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Documenting in MLA Style Revised 4/1/09
MLA format provides a way for students to identify, and incorporate information in the humanities (except history) and fine arts. This handout offers the most common features of an MLA document; however, before writing your final draft, be sure to check your instructor’s requirements. Last name and page number in the header Jones 1 Centered informative title not underlined, bold or put into quotes
Heading for a paper not needing a title page
Cindy Jones Dr. Jerry Jaguar English 111 10 Jan. 2009 Indent 5 spaces, or ½ inch (tab once) per paragraph and keep a 1-inch margin around your entire page
Double spaced 12-point font throughout
Emily Dickinson’s Daring Punctuation Although Emily Dickinson enjoys an honored place in the canon of American poets, specialists in correct grammar emit only slightly muffled screams when confronted with her punctuation choices, especially her use of the dash. Her freestyle use of the dash creates problems in representing her handwritten poems in typed text. How long should the dashes be, or how many are needed to duplicate the meaning she intended? Dickinson’s poems can be reproduced more faithfully and sensitively in artistically crafted chapbooks than they can in ordinary typeset anthologies.
If you cite more than one work by a particular author. in Jones 234). Two authors with the same last name While some studies reveal the need for further study of embryonic fluid (J. Cite both quotations and paraphrases when using MLA. others feel that current statistics concretely prove the value of stem cell transplantation (A. Hart 678). The following examples model incorporating the source into the sentence and accurately documenting the source. and they are short on funding to succeed” (qtd. no author is given for a reference. include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the other work by that same person. Hart 568).Owens Community College Writing Center 2 In-text Citations Parenthetical References serve two purposes: to reflect the source of your research and to give credit to that source. Author’s name not given in the text “Writing to learn has different goals from” other forms of writing (Gere 5).000 Japanese died in one bombing attack on Tokyo (“Bombing Japan” 79). No Author Frequently. Smith advocates the need for funding in colleges if they are to be the center for a changing society (qtd. In this case. Indirect Quotations The phrase. . Note that in the example Jones would appear on the Works Cited page and the original passage written by Smith is located within the Jones article. use an abbreviated title in the in-text citation. list both authors’ first initials (and even his or her full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. in Jones 234). Smith claims that colleges are pressured to act as if they are “the center for life change. Two works by the same author Dunn has argued that reading is imperative for preschool children (“Head Starts” 38). Note: Jones appears on the Works Cited page not Smith. Author mentioned in a paraphrase Gere maintains that writing to learn strategies alter the roles of teachers and students (5). Author mentioned in the sentence Fitzgerald writes that “the caddies were poor as sin and lived in one-room houses” (407). “qtd. though she has acknowledged that early exposure to simple games and songs does lead to expanded language development in a child’s second and third year (“Early Language Development” 17). Two Authors When two or more authors share the same last name.in” is used to cite a primary source found in a secondary source. Some 100.
. in the first parenthetical citation. Use the original line breaks of poetry or songs. When leaving out word(s) or one or more sentences of a quoted selection. put brackets around the added word(s).” each with faces of a man. .5-10). give only the book. In all further citations using the same version of the Bible.42). a lion. See Little. are only capitalized. theirs was the voice of reason – one of the few . Though the firefighters acted emotionally. . Place the punctuation at the end of the quote before the parenthetical citation. When quoting from the Bible. . use ellipsis marks. but do not italicize or underline it. Double-space all material in MLA style papers. it is good to be reminded that conflict is essential to the democratic process . heard thus far. in a New York Times article. nor are they italicized. Author’s name given in the sentence As revealed in a study by leading researcher Dr. (239) Sacred Writings Titles of sacred writings. state the translation or version of the Bible quoted. . When adding word(s) to a quotation to clarify meaning or to improve the sentence’s grammar. Do not use quotation marks. . Brown Handbook for a complete description of ellipsis usage. or for more than three lines of poetry. Herbert Mishap. They are not put in quotation marks. The sky did not fall . Then give the name of the book within the Bible. Seventh Avenue wasn’t immediately mothballed. The Qur’an affirms Mary’s purity: “Behold! The angel said: ‘O Mary! God hath chosen thee and purified thee— chosen thee above the women of all nations’” (3. an ox. . Block Quotations and Modifying Quotations With quotations longer than four lines. then the quote will be blended into the text with the citations placed in an unobtrusive manner to maintain the flow of the writing. Ezek. However. 1. Hopkins stem cell research is “capable of combating Parkinson’s disease” (79). such as the Qu’ran or the Bible. indent the quoted lines ten spaces in a freestanding block. the title of a particular translation of the Bible should be italicized. and an eagle respectively (New Jerusalem Bible. In asserting their right to access [following 9/11] the firefighters claimed it for everyone. chapter and verse. Author’s name not given in the sentence Some researchers feel that stem cell research is “imperative to combating Parkinson’s disease” though others maintain that it is immoral (Hopkins 79).Owens Community College Writing Center 3 Short Quotations When your quote is fewer than four lines long. ponders the role of conflict in democracy: With all the talk we are hearing about unity of purpose and unanimity of voice. Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures. and follow this with chapter and verse numbers.
2008. etc. Books with a single author Power. you list only the first author followed by et al. The Films of West: A Social History. Brown Compact Handbook. 5. or works consulted list. periodical. Print.Owens Community College Writing Center 4 Works Cited At the end of a research paper you will need to include a list of all materials that you have quoted. . every entry on the Works Cited page has a corresponding citation within the paper. follow it with a comma. Alphabetize the Works Cited list by the first word in each entry (usually the author’s last name) When a work has more than one author. Anonymous works are alphabetized by the title of the piece. order the sources alphabetically by title and substitute three hyphens for the author’s name in subsequent entries for that author. for MLA. Double-space all entries. If you are looking for more help with MLA format. 4. New York: Allyn & Bacon. Guidelines for the Works Cited list 1. ---. Print. Keep in mind. Strong Study Habits of Great Students. 2009. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Film. this list is called a Works Cited. Paul. As of 2009. Year of Publication. Dickens and the Outlaws. etc. use an abbreviated version of the title for in-text citations. film. 2. Place of Publication: Publisher. New York: Mac Shane. and Noah Willie. 2008. 8. and then continue listing the rest of the authors. note the medium in which you found the material: Web (for all on-line sources). of all materials you used in creating the paper whether you cite them or not. do not skip spaces between citations. 7. Books General Format Examples Author(s). Two books by the same author Holliday. Jill. 9. Capitalize all important words in the titles of books. 6. Austin. As of 2009. Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin. articles. et al. see a Writing Center tutor or The Little. If several of your sources are by the same author. 2007. LP. 3. A Mentoring Handbook. Title of Book. Center at the top of a separate page the title—Works Cited— using no quotation marks or underlining. italicize all book. Print. Dock. Print. Souza. do not include URL if enough information is given to retrieve the source. list only the first and use the Latin abbreviation et al. invert only the first author’s name. Book with multiple authors Glick. Print. Some instructors may also ask for bibliography. For four or more authors. 2007. summarized or paraphrased within your paper. The Spy Under My Nose. (Note: when the source has more than three authors. Use hanging indent and left justify the margin. 10. As of 2009. Print. titles. (“and others”) or list all of the authors in the same order in which their names appear on the title page. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP.
2005 ed. If necessary. (For familiar reference books only list the edition and year of publication).g.. Washington: APA. 2007 early ed. Print. Pages.” New York Times. “Title of article. Department of Natural Resources. Samples for periodical articles Article in a periodical (such as a newspaper or magazine) General Format Author(s). “Title of Article. 1985. Editor. Place of Publication: Publisher. Steve. 2007. Magazine or newspaper article Homes. Ed.” Newsweek.g. Book or article with no author named Chronicles of Ohio. Susan Jones. Sep.) If article continues non-sequentially on other pages. Print. New York: Doubleday. clarify which edition—for instance.” Title of book. Anthology or collection Collins.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 24-34. Print. The New Jerusalem Bible. Pamphlet General Format Example Author. Washington: GPO. “Selling Our Freedom. Print. Print. 11 Sep. Print. ed. Catching Salmon. Year of Publication. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Feb. Medium. Print. Examples . Print. A Part of a Larger Work (such as an essay in an anthology) General Format Example Author(s). Title of Pamphlet. Daniel. Ed. Toledo: The Blade.). “Great Britain. Pollick. 13 Sept.S. Columbus: Ohio State UP. gen ed. Scott Swinney. Print.” A Mentor’s Guide. U. Print. Title of Publication. indicate the month with a three-letter abbreviation for the month (e. Year. “Terrorists Hit New York. Smith. 2008. Print. Editor’s Name(s). Print. Day Month Year: pages. Thomas. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Listeners. Print. Henry James: Modern Critical and Theoretical Approaches. 2001: A17+. put the day before the month. City: Publisher. 2007. a newspaper’s late or early edition—after the date (e. The Bible (specific editions) General Format Example Title. Print. Oct. Government Publication General Format Example Name of government department. 5th ed. 2007: 60-65. Year of publication.” Title of Collection. 2009. NOTE: To cite the date. 19 Sep. Boston: Bedford P. Year. use + after first page number.Owens Community College Writing Center 5 Book with an organization or corporate author American Psychological Association. 2008. City: Publisher. City: Publisher. Medium. 2007.” Title of Source.. Toledo: Owens College P. Catching Salmon. Article from a reference book General Format Example “Title of the article. Oliver. Print.
Issue (Year): pages. Web. Title of the Web Site.3 (2003): 56 pars. Examples . NOTE: “Vol” indicates the volume number of the journal. Alexi. Jeffries. 22 Jan. performer.” E-mail to you Crane. HousemanPost. 3 May 2008. Web.3 (2008): 45-50.” Title of Work.com. Date of access. Citing a page on a Web Site "Learn How to Sail the Easy Way for Beginners. “Common Errors in English. Name of Institution/Organization publishing or affiliated with site (if none. Guide to Grammar and Writing. 10. Print. 22 Jan. 2005.p. Date of publication (for no date-n. 27 Aug.” HousemanPost.) Medium. 2008.” Title of Journal Volume. 12 Apr. N. Brians. compiler. Web. Dennis. Web. Paul.). In all cases. Scholarly journals have volume numbers as part of their citation. et al. 2009.” Name of Journal Vol. pag.p. E-mail (or other personal communications) General Format Author. narrator. John. 2009.” American Review of Literature 14.” Hydraulic Applications Monthly 25.n. Date of Posting/Version.d. “Title of Article. 2007.” Message to person’s name. Date of Posting/Revision Medium. “Hydraulic Dynamics in Chaotic Systems.” Name of web site.” Message to the Author. or producer of the work. Academic Search Premier. editor. director. Instead of “Message to John Smith. “Excavating the Euphrates River. Toronto: Cheswick. NOTE: This same format should be used for personal interviews or personal letters. They Will Read. Medium. 4. Date of the Message. issue and year need to be listed followed by medium. Sandra. “Re: Law in Review. 2007. “Title of smaller work within a larger one. 15 Apr. Issue (Year): Pages/Paragraphs (if no pages. Vorkov. 15 Nov.. n.” Archaeology Journal. 16 Jan. Christopher.3 (2006): n. These do not have titles.2 (2009): 451-521. U of Toronto. 2009.). Date of Access. Ford Motor Company. Web. 2007.d. E-mail. Article from a database Blog Book accessed from a Scholarly Project Business Site General Format Example Ford Motor Company. “Title of the Message (if any).” GreatLakeSailing. “Dynamic Duos. Article in an online journal or magazine General Format Examples Author(s). and the description should be appropriate. Web. Susan. Rosencran Archive.d. pag. Date of Access. Medium. “If You Write It.com. Black. Medium. Author (or alias if known) “Article Title.Owens Community College Writing Center 6 Article in a scholarly journal General Format Author(s). Your Step by Step Guide to Learning How To Sail The Easy Way. 19 Oct.N. Jack. “Article Title. Web. the volume. Rosencrantz.” you would have “Personal interview. n. Example Samples for electronic sources Citing an entire web site or individual resources General Format Author(s). 2007.” Mixed Media.
The Six-FingeredTuba Brigade. Government Document accessed from a database General Format Example Citing a Federal Legal Source. not including the author Teague. Site Title. Medium of publication Date of access Kaplan. LZOO. Detainees from Iraq.org.” Title of the program. Web. Date of Posting/Revision.S. Resource date. United States. Medium.” Message to Sarah Abbot. Print.. Extension Service. Medium. Print. Database. 2009. Television or radio program General Format Example “Title of episode. Perf.) Title. No. LP. 1973. Roe v. WTOL. 2008. Medium. 25 Jan.S. Distributor.Now part of the Works Cited list! U. 1983. 2005: 151. 1994. Wade. Rec. Title. Author. Case Examples Names involved in the case. N. year of issue. . Michael.C. 5 Feb. Advertisement General Format Example Name of product. Descriptive label and publication information. conductor. E-mail. Date of decision. Web. Date of Access.. Broadcast date.d. May add director. Company. 70-18. George. Dark Cherry Diet Pepsi. Medium. Newsweek 20 Dec. Image Title. 2007. Call letters and city of the station. 42 U. Name of court that decided the case. Gorilla: Los Angeles Zoo. writers and actors. Television. Blix Devoe and Kina Flaschtreib. Pepsi. of the U. “The Final Elision. Mind Zone Entertainment. Sound recording General Format Example (Composer. Oompa Music for Raves (Trance Tuba). Medium. Toledo. 22 Jan. More Movies. section number.” Flawed Thinking. and the year of release. Title of the Series. 2008. manufacturer. Samples for other miscellaneous sources Film General Format Example Title. Web. Film.S. Kellog Framingham. The artist. or performer depending on emphasis.S. “Re: Online Tutoring. Dir. Medium. Department.C. Supreme Ct. Name of the network. Sec. Case number. Government Postings from Iraq. Medium. All the Little Animals. Code Title number U. 26 May 2008. 1 Dec. CBS. Online Image Resources General Format Example Artist if available.Owens Community College Writing Center 7 E-mail communication between two parties. 2004. 23 Jan. Advertisement.
Roswell. book). Ceramics Journal Jul. JPEG file. Date: pages. give the file type followed by the word file. New York: Vantage P. Personal Interview. “Title.. Print. Word documents. Example Rice. Use Digital file if you don’t know what kind of file it is. Examples Mandolino. Cerise. Published interview: Speaker’s name.” By author. 23 May 2007.Owens Community College Writing Center 8 Interview General Format Personally conducted interview: Name of interviewee.” By Peggy Star. Today’s Kitchen. JPEGs. etc. . not accessed through a Web site or database. 1998. Microsoft Word file. Pam. For medium. “Master Violin-making. Digital File (follow format for hard copy) General Format For PDFs. “Collecting China. Follow format for the kind of work respresented (film.” 2006. Personal Interview. Raphael. Date of interview. Kevin. 2004: 8. image. Jett. MP3s. Publication. sound recording.
20 Apr. 5 Nov. Print. Daniel. Web. Online Image. Patrick.” Middle School Education. 2008. 23 Oct. 12 Nov 2009. Same author for both sources Hoffman 10 Works Cited Jones. Prod. MTV Networks. 13-18. Ed. Scott Swinney. Richard White. Toledo: Riverside. and Stewart Polaris. Marsh. Professional Writing Bulletin Board. ---. Scott Swinney. Urban Witchcraft. 2008. Exec. Ed.” Sundown.” N. Monkey Picture Gallery. Web. DVD. Print. Sprinkle. Web. Delucia McGinnis. 9 Jun. “Capturing the Writer’s Voice. Academic Search Premier. 2008.final full page(s) of the essay. 2009. Toledo: Riverside. “Tomorrow’s Troubles. 2008. Oct. 2008.com. Web. perf. continue the 1-inch margins. SK Entertainment. O’Dell.” A Mentor’s Guide. . “Welcome!” Writing. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Listeners.Owens Community College Writing Center 9 Name and page number Sample Works Cited Page. 3 May 2009. Samantha. Alphabetized by last name of author Smith. MTV Overdrive. 24-34. 2007: 68-73. Greg.d. “Videogames as Educational Tools. Russ.” A Mentor’s Guide. 2009. “Rhesus Monkeys in the Zoo.
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