‘which, during the present wonth, wil aupply the public with Eountee-atéraction to theatres and ilamiaations, inthe sape of Iectiogs at Bxoter Hall,» The most eounion complaint brought against age party in: question by thoae ‘who db not, belong Toit inyMthat besides the ordinsey clasefcation “of human totiong ‘and affairs into right and wrong, and good wad tad, they hare introduced “another division, ‘most perplex- ing, and” yet in their eyes vitally importast—the division into religious and scaular: ‘Choy fon, say their erties, a. sort. of Stata within cho State, living tele own. laws, thelr ‘own traditious, their own standards of honour and’ expe: dieney. "Each of them is a citizen of two countries. Iu his ordinary life, he ie) a merchant, a layer, oF a sountsy gentleman, acting, us far- os. the wold around ‘him’ con e, much like his neighbours; but he has another lif besides into which he retires on vorlain Seasons, patteilanly on Sundays, and which bas ile own arrangement quite distinct from thote'of the commow' world in wich tho greater part of Bilin’ und, Aes le vod cou sien, is businea, and bis pleasure, ao in hia religious expactty he has big hopes, devotions, asd is relaxations. “Ho mus, itis true, hhave lia yeligion in common life" thn is, he shust bring. the ‘one set of feclings to bear upon the other—he must have lis xab- huticalhourinevery day, hissabbaticalminito ia every hour. Bue whatever relativeimportance le may attach to histvolives—how= tree thoy may influeneo each oties—they ave ia a thousand ‘raya shown i be easenticlly distinct, Such a distinction, suy the thinkers to whom we role, i, ia elle, an hitempt to eervo God aad Mammon, aud haa a diect teudeney to confound the difference etwoen’ good and evil, and to overthrow all honesty ‘and plain dealing iu the comaon tffars of lite. Such iaputations tre, of course, indignantly repelled, Tho diatiaoion ta altrmed to exist only in tho mind of the critic, and the wstiogs of the ‘most eminent doctors, and tho lives of the mont distinguished leaders of tho party are referred to as conclusive evidence of ths frond of fhe olarge TE a no part of xr dy Jnto the question, No doubt tho, temptation to which the Evangelical party ia said to have yiolded it oue to which human insur is very linblo and itis equally eerlain that many writings right be quoted, and many actions rlvored to, which fre, 0 ny tie least, quite ioconsievent with he trath of the acetsation, © Sinday at Fons. Pobiisied by tho Religious Tenet Socey. May 8, 1856.] The Saturday Review. 17 ts against some ofthe most atingnished members of tho party ‘Bsrhhowefer, itis one to sshich few people would wish to pled silty, wa shall, we think, be doi ich {o the Society whieh sre have meatioaed, by pilting out to tiem low curiously Oho publications whicl they use every ello td circulate, contra it Peviaps the strongest pois in the ease against the Erangclical patty is Uhuir alleged view of Sho proper employment of Sunday. Nov'only do they teach that; you viust not work, and thet you ought ta porform various de¥ational exercises on thet djy—in sehich all Chsistiane would: agro with them-bat ‘ug al That you must have a eel of Sunday feclings and habjle quite different from tose which are ft for week-daya, "Ther{ mustbe not only Sunday clothes, bus.“ Sunday books,” Sunday ammuso- ments, Sunday music, Sunday conversation,” You may’ go to claureh. ies « day, you may pass hours in private prayer, you ray scrupulously abstain front your ordinary avoeations; but if you read a novel, if you allow your daughter to play a polka, or ‘Your sona to go out Rowing cr skating, you ave rather worse thas JFyou ind only gone to clr once, tad hud passed the rest of {he day in a nllconseiout fadeavour lo veal Sunday books ‘This distinction is unintelligible to many minds. We know, they say, what you mean by rest—we fenow what you mean by Pres, ive se ane ularly sob to conceive mht you meas by worldly." Teis with gogo cnsioity to aoe how this question is anawerod that we furs to two periodicals—the Leisure Hour, intended for weok-day arscmient, and tho Sriday af Home, Family mgazine for Sabbath reading,” both published by the Religious Pract Society, and bath extensively circulated by the Society for the Diftsion of Pure Literature. Of the Letsure Hur we have io t any. Thien wedkly Position ie eteen the London Journal nod Havel Words. ivery sumbor i embellished sith a wood-ent jotended to compele’ with the attractions of those which illusthate the ‘works of Mx. Reynolds ad Mr. J. 1. Smith; and the letter-preas onsints chieily of more or less aniusing,” aud. sometimes curious Peper o Bal the Zootoieal Gardens, Devinal Covnge, olatoes, and other matters. The only pecaliasty by which the iseligiona ebarseter of the fouroal gould he discovered is the ingertion at the ond of each miimber of afew short passages under such titles as Realitice to Come, Momentous Enquiries, oF an Anecdote if Felie Nef’ ‘The Sunday at Home ia ruck more eusious, and wonld eer tainly ie io bear out the notion tht iis ‘managers consider some thidge sacred and other things profime—some rel gua ott ovulas—vithout the anal roferenee to any But ‘he most drbitrary couventjonal tule, “Except upon this hypo- Atcss itp insposible te ‘understnd the vers ot its suthor to what you my and what you niny not vead on a Sunday. For example, fay people would think it wrong to read novels on ‘that day’; bnt it The Sunday af Home for April, besides sevoral minor fales, there are four chptets of novel, called The ddven- tures of t Bocket-Bible. We ard told how the autobiographer hich, [by the way, is so stringely portonified an’ to be made, wien nearly worn out, 10 say, “I could not but ba conseions |that my" term of eadity service in the cause of my Great Master sas approaching its appointed! ond”—fell ini the juands of “a nameless: Owner,” ‘whose “dark and brooding [imagination was concealed by a smiling coun. tenance," tad who, “asa provideotial ‘punishment for in- fidelity, Igat his shld, aod gob trausported—how it afterwarda seas aold a bookseller (Reebly imitated from Mackayo in Alton Tooke), who gave it to a feotory hand, who took it to an infidel lecture, whevo at present the matter rests. ‘Tho story aooms to us unfiic, unfbaritadle, and presumptuous; but this is not our point ‘We wish fo know why, itis rightto read The Adventures of a Pocket-Bible on a Sunday, it is wrong. to read any novel on that day ‘hich i¢ 8 not wrong to xead on a wook-day? | Te-many bb said tht it-coatains « greateal of theology ; bub 80 do every one of Mz, Kingsley’s or of Miss Young's stories; and if these fre adwmited, ow are we to exclude “Walter Seott, of even MEE ater ny gua ind.” Arp Wools of Natural History-propes for Sunday reade ing? “We know many families i sehieh Buffon ox Goldsmith would, ‘ie ebooel om tha dys vet ve fad he Hetgons Tract Solty publishing an Accoustof Crocodiles, illustrated by pictutes, and Full of yetoroncas to Watercon's Wanderings, and" the ele: ‘beatad thavellor, Dz. Rippell." ‘Phe justfiention for this is, that the crocodile isthe leviadhaa of Job, and that Aho 41st chapler ‘of thut bpole describes him. This nt fenlargo the sphore of" Sunday books" very considerably. “Jeb aeseribon tho war ogo an well a8 the feviathaa, "Would die circumstance let in Captain Nolan's book on Caveley? Ta another utmber, he Sladay af Wow gives, a loog account of ‘the burning mountain of Hawaii or Owliyhco, on tho etrengtls of its having|beon worshipped by the natives, who were evaverted to ‘Christianity by the missionaries. ‘Talcing this test, there is hardly. fang aubjer? which ie unt for Sunday reading. At one timo all nation were heathen, and had sacred. plies of one-kind or Suother.. [Stonelienge, Dolpli, and Iemiasul, lave been the fubjecta(of books enough to occupy plenty of“ leisiro hours.” ‘Aro all of theto “Sunday books?” And i tbe made? | Questions like these might be multiplied The Surdhy at Hone ia fullot biographies, historial fantiquevian inquiries, which seom to have no connecting Viak ‘wliatever, except the civeumstanee thet, in gome way of other, tkeytelaic to something in the Bible; nd if-whatever can be coabidered as illustrating the Bible, or ts effeets upon the human Thenst ani aotions, may iogitimately be reed on a Sunday, there is probably nothing From Gibonto Coke wpow Zilleon, which ray 10 The Sunday at Home appears to us, a reductio ad absurium- of ove of thu most curiouly characterise supersitions which ever distorted and pocverted a great. trath. "It-is not our part to inguiré into the nnture of the oxigin af the obligations con-+ niccted with the obsérvanee of Sunday, but we feel deoply eon- vineed that ite real value vill never be understood until ite positive and deknite character is recognised. Without period. Teal rest and periodical worship, rie’ and péor would alike soon, Inoeome mereslaves to money ; but we do not think that either of Shove ont besiogy wil be fully enjoyed so long ao tho broad doctrine of a weekly” religious festival is obscured by an ill Uefined Tudaical sentiment about the divine obligation of eertain’ emventignal réstraints, or by a Munichwan horror of all the common interesta of life, ag being tainted with some'fundatnental impurity. ; A : "Plc Wiorary merit df the Syuay at Home and of the Leisure Hour alfords 0 curious proof of the degree in which the power of relishing homely things is destroyed by the sickly felog that common life is not. good enough for Stnday, unless it. 19 de- serlbed nan anfundr phraseology sprinkled with technica flections, The Swiday af Zoo contains a sot of * Pages for the Young,” and" Mental Scenes and Pictures,” which appear to us the most morbid svif-eonseious abraininge after self-righteous- cos that wo ever rend. "We soul nok wih a child of ours te ass his Sunday in rending fairy tales or playing at cricket, but We had far oar eoo hist s6 etuployed shas have him read and relish sue dabby irreverence as the following — The Child-prophet of Shiloh-—Chapter ii, The Myitorioes Voicoo~ ‘oaee mary iden te Sate eid etal touchy tut ott ep he tupernatarl character of thew orcrrence nabbed every tspontion to Sider. “His tind, ita is eye is wide aweko ashe slo tothe posture pon, bagry he ene sath the een he Dine ake Mul {owas aucte” Now its the trend ofthe watebinen, ‘som hin founds Aas th artes hea ch hing a te night and, Epi a clonencr tint arena she mow of «doubt gon is mind, holioas hie owt naan again prnbunded-—™ Serv, Samuel ™ In one of the “imental pictures,” children, ace called upon to realize the Virgin Mary to thooieelves as *a'youug female oF rrepossessing appearance, gazing at an iofaot pillowed on her osom.” Tn other pluces there: aro a vatiety of deathbed scenes, all described in the same feeble technical strain, forcibly reminding us of alittle child, who, on Uoing asked why, on her recorery, ste had diseontinued the phrases whieh. she hed eon tly repeated im her ilivess,roplied, I thought I'shoutd dio tnd be putin a tract." Te the Surdey al Lome is & fair specimen of the literature supplied by- the Society to which we lusve referred, we can nly ragrét the misdirection of its very wyfltmeant efforts. Tn one sense, no doubt, it is pure” enough, Kut isthe purity ot of health, Lut of disease—the purity of distilled water, or of cat with all is flavour boiled away. {EROUDE'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ‘Second Notice, NEE EROUDE soiiences ie Misty with «ahatch of te social condition of England in tho eixteenti century. No ast of i rofcs i nor cee an thi, go one are fis exoellences mpre conspicuous. . The want of anything: that deserves the ‘name of contemporary literature, belonging Yo the perigd in gueaon, makes prs to give deacptin of inglend under ‘ho Tudors aa full and as grapbio aa that. given by Mr. Macaulay of Tngiand at the ere of the ‘Restoration, ‘We aos just enough of at Eaglond wes ‘under Henry and Elizabeti-to'mako us long to know more. Mr. Proude hs, how- ‘ever, availod himself skilfully of all the scanty materials that lay ‘within his reac and his general pictare is tuficiently striking ‘nd sulleintly probable to make ‘us feel that ve are looking although over a wide gull and, Uirough a hazy almogphiore—ab tiv eountry aa it then svas, and at the miea who then lived ia ‘The Statute Book hs been used by Mr. Froude in a way that it | uns searecly ever, i at all, been used by any write? of English history singe Lord Bacon waote the Life of Heury VIL. Tn that * frente, Bacon expresses his wonder that historians do not insert the laws pasted by Parliament im the" table and portrait of the lime.” He himself potices somo of tho. chief statutes passed tundor Honry Vil. and attempts to estimate thelr politcal and Social value.” Mr. Froude imitatpe his example, and strives to fet before us; by moans of extracts from the Statute Bool, how thie Bnglish lived: under the Tudors—how they were fed, Low pid, on what, principles social diffeltiee wera met, and’ what rere the halite, the: pupayits, and. the: temper of tho people, ‘That the Statuto Book is source of exceedingly valuable infor: Tation, uo'ole who, is sequuinted with ite costents ean deny; but it is a sogren/of information that roquitea to bo used with extreme caution, because itis a record, not of what men did, but of whit they! intended to do, As we examine Mr. Froude's