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#18;'1866.] The Saturday: Review. 207 ti saseulo,” are notable for great power of colour, much Spine gracafuinens of fonlig which given. a ati Rist a tranquil stream i epenned by the it olden light of evening behind tha wey there in 8 wen ad Tae! Gnoke wsingy two Sgures arrayed with singular Sg wits aight palntou, some yellow gleams o8 tho aman fw aquntic planta, -M, Nazan goes not work to oe mS cal eae a8 Coa and therefore wo may tn some nly relistic ciliciam to’ bis painting, Tis tee-sprays ec end about ta wand “canoe bend thoy se sly Eso dive, and they neither express the quan ies ef nal py. Hvala ctr firm ie Hes or arage aca an ihe plowing grees fai aor dletegreyect masonry or rock, ae al sole iMustentions to Atala and Don Qui axe Dons whose ilustations to Atala and Don Quisote wi Gedy peed cinemas power fa lmndeape igs ay oot piclure from Savoy, © Souvenic de in Savoie axbtie 8 firbruraish aby, with w good deal of Bight in Vader & ery deang towards us fron tbe ovry lulls wick fea it. There avo Beaty of rocks and pinay; and the water Se oes pong f0 deter the very bravest bostman. |The physical eR Seeno has, of ‘course, bean vigorously rendered, a gg of this quakty vill not bear tho Aightestcom= unt fraterato ork applied to a similar subject, an cen ge Crabaos’s“Spate in the Tlighlanda.”” ‘gro en bal perception in Al. Doré.as a. landacepe-paintes, Shanty ee i fre of ha fat and Rr Graham's in by far the mofo powerful of the two, precisely beeauso Pita eat, Wien n musician plays every passage forte ining is weak. i Pal bus at) impressive Tandseape with a long tile, Gcrrldan es plenes voisines @Tspakan.”” ‘The Sgures which Gly he tie axe cleverly ntvoduaod, Dut the interest of the Eee icp at plain with reins belkin FMtat mowslaine beyond, one wountain isolated and seewing Hastintnitely emote. Seateely any modem painter kuown £0 {lis ie one of te subliity more acute thon Nk Basins no her ater ving would Love got #0 auch out of the din {hiseresof papers; and we ean scarcely name another artist who ould have produced such an impressive result from the ap- yessuee of a mountain rising beyond a broad plain like a far Eid out ofthe ce ae ‘Tie Salon ioe Kuropean exhibition, and many foreigners exhibit the, and are received, it is said, with a hospitality sometimes (etigeatal to uative ability. Atnongst these. wo tnd this year AC Vartan, an Italian artist bom iu Naples aad nove living in Rone, who senda a view on tlie Roman coast, La Cote Romaine, ds Porto d’Anzio.” ‘The matevials are simplo—a sandy Leach Ei bauy ove of tes pang af aire Wehr Ue of ralage, low bills beyond, and on island in the blue water. {he picts is solidly” and well painted, and deserves honourable aon, A miore decidedly poetical work is that of M. Ervauciual, “Le Soir dane fes tnrais Pontins "a yellow al afer ne, very hewvily loaded, pale grey hills, browh ruins, and ‘ter electing tho sky. Theve are afew buffaloes, of which one is Iaig, Abuve te yellow opeulng of cleat sky te clouds ate ll buf eolous, taking light from the aftarglow. ‘This picture exalt iy oft, and of unum poses | Afr ewbeence of drawing aid the duluese.of colour in the works el Gort md Daubigny it must be refreshing to Tnglish visitors to bet wil auch Unght cleady-designed paintngéas that of ML. Paguly L'Haridon. Hig “ Protse et ses Phogues” shovrs more eamived stody of nntural form and colour that is. usual with Fach londcnpo-paintere, Proteus ia seated ‘on a rocky beach ‘cued by imiumerable cals; before Mim spreads a, wide ane of see, very Heautiful and stiking in its brilliant play. of feenld a ultaiasine; beyond the wen sise lofty mountain, ‘um in colour, with pale blue shudows,and very carefully drawn; ais of a warm whito oecupy all. the right and esntie of the aly, “Another artist who seed the brightness of natural eoloat is hse, whose “Fréjus” expresses better than aay other picture ‘ntle Salin the brilliues of & scene whoao local colour {8 light, ‘ler beigtened to the utmost by ennshine, Not only in this eure, bat in others which wo have seen by the same artist, tap is an unusual observation of the play of vivid colour in a du water pity who maybe Inown to some ieuders as a very ing nl cate sete, has cultivated in hie -il-eining ‘len pele thn may be doubted how fax ise an hin Age ay fo uch decided mannan, ‘is evry foul of rorky talon pasta pictere without thon, but ie ike the best When they Ureale through pasture-land, so that he may o} thie grey with gross.” His anethod of painting io briey as fllove:—~On a rough canvass, thinly primed, all objects avo. frst ibed in with various middle tint, into this the darks are painted htaisparent eclou, and the lights loaded upon it, Tho first le tat isnot etched at ence, but by ifornt rubbing and ‘xoee The ofr fen very pcbreue and al the hole disngreeable, but the art * Je too appant, Sill M. is ie very truo artist, as hia etchings puiciently prove. He ‘auch tendemess na well as force, and his method may have been ed Tees from a lovo of trick than a serious desire to reach a Gisant crests in the “Courrier endormi,” already described in | result not otherwise attainable. His » “Le Village de Ghana Strole," nud “Borda du iaeduDourget prt de Chon” though not better than what we expocted, {roi him, are two of tho most striking lendsenpes of the year, | Amongst other works which it feoms wrong to pass without notice are L’Arguonon & Marge baawo,” by ML. Blinen expanse of sand ‘with greens slender aroun wiodiog throagh iy aad gow ising Iaad boyond and ME. Jean @'Alhein's “Hcing en ietague"—a very dark sea coming against a brilliant sky, the ery numvely painted and fll of tru texture,“ In M. ‘Hipp Boulengo' «Maras la Hulpo, Brabant we have some eletira autumnal eolour with the gold of desaying foliago opposed to a glimpse of azuro in th broken alty an opposition fir to ue ia any of the best works of Linnel, but alwaye delightful. REVIEWS. LORD MACAULAY'S WORKS* | TPHERE jis always something especially interesting about \ T° cision of the rots of onedeblomene Great works like Lord Macaulay's History, or even eminently popular es ko Wa Essay hae. gles’ of thir wa, aad do to peal, throw the author himself more or less into the’ back ground; but when we see a full collection sf all that » great tnin thought it worth while to write dowa in the cous of an industrious life, we, get not only a collection of books, but something of a mental history of the man who wrote them, and this agaia is elways a more of lesa valuable conteibution to the in- telleetual history of the time in which he lived. Oddly enough, in fe present cllecton of Lord! Macaulay’ works, bis waits | are arranged in vehat, chronologically speaking, may be almoat falled an iaverted onder. Fit comet th History, then the Essays and biographical articles contributed to the Enoydlo- | pedia Aetropolifant, then the introductory report and supple~ | mentary notes to the Indian Penal Coda, then a variety of | juvenile contributions to Knight's Quarterly Mogazing, then reports | of Parliamentary speeches, and, lastly, » number of poems. .'The "Lays of Ancienit Kome” occupy the placo of honour anongst these, | and the remainder are of very vavious dogreos of merit, tho best being the well-known lines on the Armada. ‘Tho worst, wo think i the dreary production “On tho Marriage of Vivaah end Ahized,” ‘eo antediluvians :-— ‘Tho bravest he ofall the sons of Seth, Orall te hoase of Ca te fovellese she, Tih wae thee.” Te ea long story about the sng of Ga and the danghtorsof men, ending with an aunouncement of the Deluge ‘which begins rather grotesquely :— hy, thou haughty land of Nod, | Hear the sentence of hy God | Teis rather to be regretted that this and some-othor early and occa | slonal porformanees should have been reprinted. ‘There are several | election squibs, for instance, which were nover meant for perma- quot and a food any tho articles in Height» Querdorly might as well have been left there. ‘They would never have been republished by their author, Some, indeed, of the essays which he did republish from the Ediniurgh were hardly worth that honour. "Writing in periodicals had not become eo general f years ago as it has'now, but every man who has occupied himeelt ‘much in such pursuits must have written many things for which his et wish would be spety oblivion, Ono advantags ins cvainly | been gained by republishing all these essays, show, how steadily their author improved till he reached the full maturity of his powers. We do not think, however, that after n comparatively early period his mind continued to expand, although of courso. he ‘was continually acquiring « larger range of knowledge, His best essays, those on Clive and Warren Hastings, for instance, aro fs good as anything in the History of England, and the faults of gome of tho essays hich, plots us Test, such as the roview of ‘Bacon, the review of Mr. Gladstone's work on Church and State, tnd tho review of Ranke's History of the Papes, nro faulta of which both the scheme and the execution of the History show the: per- manence. ‘Ono of the most remarkable ofall Lord Macaulay's fs tho ono which is certainly least known to the i ‘We refer to his preface to, and notes upon, the Indian Penal C 1 jin mettle ia authors ell known sears om ‘the strange ignorance and indifference of English people, even those. who -are otherwise well informed, on: Indian ‘subjects. ‘Thre is not to be found in tho world any pleco of legislation 50 complet, 0 practical, and so scientific, and yet there is probably none which is less known even by English lawyers who have specially studied the subject, Parliament is at this moment feobly attempting to redefine the erimo of murder, and in doing 80 © | ig, as far ns Wo can judge, malting, the cxisting ‘confusion worse confounded, aud reviving bles Hetons by the us of awierard ‘echnical language, in spite of all warnings’ to tho contrary. hel eis et sea Oe eae {ho pcos af the In relating to offlnoi gningt the body, and ‘especially of offences which enuse denth, whieh fairly exhauste tho salject ‘the definidone of the cole founded upck tis ‘Report have for many years bad the force of lnw in india, and have The Works of Lord Macaulay, ‘Trevelyan, B vols, London Len 208 ‘answered there admirably; yot our legislators treat this fact with cin indiflerence, and go on cobbling the incohorent language of Gofe-snd, Hale, ts iff were something too sacred to be ever laid aside. We must noi, however, wander into a general discussion pon the subject of eimianl Tow, "Our preset objost is, Lond fenulay’s way of sdealing with it, OF all the numerous subjects Which he frente at diferent” times, wo doubt whether any one suited the poculiar bout of his "genius so well as ‘this, “He never, wwe believe, had sny considerable connection with cho. practi Politics and literature effectually withdrew his ettention fom it ‘Yet he had some of the qualities of a lawyer, or at all events of a jurist, in an unrivalled’ degres. He lind” in perfection that Peculiar systematic logical wey of viewing things which iy omo- Kimos described aa tho special gift of the Scotch, aud sometimes as the great peouliavity of the legal mind. Ilo could affix a special sence (o a'givea word, and govou using it perfectly eonsiatontly in that sense, and in no othvr, throughout the whole of a Tong and elaborate inghiny. His theories on all eubjects aro Inid out ‘with the precision of w mathematical figure. Moroover, he wns never imposed upon by a word. He knew prociely the ‘mean of every exprestion that he ever used, aud never did w Swhich did not oniso before his mind a perfectly distinct and well- defined mental picture, "Zo these qualities, which aro indispon ‘ably necessary for a codifir, he adda aovortl others whieh, itmot inditpensable, are -at least useful in tho highest degree, THis uunyivulled power of ilustration—a power which in some of his ‘writings bo uses to an extent which makes particular passages cumbrons avd ungraceful—is essentially the ality of a lawyer. ‘tis, indeed, notblng elso than the habit of pusting eases. AMT his svitings abound with instances of the way'in which ho uses thia gif, He deduces, for instance, in one place, irom the prin- fiplo of passive obedience, the tnexpected result. that, those who held it ought to ove fought ngninst Charles TI, at ‘Worcester, and agninst James II, at the Boyne; and he fixes uupoa Ms. Gladstone's principles about the reintion between Chureh and State consequences, a5 10 the course of duty of the English Government in Iudiay of which i is hard to. say svhether they are more remarkable for boing monstrous ox for being inevitable. Tis power was ioraluable to bim in the work of eodifention, in co far as ho used it for the purpose of ascer- fining, with absolute or nearly absohite precision, whnt hig real meaning was; but compotent judges have doubted whether it did not carry him a step too far when st led hin to add to each of the provisious of the code definite illustrations intended to mako ite ieaning cleax. Another admirable qualification which Lord Macualy posed fo tho task which had to perform: ly in athe fact that, though ho was a zoal lawyer, and bod n pre- eminently loge mint ho tras aot in the Teas degiee a slave to | fav. "He efitiezed it quite ao fee, and with as ite respect | for the special wealmostes and failings of lawyers, as if he had food altogether outside of the subject. Ho’ was one of that almost infinitesimally stall nuinber of lawyers who take the tue sauna of he valu of thls profnion wo. can appre the ent amount of practical shrewdness vigour of mindy and ener Experience which it embodies, whilst they can reeognieo, tho ‘numerous aPeurditios whieh have been imported futo the. system, find the fallacy of many of the theories spon which cettaily pret of it are founded, "The result of this is tha Lord Macnilny's fotes upon. tho ‘Indian ode possess a degree of general terest hich attaches 10 not “more then ono or “two. ofier Tow’ books. — ‘They eannot be. known. too. widely, for they got only ‘ont atation i ell yalublo aa interes ing in. tho. highest degree, but they show how law sight te’ made ote of the most delightful sod interesting of all the branches of a iboral education, ff its principles were properly. ine ‘estgated and exhibited with. their leadlog. applications’ in Philosophical shape. One of the’ most goneraly interesting. of Tew notes to the code is the one which relates tothe law of de= famation, It gives. the whole theory of tho law of Hbe, and of thie cases ia which truth, and in whieb good faith independently of ‘ruth, ought to be a justifiention for defamatory statouents, with - stration which we ‘8 aystem, a completéness, and. n power o hhave never seen equilled éleewhere. ‘Though in some reepecta they maybe coisidéred 5 the thost important of all his performances, Lord Mucaulay’s toatributions ‘to the eximinal law of India will naturally be tess knows than his other writings. The code itself, ike other performances of the kind, fs founded principally on Bentham’s speculations, but it is greatly ‘superior to anost other works of the same kind, and especially to the ‘French Cade Péndl, in the cato with which its first principles have en, comidoed nd decided on, Thin is. vork to which al legislators are averse, and, which is simply impossible in » country Life our yn, where all legislation hina tao parsed through the two ‘Houses of Parliament, aud rubmitted to every sort of ‘amendment ‘and distortion at the hands of all sorts of people who are, for the ‘ost part, quite ignorant of the subject. We have noticed the sub- ject rather’ moro fully than the space which it occupies in. Loxd ‘Macaulay's works would otherwise require, in the hopea of attract ing it some muell part of the altention which it deserves. Lord Macaulay's more popular works it ia needless to say anything special. “They are well known even to those who Know litte elas. It mij, however, bo interesting to make a few observations on some of the more prouinent of thei author's doctrines upon the subjects which especially engaged his fttention, It has boon observed, with mujh, troih, that Lord " Maciulay's writings on all subjects, and nt only hia taget stan aa Tam es Techn a fee mee dey a ‘of the profession of which he wns a member. ' fu [Atigust 18,1884) ce ‘leo shis speeches, are distinguished in aliaost ona oes but SoS, ua clinton wero of his wang a fpeciaexiotion or any strong bell $n partied eae MT Meetscone Tle was by no ans cod Orage Bass ‘well known to be one of the warmesi-henrted and moa ae" Ten ant his wrtigs "aw fl of ee eetad ling,’ He wae an enthusiastic English a ea Seay eae a a ty Ee tig ft woud te ileal nna swe hat fnything lio the same mental alibe Wi had akon oe spying fs the ame mest ahs who alo wey schoo, bo Bad 20. goapel at all for muniiny Pte ; a a Sppeat tocfel the want of one.” Hood antiestaty lowe upon all kinda of subjects, Hie‘had a resent cose Ht of tho whol, tho goer tatency of tage ee eet nprovenient. Yet he viewed this progeat wider eae her Unga ad ante Rema Ts tg Tes inuntal than eur of War teen aoe aan Bim ia point eiluer of intelecy af laos of coupaning to him in point either of intdlech at a nua ag ct ey erg {look upon it fist on tho negative, aud then on te psi Af examined. to the botiom, it will bu found to dopend tt tipona determination on the‘part of those so old it acquis it things they ere, and to renounce, the hope of lig ay tuddcu gr very pid change for the better in then, Th finde fental Goctrite of a ananof tho world is, The thing ft ‘oon the emo also shal be. People wll not be much belt uch sono than they actually are within any shor Hay @ Tndet the operation of ny net or violent enue, dad a mega Hon of this 1s the indispaitable condition of sch gradal ingore fnents. au are. possible, andag.ave also ullently sue ® Sle ie worth the wl of tutions pera to kt oad fying tolbing them about, ‘This bit of ind is inom my ite, -sinco it recognices, the. possibility of changes fr Fetter; but ite negetive sido ie'malich more strongly mmtid. Tk implies, on the part of a person wlio feels it, not ouly disiie ® ‘the schemes. and doctrines hick on diferent occasions | ar Strongly exceed the passions of men, but aamedhing very Hie pa eer a eer a ol ate ony. toy oumele etailed ways of stating them. Amun who takes this view wll never be‘eager for new principles or mow application o priciples"in Inorals, in politics, or. in zeligion, He, will beat {bbe codtented. with what he lis got already, and to b dist lined to pel with st. When this theory tates the vid pos shape St’ becomes ‘Toryism of tho somabtic order, and in tht feuition it bes a. gros laity to Stadealisn, booaue to at fdealizes. the past as tho other idealizes tho future: | Whet iva united with a cold el tempor it bocomoa simple okt tive conservatism. “I'am satistied, why can’t you all hold your toupues and et ie alono!"? When ibip conned with toa Trtvotaneo,a warm host and a hgh spin, produces am Cond Maciay--a mn why exaggerates noting, who ta nioderata, if you please’ 08 cold and ard o view of the wot ‘hic we iy ad of the conditions om which, we iin a ‘most selfish of mankind and who, for all that, is not selfish in Teast, bat i om the contrary fall of wars, full of kinda af acal forte prin ples in hile beloves, end prpared te fgreat snorfices to carry them ouk', 18}; 1866.] The Saturday Review. 209 wilay’s writings and in all bis political conduct “pate cat 8 nes aa Caer aerate Si ree col ie comet ford chars of ome of hn pening ase ae enteemo cation, rere, and genera Frsfermod 3 conto vo Pei aorta, which formed tho Wasi of fy ar rome al 1s ics rorany acdc? Dax to in aed ge pnt sat young murtion as one of immediate practical expediency. rege unto 8 ae pede “hat fo hao sword oe ot bale in tuch theories at aero no omper shows sell mich more. power- elect alo dub apt Goh is pales dor sary over other pureis for we domi rave been at lets as well Aited by notre Hamel pp re the Indien Code, or dhe msbulations ote ceed through al bis books, and. ediecily shrogh ie tase Rieu erg it ht of Te 2 verdant. upon mor, polite, and religous mer urton. Wormald lingo fk that usin ciberata preference for history was duo in a great mf cu result. permanenty blieuctory, whereas suas Py erful study of historical facts to come’ to some Sep don fo the practical working on men ond thinge ainsi hes TP ie hole ito lovo, fr he Sra of Ole a stations we Ted ene of tho ene ert, an¢ oT gad oytomatis of men to fura aside from a ees) rect and deer bing ators of fac. SFip al kings however and with al he ove Zor he son: Sdmper of mind ia aways preeut. Te lke Tete He awed as eos ploy, Tn Sane ei coutatally thinking of Whig and Tory, Fate Sitommen Catiolic. With all ha goon for picturesque eae nl i bounlow command of detail ho ener ings Ay Be nt inghiduel character. ‘Ho will give Tes of sy Me vila, or Masiborough, or Chases I. i hall « oe ME Carlie would in tnrpages. On tho ollies hand, {har iso greater body of distinct moral and politieal propositions in then ts Ear cage of Lord Macaulay's an fn ll ds Caylee eres (oetber His history io constantly Kite else than re ery tion ruoing intn Gseusson. Argemsat deb, SE pled nts foo fo or eh tthe ‘dement in which be lived, and history was valuable es supplyis seta mamber of exte for, ech debates, whilst ope Salts thowselves from falling into vo guenes he ger inrstrof tho docines which he preached though up malum of his fevouito studies corresponded exactly to the ‘hele which wo have referee aa the fountation of ha whole Ti af miad. They ave, With hardly an exception, moderate, tmble, and vigorous; but, apart from the energy with which eo ‘expresed, end ihe enrmestaeg with which "Lord Miley Mnbelf entertained them, tere is idle about them to tis ertusnen ‘ont the Hevelution of 2688 was: hoppy ttt Chea I.wasn gent eymuat tat Jews owght to be Alpvd fo ein Pretnment; that Mi. Gladstone eotegrest nome ‘eps about the relations between Church and State, and had no Clear omeeption of the meaning of his own theory; that Southey's Oligo ll of fllaioey that, on the whole, it waa wise 10 the Reform Bill—these ‘and other doctrines of the same | tagether with endless lively discussions. upon particular ‘nitidid, upon Wersen Tastings, Clive, Bit, Walpole, and jamumeruble other persons, are what isto be got out of Lord Mio sll perfeely tru any taken togetben, very ‘stole importhaty bul thong v eoinething, Canppeintn She ray in whide the gretest problems ofallavequlely passed. over as being ‘altogether “sole, ‘or else” are discussed in a ‘Morougily unsatisfactory manner, although it is impossible not to fal at so poweaful « sriter might andé ought to" have thrown rsh light upon them, Almost every one of the essaya raises this filing.” Take, for instance, the review of Mx. Gladstone's book