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2_ Rankinecycle

2_ Rankinecycle

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Published by: Jackie Chieng on Nov 04, 2010
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Vapour Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

5.2 Rankine Cycle:
Rankine cycle is the idealized cycle for steam power plants. This cycle is shown on p-v, T-v, h-s, diagram in the above figures. It consists of following processes:


4 2


Fig.5.2(a). Rankine vapour power cycle

3'' 2' T 2 1 1' 4' 4 4'' 3' 3 5




Fig.5.2(b). T-s diagram Rankine power cycle

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mallikarjuna 2 p 1 2' 3' 3 3'' 4' 4 4'' v Fig.M . Prof. T.5. J.P. h-s diagram Rankine power cycle 4'' Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5.S.2(c). p-v diagram Rankine power cycle 3'' 3' h 3 2 2' 4' 4 1 s Fig.Vapour Power Cycles Prof.2(d). U. Sundararajan and Prof. Shet .

Thermal Efficiency of Rankine Cycle: Consider one kg of working fluid. . This process is reversible adiabatic. U. Shet .h 4 ) . 1-2-3’-4’-1 or 1-2-3”-4”-1.h 2 ) ( δw )net = ( δw )turbine + ( δw )pump = (h 3 . Process 2-3: Water is converted into steam at constant pressure by the addition of heat in the boiler. The steam leaving the boiler may be dry and saturated.h 4 ) ( δw )pump = ( h1 .h 4 ) + (h1 .h1 ) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Mallikarjuna Process 1-2: Water from the condenser at low pressure is pumped into the boiler at high pressure.M .S.h4 ) ( δq )cond = ( h1 .Vapour Power Cycles Prof.δw = dh For process 2-3.h2 ) For process 3-4. δq = 0 (adiabatic process) ( δw )turbine = . we can write. ( δq )boiler = ( dh )boiler = ( h3 . we can write. and applying first law to flow system to various processes with the assumption of neglecting changes in potential and kinetic energy.P.( dh )turbine = ( h 3 Similarly.(h 2 . The corresponding T-s diagrams are 1-2-3-4-1. T. wet or superheated. J. δq . Sundararajan and Prof. Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion of steam in the steam turbine. Process 4-1: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser to convert condensate into water. Prof.h 2 ) = (h 3 . δw = 0 (heat addition process).

h 2 ) The pump work ( δw )pump is negligible. the superheating will have to be done at constant temperature along path 3-5.h 2 Note that the rankine cycle has a lower efficiency compared to corresponding Carnot cycle 2’-3-4-1’ with the same maximum and minimum temperatures. ηrankine = h3 . Shet .M . because specific volume of water is very small. This means that heat is transferred to the vapor as it undergoes expansion doing work. This is difficult to achieve in practice.S.h 4 area 12 '341 = (Neglecting pump work) area a12 '3ba h3 . U. Therefore. the vapor may be superheated at constant pressure from 3 to 3” without difficulty.Vapour Power Cycles Prof. T. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thermal efficiency = ηth = Net work = heat sup plied ( δw )net ( δq )boiler = area 122 '341 area a22 '3ba ηrankine = ηth = ( h3 . Prof.h 4 ) . During this process.P. 2) In the rankine cycle.(h 2 . It is much easier to completely condense the vapor and handle only liquid in the pump.h1 ) (h 3 . Sundararajan and Prof. the pressure has to be dropped. The reason is that the average temperature at which heat is added in the rankine cycle lies between T2 and T12 and is thus less than the constant temperature T12 at which heat is added to the Carnot cycle. Mallikarjuna Now. Reasons for Considering Rankine Cycle as an Ideal Cycle For Steam Power Plants: 1) It is very difficult to build a pump that will handle a mixture of liquid and vapor at state 1’ (refer T-s diagram) and deliver saturated liquid at state 2’. In a Carnot cycle using superheated steam.

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