Vapour Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

5.2 Rankine Cycle:
Rankine cycle is the idealized cycle for steam power plants. This cycle is shown on p-v, T-v, h-s, diagram in the above figures. It consists of following processes:

3
BOILER TURBINE

4 2
CONDENSER PUMP

1

Fig.5.2(a). Rankine vapour power cycle

3'' 2' T 2 1 1' 4' 4 4'' 3' 3 5

a

b

s

Fig.5.2(b). T-s diagram Rankine power cycle

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

U. Mallikarjuna 2 p 1 2' 3' 3 3'' 4' 4 4'' v Fig. h-s diagram Rankine power cycle 4'' Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sundararajan and Prof. Prof. T.5. p-v diagram Rankine power cycle 3'' 3' h 3 2 2' 4' 4 1 s Fig.2(c).S.2(d).M . J. Shet .Vapour Power Cycles Prof.P.5.

h 2 ) ( δw )net = ( δw )turbine + ( δw )pump = (h 3 . Process 4-1: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser to convert condensate into water. The steam leaving the boiler may be dry and saturated.h 4 ) . wet or superheated. and applying first law to flow system to various processes with the assumption of neglecting changes in potential and kinetic energy. Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion of steam in the steam turbine.(h 2 .h2 ) For process 3-4. Mallikarjuna Process 1-2: Water from the condenser at low pressure is pumped into the boiler at high pressure. δq .M . δw = 0 (heat addition process).h1 ) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thermal Efficiency of Rankine Cycle: Consider one kg of working fluid. . This process is reversible adiabatic.h 4 ) + (h1 . Sundararajan and Prof. The corresponding T-s diagrams are 1-2-3-4-1. we can write.h 4 ) ( δw )pump = ( h1 . we can write. Process 2-3: Water is converted into steam at constant pressure by the addition of heat in the boiler.δw = dh For process 2-3. 1-2-3’-4’-1 or 1-2-3”-4”-1.S. δq = 0 (adiabatic process) ( δw )turbine = . J. Shet .Vapour Power Cycles Prof. T. U. Prof.P.h4 ) ( δq )cond = ( h1 .h 2 ) = (h 3 . ( δq )boiler = ( dh )boiler = ( h3 .( dh )turbine = ( h 3 Similarly.

the vapor may be superheated at constant pressure from 3 to 3” without difficulty.P. the superheating will have to be done at constant temperature along path 3-5. This is difficult to achieve in practice. Shet . 2) In the rankine cycle. During this process. The reason is that the average temperature at which heat is added in the rankine cycle lies between T2 and T12 and is thus less than the constant temperature T12 at which heat is added to the Carnot cycle. T.h1 ) (h 3 . This means that heat is transferred to the vapor as it undergoes expansion doing work. U. Therefore.Vapour Power Cycles Prof. the pressure has to be dropped. Thermal efficiency = ηth = Net work = heat sup plied ( δw )net ( δq )boiler = area 122 '341 area a22 '3ba ηrankine = ηth = ( h3 . Reasons for Considering Rankine Cycle as an Ideal Cycle For Steam Power Plants: 1) It is very difficult to build a pump that will handle a mixture of liquid and vapor at state 1’ (refer T-s diagram) and deliver saturated liquid at state 2’. J.h 2 ) The pump work ( δw )pump is negligible. Mallikarjuna Now.(h 2 . ηrankine = h3 .h 2 Note that the rankine cycle has a lower efficiency compared to corresponding Carnot cycle 2’-3-4-1’ with the same maximum and minimum temperatures. because specific volume of water is very small.h 4 area 12 '341 = (Neglecting pump work) area a12 '3ba h3 . Sundararajan and Prof. It is much easier to completely condense the vapor and handle only liquid in the pump. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .M .S. In a Carnot cycle using superheated steam. Prof.h 4 ) .

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