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278 The Saturday Review. [Feb. 9, 1856. metropolia of the world, ‘The migration of the Crsars from t Banks of te tiber eo the shore of the Bosplioreay ations redueed Htomo tothe sccund city ofthe Bmpr, way conducive ‘othe frcedom end vigour of the Church. "Whe Bishop of C stantinople was allorastly the passive retin, tho wing slaves (or the ftolions adversary of the Greek Bmperér. Ils supremecy Yas contested bythe’ sival_noee of Jerusalein, Antioch, and Alexandria; his Weorees were obeyed only in hia own ‘palrie acco, and even there never posscased the force ofan imperial Fesorpt or Papal Sl, Rieanmiile the Bishops of Item, ike ‘Seetent Consle and Dictators, wera rupli norman fcculer principalities and powers.” They superseded the prt fe cearcla ond the senators bf tig citys cy weed and guided. all the barbaric kings of the Westy they. avo he law { the inost popalous and vita heminphere of Chnistentom; and, finally, after the dominions ofthe Byzantine Cisars had dined Away to.a narrow rim of provinces around tho Eastern capita, the spiritual Sovereign of the Weat was putting. his fect on the eat pao and gasped ot ho rare he keyee? St ter, ‘As rogad the Western Church—the prneipal object of Dr. Miliman'swork—tho rso and progress of the Vepacy necessarily oceupiesa largespace in the canvas of the historian, “Tho Papacy, At no time very popular north of tho Alps is log been the bose bear and bate nainof all good Englis Protestants. itis useless, ‘ith t certain elass of dlsputants to ungo that n great epirtual anagisttacy, Brigrenslike im the umber ofits crms, ant acting ow the imaginations of ren, was in ages when brute strength atherwise reigned uncontrolled, ihe only effectual force agaist Tawless men and feeble governments, He Ge inpossble to'make them percee that the Popes of tho sock century were the cian ions of citilization, even if tho Popes of tit rgih were the Ho apa blemisies of Chests, nus tows were or gis, all is nooght—Gregory nnd Hildebrand are ect down, Atlista and tyraute, We need searesly 4d ua suka view of the case is as untrue as it is unphilosophienl ‘Beenie the Papacy has long since survived tho times én which it was a ‘boon to mankind, weeannot subscribe to tle doctrine that it was, Brind aborigine, & curse. Wo canuot fe entral authority of the Popes, the Latin Churek’ youd bave eon feeble, watieiplined, ‘and inoliectivethal, Yue for he over of the Churel, the world would have sunk into barba. Fism more profound” than that of Aftieathat tho awe and Titeratere of Romo, and eouseysentiy of Groce als, wold ave ‘been utterly arrecked and lost-that the asts would ave ex. ited that tho eastie and the hovel would alove have tasted fhe. akil of the: architeet—aud tat’ Hurope eb this moment ould not have advanced farther in civiiation tha Goonga ind Mingrolis. ‘Tho religion which wes destined to ovorapread and lor ‘ilike the “civilized and the barbarian world. necessarily sumed, in tho fist iastaneo, the aspocts of civilization Darin respectively. The doctrines ofthe Gospal may. in opposition to tho practice of ia ‘nd reed of Chrstinalty are frequently the expression of iman ions und. emotions, The apposite charnctoristics of the ck and Latin subjeota of the Sapir, the distinctions betwaes the servile Roman and the free}arbarian, exprotsod themauives aaiie tril and dogmse of the expending Chsch.” Some ‘hing of a Roman boldaess and amplitude is pereeptible if Latin Chiristianity-it was the al, the living germ'ot the congregation - of Gh he ible srgumenive Grek theshpe, Philosophical professor, end pedagogue of his oman lon famried into tho bosom of the fata his Keon, balpspliteng temper, and overiia. the procepts of Jesun and the ‘etekings of Patt with a dazzling ‘and intreato wwob of apeotation, gyre He ve ils Bncourge Lyte esis bs owe age. ‘The German. barberian, discaiming equally the podenty ofthe Grecks and te lgie ofthe Eating, infus¢d into the peatefal doctrines of his ‘new ereod a warlike epitit-"he slate’ atthe brand of Peter, ropeaed tho marta defunct loos of ue Hebrew Lavegiver and prophete, and iterallyaiccpiad ‘te text that Chrntanty mus not mtonded to being poses ete svord, upon the earth.” "The “Asiatic batbarian, OF te, oller hhand, browght to his faith a meditative spirit move akin|po tho ilosoply of the Grosks than to the prac tempor the ating: Ho yielded o the enerating infuopos of chugie; he fought the great solitudes of the desort, and speculated on the surat f ihe Deity and tho deny of matin tho Hest eaveray, in ho recesses of mountains, or beside. the jclvexy falls of fountains and cacendes, ‘The. peturanquerees off Chvis, an anal lies, notin the deotees of Councis-or in’ up side Pane and correo of he Oherch ao much an i foe lective napect of tte races of mania nancy vero ssbicoted to iis Inluence. ‘De. Miionn ine coloced sad wena aos several phases with great skill end iustented thom nol areas fand pertinent learning. - Ho’ fe unavoidably vedlous (iw ie connt of ovlofoay snd bray of nous aa vane Wut Lunfilngly ‘interesting whien le has to: deal with the ttn ed Aspects of the Christan world. ‘We eanhot pretend to give ina fow colunmms even an outline, ‘nel lek an abstract, of Cor ax porily volumes’ Ear Gace the phe which they poryade vat hd crowded th byonts, bat De: Milman is one af the most concise an eloe-patien of swrters dad one of his pages often eontaina 13 mich cost oo fen fessors ; but tho ritual would avrvo Mr. Macaulay for a dozon, and Sie Archibald Alison for hl? an octavo volume. ‘hu%eonciaeuess of the Dean's Jangrange in sok often obscure, bub ste frenpuensly iieleganty and we rejoice shen Ine. aubjeet requires frown him expansion’ and when ho indulges in freedom’ of discussion, anc. tbandong the somewhat tedious eurtness of his laguage. « ‘There aro wiany problems in Christian history which even ‘Dr, Milman does not. attompt. to solve. In the spring-titme of cariy zeal, hundreds may havo been converted in a Uayy and the temples may have been enaptied, while. the chapel of the Neza. enet filled within few months after the fist srords of the preacher wore heard within the eily walls, Bt afier Chris ity had become recognised, fret az a rival poser Lo the Sialc, and aftervurds usa portion of the secular. empize, Lhe process of conversion. beeame irregular and obscure, ‘ho reve: ign under Constantine 1. denote! hat nfureyone conclaston- Cluvietianity was enuitoucd iu the espital, because it lad pre, viously become the faith of te multitude. On a future decasion, wo propose to survey the more salient and striking epochs in De. Mikinan'e narrative--the Pounders end the features ofa Westora monachism—tho precursors of the Wevors ration, the vise and progress of Mohammodanism, the offet of the Crusages; and the origin and fortusoe of the military and mendjaant, orders.” For tie present, it mst muflee 10° have skimndied lightly over the surface of his learned and philosophical ages ' WEAUMARCHATS AND Wis TRMES* IM. DEOMI tae confored great benefit on hi + roalers by the republication, in permanent form, of fhe papers on Beaamarehats which fst eppenred in the Tene ae Deas Aondee. ‘the. Beench earry oul literary uaertatinges fot only inoreattsticaly, but more methodically and in a mote workmanlike manner than we do; tod ME de Loméni’s book posséssentheso merits inthe highest dugrve, Tb simpossis to Steak top strongly of the modesty, the spirit, aud the diligence ‘with which his boole it composed. "Xe Js nofouly a most ater cating story, but ia ao a. valuable contribution to the liv tory of French society before the French Rorelution, — ‘The best criticism upon sueh a book: is a skotch of its contents. Some time sinse, M. de Loménio was conducted by the grand. on of Beaumarchis ito an old garret in which his uncestoe's papers fad been ying undisturbed for sonny yoars Asbo looked aver the piles of papers which had ovee recorded so vividly the hopes, and fears, and loves of a bygone generation, 70 me iemblait, be says, que je procédais & une exhumation. Under a moass of papers referring to the innumerable projects by which Beaumarchais' later life were oceupied, there lay, side by side, the miniature of s young and beautiful ‘woman—vrapped up in a paper on which was written, Je fe rends mon portrait—aod a model of the escapement of a clock inseribed, Ciaron flius etatis Zi aangrum repulatorem tavenit et foit 1999. leavers were piles of eorrespondenee, which theiw author had once intended to Sexvo a8 materials for his life, bt which bore the memorandun— ition shorty bor, ts close—inulteranjowri. Use as such records were for many years, they have ab last come to the bands of a tuo vates sacer. -M. do. Loménio has sigaally suezeoded in drawing his lero from tho dust and confusion in hich his fame had slumbered through the tumult of threo revolutiona ; and in placing him before us in all the vigour of lis, ‘hg has brought ont into strange distinctness many of the fentares ‘of the society which was intriguing, and litigating, and love. making, and play-going, when the flood of the Revolution came and swallowed them up. Pierve Augustin Caroi, who afterwards took the name of Bosumarshay os orm af Pai, January 24 732. lg vas born a Protestant but changed his religion in 1721, short after obtainiug. his discharge from ‘the army. Ho alterwarde adopted the business of watchmaking, hhis son. ‘The youag Caron was ‘alively clever lad, so mach so that his father found ie advisable to tora lim out of boy age ‘wlion he was eighteen years old, for the sake of imposing cond ‘ions upon lnm before ellowing him to return. Me de Loménie publishes the treaty which waa concluded between them. It eon- Sista of six’ articles, the first of which begins’ thue—" You shall not malce ot sell, or cause to be made or sold, direetly ot indireatly, airy articles except on my accounts” and it ie con cluded by Bénumarcheis' aoceptation, beginning, “sign sll your: conditions id the frm hopo of executing thei by the Lords hholp,” and eiiding, “In testimony whereol, T sign all that is cot wiled in this letice.” Booumatchuis sas always a most alle. Wionate son, | To the end of his life, when his fathor was entively dependent oh his: liberality, and’ when he was’ himself oe of the moat congpicnous ” persons ia France, he always Degan luis letters,—Monsiow" of trés-chen pre,” and ended, Fai Chorney débve avec le plus respedtions:attachement, 08. leur et thoher pore, ‘setre trécshuible et tris obelenant -servitewr et ls, | Indeed tho old man was worthy of every kind of respect. “Of the many interesting. pictures drawn de Loménie,! none is more remarkable than Ins dedoription of io which ho brought up Bevwonarchaie et'son tompo, «Reade sur te Socidtd de France va, s8 ‘Bele, daprés des Documenta indiite. Pur ‘auia do Towbuie, Park: fy M886) Feb. 9, 1856.] The - Saturday Review. 279 the society in_whioh young Bennsaarchai pasod the ft year af i “Dee aie nen wera by wich the nobles ware Avie fom tho bourgeoisie That es the intrane eleaoes tntreen the two clssen was petupe les tine ot ow Boe ss analer, ie tas bive publie andthe aptendoure of len ween neither Snaseeaie to the bourgeokie nor wily tut a yereptibieinliuence over tens Old Gangs ba aeen tae ofthe world. Hf nd beoa eumloyed in yar scouts opore thre by the King of Spins add pany of len ices abo ery Considerable macsauro both of liensty tate a of male Wit HH dnvghtet sis were women of great talent, Oneef thems ho re with her brotier uring Sensly th whole of her Ne trans person of extreme sivaciey ni by to mean neon teaumplshonents, Indeed, one of tag most belin® oigte ke one of her Bother’s et productions was ate ergielly fe hes The picture of the old watchmaker ey daughters sa ieee ine (so as tho sane business) eoticng ther eres rigs: nd aed anit hin fe er roton, ang eoe. nding wich him upon terns of perfect, Cyunity wow a sort ig suljet, trary and poli, stkingly stgiests tho ini tous abounds a the extlsive poiiesos a thne ne actonded {othe noblesee eet Tt is no"wonder that amide_such inluonees young Caron stouid hive neon in the work Tn eonpience wits koe haees Femrk, it Pamour dane sf Delle prion uit vous pon ier ef ocuper uniquement solve Laprits he betoak hig so asiduonsly to otshmiting that before he was tey-o fod not only invonted the eseapement which tor your flee M-de Lomeaie discovered ping teide an esl potten loves inkes, Bul liad vingsentod ihe originality lof Nis eenton by traning, the fish of his iong lt lneaitar ove exe tun Sieur Lepavte, who had psted i, His succws in thes Er procured bi the honodr of becoming wate to tho Livy and it ight not unnoturaliy be supposed. thats tne ema of twenty-three, ach penspects in hes busines vod ve Deon sicnes enough. Bit Beaumaris had higher bation of ia destiny. ho matareof is amition, the mee by whieh ites gratified, and tho consequences fo which eds film 0 story which, taken together, justifies Me Laméie ie tilling his book Bedes oar‘Ua ect en Pranee, Ons of the ‘ays nd mowns of the French exehequer way the flo Of offers Beslyuaelons, nnd very icp Onp sel of thea foveionsses sere taled tho Cintrilenrs Clery Oftse, ‘they feral ta portant par ofthe procesion which erondod the Linus foed iol ible. "On that slam ceeasion bro guar urahed Bits thon the dasor de aulley next, the metine d late, wit iy Ion; afer him, the gentleman of the pagtsy, thea the con trolengeneraly nba fil, ust in font OF tHe meat, the wom: fnlour else afc, wil is ard. by lis sider 188 ‘per annum ofealary, and’porquisites to the value of about 6ol, mate. Alt Dont or Bis: Bennet! would probably not foc pastiouasly flied ho offer af one of these urllantitnalons Caray flsthoughtothernise. Wiens therefore, one of i fate sie fomes, athoxe husband had grown old and infra ta hie pos, openers el ai erly Ezeped the ‘proposth, and. soon alter meseedod his pr. deetsor in ie Gopjogalsa wel a nis offal gute, "Te do Sonour to his wife, bo asstmed the name by which he became 90 famous, anda a lier period prefixed tolta dey to wtchyas he fsitnnp one oouldcispute hie Night a le bad vot only pad for «the patent, butliad the receipt. Ho lost hia wife about a-year after Lstarringo, and ask income died mith ier, his les redaced to-entire dependence om hia office. Such a progpeot sras nat so dkeary eg it would havo been in any snodenately well governed - badge ‘The Const of Louis XY. ara the parasigo of jobbers and Adreatarers of all kinds; and Beaumarchais probably: found hi selfina mueh less honest, and. not sauch’ moze aecomplished, fovioty tian he had boen used to in his father's house. Tre oon tivo by his all in muse to ingratatehimoclt with tho 4ongs hive daughter, «shom the toyal tenderness hnd ‘domed with {he names of Logue, Gralle, and Cochon his saccoss with thom frcited jeatoony and intull~“he Killed ovo of his ealugoutst fa a luc, aad was very nearly obliged to do as much for another, ‘ilkwhom hie hd'a quarzel about money lent af cide. Notiithatanding his socal aueoesses—for such they seom to hare been—Beaumaceho's's postion was fis from aocure. Out of X81 nyear ready money, ho iad not only to keep up appearances, tutto boy musiea! inséramoota, and to pay for bdes musio. ook in morecoo, not to speak of coach hiretad copying expenses fix the concerts given Ly the princesses, Tore i something foiching in the manner in hich ho-hands in to their scerotarg Nise aeeoont of 2000 livres, and bey ga the ground of the lange amount wi tho payment of which ‘up: has fo male up, ‘will leave him adsoluntent bans le sol. Heiter days, however, were in store for him.. He contrived to do service to Paris Du Verney, tho third of the famous brothers Paris, and the old financier methodically wadertook tho charge of kis fortune, He-gave him shares in various undertakings, ‘nd helped him wich money. and. i sab variety. of speculations. Ono element of his success in this new line was the tillerot aderdiaive du roi, adignity which waa ab that fime Anown) by the expressive ‘title of savouctte & vilain, He wished to make this unprofitable honour a stepping-stone tothe lucrative situation of a grand mattre des caus et forets, for ‘the purchase! of which Du Verney was ready to advance him peialaltention to it [ 420.0008, bnt the other grand moitres—of whom ose was the non ot bare mother of olsen, ethno ajar, tnd a fourik of butlon-naker-sustorfully gppesed theaters dletion into their society ofa man who had followed ins yout the igcoblo business of watclrmmaking. ‘This Gefeat wee consoled by natill more powerful apgliation of the gevonetle @ uilats, Benumarehais purchased the vonorous title of deufenand-gengral aes a balay feptanied lorena Lone swhish gore him the ‘ight of presiding oter one of the mek Yexatiot of the tribunals which thew infested. Frances His Bsiacn a to proent the -varoa Indownot round Para from making ng alteralings in tieit property: which sist aft the comfort of the ganic’ withow having, obtained ‘his authorization fo do so- : ‘From these avocations, Beaumarchais was calléd to Madrid by the family troubles which, puggested to Goethe the plot of Claciga, Tin Testers from Spay to hs faber are abrangaly cha ructerfatic. "They deta all gots of projecty_schemnes fo eal ning, the Sian Meters» compuay ta at nth Eu aoa for equipping the Spanish troops, akd encouraging Spanish agricultores ‘hey ave fullol bails and concerts, versca tod suse ati Tong stories of bow hie won. 1400 lif ab cards from ‘arious eountsand ambeseadora all rhtted with the most eurtous Iisturo of vanity, alironduesy, and feverish thirst after exetes mont. His onn tnd lis ther’ head soom to have been turned tie ys genes ot na elim on Ronee loire, Fa joie de mon earur,and by wy of climax: Grave an labs fate comparison between his son nud. Grandson” Shorty after Beauinnrchinis retnrned to Doris, Du Vernoy died. His nepliews tho Comte dela Blache, mortally hated gucle's protépe, a cormanenced nganst him fon th subject of a Gaputed seltlement of accounts) the first ofthat series of law-auits which made hing for a tine one of tho most populer pervone in Traseo, "Aner yreat del of shuifing and’ fasinaatlo, it ape poared that tho Feil cation in issue way whether or not Beat Inarchais lad forged tho signature of Du Verney. Tn tho first ins Slane, Heststarehais obtaed judganentin hs feroury bul De ls Blache apposled to a superior (abunal "Wise die appeet ‘as pending,be wae free from his antagonist by an indent ‘hich throw’ a eurious light on the mancers of the times. Certain Malle. Bidnard had preferred Beaumasobais to another Of her adore, the “Due delChaulnes.- ‘Thereupon the duke, after insulling his Tivel in’ the exegution oF his juliet functions, forced him itto Lis own carriage, and announced his intention’ of putting him to death. ‘Beaumarchais asked his assailant to dine with him first, and the duke agreed; but he no fooner eashed his enomy house than ho. threw hinself upon lia, tare his ifs, seratehed. his lace, aad whem his. set entured to return’ the: compliment bya blow on the nse, fll Tack’ in astonisanest and dodignaticn, crying outs ford te. ower: fropper in. dae. of pair, tho Dake waa, cont Vincennn for beating. Beauiturgiais, and Beavmarchais to the For L/Evéque for having been besten. His imprisonment’ was most inconvenient, for ing i.sut with De la Bache was to erisia, Pethnpe the most curious feature of MC de sole is tue correspondence in which, Besuenitchais ‘begs to be allowed to come into Paris during the day; to “ solicit” NS judgee “A Government must live beeu oddly sonsktuted which fretaentasan to prison for nothing, and thes let him out ‘0 onder to prefudice his judges anole cause, “fis tions” were of no use, though, in the case of. Madame Goozman, the wild of-one of his judges, the word meant Tig louis and'a watch worth 100 more. ‘The-Court of Appeal de cided ‘agninst him. Madame Goesngn retusned tho weeh and too lowis~tho olher 15 alo sald sie ad piven to het husband’ seerotary. Beaumardlias fownd, upon inquiry, that sh had kopt them herself He accused her of corruption, end, as ight havo been expested, wad ‘prosecuted for the libel. Tn order to "lay before his renders fhe full importance, of this rosscution, M. ‘ds Loménie is referred to a curious, and til Hite, obscure part of reuch history. "We fad supybned that the Parliament of Paris had stood alone in that resistance to the royal aulhority-which enuned the coup d'dat under te authority afwhich Maspeon superseded it by judges ofkis own appointment, athespe degree saat Tas eleven Bie ’athiaments ywere all so many proviacial stumbling block, eanstanty bringin Us adminiatation of alice fo a standin tiie respective jor, dictions by refusing to register edicts, aifd constantly being made ths stn of ocd coupe edt. Tees Uy to Labi of pepe: tually witnessing Whe conict of iniltary bad judicial suthortey that tho people amo to despise both, Throughout the whole of the v8th contory, tke ‘condition of range would. seem ¥o hase been litle otter iin a sot of osyahized guarely- the Bask rents, hawever, enjoyed a certain popularity in viriug of these ‘haracter of a standing Opposition, 90 that aay charge iuvolring {is reputation of the body whieh liad supplatted tie mont, Tino of thelr sunier, wae size of farobdable atlontion Male of iecling gave ‘Beaunarchais a great advantage, ead lie ited litobolf of it with characteristic destertiy’ “Te ‘tas ffs ich tat me nse ho eta at triminal proceedings, he publishid /ustum after Jtclun, plain Uiscausto all ihe wend” Gueann, is wile, ead a arity oF ‘partisaise more or lees connected with hits, replied.” ‘Beausiae. ‘hale Tejoed wth exteantdiuary vehononee.” Asioogst other specimens of his eloquesiee, M. de Loquéaie quotes ouc at aor 280 The Saturday Review. [Feb. 9, 1856, incredible audacity, in whieh he introduces the Deity telling him thai, as he has’ kad a life of great prosperity, ho knew to undergo adversity ; upon this Beaumiardhnis prays that judgment ay be tempered with merey, and that he may have engmica orar whom a.brave man might triumph; md after deserbing the person ‘whom ke wished to hare’ easigaed to im fn Ua capacity, with overy "expression of hatred and contempt, coneludes, allan to ono of his essaiaate, with the ywotds "donne-moi Marin.” Tein no onder that teil wo conduct should avo become matter of national importance. Tu was said that, as Uke parlement Maupcou lid beeu created by Louis XY, it would be destroyed by xv louis; and vhen ab lust Goesman, his vile, and Beaumarcliie wore condemned to the “blame, or evil dda, all Paris testified ite ayinpathy with Uke popular champion, and the Priness of the blood feted him ft is « curious’ instance of tho power of the law, howover mich it may be despised, that Beaumarchais was altogelier miserable wider this sentence," Io had resolved to hve committed suicide if he lind heen sentenced to tho pillory. As it was, he nd yyourse to an expedient more elfeelial and ices romautio. ITA Byeame tho sceret agent of Louis XV. ia the somewhat hopeless asic of protocting Mndanie du Barry's repue tation. ‘Tho chapters in which M. do Loménie details the secret scrvices of his hero are extreme} burnt a fife of Madame du Bun similarservice al the nstanco of Louis XVI. for Marie Antoinette On tisia occasion the libeller retained a eopy of do libel, aud rade of from Amsterdam to Nuremberg 1 publish it. Beau. muarehais pursued, overtook, and plundered. him, was. bimselt attacked by robbers, rushed off without credentials fo Vienna, and making hia way to Matia Therese, begged:her to have the libellcr seized at Nuremberg aud sont” into’ France, ‘The Empress Queen not unnaturally supposed that her visitor waa mad, and sent him to prison for a month, “in illustration," saya ME. do Loménie, “of, Talleyrand’s- advieo to. diplomatials, | Surfout joint de cele.” A” mission, if possible, alll more wonder- 1 brouglit Beaumarobais into contact with tho Chevalier D'Eon. “How the cunning old. dragoon of fifty persuaded im tht he had fo/do sith « woman ho had fale love with him—how Beaumurchais reprossed the supposed Indy's Advances with an unfamiliar austerity — how each trad to overrench the other in respect of certain papers which Beau merous wanted how be paid aif the datdiaent lady toy waying up her bills, and kept « hold upon her by getting fhe ils ondorsed’ t9"‘himeclt™ ow he Gnally”fofeed man of fifty, who “swore and smoked liken German postillion,” fo, assume a female dress and to retain it for upwards of thitty years, together with much. other interpsting matter, is wrilten in the lutter part of M. de Loméaio’ first volume. By theso sérviees Boaurmarchais contrived to. gbtain a "Whe crowd ebrvied, © in triumph, and be celebrated “his rehabilitation by-bringing upon the stago the Barbier de Sevitle, whieh, i the amidst of all his tribulations and speculations, he had found timo {0 compose, ‘The piece was reprosented for ‘tho first ting ona Friday, and failed. Between that time and the following Synday it'vay o for remodelled that it coreded brant, “Tere no leave Beaumnarchais for the, present, in the full blaze of hi lite- rary, legal, commercial and politcal triumphs. We hope on 2 Roturooosasion to. sketch the lier half of tue of the strangest careers on record. | 2 {fb be connie Vos | ‘THE SIEGE OF KAnS*', VEE story of tho fall of ara will bo told ‘ith misighea| ‘and indlguation wherover tho honour of Eaglant $s Among all'the famous deeds of our. countyymen inthe fone eta be found to illustrate more splendigly taza the History oft esrb rage he get qualia when ined for thom their acendency over Oriental raps, And in tf long chee of naa ya opty wh icon Tey so dear, the\practioes of the Pashas of Kars will obtain in ali furs ao an equally coppicuous pre-eminence,” On the one haha, we behold, in De. Sandivith’s pages, high military and engineoriog Akal, -bousdles devotion aod iaflesiblo resolve “and gu the other, ignorance, sloth, cowardice, covetonness, and’ cruelty, all eombinbd to ruin armen, t0 fay ‘waste peovinces, gud 06 Lo the Moen way Sabo the host of the Ottoman em ‘Tho puscons of General ‘Wiliams 20 far aa he sueceod dant bis having both dhe vill utd power to set aide ‘potent or fishonest ‘Turkish rulers. "Wherever ho fave Bjere was vigorous and dedaire action bul qlutover ‘uneble fo do or to nuperintend himeelf Sas loft undon much of what lio did was mullifed by the corruption of Uuidity: of functionaries to whom was left: an authority ‘never spared except forleril, If tho General bad confined himeeal bo ote ferving aud roportig fuls, oF eron td offering to ths Poakac dosh was auto be neslsed, te ful of Kars and Beet Toum would have happened atthe outst of tho eampuige, dad the enemy world have been far advanced towards the fougieat of ‘Aiiate ate ave Start Sonlons dain ‘curious. Ie bought up and and afterwards performed a ide Foe. East, Humphry Sand widl faray." 1858, ‘Never did circumstances combine ta display moro striking shan inte dofeneo of Kare thoso military rirtuen which, for tie pas year we hava ben, indusiriously perauading ourselves and Sur udighiours that we do not possexs.”* nglund” i has heen said, "ie ot a alitary nati "At aen wo ean do poetic tut Iot ws lenve.lte-erfaro fo. theso who" understand i bolton” "Yat ia" ala, of the olstinute. and gratilots « lfabasoment’ we. cles to. uropo tho spectacle (ot Sie ten auved. by troy and’ Keung "alent “Paved by” hale onen ‘of our countrymen, who brettied into Turkle trp Saal and sprit wily for’a century thy had cease to sot fiat, gent ob worn the deeds of Geaéed Wilma nd hemos atc evident thas if thoy hed sumed waved anthony from {bo fen and if they had been mipportel rom Conse, tinople hy resouees applied with ordinary activyand honey, nat only wontd Sens have never been inthe ashes dan iit the enemy would have been auveruly pressod by a Turk try i his ont and on his tants, aby the tees othe Guntanus ta his eats, Such a reault ight undoubted Inve bom achigvods had Band wielded Won iho outset a tite resources of ato Tarbes, Tn September, 1859, Dr. Stytvith proceeded ftom Consan tisapin to Evzerounttnd args es pride! nical offeer othe sta of Genend Wiliams, who had just been appotited Brith Commissioner with the Asiatic ainy of the Porte! On the Got ‘Agua that ermybad ben defoted in battle by about alton abot of Russian troop, and in ed tn eouttron back i Kars Nearly gocoo men had arched ford with every hape of taking fheutany ata disadvantage but 1 ful prospect of itary wes Serica by the procrastinstion of i uals te fodouser te foreign olcrn iho canardice of almcstevery Zw shove there of eantain, and tho defetivo arma tad celine of fs sldons Front Ine’ of exergy, or from slara at Shays novetnents hs Reman general fled ta fallow up his victor, and tho Oltoaen soy rotisined quietly in. Heras @ prey to. iuorapasity of ta leaders. By ithholilog yay, by aluforating provatos, and Ly wupplyingsorliless atniy aad snedeince wishes offence Biclan enuted deterton, seas and denthy more. fatal Us Could a suceesion of detent, When Genersl Wane socio tho fore in Kary hed been Heduced, by the cruel and base Sonesty of the Suasir Mustapha Peal an his subordinate, 0 ‘000 men, of whom the ifintry were good for lite, aad ike cavalry good for nothing,” Tue resouroes of a naturally elt ihe grievously mngoventied couatry woutd hve sued. 0 po. ‘sion ta place over nndoyerayain, forthe longest aiog. Tse day collecting stores had not been ‘absolutely neposted, Dut bad freon made subordinate tothe peclton wife it asso welle culated to faiftate, After erety public robber had bees gorged wilh spot, there yet oxied a libge accumulation of sup, Thich, however By a rare allance of folly with dishonest wes Tett'a long day's journey distant hom. Murs, an was thea capnited and barat by thesia ts goon 08 they erosel {Re fontion “equations for transport smimale ‘weve largely ude, and tho ‘beats ‘were forthecming for the publi oe ces’ bat the ‘offcials emezled tho supplies Uf faider, aad he animals ‘were eller starved 0 debe’ or ‘besa ton Tronk for labour, “ortunstaly General. Wiliams’ asnumed {"himsel? “a omer to iatesfre bolo tho transporter had ben entry mnitiated by this rsealty. Ih’, howeres the ft int Bon th ge bar here mas ly hee ag unmunition within the place ond've have ooa a ths poke pal depot of provisions was pigeed exact whore the enemy cold Bost conveniently destroy There can bon doubtthat tf Genorl ‘Willian ind from the rst posesoed or exoretsed shore espe povrersnhidh imuinens ruin ompelid ion, whether authored Sr'aot, Yo take upon Line aferward, those foal nog ‘would have been rotied, and no Russa ump n Asse oud Tare halasce the Co's ones a Sebastopol ‘Abst, the siege of teilsprovided town begen and whaorer enpositon our eoustrymen highs have met sath helore the ourof aetanl duager all authorty vas concede tothe oof seade weal and mifulgnough to wll Byte lena cugy er the General, and of Calocel Lake, very strong works were ot pleted around ars, and the place iran for thomoment ur aes Es ‘eeould be with ao sual force fo man it necetary se fendet ines, “At the noms fime, an entrenched camp wis ms trusted, under th sor skal ‘zetion, inthe neieboutiond of Ergeroumnevand fo thig in tao moatl of August ek coy one {ts safety. From theso feta would eppeat thatthe Bogie fnginesr, 99 often avused of ine of seiquated pedals ure azablo of showing, on ocasion, tient lead this tent oP 4m, Airy people exis a oglan, nd bot cone Yo crias and abate: : On the 16th of Juno, the enemy frst peared near Karp and his cavalry chosed fhe Turkish intogulary to the gates, and evan attempted f9 cate the town with tiem, ‘They wera however repaid with tosh ‘tho. Russian euvaley “hese oy have sHlounted to roo; and, knowing mse de from Gri ene once, how pons hein quality nelly i, we aro provoked Cos thom masters of the broad plain of Karesand. saugutering ie uaforbunato orks with ge uch fata if thay vec not ee elles enemies, were the hildfen of tho Rhea howsemen tnd swordsmen. in fie world. Tho ‘Tuvtige. ceva. aaion Sppoats, ad ‘undergone just enmugh of rusian dete de troy his iouate equertsan, cape. His hose had been