Canadian Natural

OIL SANDS ENGINEERING STANDARD

OO-STD-ME-0032

WELDING OF PRESSURE EQUIPMENT & PIPING SECTION I & II

2 27-Feb-04 Major Rewrite

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OIL SANDS ENGINEERING STANDARD OO-STD-ME-0032

WELDING OF PRESSURE EQUIPMENT AND PIPING

STANDARD: OO-STO-ME-0032

Welding of Pressure Equipment and Piping, Section I

has two, separate, stand-alone sections:

Section I

Welding of Pressure Equipment

Section II

Welding of Pressure Piping

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Welding of Pressure Equipment and Piping, Section I

Section I

Welding of Pressure Equipment

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Welding of Pressure Equipment, Section I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 GENERAL .........•.•.....•............•..••......•....•...............•............•...............•...............•.....•..........................••............• 5

2.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS ...•...•.........•..•...•......•..................•..•...•..........•••.•....••...• 6

3.0 CRITICALITY (SEVERITY) SYSTEM 7

4.0 OPERATIONAL SAFETY .•.......•...••.....•.•...........•......•.........•.............•.....•.............•...............................•..•....••.... 8

5.0 GENERAL •.............•..•....•.......•..••...•..•••...•...............•....•........•........•...............•....•••.............•....•..........•••............. 9

6.0 EXECUTION ......•.......•...••.......•.....•.........................•...•........•.•.....•..•......•.•...•...•.....•.•..•..........•.....•....................... 9

7.0 WELDING LOW ALLOY STEEL 17

8.0 WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL 19

9.0 WELDING OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL .......•.............................•...•........•.•....................•.•......•...•..•........ 21

10.0 STAINLESS STEEL CLAD AND STAINLESS STEEL OVERLAY 26

11.0 CARBON STEEUSTAINLESS STEEL CLADDING - CLAD RESTORA TION ..•....•...•.••.....•..........•..•...•.......• 27

12.0 DISSIMILAR WELDS .................•................................••........•...........••.....•.•..••.......................•.............•...........• 29

13.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING 29

14.0 HARDNESS TESTING OF PRODUCTION WELDS ..........•...........•......•....•.•.•...••................•..•......•........•........ 36

This Standard applies to Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) - Horizon Oil Sands Project.

It specifies minimum management or technical requirements.

In cases where legislation imposes more stringent or additional requirements, the legislative requirements shall override these standards until such time as these standards are updated to reflect new requirements.

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Welding of Pressure Equipment, Section I

1.0 GENERAL

1.1 Summary

1 .1.1 Scope of Project Standard

1.1.1.1 This Project Standard defines the Purchaser's minimum requirements for welding of pressure vessels, exchangers and pressure equipment fabricated from:

• carbon steels

• low-alloy steels

• stainless steels

• stainless steel clad and stainless steel weld overlay

• duplex stainless steel.

1.1.2 Section I of this Standard excludes pressure piping requirements which are subject of Section II.

1.1.3 Both Section I and Section II of this Standard are self standing. The submission of one section does not imply the necessity to submit the second section as well.

1.2 Project Standard Deviations

1.2.1 Any deviation from this project standard requires prior written approval by the Purchaser.

The Vendor shall identify in writing any conflicts between the P.O. specifications and other referenced documents for review by the Purchaser. Vendor shall obtain written approval from the Purchaser before proceeding with work affected by a conflict.

1.3 Publications

1.3.1 Standards and Codes

The latest editions of the following publications form part of this specification. The applicable editions of Standards and Codes are those in effect, inclusive of addenda, as of the purchase order date.

CNRL Canadian Natural Resources Limited

• OO-STD-ME-0034 Materials for Wet H2S Service

• OO-STD-ME-0035 Post Weld Heat Treatment

• OO-STD-ME-0039 Materials Selection for Corrosive Service

• OO-STD-ME-0041 Positive Materials Identification

• OO-STD-ME-0042 Impact Testing of Materials

API American Petroleum Institute

• API 582 Recommended Practice - Welding Guidelines for the Chemical, Oil and Gas Industry

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers- Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

• Section II, Materials Specifications (Parts A. B, C, D)

• Section V, Non-Destructive Examination

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CSA

• Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications B

Canadian Standards Association

• B.51 - 03 Boiler, Pressure Vessel and Pressure Piping

• W117.2 - Certification of Weld Inspection Organization American Society for Testing and Materials

• A833 - Standard Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Tester

• E10 - Standard Test Method for Brinell hardness of Metallic Materials

• E18 - Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials

• E92 - Standard Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials

• E110 - Test for Indentation Hardness of Metallic

Materials by Portable

• E140 - Standard Hardness Conversion Tables American Welding Society

• A2.4 - Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and Nondestructive Examination

• A3.0 - Standard Welding Terms and Definitions

• A4.2 - Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic and Duplex, Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless-Steel Weld Metal

National Association Of Corrosion Engineers

• MR01032003-Material Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments

• RP 0472-Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment I Refinery Equipment

ASTM

AWS

NACE International

2.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

2.1 Adherence to Codes and Regulations

2.1.1 Welding to this project standard shall conform to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, API 582 Practice, International, CSA and Local regulations, as applicable, whether or not the equipment is intended to carry a Code stamp.

2.1.2 Tack welds shall be made with the same ASME classification consumable that is used for the root pass.

2.1.3 Peening is not allowed, chipping to remove slag using air tools is not considered peening.

2.2 Compliance

2.2.1 Compliance with this standard and approval of WPS (Welding Procedure SpeCifications) and PQR (Procedure Qualification Records) and mill test reports shall in no way relieve the Vendor of the responsibility of providing welds which are sound and suited to the services for which they are intended.

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2.2.2 When the requirements of standards listed in section 1.31. above conflict with this specification, the Vendor shall immediately submit the matter to the Purchaser for determination and written clarification.

2.2.3 The Requirements of this Standard and "API 582 Practice" shall be followed entirely unless otherwise specified.

2.3 Symbols

2.3.1 Welding and non-destructive examination symbols shall be in accordance with AWS A2.4.

2.3.2 Welding terms and definitions shall be in accordance with the AWS A2.4.

3.0 CRITICALITY (SEVERITY) SYSTEM

3.1 Definition

3.1.1 Criticality rating is a method of assessing the importance of an item with the respect to its design, process service, manufacturing routines, and the consequences of failure. Criticality will be established on a scale of 1 to 4 with 1 being the most critical and, 4 being the least.

3.2 Responsibility:

3.2.1 The prime responsibility for the assignment of the Critically Rating and co-ordination of inter-discipline input resides with the originating (commodity) Engineer.

3.2.2 Process Engineering must identify those systems which are in critical services due to chemical risks, operating temperature, pressure, and other process conditions.

3.3 Criticality Guidelines

3.3.1 Criticality 1:

• Reactors

• Compressors over 5000HP

• Multistage centrifugal pumps,

• High pressureltemperature separators, heat exchangers and any other equipment involving high risk to personnel or environment.

3.3.2 Criticality 2:

• All equipment made from low alloys and high alloys

• All austenitic stainless steel above 50 PSI design pressure

• Equipment in hydrogen sulphide or hydrogen service

• Equipment in toxic and hazardous service

• Carbon Steel equipment greater than 1-114 inch (32mm) thick or 150psig design

• All clad or weld overlaid equipment

• Rotated Equipment 150 to 5000 HP.

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3.3.3 Criticality 3:

• Carbon Steel equipment under 150 psig design

• Rotating equipment 5 to 150 HP

• Major electrical components

• Specialized control system devices

• Speciality in-line piping items.

3.3.4 Criticality 4:

• Rotating equipment under 5 HP

• Electrical hardware, Reminder control system devices.

4.0 OPERATIONAL SAFETY

4.1 Safety Measures

4.1.1 For the protection of welders and operators involved in welding and cutting, safety measures shall be in accordance with the practices specified in AWS Z49.1 plus all local, provincial, federal and other governing regulations.

4.2 Definitions

FCAW

GMAW

GMAW-P GMAW-S GMAS-ST

GTAW

HAZ

H2sERvicE

PT MANUFACTURER

MTR

NDE

PQR PURCHASER

PWHT RT SAW

SOUR SERVICE SMAW

SS

UT

Vendor

PQR

WPS

Weld Map

Flux Cored Arc Welding - with external shielding only Gas Metal Arc Welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding - Pulsed Arc

Gas Metal Arc Welding - Short-Circuit Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding - Spray Transfer Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Heated-Affected Zone

As defined in CNRL Standard OO-STD-ME-0039 Liquid Penetrant Inspection

Manufacturer shall mean the person(s), vendor(s) or company(s) producing the product specifled in this Project SpeCification for the Purchaser.

Material Test Report Non-Destructive Examination Procedure Qualification Record

Purchaser shall mean project owner or any agent of project owner, or any other person, firm or corporation engaged by the Purchaser, to perform services to which this Standard is applicable.

Post Weld Heat Treatment

Radiographic Testing

Submerged Arc Welding

As defined in CNRL Standard OO-STD-ME-0034 Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Stainless Steel

Ultrasonic Testing

Contractor and or supplier of finished product Procedure Qualification Record

Welding Procedure Specification

As defined in Paragraph 5.2, Documentation Requirements

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5.0 GENERAL REVIEW AND APPROVAL PROCESS

5.1 Review and Approval Process

5.1.1 Weld maps shall be submitted together with WPS/PQRs for Purchaser review and written approval prior to start fabrication.

5.1.2 The vendor shall submit a detailed weld map to the Purchaser at the time of WPS/PQR submittal, and fabrication shall not start until the weld map is returned with instruction to proceed.

5.2 Documentation Requirements

5.2.1 The weld map shall contain, as a minimum, the following information:

• sketch of the equipment item

• material type(s) and grade(s) for each type of equipment component

• WPS to be used for each type of joint and any back cladding, if applicable

• type of joint (i.e., full penetration, fillet, socket, partial penetration, etc.).

5.2.2 All WPSs and PQRs for purchased items subcontracted by the Vendor shall be reviewed by the Vendor for content and contract compliance prior to submittal to Purchaser.

• WPSs submitted to Purchaser shall be clearly identified with the Purchase Order number.

• Welds that are deposited by procedures differing from those approved by Purchaser may be subject to complete removal at Manufacturer's expense.

6.0 EXECUTION

6.1 Welding Procedures

6.1.1 Welding Procedure Qualification (PQR)

6.1.1.1 Welding procedures shall be prepared and qualified according to ASME BPV Code, Section IX. The PQR shall include test reports that demonstrate that the test welds meet chemical, mechanical and hardness requirements as specified by the Purchaser.

6.1.1.2 Mechanical, chemical and electrical testing shall be performed with equipment calibrated in accordance with applicable ASTM standards, equivalent National Standard or by a recognized local Regulatory Agency.

6.1.2 Welding Procedure Submission

6.1.2.1 When specified in purchasing documents, the Manufacturer shall submit welding procedures to the Purchaser for review and acceptance before the start of fabrication. Welding procedures shall include all test results required by Code and, when applicable, be appended with results of any additional tests required by this specification.

6.1.2.2 Re-qualification or additional qualification tests are required if in the opinion of the Purchaser the supporting PQR fails to reasonably simulate the actual

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conditions during production welding, and this could adversely affect weld performance.

6.1.2.3 Fabrication involving welding shall not be sublet to others without the Purchaser's written approval.

6.1.2.4 Welding procedures, which will be used for welding of carbon steel fabrications that will be placed in sour service, shall also meet the requirements of NACE MR0103/03 and Purchaser reference documents, which are part of the scope.

6.1.2.5 Separate procedure qualifications shall be required for each P-number and group-number, except P-1, unless otherwise approved by the Purchaser in writing.

6.1.2.6 Welding Gases

• The PQR and WPS shall specify the gas composition and flow rate of shielding, trailing, purging or backing gas where applicable.

• Backing gas shall be maintained for at least the root and hot passes, or for the deposition of at least 5 mm of weld metal, whichever is greater.

• Re-qualification shall be required when backing gas composition is changed or when backing gas is deleted from a qualified WPS.

6.1.3 Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHn

6.1.3.1 PWHT shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Standard OO-STD-ME-003S. Drawings and ASME Section VIII Div. 1, Div. 2, as applicable.

6.1.3.2 The PWHT shall be carefully deslqned and shall contain a detailed description of the following critical parameters:

• method of heating and type of equipment

• method of thermocouple attachment and location, including

considerations regarding heat distribution and thermal gradients

• method and location of supports

• heating and cooling rate and rate tolerances; and

• holding temperature, temperature tolerances and holding time.

6.1.3.3 The PWHT procedure shall be submitted prior to start the fabrication.

Temperature versus time charts shall be supplied for Purchaser review.

6.1.3.4 Stud Welds - Pressure Retaining Parts

Arc and resistance stud welding on pressure retaining parts, shall be qualified on material with the same P-number and group-number and with the same thickness or greater, as the material used for production welding.

Stud test welds shall be made in the orientation described in ASME BPV Code, Section IX, QW-121 for plate and QW-122 for pipe (excluding QW-122.1). In all cases, the stud shall be perpendicular to the surface of the plate or pipe.

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6.1.4 Performance Qualification Mandatory Requirements

6.1.4.1 Each welder or welding operator shall be adequately trained in the processes to be used and qualified to the requirements of ASME SPV Code, Section IX and this specification, for each welding process to be used in production welding.

6.1.4.2 For weld overlay and back cladding, separate performance qualification is required for each welding position.

6.1.5 Acceptable Welding Processes

6.1.5.1 Following Approval

6.1.5.2 The following welding processes may be used after approval is received from the Purchaser:

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

• Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

• Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

• Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

• Electrogas Welding (EGW)

• Stud Welding(SW)

• Plasma Arc Welding (PAW).

6.1.5.3 Table 1.0 lists the welding processes acceptable to the Purchaser for various PNumbers, and thickness ranges. Additional restrictions are shown in the following sub-sections.

6.1.5.4 The use of GMAW - S tyRe SIT or RMD is acceptable for all materials when the deSign temperature < 400°C. For P1 materials strict material control including but not limited to (Mn and Si) required.

6.1.5.5 Unless specifically approved by the Purchaser, SMAW shall not be used for depositing the root pass on materials P-5 through P-B. SMAW can be used to deposit the root pass on materials P-1 through P-4.

6.1.5.6 Curtains, screens, or temporary enclosures shall shield the welding area, so that the work piece is not subjected to draughts during welding.

6.1.5.7 Argon-rich gases >50% argon shall be used for carbon and low-alloy steel.

6.1.5.B EGW Process shall not be used unless approved in writing by Purchaser.

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Welding of Pressure Equipment, Section I

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Table 1.0

Acceptable Welding Process - Materials Thickness Limitations (Equipment)

* Controlled short-circuited transfer

RMD -- Regulated Metal Deposition

Notes: X -- Permitted
ST- Spray Transfer
R -- Restricted to Root Pass
S -- Short - Circuit Arc
0-- Overlay, thickness range indicates
thickness of the weld overlay
P -- Pulsed Arc FCAW-GMAW-SMAW-GTAW-SAW--

Flux Cored Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Shielded Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding

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6.1.6 FCAW Application

6.1.6.1 The Manufacturer shall indicate in his proposal (bid) when application of the FCAW process is intended. The use of FCAW will only be approved if the Manufacturer demonstrates to have adequate experience with the process.

6.1.6.2 For the service classifications, as indicated in the design documents, the use of FCAW for carbon and low-alloy steels is limited per paragraphs 4 through 7 below.

6.1.6.3 FCAW shall not be used for:

• welds in hydrogen service

• equipment requiring impact testing at a temperature below -29°C

• stainless steel welds when the design temperature as indicated in the desiqn documents exceeds of 400°C

• sour service.

6.1.6.4 FCAW is not acceptable for the root pass of pressure-retaining single-sided butt joints.

6.1.6.5 FCAW without shielding may only be used with filler metals intended for that purpose (self-shielding or inner shield), on non-pressure retaining fillet welds, which are not directly exposed to process fluids.

6.1.6.6 Shielding gas for all joints shall comply with the recommendations of the Appendix to AWS Spec. A 5.20.

6.1.7 GTAWApplication

6.1.6.7 All limitations and restrictions of API 582 paragraph 5.2.4 apply.

6.1.7.1 GTAW: When additional filler metal is not used with the manual GTAW process, the Purchaser shall be informed and shall have the right to reject the proposed procedure on the basis of specific technical objections.

6.1.7.2 All limitations and restrictions of API 582 paragraph 5.2.1 and 5.5 apply. 6.1.8 SAW Application

6.1.8.1 In addition to API 582 paragraph 5.2.6 the following apply:

SAW: Maximum weld deposit per pass shall be limited to 12.5mm thickness

Run-on and run-off pads shall have the same P-Number as the base material

The SAW process shall not be used to repair welds, without written approval from the Purchaser for each individual repair

Active fluxes shall not be used when hardness or impact requirements must be met

SAW procedures for carbon steels shall utilize the wire and flux combinations recommended by their Manufacturer, and shall not result in

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Manganese and Silicon build-up in the weld in excess of 1.60% and 0.80% respectively

• Submerged arc flux may be recycled but shall be free from fused flux, mill scale, dirt or other foreign matter. Before reuse, the flux shall be rebaked in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations.

6.1.9 Welding Consumables

6.1.9.1 All welding consumables shall conform to the standards or specifications published by the Canadian Standards ASSOCiation, the American Welding Society, or the ASME BPV Code and B 31.3.

6.1.9.2 Production welding shall be performed using the same welding consumable manufacturer brand names and classifications as were used for the supporting PQRs.

6.1.9.3 The use of different consumables, regardless of equivalency based on ASME Section II/SFA specification, requires additional qualification tests for each supporting PQR prior to production welding to the following extent:

• for all welding processes when the design temperature of P-8 material exceeds 400°C

• additional tests are to confirm that the ferrite content is within the limits speclfled.

6.1.9.4 Filler metals and wire/flux combinations recommended by the filler metal manufacturer for "single pass welding" shall not be used for multi-pass welding.

6.1.9.S When joining two similar metals, the deposited weld metal shall match the chemical and mechanical properties of the base metal as closely as possible.

6.1.9.6 For attaching non-pressure parts to pressure parts of different ferritic steels, the filler metal should match the nominal chemical composition of the pressure part.

6.1.9.7 Ferritic material shall not be welded to austenitic material without prior approval of the Purchaser.

6.1.9.8 Welding electrodes classified as "F1" and "F2" in ASME BPV Code, Section IX shall not be used on pressure-retaining welds.

6.1.9.9 Identification of the welding consumables shall state manufacturer, grade and batch number.

6.1.9.10

Carbon steel FCAW filler metals shall satisfy the following conditions:

FCAW filler metals shall be restricted to those which produce mild steel deposits conforming to ASME BPV Code Section IX, A-No.1

FCAW filler metals shall conform to AWS Spec. AS.20 (ASME SFA-S.20), with diffusible hydrogen classification H8 or better For FCAWfilier metals the Manufacturer shall obtain test reports or certificates of conformance for each brand name, grade and diameter.

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6.1.10 Preheat and Interpass - General

6.1.10.1

The preheat temperature for production welding shall not be lower than the preheat temperature used for the supporting PQR. The Manufacturer shall demonstrate that preheat temperature for carbon steel production welding is adequate to achieve hardness control.

6.1.10.2

For pressure vessels and pressure equipment, the selected preheat temperature shall not be less than the recommended or specified requirements of Project standards, Drawings, ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1 or Division 2, BVP Appendix R, BVP Appendix D, as applicable.

6.2 Pressure Equipment

6.2.1 Propane torches, natural gas torches, induction heaters or electric resistance heaters shall be used for preheating when the required preheat temperature is less than 200 ·C.

6.2.2 Electric resistance or induction heating shall be used when a preheat temperature above 200·C is required.

6.2.3 Preheat of pressure equipment:

• shall be maintained in a region of not less than 75 mm, both laterally and in advance of the welding

• preheating will NOT allow application of oxy-fuel torches (rosebuds)

• The weld and heated band adjacent to the weld shall be slowly cooled under insulation when field welding is performed under winter conditions (ambient temperature less than 0 ·C), or when the preheat temperature is in excess of 100 ·C

• The width of the insulated zone shall be equal to the width of the heated band plus 100 mm on each side of the weld.

6.2.4 The interpass temperature

• shall be specified in the WPS

• the maximum interpass temperature limit for stainless steel shall be 175°C.

6.2.5 Backing strip use is as follows:

• permanent backing strips are not allowed

• the use of temporary backing strips is allowed provided that the:

a. backing strip does not influence the chemical composition of the weld

metal

b. strip will be removed without damage to the surrounding material

c. areas will be ground flush and cleaned after removal, and

d. areas will be inspected for cracks by either liquid penetrant or magnetic particle testing.

6.2.6 On pressure vessels with skirts, no tack welds are permitted on the inside of the skirt between the head and the skirt.

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6.2.7 After removal of temporary lugs, the area of attachment shall be dressed-up by grinding in preparation for examination by either MT or PT methods.

6.2.8 The GTAW or GMAW process shall be used to deposit the root pass on all welds of pressure equipment not accessible for back welding.

6.2.9 Weld Joints

6.2.9.1 Groove and Fillet Welds

• The minimum number of passes for a single groove weld butt joint and for fillet welds (including socket welds) is two.

• Where reinforcement pads are required, the nozzle-to-shell welds will be examined as specified on the design documents before the reinforcement pad is welded in place.

6.2.9.2 Visual Examination

• The backside of double-welded joints shall be cleaned to sound metal and examined 100% visually and by PT or MT.

6.3 Weld Finish

6.3.1 Fillet welds in vibrating service, as specified in the design documents, shall have a concave profile. The minimum throat-size shall not be less than the value specified on the design documents. If necessary, this requirement shall be achieved by blend grinding.

6.3.2 The finished weld shall be suffiCiently prepared (grinding, chipping, buffing, filing) prior to non-destructive testing to permit a clear and meaningful interpretation of indications.

6.4 Weld Repairs - General

6.4.1 Unacceptable discontinuities shall be completely removed by chipping, gouging, grinding, or other methods (for the type of material being repaired) to clean, sound metal.

6.4.2 The excavated area shall be examined by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant methods to assure complete removal of defects.

6.4.3 Repairs to correct weld defects shall be made using the same WPS used for the original weld or other previously approved WPS.

6.4.4 The repaired areas shall be reexamined using the same examination method and procedure by which the defect was originally detected.

6.4.5 Two repair attempts will be allowed on anyone defective area. No further attempts to repair shall be carried out without the Purchaser written approval.

6.4.6 Weld repair procedures shall be submitted to the Purchaser prior to equipment repair.

The procedure shall state, as a minimum, the following information:

• means of excavating defect from weld

• NDE method used to verify complete defect removal

• WPS used to fill excavated area

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• NDE method used to verify repair weld is sound.

7.0 WELDING LOW ALLOY STEEL

7.1 General

7.1.1 Scope

7.1.1.1 This section covers the mandatory requirements for welding on pressure retaining equipment fabricated from low-alloy steels.

7.1.1.2 Low alloy steels include 1Cr-O.5Mo, 1.25Cr-O.5Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo, 5Cr-O.5Mo & 9Cr-1Mo.

7.2 Hardness Testing of Low-Alloy Steel Welding Procedures

7.2.1 Purpose

7.2.1.1 The purpose of hardness testing PQR test coupons is to demonstrate prior to production that the proposed combination of welding and material variables will result in hardness control within the limits specified by the Purchaser.

7.3 Frequency of Testing

7.3.1 At least one cross-sectional hardness survey shall be provided for each PQR prepared.

7.4 Acceptance Criteria

7.4.1 For equipment the maximum surface hardness for the base metal, weld and heataffected zones in PWHT condition shall be:

• 1Cr-O.5Mo steel (215 BHN, 215Hv or equivalent per ASTM E140)

• 1.25Cr-O.5Mo steel (225 BHN, 225Hv, or equivalent per ASTM E140)

• 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (225 BHN, 225Hv or equivalent per ASTM E140)

• 5Cr-O.5Mo steel (235 BHN, 235Hv or equivalent per ASTM E140)

• 9Cr-1 Mo steel (235 BHN, 235 or equivalent per ASTM E140).

7.5 Welding

7.5.1 Preparation

7.5.1.1 Plate and pipe ends shall be prepared by thermal cutting, machining and/or grinding.

7.5.1.2 Machine-shearing and beveling are allowed on plate materials up to 8 mm thick.

Thermally cut edges shall be machined or ground to bright metal.

7.5.2 Welding Consumables

7.5.2.1 Welding electrodes, rods and filler wires shall meet the requirements of:

• AWS - A 5.5 or, A 5.23 or, A 5.28

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• ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C. / Section IX.

7.S.2.2 Low-alloy filler metal shall have the alloying elements in the wire and not in the flux.

7.6 Weld Deposit Analysis

7.6.1 For 1Cr-0.5Mo, 1.25Cr-0.SMo or 2.25Cr-1Mo steels, when Purchaser design documents specify a design temperature above 400DC, the manufacturer shall:

• Perform a chemical analysis of undiluted weld metal (pad type) deposit, for each batch/heat/lot combination of welding consumables to be used.

The chemical analysis shall meet the following requirements:

• Each analysis shall include a" of the elements controlled by ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C, for the applicable welding consumable classification, plus all those additional elements listed in (b) below.

• Each analysis shall comply with requirements for the applicable filler metal classification of ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C, and the following:

(1)X-bar = (10%P + 5%Sb + 4%Sn + %As)/100 <15

(2)(%Mn + %Si) <1.10

7.7 Preheating and Interpass Temperatures

7.7.1 Intermediate Stress Relief (ISR) heat treatment to be performed immediately after the welding resumed. Typically shall be performed at 11000F (S93°C). Holding time is one hour per inch (25.4 mm) of thickness with a minimum of two hours.

7.7.2 Dehydrogenation Heat Treatment (DHT) heat treatment to be performed upon written approval by the Purchaser. Consists in holding the material at a minimum 570°F (300°C) for a duration to be agreed upon the Manufacturer and the Purchaser - in no case shall the duration be less than one hour.

7.7.3 Requirements for 1.2SCr-0.SMo steels are:

• preheating between 100 DC and 1S0 DC

• for wall thicknesses below 10 mm, cooling down to ambient temperature after welding shall be done under insulation

• for wall thicknesses above 10 mm, ISR or DHT shall be applied unless a stress relief PWHT is carried out immediately

• welding shall continue without interruption unless the preheating temperature can be maintained during the interruption.

7.7.4 Requirements for 2.2SCr-1Mo steels are:

• preheating shall be carried out at 200°C minimum regardless of wall thickness

• the interpass temperature shall be controlled and shall not drop below 200°C

• ISR or DHT treatment shall be as specified in the WPS/PQR.

7.7.S Requirements for SCr-O.SMo and 9Cr-1Mo steels are:

• preheating shall be between 200°C and 300 °C

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• preheating temperature shall be maintained during welding

• when possible, PWHT should follow immediately after welding

• for wall thickness between 10 and 30 mm an ISR or DHT treatment shall be applied after welding unless a stress relive PWHT is carried out immediately.

7.8 Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)

7.8.1 Requirements for 1.25 Cr-0.5 Mo and 2.25 Cr-1Mo steels:

• All pressure equipment shall be PWHT in the range 700°C to 730°C.

7.8.2 Requirements for 5Cr-0.5 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo steel

• All pressure equipment shall be PWHT in the range 750 °C±10°C. Holding time at temperature Low alloy and High alloy steels shall be in accordance with ASME Code requirements.

8.0 WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL

8.1 Welding Procedure Approval

8.1.1 When the design temperature exceeds 400°C the welding procedures shall be qualified on base materials and welding consumables with the same generic designation as those that will be used for fabrication welding unless approved by the purchaser in writing.

8.1.2 For example, AISI 316 and AISI 316L are considered to have the same generic designation, AISI316 and AISI 304 do not have the same generic designation.

8.2 Welding Gases

8.2.1 Nitrogen Gas

• shall not be used for gas shielding or back purging of stainless steel

• may be permitted for duplex stainless steels subject to prior approval by the purchaser.

8.3 Ferrite

8.3.1 Content of ferrite level in austenitic chromium/nickel welds shall be between 3-11 FN.

8.3.2 For 347SS the ferrite level shall be between 5-11 FN.

8.3.3 Magnetic instruments may be used to measure weld metal ferrite content provided they are calibrated to recognized calibration procedures such as AWS A4.2, Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.

8.3.4 If chemical analysis of weld deposit is used to obtain the ferrite content, the analysis shall include nitrogen.

8.3.5 The WRC Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metals (latest edition) shall be used to assess ferrite content.

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8.4 Welding Process

8.4.1 FCAW

8.4.1.1 FCAW shall not be used when the design temperature exceeds 400°C without prior approval of the purchaser.

8.4.1.2 When the design temperature exceeds 400°C, the bismuth (Bi) content of FCAW deposited weld metal shall not exceed 0.002%.

8.4.1.3 Shielding and backing gases shall be limited to argon, helium and mixtures of these two gases with up to 5% O2 and 25% CO2.

8.5 Material Preparation

8.5.1 Cutting fluids, grease, oil, waxes and paint shall be removed with a suitable chloride-free solvent.

8.5.2 All alloy material and welds shall be provided free of any injurious defects (i.e. contamination) that may in Purchaser opinion, diminish the performance of the material in its intended service. Any contaminated components are to be repaired and/or replaced at Purchaser discretion.

8.5.3 The following pre-weld cleaning techniques are acceptable:

• stainless steel wire brushes that have not been used for any other purpose

• blasting with clean glass beads that are free of particles, which may contaminate the stainless steel (carbon, iron, etc.)

• machining and grinding using a suitable tool and chloride-free cutting fluid

• thorough post-weld cleaning is required to remove slag when present. Surface discoloration shall be removed by wire brushing or mechanical polishing or with commercially available pickling agents

• thorough post-weld cleaning is required to remove all slag present. Discoloration of equipment surfaces exposed to process fluids shall be removed by wire brushing, mechanical polishing, or pickling with commercially available pickling agents.

8.5.4 Welding slag and spatter shall be completely removed after each pass by chipping or brushing.

• Only stainless steel wire brushes shall be used.

8.6 Stabilization Heat Treatment

8.6.1 Chemically stabilized grades of stainless steel piping shall receive stabilizing heat treatment of the weld after welding when the operating temperature exceeds 425°C.

8.6.2 The parameters of the stabilization heat treatment shall be submitted to the purchaser for approval prior to heat treatment.

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8.7 Weld Deposit Analysis

8.7.1 When purchaser design documents specify a design temperature above 400°C, the manufacturer shall perform a chemical analysis of undiluted weld metal (pad type) deposit, for each batch/heat/lot combination of welding consumables to be used.

8.7.2 The chemical analysis shall meet the following requirements:

• each analysis shall include all of the elements controlled by ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C, for the applicable welding consumable classification, and all those additional elements listed in (b) below

• each analysis shall comply with requirements for the applicable filler metal classification of ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C, and for FCAW process bismuth content, Bi <0.002.

9.0 WELDING OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

9.1 Scope

9.1.1 The scope of this specification pertains to duplex stainless steels. Any exceptions to these requirements shall be authorized by the Purchaser.

9.1.2 The vendor shall supply complete material data including Heat Treatment before the job starts.

9.2 Materials

9.2.1 Plate materials shall be supplied in accordance with ASME SA-240, UNS S31803.

9.2.2 Fittings shall be supplied in accordance with ASME SA-182 Grade F51, UNS S31803.

9.2.3 Seamless pipe material shall be supplied in accordance with ASME SA-790, UNS S31803.

9.2.4 Tubing shall be supplied in accordance with ASME SA-789, UNS S31803.

9.2.5 Marking materials shall be:

• suitable for stainless steels

• contain less than 200 ppm halogens and 200 ppm sulphur.

9.2.5.1 When requested, composition certificates of marking materials shall be provided.

9.2.5.2 Dye stamping of final products is prohibited.

9.2.5.3 Tubing shall be seamless or welded.

If welded tubing is used, it shall receive both hydrostatic testing and nondestructive electric testing in accordance with ASME SA 789.

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9.2.6 Tubing shall be:

• solution annealed at 1070 to 11 OO°C for sufficient time to obtain the required duplex structure

• then water quenched to obtain the required duplex structure

• then water quenched to room temperature to ensure a bright finish anneal.

9.2.6.1 No weld repairs to tubes are permitted.

9.2.6.2 No repair of dents is permitted.

9.2.6.3 Tubes and tube bends shall be solution annealed after bending or straightening.

9.3 Certification

9.3.1 Certified copies of the material certificates and the results of the tensile, hardness, Charpy impact and other tests shall be furnished to Purchaser.

9.4 Welding Fabrication

9.4.1 The Supplier shall follow the guidelines of:

• the Avesta brochure "How to Weld Avesta 220S Code Plus Two Duplex Stainless Steel" or

• Sandvik brochure "Your Guide to Easy Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel".

9.S Joint Preparation

9.5.1 DSS may be cut using the plasma-arc process, a machine cutter, or grinding disc dedicated solely for the use on DSS.

9.5.2 Carbon-arc shall not be used for cutting or back-gouging.

9.S.3 Repairs by welding shall not proceed without prior approval of the Purchaser.

9.6 General Welding Requirements

9.6.1 All welds, including tack welds, shall be made with filler metal. The following consumables shall be used unless otherwise authorized by the Purchaser:

• SMAW SFA S.4 E2209 from Sandvik, Avesta, Zeron or Thyssen Metrode:

Ultramet 220S/220SXKS

• GTAW SFA S.9 ER2209 from Sandvik, Avesta, Zeron or Thyssen Metrode: ER 329N or Zeron 100x (over matching)

• SAW SFA S.9 ER2209 with a flux designed for DSS such as Sandvik Flux 3SWF, Avesta Flux 80S or equivalent Thyssen or Zeron fluxes. Metrode: ER 329N with SSB Flux.

9.7 Interpass Temperature

9.7.1 The maximum interpass temperature shall not exceed 300°C max.

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• All single sided welds shall be made with a GTAW root pass and back purged until at least 6 mm of weld metal thickness has been deposited.

9.8 Backing gas and shielding gas:

• shall be either pure Argon or Argon plus 5% max. Nitrogen. The oxygen content of the back purge shall be less than 0.005% (50 ppm).

9.9 Production welding:

9.9.1 Calibrated equipment for measuring the following variables shall be available at all times:

• welding current (amperage)

• arc voltage

• interpass temperatures

• oxygen content of backing gas

• Wire Feed Speed.

9.9.2 Travel speed - shielding and backing gas flow rate.

9.9.3 Weld maps:

• shall be incorporated on drawings submitted with applicable weld procedures, for review and authorization to proceed.

9.10 Welding Procedure Specifications and Qualification Requirements

9.10.1 WPS/PQRs shall be qualified in accordance with:

• ASME Section IX and the requirements of this specification

• Existing WPS/PQRs, or parts of existing WPS/PQRs may be acceptable provided all of the following requirements are satisfied.

9.10.2 Each WPS shall contain the information required by ASME Section IX, QW-250, and the following:

• the specific welding process or combination of processes to be used in production

• for base metal(s) and filler metal(s), the specitlc manufacturer(s) and trade name(s) to be used in production

• details of tack welding technique (where applicable)

• electrical characteristics of welding, i.e. current and voltage range and polarity for

each size (diameter) of filler metal

• heat input range

• welding head travel speed

• maximum interpass temperature

• for repair welding, details of technique for removing, and verifying removal of, defects.

9.10.3 Essential variables for procedure qualification shall be in accordance with ASME Section IX, QW-250.

9.10.4 Impact Tests Acceptance

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9.10.4.1

Average value for a set of 3 specimens of at least 40 ft /Ibs at -40oF no individual value less than 25 ftllbs.

9.10.5 Ferrite Tests (Modified ASTM E562)

9.10.5.1

9.10.5.2

9.10.5.3

9.10.5.4

For ferrite assessment during procedure qualification tests, metallurgical sections shall be polished and etched to clearly reveal the two-phase austenite/ferrite microstructure.

The area being point counted, either parent material, weld metal or HAZ, should be examined and photographed under a microscope at a sufficient magnification to fill the field of view and to be able to clearly discriminate between the constituent phases.

Locations of ferrite measurements

• Parent material - 2 measurements

• HAZ - 2 measurements

• In the weld metal, 3 measurements near to the vertical center line of the weld, one in the cap, one in the root, and one at mid thickness (total of 3).

Ferrite content at above locations shall be 30-65%.

9.10.6 Hardness Testing

9.10.6.1

9.10.6.2

9.10.6.3

Hardness testing is required on all weld procedure qualification records.

Hardness readings shall be recorded for both base metals, heat-affected zone and weld deposit.

Hardness shall not be above 310 Hv10 average, with no individual reading above 320 HV10.

9.10.7 Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints

9.10.7.1

9.10.7.2

9.10.7.3

9.10.7.4

9.10.7.5

General welding requirements of shall apply to tube-to-tubesheet welding, as applicable.

Tube-to-tubesheet welds shall be made using the GTAW process with the addition of filler metal.

The use of GMAW is not allowed.

The weld throats (minimum leak paths) shall not be less than the thickness of the tube wall.

For air coolers, tubes shall be strength welded to tubesheets with no rolling. A light roll solely to maintain fit up for welding is acceptable.

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• Any additional rolling requires approval from Purchaser. Rolled surfaces shall not extend past the tubesheet or into the weld area.

9.10.7.6

For shell-and-tube exchangers, rolling shall be prequalified by a mock up and hardness testing.

• hardness readings shall be taken in Vickers with a 10 Kg load

• at least 8 readings at a along the centre of the tube

• hardness values shall not exceed 310HV10 average, with no readings above 320 HV10

• rolled surfaces shall not extend past the tubesheet or into weld

areas.

A fabrication plan shall be submitted for approval, and shall include cleaning prior to assembly, welding and rolling sequences, and inspections as a minimum.

9.10.7.7

9.10.8 Tube-to- Tubesheet Welding Procedure Qualification Requirements

9.10.8.1

Tube-to-tubesheet welding procedures shall be qualified using a qualification test in accordance with ASME Section VIII, Division 2, Article F-3 and the requirements of the following notes.

• The test assembly shall simulate all steps of the production joint including both rolling and welding.

• In addition, if production welding is to be performed through the plug sheet, this should be simulated in the test assembly. (Access hole diameter and distance from hole to tubesheet shall be equal to production distances +1-10%.)

• In addition to the macro-examination required, the microstructure and ferrite content of one randomly selected weld section shall be assessed.

• Hardness (HV10) readings shall be taken in the heat-affected zone, weld deposit and tubesheet base metal.

• A minimum of 6 readings shall be taken on each of the tube-totubesheet joints prepared for metallography.

• Hardness shall not be above 310 HV10 average, with no individual reading above 320 HV10•

9.11 NDE and Testing

9.11.1 Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT)

• all accessible completed production welds shall be PT examined

• procedures and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 8

• the examination shall include a band of base metal at least one inch wide on each side of the weld and both faces of the joint (if accessible).

9.11.2 Ferrite Checks

9.11.2.1

The ferrite content of all accessible completed production welds shall be checked using a Fischer Ferritscope.

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9.11.2.2

A minimum of 3 tests shall be made on each weld.

9.11.2.3

The average value of Ferritscope readings on each weld shall be 30- 70FN.

10.0 STAINLESS STEEL CLAD AND STAINLESS STEEL OVERLAY

10.1 Mandatory Requirements

10.1.1 Scope

10.1.1.1

This section covers additional mandatory requirements for the welding of pressure retaining equipment fabricated from stainless steel clad, and stainless steel overlay materials.

10.1.1.2

Sleeve lined connections shall not be used for pressure equipment.

10.1.1.3

Connections NPS2 and smaller shall be one of the following:

• weld overlaid

• solid alloys.

The mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the connection and the weld metal used for the attachment shall fall within +20% of the coefficient of the shell or head material.

10.1.1.4

10.1.1.5

Connections over NPS 2 shall be weld overlaid, or integrally clad.

10.1.1.6

Flange faces of weld overlaid or integrally clad connections shall be weld overlaid and machined finished in the gasket area with minimum overlay thickness of 3 mm after machining.

10.2 Welder Qualification

10.2.1 Welders and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with QW-381 and QW- 382 of ASME BPV Code, Section IX.

10.3 Cladding Requirements

10.3.1 In addition to API 582 APPENDIX B the following requirements apply.

10.3.2 Cladding thickness specified on the drawing shall be:

• finished thickness

• shall not be less than 3mm.

10.3.3 Clad plates shall be produced by roll bonding or explosion welding.

10.3.4 For clad parts, no corrosion allowance shall be required on the base metal.

10.3.5 Total cladding thickness shall be considered as corrosion allowance.

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10.3.6 The clad thickness shall not be considered as part of the wall thickness for pressure calculation.

10.3.7 All clad plates shall conform to any of the ASME standards SA-263, SA-264, SA-265.

10.4 Weld Preparation for Cladd Restoration

10.4.1 When welding from both sides:

• cladding material shall be removed a minimum distance of 6 mm from the edge of all weld seams

• complete removal of cladding shall be verified along the complete length of each joint using a copper sulphate solution

• the base material shall be welded in accordance with the procedure for the base metal involved.

11.0 CARBON STEEUSTAINLESS STEEL CLADDING - CLAD RESTORATION

11.1 Welding Requirements

11.1.1 The first pass for stainless steel overlay shall be welded with a buffer electrode conforming to E 309L.

11.1.2 The second and subsequent passes shall be welded with a consumable matching the cladding.

11.1.3 Single-sided welding from the non-clad side shall only be done with the written consent of the Purchaser.

11.1.4 The use of sleeve-type lining requires prior written approval of the Purchaser.

• weld overlaid or clad nozzle linings are preferred.

11.2 Ferrite

11.2.1 A ferrite check shall be performed on the procedure qualification test plate of Chromium/Nickel austenitic stainless steel welds.

11.2.2 The ferrite level of austenitic Chromium/Nickel welds shall be between 3-11 FN. For 347SS the ferrite level shall be between 5-11 FN.

11.2.3 The ferrite check shall consist of an actual ferrite measurement or can be based on actual chemical analysis of the weld metal.

• Magnetic instruments may be used to measure weld metal ferrite content provided they are calibrated to recognized calibration procedures such as AWS A4.2, Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.

11.2.4 If chemical analysis of weld deposit is used to obtain the ferrite content, the analysis shall include nitrogen.

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11.2.5 The WRC Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metals (latest edition) shall be used to assess ferrite content.

11.3 Weld Overlay

11.3.1 Mandatory Requirements

11.3.1.1 Stainless steel weld overlay shall be made with a minimum of two layers. The first layer 309L. Subsequent layer(s) the specified material. When nickel alloys are employed for the overlay one or two layers may be deposited. The 309L buffer layer is neither required nor recommended. In addition to API 582 APPENDIX B the following requirements apply:

• The production weld deposit analysis shall be representative of weld metal composition at a depth at least 1 mm below the specified thickness of deposit, include all elements specified for the corresponding filler metal per AWS/SFA speclflcations and be within the limits required in ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C.

• The mandatory requirements may not apply for items where Licensor requirements take precedence.

11.3.1.2 All weld overlay shall be 100% PT examined after the final shop hydrotest.

11.3.1.3

For design temperatures above 400°C, all weld overlay shall be 100% UT examined after final shop hydro-test.

11.3.1.4

All cracks and discontinuities found in overlay deposits shall be removed and repaired.

• Such areas shall be re-inspected, and

• plotted on a drawing showing areas repaired.

Alloy welding rods shall have the alloying agents in the wire and not in the flux unless the Purchaser specifically agrees to the procedure.

11.3.1.5

11.3.1.6

Manufacturers who propose to use SAW overlay procedures shall:

• submit full details at the proposal stage for the Purchaser's review and comments.

• examination methods shall also be included.

11.4 Weld Deposit Analysis

11.4.1 The ManufacturerNendor shall provide a chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal for each supporting PQR.

11.4.2 The vendor shall supply the method and frequency of production deposited weld metal chemical analysis in order to confirm conformity with material requirements.

11.4.3 Each PQR and production weld deposit analysis shall:

• be representative of weld metal composition at a depth at least 1 mm below the specified thickness of deposit;

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• include all elements specified for the corresponding filler metal in applicable AWS/SFA specifications and any other elements that may be specified on Purchaser design documents; and

• be within limits specified for the corresponding filler metal in ASME BPV Code, Section II, Part C, and any supplementary limits specified in the design documents.

12.0 DISSIMILAR WELDS

12.1 Limitations:

12.1.1 The dissimilar welds shall be performed in shop not in field.

12.1.2 For dissimilar welds using Nickel Based electrodes, the temperature limitations as stated in API 582 TABLE 6-1 apply entirely.

12.2 Definition:

12.2.1 The following type of welds are considered dissimilar:

• Carbon Steel to 5 Cr

• Carbon Steel to 9 Cr

• Carbon Steel to all Stainless Steels

• All Low Alloys to Stainless Steels

12.2.2 Weld metal:

• Below 3450 C type 309/309L may be used

• Above 3450 C Incoloy 182 or Inconel 625 shall be used

• Incoloy 182 or Inconel 625 may be used for all temperatures unless limited by API 582 (see table 6-1)

12.3 Fabrication:

12.3.1 GTAW process is required for the root and hot pass for all dissimilar welds.

12.3.2 Fill and Cap passes may be performed using one of the processes permitted per table 1.0 as applicable.

12.3.3 All dissimilar welds shall be butt weld type.

12.4 Mandatory Non-destructive examinations (NDE)

12.4.1 UT and PT or RT and PT, 100% weld and HAZ, required for all dissimilar welds.

13.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING

13.1 General

13.1.1 NDE inspection and pressure testing shall conform, as a minimum, to the general requirements of ASME BPV Code, Section VIII or to the applicable ASME B31.3 Piping Code, CGSB Standard 48-Gp or AS NT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A.

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13.1.2 All weld joints subject to pressure in Hydrogen Service shall be 100% UT examined per ASME SA - 435 supplementary requirement S-1.

13.1.3 The Manufacturer shall refer to the relevant Project specifications and Drawings for details on NDE extent and acceptance criteria.

13.1.4 For all environments, the maximum allowed hardness for carbon steel weld metal and heat-affected zones (measured at the fusion line) shall be 200 BHN. Cross - section Vickers 10 hardness:

• 210 Hv10 for the weld metal and 244Hv10 for HAZ is acceptable

13.1.5 Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchanger; Pressure Retaining plates over 50 mm thick shall be provided 100% UT examined per ASTM - A 435 by the plate manufacturer.

13.1.6 Pressure Vessels NDE examination shall follow the requirements as stated on the drawings and Pressure Vessels specifications.

13.1.7 Air Coolers: Header Plates > 1.5" thickness, stiffener plate attachment welds 100% UT examination after PWHT. Nozzle welds 100% UT. Category D nozzle welds 100% RT examination. All carbon steel plug and cover plate Header Welds, designed with Grade 70 material and higher, and all P4 and higher ferritic materials 100% RT examination. When due to limited access RT is not possible 100% UT shall be used. NDE matrix listed the extent of examination per each item.

13.1.8 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Carbon steel, Long and Circular seams and Nozzle attachment welds spot RT examination required as a minimum. When PWHT specified, Long and Circular seams and Nozzle attachment welds shall be 100% RT examined after PWHT. High Alloy steel Long and Circular seams and Nozzle attachment welds shall be 100% RT examined.

13.2 Testing and NDE Applications

13.2.1 Testing and non-destructive examination methods and procedures are outlined in this specification.

13.2.2 For Sour Service applications, additional NDE requirements are outlined in CNRL standard 00-STD-ME-0039

13.2.3 For Sour and Hydrogen Service applications as defined in Standard 00-STD-ME-0034 and Standard 00-STD-ME-0039 respectively, controlled chemistry for Carbon Steel material is required. Carbon Equivalent (CE) based on ASTM A 20/A20M (S20.2) formula shall be CE < 0.43.

13.3 Planning and Communication

13.3.1 Scheduling, procedure, equipment calibration, personnel qualification, acceptance criteria, and reporting requirements must be outlined.

13.3.2 The Manufacturer shall arrange for the Purchaser to have free access to all fabrication facilities where the Purchaser's fabrications are being welded or tested.

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The Purchaser shall be kept informed of the progress of the work and be notified reasonably in advance when the fabrication will be ready for inspection and testing.

13.4 Personnel Qualifications

13.4.1 All personnel carrying out examinations and tests shall be qualified in accordance with:

• the manufacturer's approved quality control system, and

• to the specific qualifications stated under each type of test.

13.4.2 A written report shall be prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's approved quality control system.

13.4.3 All NDE shall be performed by/or the direct supervision of ASNT-TC-1A1CGSB Level II or III inspector.

13.4.4 Any interpretations and lor final report shall be produced by a level I! or III inspector

13.4.5 The report shall state:

• the test method or non-destructive examination procedure used,

• the items examined, and

• whether they are acceptable or rejectable based upon the applicable acceptance criteria

13.4.6 The report shall be prepared within 24 hours unless otherwise specified.

13.4.7 The person(s) who interpret the examination(s) shall sign the report(s).

13.5 Visual Examination

13.5.1 Welds shall be examined visually before any other non-destructive examinations are performed.

13.5.2 Visual examination procedures shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 9, with the following provisions:

• Approved documented visual examination procedures shall be used.

• A written report on the results of tests on equipment or processes subjected to visual examination shall be prepared.

• All cracks, lack of fusion, surface slag/scale overlaps, undercuts, arc strikes and surface porosity are unacceptable.

• NDE Personnel shall be certified to the applicable standards.

• Extent of specific NDE requirements for piping for each material and line class shall be as noted in attachment 06.

13.6 Equipment Calibration

13.6.1 All equipment used in performing visual calibration examinations (e.g., measuring telescopes, scales, etc.) shall be calibrated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 9.

13.7 Personnel Qualifications

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13.7.1 Personnel carrying out visual examination shall be:

• Qualified and certified in accordance with CSA Std. W178.2, Level II or Level III in the Product Categories covered by the ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, or an equivalent acceptable to the Purchaser.

13.8 Acceptance Criteria

13.8.1 The visual examination shall be evaluated in criteria accordance with the most stringent governing code, material standard or applicable Purchaser's Engineering and Project Document.

13.8.2 The weld root shall be free of any apparent cracks, burn-through, inadequate penetration, suck-back, porosity and undercut.

13.9 Radiographic Examination (RT)

13.9.1 Requirements are:

13.9.1.1

The radiographic examination requirements of the governing code shall apply, plus

• Engineering Speciflcations or Purchase Order

• Radiographic examination, shall be performed after all repair welding.

13.9.2 Procedures

• The radiographic examination procedure shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 2, ASME Sec. VIII, as applicable.

• Equipment used to perform the radiographic calibration examination shall be calibrated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 2, para. T260.

13.9.3 Acceptance Criteria

• For pressure vessels, acceptance criteria are as per criteria ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, paragraph. UW-51 or UW-52, or whichever acceptance criteria is applicable to the situation.

• For pressure piping, acceptance criteria are as per ASMEIANSI Code B31.3, paragraph. 341 or ASME/ANSI Code B31.1, paragraph. 136, whichever is applicable.

• When "no root defects" are specified, the weld root shall be free of cracks, burnthrough, inadequate penetration, suck-back, porosity and undercut.

13.10 Ultrasonic Examination (UT)

13.10.1 Scheduling of the UT examination may adhere to contract requirements in lieu of those outlined in this sub-section

13.10.2 Requirements for Pressure Vessels, Air Coolers, Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

• All pressure retaining plates having a thickness over 50 mm shall be UT per ASME SA - 435 - acceptance standard shall be per Section 6 of SA-435.

• All pressure boundary forgings over 50 mm in thickness shall be UT per ASME SA-388.

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• Forged material over 102 mm thick shall be UT to the requirements of ASME, Section VIII, Division2, paragraph AM 203.2

13.10.3 Procedures

• The ultrasonic examination procedure shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 5.

• Surface preparation must be clean and free from scale, splatter, dirt or anything that will impede the transmission of sound from search unit to material.

13.10.4 Couplant:

• must be water based and soluble

• no oil-based couplant shall be used

• rust inhibitors may be used if they are required.

13.10.5 Equipment Calibration

• The equipment and procedure used to perform the calibration ultrasonic examination shall be calibrated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 5, para. T530.

13.10.6 Personnel Qualifications

• Personnel carrying out ultrasonic examination shall have the following qualifications:

• be certified in accordance with CGSB 48-GP 7M, Level II or Level III, Standard for Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel (Industrial Ultrasonic Method) or

• have an equivalent qualification acceptable to the Purchaser.

13.10.7 Acceptance Criteria

• Reflectors that exceed 20% of the Distance criteria Amplitude Correction (DAC) curve shall be evaluated and reported based upon location, length, depth and amplitude.

• The ultrasonic examination of pressure vessels shall be evaluated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Appendix 12.

• Slag inclusions and lack of bonding found when ultrasonically examining weld overlay shall not be accepted when longer than 25 mm and larger than 625 square mm respectively.

• When "no root defects" is specified, the weld root shall be free of cracks, inadequate penetration, suck-back, porosity and undercut.

13.11 Magnetic Particle Examination (MP)

13.11.1 Scheduling of the magnetiC particle examination shall adhere to contract requirements in lieu of those outlined in this sub-section

13.11.2 Mandatory Requirements

• The magnetic particle examination procedure shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 7.

• The type of magnetic particle examination shall be that specified by the appropriate Design Standard.

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• Only induction method examination shall be used. Wet magnetic particle inspection shall have a water-soluble carrying medium.

• The magnetic particle examination of surfaces onto which weld metal is to be deposited shall be performed using dry ferromagnetic particles.

• The root Pass, low alloy equipment welds in hydrogen service shall be 100% examined, including back gouged root passes.

• After PWHT, all wetted surfaces of welds in Hydrogen service, including internal attachments shall be AC Magnetic particle Tested.

• All fillet welds on intermediate heads shall be MP or Liquid Penetrant (LP)

examined after Hydrotest.

• Skirt to head welds shall be MP or LP examined prior to Hydrotest.

• All lifting devices shall be 100% MP examined.

• For pressure vessels and heat exchangers plates and forging over 50 mm thick, all cut edges of pressure containing base material shall be examined by magnetic particle method using DC current only. Indications found shall be cleared and back welded to provide a depth of 25 mm of sound metal.

13.11.3 Equipment Calibration

• Equipment used to perform the magnetic particle calibration examination shall be calibrated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 25, Standard SE-709.

13.11.4 Personnel Qualification

• Personnel carrying out Magnetic Particle qualification Examination shall be certified in accordance with CGSB 4S-GP-SM, Level II or Level III Standard for Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel (Magnetic Particle Method) or an equivalent acceptable to the Purchaser.

13.11.5 Acceptance Criteria

• The magnetic particle examination of pressure vessels criteria shall be evaluated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Appendix 6.

13.12 Liquid Penetrant Examination (LPE)

13.12.1 Scheduling of the liquid penetrant examination may adhere to contract requirements in lieu of those outlined in this sub-section.

13.12.2 Procedure

• The liquid penetrant examination procedure shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 6.

• The equipment and technique shall comply with the manufacturer's approved quality control system.

• A change in equipment or technique shall require a re-qualification of the liquid penetrant examination procedure.

• The liquid penetrant examination of surfaces shall be performed using watersoluble penetrant consumables.

• The liquid penetrant examination procedure shall comply with the requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section V, Article 6.

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• The equipment and technique shall comply with the manufacturer's approved quality control system.

• A change in equipment or technique shall require a re-qualification of the liquid penetrant examination procedure.

• No mechanical surface preparation such as sand blasting, machining, grinding, etc. is allowed without permission from the Purchaser.

• Final surfaces of weld overlays, clad restoration, and welds joining attachments to the weld overlay or integral cladding shall be 100% LPE following Hydrotesting.

• Where magnetic particle examination is called for on non-magnetic material, this examination shall be substituted with LPE.

13.12.3 Acceptance criteria

• The liquid penetrant examination of pressure vessels shall be evaluated in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Appendix 8.

13.12.4 Personnel Qualification

• Personnel carrying out liquid penetrant examination qualification shall be:

• certified in accordance with CGSB 48-GP-9M, Level" or Level III Standard for Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel (Liquid Penetrant Method) or

• an equivalent acceptable to the Purchaser.

13.13 Hardness Testing Of Welding Procedure Qualification Coupons

13.13.1 Procedure

13.13.1.1 The hardness of the weld procedure qualification (WPQ) coupon shall be measured on a cross section prepared for microscopic examination, and on the outer (or cap) surface prepared for macroscopic examination after removal of the weld reinforcement (groove welds only) to the plane of the base metal.

13.13.2 The removal of weld reinforcement must be done so as not to create any hardening of the weld, HAZ, or base metal.

13.13.3 WPQ Hardness Traverse: Hardness measurements shall be performed using:

• Vickers hardness measurement method described by ASTM E 92

• Vickers Scales between one kilogram (Hv1) and 10 kilograms (Hv10) inclusive are acceptable or

• Rockwell test method conducted in accordance with ASTM - E 18, using indentors and loads appropriate to the zone of interest. (The Purchaser reserves the right to reject welding procedures showing Rockwell hardness values above 98 HRB or 60 HRA.).

13.14 Equipment Calibration

• The calibration of equipment used to perform Vickers hardness measurements shall be verified in accordance with ASTM E 92.

• The calibration of equipment used to perform Rockwell hardness measurements shall be verified in accordance with ASTM E 18.

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13.15 Personnel Qualifications

13.15.1 Personnel carrying out hardness testing shall be qualified in accordance with the manufacturer's approved quality control system.

13.16 Acceptance Criteria

13.16.1 The upper and lower range of acceptable hardness measurements shall be specified by the governing code, Welding of Pressure Equipment and Piping or the Purchase Order.

13.17 Reporting

13.17.1 A written report shall be prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's approved quality control system. and include:

• the location of hardness measurements

• the measurement results and the hardness requirement.

• reference to the applicable Welding Procedure Qualification.

14.0 HARDNESS TESTING OF PRODUCTION WELDS

14.1 Scheduling

14.1.1 The hardness of production welds shall be measured after all final post weld heat treatment.

14.1.2 If post weld heat treatment is not part of the construction steps, then measurement shall be made after final welding.

14.2 Procedure

14.2.1 The hardness of production welds shall be measured on the outer (or cap) surface after removal of the weld reinforcement by grinding (groove weldments only) to the plane of the base metal.

14.2.2 The removal of weld reinforcement must be done so as not to create any hardening of the weld or HAl.

14.2.3 The weld metal and heat-affected zone hardness measurements:

• will confirm that the hardness obtained from the weld procedure qualification coupon are also obtained from production weldments

• will act to identify irregular weldments.

14.2.4 Hardness measurements on the surface of the production weldment shall be:

• performed at the locations indicated by Purchaser's representative using the Brinell hardness measurement method described by ASTM E 10.

14.2.5 When applicable, the following should only be permitted with the Purchaser's written approval:

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• the portable Brinell hardness test method described by ASTME 110, Equotip hardness testing described in ASTM A 956 or

• any other approved hardness measurement method that involves the optical measurement of an impressed indentation on the weldment surface

14.2.6 The hardness results shall be expressed using the Brinell scale.

14.2.7 When conversion of hardness data from other scales is required, it shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E 140.

14.2.8 The measured hardness and the scale used for the testing shall be reported together with the conversion to the Brinell scale.

14.3 Equipment Calibration

The calibration of equipment used to perform Brinell hardness measurements shall be verified in accordance with ASTM E 10. Equotip is not permitted unless approved in writing by the Purchaser.

The Purchaser's representative reserves the right to witness the verification of the hardness test equipment performed using calibrated hardness test blocks.

Portable hardness test equipment that does not verify the hardness of a calibrated test block to within 15 HB shall not be used.

14.4 Personnel Qualification

14.4.1 Personnel carrying out hardness testing of production welds shall meet the requirements of SUb-section 13.15.1 (Personnel Qualifications).

14.4.2 Operators that do not verify the hardness of a calibrated test block to within 15 HB, shall not be used.

14.5 Acceptance Criteria

14.5.1 The upper and lower range of acceptable hardness measurements shall be speclfied by this speCification including the attachments 01.

14.6 Reporting

14.6.1 A written report shall be prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's approved quality control system.

14.6.2 The report shall indicate:

• the location of hardness measurements

• the measurement results

• the hardness requirement.

END OF SECTION I

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