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The Invention of Bad Breath In the 1910s and particularly the 1920s, advertisers focused their attention on identifying—and often inventing—personal anxieties that could be resolved by the purchase of specific products. “Advertising,” wrote one commentator in a trade publication, “helps to keep the masses dissatisfied with their mode of life, discontented with ugly things around them. Satisfied customers are not as profitable as discontented ones.” Listerine mouthwash took this approach. The Lambert Pharmacal Company had developed the antibacterial liquid back in the 1880s, and it was long sold as a general antiseptic. After World War I, the company sought to expand its market. Advertising man Gordon Seagrove recalls being called in by the Lambert Brothers to discuss how this could be done. The company’s chief chemist was enlisted to describe the product and its uses. “As he read along in a singsong voice,” Seagrove remembers, “he mentioned halitosis. Everybody said ‘What’s that?’” Learning that it referred to “unpleasant breath,” they immediately thought “maybe that’s the peg we can hang our hat on.” Although there was some worry about whether such a “delicate subject” could be handled in magazines and newspapers, Seagrove and his collaborator, Milton Feasley, launched an ad campaign that played heavily on fears about how others would react to a halitosis sufferer. The most famous of their ads concerned the “pathetic” case of “Edna,” who was “often a bridesmaid but never a bride.” She was approaching the “tragic” thirtieth birthday unmarried because she suffered from halitosis—a disorder that “you, yourself, rarely know when you have it. And even your closest friends won’t tell you.” In response to the ad campaign, Listerine sales went from $100,000 per year in 1921 to more than $4 million in 1927.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. How do you think adverts during the 1920s were different than today?

2. What emotions did advertisers of the 1920s want to make people feel?

3. What does always a bridesmaid never a bride mean?

4. How much money in sales did Listerine make in 1927?

5. Do advertisements of today appeal to people caring about how they look?

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Prohibition in the United States In 1919, Americans ratified the 18th amendment to the Constitution, making it illegal to manufacture, sell, transport, import, or export drinking alcohol. Prohibition, as it was popularly known, proved impossible to enforce, as tens of millions of normally lawabiding Americans either broke the law or abetted those who did. Although the consumption of alcohol did decline, opponents of Prohibition argued that it caused crime, corruption, and a disregard for law. Organized crime flourished around the profits to be made from selling illegal alcohol, and politicians and police were bought off wholesale. Bribery and corruption, although not always alcohol related, reached into President Harding’s cabinet—and then onto the front page. Even though law enforcement officers spent large amounts of time busting those who would sell and distribute alcohol, it still flourished in the United States

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, what does prohibition mean? 2. How do you think these people felt about prohibition? 3. When did alcohol become illegal in the United States?

4. Do you think that Americans generally followed the prohibition laws? 5. Can you think of a modern day example of prohibition?

6. What did people who were against prohibition argue that prohibition did?

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The temperance movement, discouraging the use of alcoholic beverages, had been active and influential in the United States since at least the 1830s. Since the use of alcohol was often associated with such social ills as poverty and insanity, temperance often went hand in hand with other reform movements. From the 1850s onward, the temperance movement focused much of its efforts on Irish and German immigrants. Prohibition exhibited many of the characteristics of most progressive reforms. That is, it was concerned with the moral fabric of society; it was supported primarily by the middle classes; and it was aimed at controlling the "interests" (liquor distillers) and their connections with venal and corrupt politicians in city, state, and national governments. Still, it was not until U.S. entry into the Great War that prohibitionists were able to secure enactment of national legislation. In 1918, Congress passed the 18th Amendment to the Constitition, prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. States ratified the Amendment the next year. Herbert Hoover called prohibition a "noble experiment," but the effort to regulate people's behavior soon ran into trouble. Enforcement of prohibition became very difficult. Soon, such terms as "bootlegger," "bath tub gin," and "speakeasy" became household words. Gangs of hoodlums became more powerful as they trafficked in alcohol. By the 1930s, a majority of Americans had tired of the noble experiment, and the 18th Amendment was repealed.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. When did the “temperance movement” or the idea of prohibition start? 2. What other things were associated with alcohol? 3. When did alcohol become illegal in the United States?

4. What did president Hoover call prohibition? 5. According to the last paragraph, how did the “experiment” fail? 6. Why do you think that people really voted to repeal the 18th amendment?

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Carry Nation is most famous for spearheading the Temperance movement. She came from a troubled background: her mother was mentally ill and her husband was an alcoholic who drank himself to death. She remarried a lawyer named David Nation and soon after moving to Texas, she began having frequent visions. She then settled in Kansas and it was there that she organized the local chapter of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. In 1899, she declared war on liquor and went about smashing up saloons and liquor selling stores with a hatchet. She was arrested repeatedly for her actions and others in the organization soon distanced themselves from her. Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. What would make Carry Nation personally against alcohol?

2. What did Carry begin doing in 1899? 3. What might John Locke think about her actions?

4. Why do you think that others “distanced” themselves from her?

5. Do you think her actions helped the prohibition movement, or hurt it?

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In the year 1929 the stock market crashed and the United States went into a serious depression. This means that millions of people lost their jobs and were out of work. The Gangsters and Bootleggers, however, still made millions of dollars on the sale of illegal alcohol, money from prostitution, gambling profits, and illegal narcotic sales. Many people thought that Prohibition only allowed them to get even more rich during this time.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, why did many people lose their jobs in 1929? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think this artist felt about prohibition? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. How did Gangsters keep making money throughout the depression? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Do some of these same people make lots of money still today? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What do you think about prohibition? _____________________________________________________________________________

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A Side Affect of Prohibition During the time of prohibition, federal agents were ruthless in their quest for justice. It was a well known statistic that in the years between 1920 and 1933 there were at least 1,360 victims of “collateral damage” in the battle against alcohol. That is, at least 1,360 people were wrongly killed when they were thought they were involved in illegal distribution or people were caught in the crossfire between gangsters and Federal Agents. When prohibition finally ended, many were thankful that there would be no more innocent victims of this ill fated law.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Why do you think some people were accidentally killed? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think this made many in the public feel? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Do similar things happen with the enforcement of the drug prohibition today? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What does the person standing next to the altar represent? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you think prohibition had any good side effects? _____________________________________________________________________________

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The Harlem Renaissance In the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s, African-American literature, art, music, dance, and social commentary began to flourish in Harlem, a section of New York City. This African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as the Harlem Renaissance. More than a literary movement, the Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of AfricanAmericans and redefined AfricanAmerican expression. African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate their heritage. The main factors contributing to the development of the Harlem Renaissance were African-American urban migration, trends toward experimentation throughout the country, and the rise of radical African-American intellectuals. The Harlem Renaissance transformed African-American identity and history, but it also transformed American culture in general. Never before had so many Americans read the thoughts of AfricanAmericans and embraced the AfricanAmerican community's productions, expressions, and style.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. What was the Harlem Renaissance? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. How did the Harlem Renaissance change America? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What was another name for the Harlem Renaissance? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where do you think many artists from the Harlem Renaissance were from? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Who is one artist of the Harlem Renaissance that you know about?

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______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Jazz is a type of music which was invented in the United States. Jazz music combines African-American music with European music. Jazz started in the United States in the early 20th century. Jazz music has musical influences from the African slaves who were taken from Africa to work in the plantations of the southern United States, such as "call and response" songs and blue notes. As well, Jazz music has musical styles from European music. To remember the different periods in jazz, we divide into decades and their main directions. In the 1920s, there was New Orleansstyle Jazz and Dixieland jazz. In the 1930s, there was swing jazz, which was also called big band jazz. In the 1940s, there was Bebop jazz. Large jazz bands, which are called big bands, were also popular in the 1940s. Big bands usually have several saxophone players, several trumpet players, several trombone players, a piano player, a double bass player,a drummer, and sometimes they might have a singer. In the 1950s, there was hard bop jazz. In the 1960s, there was modern jazz and free jazz. In the 1970s, there was jazz fusion, which blended jazz music with rock music. Nowadays, there are many styles at the same time, like Nu-Jazz, electro-jazz and improv-jazz!

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. What two types of music styles are combined to form jazz? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are some things that show musical influence from Africa? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. List all the different types of jazz in the article _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What do you think the man is doing in the picture? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you like jazz? Why or why not?

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The Market Crashes In the late 1920s, it seemed as if everybody was in the stock market. Estimates vary from 1,000,000 to 25,000,000. Why not? Stock prices just kept going up and up, making your original investment more and more valuable. And here was the best part -- you didn't need a lot of money to get into the market. You could buy on margin. First you borrow the money to buy the stock (interest rates were a phenomenally low 3 1/2%). Then you put up the stock as collateral for your loan. Simple, easy money -- if stock prices go up, you collect your dividends. If the price dips, you raise a little cash to cover your loss and wait for the market to rise again. In 1929, so many people were buying on margin that they had run up a debt of six billion dollars. The prosperity couldn't last forever. On September 3, the market dropped sharply only to rise and then drop again. It was like tremors before a big earthquake but nobody heeded the warning. The market had sagged temporarily before, but it always came back stronger. The market dipped sharply again on October 4. Some began to sweat as the market continued to decline, then they panicked. October 21 saw an avalanche of selling as many tried to salvage something from their loss. On October 24 -- Black Thursday -- the panic took on a life of its own as selling orders overwhelmed the Exchange's ability to keep up with the transactions. Some Wall Street financiers tried to inspire confidence by buying as many shares as they could. It worked -- temporarily. Friday and Saturday saw sales drop and a glimmer of hope return. On Monday the panic started again, and then came Black Tuesday -- October 29. The panic on the Exchange floor changed to bedlam. According to one observer, "They hollered and screamed, they clawed at one another's collars. It was like a bunch of crazy men. Every once in a while, when Radio or Steel or Auburn would take another tumble, you'd see some poor devil collapse and fall to the floor." This was the Crash, although few could see it at the time. The Market continued its decline but never as dramatic. Thirty billion dollars had been lost -- more than twice the national debt. The nation reeled, and slipped into the depths of the Great Depression.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this picture. __________________________ ___________________________

__________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading, answer the following questions:
1. Based upon the reading, what is one cause of the great depression? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you think happened to the owner of the car? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. How many people were participating in the stock market in the 1920s? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. How did some investors act when the market was crumbling? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What do you think could have been done to prevent the crash? ____________________________________________________________________________

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The 30s and Bread Lines The 30"s, as a contrast to the Golden Age of the Roaring 20's was marked by bread lines and soup kitchens, homelessness and shanty town called Hoovervilles, a sarcastic name because many blamed former President Hoover for the situation that the country found itself in. Veterans of World War I marched on Washington D.C. hoping the Bonus Bill would be passed by Congress and they could get the money they were promised during the war immediately instead of waiting twenty years. Congress refused to pass the bill. The veterans ended up in a Hooverville and the government sent troops to run them out. These troops were led by Eisenhower and Mac Arthur, later to be heroes of World War II. There were so many foreclosures on farms and homes that the banks could not get rid of them because there was no one who could afford to purchase them. Some farms sat on the market for 10 - 15 years. Conditions for African Americans worsened during this time as they faced additional prejudice.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. What is the visual irony displayed in this photo? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Based upon this picture what do you think life was like for many people in the 30s? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why were some WWI veterans upset? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Why do you think African Americans faced increasing prejudice in the 1930s? ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. If the 1920s were known as a time of great prosperity, what were the 1930s known as?

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The 30s and Bread Lines The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. Dozens of alphabet agencies were created as a result of the New Deal. Historians distinguish between the "First New Deal" of 1933, which had something for almost every group, and the "Second New Deal" (1935– 36), which introduced class conflict, especially between business and unions. Opponents of the New Deal, complaining of the cost and increase in federal power, stopped its expansion by 1937, and abolished many of its programs by 1943. The Supreme Court ruled several programs unconstitutional (some parts of them were soon replaced, except for the NRA). The main New Deal programs still in existence today are Social Security, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the primary regulator of Wall Street.[1]

The W.P.A. or Work progress Administration was an Organization set up under the “New Deal” that gave Americans jobs working around the country.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. What is happening in this photograph? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think the W.P.A. changed the lives of many Americans? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What New Deal programs still exist in the United States today? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What was the purpose of the New Deal? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Name 3 causes of the Great Depression?

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The Great Depression changed the lives of people who lived and farmed on the Great Plains and in turn, changed America. The government programs that helped them to live through the 1930s changed the future of agriculture forever. Weather touched every part of life in the "Dirty 30s": dust, insects, summer heat and winter cold. Mandy families didn't have heat, light or indoor bathrooms like people who lived in towns. Many farm families raised most of their own food – eggs and chickens, milk and beef from their own cows, and vegetables from their gardens. People who grew up during the Depression said, "No one had any money. We were all in the same boat." Neighbors helped each other through hard times, sickness, and accidents. Farm families got together with neighbors at school programs, church dinners, or dances. Children and adults found ways to have fun for free – playing board games, listening to the radio, or going to outdoor movies in town.

When the dryness, heat, and grasshoppers destroyed the crops, farmers were left with no money to buy groceries or make farm payments. Some people lost hope and moved away. Many young men took government jobs building roads and bridges. By 1940, normal rainfall returned, and federal programs helped to boost farm prices and improve the soil. About the same time, a new government program started to hook up farmhouses to electricity, making farm life easier and safer.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. What is happening in this photograph? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What allowed many people to get through the 1930s? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What types of things made it hard for farmers to get through the 1930s? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. When did rainfall return to normal? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What types of things did farm kids do for fun?

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____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ In the hearts of the public, the hard times of the depression had evoked a deep need for security. By 1936 President Roosevelt saw this need. He also saw government as an agent for meeting the need. The President sent to Congress a bill to protect people from the fear of economic disaster. The bill became the Social Security Act. The SSA was set up as a kind of insurance plan. It was designed to protect people from hardships in old age, disability, or unemployment. SSA awarded monthly benefits to people over 65. It also ensured incomes for the disabled. To fund these programs, the SSA taxed both workers and employers. These monies were put into a trust fund to provide benefits for future generations. Another part of the SSA granted assistance to those who lost their jobs. Payroll taxes funded these benefits. SSA offered federal money to states for various programs. Care for needy mothers and babies as well as help for orphans and sick children was funded by federal grants. Aid for blind people was included, too. SSA was not the only form of security, it was just the most widespread. The New Deal attended to other forms of security as well. Protection for consumers was the goal of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This law stated that labels must contain honest and complete information about products. It also banned false advertising. The Civil Aeronautics Act established rules for aviation. It set up the Civil Aeronautics Board to regulate fares and to look into plane crashes.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. Based upon what you read, what is happening in this photograph? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Based upon the reading, why did Roosevelt create or promote the SSA? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. List two types of individuals assisted by the SSA. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are two other “safety net” organizations set up to help Americans? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you know anyone who collects Social Security today? If so, who?

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The Great Depression was a time when the economy in the United States and throughout the world was extremely bad. It began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The prices on the Wall Street stock market fell a lot from October 24 to October 29, 1929. Many people lost their jobs. They became homeless and poor. This ended the wealth of the Roaring Twenties. The day that is said to have started the Great Depression is called Black Tuesday. When the Great Depression started, Herbert Hoover was the president of the United States. People voted for a new president in 1932. His name was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt got the government to pass many new laws and programs to help people who were hurt by the Great Depression. These programs were called the New Deal. One of these programs was the Civilian Conservation Core or CCC. The CCC put many young men to work in the outdoors. Another of these programs was called Social Security. Social Security gave old people a small income so they had money for things they needed. Between 1939 and 1944, more people had jobs again because of World War II, and the Great Depression came to an end. The movie Gone With The Wind was based on it.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. Based upon what you read, what might be happening in this photograph? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Based upon the reading, what triggered the great depression? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What’s a nickname for the day the stock market crashed? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Together, what were Roosevelt’s programs referred to as? _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What major world event helped to end the great depression?

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The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. According to Roosevelt’s principal speechwriter Judge Samuel Rosenman, he first used "fireside chats" in 1929 during his first term as Governor of New York. Roosevelt faced a conservative Republican legislature so during each legislative session he would occasionally address the citizens of New York directly. He appealed to them for help getting his agenda passed. Letters would pour in following each of these "chats," which helped pressure legislators to pass measures Roosevelt had proposed. He began making the informal addresses as President on March 12, 1933, during the Great Depression. Sometimes beginning his talks with "Good evening, friends", Roosevelt urged listeners to have faith in the banks and to support his New Deal measures. The "fireside chats" were considered enormously successful and attracted more listeners than the most popular radio shows during the "Golden Age of Radio." Roosevelt continued his broadcasts into the 1940s, as Americans turned their attention to World War II.

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. Based upon the reading, what do you think Roosevelt is doing in this picture? 2. When did Roosevelt start giving his “chats”? Before or after he became president?

3. What would Roosevelt receive after each chat? How did these help Roosevelt get what he wanted?

4. What is one piece of evidence from the reading that could prove that FDRs fireside chats were popular?

5. What is Today’s version of the “Fireside Chat?” Do you think that a president could still have such a good repertoire with Americans?

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The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the Court-packing Bill, was a law proposed by United States President Franklin Roosevelt. While the bill contained many provisions, the most notorious one (which led to the name "Courtpacking Bill") would have allowed the President the power to appoint an extra Supreme Court Justice for every sitting Justice over the age of 70½. Six additional justices would have been appointed. This was proposed in response to the Supreme Court overturning several of his New Deal measures that proponents claim were designed to help the United States recover from the Great Depression. Franklin Delano Roosevelt sought a way to ensure his legislative agenda after the Supreme Court of the United States repeatedly invalidated elements of his New Deal by decisions finding those elements unconstitutional, including the Agricultural AdjustmentAct in United States v. Butler et al (1936) and the National Recovery Administration in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935). Although "inclined to wait until a vacancy naturally occurred on the Court," Roosevelt's first term passed without the opportunity to appoint a justice. Increasingly frustrated, Roosevelt turned to an untraditional means to change the balance of the Court; namely, to change the number of justices. Article III of the U.S. Constitution is silent as to how many justices may serve on the Court at any given time. Instead, the Constitution simply provides that the "judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court..." without specifying the number of justices on that Court[1]. Only the office of "Chief Justice" is self-executing, as it alone is mentioned in the Constitution in Article I, section 3 as the officer responsible for presiding over presidential impeachments[2]. The size of the court had been set and changed in the following years, under circumstances suggesting reasons for the changes as indicated:

Observations: Make a list of what you see in this artifact. __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ___________________________ Conclusions: Based upon the picture or the reading:
1. Based upon the reading, what is happening in this editorial cartoon? 2. What would the “Court Packing Bill” have allowed Roosevelt to do to the Supreme Court?

3. What did the Supreme Court do to make FDR angry?

4. What evidence is there to suggest that Roosevelt ignored or didn’t fully appreciate the separation of powers?

5. What is absent from the constitution that might make Roosevelt think that he can change the number of Justices?

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