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^ARTISTIC ANATOMY
OF THE

HUMAN
BY

FIGU.RE.

HENRY WAREE]^,
PROFESSOR OF DRAWING AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE, LONDON,

AND PRESIDENT OF THE NEW SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IN ^ATER-COLOURS.
®ait}j

STiMcntgsSrfjtce Illugtrattons,

Drawn on Wood by

the Author, and Engraved by Walter G. Mason.

-Urs probat artificcm.

LONDON:
WINSOR AND NEWTON,
38,

RATHEONE PL VCE.

1852.

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The

HAROLD

B.

LEE LIBRARY

Gift

of

Robert Sears

BRIGHAM YOtrNG UNIVERSITY

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Drawn on Wood by the Author. W^'\\^ STfajentg^STtree illustrations.^^0 ARTISTIC ANATOMY OF THE ^ U)3^ HUMAN FIGURE. AND PRESIDENT OF THE NEW SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IN WATER-COLOURS. 38. Mason. BY HENEY WAREEN. bg Special Slppointment. and Engraved by Walter Gr. EATHBONE PLACE. PEOFESSOE OF DKAWING AT QCEEN'S COLLEGE. to l^er piajestg. anH to 1852. artists' Colour iiHafeers. LONDON. ^rs probat arttficem* LONDON: WINSOE AND NEWTON. .

UTAH UNIVERSH . 13. .. Poland Street.LONDON Printed bv Scliulze and Co. ^ -r^^^A?^^^.LEE LIBRARY JGilAM YOUNG PRQVO.

—the or numbers The direction of the lines of shading in the plates is to made fibres . To the same bones and the same muscles. In reference to the plates. —perhaps too . correspond to the direction of the muscular the consideration of this being necessary to that dimpling and folding of the outer skin.PREFACE. the muscles by numerals. than sculptors love to indicate. The Author sufficiently has endeavoured to make this little work comprehensive to be useful to the general student in the art of drawing the human figure. which painters more freely. bones are marked by it may be observed that the letters. —wherever they same letters may occur through will apply. each section.

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this pliable and soft but visible. less of the muscles are more or according to their powerful development or otherwise but it is at all times difficult to detect their exact forms in and directions. The general sweeping lines of the figure . by a tough covering called periosteum. with their various aponeuroses. or semitendinous portions. vulgarly called the skin. according to their requirements. The muscles are partly formed of fleshy fibres. and partly of tendinous or sinewy portions. enclosed in thin sheaths. On this are placed the different layers of muscles.NOTES. thick clothing. The general construction follows of the human frame first is as The osseous (bony) structure pecially at is overspread^ es- the joints. The whole Through the actions is enwrapped by the adipose [fatty) mem- brane. and it is a vulgar error to display them exaggeration. taking various directions.

be first and chiefly considered. and a study of the anatomy of the human form. while a rigid copying of the dead form an represent the living and moving figure. the poise and proportion of the skeleton being the ground for this. An to affectation of grace is a common stumbling-block to the student. is no less error.6 are to NOTES. the difficulties of will drawing the human figure to overcome. The antique statues are always the best models. need but moderate practice . little and with such aids. together with a knowledge and due conits sideration of perspective changes.

Os ischium. The seven true and I. Maxilla inferior —bones of the upper jaw. THE SKELETON. Os pubis. Os ilium. F. . Ossa maxillaria superiora E. N. Os temporum. bone. H. Sternum— breast O. Clavicula— collar bone. A. The seven vertebrae of the neck. K. Os Frontis —the frontal bone.INSTRUCTIONS ARTISTIC ANATOMY. M. Os parietale. five false ribs. The vertebral column. D. B. PliATE I. C. G. L. Os sacrum. —the lower jaw.

W. that most of them are to be reckoned in pairs or in clusters. to be understood the framework it of the edifice. encasement and leverage. Bones THE SKELETON. Tibia. Y. and capabilities of the animal. S. —shoulder blade. AA. sufficiently and is formed of a material for all the mechanical powers of sustension and retension. all it is. Z. not essential to give in a . . Radius. Fibula. U. as far as nomenclature concerned. Bones of the fingers. Q. Humerus or brachium — upper arm bone. upon which the superstructure depends. however. determines the The skeleton hard and solid power. —thigh bone. Bones BB. T. Femur X. By the skeleton is . our number will be considerably is diminished. Ulna. the beams and timbers.8 P. of the toes. support. little work like the present and. columnar and lateral The skeleton of which is a combination of two hundred bones. Man size. Bones of the tarsus. of the metatarsus. as were. indeed. V. if we take into con- sideration the fact. Bones of the carpus —wrist bones. R. Bones of the metacarpus. Scapula THE SKELETON.

9 .THE SKELETON.

composed of the head. inferior. So great indeed is the difference of form throughout it the bony structure. of its base the os sacrum and the terminating bones of the coccyx.10 THE SKELETON. The bones composing the spine are twenty four in or vertebral column and number. and I shall content general distinctions given broad. them by anatomists. The former. divided into the cranium and the face. or with the sternum or breastbone. ribs. some are triangular in section^ others quadrilateral. a curved or . measures on an average from feet four inches to two two feet eight inches. the thorax. others again . and in some bones all these forms are combined. and short bones. twelve to the back or ribs dorsal. the trunk. according to the uses and requirements of their different portions. the bones of the hips and the great vertebral column or back bone . The combined column. ^ Of round the forms of bones we have great variety. The bones of the head. that were as useless as tedious to myself with the as long. with independently intervening cartilages. the loins lumbar. the extremities. when viewed in profile. The combined mass or structure is simply divided into is the trunk and extremities. enlarge upon it here . will be given more at large further on. are designated as superior and and are the arms and the legs. the latter. Seven are given to the neck five to its cervical. It has.

articulating with as well as others called oblique. it again becomes convex. OS is sacrum. forming the base of the vertebral life — in an advanced stage of five —but one bone. flexibility to the composed of together. Vertebra prominens. most The column. loins is The as also of those of the easily distinguishable. and will be well to note carefully the place of the seventh of the neck. in In the neck it is the back convex. are the spinous processes. which serve to connect the vertebrae with one another. as being most visible to the artist. The most prominent. called its from fifth greater projection. serpentine form. having various directions to according their various amounts or it directions of leverage in different vertebrae. parts or vertebrae which have growTi its The whole column owes discs of cartilage placed between each bone. 11 slightly concave. and those which are most essential. worthy of notice. and in the loins again concave. and which are so elastic as to allow the column to to move The in all directions without injury its the spinal marrow which greatest runs nearly through whole length. is Each vertebra or projections supplied with transverse processes the ribs. .THE SKELETON. the left side. is its The intention of from the straight line not satisfactorily explained. however. ap- proaching and united with the os is also sacrum. There a slight curvature as seen inclination being towards this deviation from behind or in front.

will Their direction and arched together with their increasing in- be best seen by the figure of the skeleton . the sternum but in the adult bone. it composed of several bones has acquired the solidity of a single higher though its and chief point of original in its division may in most cases be traced direction of the by a change sternum is angle. to which attached by cartilaginous is In early youth. articulations. The sternum. partly cartilaginous. not being joined — like the upper seven — to sternum or breast bone. ribs. angle varying much according to .12 THE SKELETON. The the upper seven are called true as the lower five false ribs. is movement takes place in those of the loins and figure The bearing of the column —more or less upright dependent on the curvature of the spinal column. given at the head of this chapter and though the mass or basket of the ribs presents a form so opposite to that of the living figure it when enveloped built in its fleshy covering. forms at the centre and of the chest — as the vertebral column does posfor teriorly —the it bond of support is the seven true ribs. of amount neck. should nevertheless be well considered as the founda- tion upon which must be the true form of the principal part of the trunk. shape downwards. the sides of the vertebrse. clination. are attached the ribs twelve on each side . To this —against small smooth surfaces on . front or breast bone. The general its forwards and downwards. partly bony.

—usually termed the The pit of the neck. Of we may the os ilium which forms on each side the great projection of the hip. 13 climate or race. The standard average angle at for the sternum has been fixed degrees. more upright in a woman than in a man. from twenty to twenty-five is In the female the angle so. they are usually more prominent in a find man than in a woman. and. projecting in a strong crest forward and downward it . greater than in the of that man. is the direction portion of the vertebral column constituting the neck. as will be further explained when we treat of the shoulder and arm. outward end of the connected with the acromion and coracoid processes of the scapula. in straighter.THE SKELETON. like form. or according to the habits or occupations of individuals. extending around the form posteriorly. it Spread out in a basin- presents a capacious curved wall of bone. whom we them thinner and At their junction with the sternum they leave the small hollow between them. The pelvis comprehends the mass of large and strong the great cavity bones forming which occupies these the middle of the chiefly consider human structure. at first and then inwards . is surmounted . the out- To the upper end wards of the sternum are attached slightly curved pair of claviculse or collar bones. and in proportion. —which forms clavicle is so useful a point for the adjustment of a true balance in the figure.

To these are attached the numerous small bones of the carpus. followed by those of the metacarpus —the . or wrist. round in part and somewhat twisted. glenoid cavity of the blade bone. to which it is attached by strong ligaments. clavicle — is is appended to the and scapula or blade bone. rounded edge or spine for the attachment of large and strong muscles. by anatomists. The bone of a the upper arm. and lined also with cartilage. long bone. larger On the whole. . to receive The lower end of the humerus becomes enlarged transversely and by a peculiar joint of beautiful me- chanism is fitted to articulate with the two bones of the in such a fore arm. the superior extremity. hollowed out. or vice versa. against and a rounded rests which. fittingly it. called the humerus or os brachii. space occupied by the back and the palm of the hand to which succeed the bones of the fingers. entuberosities larging at top into certain head. the pelvis and more capacious in the female than in the male. is —which together with the wrist and hand designated. called the radius and the ulna.14 by a powerful THE SKELETON. This double action is called pro- nation and supination. The figure of the skeleton will sufficiently describe the forms and positions of the is other bones of this region. the enveloped by the usual cartilage. The arm. way as that the one —the radius —can be made to twist over to the other in the act of turning the hand from back front.

like The longer. The position inferior 15 from its extremity — so called relative — is comprised in a similar number and arrange- ment bone. Like the humerus furnished with a globular head. at the ankle and instep. and the existing in the male it differences and female specimens pointed out. of bones. as well as in the fact that several powerful muscles. called the Tibia. gives attachment to At the lower end. with others will several bones of the ex- which make part of their structure. called the femur. and as the bones of the carpus and metacarpus intervene between the fore arm and the fingers. round and twisted on it is axis. It has further similarities to the before-named bone of its the arm. that the same is and balance of the figure to be attended .THE SKELETON. forming the hinge of attachment to the main bone of the leg. or thigh of the superior bone its the arm. like the humerus. so the bones of the tarsus and metatarsus. which fitting into a glenoid cavity forms a powerful ball and socket joint. Suffice just proportion here then to remark. called its the trochanter major regards of importance in position. is The great chief of these. the femur. be explained at large in their proper places. is in part too. The forms and uses of these tremities. as it general form. widens into two projections or condyles. in the tuberosities about head and neck. are the media of junction between the bones of the leg and the toes.

together with the lower jaw. os parietale. A. Temporal bone os front is. separated by irregularly toothed or zigzag lines called sutures. Of the skull —we take the European as the standard profile two plates are here given. the face being so intimately connected with the forehead. names of the several bones which are. gives the complete form of and if we take the cheek bone. drawing the skeleton as in the living man. Erontal bone B. a front and a figured in reference to the view. which. we shall consider as forming part of it. THE HEAD AND NECK. save that the ears and lower portion of the nose will be wanting. for all the different directions of limb and joint are adjusted in conformity to the intended erect and duly poised posture of man in his state of natural dignity. for the most part. . we shall have a tolerably it just notion of as a whole.16 to in THE HEAD AND NECK. is divided by anatomists into the cranium and it but will be perhaps more convenient to con- here under one term —the head . PliATE II. os temporum. The head the face sider it . that portion of the head . in its upper part. Parietal bone C. The skull. indeed.

THE HEAD AND NECK. 17 . PliATE II.

those perhaps of the face are the least satisfactory to the artist. has been given as the acknowledged standard of its height to the limits of the hairy scalp. So united are it they together in their fasciculi. their action counter. the aponeuroses. in Europeans. PliATE It is III. causing wrinkles or markings in an opposite direction to their fibres. however. In the forehead we find great variety. as a no less important matter than the expression . their forms. not only in different races. The length of the nose. of the face . AxND NECK. G. os malce. os occipitis. Lower jaw maxilla inferior. as a perplexing were.18 THE HEAD D. Occipital bone The ethnoid and sphenoid bones being deeply is seated. The general spheroid form changed by that it of the cranium is so little its thin muscular and membranous covering. but in individuals of the same race. it not necessary to give them. generally speaking. may be taken as the true form of that portion of so. Not however. is and to the skin. as to form but. Adhering as they do to the bones. the head. or cheek bone E. Malar. Upper jaw bone F. for of all the muscles of the human structure. maxilla superior. network of muscular fibre over the face. nevertheless necessary that these muscles be studied.

of the various passions is 19 dependent on them. and kept as separate from each other as circumstances will allow. in as simple a form as possible. They will be given^ therefore. divested in a great measure of their complexities.THE HEAD AND NECK. PliATE III. c 2 .

originating at the inner half of the upper ridge of the orbit of the eye. musculus frontalis. it Their situation being fully described. many marked bony mnch character to the human of the occiput^ at the lower The prominent eminence part of the head is — so much larger in some than in others . give so marked a character to individual at foreheads. will be unnecessary to plates. attach numerals of reference to them on the The frontal muscle.20 THE HEAD AND NECK. from their variety and form of projection. Before giving the names and uses of the muscles of the face. the frontal arched protuberances above the eyes^ which. of mental or physical charac- PliATE IV. as also the curved temporal line . each side above the outer ends of the eyebrows less the cheek bone more or cess raised. and becoming . the following vrill suffice most important and most easily understood. and the coronoid progreatest of the lower jaw bone at its less angle — all expressing more or teristics. runs upwards in an oblique direction. it may be a& well to notice the prominences which give so countenance. particularly remarkable in bald persons the mamillary processes of the temporal bones behind the ears giving attachment and powerful leverage to the pair of strong muscles belonging to the neck . Of as the muscles of the face.

PliATE i/.v. together with the eyebrows.^-"' ^ .uWt*''-''"'' forehead by its action . unites into the galea aponeurotica capitisj which. . connects all its muscles. covering the whole skull. gives to the face an expression of pain. This muscle wrinkles the IV. 21 tendinous above the middle of the os frontis. and drawing up the inner angle of the eye.THE HEAD AND NECK.

The temporal muscle. and itarises in the upper jaw and lower fore-part of the cheek bone. musculus palpebrarum. is thus an auxiliary to The masseter. in the . as may be observed. it loses its flattened surface and becomes swollen. act becoming swollen or contracted at at the same moment. With the assistance of the temporal muscle the masseter acts with amazing power. eyes. w^hich raises and It compresses against the other in clenching the teeth. which it descends along the it all outer side of the lowxr jaw and is attached to the way from the coronoid process to nearly the corner of the mouth. musculus zygomatic arch. in fact. and then. becomes very passion. is orbicularis a collection of fleshy fibres encircling the which it closes and draws together. all It is attached to the bony margin round the orbit of the eye. muscular fibres mass of having place at the lower and inner part of the projecting cheek bone. inserted temporalis. which time also the temporal artery violent pain or visible. arises from the parietal and frontal bones. and. simultaneously. passing under the is by a strong tendon it into the coracoid process of the lower jaw. This happens in great effort or during any of the mind or body. The orbicular muscle of the eyelids. its name from It is a its use.22 THE HEAD AND NECK. The two muscles. Its use has already been shewn in conjunction with the temporal muscle. which takes chewing or masticating.

has its acting in concert with the last place by its side. has the power also of wrinkling the skin of the nose. and termiwings of the nose nates by spreading fibres into the it and the upper lip. . both of which widens and draws up.THE HEAD AND NECK. which it draws upward and outward. The elevator muscle of the upper lip. or furrow. in the act of smelling. w^ith other It serves materially. in laughter thus produces the swelling of the cheek and other passions. but also in conjunction muscles. Its use is to compress the It orifices of the nostrils. muscle. to produce the marked line. originates in a double at the nasal process of the its upper jaw. covers the whole ridge of the nose and terminates in the forehead. between the cheek and nostrils. is first originating at the root of the nostrils. The tendon elevator muscle of the nostrils and upper lip^ levator alee nasi labiique superioris. The compressor muscle of the last-mentioned nose^ compressor narium. united with the muscle. descending in a parallel direction from the cheek bone. and — — having its insertion. muscle called the levator anguli The zygomaticus minor. in concert with another oris. runs obliquely down to It the upper lip. commencing below the orbit of the eye. angle of which the circle it 23 completed has its origin. levator labii superioris. but soon becoming mem- branous.

so intimately are its fibres blended with. however.24 THE HEAD AND NECK. bottom of the lower jaw. which has its origin at the broad_. of. its use in a its name. name The closing of the mouth is brought about by the its muscle called orbicularis oris. has the drawing the corners of the mouth downward. Of the several muscles wliicli aifect the action of the for mouthy those which have been already noticed have the most part the pulling of that feature upwards. it may be . Before dismissing the muscles of the face. but which. though the shutting of the is use mouth by drawing both lips together important. or trumpeter. are peculiar in the several action. the contraction of the as in blowing trumpet or wind instrument. is scarcely to be considered a distinct muscle. in the The buccinator. when the other or lips compressed . Those which have the opposite power are^ first^ the depressor of the corners of the mouthy depressor anguli oris. and indeed a part other muscles in its vicinity. movements effected by its varied as in constrained passion are or deep meditation. where it sets out but becoming narrower upwards. as imports. tells lips. either in against each against the teeth as also antagonism to suppression of some of the laughter. it Running round the angles effect of its of the upper lip. has the received also name of musculus pyramidalis. other muscles. Its effects.

with which they are therefore given in the ])late. that the two principal move- may be ments of the head — the forward. or bowing move- ment. they dilate or spread. as will be seen. forms a kind of pivot on which it turns. that ^vhilst in the expression of pleasurable feelings. called the dentator. 9r^ useful to observe generally of them. The well It situation to of the windpipe. or rotatory movement. in violent powerful emotions. aspera arteria. is The movement lioiited of the head towards either shoulder direction. called from its bearins: the 2:lobe of the head. which being inserted into the foramen. and the rotatory movement — are chiefly dependent The first. connected for the most part with those of the head and face. is that which takes place principally at the articulation first of the skull with the vertebra. atlas. to a quarter of a circle in each . THE MUSCLES OF THE NECK Are. takes place at the articulation of the atlas and second vertebra. or bowing movement. or hollow of the atlas. from a tooth-like process. observed here.THE MUSCLES OF THE NECK. on two separate bones of the neck. may be said to they will be observ^ed to contract or conor centrate towards the middle of the face. The second. is too known need being pointed out.

Its attachments are to the inner portion of the clavicle and to the upper front part of the sternum. cervical in and acting upon their several joints pairs. It assists in almost all the actions of the neck. it is inserted into the mastoid process behind the ear. while a consequent tension of the corresponding muscle occurs. with a strong at its development of the tendinous the portion junction with sternum. while hinder portion is somewhat flattened or hollowed. enclosing vertebrce. on the opposite side. a wrinkling of the skin on that side takes place. thyroid In this action the cartilage prominence larynx. evident. whence rising obliquely towards its the occipital and temporal bones. are performed by the five other vertebrae. in conjunction with the two already noticed. many motions. The neck the is formed of the following muscles. its edge is rounded and prominent. The other movements^ whether lateral or oblique.26 THE MUSCLES OF THE NECK. In pulling the head towards the side. They are for the most part in The sterno-cleido mastoideus is the powerful muscle so position prominently conspicuous from Its front its and volume. caused by the of the commonly called xldam^s apple. becomes very Reference in respect to this action the may be made to magnificent throat of the Apollo Belvidere where . somewhat twisted in fibres.

covering the hinder part of the neck. towards too. The trapezius. upper part.THE MUSCLES OF THE NECK. which binds the spinous processes of the vertebrae of the neck To To the last of these processes . To the occipital bone To the ligament. from resemblance to a monk's cowl [cucullus) — is a broad flat muscle. From this extended line of attachment. so called from its its quadrilateral form and sometimes cucuUaris. obliquely upward from and laterally from the middle towards the shoulder. throat of a beautiful female is hardly unless it the head be turned. and in thin persons. Its attachments are. fibres are sent out in a radiated form . setting out its tendinous. as down the back in a women wear neck-handkerchiefs. the wrinkling of the side is skin in front or the other expressed wath the delicacy always found in fine works of antique Greek sculpture. the flatness or rather concavity produced 27 by the space between the lower end of this muscle and the trapezius is so broadly and finely treated^ and where. and running point. In old age. this muscle becomes so strongly marked as to be unsightly it . but soon becoming fleshy. obliquely downward from the the lower. or some violent effort shall call into energetic action. and several of those of the back. while in the visible. where .

as well as The latissimus colli. and mostly the sixth cervical vertebra. but which it will not be here necessary to describe. angle and greater part of the With such a number of attachments. up the angle formed by the its spine. its actions — as may be supposed — are many to the portions intervening between these attachments becoming swollen in proportion the energy of also its contractions in or cavities at the several parts. as seen on the outward surface of the of the muscle skin. the wrinkles such attachments with its generally speaking. clavicle it and its acromion process with itself to Eventually its attaches to the clavicle as far as middle^ of the and spine the superior scapula. It is this muscle which forms the beautifully curved between the neck and the shoulder. the sterno-hyoideus.28 it fills THE MUSCLES OF THE NECK. may be traced. The forward edge bone. but the projections of the spines of the seventh. by They are enwrapped. lie line of junction There are several muscles of the throat which those already under named. So are. which has attachments to the skin of the upper part of the chest below the clavicle. downward to the collar In pulling the head downward behind. at right angles fibres. . and . from its adhesion at the occipital bone. many folds of the skin are produced. are nevertheless visible.

as seen in various directions and positions. placed the head of the humerus. through the its ribs. in respect to its manifold movements. with its acromion against and coracoid processes.THE SHOULDER JOINT. obliquely downward the skin THE SHOULDER JOINT. The clavicle. or upper arm PliATE V. and it has also the power of drawing of the neck. re- quiring attentive study and keen observation. The as first plate represents the scapula. and which bone. the shoulder joint. as seen when the arm is hanging down. of the most important. is 29 inserted into the lower jaw bone. A portion of it ascends towards the ear. or collar bone. least One difficult. It is a flat and broad muscle. forming an . is glenoid cavity. It assists in drawing down the angle of the mouth and part of the cheek. and certainly not is portions of the body. and serves as a wrapper to those beneath it. or blade bone. is also given in its position with reference to the other bones. It has been thought necessary to give several plates of the shoulder. The clavicle is attached to the acromion. as its name imports. seen in front. and coracoid processes by strong ligaments.

30 THE SHOULDER JOINT. THE SCAPULA. WITH ITS SPINE AS SEEN AT THE BACK. . PliATE V.

AVhen the arm thrust forward.THE SHOULDER JOINT. by the several muscles which hold together. The outer end of the clavicle also rises. and the clavicle makes an angle forward more or less according to the energy of the action. The scapula to move or slide over the posterior surface of the ribs and the clavicle. by its attachments on the shoulder. or striking. is free . but almost always in conjunction with. as both arms are held forward. the scapula made to slide partially round the side of the ribs. the scapula rises with it. its fulcrum. or is pulling. and in that Fighting Gladiator. as all it were. is the space between the scapula as seen behind much augmented. where. changing angle. is made of the to follow its motions upward. . gives it the power of mo^dng in almost every direction. as in pushing. arch under which the humenis is is 31 suspended. and forward. PliATE Reference may be made is to this action in the raised also of the arm of the Laocoon. the inner or sternum end being VI. The socket joint humerus at its head. the move- ments of the other bones just named. The as statue of the Supplicating Youth may be instanced an example. and thus also changes its angle. and the whole enwrapped. is Thus when the arm its raised. downward. indepen- dently of.

In reference to the two actions of pulling and pushing.33 THE SHOULDER JOINT. that while in the first the bones . it must be borne in mind.

Almost all the antique may be referred to as examples. then the scapula slides back over the ribs. The Theseus of the Elgin collection is a beautiful illus- tration of the action of the scaj^ula. The varied angles of the scapula and clavicle in their . for in them we no vulgar exaggeration of these bony prominences yet are they marked. but neither should statues find it be too strongly marked. several motions. . they are in the second thrust close together. in addition to the backward motion. as in the Fighting Gladiator. cannot be too well studied nor can too much attention be paid to the place of the of bony kndb of the acromion on the top the shoulder. and always in their proper places.ATE VII. the Were both arms two blade bones would approach each other so as nearly to touch. This of course will be the case but in a slight degree. are. When the arm is thrown back. The muscles will be observed also to act and change correspondingly. or the Discobolon at the British Museum. and the arm becomes proportionably shorter.THE SHOULDER JOINT. tied or placed together behind. at their junctions are 33 somewhat separated^ giving increased length to the arm. The muscles. the as has been said. portions of which. PL. enwrap first bones which form the shoulder joint. where. the act of leaning on the elbowforces the shoulder upward.

so named from its triangular form. to about one-third from the shoulder end of the clavicle. deltoid. to the acromion process. At the back. Its attachments are In front. simplified composed of seven. but may be into three. scapula. principal lobes or masses of fibres. In the middle. like the delta It is A or D of the Greek alphabet.34 The THE SHOULDER JOINT. PliATE VII. to the lower edge of the spine of the .

or forward. The deltoid is a powerful muscle. antagonist portion becomes proportionably flat- its tened or extended. the active portion being always the most swollen. raises the arm laterally. according less as either portion of its fabric is more or called into energy while . By its threefold power. or backward.THE SHOULDER The whole into a point. it swells around D 2 . JOINT. PliATE VIII. finely rounded about it the head of the arm bone. PliATE VIII. 35 of the three portions combine downwards and are inserted into the humerus or bone of at the upper arm about its middle. When in the act of lifting the arm up.

as then the rounded head of the arm bone being pressed forward causes a greater protuberance in front. causes a difference of form as to height. In raising the keep arm body tion. which. A proof of this is to be seen in the colossal statue called the Farnese Hercules. as in peculiar cases. too. still the acromion process which then. such exaggeration of an artist. and thus lower in position than in front. the head naturally thrown over toward the opposite shoulder. and a consequent flatness above the scapular spine. It is — and perhaps by the very when one arm is fact of —a most useful example in the studies may here be remarked. the general line of the changed. becomes a hollow in place of a projection. that is raised. it must not be forgotten. This is more evident when the arm is moved backwards. to It is well to observe this general direcit and mark in sketching-in the mesial line in front or that of the spinal vertebrae behind.36 THE SHOULDER JOINT. though an exaggeration of muscular development. . the muscles of the neck are made to counteract such motion. The circumstance to the spine of its hindmost lobe being attached of the scapula. though marked. unless. when seen in profile. in order to up a just balance of the is figure. that.

THE SHOULDER JOINT. In a woman. . perhaps in consePliATE IX. 37 PliATE IX. we mostly find the deltoid with a shght depression in the middle outwards.

has attach- To the collar bone. it pulls it shoulder towards the sternum either directly. There is always to be noticed. and cartilages of the second. a slight depres- sion or fold in this muscle as approaches the insertion. The pectoral muscle^ forming the ments breast. surface. form a triangle by insertion into the humerus immediately underneath the deltoid. causing a secondary rise which is more observable and There are too. according as the several portions of its fibres are made to contract. more or it less. man a broad flat. or obliquely downward. fourth To the and fifth ribs. Contributing to the forward actions of the joint. continuing to be fleshy nearer to . though and uniting together outwardly. Its bundles of fibres produce in a slightly rounded. Sometimes too happens that at the articulation of the outward end of the clavicle a too great elevation of the integument is observed. third. still more beautiful in the female form. or obliquely upward. To the inner half of the sternum. is when the muscle stretched by the extended uplifting of the . These delicate differences^ however. its insertion man or it may be it caused by a greater thickness in that part of the adipose membrane which covers the muscle. and to the body of the sixth rib. are best appreciated through careful observation of the antique statues or of the beautiful in nature.38 quence of than in a its THE SHOULDER JOINT.

certain little 39 fibre inequalities of and aponeurotic portions observable in and througb the skin. that between them (and is caused by their several prominences on either hand) the sternal groove. . the hollow thus formed not so deep. At the bottom of the sternum is a lozenge-shaped hollow. The two ternally. THE TRUNK. being the upper portion of the mesial line. caused by the projecting cartilage of the seventh rib on each side. In a woman. we find a broadly arched prominence. which covers the it. and surrounding the pit of the stomach. answering in some measure to the form of the ribs. arm. at the hollow between the collar bones. A is deep hollow occurs under arm when stretched up less laterally or forwards.THE TRUNK. The mesial beginning ceeding all line. but it becomes when the arm raised is still higher. divides the two halves. In the antique statues generally. prosurface of the sternum. it sides will exactly answering to one another exsufficient to describe the set of be muscles composing one half of the trunk. PliATE X. or adipose membrane. is merely necessary to say. and through down the the whole of the trunk. The it pectoral muscles having been already described. as it is called.

and it would be a bold measure.40 It appears. as in such case the body of the pectoral flatter and thinner. sixth. In some men. to depart from an acknowledged standard. however. THE TRUNK. indeed. Immediately on each side of the sternal groove just named. running directly down. or it . is attached above. of course. it is to be found much in the more nearly approaching the antique form than generality of persons. to have been a convention of the ancient sculptors to exaggerate and widen this arched form. is generally on a line with the fifth rib. The nipple of the muscle. to the sternum. is in- serted into the os pubis at the lower extremity of the body. ribs. In thin persons. throughout the whole length of the trunk. such as the Greek antique. before stated. more and. are projections of the articulations. separating the two bodies of muscle which form the abdomen longitudinally. and. The so outline of this muscle. varies in different much in different individuals as well as . so in proportion are these promi- nences more evident and more extensive. and to the cartilages of the fifth. requiring the nicest discrimination. or their sterno-costal the upper two being generally the most prominent. salient is . somewhat above but this is dependent on the action From tinues the bottom of the sternum the mesial line conas down. these are. or straight muscle alluded to. as seen in profile. and seventh ribs . The rectus.

THE TRUNK. 41 . PliATE X.

42
actions, that
statues,,
it it

THE TRUNK.
will
is

be best studied from the antique
given in
the
it
it,

where
action

its

greatest purity of form.

In

its

of pulling

upper part of the body
produces

downwards and forwards,
outer skin which covers

many
is

folds in the

and

this

further carried

out by certain transverse bands, uniting at their outer

ends

with

the

tendinous

expansion

of

its

neighbour

muscle.

These bands are tendinous on the surface, but

not usually through the whole thickness of the muscle.

They

are generally three in

number, and serve to divide

the fore part of the body very symmetrically.
are not quite alike, either in

As they
all

number

or position, in

persons, the antique statues may, as before mentioned,

be adduced as examples of the best form of this muscle.

The

ohliqmis descendens, the great obliquely- descending

muscle, adjoins the last named, and gives, at and above
the hip or crest of the ilium, that beautiful curved pro-

minence, so elegantly defined in the antique statues.
chief attachments are to the upper ridge of the ilium,

Its

and

to seven, or sometimes eight, of the lower ribs, in regular,

obliquely-disposed serrations.

The

fibres constituting this

muscle take such various

directions,

that

it

would

occupy too

much

space

to

particularise

them

here.

The depression

or

indent
is

at

the

junction

of this

muscle with the ilium

caused by the sudden fleshiness

of its fibres, as compared with the aponeurotic attachment

THE TRUNK.
to the

43

bone

itself;

thus the projection of bone in the

skeleton becomes a groove or furrow in the living

man,

and the
groove.

fuller

and stronger the muscle the deeper the
rule

This

—which
will

applies

generally

to

the

muscles at their attachments to strong projections of bone
in
its

fleshy

persons
in

nevertheless be found to have

exceptions

emaciated forms.

Thus

too_,

it

may

be observed_, that although, in a general way, the larger
projections of the skeleton are those observable in the
living being,
it

must not be supposed that

outlines

drawn

immediately from point to point, or from one projection
of bone to another, will give the drawing of the

human
enothers

form

;

for

in

addition

to

the

layers

of muscles
in

wrapping the bones
thicker

in

some places thinner,

— we have to
or skin

take into account the binding and

uniting aponeuroses, and above

them the thick adipose

membrane

— generally so called — which constitutes
is

the outer covering.

The serratus magnus
side of the figure.
It

the saw-like muscle seen on the

has tendinous attachments to the
;

outer sides of the ten uppermost ribs
to the first

its

first

digitation

two

;

the other eight to the eight remaining

ribs in succession,

forming a course of zigzag serrations

on a

line obliquely

backwards and downwards, interlacing

with those of the great obliquus muscle.

From
it is

thence

running obliquely upward and backward,
to the

attached

scapula,

which

it

draws forward and downward.

44

THE TRUNK.
is

Wheiij however, the scapula

held firmly in position,

its

power

is

that of raising or lifting the ribs outward, as in

actions where violent respirations are required.

When
as ex-

the arm

is

raised, this

muscle

is

more apparent,

emplified in the Fighting Gladiator, and also in the group

known
others.

as

Hsemon and Antigone,

as well

as in

many

FliATE XI.

The

latissimus dorsi, large broad muscle of the back,

wraps broadly over the portion below the blade bones.
Its

attachments are to the vertebrse from about the sixth

of the back downwards, as well as to the lowermost four
ribs,

from whence

it

runs upwards in

many

fibres to the

rough protuberance under the head

of the

humerus,

where

it is

inserted

by

a long, thin, but powerful tendon.

This muscle draws the scapula and upper arm down-

ward and backward, retaining the lower angle of the
scapula in
its

placis,

suffering
its

it,

however, to play upon
its

the ribs, and showing
position.

form in

various changes of

Like the

last

muscle, and in like manner,
it is

it

acts

upon
is

those ribs to which

attached,

when

the raised arm

held firmly in position.

When

the

body

is

bent forwards,

and

this

muscle

consequently stretched, the ribs
projections seen beneath
it.

make

their appearance in

ATE XI. 45 .THE TRUNK. PL.

according circumstances of action. body. attached to the ilium and os sacrum ribs at its lower extremity. has already been pointed out It is not necessary. too. longissimus dorsi. this In bending the body backward.46 THE TRUNK. we see the forms of the more fleshy and rounded long muscle of the back. It may be remarked here. and the transverse folding of its the skin on the one hand. of form. in the pectoral muscle of The diff'erence is the female here. or of edginess. that the greatest is at flexibility of the trunk the loins . is The comparative width in the in treating of the skeleton. therefore. Beneath. and tension on the other. of the according to the flexion or extension therefore most observable in this region. and enwrapped by this broad muscle. all and to the angles of the and the processes of the vertebrae. too obvious to need more than a mention . but in various positions of extenof protuto sion there are certain peculiar characteristics berance or rotundity. to enlarge of the shoulders and the hips male and female form. on the difi'erenceof proportion thus produced. that can only be understood by reference to nature or fine antique statues. muscle produces many transverse folds .

as the hand were immediately attached Great as to the fore arm without the intervention of those forming the wrist. the radius. there nevertheless a marked which difference in one peculiar action of the fore arm. of three bones —one belonging to the upper portion. independently of the clavicle. that it as will readily It may however is no uncommon error of the tyro. with the bone of the upper arm is constructed suitably to this motion. which no other animal gifted with.THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. be noticed. like the lower limb. is a most beautiful piece of complicated mechanism. giving to is man powers is There no part of the the exterior surface of the whole body that hand cannot reach. and differently to that of the knee. together with the hand. The osseous scapula and structure of the arm. nor are there any bounds to the variety and usefulness of its motions in combination with those of other parts of the body. PliATE XII. OR ARM. is made to roll over and to cross Its joint. the other. therefore. to omit altogether the if consideration of the cluster of the carpal bones. 47 THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. be seen. OR ARM. in the one bone. Those of the wrist and hand are more numerous. . The arm. consists. two to the lower. is the similarity in general arrangement of the is upper and lower extremities. in drawing the arm.

OR ARM. .48 THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. PliATE XII.

The muscles proand as ducing these two motions are therefore called. which bring about the flexion or bending of the arm. the the bones are side by thumb is turned out- ward. the bones are is thus the thumb turned inward and the palm of the backward. flexors. When side. So also it may well be borne in mind. pronators supinators. and the palm of the hand is in front. are designated while those which cause the extension of the limb are called extensors the in first being for the most part the others at front. This is called to supination^ in antagonism the other. When crossed.THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. OR ARM. This act . hand called is pronation the hand being thus prone or ready for action. 49 PliATE XIII. . that muscles. the back.

however. pronation. a line were drawn continuous with the arm at the wrist. while the interior proportionably Of the knuckles. PliATE XIV. will illustrate this in exaggeration. as will be readily observed in nature. as supination. OR ARM. or as portrayed thumb and line. concave. thus. The back of the human hand is is arched transversely. leaving the would run with the second fore finger beyond. the general direction of the whole arm is straighter when stretched out . In the setting on of the hand. an angle like this tion will be produced by the varied direcIn of the upper and lower portions of the arm. it would take the direction of the outside of the hand along the edge of the similar line little finger . on the outside of the in The hand by the ancient Egyptians their painted sculptures. be observed that the joint of the arm is not at a right angle with the direction of the shafts of the bones.50 It will THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. the greatest proportion is it may be remarked that if on the thumb side . and that in the position I referred to. or bony prominences of the metacarpal bones at . whereas on the other side a finger.

this latter being somewhat lower in position than the other. they become hollows. the inner condyle of the humerus a or forms the greatest projection. which the whole make in respect to their junction with the metacarpal bones. That of the thumb it. hollow. is the most and in addition to also seen. The projection of the olecranon. the tendency of each the middle of the to incline towards palm. the little last is thus formed a long tri- On the other side. The bony prominences on each externally. between which and the angular hollow.THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY^ OR ARM. though even this in fleshy arm frequently becomes a dimple. the tendon of the extensor of the thumb. or elbow. side of the wrist are. the lower end the mdius. thumb and of each as well as the angle. At the elbow female joint. itself must . distinct . the muscle proper to finger forms a more fleshy mass. passing over the radius. . that of the middle finger it most prominent. must be studied from the living hand to be properly understood. To these are directed the fan-like tendons of the extensor muscles seen — particularly in a thin is hand round through the integument. 51 their junction with the fingers. the head of the cuhit. or that of a child. or dimples instead of promi- nences. or ulna of internally. The peculiar direction of the joints of the finger. When is the fingers bend inwards. In a fleshy female hand.

on account of its continuing as a projection beyond the lower end of the upper arm bone. PliATE XV. to therefore. straightened. OR ARM. it be considered. hollowed out to receive it.52 THE SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. this point or projection When fits arm is into a groove between the condyles of the humerus. give in a tabular form the names of the principal muscles. such names being sufficiently expressive of their functions. as regards proportional length in the is the lower arm. It were a vain endeavour to describe by words the infinite variety of action and consequent change of form Suffice it. . The diagrams will point out their several attachments. which becomes greater when the arm the bent. which occurs in the human arm.

Pronator radii teres. the bicipital tubercle of the radius. though a flatness is still more or less observable in front. 53 THE ARM SEEN IN FRONT. 4. 2. whence con- jointly with the triceps. this Were the front of its muscle removed. Biceps brachii. and then again tendinous. 7. PliATE XII. Supinator radii longus. itself or tendons. The deltoid has already been described as the chief muscular portion of the shoulder. Deltoides. 10. triceps brachii is The seen on either side of the biceps . this muscle contracts much in its fleshy part. 9. the shorter entering the bicipital groove of the humerus. Palmaris longus. Flexor carpi ulnaris. (supine. 5. Palmaris brevis. Flexor carpi radialis. it forms a sinewy membrane descending the fore arm to the wrist. The combined mass affixes becoming very itself to fleshy. 3. would be observed attaching to the coracoid process of the scapula. Triceps extensor cubiti. Flexor longus poUicis. 6. 8. the biceps would be seen with two heads —^whence its name . the longer of these heads.) 1. When very strong action is manifest.THE ARM SEEN IN FRONT.

14. 17. heads_. it is and as such seen in the back view of the arm. 16.) 1. have induced some to consider it as three dis- tinct muscles.54 THE ARM SEEN FROM BEHIND. digitorum com- 15. Extensor munis. continuing round the back of the humerus. THE ARM SEEN FROM BEHIND. Radialis externus brevis. rAnconseus externus tri3. Deltoides. PliATE XVI. Extensor longus pollicis manus.-| Anconaeus longus ceps. 1 3. When acting together. Radialis externus longus. (supine. Extensor brevis pollicis manus. Flexor carpi ulnaris. they extend the fore arm. to Its three it which owes its name. •-Anconseus internus ] 2. PliATE XVI. .

ATK XVII. SIDE. 13. Radialis externus brevis. Deltoides. Triceps bracbii. 50 A ligament—purposely omitted in the illustrations—whicli binds together the wrist tlie various tendons at is called the ligamentum carpi annulare. Radialis externus longus. 12. 5. .THE ARM SEEN AT THE PI. SIDE. 3. Supinator radii longus. THE ARM SEEN AT THE 1.

but in all cases are to be introduced with judg- ment. The an- tique statues will serve us as sure guides in this particular. In the female. They may be shown or not. The positions of the principal veins are given at large. the general form and disposition are the same. and the deltoid has of form. unless indeed by the comparative narrowness of the . The muscles are less tendinous and in their more gently rounded fleshy masses. which become more evenly with soft filled integuments. the bony tuberosities and muscular promi- nences are less marked. PliATi: XVIII.56 THE VEINS OF THE ARM. as occa- sion requires. in The biceps particular is less abrupt. less divided by furrowed and angular divisions. as best a peculiarity described in the plate at page 37. In other respects. and sparingly.

extremities are for the most part united with each other in their several functions as and the limits of a little work like the present do not admit of so tedious and complicated a description as they might necessarily require. shoulders. is With the following remarks. therefore. the reader tables referred to the of the muscles of the leg and thigh given in explanation of the plates. as a portion of the human form not less beautiful than important^ and two views of the muscles as they appear given at page 60. THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. when the knee is bent are . where their several forms and positions are made sufficiently evident. hanging down of the arm PliATS: XIX.THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. 57 and greater expansion of the hips. however. The muscles of the lower well as fabric. pay a little attention to the knee joint. to It has been further thought necessary. we find a at the slight difference in the side.

PliATB XIX.58 THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. IS// 20 19 34- hr 26i m m 31 .

not only to the leg and arm. and thus propor- tionably larger than in the man. as so the inat clination of the femur bones towards each other their lower extremities tiful equilibrium).THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. (in order to produce a just and beau- produces a necessary difference of angle leg. in his works. In hardly any action of the leg or arm does it occur is that the greatest protuberance of muscle on one side. expansion of the hip bones is In the female. and XXI. 59 PliATES XX. the one side always answering the other for uniformity's sake. This rule will be found to apply. but pretty generally to the figure. consequent greater this. . taken either as a whole or in its several parts. is regular as to contour . in the setting on of the bones of the lower protuberance inwards the female knee is and a knee. answered by a corresponding opposite protuberance on the other. The architect. greater. The marked difference which exists in the knee of the is woman the as compared with that of the man. chiefly dependent on the skeleton form. structed with The Great Architect of man has con- more picturesqueness and certainly not less beautv. at the In addition to clothed more abundantly is with adipose membrane.

femur and tibia bones at the . PliATES XX. When the knee is bent.60 THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. the patella or knee-cap recedes partially into the space formed by the separation of the joint. and XXI.

29. Biceps femoris. 29. 25.) 32. Abductor pollicis pedis. 61 MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. 27. MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. Glutseus medius. Vastus internus. . Pectinalis. Vastus externus. Sartorius. Tibialis anticus. Glutaeus maximus. Iliacus internus.) 18. (seen in front. Tibialis anticus. 26. 28. (seen at the side. 26. Gasterocnemius. Tensor vaginae femoris. PliATE XIX. Vastus externus. PliATE XXII. Extensor longus digitorum pedis. 31. 27. 24. Tensor vaginae femoris. 23.MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. Rectus femoris. 22. 21. 28. 20. 19. Gasterocnemius. 23. 30. Vastus internus. 25. Biceps femoris. Triceps longus. 21. Gracilis. Sartorius. 35.

. PliATK XXII.62 MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES.

19. or lower portion of the calf of the leg. 26. PL. 21. a marked protuberance. Sartorius. w^here it attaches itself to the bone of the heel. it may be remarked that the same rule obtains with respect to leg as the its setting on to the hand it to the fore is arm. The solceus. GraciHs.) 32. called tendo Achilles.MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. mediately or directly but tibia somewhat obliquely with.ATE XXIII. 63 MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES. the . 22. 29. 27. Vastus externus. Glutaeus maximus. forms by the strong sinewy portion. Semitendinosus. In drawing the foot. Semimembranosus. Biceps femoris. Vastus internus. Triceps femoris. 34. Gasterocnemius. 23. (seen at the back. 33. that is to say. not placed imunder.

LONDON: Printed by Schulze and Co. cluster of made to project more Nor must it be forgotten that the tarsal bones have here their place. is thus maintained throughout the struc- and it is this line which gives the grace and elasti- city of appearance so observably beautiful in the human figure. or the like. . and thus is avoided the chance of violent concussion in sudden movements. A sinuous or slightly undulating line ture. so that the inner ankle than the outer.. striking. END. it should be observed that throughout the whole skeleton. as of jumping. Poland Street. In fact. 13. the bones are so arranged with respect to each other that there shall not exist a right angle at their joints . is bone.64 MUSCLES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITIES.

C/2 o CS3 .

\ .

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Vermillion. Burnt Sienna. 2s. Indian Yellow. No. Madder Brown. Rose Madder. Crimson Lake. 2. Indian Red. Cobalt. Price 18». Light Red. Burnt Sienna. Indian YeUow.— (Landscape. Cobalt. Yellow Ochre.— (Landscape. Vandyke Brown. and French Blue. 2. and Olive Green. Venetian Red. No. Indigo. Price £1. No. 6d. Price 18s. .) containing Yellow Ochre. Rose Madder. Vandyke Brown. 1. Ditto. Yellow Ochre.) Ochre. Figures. — (Landscape and Figures. 1. Light Red. Burnt Sienna. Cobalt. containing Raw Sienna. 12 Cake Box. No.RATHBONE PLACE. Cobalt.) Gamboge. Vandyke Brown. Ditto. No. Vandyke Brown. Light Red. Prussian Blue. and Indigo. Yellow Light Red. Rose Madder. 6d. Vermillion. Olive Green. and Gamboge. Crimson Lake. Indigo. Burnt Sienna. Brown Pink. Vandyke Brown. 10 Cake Box. Purple Lake. Neutral Tint. &c.) containing Gamboge.) containing Brown Pink. and Prussian Blue. — (Landscape. Neutral Tint. 2. Price 16s. Vermillion. Scarlet Vermillion. Price 16s.— (Landscape containing Scarlet and Figures. 8 Cake Box.

8s. 14 Cake Box. Indian Yellow. Price £1. Vandyke Brown. Vandyke Brown. containing Neutral Tint. Gamboge. containing Indian Yellow. Emerald Green. Yellow Ochre. Figures. Vandyke Brown. Yellow Ochre. 6d. Payne's Grey. Rose Madder. 1. and Cobalt. Burnt Sienna.8 WINSOR AND NEWTON. Landscape. ^Madder Brown. Light Red. Madder Brown. Chrome No. Burnt Sienna. Indian Yellow. Brown Pink. 1. 1. and French Blue. Price £2. Ivory Black. No. No. Indian Red.) Indigo. containing French Blue. Madder Brown. Indian Red. Vandyke Brown. 2a.) Cobalt. Light Red. 25. . Crimson Lake. Neutral Tint. 6d. Price £1. Emerald Green. 5s. No. Purple Lake. Carmine. Price £1. &c. Purple Lake. &c. 2. Rose Madder. Indian Yellow. — (Landscape.) Gamboge. 2. Figures. No. Indigo. Ditto. Olive Green. 16 Cake Box. — (Landscape. Olive Green. Indigo. — (Landscape. Burnt Carmine. Indigo. Emerald Green. and Gamboge. Pure Scarlet. Vermillion. Gallstone. Olive Green. Emerald Green. 6d. Light Red.) Lemon Yellow. Vermillion. Scarlet Vermillion. and Gamboge. — (Flowers. containing Yellow Ochre. &c. Rose Madder. Ditto.

Figures. Rose Madder. Indian Yellow. Purple Madder. 12. 4. Emerald Green. Brown Pink. or 24 cakes. to hold any number of cakes. Light Red. Carmine. Flowers. — (Complete for Landscape. Yellow Ochre. 14. (with palette flaps. Japanned Copper Water Bottles. with double cups. 3. for holding water in Sketching from Nature. Emerald Green.RATHBONE PLACE. 16. Vermillion. japanned. Vermillion. Indian Yellow. Burnt Sienna. and Cobalt. 18. 22. Brown Madder.) contaimng Lemon Yellow. with plated Large size size insides. Flowers. 7s. 13s. Cobalt. 6d. containing Figures. Olive Green. tlie difference added or deducted. N. Payne's Grey.) Lemon Yellow.) To contain 3. Japanned Water Bottles. various. Vandyke Brown. &c. 8. 10.B. French Blue. Rose Madder. Vandyke Brown. For any colour in the foregoing lists another may he stihstitated. 20. Price £2. Sepia. Indigo. to suit the artist's convenience. Chrome No. Gamboge. 20 Cake Box. Gamboge. and French Blue. or Dippers. Indigo. 6. and on any plan. &c. Price £1. 18 Cake Box. Purple Lake. Yellow Ochre. ditto ditto ditto Extra large ditto Water Cups. — (Landscape. and if the colour selected is higher or lower in price. the cups being attached to the Moist Colour Boxes. . Indian Red. 6d. Light Red. Boxes for Moist Colours made to order. Sap Green. Smalt. JTASAaSfSffK© MOIST C0D&0TT3a BOXES. Raw Sienna.

No. Eacb. €AKS:§. 1 Hooker's Green. No. Cologne Earth Dragon's Blood Emerald Green French Green 1. WHOLE CAKE. 2 Indigo Indian Red Italian Pink Ivory Black King's Vandyke Brown Venetian Red Vermillion Verdigris YeUow Black Yellow Ochre Yellow Lake Lamp . PREPARED IN CAKES AND HALF CAKES. "WATER COLOURS. XjBkJUjUt WUOIiE Is. HALE CAKE. HAIiF CAKES.10 WINSOR AND NEWTON. and 3 Raw Sienna Raw Umber Roman Ochre Red Lead Red Ochre Red Chalk Sap Green Terre Verte Gamboge Green Bice Hooker's Green. Each. 2. 6d. Antwerp Blue Bistre Burnt Sienna Brown Pink Blue Black Burnt Umber British Ink Brown Ochre Burnt Roman Ochre Light Red Neutral Tint Naples Yellow New Blue Olive Green Orpiment Prussian Blue Prussian Green Payne's Grey Chrome Yellows.

HALF CAKES. Winsor and Newton beg to variety. * Is. invite attention to their Stock of fitted. . Mahogany and Rosewood Water-Colour Boxes. HALF CAKES. 3s. HALE CAKES. 21s. Green Oxide of Chromium Pink Madder Rose Madder Intense Blue WHOLE CAKES. Is. Genuine Ultramarine. WHOLE Sepia continued. elegantly embracing every from 4s. 6d. 10s. 2s. 5s. to £10. 11 WATER COLOURS.RATHBONE PLACE. 9d. 6d. WHOLE Lemon Yellow French Blue CAKES. Cobalt Blue. 6d. HALF CAKES. Mars Yellow Crimson Lake Scarlet "Warm Sepia Roman Sepia Lake Brown Madder Constant "WTiite Purple Lake Chalon's Brown Chinese White Indian Yellow Black Lead Scarlet Vermillion Mars Brown WHOLE CAKES. Lltramarine Ash Mars Orange Pure Scarlet Carmine Gallstone Burnt Carmine Smalt Purple Madder Cadmium Yellow Orange Vermillion WHOLE CAKES. 6d. HALF CAKES. CAKES. Is.

" "It is" hardly possible to overrate the value of ' Opaque White' in Water Colours when judiciously used. and thus. THE MOST ELIGIBLE PREPARATION OF WHITE PIGMENT FOR WATER COLOUR PAINTERS. by drying up three or four tones higher than when wet. nor does it injure. I had nothing to fear on account of its diu'ability.' was iii-st put into my hands. any known pigments. PERMANENT CHINESE WHITE. is rendered far superior to those whites known as " Constant" or as " Permanent" Whites. Haiding's and Practice of Art. whose name as a chemist and' philosopher is amongst the most distinguished in our countrj^ to analyze it for me. either alone or in compound tints. and particularly with the Moist Colours. In Bottles or Tubes. The Chinese White is peculiarly available in mixing with any of the Water Colours in use. thereby forming at pleasure an extensive range of body colours of a very superior until lately the kind." "This is an invaluable pigment. I apphed to one of my friends." " Principles . and to teU me if I might rely on its durahihty. It has long been pointed out by chemists as a most desirable substance for the Artists' use. Neither impure air. WHITE OXIDE OF ZINC. by combining body and permanency. affect its whiteness. The great body it possesses gives it the property of drying on paper of the same tone as it appears when first laid on. It is not injured by.' that if it would in all other respects answer the piu-poses I required of it. The follo-ning Paragraphs are exti'acted from Jlr. it does not deceive the Artist like other whites.12 WINSOR AND NEWTON. and not having their clogging or pasty qualities. The Chinese White. nor the most powerful re-agents. each." " Wlien the Oxide of Zinc. 6d. this desideratum has been attained. pronounced by the highest chemical authorities to he one of the most unchangeable substances in nature. which is prepared by Winsor and Newton under the name of 'Chinese "V^^lite. price The White Oxide of Zinc is Is. the reply was. termed Chinese White. when used. some years ago. provided sufficient body could be imparted to it . In WiNSOR AND Newton's preparation. but want of this necessary quality rendered it unavailable. it works and washes wdth freedom.

. the Bottle. Price 1». This limpid Extract of Gall possesses all the strength and properties of the Gall as it is usually sold in the paste state.. 6d. This rich and permanent Ink WATER C O li OUB MEGILP. the Bottle. CODCOTTOEllfcBSS ]&XQtriI) OX &A3&£. in Landscape and Miniature Painting. Invented and Prepared by Winsor and Newton. Price 2*. and preventing them running one into another. imparting additional depth. Prepared for the use of "Water Colonr Painters. . middle ditto. drawn with it (even if the Ink be diluted with water to the palest tint). Price Is. the Bottle. briUiancy.RATHBONE PLACE. Price : small size. it is generally used for high lights. (Sulphate of Barvtes. . Price 1*. 1*. Qd. for the use of Water Colour Painters. &c. 6d. improving the working of the colours. the Bottle. but is deprived of its unpleasant quahties. the Bottle. A BEAUTIFUL TRANSPARENT BROWTN FOR WATER COLOURS. A most desirable medium. when dry. the Bottle. PROCT'S lilQUID BROlVHr. or ornamental design. Messrs. 6d. the Bottle. Price 1«. is found to be of great service to the Architectural Artist.) This is an extremely white pigment. but does not possess the body of Chinese White . 13 LIQUID COIiOVRS AND MEDIUMS. effaced by continual washings. as the outhne. Is. 6d. For Outlines or for Sketcbin^. Price 1*. large ditto. and transparency in Water Colour Painting. 6d. is not. Winsor and Newton are the only Manufacturers who have succeeded in bringing this rich pigment to a state fit for the Water Colour Painter's use.

Pencil for Architect Wood Engraver's outline. varieties firmness. for the broadest and deepest tones required in Pencil-Drawing.. Very hard Drawing) Extremely hard Engineering. which are manufactured of the purest Cumberland grit. A degree harder (for Outlines and fine Drawing) (for Architectural (for HHH. Lead. BBB. Black (for Shading. beg respectfully to Engineers. their ready and complete erasure. . lead. uniformity. 6d. to their Drawing Pencils. Is. with very broad Shading). HH. from the or HHHH. Surveyors.. and richness of colour. Intensely Black (for extra deep BBBB. each." KENTISH TOWN. vnth thicker lead B. Same as BBB. and the truth and certainty to which they are made to answer to the degree or letter they represent. to the BBBB. Used for Light Shading F. Hard and Black (deeper shade than F) | "^ EHB.. broad lead.. each. WINSOR and NEWTON of Amateurs. they are remarkable for the of hardness and evenness of texture. CUMBERLAND LEAD DRAWING PENCILS^ MANUFACTURED BY WINSOR AND NEWTON. or Drawing on Wood) f I U .14 WINSOR AND NEWTON. Fine Drawing > '^ CO (firm) /^ HB. Artists. FF. &c. or for free Sketching) Softer ditto (for deep Shading) . HHHH. Is... H. and dehcacy of tint . AT "THE NOBTH LONDON COLOUB WOBKS. as HB. call the especial attention Architects. warranted to be perfectly free from These Pencils are unrivalled for depth. Same BB. Moderately hard (used for light Sketching) .

„ Is. CUMBERLAND LEAD. Very Broad Lead and Black BBBBBB. Schools. . and Students. Very hard HH. to the Drawing Pencils which they manufacture of Brockedon's Patent Pure Cumberland Lead. Very Thick Lead and Black These Pencils possess nearly all 9d.. Sold in Cases.?"/ Each. Harding. HB. Very Black BBBB. Manufactared by WINSOE and NEWTON.) MANUFACTURED OF COMPRESSED PREPARED PLUMBAGO. Surveyors. Harding's name. . &c. with. HHH. containing a Set of Six Pencils. ea. Amateurs. Hard H. particular sorts of which have been selected by Mr. Architects. Hard and Black B. Black for Shading BB. and with which they are supplied. "Winsor and Newton have authority to attach Mr. PATENT 15 LEAD DRAWING PENCILS. Soft and Black 6d. They are well adapted for Drawing Masters. Rather hard F. . by that gentleman's permission to the Pencils : thus manufactured. (SECOND QUALITY DRAWING PENCILS. Price 3s. BBB. BROCKEDON'S PATENT PURE WiNSOR AND Newton beg respectfully to call the attention of Artists. of various thickness of Lead. . Engineers. . „ the best qualities of the old genuine Cumberland Lead. Free -working ° > I . the Set.RATHBONE PLACE.

(op the best aUALITY. VTHATMAN'S D RA'tVX N G PAPERS.) Size. .16 WINSOR AND NEWTON.

17 FINEST FRENCH SABLE BRUSHES BROIVX SABIiE HAIR. THE BRUSHES DESCRIBED ARE ALL THE SAME SIZES AS THE ENGRAVINGS. . my m ml N ml \m\ P < <\ \\to\\ < N Im Messrs. Domed Pointe. IVinsor and IVewton solicit especial attention to tlieir Stock of IVater Colour Sable Brusbes. 'nblch Tdll be found most Complete. and of tbe Best Quality. Tbey are selected wltb sreat care from tbe Stocks of tbe best makers in Paris.RATHBONE PLACE.

-WATER COIiOUR BRUSHES.18 WINSOR AND NEWTON. 6 being the largest. to which numbers are attached. Red or Brown Sable Hair. I II N?l N?2 N?4 N9 5 i?r The Engra\angs show various and No. . No. either in flat or round. WITH POLISHED EBONY HANDLES. the remaining sizes can be readily determined from them. FLAT OB KOTTND. 1 the smallest. sizes of the Brushes. TN GERMAN SILVER FERRULES.

. Round. lAEGE SIZES. In German SUver Fermles.BS. Flat.RATH BONE PLACE. 19 -WATER COLOUR BRUSHES FI3fBST BODIOWX SABX. with long Polished Ebony Handles.

and large works.20 WINSOR AND NEV/TON. RED SABLE BRUSHES. made of |fj|k Siberian Hair. foregrounds. for Pigeon Lithography These Brushes correspond in size and form with the Brown Sables. made of Dyed Sable Hair. WASHES. W^Tll^ ©@[L©iyK ^\^^ FOR SKIES. Large Swan Quill P III IIIIIW Middle ditto Small ditto Extra Small ditto Goose Quill Duck Crow ditto ditto ditto. B. AND LARGE WORKS. as represented on page 17. A. suitable for skies.— Large Round Wirebound Brush. .— Large Flat Brush in Tin. IN aUILL. a most use- 11 ful Brush where large re- washes of colour are quired.

RATHBONE PLACE. 21 CAMEIi HAIR BRUSHES IN TIN. Flat. i inch wide 1| inch -wide 1 H n .

by passing a knife round the edges of the uppermost surface. pocket for the sketches from the block. however. each sheet can. to any required size. &c. when removed for pencil. as being better adapted for Water Colour Painting than the ordinary papers generally used. and a place WHITE PAPER. Winsor and Newton's SoUd Sketch Books are all made of stout and extra thick Drawing Papers. 16mo . Mr. Solid Sketcli Books made of any paper. &c. Half-bound. These Books consist of a number of sheets of paper. containing the papers used by the most eminent artists. OIiID SKETCH BOOKS. Dewixt. including Mr. on tlie S03E. be immediately separated. Mr. A large stock and great variety are constantly kept. Copley Fielding. compressed so as to form an apparent solid substance. Harding. with leather backs. and Sliortest Notice.3CD SKETCH S003KS.22 WINSOR AND NEWTON.

WHITE PAPER BLOCKS.RATHBONE PLACE. Imperial. BLOCKS WITHOUT BINDING. . 7 inches by 5 8vo. 23 SOIilD SKETCH BOOKS. continued. unbound. 16mo.

24

WINSOR AND NEWTON, RATHBONE PLACE.

MISCEIiLANEOUS.
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all sizes,

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or tinted

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and

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AND EVERY REQUISITE EOR DRAWING AND PAINTING.

WINSOR AND NEWTON,
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AND THOMAS L. Booksellers and Artists' Colournien. WITH OBSERVATIONS ON SETTING AND PAINTING THE FIGURE. Engraved on (l Third Edition. ROWBOTHAM's BOOK AS ABOVE... BY AARON PENLEY. \s. ROWBOTHAM. Fourth. DRAWN ON WOOD BY THE AUTHOR.\-^ - - '^ r/--v>'f Scvi'uh Edition. . Price \s. RATHBOIVS: PliACK. • * I BY THOMAS L.^''c. THE ART OP SKETCHING PROM NATURE. •. (JTonfatning Sititcm EUustrations. . jg LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN WATER-COLOURS. AND MEMBER OF THK NEW SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IV WATER-COLOURS. BY iMRS. Second Edition. Pi'ki Is. f. AND ENGRAVED BY WALTER G.. Edition. C. BY H. JUN. SKitI) Wcaeni'g'Ssii lUustrationg. THE ART OP FIGURE DRAWING. 3S. Sixth Edition. Price INSTRUCTIONS IN THE ART OF LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OIL-COLOURS. EXAMPLES AND DIAGRAMS. THE ART OF PORTRAIT PAINTING IN OIL-COLOURS. BEING A SEQUEL TO MR. Price \s. Price \s. JUN. NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATED BY Third Edition.f. BY THOMAS ROWBOTHAM.. BY HENRY MURRAY. Eighth Edition.\ ^^ \. THE ELEMENTS OP PERSPECTIVE. ME RRI FIELD. Price \s. LONDON. THE ART OF PORTRAIT PAINTING IN WATER-COLOURS. Price \s. » ^ii>k'Lt:v kHi . INSTRUCTIONS IN PROFESSOR OF DRAWING AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE. ' THE ART OF A SYSTEM OF WATER-COLOUR PAINTING. BY AARON PENLEY. MA WINSOK AWD And Sold by all nrUlVTOIir. Eleventh Edition. Wood by Dalziel.. BY THOMAS ROWBOTHAM. Price \s. ROWBOTHAM. WEIGALL..