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Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

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Published by Alex Caron

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Published by: Alex Caron on Nov 04, 2010
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Meiosis and sexual life cycles

‡ Asexual through mitosis ± Offspring essentially identical to parent ± Genetic variation only through mutation ‡ Sexual through meiosis ± Offspring gets 50% of DNA from father, 50% from mother ± Genetic variation through e.g. recombination and mutation

Chromosome sets ‡ Humans and most animals: ± All cells (except gametes) are diploid (2n) ± Two sets of chromosomes (1 maternal + 1 paternal) ± Or: one set of homologous chromosomes (homologues) ‡ Pay attention to terminology! .

‡ Set of homologous chromosomes is depicted by karyotype ‡ Homologues are functionally equivalent except for sex chromosomes (X and Y) .


The Human Life Cycles ‡ Gamete formation: meiosis reduces chromosome number (from diploid to haploid) ‡ Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote (fertilization) .

Types of sexual life cycles .

Meiosis overview .

Meiosis overview .

Meiosis overview .

The Meiotic Division of an Animal Cell INTERPHASE MEIOSIS I: Separates homologous chromosomes PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Sister chromatids Centromere (with kinetochore) Chiasmata Spindle Metaphase plate Sister chromatids remain attached Nuclear envelope Chromatin Tetrad Microtubule attached to kinetochore Homologous chromosomes separate Chromosomes duplicate Homologous chromosomes (red and blue) pair and exchange segments. 2n = 6 in this example Tetrads line up Pairs of homologous chromosomes split up .

chromosomes are still double During another round of cell division. four haploid daughter cells result. the sister chromatids finally separate.The Meiotic Division of an Animal Cell MEIOSIS II: Separates sister chromatids TELOPHASE I AND CYTOKINESIS PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND CYTOKINESIS Cleavage furrow Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming Two haploid cells form. containing single chromosomes .



sister chromatids remain together 2n Anaphase I Telophase I Daughter cells of meiosis I Haploid n=3 MEIOSIS II n n n n Daughter cells of meiosis II Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II .Mitosis vs. meiosis MITOSIS Parent cell (before chromosome replication) MEIOSIS Chiasma (site of crossing over) MEIOSIS I Prophase I Prophase Chromosome replication Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) 2n = 6 Chromosome replication Tetrad formed by synapsis of homologous chromosomes Metaphase Chromosomes positioned at the metaphase plate Tetrads positioned at the metaphase plate Metaphase I Anaphase Telophase 2n Daughter cells of mitosis Sister chromatids Homologues separate separate during during anaphase anaphase I.

Sex produces genetic variation ‡ Mitosis yields genetically identical daughter cells ‡ Meiosis yields genetically unique spores/gametes ‡ During sexual reproduction three mechanisms contribute to genetic variation: ‡ Independent assortment of chromosomes ‡ Crossing over ‡ Random fertilization .

Independent assortment of chromosomes ‡ Random orientation of tetrads at the metaphase plate ‡ Number of combinatio ns possible: 2n .



Crossing over ‡ Produces recombinant chromosomes: combine genes inherited from each parent ‡ Homologous portions of two nonsister chromatids trade places .

g. humans: ± An ovum and a sperm each represents one of ~ 8. almost«) ‡ E.4 million possible chromosome combinations (actually 223) ± The resulting zygote is composed of 1 in 70 trillion (223 x 223) possible combinations of chromosomes ‡ Crossing over adds even more variation to this  A zygote has a unique genetic identity .Random fertilization ‡ Any sperm can fuse with any egg (well.


The cost of sex ‡ Asexual reproduction yields many more offspring .


diseases«) .‡ Sexual reproduction ± Offspring is genetically variable. resulting in different phenotypes  Offspring survival is likely increased in a relatively rapidly changing environment (e.g.

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