V13BoCTV151

HA

m.nr APCKOTO APXEOJIOfV14ECKO,llPY)f{ECTBO

VI 1816-1918

C"h 174 oepasa B1, rexcra " 6 -ratJJ!HUH

BULLETIN

DE LA

SOCIETE ARC H EOLO G I QUE BULGARE

VI 1916-·1918

avec 174 figures dans 1e lexte et 6 planches

CO<l>Yl7I - SOPHIA

1919

CTp.

~HJlOB1., 6. OaMeTHHllH aa rpaxnacxoro H3KYCTBO (co TaOJl. I-III). 1

MYWMOB1., H. A. OPHHOCb KbMb 6bJlrapCKaTa HYMH3MaTHKa . 57

000081., P. Konsca-Ilepaeacxara MOrHJlanpH rp. IlIYMeH1. (Cb ratin. IV -VI) 71 ApXeOJlOflt'leCKH 81;cTH. - 51>J1rapCKOTo apxeOJlOrH'leCKO .I1pYlKeCTBO Bo C04JHII. -

113Y'lBaHeTo na HOBHT1> 3eMH. - Pa3KOnKHB'h OKOJlHOCTbTa aa Dp1>CJlaB'h

(10. rOCnO.llHHOB'h). - Ko.1eKTHBHH HaXOjlKH aa MOHCTH (H. A MyIllMOB'h).MaKcHM'h KOJIHHbOH'h t (D. <1>.) - EBreHHI! 50PM8H'b t (5. <1>.) - MopHu'b Xsopnecs + (r. l1. K. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 157

H0800TKPHTH CTapH"H (C'h06IUaS8 5, <l>HJlOB'h) •• .••••••••••••• 16.'5

OU:bHKH . H 6Ht'iJlHOrpa4»HH. - J. K 8 e r s t, Geschichte des Hcllenismus (I'. 11. Kana-

pos s). - E. 0 b er hum mer, Die Balkanvolker (F. 11. Kauapoas), - tt

11 S a H 0 S 'h, Cs. I1saH b PHJlCKH H uerOBHIIT'b MaHaCTHpb (A. TCOjlOpOB'h-5a-

nam.) - Hoan KHlifH, OTHOCCIUH ce .110 apxeoJlorHllra ua 6bJlrapHII • • • 170

Ta6J1HlJ.H

I. 1-5. 3JlaTHH H cpe6-ppHH npsnaera On opt30RO. 6- 7. TY4eHH n3Q>TH OTb Ilaaanopaute.

8. Cpe6bPHH MOHeTH On AMQ>HnOJlHcb.

II - III. Cpe6bPHH npt.llMeTH ors Ilaaanopuure.

V-VI, rJlHHeHH CII'..Il0Be OTb KOJJ.lKa-JlepMeHcKaTa MOrHJlII npu LlJYMell'b.

Table des matieres

Page

Fllow, S. Monuments de l'art thrace (avec pI. I-III) 1 .

Mouchmow, N. A. Contritution a l'etude de la numismatique bulgare. 57

Popow, R. Le tumulus de Kodja-Derrnen pres de Choumen (avec pl. IV -- VI) 71

Nouvelles archeologiques, - La Societe archeologique bulgare a Sofia. - Recherches

archeologiques dans les regions liberees. - FouiIIes dansles envir- ns de Preslave (U. Gospodinow). - TrouvaiIIes collectives de monnaies IN. A. Mouchmow). - Maxime Collignon + (B. F.) - Eugen Bormann -r (B. 1<.)

- Moritz Hocrnes t (G. I. K.). . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .. 157

Decouvertes archeologlques en Bulgarie pendant 1916 et 1917 (B. Filow).. .. 165

Bibliographie. - J. K a e r s t, Geschichte des Hellenismus (G. J. Kazarow). ~ E. 0 b e r-

hum mer, Die Balkanvolker (G. I. Kazarow), - J. Ivanow, St. Jean de Rila

et son monastere (A. Theodorow-Balan), - Publications nouvelles se rattachant

a l'archeologie bulgare. . . . . . . . . . ., liO

Table des planches et des illustrations

I. 1-5. Objets en or et en argent de Bresovo, 6-7. Agrafes en bronze blanc de Panagurlchte. 8. Monnaies en argent d' Amphipolis.

II-III. Objets en argent de Panagurichte.

IV - VI. Vases .en argile du tumulus de Kodja-Dermen pres deChoumen.

Fig.

1. Rhyton en argent de Karagodeouachkh (Russie meridionale) .

2. Plaque en or de Karagcdcouachkh .. 3.· Agrafes en argent de Bresovo

4. Agrafe en argent de Bresovo .

S. Bridon en argent de Bresovo

6. Ornement du rneme bridon.

7 et 8. Anneaux en argent de Bresovo

9. Coupe en argent de Bresovo . . .

10. Coupe en argent avec un trepied en argile de Bresovo

11. Seau en bronze de Bresovo . .

12. Objets en fer de Bresovo . . .

13. Amphores en argile de Bresovo .

: 14. Gobelet en argile de Bresovo 15--16. Objets en or de Panagurlchte .

Page

6 {}

8 8 9

10

10 -11 II 12 12 13 I~

. 15

16 '-17

VI

Table des planches et des illustrations

Fig.

17. Disques en argent de Panagurlchte

18. Gobelet en argent •

19. Gobelet en bronze •

20. Ornement du meme gobelet .

21. Seau en bronze de Panagurlchte 22 Vase ..

23. Palmette en bronze de Panagurlchte

24. Anneau en bronze •

25. Lances en fer

26. Brldon en fer

27. Amphores en argile ..

28 Objets en bronze de Bedniakovo 29-30. COUP{ s en argent de Raduvene

31. Pot en argent de Raduvene . .

32. Agrafes en argent de Raduvene

33. Plaque en argent a Leyden

34. Plaque en argent a Paris. . .

35. Plaque en or de Koul-Oba .. .

36--37. Ornernents en argent de Krasnokoutsk. 38. Plaque en or de Vettersfelde . . . . . 39 40. Monnaies en bronze du roi Srazimir. .

41. Monnaie en argent du roi Srazimir.. . .

42. Signature du roi Srazimir sur un Mit de Brachow 43-44. Mnnnaies en bronze de Srazimir et Constantin. 4.5 Monnaie en bronze de Constantin Assene . . .

46. Monnaies en bronze de Jean Alexandre et Michel .

47. Monnaie en bronze de Jean Alexandre et. Michel .. 48-49. Monnaies en argent de Jean Alexandre et Michel.

50. Monnaie en bronze de Jean Alexandre.. . . . . .

51. Le tumulus de Kodja-Dermen pres de Choumen, de nord-ouest. . 52, Vases en argile du turnulus de Kodja-Derrnen ..

53. Plan du tumulus de Kodja-Derrnen .

54. Plan des cabanes decouvertes . . 55 Le sol de la cabane I . • . . .

56. Moulin it la main de Ia cabane I .

57. Le sol de Ia cabane II .

. 58. Le sol de la cabane II. . . . . 59. Le sol e la cabane I . . . . .

60-67. Obj ; en silex du tumulus de Kodja-Derrnen . 68-73. Obje. en pierre du rnerne tumulus.

74-81 Instrum .• lis en os •

82. Figurines en os

83-89. Instruments en bois de renne.

90-91. Instruments en cuivre du merne tumulus 92 -94. Parures en coquilles •

95. Perles en bois de renne et en os du merne tumulus,

96. Perles de graines de Lithospermum • 97-98. Perles de graines

99. Perles en argile et en coquilles

100. Ornements incrustes sur des vases en argile du merne tumnlus lOl-134. VaSeS en argile du meme tumulus.

135-137. Modeles de cabanes en argile du meme tumulus. .

Page

23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 34 38 39 48 50 51 58 56 59

60-61 62 * 6,5 67 61:1 69 71· 72 74 74 75 76 77 78 79

80-85 86-89 89-92

93 94-98

93 100 101 ]01

101 .. 103

103 . . 108 109-133 133-134

----_.-----------.----

Table des planches et des illustrations

VII

Fig.

138-144. Figurines en argile du me me tumulus 145'-146. Supports en argiles •

141-160 Objets divers en argile du merne turnulus . Itl!. Os humalns casses du me me tumulus. . . . .

162. Plan de l'eglise de Vabiline-dol pres de Pres lave

163. Plan de l'eglise dans la • Ville exterieure" pres de Preslave

164. Plan de l'eglise de Sellchte pres de Preslave . . . • . . 165--166. Ancien pilier dans Ie fleuve de Titcha pres de Preslave .

167. Appliques en bronze d'un coffret de Ohighen

168. Vase en bronze de Bouloustra . . . . . . . 169-171. Monuments funeraires de Piperovo , . . . 172 Tete en marbre de Hissarlik pres de Nevrokope , 173-174 Monuments funeraires de Tsarnilichte

Page

135 -139 140-141 142-148

1;>0

160

160-161 166 167 168 169 169

naMeTHHUH

u

Ha TpaKHHCKOTO

H3KYCTBO

(cs TaOJI. I-III)

on 6. cfJHJlOB'b

-~-

Koraro CTaBa .ZI.YMa sa TpaKHikKH naMeTHHIJ,H, 06HKHOBeHO ce nO.ZI.pa3- 6HpaTb TaKHBa np~.ZI.MeTH, KOHTO C~ HaM~peHH Bb rpaHHIJ,H~ Ha .ZI.peBHH TpaKHH (npH6JIH3HTeJIHO H3TmIHaTa nOJIOBHHa na OaJIKaHCKHH nOJIYOCTpOBb), 6C3b .ZI.a ce rJIe.ZI.a aa TOBa, .ZI.aJIH ~ npOH3XO>K.ZI.aTb OTb CaMH~ TpaKHHIJ,H HJIH OTb .ZI.pyrb H~KOH HapO.ZI.b,· KOHTO e 06HTaBaJIb r-sxaara 06JIaCTb.1) Taxa aanp, tIHCTO rpbIJ,KH H PHMCKH Ha.nnHCH, peaaerpa HJIH cTaTYH, KOHTO H~MarD HHII1,O 06II1,0 Cb CTapH~ TpaKHHIJ,H, ce 03Ha'IaBaTb KaTO TpaKHHCKH caxo aa TOBa, se C~ aasrspeua Bb TpaKHH.2) Cb npyra .ZI.yMH TepMHHbTb nTpaKHHCKH" Bb nO.ZI.06HH CJIY'IaH HMa He eTHOJIOfHtIeCKO, a reorparpaxecxo 3Ha'IeHHe, KaTO ce OTHaCH .ZI.O M~CTOHaXO>K.ZI.eHHeTO, a He .ZI.O npOH3XO>K.ZI.eHHeTO aa naMeTHHIJ,HT~ Bb CBpb3Ka cs H~KOH H3B~CTeHb Hap0.ZI.b. KOJIKO HenpaBHJIHO e TOBa ynorpsoeuae aa .ZI.YMaTa, ce BH>K.ZI.a HaH-.ZI.06p~, aKO B3eMeMb np~.ZI.b BH.ZI.b, KaKBO pastiapaxe 06HKHOBeHO, xoraro rosopasn, aa CTapOrpbIJ,KH HJIH PHMCKH naMeTHHIJ,H. Bb T03H CJJY'IaH HHKOH He 6H nOMHCJIHJIb aa naMeTHHIJ,H, aasrspeaa caxo Bb fbPIJ,HH HJIH I1TaJIHH, HO HanpOTHBb aa npOH3Be.ZI.eHHH na CTapOrpbIJ,KOTO HJIH PHMCKO H3KYCTBO, HeaaBHCHMO OTb M~CTOTO, .ZI.~TO ~ C~ 6HJIH HaM~peHH.

Ilpasaaara aa e.ZI.HO TaKOBa He CbBciMb npaBHJJHO ynorpbtieaae aa TepMHHa "TpaKHHCKH" ce 3aKJIIOtIaBa Bb 06C;TOHTeJICTBOTO, se naMeTHHIJ,H na TpaKHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO H KYJITypa, KOHTO .ZI.a HOCHTb HaIJ,HOHaJIeHb xapaKTepb H KOHTO .ZI.a C~ Cb3.ZI.a.ZI.eHH OTb caMH~ TpaKHHIJ,H, ztocera nO'ITH He 6~xa H3B~CTHH Bb HaYKaTa. HaHCTHHa MHoro OTb aHTH'IHH~ naMeTHHIJ,H, HaM~peHH Bb TpaKHH, HMaT'b CIO>KeTH, KOHTO C~ 3aeTH OTb 6HTa HJIH MIfTOJIOrHHTa na CTapH~ TpaKHHIJ,H. 06a'Ie Bo 06JIaCTbTa aa H3KYCTBOTO

1) B'b Ta3H CMHC'bJIb ynorphosaa TepMHHa • rpaxaacxa apXeOJIOrHlI· HOe 0 r g e s S e u r e (Revue archeol, 1911 II CTp. 301).

2) Cp, aanp, • rpaxancxars MOHeTHH H30opaiKeHHlI" (B. Pic k, Jahrbuch des Deutschen archaol, Inst. XIII, 1899, 134 CJI.) HJIH .HOBHlI rpaxaacxa aannacs" (0. Ka z a r o w, Jahreshefte des Oesterreich. archaeol. lnst. XV, 1913, Beibl. 95 eJI.).

113B'tCTHA Ha. Apx. ilPYlK. VI

2

O. ¢lllilOB'b, OaMeTHIIUII aa rpaxaacxoro 113KYCTBO

CIO}KeThTb naxora He onpt)l.tJIH Ha~HOHaJIHHH xapaxrept, na enao npOHSseneuae. Taxa aanp. e)l.HH OTb aaa-paanpocrpaaeaar-s aHTHqHH naMeTHHl.{H Bb TpaKHH ClK peJIHeqmTt aa ThH aapeseaaa " TpaKHHCKH KOHH."Kb" . CIO}KeThTb aa nSH penaedia e oescnopHO TpaKHHCKH. Ocase <i>OPMHTt, Bb KOHTO TOH e nphaanerrs, KaKTO H caMOTO HSnbJIHeHHe na peaaerpar-s, HtMaTb HHll.J;O Ha~HOHaJiHO TpaKHHCKO, KoeTO na rH paaaasaaa OTb npoasse)l.eHHHTa aa CbBptMeHHOTO nMb eJIHHHCTHqeCKO HJIH KbCHOPHMCKO HSKYCTBO. A nbKb TbKMO <i>OPMHTt H HaqHHbTh, no KOHTO n ClK np'snaneaa, HJIH Cb )l.pyrH )l.yMH CTI1JIbTh e HaH-ClKll.J;eCTBeHOTo rrsmo npa BctKO npoaaaeneaae aa HSKYCTBOTO. ETo santo peJIHe<i>HTt ua TpaKHHcKHH KOHHHKb, BbnptKH nXHHH CIO}KeTh, He xorar-s na ce CqHTaTh sa npOHSBe)l.eHHH aa TpaKHHCKOTO HSKYCTBO.

KaTO ce HMa np'szrs BH)l.b eJIHHHCTHqeCKO-pHMCKHH xapaxrept. aa rpaMa)l.HOTO OOJIIlIHHCTBO OTh aHTHqHHn naMeTHH~H, aasrspeua )1.0 cera Bb TpaKHH, naace H aa nSH OTb nXb, KOHTO, KaTO peJIHe<i>Hn na KOHHHKa, HMaTh TPHKHHCKH CIO}KeTH, aa npbBb noraem, HSrJIe}K)l.a, se HHe He OHXMe HMaJiH npano )l.a rosopasrs sa HtKaKBO ocorieao TpaKHHCKO HSKYCTBO. Ha npbBb nOrJIe)l.b HHe OHXMe OHJIH HaKJIOHHH )l.a OTpeqeMb Ha CTapHrB TpaKHH~H nXHO Hal.{HOHaJiHO xY)l.O}KeCTBeHO TBOpqeCTBO - CbS)l.aBaHeTO aa npOHSBe)l.eHHH, KOHTO HMeHHO no cpopMa H CTHJIb zta HOCSlTh TpaKHHCKH xapaxrep's H )l.a ce OTJIHqaBaTh OTh CbBptMeHHHn nMb craporp smca HJIH PHMCKH naMeTHH~H. Taxosa eztao SaKJIIOqeHHe OH ce HBHJIO TOJIKOSb nosese npaB)l.OnO)l.OOHO, KaTO ce ssexe npt)l.b BH)l.b, 'Ie crapar-s TpaKHHl.{H, no BCHqKO, KoeTO HH e H3BtCTHO sa TtXb, ome TBbP)l.t paao, nozrs BJIHSIHHeTO aa eJIHHHSMa, ClK HsrYOHJIH CBOHTa Ha~HOHaJiHa TBOpqeCKa MOll.J;b, KaTO ClK npscraaaaa )l.a}Ke na CH CJIY}KaTb nHCMeHO Cb eSHKa CH, KOHTO ClK· saMtHHJIH Cb rp'suxas, 1)

Bb ClKll.J;lJOCTb Ooaqe patiorara CTOH aaase. Ilp'sas nOCJIt)l.HHn roAHHH, Y aacs ClK OTKpHTH HtKOH naMeTHH~H, KOHTO HHe Cb nbJIHO npaso MO}KeMb )l.a aapesesn, TpaKHHCKH Bb HCTHHCKaTa CMHCbJIb aa )l.YMaTa H KOHTO HH )l.aBaTb BbSMO}KHOCTb na CH CbCTaBHMb )l.OCTa HCHO npancraaaeaae sa xyno}KeCTBeHOTO TBOpqeCTBO aa crapars TpaKHH~H it sa HerOBHn Ha~HOHaJIHH ocoOeHOCTH. OOBeqeTO OTh Tt3H naMeTHH~H, KOHTO cera ce csxpaasaar-s Bb HapO)l.HHH MY3eH, ClK OCTaHaJiH )1.0' cera HeOOHapO)l.BaHH, no .KOHTO

1) KaKTO e 113BtCTHO, rrspeasrrs nannacs H3 rpaxaacsa e311K'b (it orxparu ensa nanociltn'bK'b B'bpXy enaas snarem, npscreas OT'b E3epOBO; rn, 0 ¢l II iI 0 B 'b, 113BtCTII1I III 202 II 218 en. II Anzeiger des Deutschen archaol, Inst. 1914, 420 CiI.; P. K ret s C h mer, Glotta 1914, 74 ca. Bt.pxy r-saxyaaaero aa aannaca Jl. Jl e q e B 'b, 111BtCTIIII IV 70 CJI. (Anzeiger 1915, 222).

O. <l>HnOB"b, naMeTHHUH aa TpaKHAcKOTO H3KYCTBO

3

npasasa rl He CN\. MOrJIH oute na 6iY\.,n:aT'b H3nOJI3YBaHH, B'bnptKH rlXHOTO rOJItMo 3HalJeHHe aa KYJITypaTa na craparb TpaKHHI.\H.

Bsnpocnars naMeTHHI.\H npOH3XO}K,n:aT'b rJIaBHO 0T'b norpeoaaaa MOrHJIH, KOHTO 3a }KaJIOCTb CiY\. 6HJIH pa3KonaHH cnYlJaHHO 0T'b HeonHTHH xopa H 3a TOBa He CiY\. MOrJIH aa 6iY\.,n:aT'b H3CJIt,n:BaHH CHCTeMaTHlIeCKH. HaH-Ba}KeH'b H H306HJIeH'b MaTepHaJI'b CiY\. ,n:aJIH ,n:Bt MOrHJIH np~ opt30BO H Ilaaanopaute. Ha TpeTO MtcrO H,n:e enaa naxonxa 0T'b MOrHJIeH'b rp06'b npH C. ot,n:HSlKOBO, 4HpnaHCKO, KOSlTO 6t sese otiaaponaaaa no-paao.t) OCBtH'b TOBa Tpt6Ba ,n:a ce B3eMaT'b npt,n:'b BH,n:'b H HtKOH npt,n:MeTH 0T'b enaa aaxoznca npa ~. Pa,n:IOBeHe, JIoBlJaHCKO.

HtKOH npt,n:MeTH OT'b MOrHJIHrl npa Ilaaanopmne H opt30BO HtMaT'b xy,n:O}KeCTBeHO 3HalJeHHe. ITPH see TOBa, nonezce rl3H np'snxera no cera He CiY\. 06Hapo,n:BaHH, HHe me onamesrs aa n'bJIHOTa I.\tJIHrl HaXOllKH, aa zta MO}Ke ,n:a ce CiY\.,n:H no-noopt, sa spsaero H KYJITypaTa, aa KOSlTO rl npananaezcar-s, CJItlI.'b onacanaero aa BCHlJKH naMeTHHUH me paaraenaxe CneI.\HaJIHO H no-nonporiao rl3H 01''b TtX'b, KOHTO npt,n:cTaBSlT'b aarepecs aa TpaKHHcKoTO H3KYCTBO B'b CiY\.mHHCKaTa CMHC'bJIb aa ,n:YMaTa.

I. Moruna npn Ept30BO.

rIpt3'b MtceI.\'b HoeMBpH 1897 ron. B'b MtcTHocTbTa Panuea's-repam, npz opt30BO e 6HJIa pasxonaaa, KaKTO H3rJIe}K;:J;a OT'b HMaHSlpH, ensa norpe- 6aJIHa MOrHJIa. Hasrspeaar-h B'b nes npsnaera, ,n:OKOJIKOTO HtKOHOT'b rlX'b He CiY\. 6HJIH YKPHTH HJIH aaxap'saeaa, CLY;. 6HJIH' nparipaaa n'bpBOHalJaJIHO B'b rIJIOB,n:HBCKaTa Haponaa 6H6JIHOTeKa, OT,n:tTO ensa CJIt,n:'b utJIa ronaaa, npt3'b MtceI.\b HoeMBpH 1898 ron., C~ 6HJIH npbnpareaa B'b Haponaas MY3eH S'b COCPHSI (rJI. apxasara aa MY3eSl, BX • .N'Q 390 OT'b 1898 r.). Toranaumasrrs napexrop's aa MY3eSl, B . .ll06pyCKH, e 6HJI'b KOMaH,n:HpoBaH'b B'b opt30BO, sa ,n:a npoysa aaxoaxara na caMOTO MtCTO H ,n:a paaxonae ,n:pyrJlrl TpH MOrHJIH, KOHTO ce HaMHpaJIH B'b cxmara MtCTHOCTb Bb C'bCt,n:CTBO C'b rrspsara (rJI. apxasara aa MY3eSl, H3X • .N'!! 257 OT'b 19 IOHH H BX . .N'!! 280 0T'b 10 aarycrs 1898 r.). 3a pe3YJITaTHrl aa rl3H H3YlJBaHHSl HtMaMe sa }KaJIOCTb HHKaKBH CBt,n:tHHSl, T'bH KaTO HHTO e nexarairs H-BKaK'bB'b OTlIeT'b aa rlX'b, HHTO n'bK'b e aanaserrs S'b apxaaara aa My3~SI HtKaK'bB'b noKYMeHT'b, OT'b KOHTO ,n:a ce BH,n:H, KaKBO e 6HJIO H3B'bpllleHO H KOHCTaTH-

1) B. <I> H nOB 1>, Ilep. cnac. XXI, 1909, 590-597 C1> 2 Ta6nHUH; Anzeiger des Deutschen archaol. lost. 1910. 398 cn.

1*

4

.6. <l>HJlOB'b. naMeTHHUH aa rpaaaacxoro H3KYCTBO

paao na caMOTO MtCTO. KlKCO CD06w.eHHe sa aaxonxara .lI.aSaTb caxo 6paTSI Illxopnam, S'b3'b ocnoaa na H'BKOH 6'BJI'B}I{KH, KOHTO HMb e .lI.OCTaSHJI'b OKplK}I{HHSln HH}I{eHep'b K. MalJaCD.1) On rosa CD06w.eHHe ce SH}I{.lI.a, se no cphaara na MOrHJIaTa e 6HJIa OTKpHTa enaa 3H.lI.aHa lJeTS'bpTHTa rp06HH~a, KOSITO aa enaara crpaaa e HMaJIa nxozrs, 3anYIIIeH'b CD KaMeHHH nJIOlJH. B'b rp06HH~aTa, lJHSlTO rOJI'BMHHa asraeaora na He e Ha.ll.MHHaSaJIa paaabparh aa 06HKHOSeH'b capxorpar-s, ce YKa3aJI'b caxo e.ll.HH'b CKeJIen, KOHTO CD ztecaara CH pxsa .lI.'bp}l{aJI'b >KeJI-B3eH'b CKHnnp'b (" narepana -), a na JI-BSaTa My plKKa H~aJIO 3JIaTeH'b npscrerrs. B'b lKrJIHrl aa rp06HH~aTa, K'bM'b xpaxara aa CKeJIeTa, 6HJIH nOCTaseHH .lI.S-B rOJI-BMH rJIHHeHH aM<i>OPH, a Me}l{.lf.y rlX'b. ensa 6pOH30sa Koif>a CD .lI.S-B .lI.P'b}l{KH. ,Uo necaara plKKa aa CKeJIeTa ce HaMHpaJIH .lI.B-B cpetispaa racsera, S'b JI-BSO on raasara e.ll.HH'b rJIHHeH'b ClK.lI.'b, a S'b .lI.eCHO - pa3HH cpeo spaa YKpaIIIeHHSI, C'b6paHH na Kyn'b. 3a }l{aJIOCTb H aa rn3H OCKlK.lI.HH nOKa3aHHSI, KOHTO Tp-B6sa .lI.a npoasxcosnars on H-BKOH cseaaaetrs, He MO}l{e na ce nane rrsana S-Bpa, KaKTO ce SH}I{.lI.a on cn'B.lI.HeTO 06CTOSlTeJICTSO. Bpars Illxopnams cnoxeayaar-s, 'Ie na S'bpxa aa • narepauara" 6HJIH npaxp'sneaa n'bpBOHalJaJIHO nsa npsnaera, .lI.'bJIrH npH6JIH3HTeJIHO 15 CM., KOHTO 6HJIH H3SHTH H 3aS'bpIIlSaJIH na e.ll.HHHSI KpaH CD JI'bBCKa raaaa, a aa .lI.pyrHSI - CD TOnlJH~a; rl 6HJIH cpetrspaa OTrOp-B, a S'b cphaara 0T'b npocrs MeTaJI'b (}I{eJI-B30). KaKTo ce SH}I{.lI.a 0T'b rosa onacaaae, .lI.YMaTa e sa CTpaHHlJHHrl lJaCTH aa 103.l1.aTa, onacaaa nO-.lI.oJI-B nom, .N'!! 7. OqeSH.lI.HO e, 'Ie rl3H '1aCTH H-BMan HHW.O 06w.0 CD }l{eJI-B3HHSI }l{e3'bJI'b (no-acerb .N'!! 12) H se rl B'b06w.e He C~ MOfJIH na 6lK.lI.aT'b HaM-BpeHH S'b caxara rp06HH~a, HO Tp-B6sa na ClK JIe}l{aJIH S'bH'b 0T'b nes, S'b aacana na MOrHJIaTa, KaKTO nOKa3SaT'b .lI.pyrH aHaJIorHlJHH HaXO.ll.KH, 3a KOHTO me HMaMe CJIY'laH .lI.a rOSOpHM'b nO-.lI.OJI-B. Ilpa raxasa ycnOSHSI CD np-B.lI.na3JIHBOCTb Tp-B6sa .lI.a ce npaexar-s H OCTaHaJIHrl YKaaaHHSI OTJlOCHTeJIHO pasnonozceHHeTO na pasaars np-B.lI.MeTH S'b rp06HH~aTa. OC06HO HeS-BpOSITHO H3rJIe}l{.lI.a YKa3aHHeTO, 'Ie BCH'IKH Cpe6'bpHH YKpaweHHSI ClK ce HaMHpaJIH na xyrrs S'b .lI.eCHO 0T'b rJIaSaT3. J1HnCSaT'b HH raxa ClKW.O H CS-B.lI.-BHHSI, .lI.aJIH ~ 6HJIH HaM-BpeHH utKaKBH cn'B.lI.H 0T'b norpeeeaae aa KOHb 6HJIO S'b caaara MOrHJIa, 6HJIO S'b HenOCp-B.lI.CTSeHaTa if OKOJIHOCTb. KaTO H-BMaMe S'b3MO}l{HOCTb .lI.a .lI.a.ll.eM'b HHKaKSH ztpyra no-nonpotiaa CS-B.lI.-BHHSI OTHOCHTeJIHO TOBa H3B'bHpezao Ba}l{HO MorHJIHO norpeoeaae, me Tp-B6Ba na ce 3a.ll.OSOJIHM'b caxo CD onacaaae na HaM'BpeHHrl np-B.lI.MeTH, KaTO rH rpynapaxe cnopezrs MaTepaaaa, 0T'b KOHTO T-B ClK nanpaseaa.

1). X. H K. Ill x o p n a a-s, MOrHJlH, nJlOB.llHB'b 1898, cTp.140-141 C'b qlHr. 58.

B. <t>HJlOB'b, flaMeTHHUH aa TpaKHAcKOTO H3KYCTBO

5

Il p b n a eTH OTb 3JIaTO.

1) Macasea's np'screm, CD nJIOCKO OBaJIHO JIHue, KoeTO HMa pa3M-BpH 25X20 MM.; .zr.HaM. aa XaJIKaTa 25X16 MM.; Te)K. 14'75 rp. (TaOJI. IJ).l) BbPXY JIHueTO ce aaxapa B.zr.JINi.6HaTO H306pa)KeHHe, KoeTO e nocra H3TpHTO BCJI-B.zr.CTBHe na npo.zr.bJI>KHTeJIHO ynorp'stieaae -aa npt.creaa, OC06HO B'b ztecaara My nOJIOBHHa. B'b necao e nphncraaem, KOHHHK'b B'b CnOKOHHa CTOHKa, 06'bpHaTD aa JI-BBO; TOH H3rJIe)K.zr.a na e 06JI-BqeHb CD KNi.Ca npexa H naaTaJIOHH, 6e3b marnca na raasara. Dp-B.zr.b· aero CTOH npasa rOJIOrJIaBa )KeHa, 06JI-BqeHa Bb .zr.'bJIra .zr.o 3eMSITa H npsnacaaa Bb KpbCTa.zr.pexa; CD JItBaTa CH pxxa TSI no aaaa aa KOHHHKa PHTOHb (poroofipaaea's CNi..zr.'b sa naeae), a aecnara it: pxxa e CIIYCHaTa Ha.zr.OJI-B H .zr.'bP)KH H-BKaKbBb KNi.CD aeaceirs IIp-B.zr.MeTD. H306pa)KeHHSlTa C~ nanpaseaa rpytio H nOBp'bXHOCTHO, a OCB-BHb TOBa, KaKTO cnoaesaxae, CNi. ztocra H3TpHTH.

3a.zr.a CM 06S1CHHM'b cueaara, npbncraaeaa B'bpXy npscreaa, me Tp-B6Ba na npH6-BrHeMb K'bMb H-BKOH naMeTHHUH OTD IO)KHa PYCHSI, KOHTO HaIIOCJI-B.zr.bKb 6txa nonpotino pasraenaaa Bb enna OTJIHQHa CTy.zr.HSI OTD nporp. M. POCTOBueB'b.2) 3a HaCD OC06HO Ba)KHH C~ e.zr.HHb cpetispem, PHTOHb CD rpaaapaaa H306pa)KeHHSI H eztaa 3JIaTHa TpHNi.r'hJIHa IIJIaCTHHKa CD peJIHe$H, HaM-BpeHH Bb MOrHJIaTa Kaparoneyaurxt. Bb 06JIaCTbTa aa KHMepHHCKHSI DOC<t>OP'b, no .zr.OJJHeTO TeQeHHe aa p. Ky6aHb. H zsata rn3H np-B.zr.MeTa narapar's OTb IV HJIH III B. np. Xp, H C.iY\. CJI-B.zr.OBaTeJIHO, KaKTO me BH.zr.HMb II o-.zr.OJI-B , CDBp-BMeHHH aa HaIIIHSI np'screas.

Bspxy Cpe6'bpHHSI PHTOHb3) CNi. np sncraaeaa nsa KOHHHKa e.zr.HH'b CP-BIUO npyra, Bb cnoxoaaa CTOHKa, 06JI-BQeHH Bb xapaxrepaoro aa CKHTHrn 06JI-BKJIO, 06aQe H aaaxara rOJIOrJIaBH (06p. 1). KOHHHK'bT'b, KOHTO e B'b JI-BBO, .zr.'bP)KH B'b JI-BBaTa CH pxxa .zr.bJIbr'h onapaurs ce Bb 3eMSITa CKHIITDPb, a B'b ztecaara pxxa - PHTOH'b. .llPYrHSlTD KOHHHK'b .zr.Hra necnara CH pxxa B'b 3HaK'b sa 060)KaBaHe; sa JI-BBaTa My pxxa He MO)Ke na ce xaace HHmO, TDH KaTO TSI e U-BJIa ornyneaa, Ilozrs xpaxara H na nsara KOHSI ce aaaapa JIerHaJIb na 3eMSITa QOB-BKb. Karo cpaaaasa TOBa H306pa)KeHHe CD H-BKOH cacaaancxa peJIHe$H OT'b nO-K'bCHO Bp-BMe H C'b npyra CpO.llHH naMeTHHUH, POCTOBueBb .zr.oxa)K.zr.a no 3aKJIIOQeHHe, Qe cneaara BbPXY PHTOH8 OT'b Kapa-

1) H3JlaileH'b OT'b B. JJ:06pyc KH, Apxeoa. H3BtCTHli na Hap. MY3eA, I 1907, CTp. 101 H 06p. 81.

2) M. POCTOBueB'b, Ilpencrasaeale o MOHapXHqeCKOA BJl8CTH B'b CKHeiH H na Bocnopt, B'b H3BtCTili HMnep. apxeoa. KOMMHCcilf, BbIn. 49, 1913 ron, If B'b onrsaem, ornesarsas, no KoATO H UHTHpaM'b •.

3) E. M. Il P H Jl H K 'b, B'b 3anHCKH HMn. Oaeccxaro 06meCTB3 HCTOpiH H JlpeBHOCTeA XXX, 1912, 167 CJI. C'b Ta6J1. I-III; PocTOBUeB'b, U C'bq. cTp.2 CJI. H80TJl1lJlHHlIOrneqaT'bK'b HTa6J1.I.

6

6. Cl>HnOB'b, naMeTBHllll H8 rpaKKAcKoTo H3KYCTBO

roneyamxa liMa caxpaaao 3HatIeBHe H tIe rs npi>)I.CTaBH HHBeCTHTYpa aa xpaacxara BJlaCTb. KOHHHK'bT'b C'b CKHnT'bP'b H PHTOR'b e B'bPXOBROTO 60- )f{eCTBO sa cKHTHn, KoeTO .n:apsma rrocpaacraosn, n3H CHMBonH xpaacxara BJlaCTb aa STOPHSI croeurs npi>)I.'b Hero KOHHlIK'b.

On H306pa)f{eHHSlTa aa saaraara TpH)iI\r'bnHa nnaCTHHKa 1) sa HaC'b

GOp. 1 - Cpel5bpem, PHTOUb on. KaporoAeyarnX1>.

npi>)I.CTaBSI aarepecs caxo TOBa, KoeTO ce aaMHpa B'b )I.OnHSlTa if WHpOKa qaCTb (06p. 2). TYK'b BH>KlJ;aMe 60rHHH B'b 60raTo 06ni>Kno, cs BHCOKa TpHAUDJlHa .I1.Ha.lleMa aa raasara, ceaaaaa aa rpoas, KOSITO B'b ni>sara CH pAl.Ka .I1.'bplKH roni>M'b

PHTOH'h. On ,u;eCHO ce npH6Jll1>Kasa K'bM'b aes

06p. 2. - 3naTHa DnaCTJlBKa

Mna,lJ.'b 6narOpOlI.HHK'b B'b CKHTCKH KOCTIOM'b H cs on. Kaparoaeyamx»,

B.H3Ka nranxa aa raasara, xoaro noesa pHTOHa

on pAl.KaTa sa 60rHHRTa. Haoxoao ce HaMHpan 1'pH npyra q,Hrypa, B'bpxy KQHTO IItMa aamo aa ce cnapaae. 11 TyK'b cni>,u;OBaTeJlHO HMaMe naK'b eana caKpanHa cneaa, qHSlTO CA'\Il(HOCTb ce C'beTOH S'b npaaaaaaero aa pHTORa.

1) A. C. Jl an o-Il a a a n e e cx a H B. I<. Ma-nut6epr'b, MaTepianra no apxeOJlorlH Poccla xm (aa MeRe Be)lOCTAIlnHo); Po c T 0 B u e B 'h, J.lHT. C'Lq. CTp. 9 en. aa OT,Ailn1l1lA orneqan.Kli H TaOO. II, 1; Min n s, Scythlans and Greeks, Cambrldge 1913, crp, 216 HOOp. 120.

6. ct>HnOB'b, naMerHHUH aa rpaxancxoro usxycrao

7

,UaJIH Ilpt3'b T03H aKT'b ce aapasaaa caao 06w;eHHeTO MeiKJI.Y 60>KeCTBOTO H HerOBHSI nOIlHTaTeJIb, HJIH TOH HMa npyra HtKaKBa nO-JI.'bJI60Ka CMHC'bJIb B'b CBp'b3Ka C'b JI.apYBaHeTO na BJIaJI.tTeJICKH npasa, TOBa sa aacs He e BaiKHO.

AKO cpaBHHM'b Tt3H H306paiKeHHSI Hacpe6'bpHHSI PHTOH'b H 3JIaTHaTa nJIaCTHHKa 0T'b Kaparoneyaurxs C'b cneaara, npsncraaeaa B'bpXy HaIlJHSI npscreas, aenaara H3niKKBa rOJItMoTO CXO.Zl.CTBO na ClO>KeTHTt. HaHcTHHa iKeHCKaTa <pHrypa B'bpXy npucreaa He e xapaxrepasapaaa SlCHO KaTO 60rHHSI. Oease TOBa HtW;O MOiKe .ZI.a ce 06S1CHH OTllaCTH cs .ZI.pe6HHTt passrspa aa H306paiKeHHeTO, orsacra cs HeonHTHOCTbTa aa rpaasopa, Ha BdKH CJIyllaH npaaeneaarb aHaJIOrHH 0T'b lOiKHa PYCHSI nOKa3BaT'b SlCHO, se nphaaBaHeTO na pHTOHa, KaKTO TO e nptJI.CTaBeHO B'bpXy np'screaa OT'b opt30BO, He e 06HKHOBCHa zcaaposa cuena, HO HMa CaKpaJIHO aaaxeaae. B'b TaK'bB'b CJIYllaH KOHHHK'bT'b 6H nptJI.CTaBSlJI'b HtKOH BJIaJI.tTeJIb, KOHTO, KaTO noexa pHTOHa 0T'b pxxara aa 60rHHSlTa, BJIH3a B'b 06w;eHHe C'b B'bPXOBHOTO 60- >KeCTBO na crpaaara CH HJIH n'bK'b .ZI.06HBa no T03H HaIlHH" OT'b Hero CBOHTt CBeW;eHH BJIa.Zl.tTeJICKH npaaa, H JI.tHCTBHTeJIHO, KaKTO nOKa3Ba HaMtpeHHSlT'b B'b rpoea iKeJIt3eH'b iKe3'bJI'b, KOHTO onacsaxe nO-.ZI.oJIt nozrs .N'!! 12, norpe- 6aHoTo B'b Ept30BcKaTa MOrHJIa JIHqe Tpt6Ba.Zl.a e 6HJIO HtKOH MtCTeH'b ~JIa.Zl.tTeJIb, KOMYTO 3JIaTHHSlT'b np'screirs aa pxxara e CJIyiKHJI'b KaTO nellaT'b. B'b TaK'I;>B'b CJIYllaH 06S1cHeHHeTo, KoeTO .ZI.aBaMe aa H306paiKeHHSlTa B'bpXy T03H npr.crerrs, aaxapa Han'bJIHO CBoeTO OnpaBJI.aHHe. Ilesar-sr-s ce SlBSlBa He caao KaTO eJI.HH'b 06HKHOBeH'b YCJIOBeH'b 3HaK'b, HO CHMBOJIH3Hpa Ilpt3'b CBOHTt H306paiKeHHSI H uapcxara BJIaCTb aa CBOSI npareacareas.

npt.Zl.MeTH OT'b cpe6po.

2) ,UBa IlH<pTa rJIaSH aa rpH<poHH, H3JItHH B'b BH.ZI.'b na T'bHKH naacTHHKH norrops rpaaapaaa (Ta6JI. I, 2); JI.'bJI>KHHa na OTJI.tJIHHrB eK3eMnJISlpH 45 JI.O 4'8 CM. OT.ZI.OJIt rJIaBHTt CiK cHa6JI.eHH C'b sanoeaa KpiKrJIH XaJIKH. rOpHSITa lleJIIOCTb e MHoro CHJIHO pa3BHTa H e pa3JI.tJIeHa C'b eJI.HH'b OCT'bP'b H3.Z1.aT'bK'b aa JI.Bt sacra. BCJIt.Zl.CTBHe aa TOBa rJIaBHTt JI.06HBaT'b C'bBCtM'b OC06eH'b BHJI.'b H pt3KO ce OTJIHllaBaT'b 0T'b rJIaBHTt Ha rpH<pOHHTt, KOHTO cptw;aMe B'b npOH3BeJI.eHHSlTa Ha CTaporp'bqKOTO H3KYCTBO H KOHTO HMaT'b rJIa.Zl.'bK'b T'bH'bK'b KJIIOH'b, 06HKHOBeHO oTBOpeH'b.1)

3) ,UBa IlH<pTa na<pTH B'b <popMa na cxasena JI'bBCKH xpaxa, H3pt3aHH 0T'b .ZI.e6eJIa Cpe6'bpHa TeHeKHSI H oTropt rpaBHpaHH, a OTJI.OJIt cHa6JI.eHH

1) Cp, Furtwaengler y Roscher, Lexlkon dergriech und rorn. Mythol. I 1742 cn. nom, ,llYMara gryps,' Kleine Schriften I 378 en. (Die Bronzefunde aus Olympia)'

8

E. ¢lUnOB'b, naMeTflHUH na TpaKHRcKoTO H3KyCTBo

CD sarroeaa KpAU"JlH XaJlKH 3a aaaonsaeaae (o6p. 3); .ll.l>JI>KHHa 7.2 CM. Caxo eAKHl> eK3eMnJIHp'b e sanaserrs CDBcBM'b utJI'b, )tpyrHn )tBa Co¥. orsacra osyneaa, a on tleTB'bpTHst e OCTaHaJlO caao eAHO MaJiKO napse,

4) AMYJleT'b B'b BH.ll.'b aa BHCOKa o6YBKa, BHC. 2'5, lI.'bJl'br'b 4'7 CM. (Ta6J1._I 3). BHCOKaTa MY sacrs e H3pa60TeHa B'b BH)t'b na Jl1>BCKa rnaBHtlKa CD CHnHO CTHJlH3HpaHa rpaaa ; XOpH30HTaJIHaTa tlaCT9 npbncraas cnzrscxarta raaaa aa HtKaKBo <pauTacrHtlUO lKHBOTHO. Ba saznrsra 'laCTb na aMYJleTa ce aaxapa rOJl'BMa Kpli'l.rna .Z1.ynKa, KOstTO e CJIylKHJla Bt.POSITHO sa HaHH3Baue aa Bp'bBb. AMynenT'b, CD WHPOKO pa3TBOpeHHTB B'b npaeaaeas KplAn. YCTa sa Jll>BCKara rnaSHlJKa, C'b optYBeJIHQeHHT1; H311HraHHst aa MycKynHT-B H CD )tDJI60KHn Bpt3BaRHSI aa HH3HuHn, nOKa3Ba nOpa3HTeJIHO CXO)tCTBO no CTHJI'b CD npOH3- Be.Zl.eHHSI aa H3KYCTBOTO on KpaitHHSI H3TOK'b. TOBa CXO,llCTBO e TOJrK03'b rontMo, IIJ.OTO,

06p. 3. - Cpe6'bpBH natllTH OT'b Bpssoao,

06p. 4. - Cpeespaa natllTa on EptaoBo.

aKO na He ce srraeme DOJIO}KHTeJrHO npOH3XO)l(JleRHeTO aa aM}'JleTa, TOB JleCBO 68 MOr'bJl'b na MHHe aa arroacaa HJlH KHTaACKIi xypaosnrers. Cp. C,lKIIJ.O H .N'!l 46. 5) llat eanaxsa qeTB'bpTHTH a>KypeHH yxpanreuas, H3J1t.HH H cHa611eHH

6. <l'11i1QB"b, naMCTBHI1H aa Tp.8KHI!CKOTO H3KYCTBO

OT.lI.o.Jli;. CD sanoeax XaJIKH (06p. 4); pasMtpH 6'1 X.6·3 CM. Opa3MeHTHKaTa ce C'bcrOH fJlaBHO on CnHpaJIH .H xpxrose, paSnOJIOmeHH CHMerpHlJHO aa sefHpHncrpaHH OKOJID e.II.HH'b D6111.'b U.eHT'bP'b. Cpe6pDTO ua nSH YKparneHHH e CM:BCeHO CD nocra roncSMO KO)JH'leCT.BO Mt.ll.b, BC.Il'B.n;CTBHe sa KoeTD n C¥. CHJIHO OKCHAHpaHH. E):tHHHSlT'b eK3eMDJIHp'b ec ... yneH'b aa A.B'B napsera,

6) lIst. e.!l.HaKBH Kp.1\.rJIH 3>KypeHH YKparneHIUI, H3JI'BHH Bb BIIAb aa >KHBOTHO CD .II.'bnra UlUll, no. BC'bKa B'BPDSlTHDCTb KDHb, I:f caa6.11.eHHC'b aanDeHH XaJIKH DTllOJI'B (Ta6n. I 4); pa3M-BpH 4'8X5 CM. 3a .II..a ce npaenocoea KDM'b Kp.l¥..rJIaTa ¢DPM<I sa yxpameaaero, }l(HBOTHOTD e np-B.I1.CTaaeHO Sb

OGp. S. - 4aCtH OTl> cpe61>paa IOJ.n:aOTh 6p~30BO ..

C'bSciM'h acecrecrseac nonozceaae: .. H. qeTHpHrl xpaxa cs; ODlI,t'"baam OD.I1.'b nJIOTD, a raaaara e HBBHra no. He.B'b3MDmeB'b "aqUH'b 8'hpXy f'bp6a H saxarrsa onanrxara. H naB .JJ;B'B YKpaweHHSI C¥.. CHJIHD DKCHll.HpaHH BCJI'BlI,' eTSHe aa rOJI.i;MOTO KDJIHQ.eCTBo Mt.IJ;b B'hcpe6pOTO. BTOprUIT'b eK3eMnJtSlp'b He e sanaaerrs H3U-BJIO.

7) ,uBt erpaHH'IHH 'laCTH 0T'b I03n,a, H3SHTH .n'b BH.II.'b ua 6yKBa S (o6p. 5); JJ;'bJJrH no 12 CM. Ha e.lU!HHSI KpaRrl SaB1>pWSan CD JJ'bBCKH r:nSBH'IKH (rn. H o6p. 6), Ko.UTO no. H3pa6DTKa aanOM.HflT'b JIbBCKaTa raaBHQK,a aa aMYJIeTa .Nil 4, a aa .llpyrHR KpaH HMan no. enaa ronxa. CaMD xpaRHRn HM'b Ha6pa3.IJ;eHH QaC1'H C.1\.. uarrpaseaa on cpeepo, a Cpt..IJ;HHrl HMO

9

E. ct>anOB1>. naMeTRRUB aa TpaKH.ltcKoTo H3K)'CTBO

10

sacra eN. ment3HH H ClK CHaO,lleHH no CD ezna nynxa sa npHKaI:JBaHe aa )Kent30TO, KoeTO e OHno aaxarrsano 0T'b KOHSI. 4e T-B3H ,l(sa npt,l(MeTa C}h aaacraaa sacra 0", I03,Z(a, ce BH>J<zr;a aaH-,Z(oopt on cpasaeaaero HM'b C'b

)J{ent3HaTa 103.aa OT'b Ilaaanopame, KOSITO onacsaae no-no.rs (N!! 41), KaKTO H 0T'b cpasaeaaero HM.'b C'b npyra I03,l(H 0T'b aaTH1JHO BptMe.1)

8) JI.st npsnaeresa xaaxa B'b BH.lI.'b aa nil HapeqE.'HHH Xepxyaecoe-s B~3en'b, .ll'bnrH 5'7 H 6'5 eM. (OOp. 7). Caxo enaara HM'b no-rnaxa noaosaua e 0T'b cpeopo H e yxpaceaa no C'b .llBt rpyn« 0T'b no TpH TonKH; npyrara HM'b noaosaaa e 0T'b OPOH3'b Ii npt3'b HeR e OHn1:> MywaaT'b HtKaK'bB'b ment3eH'b nptaMen. qaCTH OT'b KOl1rO cx.. 06p. 6. - rnaBHI{Ka frTb Cx-maTa 103.lla. sanaaeaa B1:> xanKHrt. no aesxa BtPOSIT-

aocrs T-B3H xanKH npFm3l1.ne>K3T'b K'bM'b camara 103.l1.a, 0T'b KOSITO cx.. H rrptzr;MeTHT'B, onacana no.lI.'b N!! 7, H eN. 6HJIH aaxaneaa no cphaara ua B'bHWHHT-B if crpaHH (cp. I03.llaTa 010 flaHarropante, KOSITO onacaaxe no-zrozrs nons N!! 41).

9) JI.Bt cxaseua X3nKH C'b .lI.HaMenp'b oxoao 3 CM., yxpaceaa no C'b TpH rpynn on no TpH TonKH (otip. 8). E.n;HH'b nO.ll.OOeH'b eK3eMnJISlp'b, ooalle on 6POH3'b, nparescaaaae on MorliJlHHSI rpoo'b rtpa 6t.ll.HSIKOBO (rn, no-noah .N2 47). JI.pyfR nO.llOOHH exseanaapa, C'b eN.ruHTB xapaxrepaa rpyrra 0T'b no TpH ronsana, cx.. HaMtpeHH 81:> rolKHa PYCHSI.2)

10) JI.Bt e.llHaKBH racsera

06p. 7. - XanKH OTb Bp-t30.1l0.

C'b H3ni¥i.KHan'b nxrrs aa .lI.'bHOTO Ii OO'bpHan aa B'bH'b px..6'b sa orsopa 1) E. Per n ice. Grlechlsches Pferdegeschtrr (56. Wtnckelmannsprogr.), Berlin 1896.

CTp. 17 en.

. 2) Cp. aanp. rpa4J1> fio6paacKoA. KypraBbIMH31> M'tcre'lKa CM'i;nblUi CTp. 61 H

ra6n. XIX 12; 113B-tcTiR I1Mn. apxeon, KOMMucciH, sun. 35. 1910, crp. 71 H o6p. 11.

11

6. <l>HII080, naJoleTIlHIJ," us TPaKHftcKOTO H3KYCTBO

(06p. 9); BHe. 3'5 H 4 CM., )J.HaMeT'bp'b aa orsopa 10'3 H 10'5 CM. Ti>3H racsera CiIi'i. 6HnH nOCTaBeHI{ MO.lKe 61{ BbPXY JJ;BaTa rnHHeHH TPHHolKHHKa, BHCOKH oxoao 2 CM.. KOHTO HMb orroaapsr-s DO rontMHHa H ex.. HaMi>peHH 3aeJJ.HO CD rlXb Sb rpotia (o6p. 10). nOJJ.06HH C-l\. H cpe6bPHHTB racsera ors Flaaanopame, onacaaa no-JJ.O.rrB nOJJ.b N2 28. Cp, rasa C)KUlO H N!! 49.

n p i> JI: MeT H 0 r b 6 P 0 H 3 'b.

11) Ko<j>a CD JJ;si> JJ.Pb}KKIf, rrspeoeauaaao StPOHTHO nosaareaa, SHCOKa 22 CM., JJ.HaMelbp'b aa orsopa 20'5 CM. (06p. 11). Mem.ny yunl'rt, Sb KOHTO C-l\. npaxpbneua .lI.Pb}KKHTB, ce aaxapa no enua ManKa naaxerxa. Fopaara qaCT.b aa Koq,aTa oxoao oraopa e yxpaceaa cs Hi'U.leSH)J.eHb opaaMeHIb. BbPXY enaa on JJ;pblKKHTB e rpaaapaaa C'b TO'lKH 6YKBaTa E. Ha JJ.'bHOTO e eanoerrs JJ.e6eJlb 6POH30Bb KPili'i.rD, KOHTO cnY}KH aa nOJJ.CTaSKa aa Koq,aTa H 51 npannaasa 0T'b npotiaaaae.

06p. 8. - Cpe6bPHH XSIIKH 01'1> Op1;30BO.

06p 9. - Cpe6'bpuo racxe 0T'h 6p1;sOBO.

KOq,HTB Orb T03H BH)I.'b, KOHTO ce OTnH'IaSalb no assmaara CH q,opMa R TeXHH"leCKOTO C'bS'bpmeHCTSO aa H3pa60TKaTa - rt.XHHTB rnHH nanp .. C-l\. H3J1tHH H see naK'b C;l\. T'bHKH KaTO JIHCIb - eN. 6HJIH TBbP.!J.t MHoro pasnpocrpaaeaa Bb lO>KHa HTaJIJlH, JJ;i>TO rl; C1K 6HJIH npaaeaa H Olb rJIHHa.1) Ti> narapars OT'IaCTH orne Olb V B. up. Xp., oease B'b rOJItMara CH Maca npOH3XO>KJJ.aTb ors IV H m a, np. Xp., a S1> nO-K'bCHO sptMe H3IJe3SaT'b C'bBtBMb. BtPOHTHO e, se TB CIK 6HJ1H q,a6pHKysaHH Sb caxara JO.}KHa HTaJIH.H, 0T'b JJ;i>TO no T'bprOBCKH DA'\.Th CiIi'i. 6HJIH paaHaCHHH Sb OKOJIHHrl

1) Cp, B'bpxy T03H BHll'b KOepH U TbXHHTi; rllllHeOH IIMHT8UHIJ S c h r o d e r, Grlechtsche Bronzeeimer im Berliner Antiquarium (74. Wlnckelmannsprngr. 1914), 10 CII.

12

6. ¢HIIOB'b, naMeTIDIllH aa TpaKldlcKOTO H3KYCTBO

crpaaa, llaKb 11.0 B'b cssepaa repMaHH5I. Koc:pH OT'b rosa BHA'b C£ HaMHpaHH H tra npyra Mtcra ab TpaKHSI. Ha rrspso MtcrO Tpt6aa na ce cnouene

Oop. 10. - Cpe6'bpao TaC'Ie C'b rsnneaa rrO.[(CT8BK3 on 6ptSOBO.

eK3eMnJISlp'bT'b on Flaaanopame, KOHTO onacaaxe 110-lI.OJI'B (X!! 32). npYfb ell.HH'b TB'bP,ll.t nOBpi:;,!I.eH'b exaeMnJlSlp'b nparescaaaae on ellHHb MOrHJleHb rp06b npa Crapa-Saropa.') OCBtHb TOBa Bb HapO){HUSI Myaei% Bb COIPUSI ce HaMHpaT'b otne TpH lI.pyrH eK3eMJ1JIHpa, orsacra zrocra noap sneaa, KOHTO ome He C£ oeHa ponaa HH. 2)

nptll.MeTH OT'b lKtJle30.

12) )l{e3'bJI'b, ,!I.'bJI'b1"b 78 ca. (06p. 126). Ha ropHHSI CH Kpaa TOM aas'spursa CD uasraa qamKa, a na .n:OJlHHH - CD ,!I.e6eJl'b nOJIHfOHaneHb npalI.aT'b.Kb.

1) 6. cP II 11 0 B 'b, Ilep, CllBC. XXI. 1909, CTp. 600 II o6p. 7.

2) Toaa C.N. CJLt.llBUTt exaeunaapa: ) KO(jla, R8M"tpeH8 B'b eJ1HH'b MorR-

06p. 11. - oponsoo8 Ko(jla ors 6pt30BO.

B. WHIlOB'b, n8MeTDIUtH HB TP8KHI!CICOTO H3KYCTBO'

Ilea'!> rpol5b "PI! C. NH!KCa1JJl.pOBO, floB'Ja,nclCo (IIHB. N! 2239), ",seAIIO co TpH Cpe6'IopHI! T8C'I.e1'3 Ii AlI3 JlPyrlf 6POH30BH Ca:.ll3

r. (S3 Ta3fi H3l'Oll1C3 ra, 1I0-llOJlt. nOJJ.'!>,N!? 49); llOllHlI18 '13CTb H3

06p. 12. - llientaHH nptJI. 'ICO!p3T3 lli1nCB3;. C.er3w:n3T3 Ii; BIICO'lHH3 e 28 CM., nbpBOH3118J1U3T3

B t " .

MeTlI on . p 30BO. BHCO'lHR3. OKOJlO 3'5 CM., .AH3Men.pl> as orsopa 23"5 CM.; OK.GJIO

( oraopa ce HAMHpa s:rAlleBHJleU'b 0pH3MeRTb; np'b>KKwrt t,a:. on.

Ca:.lllHII BHJJ.'h, KIIKI'O npa riaHanopcKHII eK3eMIlJlHpb (no·110Ilt.N'2 32).-2) Ko!pa, H3Mt-pea3 8b elUHIl> r[l061> .Bb OKOJlROCTbTa aa Bapaa (HRB • .I'&35 B), aae,llRO Cb e»:l-13 6pomlOsa KaHS (!pOPM3 olnochoej: sarraaeHR CA CSMO .nP'b>KKHT"B (on C.\UUHII BH/l'b .• K3K"IO npn nptllHlleLUHII eK3elolll.1lllp'b) 33eJlKO Cb nO-rO.lltM3T3 >;[3CTb OTb ycrars : llH3Menp'b aa orsopa 26cM.; RJ:!ueBH,AHlUITb opaaaears HSOKOJIO e 3t1.wl;HeHb CD rnBJIbKb H3ua:..KsaLl'b nORCO. - 3) Ko!ps,. H3Mtpe.H3. 81> eltlfR~ rp06b "puc. B'bp6HUa, np1>cnBBCKO (1mB .. M 51 B); CbD'bpmeHOCM8aaH!I; rpy68 a8p8apCIC3 H10IRTaUHII HB C;¥.lllllllmnb (eK3eMD./Ulp"b,b on B'bp6J1U8 H3f.lle>K,Ila 113 Be e H3Jli;H'b H3Ut.JIO, 3 na e KOBIIBD on 6P083083 TeHe.KHII).

a

(j

13) nptJI,Men C'b HeHCHO npt,lI;H83HaQeHHe B'b q,opMa sa HO)l{'b, namcmo sanaserrs (06p. 12 a). Ha e,1llIHHH My KpaA e sasaseaa .lle6eJla separa, lJHSlTO rrspsa xaaxa, npaxpsneaa aenocpsncraeao B'bpXy Jlp'b.iKK8Ta sa nptAMera, sas'spmaa C'b .n;Ett rpydo aanpaaeaa rJ:laBH aa )KHBOTHH (KyqeTa ?). OCBtH'b TOBa TpM OTJll;nHH XaJlKH elK HaHHsaHH CB060.1(80 aa )lp'b>KKara. ,U'bn>KHHara aa nptAMera saenso CD separara e 45 ca., 6e3'b He.SI 23 ca. Illapoxara qa.CTb sa nptAMeT8 e yxpacesa on eAHaTH CTpaH8 C'b rpaaapaaa opaaaearn, a aa npyrara crpasa ce BH>K~ AaT'b rpasapaaa nescaa 8 HaK08e, KQHTO HanOM.HSlT'b TB'bPAt MHoro rypcxo nHCMO. Cnopem, eARa 6t.ntlKKa B'b MY3efiBHR HHSeHTap'b r03H nptnMen He e HaMtpeH'b B'b caxara MOrFl.Ila, HO B'b serrocpt.llCrSeHaT8 .lI OKOJIHOCTb. TOBa HtlUO ce noTB'bp.ltSiBa " on CBt,lI;tHH5ITa, KOHTO naBan sa aaXDAKaTa 6paTH Illxopnam, (rn. no-rapt CTp. 4), l"bH KaTO T03H npt)lMen e e)lHHCTBeHHHT'b, KoATO Tt He cnoxeaasar-s Me>l(Jl;y HaMiipeHHT'B B'b rp06HHuara Htma.

npt.a:MeTH OT'b fnUHS.

14) ,UBt 06 HKHose.HH OCTPOlt'bHHH aMq,opIi C'"b cstTJlOlJe.pBeH'b UBtT'b, SHCOK" 62 H. 69.5 CM. (o6p.13). 15) r'bpHe C'b enaa .ltp'b>KKa H JI'bCKaB'b CHBO~ qep'b UBtT'b, SHe. 1:4'5 eM., ,llHaMenp'b sa orsopa 11 eM. (o6p. 14).

13

14

B <PHllOB'b, naME':THilUH .fla TpaKH!tCKOTOH3KYCTBO

..

On. BCH'U<ll npi>,IlMel'H, HaMi>peBH B'b Bpssoacxara MDrHna, caao e,llHH'b Mome aa ce aarapa CD nO-rDJI'hM3 CHrypHOCTb, a HMeHRO OpOH30BaTa KOcpa M II (oop. 11). KaKTD BH,ll-BXMe,T33H Kocpa e nlnH'IHa 33 BptMeTO D1''b IV .ao III B. np, Xp, Cn'h,!lOSaTeJIHO. aa cxurara enoxa me Tpt6B3 aa ce npHIUfW31''b H BCHtIKH JlPYfH npt,!lMeTH on rpotiaauara. E:n:HO nO-1'O.'IHO. onpt,!lt.nslHe aa rsxsara nara He e B'b3MOmHO, nouesce mmCBaT'b .IlPyrH KaKBHro n aa OHJIO. xapaxrepau Ot.jJ.'BSH. MO}f(eM'b caxo jra 3aO-BnlnKHM'b, 'Ie 881'0. ellHH'b ors HaMtpeHHr-B B'b rporimmara np'BllMerH He npt,!lCTaBSI OCOOHOCTH, KOHTO na nporaaopbsari, aa roaazarapaae.

a

6

06p. 13. .. - rJlI1HE':FtH aM4JopH OTb Bpt30.BO.

II. MOfHJIa npa Ilananopauie.

TaSH MO.r.Hna e OHna pasxonaaa rrpt3'b 1903 ron, H 1'0., KaKTO.HSfJIeilf.ll3, naK'b on HMaHlIpH. OrKp1fTHTt B'b ReSI npt.llMern CN.. OUJ'lH asnpareua Qpt3'b OKO.JIHHCKOrO. ynpasaeaae 8'b HapD.llHHR MyaeA (BX. Nl! 133 Dn 21 MaM: 1903 rOJI . .). 3a }f(3nOCTb JIHnCBan K3KBHTO H .n;a 01fJlO. no-rroapoeau

15

B. IllIlJlOB"b, naMeTHIlUH Ha TpaKHltcKoTO H3KYCTBO

Cst,ll,tHIUI KaKTO aa caxara pasxonsa, raxa U aa YCJIOBHHTa, npa KOUTO CJi'i. OIMJI saMtpeHH paaaarb npt.ll.MeTl:I. ToraBaWRHHTh napesropt, sa MY3es, B. n06pYCKH, e 6HlIb KOMaH,lI,UpOBaHb Bb Ilaaanopame, aa na n~oyqu aaxonxara sa caMOTO MtCTO. Bsrrpbxa rosa Sb apxasara aa MY3eSl ae ce aaMtpu HHKaKbBb panopt-s aa naH npoyssaaaa, HHTO nbKb Bb aaaearapa sa c6HpKaTa CAT. oT6tlItaasH KaKBHTO H ,lI,a 6HJIO llpyrH ,lI,aHSH, OCBtHb enao KpaTKO onacanae sa HaMtpeSHT"B npt,ll,MeTH (HHSeHTapb sa craposbxoaaaa OT,lI,tlIb N2 3550-3571). OTh atKoH .1l0KYMeSTH Bb spxasara aa MY3eSl (H3X . .N'!l 235 H 512 OTb 1903 ron. H M 12 OTb 1904 r.) MOH<aXa na ce YCTasOBSITh caxo cntllHHn nOllp06HOCTH. MOrUlIaTa ce e HaMHpalIa Bb MtCTHoCTbTa MPHMOPb a He e 6HJIa MHoro rOJItMa. Ta e Cb,ll,bpH<aJIa, KaKTO HsrJIelKlla, caxo e.ll.HHb rp06'b, sa qHeTO ycrpoaCTBO He ee C'b06maBa HHmO no-nonpooao. 06aqe KaTO ce 83eMe npt,ll,b BH.lI.b, "Ie nonoeaara MOrHJIa npa Bps- 30BO, KaKTO BH,lI,tXMe noropt, e C'bD:opH<alIa ~ KaMeHHa rpotiaaua", MO>Ke,ll,a ce npt,ll,nOlIara, "Ie H Bb naaanopckara MOrHJIa me .a;a e UMano Hi;KaKbBb rpaaem, rp06b, Bb KOf.iTO me na Ci'K 6HJIH 'nocraaeaa nosexero OTh saMtpesHn J1ptllMeTH.

Ol5p. 14. - rliIlHeH'b C~Jl1> on 6pt30B~.

Iloaesce Sb orrsaarenaas npOTOK~n'b sa SaXO.l1.KaTa (asx, N!! 12 OTh 14 Hsyapu '1904 rO.lI.) ce rosopa, "Ie Bb MorHnaTa 6HJIb norpeeam, StKOH TpaKHHcKH rontMeu'L, a He naaese on Hero, so nan Bb MorU.JIHH.H aacarrs, 601Ib aaposerrs 0 HerOBHHr'b KOHb, TO MOH<e .lI.a ce C<IHT.a aa nOJIO>K!iTeJISO, t(e He SCHt(KH npt,ll,MeTH CJi'i. 6HJIH nocraseaa Bb rpo6a 0 "Ie t(aCTH'rB OTh .KOHCKa-ra 103.11.a, a MOlKe 68 H H't.KOH OTh YKpaweH8HTa, xaero rtpt.lUiaaHa"leirne He e HCHO, Ci'K ce SaMHpaJIU aa SctKH cnyqaA Bb nacana na MOrHJIaTa, BbHb on rpotia.

3aCJIYlKaBa ouie .I1.a ce cnoxene, lie S'b cxmara MtCTHOCTb, npa a3sbp-

16

.6. <t>HnOB1>, naMeTH.HUH aa TpaKHAcKoTO H3KYCTBO

msaae sa seMHH pa60TH a'b ));'bp>KaSHHH paSCa));HHK'b, e 6HJla OTKpHTa npts'h 1902 ron. enaa MpSiMopHa 06pOIJHa OJIOIJKa, aa KOSITO ClF. npsncraeeaa llHoHHC'b H Xepxyaecs B'b xonecaaua, reraeaa 0T'b .Ilst naarepa, Flaosxara HMa Hall.I1HC'b: dLl'lvUO'W X(X~ 'Hpa0..ij Mapxet(Xvot; owpov.1)

Bb MOfHJIaTa c;¥i. ce YKasanH nosese OTb 50 pasaa npt.ll.MeTa on snaro, cpe6po, 6poHab, >Ken'530 H fJlHHa. nOHe1Ke He HH e HSS'5CTHO, Bb KaKBO pa3nOJIOlKeHHe c;¥i. ce HaMHpanH TtaH np'B));MeTH, me rH rpynapaae naK'b cnopem. MaTepHana. on I{oHTO ClI.. aanpaaeaa. Ilpa T08a Tpt6sa na ce aa6'BJI'5>KH, lie B'BPSJTHO e HM3J10 np'B.lI.MeTH, OC06HO crpomeaa rnHHeHH cxnose, KOHTO He Cli'\ 6Hnlf npH6paHH HnH n'hKb He ell.. 6HnH sa6'5n'BaaHH npa optT'bpCSaHeTO aa MorHnHHH aacarrs, a Ht.KOH 0T'b rt.X'b ClF. 6HnH MO>Ke 6H H YKPHTH.

n pi>.Il M e r H OTb ana TO.

16) ,UBi> cHMeTpHI{HH DnaCTHHKH, yspacena Cb aanoem, S'bpxy rt.Xb crrapanerrs opaaaear-s, KOHTO saeaao oepasysar-s eaancoaaneirs, Hapts8H'b no cp'saara Il{HTb (o6p. 15); .IlbJIH<HHa aa acsxa IInaeTHHKa 6'3 CM., SKCO-

06p. 15.~- 3JiaTRH DnaCTH.HKH Olb Ilaaancpmne.

'IRHa 5'5 ca., TSl1KeCTb 11'10 H 11'05 rp. PlF.6'bTb HM'b e 06'bPH8T'b Ha.Il0nt; no spaamara HMb ce HaMlfpaT'b .IlynKH sa ManKH rS03J1eA'IeTa.

1 7) JIeHTOnO.ll.06Da nnaCTHHKa C'b 06bpHaTH H8.Il0nt. pll..60Be H .IlBa pena .IlynKH sa MaJiKH raoaneasera (06p.16a); .Il"bJIra 19'5, WHp. 2 CM.,;:TH>K. 8'60 rp. E.IlHHHHT'b KpaH HMa npaaazem, qeTB'bpTHT'b H3P'53'b, a sa .IlpyrHH KpaA nnaCTHDKaTa e CKJF.CaHa, nil IJe rrspaoaauaaao Tpt6sa .Ila e 6Hna no-zrsnra.

18) Jlearononoeaa CK.1\.CaHa aa ASt. nnaCTH.HKa CD 06bpHaTH HaltOnt pa.60se H e.IlHH'b pe}J,'b .IlynKH no cphaara aa MaJIl<H raoaaessera (06p. 166); ));bJITa 23'5, WMp. 1'6 CM., TSI>K. 16'32 rp. Kpaauiara if ell.. mCHeHH H ClF. CBHTH TplF.6006pa3Ho.

J) 6. <t> H nOB 1>, HSBtCTHH 1I1 31 tn. H o6p. 26

17

19) .uSl:> ManKH xpxrxera B'b SH,l(D sa xonaera CD .lI.HaMeTbp'b 0'5 eM., cHa6,l(eHH 01AOnl:> no C'b :n;Sl:> rlCHH DJlaCTHHKH sa npaicp'snaaae: rH}f(. 0'48 H 0'50 rp.; rl elK yxpaceaa C'b penHeqnUl (Ha4YKaHH OT1l.0Jlt) rJJaSH aa AnOJIOHa en face, 06'bpHarH CbScBM'b MaJlKO Bb.ll.eCHO, CD H306HJlHa Ko¥.Jl.paaa xoca H Co JIaSpOSb BimeUb S'b nes (Ta6Jl. 1 5). no rans, CTHJ;l'b H Jl,BHlKeHHe nSK raasa ce cxom.lIaTb aarrsaso cs otipasa aa AnOJIOHa, KaKTO ro HaMHpaMe B'bpXy Ci;qeHHn Db xpaa sa V 11 npl:>3b IV StK1> np. Xp. CpeO'bpHH MOHeTH aa rpana AM<pHnOJIHCb aa Op<paHcKHH aaJIH.S'b (rn. TaOJ1. I 8, ,l(tTO CiK npta(TaSeHH zisa exseanaspa Olb coapxara na HapoAHHH Myaei1).l) OC06HO xapaxrepao e, se II B1> ABaTa oryttaH fJI3BaTa aa AnOJlOHa e npi;ACTaBeHa B'b 3/4 np04lH.Il'b - Hi;w.o, xoero ce cp snra MHoro pi;)lKO B'b naMeTHH~H OTb TaSH enoxa.s) a OCBiiH'b TOBa K.¥..1lpH· Ulfn na xocara Bb «paauiara cx. mp'bKHaJIH Sb SH.u;b aa .Il.¥.tteCT'b asaerrs. BCHqKH m3H C'bBnaAeHH5I He Moran na 6N\.u;an cnyqaaHH, a noxaasar-s aanporasu, "Ie xonserara H MOHerHn Tpt6Ba Aa cx. OPOH3Be.ll.eRlfH na enaa H CN\UlI'l MaMCTopH. DOHe>Ke

,

on apyra crpaaa e H3BtCTHO, 'Ie orinacrara OKOJIO

Op<paHCKHH 3aJIHB'b H B'b n01l.HOlKHeTO sa naaaaaara Ilaarea e OHJIa 60rara B'b crapo Bp'BMe C'b 3JlarHH H cpe6bPHH PY.l(IlHlJ,H,S) ro TBbP.1lt e BtPOHTHO, se BbUpOCHl1m aon-rera cs: OHJIH H3pa60reHH 611110 Bb lJ,BtTymH5I aa Bpt.Mero CH AM<pHnOJIHC'b, Ko~ho e OHJlb HaM-Ba>KHHHTh nearsps aa Ta3H 06JIaCTb/) 6HJlO Sb uerosara nenocp sncraeaa OKOJIHOCTb.

20) ManKH rS031l.eHQera, AbJirH oxono 0-5 CM.) na OpOH 44 napsera, KOHTO CiK CJIY>KUJlH sa

I) Gil r d n e r, The types of greek coins, Cambridge 1883, ra6Jl. VlI 11; Beschreibung der anti ken Miinze.n in den KgJ. Museen zu Berlin, II T36n. ill 22-26; He a d, Hlstorla n urn 0- rum, 2 83.11. CTp. 215.

2) Iloaotiaa raasa aa Anoaoaa Ha~lIfpaMe H B'bpXY snaTHH'Tt erarepa on. KII3HK'b, KOHTO eJl!. 6Hnn C'!.lIeUH np1;3'b tAl.U1IlTII enoxa, Cp. aanp, B abe I 0 0, TraHt des monnaies, a·eme parile, T86n. CLXXIlI 13.

6

a

C6p. 16.- 3113Tml n1l3CTlfHKIl on. Flauancpnme,

3) Herodotus VII 112; Slrabo VIl 7, 4 tJ Ij!parM. 3t t) Hirschfeld y Pauly - WiS50wa, Real-Eneyclopadle I 14.99 ClI.

2

18

6. <l>HJIOBo, naMeTHHuH aa TpaKHRcKo.To. H3KYCTBo.

npHKOBaBaHe aa onHCaHHT'B no-rep's nJIaCTHHKH N!! 16-18. Bspxoaer-s na rB3H raosneasera He C~ nonrnrreaa, OT'b .n;tTO 6H MorJIO .n;a ce 3aKJIlOlJH, lJe rB C~ 6HJIH HaKOBaHH aspxy .n;'bCKa, a He B'bpXy KO>Ka.

OnHCaHHrB 3JIaTHH nJIaCTHHKH H xorrsera npOH3XO>K,n;aT'b CHrypHO He 0T'b e,n;HH'b, HO 0T'b nosese npbnaera, na KOHTO rB C~ CJIY>KHJIH KaTO YKpaweHHSI. B'spxy BH.n;a H CJIY>K6aTa aa rB3H npt,n;MeTH He MO>Ke .n;a ce Ka>Ke sa cera HHW;O nOJIO>KHTeJIHO, noaezce HH JIHnCBaT'b C'bOTBtTHH aHaJIOrHH aa cpasaeaae. Ha BCtKH CJIYlJaH 3aCJIY>KaBa zta ce H3T'bKHe, lJe eJIHnCOBH,n;aara 1j>0pMa aa .n;BtrB CHMeTpHlJHH nJIaCTHHKH, onacaaa no,n;'b.N.! 16, aKO ce B3eMar'b KaTO enao I.{tJIO, HanOMHSI TB'bp.n;t MHoro 3JIaTHHrB .n;Ha.n;eMH, HaMtpeaa B'b MOrHJIHH rp060Be npa C. E3epOBO, 50pHCOBrpa,n;CKO, H C. BOMHHI.{HrB, 4HpnaHCKo.1) TB'bp.n;t e BtpOSlTHO CJIt,n;OBareJIHO, lJe rB3H nJIaCTHHKH C~ CJIY>KHJIH aa 06KoBa aa no.n;06Ha .n;Ha.n;eMa, no.n;JIO>KKaTa aa KOSITO e 6HJla aanpaaeaa OT'b .n;'bPBO HJIH KO>Ka.

Il p s n a e r a o r s cpe6po.

21) MaJIKH lJeTB'bpTHTH nJIOlJKH, yxpacena C'b peaaerpao H3pa60TeHH rJIaBH aa AnOJIOHa en face, C'b H306HJIHa xxnpasa xoca H C'b JIaBpOB'b BtHeI.{'b B'b HeS! (Ta6JI. II 1·6). Caxo e,n;HH'b exaexnaspt, e aanaseirs I.{tJI'b, C'b passrspa 5'6X5 CM • .llpyrH ners exaexnaspa C~ noaese HJIH nO-MaJIKO osyneaa .. OCBtH'b rosa sanaaeaa C~ orne IPparMeHTH OT'b npyra lJeTHpH exseanaspa, T'bH lJe nJIOlJKm C~ 6HJIH n'bpBOHalJaJIHO HaM-MaJIKO .n;eceTh. rJIaBHrB, C'b KOHTO C~ yxpaceaa, OT,n;OJIt C~ KyXH H C~ 6HJIH H3lJYKaHH B'bpXy TB'bp.n;a no.n;JIO>KKa, a CJIt.n;'b TOBa I.{H3eJIHpaHH. MaKap'b H na CH npHJIHlJaT'b TB'bp.n;t MHoro, rB3H rJIaBH ce pa3JIHlJaBaT'b B'b no.n;po6HOCTHrB, OT'b .n;tTO ce BH>K,n;a, lJe rB He C~ 6HJIH npaaeaa TOlJHO cnopezn, e,n;HH'b H C~W;H Mo.n;eJI'b. Ilpa TOBa HtKOH OT'b rBX'b HMaT'b npozrsarcaara, a HtKOH xpzraa 1P0pMa. Oraazrs, B'b KYXHHaTa aa rJIaBHrB, no cp hnara na nJIOlJKHrB H nepneH.n;HKYJISlPHO na nJIOCKOCThTa HM'b, C~ 6HJIH aanoena nJIOCKH XaJIKH C'b .n;HaMeT'bp'b OKOJIO 2 CM. TaKHBa XaJIKH HJIH CJIt.n;H OT'b rBX'b C~ sanaseaa npa meers exaeanaspa. OCBtH'b TOBa B'b BciKH ~r'bJI'b aa naosKHrB, KaKTO ce BH>K.n;a OTb 3ana3eHHSI Han'bJIHO exseanaap's, e HMaJIO no enaa HJIH .n;Bt ztynxa aa raosneasera. 51BHO e CJIt.n;oBaTeJIHO, lJe nJIOlJKHrB C~ 6HJIH npHKOBaHH KaTO YKpaweHHSI B'bpXy HtKaK'bB'b TB'bp.n;b npt.n;MeT'b, B'b KOHTO C~ ce Bpt3BaJIH npHKptneHHTi> HM'b OT3a,n;'b XaJIKH.

1) 6. <I> HJI 0. B 0, 113BtCTlfli III 206 H Ta5Jl. III 1 H 2. 3a .llH3.lleM3T3 ors Eaeposo rJI. cxuio H Anzeiger des Deutschen archaol. Inst. 1914, 421 H oep, 3.

6. <l>HnOB1>, naMeTHHUH aa TpaKHRcKoTO H3KYCTBO

19

22) .llBa e.n;HaKBH xpxra CD .n;HaMeT'bp'b 8'8 CM., yxpaceaa CD peJIHe<pHH H306pa>KeHHSI, KOHTO np'sncraears XepKYJIeCa, rOJl06pa.n;'b, npHKJIeKHaJI'b aa 3eMSlTa, B'b 60p6a CD HeMeH:CKHSI JI'bB'b (Ta6JI. II 7 H 8). H306palKeHHSlTa, KOHTO OT.n;OJIt cx.. KyXH, ~ 6HJIH H311YKaHH B'bpXy TB.'bp.n;a no.n;JIO>KKa H nOCJIt ~H3eJIHpaHH. He3HallHTeJIHH OTKJIOHeHHSI B'b no.n;p06HOCTHTt nOKa3BaT'b, lie He e 6HJI'b ynoTpt6eH'b e.n;HH'b H Cx..~H Mo.n;eJI'b. Orsan», no cpsnara aa xpxrosers H nepneH.n;HKYJISlPHO K'bM'b nJIOCKOCTbTa HM'b, cx.. 6HJIH sanoeaa nJIOCKH XaJIKH CD .n;HaMeT'bp'b OKOJIO 2 CM. 3ana3eHa e OT'b rlX'b caxo enaara.

Ilphacraaeaasr-s B'bpXY Kpx..rOBerl CIO>KeT'b ce cp'suta TB'bp.n;t lIeCTO B'b npOH3Be.n;eHHHTa aa CTapOrp'b~KOTO H3KYCTBO B'b pa3HH aapaauaa.') B'b HaWHSI CJIYllaH: aaaapaae T'bH: aapeseaara cxexa aa KOJItHHlIe~HSI XepKYJIeCD, KOSITO ce SlBSlBa KaTO HaH:-npHro.n;Ha aa H3n'bJJBaHeTO aa enao Kpx..rJIO nOJIe. XepKYJIeCD .n;YWH JI'bBa CD .n;Btrl CH px..~t, KaTO KOJItHHlIH aa .n;er.HHSI CH KpaK'b, a JItBHSlT'b My KpaKbe npocaars aanp'sm, C'bBciM'b no cx..~HSI HallHH'b e npbncraaeaa 60p6aTa C'b H~MeH:CKHSI JI'bB'b H B'bpXY HtKOH MOHeTH 0T'b KH3HK'b,2) CHpaKY3a, II) Tapears-) H np. rpanoae.P) Ilosenero MOHeTH npHHa.n;JIC>KaT'b aa HaH:-.n;06pHSI nepaozrs na craporp'suxoro H3KYCTBO, OKOJIO xpas na neTHSI H HallaJIOTO aa lIeTB'bpTHst BtK'b np. Xp. H.n;eHTHlIHH H306pa>KeHHst cpsmaxe HaH:-nOCJIt H B'bpXY ce.n;eMb MaJiKH 3JIaTHH xpxra CD .n;HaMeT'bp'b OKOJIO 2 CM., HaMi>peHH B'b 3HaMeHHTaTa MOrHJIa KYJI'b-06a npa Kepsrs,") B'b aamara xparoae, KaKTO H B'b H36poeHHrl aHaJIOrHlIHH naMeTHH~H, e H36paH'b OH3H MOMeHTD na 60p6aTa, KOH:TO npsncraaa HeH:HaTa KYJIMHHa~HOHHa rcsxa H H3HCKBa HaH:-rOJItMo nanpeaceaae aa MYCKYJIHrl y.n;BaMaTa npoTHBHH~H. Boptiara oute He e caspureaa H xaxaps Ha.n;MO~HeTO aa XepKY.IIeCa &eqe Aa ce lIYBCTBYBa,· see naK'b pa3S1peHOTO >KHBOTHO ome He e H3ry6HJIO B'b3MO>KHOCTbTa .n;a ce 60pH. Xy.n;O>KHHK'bT'b na xpxroseri, e CnOJIYllHJI'b .n;a npbnane T03H MOMeHT'b CD rOJI-BMa Cpx..lIHOCTb H YMtHHe. H306~0 MO>Ke .n;a ce xasce, lie OTJIHlIHOTO xoneaapaae na rbaara, TOllHOTO CD6JIIO.n;eHHe na aHaTOMHlJeCKHrl no.n;p06HOCTH, ~aCTJIHBO H36paHHrl

1) E. g e is ch, B1> Mitteil. des Deutschen archaol. Inst., Athen. Abteil. XII, 1887, 121-128; Furtw aeng ler, y Roscher, Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologie I 2195 ca., 2223 ca., 2243. 3a H36palKeHHeTo na Ta3H cueaa B1>pxy MOHeTH ra, R. Bra u e r, Die Heraklestaten auf antiken Munzen, Zeitschr. fUr Numismatik XXVIII, 1910, 37 en.

2) B bel on, Traite des monnales, 3-eme partie, Ta6n. CLXXIV 34.

3) Gardner, The types of greek coins, Ta6n. VI 8.

') Beschreibung der antiken Munzen der Kg!. Museen zu Berlin, III Ta6n. XIV 227-230.

5) rn .. Brauer, UHT. C'bll. CTp. 46 en.

6) Re ln a ch, Antlqultes du Bosphore Cimmerien, CTp. 65 H Ta6n. XX 3; Mi nns, Scythians and Greeks, CTp. 158.

2*

20

6. <l>HJlOB'b, naMeTHHUH aa rpasaacsoro H3KYCTBO

,Z(BH}I{eHHSI, H3pa30T'b aa HaA-roJItMo MYCKYJIHO aanpezceaae, 3aKplKrJIeHHTt OllepTaHHSI aa trsnara KOMn03HUHSI H TeXHHlIeCKaTa CHrypHOCTb 80 H3noJIHeHHeTO npaaasars na Tt3H peaaerpa, H3pa60TeHH 6e30 CDMHtHHe no nonpaacaaae na HtKOA 3HaMeHHTh oparaaaas, TSoPll.t SHCOKa XYlI.O}l{eCTBeHa CToAHOCTb. XepKYJIeCD e np'sncrasem, He KaTO 6pall.aTh MlK}I{o, HO KaTO MJIa.n;o rOJI06pa.n;0 aTJIeT'b - e.n;HHo THO'b, KOHTO .n;06Hsa HaA-uIHpoKO pasnpocrpaaeaae npt3'b IV s. np. Xp.') Ha ClK~OTO sptMe orrosapa H carypHHSlTh, TB'bP,Z(t aenocpbncraeao CXSaHaT'b CTHJI'b aa peaaednrrs,

23) Ilpozrsarosara nJIaCTI{HKa, KOHTO KDM'b xpaautara nOCTeneHHO ce paaurapasa, .n;'bJIra 32 CM., IIIHpOKa no cpsnara 6'7, S'b xpaamara 12 CM. (Ta6JI. III 1). no cpsnara aa nJIaCTHHKaTa, aa plK6a if, ClK np06HTH ,Z(Bt MaJIKH .n;ynKH sa rB03l1.eAlIeTa. Taxasa .llynKH S'b Jll.rJII{Tt H3rJIe}l{lI.a na He e HMaJIO, KaKTO noxasaa .n;eCHHSlTh 1I.0JIeH'b lKr'bJI'b, KOHTO e sanaserrs utJI'b. UtJIaTa nOBp'bXHOCTb aa nJIaCTHHKaTa e nOKpHTa C'b peJIHeq,~o H3pa60TeHH opaaMeHTH H q,HrypH, KOHTO OT'z(OJIt C~ KyXH H ClK 6HJIH CJIt,Z(OBaTeJIHO H311yKaHH no ClK~HSl HallHH'b, KaKTO npa onacamrrs sene cpeospaa npt'z(MeTH. CaMO TOllKHTt ClK 6Hmf H3IJYKaHH CS060.n;HO OT'z(OJIt CD OCTpO opxnae. no cphnara ce aaxapa eaaa p03eTKa, CDCTaseHa 0T'b nesers H3nlKKHaJIH TonKH, aapeneaa S'b KplKr'b OKOJIO eaaa nO-rOJItMa. Ha 3a,Z(HSlTa crpaaa na Ta3H nOCJIt'z(HSlTa ce 3a6tJIt3BaT'b CJIt,Z(H OTh XaJIKa, KOSlTO e 6HJIa sanoeaa no ClK~HSI HalJHH'b, KaKTO npa xpxroaerb, onacaaa nozn, N!! 22. no CD necers H3nlKKHaJIH TonKH ClK yxpaceaa H xpaamara aa nJIaCTHHKaTa, a plK60seTt H ClK 06TOlJeHH C'b lI.sa pe,Z(aTOlJKH.

llBtTt otirpaneaa C'b Tt3H opHaMeHTH nOJIeTa ClK H3n'bJIHfHH CD pa3HH q,HrypH. B'b ropasra nOJIOBHHa aa nJIaCTHHKaTa e npnncrasem, MlK}I{'b, npaas, S'b xozrs aa JItBO, 06JI-BlJeHo so .n;oJlra no KOJltHtTt H npbnacaaa ,Z(peX8, yxpaceaa CD HtKOJlKO peaa. TOllKH; S'b necuara CH plKKa TOH: .n;'bP}l{H nexopecn, KpHBaK'b, a CD JltsaTa TerJlH aa rJl8B8Ta e,Z(HO }l{HBOTHO C'b aapasa H SHCOK8 IIIHSI, KoeTO HMa 3lK6lJeCTh rpetiem, no ll.'bJl)KHHaTa aa UtJlHSI CH rp'b60 H lI.'bJira OnaW1<8. TIo,Z(o Ta3H rpyna ce aaaapa npyro }l{HBOTHO, KoeTO no q,opMaTa H8 rJl8B8Ta npaaaua ua KpHJlaT8 CSHHSl. B'b .n;OJIHSlTa nOJlOBHHa aa nJIaCTHHKaTa e rrpsncraaeao BTOpO no.n;06HO }l{HSOTHO, KoeTO otiase, aKO ce CJiI.1l.H no pa3J1HlIHaTa q,opMa aa raasara MY, no saxpaaeaara My Ha'z(OJIt MYUYHa, no BHCOKHTt H3BHTH aaaazrs ylIIH H pa3.n;tJIeHHSlT'b aa TpH lJaCTH lJeTHHeCTh rperierrs, Tpt6s8 .n;a 6lK.n;e rparpom; Do.n;'b Hero ce H8MHp8 capeaa, 06JItlleH~ B'b npnnacaua H yxpaceaa C'b penoae OTh TOllKH npexa, CD xarapa So PlKutTt CH.

1) Furtwaengler, UHT. C'bll. CTp. 2164 CJI.

6. 4>8J10Bb, naMeTHHUH aa rpaxaacxoro H3KYCTBO

21

Ome na np'bB'b noraem, ce XB'bPJlSl B'b OtIH aapaapcxaar-s rpy6'b CTHJI'b aa T'BSHHS06pa>KeHHSI, KOHTO aanxxaa ome nO-SiCHO npacpasaeaae C'b peJlHe4>HT'B aa Kp~rOBeT'B, onacaaa no)l.'b Nil 22. CIO>KeTHT'B o6atIe HSrJle>K.n;a )l.a ce CXO>K;ll;aT'b. KpHBaK'bT'b, KOHTO )I.'bp>KH M~>KKaTa 4>Hrypa 0T'b npozrsaroaarara nJiaCTHHKa, e )l.OCTaT'btIeH'b, sa )l.a HH noxasce, tIe xY)l.O>KHHK'bT'b B'b cayxas e HCKaJl'b )l.a npsncraaa Xepsyneca, H TO, no BcBKa BtpoHTHOCTb, naK'b B'b 60p6a C'b HeMeHCKHH J1'bB'b.1) KaKBa rOJItMa e 06atIe paSJlHICaTa Me>K)l.Y )l.BtT'B Hs06pa>KeHHSI KaKTO B1> CXBaru;aHeTO aa CIO>KeTa, raxa H B'b HerOBOTO HSn'hJlHeHHe I .llO)l.tTO B'b Cpe6'bpHHTt xpxroae e npb.ZJ.a)l.eH1. MOMeHT'bT'b aa HaH-rOJItMoTO aanpeaceaae aa 60p6aTa tIptS'b B3aHMHOTO npbnaarane na )l.BaMaTa npoTHBHHllH, B1> nponsarosarara nJiaCTHHKa )l.B-hTt4>HrYPH C'b TypHaTH npocro enaa )1.0 ztpyra, 6es'b KaKBOTO H )l.a 6HJlO SlCHO npbncraaaeaae na caxara 60p6a. Xepxyaecs e 6escnopHO H TYK'b n06t)l.HTeJIb, nonezce TOH BlIatIH >KHBOTHOTO sa raasara. 06itIe )l.BtTt 4>HrypH ~ nOCTaBeHH B'b enaa HeB'b3MO>KHa npa enaa 60p6a CHTyallHSI. CaMHSlT'b J1'bB'b, aKO XY)l.O)KHHK'bT'b e H<:_KaJl'b HaHCTHHa )l.a npaacrasa TOBa >KIIBOTHO, e H3J1t3'bJ1'b C'bBcBM1> HeCnOJlYtIJlHBO H npaaasa nosese na rOJItMa CBHHSI.

BCHqKO TOBa, KaKTO H CaMHSlT'b CTHJI'b aa Hs06pa>KeHHSlTa, nOKa3Ba, 'Ie HHe HMaMe pariora C'b enao HeYMtJlO BapBapCKO noapaxaaae aa e)l.HH'b CIO>KeT'b, saer-s H3'b 06J1aCTbTa na cTapOrp'bll,KOTO HSKYCTBO. B'b naMeTHHllHTt aa TOBa H3KYCTBO Xepxynecs, KaTO araers, e 6HJI'b H306paSSlBaH'b BHHarH rOJl'b HJlH HaMeTHaT'b caxo C1> J1'bBCKaTa KO>Ka. TOBa Htru;O e6HJlO BH)l.H ce HeC'bBM'BCTHMO C'b npaacraaaeaaara aa XY)l.O>KHHKa aa nJiaCTHHKaTa, KOHTO Tpt6Ba aa e npHHa)l.J1e>KaJl'b aa enaa paca, 06HTaBaru;a CTpaHH C'b CYPOB'b KJlHMaT'b. ETO samo ToA 06J1HtIa CBOSI Xepxyaees - H B'b TOBa OTHoweHHe TOH ce SlBSIBa HesaBHCHM'b 0T'b nO)l.pa>KaBaHHT'B oepasua - B'b )I.'bJIra ronaa npexa, KaKBaTO 6e3'b C'bMHt~He C~ HOCHJlH H aeroaarb csoreqeCTBeHHIlH. C~ru;oTaKaBa apexa H no C~tUHTt npHqHHH ToA e ]laJl'b H aa capeaara, KOSITO B'b craporp'smorra naxeraaua ce SlBSIBa BHHarH roaa.

1) >KHBOTHOTO, KoeTO Xepxyaecs Bnt'le 3a,Ab ce6e CH, HaHCTHHa He e xapasrepaaapaao IICHO KaTO nbBb. 06aqe caMHTt M~qHOTHH, KOHTO ce HBlIBaTb npa onara ,Aa ce onp>I;.Il1;nH nO-TO'lHO, KaKBO e TOBa lKHBOTHO, nOKa3BaTb, 'Ie Bb <C:JIy'l811 HHe HMaMe pa60Ta Cb el1HO asxa- 6eHO H306palKeHHe. 'UH Morno orue aa ce npt,AnOnOlKH, 'Ie BbnpOcHoTO lKHBorHO npt,ACT8BII rnHraHb H Bb TaK1>B1> cnyqatl utnara cueaa 6H MOrJla za ce H3TbJlKyBa B1> capssaa cs . 6op- 6aTa MelK,Ay XepKYM:Ca H eBpHMaHTcKHII rJlHraH1>. Ilporae's noaoeao TbnicYBaHeroBopH 0611'le Ha'lHH1>Tb, no xoaro ~ npt,ACraBeBH raasara H UlHIITa aa lKHBOTHOTO, ,AOlltro seraneerara rpaaa no-aecao 6H Morna M ce H3BHHH npa aecnoaysaaaoro H'306palKeHHe aa eJUlRb ilb81>. Bnposear, npa H306pa3HBaHetO aa noasara cs eBpHMaHTCKHII rnHraH"b He ce npt,ACTaBII caMara 60p6a, HO XepKynecb HOCH YJlOBeHOTO Belle lKHBOTHO B"bpXy nnelUHrt CH, KaTO npa vroea 06HKHOBeHO ce npH6aBlI H oepasa HaEBpHCTeIlBblleJJBaTa(rJl. Purtwaengler, y Roscher, Lexikon I 2199, 2224 H 2243; Br au e r, UHr. cill. crp. 53 cn.). I

22

O. <PHnOBl>. naMeTHHl(H aa rpasaacxoro H3KYCTBO

KOJIKOTO ce OTHacSI .zr.o CfHJIa aa H306pa>KeHHSlTa, Tpt6Ba .zr.a ce 3a6tJIi;lKH, qe B'b Ttx~ JIHnCBa KaKTO CHrypHOCTb Bi pHcynKaTa,TaKa H nJIaCTHqHOcTh B'b Mo.zr.eJIHpaHeTO. JIHueTO aa XepKYJIeCa e osepraao nOBp'bXH9CTHO caao CD HtKOJIKO rpy6H JIHHHH 6e3'b HHKaKBO H3pa>KeHHe; OKOTO, MaKap'b H raezaao B'b npo4>HJI'b, e npt.zr.a.zr.eHO no TB'bp.zr.t HaHBeH'b HaqHH'b B'b utJIaTa MY .zr.'bJI>KHHa, KaTO e nOCTaBeHO npa TOBa H CDBCtM"b HenpaBHJIHO no cps.zr.aTa aa raaaara ; YCTaTa H HOCDT"b ClK CD6paHH aa eaao ; KaKBHTO H na 6HJIO .zr.pyrH no.zr.p06HOCTH, KOHTO 6Hxa 6HJIH B"b CDCTOSlHHe .zr.a onpt.zr.tJISlT"b 4>H3HOHoMHSlTa aa JIHueTO, JI'HnCBan' CDB"bpWeHO. )l{HBOTHHT-B ClK nphaCTaBeHH ClKlUO T"bH HeCplKqHO, OC06HO qOBtwKaTa raasa aa CHpeHaT3, npa KOSITO OCBtH"b TOBa OKOTO ae caxo e aaaeno B"b rrsaara My ~"bJIlKHHa, MaKap"b H .zr.a e raenaao 0T"b crpana, HO H rOJItMHHaTa My e Ha.zr.MHHaJIa ,Bc-BKa nonycraaa nponopuas. C"b ezna .zr.YMa HHe HMaMe paeora CD npoasaeaeHHeTO na e.zr.HH"b iI'bpB06HTeH"b MaHCTOp"b- nexoparop-s, KOMYTO JIHnCBa pasBHTO qYBCTBO aa nJIaCTHqHHn 4>OPMH, KOHTO e otne p06"b na TeXHHKaTa H KOHTO MaJIKO ce rpH>KH aa saKoHHTt na nepcrresrasara.

24) .llBa ensasaa xpxra CD H3nlKKHaJI'b nlKn"b no cphaara, 06TOqeHH no Kpaliw;aTa CD .zr.Ba peaa TOqKH (Ta6JI. III 2 H 3); .zr.HaMeT"bp"b 8 CM. Orsazrs B"b KYXHHaTa aa nzna ClK sanasena cnt.zr.H 0T"b aanoeaa XaJIKH, KOHTO cera JIHnCBan. B"bpxy xpxrosers. ClK H3qYKaHH peJIHe4>Ho no .zr.Bi; lKHBOTHH CD qeTHHeCTH rpHBH, nOCTaBeHH cHMeTpHqHO enao cpsmy .zr.Pyro, no eaaa nraua Me}l{.ll.Y onamxarb HM"b H no ezaa rpy6a naaaera B"bpXY Bo.iJYTa npi;.zr.'b rJIaBHTt 'HM"b. H306palKeHHSlTa na naara xpxra ce OTJIHqaBaT"b KaKTO no pa3MtpHTt CH, raxa H no .zr.PyrH no.zr.p06HOCTH, 0T"b .zr.tTO ce BH}I{.ll.a, qe Tt C1K 6HJI-H U3qYKaHH B"bpxy pa3HH Mo.zr.eJIH.

25) .uBa no.zr.06HH xpzra, OTqaCTH osyneaa, CD .zr.HaMeT"bp"b 9'2H 9'5 CM., yxpaceaa CD peJIHe4>Ho H3qYKaHH qempHJIlKqecrH p03eTKH (06p. 17). 26) nO.zr.06eH"b KplKrD CD .zr.HaMeT"bp"b 8'6 CM., yxpaceirs CD paJIHe4>Ro H3qYKaHa p03eTKa 0T"b ners UBtTHH qaWKH (Ta6JI. III 4).

27) KaHHqKa CD WHP0K1> OTBOP"b H eaaa .zr.p"blKKa, BHC. 9 CM. (06p. 18).

PlK6"bT"b aa orsopa e OO"bpHaT'b Ha.zr.OJIt; 'a H3.zr.YTaTa sacrs aa KaHHqKaTa no cpaaara e yxpaceaa CD sepTHKaJIHH aapsaa. Y CTaTa H .zr."bHOTO ClK OTqaCTH osyneaa.

28) .uBt eiUI8KSHTacqeTa CD 06"bpHaT"b HaB"bH"b PlKO"b aa orsopa H CD H3n.IKKHaJI"b "lKn"b aa .zr."bHOTO, SHC. 4 H 4'8 CM., .zr.HaMeTDp"b aa orsopa 12 H 12'4 CM. BTOPHSlT"b eK3eMnJISlp"b e OTqaCTH osynerrs. no 4>opMa Tt3H racuera ce CXO}l{.ll.aT"b Han"bJIHO CD eK3eMnJISlpuTt 0T"b Bpsaoao (no-rops .N'2 10 H 06p. 9 H 10). ce. ClKlUO H .N'2.49.

28

B. $HIIOB'b, n~MeTHIIUH lIa. TpaKldlcKOTO H3KyCTBO

np-S.zr.r4eTH OT'b TytJ'b (CM-SCb OT'b cp eep o H M-S.zr.b),

29) nacpTa B'bcIJOpMB aa ABa cpacnraaa 3aA"H JI'bBCKH xpasa (Ta6J1. 6), JI.'DJIra. 6'5 CM., yxpaceaa orrops Cl>TpH rnaB.H sa )KHBOTHH;. enaara ne-ro-

oop. 17. - Cpe6'hpBlI Kplll.rOSe on. Ilaaanopmue,

JltMa raana 8-bPXY WHpOKaTa lIaCTb Ha.naq)TaTa~e aa rpmpOHb, a npyrars .D.si; nO-ManKH rnaBH, KO'8TO saeMan Mt.erOTO HS nann-Ii; sa xpaxara, .~ aa DTHUH. rJlaSHTB: ~ orpaneaa CD Hapi;3H, KOHTO Hano]I;06sman KOpltOHH, QT.D.OJlt. naqrrara e CHa6,lleua CD xanxa aa saxonsaaaae. TaSH naq,Ta e .Jlina Ii SHatJHTemfO no-.zr.e6ena (11:0 2 MM.), OTKonKOTO Cpe6'bpHHrB Kp.i%.rOBe H nnacrHHKH orscamara aaxonxa, Ilopana rrp'srpy·naHH'r-B opHaMeHTH <popMaTa sa n'bBCKHn xpaxa e 3HaI.JHTeJIHO aanMHeHa. TH H3- n,lKKBa 06aQe TB'bp.n.-B HCIlO, aKO CpaBKHM'b raaa naqrra Cb eK3eMnJlHpHn on BpsS080, onscaaa nOAb N!l 3.

30) Ilonoeaa ntTa nadrra, .ll.'bJIra 6'1 CM., Bb $opJda aa JJ.B-B CKaqeHU cpaATaCTHI.JHU )KUBOTHH (ra6JI. I 7). EllHOl\O ))(UBOrHO, CD A.i%.roo6psseH'b rp'b6'b, npaJIHqa aa .zr;enqJHH'b, cs roni;Mo Kp.i%.fnO O.KO no cpaaara sa raasara H C'b SHcon

06p. 18.. - Cpe6'bpHB 1(8RH4KB on. nall8nOpHlQe.

npHpa.C'PbKb 8'bpXY HeH; .11pyroro ))(HBOTHO, Jt3BHTO 81> BH.111> Ha6y~BaTa S,

I). <l>lfIlOlJ1" naM TUlJUlI 113 rpaxnncxoro H3KYCTBO

}lMa aa ASaTa CM spas AS]; eAHaKSH rJIaSH cs c,,",mUrB rOJItMH, KPlKfJIH O'lH, HO CD npapacruxs caxo BbPXY eaaa OTb rBX'h. M .lJ.B-BrB lK.HBOTHH C7f.. yxpaceaa CD napsaa H cs; T'hR CHJIBO CTHJIH3HpaHH, 'Ie c»; H3MtHeHH AO HeY3HasaeMOCTb. Ta3H natpra e cnatiaeaa OT)l.OJI-B ClI\.Ill.O CD xaaxa 38 aaxoneaaaae.

Flp-s nx e r a OTb 6POH3'h.

31) Kaaa (oinochoe), BHe. 21'5 ca., ct.easa )l.p'b>KKa H C'h YCTa S'h ¢lopMa aa TPHJIHCTBHK'b (06p. 19). rOpHHTa sacrs na .n.pb)J{KaTa saespmaa CD )I(eaCKa raasa, a JlOJIHHTa sacrs - CD r nasa aa 6paJlaT'b eH.neH'b HJIU aa ,UHoliHca, ystH4aHa e'b 6P'bWJISJHOB'b B-BHeu'b (06p. 20).

32) Ko¢la Cb JlBi3 nO.1l.BU1KIDf n:P'b>KKH, OT':IaCTH osyneaa, BUC .. 23 ca., .D.l1a· MeT'bp'b na orsopa 21'5 CM. (06p. 21).

06p. 19. - Bpcaacsa Kalla Olb nallal KlJluwe. OKOJIO YCTHeTO BM-BCTO SUil{eBH.zr.eH'b~

OpHaMeHT'b HMa caao rJIan:'bK'b noses.

nO.lI;'b!YUlHrB, B'b KOHTO C7f.. npakpanena .zr;Pb)l(KHTt, e8\ rpasapaaa naJIMeTH • .ne-~ 6eJIHHaTa aa crsnar-s .11.0- crura 0'5 .zr.o 1 MM. Ue6eJlHSlTb 6POH30B'b Kpll\.fO (lulaMeTbpb 10'8 CM.), KOMTO e 6HJJ'b aarroerrs OTn:O.ni> aa .1I,'bHOTO H e CJIY)l(HII'b sa nO.1l,CTaBKa ua KocpaTa, e sanaaerrs. OTHOCHTeJIHO cpopMaTa H n:aTaT~ aa xotpara (IV B. np. Xp.) rp. rosa, KoeTO Ka3aXMe no-rep's (CTp. 11) no noaozrs aa 6ptaoBCKHSI eK3eMnJISrpb.

33) ClI\.lI.b C'b UJHPOK'b

OTBOP'b H aaotiaeao .1I,bHO (06p. 22), BHC. 10 cs., .lI.HaMeTbp'b 21 ca., OT'b

Ol5p. 20. - AnmtKau.IIA on cautara K3Aa.

----- -------

G. 4>HJJOBb, flaMeTlfllUIi 113 rpOKHfkKOTO H3KycrBO

25

enaara crpaaa ouynetrs, rOpHHT3 MY lJaCTb ':'b ycrara e C'bSct..M"b nJIOCKa H cera e OTnpaHa OT"b .D,OnH2Ta. ,UBtTt lIaCTH npHJI'BraT"b 06alie MHoro ,ll;o6p'B eJI,H3 K'bM'b npyra H He ex. 6HJIH aanpaaeaa no OT.D,'BJIHO H nocn's enosBaHH, a cx. H3ninH H3UtJIO.

34) Bmono, BHC. 5 ca., .D,HaMeT"bp"b 31'5 CM., OTlJaCTH osyneao. SJlJO.n.OTO HMa maporcs nnOC'bK'b px.6"b, Kpait Koiho OTB'b"'b B'bpBK B.B.nAl:6Han >KJJe6'b. ne6eJIHHaTa aa crsHUTt e 0'5 110 1 MM.

35) Ilapnera 0T"b apyr-s H-SKaKbBb C",,")I.'b, B'bpXy lJHHTO c:popMa 11 npt.1l.:Ra3Ha'leHHe He MO>Ke ..n.a ce xasce HIofW,O noao>KHTeJIHO H KOHTO H3rne>K.D,a rrspsouasaauo na e 6Hn'b noanarea's.

36) 113n3.KHana 113JIMeTa:C'b

06p. 21. - 6poH30na Ko¢la Olb nOHanopllUlc.

118'B BOnyTH Bb .D,OJlHHTa CH sacrs, BHC. 5'3 (o6p. 23). naJIMeTaTa, KOHta

06p. 22. - Bpoasoaa, CEi.)l"b Olb naHarlOpHUle.

OT.ll.Oni> e orsyneaa, e cnyJKHJI3 KaTO yxpanreaae 8bPXY H'BKaK'bBb 06'bJI'b CX.,ll;b, 8tPOHTHO OpH lI.P'b>KKHTt My.

26

6. <PMOB", naMeTHillUl aa TpaKM~CKOTO Jl3KYCTBO

R7) XaJIKa C'b TpHR-.f"bJIBa ¢OpMa, orropf aaoeaena, OT.I10n1> llJIOCKa, BHC. S, WHp. 7'5 CM. (oOp. 24 a); orrops yxpaceua C'b TpH TonKH, Olb KOHTO enaara no rOJlt.Ma.

38) XaJIKa cs Jl.HaMelbp'b 3 CM., yxpaceaa CD TpH rpyrra 0T'b no TpH TonKH (oep. 246),

39) Orsopeaa, MaJIKO COJleCHaTa xanxa C'b ,If,HaMeT'bp'b 3'2 CM. (oop. 248). Kpa HllI.aTa asr Jle>KJI.aT'b .I1a aaas pursart, CD OBHeWKH rJIaSH, qHHTO ¢OPMH He cx.. SlCBB nopaaa CHJIHaTa OKCH.IlaU;HH.

npt.llMeTH OT'b meJIt3o.

40) ,D.eceTb JIHCTOSH.l{HH KonHS! C'b H3ITA\KHaJIH px..oose no cpsnara, OHa·

QOp. 23. - Bpoasoaa nan~eTa OT'& llaaanopaure,

CTH CHJlHO pa3Q)1.eHH OT'b p'b)f()1.a H osy-

neaa (otip. 25), ,D.'bJDKHHaTa sa OT)1.tJIHHrl eK3eMnJlHpH, B'b pena, 8'b KOaTO ex.. noeraaeaa aa oep, 25, e 26, 27'S, 29'5, 31, 34'S, 36, 40, 39'6,40 H 42'S CM.

41) 103)1.8 C'b pa3MtpH 16'5X20 CM" C'bCTa8eH8 on JI.st >KeJIt3a 8'b ¢opMa aa OYKB8 S CD TonKH S'b xpaamara, CKaqeHH ITO MelK)J.y CH C'b )1.eoena separa on XaJIKH (oop, 26),

QOp. 24. - 6POR30BH xanKR OT1> Ilaaanopnuie.

42) Jlonotiaa 103)1.a, 0T'b KOHTO CI¥\ sarraaeaa caao CTpaHHIJHHrl meJIl;Sa CD npHneiKaw.HTt K'bM'b Tl;X'b XaJl.J(H.

6 .. 4>HJlOB'b, naMIlTHHUH uarpasancxoro H3KYCTBO

27

nptJ(MeTH OT'b rnHH8.

43) .nBt 06Hl<HOBeHH OCTpOll'bHHH aM<i>opH no C'b llBt .nP'b>KKH, BHCOKH 69 H 69'5 CM. (o6p. 27). B'spxy eaaara .np'b>KKa U8 DopBHS! eK3eMnJJHp'b

...
1':1
;s:
c..
S!
...
'"
:z:
'"
t::
,a
0
... !!i: ,
;::
0
'"
'"
:c
<0
....
'"
...
:E
I
gi
ci.
1iO
0 ce H8MHpa nesars : penHeIPHO H306plUKeHHe aa 3MHH. BTOPHHT'b eKSeMWlHp'b HM8 H8 e.llH8T-8 ca .llP'blKK8 .nBoea'b neqaT'b: nO.l106H8 8M$opa H saura C'b

28

6. ¢lIlAOB1>, naMeTHHlIll Ha TPSKHAcKOTO H3KYCTBO

.lI.Bt .lI.P'blKlI'H (kantharos) B1> penHe¢'b. TtaH aM¢opH ce OTnHllasan on 6pt30BCKHTi> esseannspa (N!! 14) caao no no-crpoauara CH <p0pMa.

OC8tH'b H36pot'HHTt npt.ll.Menf, Bb aacana aa MOfHnaTa ~ HaM-BpeHH orne atKOJIKO npt.nMera on nO-KbCHO BptMe, KORTO HtMan HHIllO o6m;o CD rrspaoaasaaaoro norpeeeaae, a HMeHRO ceneas TBbp.n.i> 3nt sanaaena MtllHH BHsaHTHAcKH xopyoecra MOHerH OT'b X11I UJIH XIV BtK'b, CHnHO OKCH.lI.HpaHH; ners palHU 6POH30BH U .lI.si> cpeespaa 06i>Il.H CD xapasrepna !<"bCHH ¢OPMH H e,lJ,Ha KOCTeHa csnpxa CD Hapt3aHH nHHeARH opHaMeHTU, .lI.OJIra 26'5 CM., CD urecrs aynxa, KOHTO HSfnelK.n.a Aa 6~.n.e pHMcKa.

06p. 26. -- >Kent.3Ha 103.aa 0T'b Flanarscpame.

OTHOCHTenHO .naTaTa aa npt.a;MCTHT'B on MorHnaTa npa Flaaanopame BalKH C~m.OTO, KoeTO Ka3aXMe no-rep's (crp. 14) H sa 6P-BSOBCKaTa MOrana. TYKb HMaMe naI<b C~maTa 6poH30Ba Ko<pa (Nil 32, o6p. 21), KOHTO e xapaxrepaa aa Bp'hMeTo on IV-III B. np. Xp. OCB-BH'b TOBa BH.ntxMe, 'Ie " 3naTHuTt xorrsera C1> oepasa Hi! Anonoaa (Ng 19, Ta6n. I 5) ce CXO>KIlaTb no CTBJI'b CD Cpe6'bpHHTt MOHeT" aa AM<pHnOJI1.fCD, ctqeHH opt3'b IV B. np, Xp. Haa-nocas aa cxinara enoxa orroaapsm, H penae<pHTt aa Xepxyneca on cpe6bPHHTt xpxrose M 22 (ra6n. II 7 a 8), KaKTO " MaJll(aT'BqerB1>pTUTH nnOlJKH CD raasara aa Anonoaa (N2 21), KOUTO noxasear-s orne nocra

6. <1>HII08'b, naMeIHffU;I HII Tpa.KHAcKOTO H3KYCTBO

29

CTPOID CTI:IJl'b. Cn-B.D.OBaTenHO H np-B.n;MeTHT-B ors Ilaaanopauie Tpt6sa.n;a ce npanamari, na CH.maTa paHHOeJIHHHCTH'ieCKa enoxa (aa IV HJlH Haj;j'K'bCHO aa III B. np. Xp.), K3KTO If TtSH on Bp'B30BO.

a

6

06p. 27. - rllHlIeHH 3M!JlOpH 0T'b naHariOpHUU!.

III. MOrHJIeH'b rpotn, npn Et.ll.HSlKOBO.

B'b M-BCTHOCTbTa "rpo6eTO· I aa csaepo-sanam, ors c. 6t.n;HSlKOBO, 4HpnaHCKO, SD emta aasa ce aaaapaaa MaJiKa MOrHJla, sacoxa caxo OKOJlO 50 CM. Ha.il'b OKOJIHOTO paaaauie. npt3'b MtceU'b <pespyapH 1909 ron. Ta3H MOrHJla 6HJla pasxonaaa OTb CeJISlI:IHTt. H B'b ReB ce yxasam, rpo6'b, orpaaem, C'b Hen;tJlaHI:I KaM'bHH, KOHTO Cbll'bp>KaJl'b en;HH'b CKenelb, P::3HH raaueaa H 6POH30BIi cxaoae, >Ken-B3HH 0PlK>KfHl H 6POH30BH yxpaca, T'bM KaTO Ta3H aaxoaxa. KOSITO cera ce C'bXpaHSIBa cxuro B'b Hapo.n;HHSI MyaeR_ 6t caoesp'sxemro 06HapO.ll.OBaHa, I) TyK'h me ce cnpesrs caao B'bpXy HtKOH

1) 6. <l>HnOB'b, nep. cnac. XXI, 1909,589-597 C'b 2 Ta6mllUl; cp. H Archaol. Anzeiger 1910 (Jahrbuch des Deutschen archl!.ol. Inst, XXV), 398 CII.

30

-6. ¢lHnOBl>, rJaMerUlI1l_K aa rpaxaacxcro H3KYCTDO

on 6POH30SHT'B npi;Jt;MeTH, KOHTO npsncrasars aenoepbncrsem, aarepecs aa HawHn QtnH.

44) TpH 6POH30SH npomorroeara n8¢TH, Jt'bJIrH no 5 8 CM., cHa6lleHH aa onaKOTO no CD easa XaJIKa aa saxonsaaaae (06p. 28 a). rJa¢THT'B no ¢opMa uanonotiaaar-s naaanopceaa eK3eMnJIHp'b B'b SH.lI.'b aa CKa'leHH JI'bSCKH xpasa Nil 29 (Ta6JI. 1 6). Tt C~ yxpaceaa CD rpaaapaaa opH8MeHTH, KOHTO ..!I.asan HJtefl aa HtKaKso ¢aHTaCTH'IHO, CHJI.HO CTHJIH3HpaHO >KHBOTHO (rpa¢Olfb?) CD rOJItMo Kp~rJIO OKO H POID HJIH yxo na rnaaara . .neaTa eK3eMnnspa ce cptlI{an CHMeTPHtJHO, KaKTO e nOKa3aHO S'b H306pa>KeHHeTO (06p. 28 a), 8 TpeTHHT"b eK3eMnJISlp'b J.fMa porxero ca S'b JItso.

06p. 28. - 6POH30BH np1;n.MeTH on 6-bn.HlrKOBO.

45) TpH 6POH30SH oaanaa na¢nl C'b pa3MtpM 3'8X3'6 CM., cHa6JteHH aa onaKOTO no cs enaa XaJIKa aa 38KOnQaSaHe (o6p. 286). na¢THT'B HMaTh nO..!l.06HH 0pHaMeHTH. KaKTO npa npO)l'bJIfOSaTHT'B exaeanaspa, CaMO 'Ie TYK'b npt.ll.HflTa HM'b 'IaCTb aanoaaa nO'HaCTOAqHBO osepraaasra aa CHJIHO CTHJIH3HpaHJ.f nTHnH . .usaTa eK3eMJIHpa naK'b ceo cp-Bw.aT"b cHMerpH'IHO, KaKTO e nOKa3HO S'b H306pa>KeHHeTO, a npa TpeTHSI eK3eMnJISlp'b nTHQaTa e 06'bpsara S'b JI-Bso.

46) fiPOH30S'b aMYJIen S'b SH.!l'b H8 06YSK8, KOSITO S'b ropaara CH sacrs aaaspnrsa CD KYI.JeWK8 fJI.aS8, ll'bJIT8 2'9, SHC. 2-6 CM. (o6p. 288). nptllHSlTa tJaCTb aa 06YSKaTa e yxpaceaa CD TpHJIHCTHa naJIMeTKa. a S'b sanasra H qaCTb e np06HTa Kp~fJIa nynxa sa OK8I1S8He. 38cnYlK8S8T'b SHBM8RHe rOJItMHT'B H3nAU<HaJIH OIlH H8 KYQeWK8T8 raasa. AMyJIeT'bT'b ce CXO>KJta no

B. el>IIJlOB1>, Ilaaeraaira na TpaKHllcKOTO R3KYCTBO

31

«popMa C'b Cpe6'bpHHH 6p'h30BCKH eK3eMnJUlp'b .N'!! 4 (Ta6J1. I 3), HO ce OTJIH· xaaa no ynpocreaara CH «popMa H no rpyoara H3pa60TKa. 3a p;pyrn nO)J;06HH eK3t:'MnJlSlpn on IOlKsa Pycas rn, no-nozrs.

47) nat CKaqeHH 6POB30BH xamm C'b JJ,HaMenp'b OKOJlO 2 CM., yxpaceliH no C'b TpH rpyna on no TpH MaJlKH TonKH (06p. 28 e). TtSH XaJlKH ce CXO>KJJ,an aarrsnso C'b Cpe6'bpHHH 6ptaoBcKH eK3eMllJlHHp'b .N'!! 9 (06p. 8). Cp. cxmo H N!! 38.

OCBtB'b Ha6poeHHrt 6POB30BH yxpaca, B'b rpo6a npa 6tJJ,BRKOBO ex.

HaMtpeHH, KaKTO xasaxae, ome pa3HH .lI,pyrH nptJJ,MeTH, KOHTO HtMa samo JJ,a onacsaae no OTll.tJIHO. OT'b rtn. HaH-rOJltM'b aarepees optJJ,CTaBR rJlHHeHaTa 'lama (skyphos) C'b '1epBeRH ctJHrypH Bl>pxy qep'b ctJOH'b, BHC. 10'5 CM.,l)T'bH KaTO 6J1arOJl.apeHHe aa: HeR rp06'hT'b MO)Ke C'b nOJIOlKHTeJlBOCTb JJ,a ce JJ,aTHpa B'h IV BtK'h op. Xp. 3aCJIY>KaBa onre JJ,a ce cnoxeae, ne B'b rpotia e 6HJIa HaMtpeH3 crpomeaa n eJJ,Ha rOJItMa OCTpoJJ,'bHHa rJIHneaa aMctJopa 0T'b C~IllIDJ BHA'b KaKTO 6ptaoBCKHT'B H rraaanopcrorrs eK3eMnaspa .N.! 14 H 43. OCBtH'h TOBa HaMtpeoH CAli. 6HnH orne: eaaa rJlHBeHa JJ,enBa 6e3'b ll.P'blKKH, BHe. 35 ca., e,lI,HH'b rOJltM'b 6POH30B'b ex.)I.'b, CTPOmem, sa MHO>KeCTBO Ape6HH napsera, qeTHpH 6POBSOBH Kp.i¥\ra (Jl.HaM. 2'9 H 5'8 CM.) 6e3'b opaaxeara C'b XaJlKH aa on3KOTO, e11Ha 6poH30Ba X3nKa, nap'leTa on crponreaa 6pOH30Ba 06K08a C'b cnt11H OT'b peJlHe«pHH opHaMeHTH,

eAHO >Kent3Ho xonae H ellHH'b »<entaeH'b HO>K'b.2) •

IV. Haxonxa OTb Pa.lUOBeHe.

Flpa paspatioraaaero sa enua KaMeHHa xapaepa B'b MtcrHoCTbTa Illoaoaeirs .lI,0 c. Pamoseae, JIoBqaHCKO, CN.. 6HJIH OTKpHTH npt3'b Mtceu'b IOnH 1911 ron, JJ,BaHaJJ,eceTb JJ.06pt aauaaeaa Cpe6'bpHH CAli.JJ,a H 1l.Bt Cpe6'bpHH nadrra, KOHTO ca.. orxyneaa sa C6HPKHTB aa Hapo11HHR MyaeH. Tt3H nptJJ,· MeTH nptJJ,craBBT'b Maoro JJ,06'bp'b cpaanarenem, MaTepHan'b K'bM'b HaX()JJ,KH'i"t on Ept30BO H Flauanopanie, no KORTO npasaaa HtMa 11a 6Ali.1l.e H3nHWHO

1) B'sanpoasaenena B'b eCTeCTseHIITt H UBt10se sa Ta6n. II S'b noaeaarara CTaTHR B'b [lep. cnacaaae, Cp, CA\l1tO H Archaol, Anzelger 1910, 400. - EJlHH'b C'bUC'&M'b CXO.lleH'b ex- 3eM[IJIllp'b C'b non06aH. ¢lHrypH H Op_BaMe aTtJ e Ha.MtpeH'b CA\l1tO R 6nH30 110 TaHa.BC"b (npa yeraero aa p. )lOBl>, aa AaOBCKOTO Mope); rn, i13!rl.CTia HMnep. apxcoa .• KO!ollolllccill, Bhln. 35, 1910. 111 H ol'lp. 15.

2j B1> cxnrara Mt.CTHOCTb e l'l1lJl1> O'I'KpHT'b ca.wesptMeRRo Ii JlPylD e.lll1H'b rpol'l'b, KoRTO e C1>.n;'bp>K8n'b nO-ManKO If flO'He3Ha'lHTemUI npt.JlMeTR (eI> II ,II 0 B 'b, UIIT. C1>'1. CTp. 597 cn.). On, rtX'b a8cny>KaBaI'b n;a ce cnoaeaar-s rpn MaJlKH CKaqeHH X8n_KEI OTb cpe6po, yxpacemr C'b xapaxrepmrrs rpa rpynH OTb no l'Plf rornor, KaKTO H eano ManKO IDpHeHllC 6e3'b n;p'blKKI! (arybatlos), yxpaceao CD OpB8.MeST'b S'b OIlA1> sa MptlKa, PJ(CYB8ua CD 'lepRa 60H B1>PXy cst.Tno'IepBeUHB ¢lou'b aa Sa3H'IK8Ta.

32

B. ¢>HAOB"b. naMeTRHUiI H8 TPaKHllcKOTO H3KYCTBO

Jl.a ra onumesrs HaHOBO, MaKap'b rl H aa CIK 06HapOJl.BaHH sese Bo eJl.UHb OTLleT'b sa OTKPHTHrl crapaaa np'B3b CDOrS'BrHaTa rOJl.HHa.1)

06p. 29. - Cpe6l>pHo raese OT'b Pamosese.

48) Cpe6'bpHO TaC4e C'b H3nIKKHaJl'b nxrrs aa JI.'bHOTO, BHC. 4·2 CM., Jl.HaMeT'bp'b aa orsopa 19·6C.M.lo6p. 29). CrlHHrl sa TaCqeTO C.iK U'BJTlf xaaeJlHpaHH, a cpnaara My e yspaceaa CD Jl.SaKOB.UeHTPHlIHH xpxra on TO'lKll, pa3J1.1:>JleHH CD aaraarosa nHHI:ISI.

49) .lI.eBerb cpe6bPHH racsera, KOHTO ce OTJlH'IaSaT'b on onHcaHHSI eK3eMnJlSlpb no rosa, lie CIK nO-SHCOK" H no-rscaa (BHC. 4'5-8 CM., Jl.HaMeT'bpb ua OTSOPHrl 10-13 ca.), a pIK6bT'b aa ycrara HMb e 06bpHaT'b aa B'bH'b. Cn'BJl.OBareJlHO no !}lopMa rl ce 06p. 30. - Cpe6'bpHO racse on. Pajuoaeae. cxoscaar-s aarrsnno Cb 6P'B30BCKHrl

I) H3B1>cnll1 Ill 333 CA. C'b oGp. 265-268; Archllol. Anzeiger 1913 (Jahrbuch des Deutschen archaol, lnst, XXVU!). 362 H o6p. 15-17.

6. q,1I110B"b, naMe.TBIlUH sa TpaKlIllcKoTO K3KyCTBO

H naaarsopcsnr-b eK3eMnJUipH N2 10 H 28 (o6p. 9 H 10). Ilers on rl3H racsera. KOHTO ce OTJIH<£aBan npa TOBa If C'b no-neaaxaraara CH H3pa60TKa, C.:K xaueaapana Bb .lI.OJIHSlTa CH xacra (rJI. o6p. 30). Ocraaaaars qeTHpH eK3eMnaspa HtMan HHKaKBH 0pHaMeHTH. BCKqKHTt racsera HMan aa .lI.bHOTO xapaxrepaas Hsn.v..KHaJIb nxrrs, KOli:To npa KaHeJIHpaHHT-B esaexnaspa e orpaneirs C'b e.ll.HHb pe.ll."b TO<£KH. TPH .u:pym cpee spua racsera OTb C.:KUJ,HH BH.lI."b CAl\. 6HJIH HaMtpeHH OCBtHb TOBa H Bb e.ll.HHb MOrHJIeHb rpo6b npa c. AneKCaH.lI.pOBO, naK"b 8b J1oBlIaHcKo, 3ae)J.HO Cb orne TpH 6POH30BH cxna.') E.lI.HOTO on Cpe6"bpHHTt TaCQe1'a,S) KoeTO. C"'UJ,O raxa e xaaeaapaao Bb .lI.OJIHHTa CH lIaCTb, sacayacaaa OC06HO BHHMaHHe, T"bli KaTO aa BbHnlHaTa My crpaaa, 6JIH30 .lI.O yCTHeTo, ce aaaapa cnt.ll.HHHTb nYHKTHpaH'b aannacs:

k 0 T Y" O· ~ Err HIt. T r-: ('I - K6'tUo~ 'EYY'Yjlkrtwv.ll) ApXaHlJHaTa

¢lopMa rra HtKOH OT"b 6YKBHTt, KaTO I. H N, 1l0Ka3Ba, lie racsero Tpt6Ba na ce oraece K"bMb V B. np. Xp. Baaronapeaae aa TOBa 06CTOSITenCTBO HHe .!106HBaMe B"b3MO>KHOCTb aa .lI.aTHpaMe none npH6JIH3HTeJIHO rrsaara rpyna aa Tt3H cpe6bPHH racsera, MaKapb tIe r-sxaara <popMa 68 MorJIa .!la 6.:K.!le

1) UtuIa aaxoasa ce oaMHpa cera C}KIllO B"b HapOJ1HHH MyaeA O"b COCPHH (IIOB.

M 2241-2243). KJI'.co c"b06LUeHMe sa seA J180a Jl 0 6 P Y C K 11, O"b C60PRHK"b 38 Hap. YMO'IB. XVIII. 1901. 769.

2) 11 BB. N2 2241.

3) JlyMaT8 'Emlow.t osaasaaa asposrao nilKoe rpaKHAcKO nneae, KoeTO He IDI e H3- BteTBO OTh n;pyrMH3TO'lIDIUII. Cp, uanp.H3pasa [AMA]AOKOY Ol!.PIZITQN 8bPXy eaaa 6pOR300a MoneTa aa OllpnCKllII uaps AMlIllOKb 0T'b xpas ua V HnH Ha'l"3ll0TO U8 IV B. np. Xp. (M Ion n e I, Description de medailles grecques, Suppl, II 364 no 963 cnopem, S est III i, Lett. .QUmisrn. IX 13, Ta6n. I 16; llo6pycKH, C6opIDIl<"b sa Rap. YMOTB. XIV, 1897, eOI cnopeau Lenormanl el Delaroche, Tresor de numlsmaUque el glypUque: numismatique des rols grecs, Tatin. VI 5. 113rnelKll8, tie H B1> Jl8aTa cny'l8A ce sacae aa eana K CAUla MOHeTa, 'tHeTO cerauiao MtCToHaxolKlleHHe He e loll! 1!3B1iCTRO). Cx..WOTO OKOR'laHHe HMaT"b IIMeH3Ta aa at.KOH M8Ke.J10nO-IDllfpl!ACKII nneMe.H3 KaToAuyx"I)o'tCl.!, .cI.taO'CCl.t, 'Op8<l'ta.t I! ntpo(JliCCl.t. 3a CY¢IIKca -Ista 8l> nneMeUHH H MtcTHII n83BaHHR cp, H Toma s cb e k, 81> Besaenberger's Beltrage sur Kunde der Indogerman. Sprachen IX 101. - npo¢. Il, JletleB"b HMa JrlO6e3HOCTbT8 J1a MH 11811e no T03H asnpocs cnt.llHHTI; pasacaeaas: .]lyMan 'EY"fI'l~cmuv MOlKe Aa ce C8"bplKe 3BYKOBO C"b HMeTO aa pt.K8T3 'Ayy~~, 'Ayy(O't'Ij~ (Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker II 2,93),T'bAKaTOBb TPOKHAcKHII e3HK"b 3BYKoBerl; Cl. H II 'IeCTO ce 3aM I;CTIIT'b B30HMBO (K ret s c h mer, Elnleilung in die Gesch. der griech. Sprache, crp. 222). TOBo 1f8neHHe MO)l{e.a.a ce 06!1CHH tlp1;3"b 8CH' MHnaUHIITU aa rnacmrn 01> C"hCt.llHH cacrose. Taxa aanp, 810 Esbenus (To m as ch e k, Thraker 11 2, 9) H B"b "Hptp B~-ao1t(tp (naKlo TaM"b, 58) 38yK"bT"b i; 8"b CpH'lKaTa -110' ee e 3aD830n"b nopUlf C}Km.H.A 3EYK"b Ol> C"bct.a.U8ta cpasxa -be- (BE"t-). HanpOTHB"b 8"b "B"plJI Oil"c,Cl.01t(tp (Ka u aPOBb, 1138tCTR1I1II, 1912, 125) cpt.llI.aMe -ee- BMt.CTO ·60' nopan» 38YK8QI.I· 8"b npt.J1HJlemaTa cpasxa, no C}KWRTil npH'IHRH RMaMe Jeterus {T 0 rna sc h e k II 2 92) C'b Je-, 068'1e Jatros H

• A&p~ C"b Ja- HIIH e-. Cp, oC81;n1o TOBO H cny'lan K8I'O AlIAOI.I-~tY'll~ H AOA6-'(tV()~; Nt<l'to~ H NIiO"tOi;. OKOR'I8Hl!eTO aa "E'I1"1)LoWY 8"b HMeo. nan, ell. tI.IIcno "E'I"\'1l(O"t~ aanouna R3BtCTHOTO HME: Bo~It-~(O""t~ HJlII. Buruista, no KORTO npHtfllHa 6H MorllO AB ce npt.llnOJlO)l{H, 'Ie 'EYTll'(01iti'lv CTOH aa MtCToTO aB n"bpBORal,lanRO 'EmFtO"tiilv.

HSB1;tTIiR HI Apx. JlPYlK. VJ.

3

33

34

6. ¢lIlJlO.Bb, naMCrlIHUH 11.3 rpaK~[HcKOrO H3KYCTBO

sanaaesa B1> npO;II.'bJIJKeBlle aa TB'bp,Z(t .n.'b.1lro BptMe. ,npyrHTt .n.Bt racsera on AneKcaS.lIpOBO, on KOHTO caMoeJJ:flOToe xaaeaapaao, ce OT.1IHlIaB8Th ome H no T08a,. lie H3n.l>:KHanHwrh n.iii.n'b no cptl(aTa HB .I1;'bHOTO HM'b e oOlltI:J:eH'h Cb n03JJ8TeHa TeHeKHH, yxpaceaa C'b H311YK3Ha p03eTS, KOHrO e OHJIa HspaOOTeHa OutJIHO H nQCJIt sarroeaa, MOJKe cnt.n.OBaTeJlHO ,!lace npi:..lInOJIara,lIe H ocraaanars racsera 0T'b cxmara rpyna C.%. HM.anH n'hpSOHStlaJIHO nOJl.oOHH yspameaaa, KO.OTO OTnOCJI'B C.iii. naJt:HaJlH.

50) ,nBt. CpeO'bpHH rspaeana Oe3'b .llP'b)KKH H 6es'b opHaMeHTH,. aan'bJIHO e)J.HaKBH ITO ¢opMa, HO pa3JIlfI:J:HH no rOJltMHHa. E,lUIHI:UITb eK3eMnmlp'h (o6p. 31)e BHCOJ<1> 14'5 CM., a .!lpyrInIT'h caxo 6'5 CM.

51) .nBt cpeespna naq:,TH B'h BH.Il.'h aa csaseaa JI'bBCKH xpaxa, CHao.!leHH aa

06p. 31.. - CpeIJ'bpHO f'bplIco.ue on PIUlIOBe.Be.

06p. 32. - Cpe6'bPH3 113¢1i3 on Pamoeeae.

onaKOTO C'b XaJIKH sa aaxonsaeaae (oop. 32); . .li.'bJllKHHa 6'5 eM. EaHHHHTh eK3eMnJUlp'b e OTQaCTH o4yneHp. flo ¢opMa n3H Ila¢nl ce CXO)Kll,an saIl'hJJHO C'b 6pt30BCKHn eK3eMIlJUl.p.H Xl! 3 (06p. 3), 80 ce OTJIHQaaan on tin('b C'b no- JJ:.emiKaTB8T3 CD Hapa6oTKa.

HaXO.!lKaTa on Pamoseae He C'b.!l'bplKa npt.!lMeTH, xoaro na MoraTh na cc .n.aTHpan aanpaso. 51e80 e oriase, npa I1'bJlHO.TO cxonerso aa Hi;KO.H Orb npi;.Il.MeTHTt, KaJ<rOH on rosa, xoero Ka3aXMe no-rep-s (crp, 33) OTHOCHTeJIBO TaC"IeTO C'h H8l(OHC'b 0T'h AneKCaH.!lpOBO, "Ie U TH me .!la npaH8 . .lIJIe>KH HaH-K'bCHO nacaruara paHHOeJIUHUCTUqeCKa erroxa, sa KO~TO npaOHcaXMe 6p'B30BcKar.a H naHar1OpcK8T8 HaXO.ll.KH (IV - JI] a. np. Xp.).

B. <l>HROB1>, naMeTIIHQH X3 Tp3KHltCKOTO IflKYCTBO

35

v. Xynoscecraem, xapaxrept, H npOH3XO.n.b aa npt.n.MeTHTt .OTb Opt30BO, Flananopaute, 5t.n.H5IKOBO Ii Pa,lUOBeHe.

KaKTO aene Bo,n;i;XMe, npt,n;MeToTt, HarlpeHH npa 6pt30BO, Ilaaanopame, 6taHSlKOBO 0 Pamoeene, npHHa,n;JIelKaT'b see ua cxmara paUUOeJIoHHCTHtI'!CKa enoxa, npH6JI03HTeJlHO aa 8ptMeTO on N-Ill B. np. Xp. CaMO rp06oT'b 01'0 6tJ[.IDlKOBO, 6J1aro.a.apeHHe na ltaMtpeHH~ 80 Hero CKHct>OCO co xepaeaa ct>HfYPH, MO}f{e ,n;s. ce narapa nO-TOtlRO B'b IV 8. np. Xp. B" ,n;pyrHTt TpH aaxomca He ce cptmaT'b nptJ[.MeTIf, KOHTO J[.s n03BOJIjlSaT'b ezso nO-TO'lHO onptJ[.tJISlBe sa rsxaara ,n;a1'l. Ilpa ace TOBa, KaTO ce HMa nptJ[.o BHA", tie B'b SCHqKH "aXOAKH ce cptlItaT'b C'bBctM'b enaaxaa HJIH TB'bp.a.t CXOaHH no MeHUlY CI:I npt,n;MeTH H tie 3JI8TRHTt xonsera co raasa aa AnOJIOHa Orb Ilaaanopame rOBOpSlT'b, KaKTO BHJ[.txMe (crp, 17 H 28), B'b nOJI3a na enaa no B'b3MO>KHOCl'b no-parma nara, MO}f{eM'b cs n'b;JIHO OCHOBaHRe .n:s npOeMeM'b, 'Ie BCRqKH HaXO.l{KR ce nanar's rroaese 8'b HaqaJIOTO aa xaaaaara enoxa, T. e. B'b IVa. np, Xp., OTKonKOTO B'b spas u. Ha sctKH CJIyllaH He BK)KJJ:aM'b none HHKaKBR OCROBaHHSI, KOHTO Aa MoraT'b Aa ce nporaaonocrasars aa eAHO raxoaa no-paaao narapaae.

Cxuio H no oraomeaae aa MtcroHaXO}f{.a.eHHeTO CH onacamrrs np-BllMeTH npHHallnelKar'b aa enaa H cxnta nCHO orpaaaseaa IlJIaHHHCKa 06JlaCTb. 6P-B30BO, Ilananopaure Ii 6'i>.n:HHKOBO JIelKan ace B'b IOlKHHrt. CKJIOHoae aa Cp-B.l(HSI I'opa, aa ctBep'b OT'b WHPOKOTO H naoaopozao Ilaoaaaacxo none. Caxe Cpe6'bpHHm np-B.ll,MeTH 0T'b PaJJ,IOBeHe cx.. HaM-Bpe.uH aa eJ[.HO noornaneseao M-B cro , B'b cssepaara CKJIOHOBe na Bansaaa OKOJIO Jloae-rs, o6aI.Je T"bKMO m3H np-BJ[.MeTH He npOH3XO>K,n;aT"b on norpetiaaaa MOfHJIa H He Moran CJI-BJ[.osaTeJlHO JJ,a 6x..llaT'b T"bH meao CB'bp3aHH co csoero MtCTOHBXOlKAeHHe. C" enaa JlYMa BCHI.JKH nptllMeTH, KOHTO HH 3aHHMaSa1"b, CA 6HJlH HaMtpeHH B'b cssepaara n;rIaHHHCKa qaCTb na crapa TpaKHH H TO - KoeTo e oe06no aamRO B'b Muoro OTHoweHHSI - ,ZI;OCTa Jlaneq'b 0T"b craporpuuxar-a KOJIOHHH no 'IepHOMOpCKOTO H 6tJIOMOpeKOTO Kpaa6pt>KHe.

B'bnpi>KH rosa ellHHl."TBO no OTHoweHHe aa BptMeTO H aa M-BCTOHaxQ);(,!J,eHHeTO, HaXOJlKHm OT'b 6P-B30BO, Flaaanopanre, 6i>.n:HHKoao H PallIOBeHe COll'bplKaT"b np-BAMeTH, KOHTO no CBOH xYJlOlKeCTBeH'b xapasrep-s C.iii. C'bBctMo pa3JIHqHH eJl:HH 0T"b zpyra. ·KaTO OCTaBSlMe sa crpasa 08t3H npaaMeTH, KOHTO U-BMaT'b 3HalJeHHe KaTO XY}{OlKeCTBeSH naMeTHHIJ,H, ocraaaaars

3*

36

6. ¢lHJlOB'h, na.MeTHHuH sa TpaKHllcKoTo Jl3KyCTBO

MO}f{eM'b na Rape.n;HM'b B'b TpR pa3J1H'IHH no CBOSI xynoacecraea-s xapaxrep-s rpyna,

1) K'bM'b rrspsara rpyna, KOHTO MO)l(eM'b na 03Ra'lHM'b KaTO rp'bIJ.Ka, npHHap,JIe)l(aT'b OHt3H npt)l.MeTH, KOHTO no epopMa, CTHJI'b H CIOJKeT'b ROCHT'b '1RCTO rp'bIJ.KH xapaxreps H no RIUnO He ce OTJIH'~aBa'I'b 0T'b no.n;06RHn rlM'b npOH3Be.n;eHJ.iH aa CTapOrp'bIJ.KOTO H3KyC1'BO. TYK'b npaaaaaexar» npt.l1R BCH'IKO 0T'b naaarropcsars nptll.MeTR 3JIaTRHn sonsera H Cpe6'bpHH"l't naaCTHHKH C'b rnasara aa Anoaoua (Nil 19 R 21), KaKTO H Cpe6'bpHHn Kpa..rose, BopXY KOHTO e npbncraaena 60p6aTa aa Xepxyneca C'b HeMeHcKRH JI'bB'b (Ng 22), a raxa cxmo H tlaCTHn ua 3JIaTHaTa AHaAeMa (N2 16). OCBtH'b TOBa TYK'b cnanar-s 6poH30BRn KOIPR 0T'b 6pt30BO R Ilaaarropante (N;! 11 H 32), 6poH30BaTa saaa H naaaerxara 0T'b Ilauanopame (N!! 31 H 36), KaKTO R rJIHHeHJUIT'b CKHIPOC'b 0T'b 6tll.HHKOBO (CTp. 31). MmKe C'b nOJIO>KHTeJIHOCTb ,ZJ.a ce npaeae, 'Ie BCJ{'IKH n3H nptll.MeTH He CJi" 6HJIH npaseaa B'b TpaKHSI, a CJi" 6HJIH BRece.HH OTB'bR'b. HHe. nOCOllHXMe sese aa 06CTOSlTeJICTBOTO, se 3JIaTHHn xonsera C'b raasara aa Anoaoaa 0T'b Ilaaanopante HSfJIe>K,ZJ.aT'b, nopaaa CXOACTBOTO CH C'b H-BKOB MOHeTH OT'b AMIPHnOJlHC'b, na CJi" 6RJIH npaaeaa 6HJIO B'b caMBH T03H rpa.zr.'b, 6HJIO Bo Herosara BenOCp-BllCTBeHa OKOJlHOCTb. BtPOSJTHO e CJl-B.1l0BaTeJIHO, 'Ie H OCTaHaJIRn 3JIBTHH H Cpe6'bpHH npi;J(MeTH OT'b Ta3H rpyna, rroue B'b nO-fOJI-BMaTa CH '1aCTh, npOH3XO)l(AaT'b OT'b 60raTaTa C'b 3JIaTHH H Cpe6'bpHH py.n;HHIJ.H naareacxa o6naCTb, OT'b A-BTO n no AOJIHRaTa aa CTPYMa JIeCHO CJi" MOrJIH zra npOHHKHan B'b TpaKH.SJ. OTe'leCTBOTO aa 6poH30BHn KOepH n'bK'b Tpt6Ba na ce T'bPCH, KaKTO BH.IltxMe (CTp. 11 eJI.), B'b IO>KHa HTaJlHSI. ThxHOTO BHaCSlHe D'b TpaKHSI, KaKTO H ua npyrar-s 6P0H30BH CJi"JIOBe on Ta3H rpyna, ce e H3B'bpWBaJIO carypao no T'bprOBCKH nJi"Tb qpt3'b nocpt . .n;HHlJecrBoTo sa rp'bnKHn KOJlOHHH no qepHOMOpCKOTO HJlH 6tJlOMOPCKOTO KpaMpt>KHSI.

2) K'bM'b aropara rpyna, KOSITO MO>KeMb na 03Ha'lHM'b KaTO rp'suxosapaapcxa, cnanar-s oHtaR npt):{MeTH, KOHTO, MaKap'b H JIa CJi" H3pa60TeHH Bb rpy6'b sapaapcxa CTHJI'b, noxassars SlBHO BJlHHHHe aa rp'bLlKH 06pa3nH. K'bM'b TtX'b npHHa):{JIe>Kan on nanancpcxar-s npt):{MeTH npom.aroaarara cpetispaa nJlaCTHHKa H KpJi"rJIHrl cpethpHH KpH.rOBe, yxpaceaa C'b H30- 6pa>KeHHSI aa JKHBOTHH HJIB cs IJ.B-BTeCTH opHaMeHTH (N2 23-26), KaKTO H Cpe6'bpHHT'B rJlaBH aa rpHljJoHH OT'b 6pt30BO (N9 2). OcstH'b TOBa K'bM'b Ta3H rpyna MO>KeMb na npHqUCJlHM'b R 3JlaTHHHT'b npscrea's or'b 6pt30BO (N2 1). Karo paaraesoraxae no-roph (CTp. 21) npozraaroearara cperrspaa nJlaCTHHKa on Ilaaanopame, Hue UMaXMe aexe CJIY'IaH aa l-I3T'bKHeMb, no KaK'bB'b HaqHH'b HeHHHSlT'b MaHCTOp'b ce e nODJIHSlJI'b OTb 06pa3IJ.Hn, KOHTO

E. <IlHnOB1>, OaMeTlilillH aa rpakKII(,;KoTo H3KYCTBO

My C)I\, .n:aBaJIH npOH3Be,l(eHHSlTa aa rpbUKOTO H3KyCTBO, OCOOHO no OTHOmeHHe aa CUeHaTa, Bb KOHTO e nps.acrasesa Xepxyaecs cs HeMeticKHSJ JIbBb. HHe BHlltxMe; tte TOBa BJIHSlRHe ce orpauxsaaa noaese Bb ooxera aa cueuara, AO.u.tTO caMOTO My H3nbJIHCHHe, KaKTO H no.u.pOOHOCTHn MY, HOCSlTb ttHCTO BapBapCKH xapaxrep's H CR.. naroneaa cnopem- JIHttHHn nOHSlTHH aa MaHCTopa Bb 3aBHCHMOCTb OTb M'BCTHHn YCJIOBHSI. Um,OTO Htm,O Ba>KH HanbJIHO H aa OCTaHanHn npt.u.MeTH OTb Ta3H rpyna, KOHTO CR.. OHJIH Cb3JI.3)1,eHH naxs nom- BJIHSlHHero aa CTaporpbUKOTO, HJIH nO-TOttHO Ka3aHO, aa craporo HOHHikKO H3KYCTBO OTb Manoa3HIITCKOTO KpaHOp'B>KHe.

Bs MaJIa·A3HSI, no.u.b BJIHHHHeTO sa CTapH opHeHTanCKH Tpa)J.HUHH, .CA\ OHJIH naa-aanpam, Cb3.1l.a)J.eHH H H3paOOTeHH aa rp'snxa noxaa B'b YCTauOBeHH XY.IlO>KeCTBeHB THnOBe ORt3H $aHTaCTHlJHH >KHBOTHH, KaTO rpaQJOHbTb, capeaara, XHMepaTa H .u.p:, KOHTO orne TB'bP.1l.t paso C)I\, MHHaJIH H Bb H3KYCTBOTO na c06CTBeHa r'bpUHSI H KOHTO OTttaCTH cp'sutaxe raxa CR..DlO H Bb HaWHn naMeTHHUH. OCOOHO .1l.00p'B e .3aCBB.u.tTeJICTBYBaHO HOHHiicKOTO Bn.HSlHHe BbPXY npt,lI.MerHn or-s Ilaaanopame 'Ipt3b KpHJIaTHn CBHKe. H3B'BCTRO e, se xpanarara ' CBHHSI - raaraas, KOHTO He ce cpsuia B'bpXy naMerHHUH OTb eeporreacsa r'bpUHSI, e THIIH'IHHjlTb oopaas 33 cpeObPHHT'B MOHeTHt) OTb xpas aa VI H Ha'laJIOTO sa V BtK'b np, Xp., ci;'IeHH Bb rpana K.na30MeHe onH30 )1,0 CMHpRa, OTb zrsro TOR e MHHaJI'b BbPXY MOHeTHTt H aa .ltPyrH rpbll.KH KOJIOHH" no Manoa3HIITCKoToKpai.f6pt.mHe, KaTO KHSHK'b, XHOCb H Caaocs,")

110HHRCKH BJIHSlHHSI MOraTb na ce KORCTaTHpaT'b II no .n:PYib HattHU'b npa npBltMeTHT'B Orb Ta3H rpyna. CpeObPHHT'B KpR..rOBe OTb Ilauanopatne ce CXOlKJI.aT'b TB'bP)l,'B MUoro no HalJHHa aa ..ll.eKOpaUH51Ta ca Cb npyra TpH cpetrspaa KpA\ra Orb HOftHRCKO npOH3XO>K.IleRlfe, Orb KOIfTO e..ll.HRHSlT'b ce aaxapa Db JlaH)leHb,9) a npyrars naa B'b UYMH3MaTHtteCKHSI KaOHHeT'b npa Haponaara OH6JIHOTeKa Bb Ilapaacs.') T'B38 TpH xpxra CH\ cpaaaarexao no-rOJItMH (.llHaMeT'bp'b 23 H 15'5 (M.) H . aarapari, 0T'b Cp'B..ll.HeeJIeHHCTHtte. CKaTa enoxa (11-1 B. np. Xp.), C'b KoeTO ce OOSlCHSlBaT'b H 3HaqHTeJIHHTt CTHJIOBH pa3JIHQHSI (cp. o6p. 33 H 34). Ilpa TOBa nXHHT'B H306palKeHHSl

1) E. 8abelon, Traite des monnaies grecques et romaines, 2-eme. partie, TOM1> I CTp. 307 CJJ., mon. XII 13-20; TOM1> II CTp. 1143 CJJ., TaOn. eLV 6-19.

2) 3a KH3KK1>; naK1> TaM1> I Taon. VII 16; sa XHOC'b; I TaOn. VIII 18; sa GaMOC1>: II raon. CL 4-8.

3) B. S ta r k, Bonner JahrbUcher LVIII, 1876, CYp. 7 cn. It TaOn. IV; 1"1. D rex e I, Jahrbuch des Deutschen archaol. Instituts XXX, 1915, CTp. 14 It oop. 6.

4) Odobesco, Le Tresor de Petrossa I, 1889,513 ~ap. 214; Dr ex e l, aUT. M. CTp. 14 CJI. It 06p. 7.

37

38

6, <PHnOB'b, naMeTHKUH H3 TpaKIiAcKoTO 113KYCTBO

C;K aanpaeeaa C'b no-rcasaa Btlll.HHa. 06alle OpHHllHn'bl"b aa nexopa~HHTa, KaKTO H' TeXHHKaTa sa peJlHeq>a (H3qYKaRH H nOCJIt ~H3eJlHpaHH orrops 11306pa>KeRHSI) CIK enaa H CXill(H H S'b nsara cnysas. H TyK'b naK'b UaMHpaMe H306pa)KeHlUl HS )KRBOTHH, paSnOJlO>KeHH CHMeTPHqHO OKonO enaa ~eHTpaJlHS rpyna, KOSITO OTrOBapS1 aa H3DIKKHaJlHS1 nxrrs B'b naaanopciorra eK3eMnJlS1pH. OcetH'b rosa H nptD.Ra3HaqeHHeTO aa rt3R KpN..rOSe Tpt6sa .na e '6RJlO C;Klll.OTO, KaKTO aa naaanopcxars eK3eMDJrnpH, l"bH KaTO rt C;K cHa6D.eRH no p;K60sert CR no CD lIeTHpH MaJlKH raoaaessera, aa aa 6.l\.nal"b npaxosana KaTO YKpaweHHS1 B'bpXy TB'bp.na MaTepHH. T1>3R Kp;Krose npOR3- XOlK.Il.aTb, KaKTO MOlKe na ce CqRTa cera aa ycraaoaeao;') Ol"b lOlKHJfTt 6ptroee aa 4epHO Mope, ·BtPOSITHO Ol"b 06naCTbTa nOHTOCD, .ntro TpaD.JU.\RRTt aa CTapOTOHOUHHCKO R3- KYCTBO C.II'i. ce 3ana3HJlR no TB'bp.ni> K'bCHO BptMe. no rasa RMeaRO npR'lRU8 CXOD.· CTBOTO, KoeTO KOHCTaTRpaxMe e'b nexopauaara H npnaUS3HaQeHHeTO aa cpeespsaTt xpxrose, B'bnptKH 3HalIHTeJlRuTt pa3J1HQUS1 S'b CTRJla, CJIY)KH KaTO HOBO .D.OKa3afeJlCTBO sa BJlWlHReTO aa AOHHikKH 06pa3~R S'bPxy opi>.lJ.MeTRTt Ol"b Ilaaano-

06p. 33. - Cpe6'bpea'b pMHe$'b 8'b JIaJI,IleH'b.

pame, DPH TOBa 3aCJIYlKaBa ome na ce R3T'bKHe, lie B'bpXy epe6'bpluut KpH;M> on. JIaH.lJ.eR'b (06p. 33)

cpbmaae naK'b 60p6a aa e)J.HH'b M.l\)K'b (XepKYJleCD?) CD JI'bB'b - cuena, 'KOjlTO Belle HaMtpHxMe R B'b naaanopcxars npt.nMeTR, H TO KaKTO B'bpXy cpetrspaara npozrsaroaara nJlaCTRHKa, raxa H S'bpxy Cpe6'bpHRTt Kp~OBe on n'bpBaT~ rpyna (Ng 22 R 23).

Karo DPOBO.nHHUH- ua HOHHiicKOTO BJlRHHHe B'b sxrpsmaocrsra na TpaKHS1 C;K CJIYlKHJlR I-p'bUKRTt KOJlOHHH no 6ptra aa LJepHoTo H Ereacaoro Mopers, ocaoaaaa nosesero 0T'b iiOHH.i-icKR MeTpOnOJlHH, aa D'bPBO MtcrO OT'b MHnel"b H KJIa30Meae. OC06HO rOJItMa POJIH Tpt6Ba na e arpaaa 13'b

1) Drexel, UIIT. M. crp, 11.

39

6. ¢>flnOB1>, naMeTIDIUli 83 TpaKHAcKOTO 1l3KYCTBO

TOBa OTHoweHHe MHJIeTCK2Ta KOJIOHlHI AIlOJIOKHSI (cera C030nOJl'b), ,ll-BTO S'b VI Ii V Bt.K'b np. Xp. H3KycT80ro ce e aaxapano B'b IlS-BTyme C'bCTO-SlHHe H e aocsno oute qHCT'b HOHHHCKH xapaxreps.t)

npt.,llMerHT'B 0T'b sropara rpyna He MOraT'b na 6i'\UlaT'b 0T'b rpsuxo llPOH3XOlK,lleHHe. Tt rpsoaa na C""- 6RJlR patioreaa B'b caxara TpaKKSI H TO 0T'b ldt.CTHH MaHCTopR. CaMO no raK'bB'b HaqHH'b MO>Ke na ce 06S1CHH rpy- 6HSlT'b BapBapCKH CTHn'b na H306pameHRSlTa H OpaaMeHTHrB, KORT'O HaMHpaae B'bpXY T'B3H npt.llMenl. BnHSlHHeTO aa fp'bUKHn 06pa3UHe 6HJIO lJHCTO B'bHWHO H ce e OrpaHHT:JaBanO caxo B'b B'b3npHeMaHeTO aa HOBH CIO>Kel'H, KaKBHTO C)I'\. 6HJIH aanp, cneaara C'b Xepxyaeca, KPHJIaTHrB CBKHe H capeaara, Ilpa TOBa n3H ClOmeTH He ClK 6HJIB KOnHPaIDI MexaHHqeCKB, a ClK 6BJIH H3MtMBaHH H npspaeoreaaa cnopems JIHIJHHn cxea maHHSI Ii nOHHTHH aa MtCTHHn MaHCTOPH, KOHTO no T03H HaqHH'b es:

BHaCSlnH B1> rp'bIlKHn ClOlKeTH H MtCTeH'b KOJIOPHT'b. HaHoce3aTeneHo e T03H KOJIOpHTb B'b 06JItKJIOTO, KoeTO e naneao aa Xepxyneca H aa CHpeH3T3 B'bpxy npozrsarosarara cpeo'spua nJIaCTRHKa OTb 03HanOpHl11.e, KaKTO .11 B1> HatUIHa, no KOHTO CiK 6BJlH BH.zr;OH3MtHeHH; B'b cp3BHeHHe CD rp'bIlKHrt. 06pa3~

06p. 34. - Cpe6bpeRl> penHeq:,l> Bb napHlK:b.

un, rJlaBHrl aa rpHq:,OHHrl 0T'b opt30BO (rJI. CTp. 7). H3HCTHIl3, H3SilCTHo. e, qe norrbxora, KaKTO nOKa3B3Tb aanp. H3XO.llKHrl OT'b IO>KHa PYCKSI, cxmo H rp'bIlKHn MaHCTopH C""- ee npacnocotiasaaa TB'bPll.-B ycrrsmao K'bM'b BKYca aa lJYlK,lleHu;Hrt., aa KOHTo. n C""- pa60THJlH. Oease B'b BCHqKH nO,ll06HH cnyqaH caxo q,0PMHrl aa npt,llMeTHrt. H clOlKeTHrt. aa T'BXHHrl-H806pa)J(eH¥H CiK 6HJIH nO,ll6Hpa'HH C'bfJIaCHO HYJKJl.HTB H .noHHTHSlTa aa QY2K.zr;eaUHrl., .llo,llino ·caM.9'ro H31l'bJIHeHMe aa nSH npt.llMeTH e CTa-BaJlO C'bBdM'b B'b rp'bu,KH llYX'b, B'b HaWHH CJIyqaH, KaKTO BH.1ltxMe, cpbmaae ~KMO otiparaoro Hilmo: }1O>KeTUrl; aa H306p32KeUIDITa CA'\. rp'bUKH, a H3n'bJIH€HHeTO HMl> e qHCTO aapaapcxo.

1) rn. 6. 4> H n 0 B1" ApxeonorlflleCKR napanenH/II1> .c6opfl. sa Rap. YIAOTB. XXVI, 191Q. ~1 en.

40

6. $HIIOB"b, naMeTRHUK aa TpaK.HtlcKoro HaK.YCTBo

BCH'l.KO TOBa nOKa3Ba CbBdM1. 5IBRO, 'l.e npt.l(MeTHrl on Ta3H rpyna CH- 6HJlH npOH3Be~eRHSI aa MtCTHH MaRCTopH.

3} HaR-nocn"h K1.M1. TpeTS1Ta rpyna, KOSITO MOlKeM1. J18 03Ha'UfM1. KaTO '1HcrO aapsapcxa, npaaanaeacar-s OHt3H npt,llMeTH, KOHTO RtMan RHm,O oemo C'b npOH3Be~eHHSlTa aa CTapOrp1.UKOTO H3KyCTBO H KOHTO ce OTJlH'1aBaT"b 0T"b rbsa nocntJ1HHTt He caxo no CTHJI1., HO rasa Cl§I\mo no <popMa H 1'eXHHKa. TyK"b cnanars rJlaBHO nO'J1peOHHm np"h.n:MeTH, KOHTO CI§I\ HMaJiH HtKaKBO npaKTH'IeCKO np'snaaaaaueaae, a HMeHHO BCHIIKH naljJTH 0T"b 6pt30BO, Ilaaanopaine, 6"hJ1HSlKOBO H Pa~IOBeHe (N!! 3, 5, 6, 29, 30, 44, 45 H 51), 8MYJlerHm 0T"b 6pt30BO H 6tJ1HSlKOBO (N!! 4 H 46), a raxa C)!UllO, nopaaa yxpameaasra B1. BHJ11. aa JI1.BCKH fJlaBH'IKH, H CpeO'bpHaTa 103J1a OT"b Bpt30BO (N!! 7). BCH'IKH naH npt~MeTH pt3KO ce OTJlH'IaB8T"b 0T"b npoasseJ{eHHSlTa aa craporp'suxara xYllO>KeCTBeRa HHJ1YCTPHSI KaKTO no CBOHTt He06HKHoBeHH 1jJ0PMJI, raxa H no CBORTa zrexopauaa. B'b npOTHBOnOJlO>KHOCTb aa SlCRHm OpraHH'l.eCKH 1jJ0.PMH aa craporpsnxaa opaaxears, B'bpXy nptp.MerHm 0T"b Ta3H rpyna UHe cpburaxe np snaereua, CHJlHO CTRJlH3HpaHH 1jJ0PMH, H3rYOHJlH aexe C'bBctM'b CBoeTO rrspacaasamro aaaneaae H OO'bpHaTH npocro B'b ~eKopaTHBHH eJleMeHTH, C'b KOHTO MaRcrop'bT'b e pasnoJlaraJl'b no CBoR xanpns's. Oc06RO xapaxrepaa Wl\ B'h TOBa OTHoweHHe cpe6'hpHHrt nadrra 0T"b Bpt30BO S'h BHJ11. sa Jle>Kam'b KOHb (.N'2 6, Ta6JI. I 4). TyK'b HaA-J106pt ce BH>K~a, KOJIKO MaJiKO MaHCTOp'hT"b ce e rpH>KeJl'h aa ~"hRCTBHTeJlHOCTbTa H no KaK'bB'h HeB'h3MO>KeH'h HaqUH'b >KHBOTHO,[O e 6HJlO H3KpHBeHo H COHTO, 38 ~8 ce npacnocoea K1.M1. KpH-rJIOBaTaTa 1jJ0pMa ua npsnaera, KoATO e TptoBaJIO J18 6lKJ1e yspaceas C'b Hero. Bs Ta3H HMeHHO rrp'sxaneaa CTHJIH3aIlHH, B'b KanpH3HOTO csseraaaae aa paBHH >KHBOTHHCKH $OpMH, B'b CKJIOHHOCTbTa K"bM'b C'b3~aB8He aa $8HTatlHllHH Wl\m,eCTB8 H B'h crpessneaaero K'bM'b Heo6Hl<HoBeHH ~eKop8THBHH eljJeKTH ce 3aKJIlOqaSaT"b HaA-~UleCTBeHHTt pa3JIHQHSl Me>KllY npt~MeTHTt on TaSH aapaapcxa rpyna H npOH3Bel{eHHSlTa aa craporp-suxara xYJ10>KeCTBeHa HH.n:YCTPHSI. Bapaapam.rsXy~O>KHHK'b ce SlBSlBa, aKO MO>KeM'b raxa J1a ce H3pa3HM1., He nO'MaJiKO HJ1eanHCT'b OT'b CBOSI no-xyarypem, xoaera, Ooa'le HCrOBHSlT'b H~eamf3'hM'b lie ceC'bCTOH B'b CBOOOJ1HHSl U300p'b .H KaMOHHaUHSlTa aa )I.a~eHHrt B'b npaponara HaA'C'bB'bpmeHH q,OPMH, HO HanpOTBB'b B'b e~HO oraaaesasaae ors ~tACTBHTeJIHOCTbTa, B'b KaRpU3HaTa arpa na ljJaHTa3HSlTa H Bo C'b3~aBaHeTO Ha HeOOHKHOBeHH J1eKOpaTHBHH e$eKTH.

Bo TeXHHQeCKO OTHoweHHe 8Ma J1a ce saotnt.>KU, qe lKHBOTHHn H OTJ1tJJHHrt >KHBOTHHCKH <POpMH, KOH1'O HaMHpaMe npa npt~MeTHrt ors Ta3H rpyna, He ex. Hapa60TeHH B'b peJJHe$'b B'bpXy eJ1HB'b 06lU'b aeyrpaaeirs 1jJ0H'b,

6. 4>IIJlOB1>, n8MeTHHUH sa l"p8KHItCKOTO H3KYCTBO

41

HO C.¥. TpeTHpaHH KaTO n'bJIHH <iJHrypH, 6HJlO KaTO cs; 6HJlH H3p"B33HH ors noT"bHKa HJlH Ae6eJla MeTaJIHlIeCKa nJJaCTHHKa, 6HJIO KaTO C.¥. 6HJIH H3J1-BTH naK'b B'b nJIOCKa <iJopMa. BTopOCTeneHHHT-B YKpaweHRSI H nO.llp06HOCTH B'bpXy T-BX'b C.¥. caao OTlIaCTH rpasapaaa, a rJIaBHO C.¥. M01l.eJIHpaHH QP-B3'b TbH aapeseaaa Bp-B3aH'b peJIHe<iJD (relief en creux). Ta3H TeXHHKa e C.¥.wo T"bM lIylKll,a H3 CTapOrp'bD;KOTO H3KYCTBO, B'b soero cpsmaae rJIaBHO HH3KH.Sllb H BHCOK'b peJIHe<p'b CD 06111.'0 aeyrpaaeirs <p08'b (bas-relief H haut-relief), K3KTO H caaara opaaxearaxa H3 np-B.IlMeTHT-B 0T"b T3SH rpyna.

BCHqKO TOBa nOKa3B3, lie MaHCI'OpHT-B, KOHTO c;v;. pa60TBJlH n3B nphaMeTH, Tpt6Ba na C.¥. npHH3.l1.JlemaJIH naK'b aa M-BCTHOTO aaceaeaae, KaKTO H MaHCTOpHT-B aa np-B.IlMeTHn ors BTQpaTa rpsnxo-aapeapcea rpyna. Ocrasa caao na BHAHMl" KaKBa e 6uJIa ri;xHaTa 8ap0.llHOCTb. Karo ce HMa nptA'b BHA'b MtCToHaxOm.lleHHeTO na np-B.IlMeTHT-B, KOHTO HH a3HHMaB3lb, KaKTO H BptMeTo, ua KoeTO T-B npHHaAJIe)l(alb, enaa JlH MO>Ke Aa HMa H-BK3KBO C'bMH-BHHe, lie n Tpt6Ba A.a ce npanamars aa Mi>CTHOTO TP3KHHCKO naceaeuae. B'spxy T03H B'bnpOC'b ensa JI.H 6H 6HJlO Hy>KHO .Ila ce cnspaae nonon.P06HO, axo eraorpatpaxecxart, ycnOBHSI B'b TpaKHSI no OHOBa Sp-BMe He 6Hxa 6HJlH raxa sannereaa, BCJI-B.IlCTBHe aa KoeTO 6Hxa MOfJTH na ce H3- T"bKH3T"b H apyra B'b3MO)f{HOCTH, KOHTO C.¥.lllO me Tpi;6sa na B3eMeM'b trptA'b BHA'b. npi;.IlH BCHqKO H3BtCTHO KOJle6aHHe 6H MOrJIO na npHlIHHH sese 06CTOflTeJICI'BOTO, se rl3H np'B.IlMeTH, KaKTO me BHllHM'b nO-AOJI-B, DOKa3BaT"b MHOrQ rOJl-BMO CXO.llCTBO CD naMeTHHUH ua CKHTCKOTO H3KyCTIJO.1) CJJ-B.IlOBa· Te.'1HO Tp-B6Ba Aa BHAHMD, aa KaKBa BtPOSITHOCTb 68 pa31UiTaJlO npbnnoJlO)f{eHHeTO, lie rl ex on CKHTCKO npOH3XO)f{AeHHe, 6HJlO K3TO H3pa60TeHH on CKHTCKH np-BCeJI~HUH B'b TpaKHSI, 6HJlO KaTO BHeceRH aanpaao on CKHTIISI.

CnOpeA'b H-BKOH H3BtCTHSI OTAi;JJHH CKHTeKH nJIeMeHa C.¥. npOHHKHaJIH ome TB'bPA-B paao, K'bM'b HaqaJlOTO sa V B. np. Xp., B'b TpaKHSl, KaTO CTHr· HaJJH qaK'b .11.0 TpaKHHCKHSl XepCOHeCD. II) Cxmo H nO-K'bCHO, B'b BptMeTO na <l>KJlHna II, H3rJlelKAa, lie CKHTlln, nOA'b np-BABOAHTeJlCTBOTO aa naps CH

1) 4>aKTbn., qe nptJlMeTHrl, KOIITO HH 3aflHMaB8n., npOH3XOlKJl8n on. norpe6aJlHH MorMH, He e ·llocran.qeRD caMD no ceee CH, 38 lUI HH y6t.!lH BD rtXH0TO TpaKHllcKo npoH3XOlKAeHHe. n1t saro ocoeaocnrrs RD 'rp8KHllcKHrli norpe6aJ1Jui MOrHJlH H OTJlII'lHRT8 111011> ors CKHTCKHrl He CN.· ouie YCTaBOBeHH. 3a T83H LrMb we Tpt6B8 Aa ce H3C;I'i;JU'l8 CHCTeMaTII'IeCKH enno nO-rOJltMo KOJlH'IeCTDO norpe68JIBR MOrHJlH D1> TpaKHR H .l106HTHrn pe3YJITaTH AD ce cpasasr» CD pe3YJlTaTHrl on. 113YllBaHRATa aa MOrHJlHrt Bb IOlKH3 PYCHA. 3a lK8J10CTb y HaCD He e owe nO'ItH RHUlO Banp80eRO aa CHCTeMaTHqeCKHrl paasonxa R HSYllBaHHII aa norpe6aJJBHrl MorHHH.

2) Her 0 d. VI 40: lhw-3-~t y«p at yap.cilI~ lp.:h'J~iY'tSb uno p«o~Ai~ bps{ou ouvs<Tt9d.<f1joa:v x~l 'ijAa:Oa:V ~XPL 't'9), X.pao~aou 't«UTIj,. Cp. tx.mo VI IU. - Bus 0 I t, Grlech. Oesch. 12 523 3a6. 1 H 528 9a6. 1.

42

6. <l?HJlOB"b, OaMeTHH1J;H aa TpaKH11cKoTo H3KYCTBO

Areaes, nanazmana aa TpaKHH, HO 6HnH oT6n"bCHaTH on <l>HnIma B"b 339 rOJI,.1) Th3H HameCTHHSl ODatte rpsesa JI,a CiK HManH BptMeaeH"b xapaxreps H JI,a cx. 6HnH npsnnpuera sa nnSlttKa. Ha BctKH cnyqaH, H JI,a ClI'>. OCTaHanK ToraBa HtKOH CKHTCKH rraexeaa B"b TpaKHH,2) rt CHrypHO C~ ce nocenHnH He B"b ropacrara nJlaHHHCK8 06naCTb aa CptJI.HS1-rOpa, DO H-BKX.JI.t H3"b paBHHHHrt B"b MtCTHOCTH, KOHTO ClI'>. npHnHllanH aa rtXHOTO OTeqeCTBO B'b crenarh aa lO>KHa PYCHH. B"b paBHHHHTt aa ,UO6pY21lKa, osono rpanoserf TOMH H ,UHoHHCOnOn"b (cera KIOCTeHJI.lKa H 6anttHK'b), B'b nH aapeseaara ManKa CKHTHH, CiK 6HJlH YCTaHoBeHH H OHHst CKlITH, KOHTO B"b nO-K"bCHO BptMe cpainaae aa lOrD on ,UyHaBa.1I) Bsoeure, 210 KonKOTO MOlKe ;na ce C;KJI.H 0T'b aanaseaar-s CS1:.JI.tHHst, trsnara 06naCTb Me)l(.u;y Baaxaaa H MopeTO aa H3TOK'b H aa lOrD, e 6Hna 06HTaBaHa "ptS'b V H IV e. np. Xp, caao 0T"b TpaKHHCKH naeaeua, TYKH)J;Hll"b, KaTO rosopa sa BoAHaTa aa TpaKHiicKHSl naps CHTaJlKeC'b cpsiny Ilepnaxacs B"b 429 ron, np. Xp., Ka3Ba H3PHlJHO, qe 3eMHT8 Me1KllY 6aJIKaHa H Poxoncxars nJIaHHHH e 6HJIa o6HTaBaHa 0T"b rpaKm'iqu. 4) Camo raxa CTpa60H'b (VI 15,12; cpo Vll 7, 4) H nJ[HHHH (Nat. hist. IV 11) roaopsrs caao aa TpaKHHCKH nneaeaa B'b Ta3H 06naCTb. Bcnt)J;CTBHe na BCHlIKO TOBa MO>KeM'b C"b Il'bJrHO npaso na npHeMeM"b, tte CKHTCKH naeaeaa H"KOra He CiK ce YCTaHOBHSaJIH aa npOll"b11>KHTenHO BptMe na !OlD OT'b 6a11KaHa.6)

1) Justin. Hist. IX 2; St r a b o VII 3,18. Cp, ClKWO Kaerst y Pauiy-Wissowa, Realencycl, II 1901. Pt.wHTeJlHOTO cpaseeaxe H3rJlelK.I18 na ce e C'bCTOllno aa CKHTCKa nouaa, nosese Jus tin. IX 3 Ka3Ba: revertendi ab Scythia T,iballi Philippo occurrun t. Bb3MOlKHO e 06a'le UaPCTBOTO aa ATe8C'b .I1a ce e npOCTHPaJIO H .H8 IOn. OT"I> lJ,yRasa .. - M in n s (Scylhlans and Greeks, 123) C1. npaso ce ChMRlIBa, 'Ie B"b cJlY'lall lI,YMaTa e aa ClKIl{HHCKHTi> CRHTH H npt..!I.I1OJ1ara, nOp3.!l.H nQ-K'bCIIRTt. 60p6H aa AJieKCaHJlpa BeJlHo(1I Ch reTHTt., Areaes na -e 6Hn1. reTCKH usps, KollTO caao sa T'OBa e MHHaOaJI1> KaTO on8.11ilTeJlb aa CKHTHTt., nOHe>Ke lt3PCTBOTO My ce e HaMHpaJlO aa ct.oep."b OTh llyH3Ba.

2) Xep0Jl,OTh (VI 40) Kassa HSpH.1lHO, 'Ie CKHTHTiI ce OTTCrJlIIJtH on XepCOHeC"b: MtA't!d.&q;

l<¥sUTs XapaovrjOOV, ~ 8 or u llXull-~~ 1i11:a..nrtxl!--rja«v. -

3)Pseudo-Skymnos 755 CJI. H 765 CJl.; Shabo VI15112j Pllnlus, Nat. hlst. IV U. ~) T h u k Y d. II 96: (I("taAXll;) dvtcm]o( ... 00... b 'tIi\ ... ·O~pua6j ... oplUil!l8YO; npGYtov Jl6Y '1:011. t~ 'tOil A~IlOU u I5po~ XIV. 't9J. 'p~, 8pt;xwo 1l0WY ~PX' J.WXPt ll-«AliaC1J'.

5) S e u r e (Bull, de corresp. hellenlque XXV, 1901. 168 CJI.j cp, 199 CJI.), a B'b ChrnaCHe CD Hero II Min n s (Scythians and Greeks, 118 386. 8) C'IHTan. aa CKHTCKH rpo 60 aers , KOHro CAl. 61f.1111 OTKPHTR 6111130 .110 Oep.yIl{IIU8, sa 10. 3. OTh OnOB.!I.II8"b, 8"b nO.l1HOlKHeTO ua rOJlt.Mara llyxooa MOntJla (H.3KYCT.BeHa Mornll.8, xoaro 06a'le lie e C"b.l1"plKana IIHKaKBII naMeTHHUfI) II KOHTO Jl,aTHpaTh OTh K"bCIIO PHMCKO Bp1iMe OV O. CJI. Xp). 3a .Ita nOJl,Kp1>nH caoero 101 Htlllle, CbOP1. ce onaraa .113 .I10KalKe (mIT- M. 214 CJI.), 'Ie B1. K'bCHO pllMCKO BpilMe CK.IITII Jli;t!CTBHTeJJ.BO ce saceJJHIUI B1> roni;MO KoJtHlleCTBO 01> TpaKHR, K3IO CIIHTa roTHTiI, 6acT8pHHTt., xapnHTt. II cilpMatHTiI, no cBHJli;TeJlCTBOTO aa Ht.KOII K"bCBH ORcaTMH KaTO Ilpoxona B 30CH""b, sa CKHTH. B"b TaKbB'b CJIy'laA 68 rpt6oaJto 06a'le na ce JlOK8lKe nO-Hanpt.)l'b, 'Ie Til3H nJleNeBa ClK RallCTIIHa RJleHTHIIHH C'b Xep0.l1OTOBHTt. CKHTH II lie TOBa KOJIeKTHBHO liMe (n.puHTl; CAl. 03Ra-

E. cPHnOB'b, naMeTuIlUHH3 TpaKHllcKoTO H3KyCTBO

43

TOHa 3aKJIIO'leHHe ce nOTB'bpJJ;SlBa raxa cxino H OTh apxeoaoraxecsar-s HaXO.ll.KH. HHTO B'b HawHrl MorHnH, HHTO n'bK'b HtK.II'i..ll.t .ll.pyra.ll.t B'b camara 06naCTb C.II'i. HaMtpeHH TaKHBa npt,llMeTH, KOHTO ce C'IHTaTh KaTO OC06HO xapaxrepaa sa CKHTCKaTa KynTypa, KaTO sarrp. KiKCHT'B Me'lOBe C'b yxpacesa no OC06eH'b Ha'lHH'b .ll.P'blKKH, 1) xapaerepmrrs KP.ll'i.rJlH 6POH30BH orneztana,") KOHTO pt3KO ce oraaaaaars OTh rp'bUKRm eK3eMlTJlHpH, RJlll n'bKb ron'i>MHm 6POH30BH C}I\.D;OBe, cHa6.ll.eHH OT)l.Ont C'b BHCOKa nO.llCTaBKa,S)

MaKapb se TaKHBa npt..u;MeTH CIK HaMHpaHH aa cphaaeeeponeacxa nossa, a HMeHHO B'b YHrapHSI.4) OC06HO aaaseaae HMa ome H 06CTOHTeJlCTBOTO, t.le 103.llHm OTh Bpt30BO H Ilaaanopaure no csoar-s xapaxrepna OC06HOCTRCTpaHHQUR lKeJlt3a B'b cpopMa aa 6YKBaTa S H uarrpssaa sacn, 3a saxanaaae, uanpaseaa OTh .lle6eJlH 3aOCTpeHH H HapiV.~eHH xaaxa - ce CXO>K,lJ,8Th

'1aBanH Hs06uro BCH'IKH naexeaa aa dBep'b OT'b 4epuo Mope KaTO CKIlTH) B'b npOJll>illKeaHe aa 8 cT0JI1ml.9 lie C np1>npn1>no HHK3KBO H3M1>IHmHc B'b 3Ha'lCUIlCTO CH. Ha BCi>KH c.rry'lBA Il CbOP'b (CTp. 2l5) C'IIlTa aa H3KJIIQ'ICHa B'b3MOlKHOCTbT3, 'Ie CKif'lH CAl\. ce nocenHilil ua JOf'b on EallKaH3 ouie optS'b Bp1>MCTO. KoeTO HH saaaaaaa, T. e. npsss V IIJ1H IV B. np. Xp.

1) P. Rei nee k e, Zeitschr, filr Ethnologie XXVIII, 1896, 16 en.; Min n s, Scythlans and Greeks, 68 cn.

2) Rei n e C k e, UKT. CM. 21 cn.; 606 p n H C K 0 II. Kypraaa 6i1113'b M1>CTe'lKIi CMi>nbl Ill 67 -72 (CD CnHC'bK'b aa BCH'IKR H38i>CTHH H8 asropa eK3cMnnllpH); Min n s, UH]'. C'b'l. 65 en. - CKHTCKHrI; 6POB30BR orneJlana C'b .II.'bnra AP:blKK8 ee OTlrR'Ia03n 0T'b rp1>UKHrI; no TOBa, 'Ie rI; HMaTb C'bBC1>M'b naecsa. 06HKJ'lOOCHO KaHMHpaH8 JlP'b}!(K8. 'I~1ltTO Kpalt e YKp8Cea1> C'b IjlKrypa aa e)180 lKHBOTHO. npUJ1H'IHO aa Ky'le (O"bnK'b ?). Ha llpyrH9 Kpalt aa Jl.P'b}!(K8T8, .II.1>TO Til e npasp sneaa B'bpxy pAl.6a ua orneJl.8110TO, ce 03.!IIHp8 o(iHKHoaeHo .pHrypaTa sa JlelI(8lil"b eaeas, TPH nOA06!lK OfIlCAan.a Clf> Halll1>peHH np1>3"b noen1>Jl.Hllrli rOMoH a'b OIl6HIl: Archaol, Anzeiger 1911, 224 06p,. 31; 1912, 372 o6p. 64; 1913.202 06p. 47. ED.HH'b HOO"b eK3eMnnllp'b e H3.Jot1>pea'b aanOenilJ(bK'b H B'b YHrapolI. B HMeBHO B'b Makkfalva (T ~ g I a 5, Archaeo-

Joglai ErtesltO XXXID, 1913. 318-327). - Oine no-xapaerepeas 3a CKHTKII e .II.pyn. e,llSH'b •

BRA'b OT'hKpAl.crJlHrl 6POH300H orne43na, npH KOHTO D.P'blKK8T8 e ",ooro no-Kill.Ca·H He e npa-

KpimeHa B'bpXy pill.6a sa OmeA8110TO, 00 ce BalllHpa no cpbAaT8 08 S3JI,0llTa crpaaa, nepneaARKyJlIIPBO K'bM'b Hell, H CAUIlO TaKa HMa 06HKHOBeao ljlopMaT8 sa a1>K8KBo lKHBOTHO. Oraeaaaa

OTb P01l8 na rp'bIJ.KHrI; CK3eMnnllpR C'b KanaUH He ce cpiolllan'Ha CKHTCKa nonsa. - B"b TpaKH9

e B8MtpeHO )10 cera caao eJ1Bo (iPOB30BO orne.ll.ano 0T'h V B. up. Xp. H TO a1> MOrHnHHI[ rpo6'b

npa Eaepoao, on KOI1TO npOH3XO}!(.II.a H cnOMeHaTHAn no-rep's (ap.2 386. 1) 311'aTen'b np'bCTeU'b

C'b T'paKBftcKH 88J{nHC'b (<I> H nOB 'b. H3B1>CTHII Ill, 1913.207 H oep, 115; cp, Cill.mo Arch. Anzelger

1914, 421). 3a >KanOCT.b IIp'blKK3Ta aa TOB8 orne,tlano C sary6eHa, T'blt 'Ie He MOlKe Be'le .Il3. ce

KalKe C'b nonolKHTer,aOCT&, MnB TO npSH8JlJlClKK K1>M'b CKSTCKKII BilK K'bM'b rpbIJ.KHII THII'b.

S) Rei nee k e, UHT. C'b'l. 24; Min n 5, UHT. C'b'l. 79 ca.

~J H 8 m pel, Skythlsche Denkrnaler aus Ungarn, B'b Ethnologische Mltteil. aus Ungaro TV, 1895, 1~26 (Tooa Cb'lH.HeaHe He IIIH 61>we .II.0CTill.Tmo); Rei n C C k e,UHT. C'b'l. 1-43 (Ole skythischen Altertilmer 1m mittleren Europa). 3a JlO-BOBB HaXOD,KB fll •• Tpynoaers (001- gozatok) na HYIIIH3MaT. H apxeon. ceKUHll "PH HapOJIHHII TpaHc.HnBaRCKIl lIIysea B'b TeMeWaap'b' (YHrapCKH TCKCTb C'b .ppeaCKO pe3JOMe) IV, 1913, 233-243 Il V, 1914. 13 en. CKHTCKOTO npll3XOlKD.eHilC aa a'bnpOcRllrl; npi;,o;lIIeT'H He e 06a'le carypao,

44

6. <f>lInOB'b, naMcTflHIlH aa TP8KllllcKOTO Fl3KycrBO

Cb M£lJHTeJIHUT"B rp'hUKIJ 103.1tH,I) a He Cb CKHTCKHrB, KOH1'O HMan 06HKHOseao rJlS.lJ;KO nanp'sxao >KeJlt30.2)

HSH-noCJIt ocraaa orne .lJ;a cnOMeHeM'b, tIe CXO.lJ;CTB01'O 1de>K.ltY HawHn npt.lJ;MeTH H HtKOH CKHTCKH naMeTHHUH, KaK1'O me BH.lJ;HM'b nO-HaTanK'b, sacsra rJlaBBO caxo npaauana ua nexopauaara H CTHJla sa H306pa>KeHHflTS, a TOBa He e ouie .lJ;OCTaT'h'IHO, aa .lJ;8 ce npaexe, 'Ie K8KTO e.ltHHrB, T8Ka H .nPyrHrB npi'l.!lMeTH Tpt6B8 na ce npHnHWSTb aa e.ltHH'b H C£lII,H aapozrs.

Ct\\1Il0 T8K8, npa H3TbKHaTHTB sene Cb06pa>KeHHSJ, He MO>Ke na pas'1HT8 na rOJltMa StPOSITHOCTb H npt.ll,nOITO>KeHHeTO, 'Ie rrpt.ltMenl'rB, KOHTO HH 3SHHM8B8Th, C£ 6HJlH BHeceHH S'h TpaKHSI on CKHTHSJ. nO.lJ;06HO rrsmo MO>Ke na ce JI.OnYCTHe caxo sa npt.lJ;MeTH OTb CK£noutHeH'h MeT8J1b H roJItMa craaaocrs, KOHTO ce cpbmar-s npa roaa He Macoao, 8 H30JlHP8HO, UJiH n'hK'b ce OTJIU'IaSan no eaOSJTa xY.lJ;0>KeCTBeH8 H3pa60TK8. Ilpa .1I.pe6HH H He3HalJHTeJIHH no CTOHHOCTb I1pt.ll.MeTH, KOHTO cnY>KaT'b sa npaxrasecsa u:E.JlU, KaTO aanp, sa nS¢TH - 3aCJIY>Kaaa npa TOS8 .1I.a ce H3nKHe, tie noSelJeTO on HaWHrB eK3eMnJISJpH ct\\ np8BeHH HJIH on 6pOH3b (Et.1l.HSlKOBO), HJlB on cpe6po, CM-BCeHO Cb rOJl-BMO KOJlHtleCTBO M'BJJ,b (Ept30S0 H Ilaaanopame) - KSKTO H npa Hs06HJIHeTO ua rB3" npbnaera, KOHTO ce cpsman B'b BCH1JKH HaXO,lJ,KH, MH.1JHO 6H MOrJlO zta ce JJ,onYCH!!, se n c£ 6HJlH SHeceHH B'b TpaKHSI OTh BbHb.

Ocraaa lfaA-nocnt .ll,a ce B3eMe npt,n'h BHJJ,b orne enaa B'b3MO>KHOCTb.

H3S-BCTHO e, qe H-BKOH KeJlTCKH OP.1lH, na sp'suiaae OTh noxona CH npOTHBb .,U.eJl¢u B'b 279 rca, np. Xp., ee OITerJlHJlH no.lt'b np-BSO.1lHTeJICTBOTO aa KOMOHTOPHSJ S'b TP8KHSJ, .ll.tTO n otipaaysaaa HS !Orb OTh 68J1KaR8 esoe c06CTse.Ho uapCTBO. TOBa KeJlTCKO uapcrao e rpasao ensa 66 fO.lJ;HHH, nH KaTO orne Sb 212/211 ron. I1p. Xp. TO 6HJlO YHHIIlO>KeHO OTh B'b3CTaHaJIHn OKOJlHH TpaKHHcKH nJleMeHa.9) nptCeJIHHUHTt KeJlTH CHi. 6UJlH orsacra YHH- 1Il0>KeHH, OTtIScrH ce CM-BCHJIH H np-BTOllHJIH Sb TP8KHAcKOTO H8CeJleHHe. 51BHO e, 'Ie aannrrs nptJJ,MeTH, no-ron'sxara lJ8CTb on KOHTO npHA8- .ll.Jle>KaT'b cHrypHO na no-crapa enoxa, He Moran na ce npanamar-s aa T'B3H nptceJIHlII\H. ") OeatH'b rosa H3StCTHO e, lJe Kenntn He c£ HMaJIH 06HlJaH .1la H3.ll.HraT'b norpe6anHH MorlinH.

1) B'bpxy 8'bnpOclmrl nOJlp06HOCTFI cp. Per n icc, Griech. Pferdegeschlrr (56. Winckelmannsprogr. 1896), 20 cn. ~1 oconao 25.

2) rn. uanp. 606 P U He K 0 II, KypraHbl 1 T36n. V 10 II 12; III Ta6n. XIX 4; M i no s,

IlHT. C'b'l .. 76. .

H) Polyb. IV 46; cp, V1ll24; Pa u l y-Wi s s ow a, Realencycl, Vll 619 en. 0011'& I1Y' MaTa GalH (N i e s e).

') .1I.pynt KenTCKH nneMCH3, KaTO CKOPJlHCUUTt H cepaars, KOHTO OT'l3CTH cx.. ce ycrao.0811.11H sa JOn, on .ll.yHasa ouie 8'b Ha'l3nOTO na 111 8. np. Xp., ae Moran aa ce 83eM3n TyK'b S'b BBllM30Ile, nil KaTO 11; C8. 611nH saceaeus B3 sanam, on 06Jr3cTbTa, 0T'b KOJITO npOH3l1:0lKJl3n H3WFl11; a3XOlIKFI.

6. 4lHnOB'b, Ilaaemana R3 rpaKHRcKoTO H3KYCTBO

45

Flpa TaKHBa 06crOSITeJICTSa He oerasa HHKaKBO ChMHtHlfe, 'Ie MaHCTOPHrS, KOHTO CN;, pa60THJIH npt.llMeTHTi; OTb rpsuso-aapaapcxara H OT'b llHCTO aapsapcxara rpyna, ex. npHHa.II.JIelKanH aa MtCTHOTO TpaKHHCKO aace neaae. no Ta3H HMeBHO npH'IHHa HHe MOlKeM'b C'b n'bJIHO npaso na Q3Ha_ lIHM'b rS3H npi;.lI.MeTH KaTO npOH3Se.II.eHHH sa TpaKHiicKOTO H3KYCTBO B'b Cx.illHIICKaTa CMHC'bJIb aa .lI.YMara H .lI.a rne.llaMe aa rSX'b KaTO sa naMeTSHLtH, S'b KOHro ce 0"P-pa3HBaT'b OC06HOCTHrS Ha XY.II.OlKeCTSeHOTO' TBoplleCTSO aa crapar's TpaKldiu,H. HaHCTHHa OTKpHTHrt .II..O cera naMeTHHLtH 0T'b T03H BHll'b cx. OlIJ,e rB'bp.n;t. MaJIKO no KOJIHlleCTBO, a OCBi;H'b rosa rt. SCH'IKH npaHa.n;JIe>KaT'b, KaKTO sese BH.lI.t.XMe, aa e.II.Ha H cxura He MHoro 06WHpHa erroxa, IlpH6J1H3HreJIHO sa IV-III B. np. Xp. no TaSH npasaaa HHe He CMe ome S'b C'bCTOSHlHe aa )la.lleM'b e.1J;Ba n'bJJHa xapaxrepacraxa na TpaKIDicKOTO H3KYCT.BO, HHTO n'bK'b 6HXMe MornH .lI.a npocnt..lI.UM'b HerOSOTO pa3BHTHe. Ilpa ace TOBa MaTepHaJI'bT'b, en KOHTO pasnoaaraae, n03BOJUIsa Belle .rr.a ce HanpaBHT'b H3St.CTHH 3aKJUO'leHHH.

n'bpBOTO irsmo, KoeTO ce xtrspna Bb OIlH, e 06CTOHTenCTBOTO, lle rpaKHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO np'B3'b Bpt.Mero, sa KoeTO npHH2.llne>KaT'b nosevero on onacaaar-s no-rops n pt..1J;MeTU , T. e. npt.3'b IV St.K'b np. Xp., xoraro Belle Hasci;KK..n;t .lI.OMI'IHlfpa arasecxare WKQJIa, sanassa ace orne rpananaara aa CTapOTO BOHIfHCKO H3KYCTBO, llHAro pa3D,Bt.T'b ce nana nosra .1J;B"B CTOJI"BTHH no-paao. TOBa Rt.W;O rp stiaa na ce 06HCIUI om eaaa crpaaa en rtCHHrt. Sp'b3KH sa rpaaaacxoro H3KYCTBO C'b HOHHHCKOTO npt3'b ~O-PaHWHUH nepaons, a OT'b apyra crpaua cs KOHcepBaTHBHHH JIYX'b, CBOHCTBeH'b aa Bci;KH HapO.1J;'b npa enaa nO-HU3Ka creneas aa xyarypao pa3BHTHe.

CX.W;HHCKIU£Tb xapaxrep s aa TpaKHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO, HerOBIUIT'b cneLtHqm'leH'b CTHJI'b, ce OpOSIBHBa o6aQe Be TOJIK03'b B'b npOH3Be,neHHHTa, C'b3.lla.lleHH nO)l'b SJIHHHHeTO Ha rp'bD,KH 06pa31..{H, KOJIKOTO B'b naMeTHHu,Hrt. 0T'b TpeT.RTa,tJHCTO sapaapcxa rpyna, KOHTO, KaKTO BH.!I:hxMe, ce HBHBan MHoro OO-CaMOCTo.HTeJlHH KaKTO B'b aaqHHa aa nexopanasra CH, raxa H B'b TeXHH'IeCl<O OTRoweHHe. Bs rt.3H naMeTHHu,H HHe HaMHpaMe easa opaaxeaTHKa, KOSlTO, B'b npOTHBOnOJlO}f{HOCTb na npocrars, 51CHH JIHHHH Ii opraax'ieCKH q,OpMH na rpuuxara opHaMeHTHKa 06HtJa HeOOHKHOBeHOTO, np srpyrraaoro, q,aHTacr.H'IHOTO, KoeTO, BMtcro na BHHca xapMOHHH H cnOKOHCTSHe, B'b36Y>K.rr.a CHJlHO B'b06palKeHHeTO H ro np-BHaCH S'b 06JIaCTbTa aa aeasaMOlKHOCTHrt._ OCHOBHHn eJleMeHTH ua Ta3H 6H3apEla opHaMeHTHKa ex. pa3HH lKIiBOTHHCKH q,0PMH. 06aQe, BMt.CTO na rH npbnane no HaTypaJlHCTH"tJeH'b HallHH'b, rpaKHHCKHHT'b XY.lI.OlKHHK'b ra B3eMa KaTO '1HCTO )leKOpaTHBKH uiapxa, 6e3'b .a.a .ll'bplKH HH HaH-MaJl1<O CMt.TKa aa .lltHcTBHTeJIHOCThTa. On

46

6. ¢lHJlOB"h, naMeTHHUH H8 TpaKHllcKoTO HBKYCTBO

1aMb npoaarasa OBOBa CHJlHO CTHJlH3HpaHe aa >KHSOTHHCKHr:B 4JOPMH, OHt3H HaCHJlCTSeH,H TBXRH H3KpHBSlsaHHSI, aa na 6~.u.aTb npacnocodeaa KbMb epOPMaTa aa .u.a.u.eH'b Op-B1I;MeT'b, xoaro CbCTaSSlT'b enaa 0T'b HaH-OTnH''lHTeJlRHrB 6-Bnt3H Ha rpaKHHcKHSI CTHJI'b.

OC06HO xapaxrepao e aa r03H CTHJlb HeO'laKsaHOTO np-BMHHaSaHe na enaa >KHBOTHHCKa cpOpMa a'b npyra. Tosa H-BillO HaA.-.u.06pt MO>Ke 1I;a ce Ha6J1101l;aBa npa eaaa 0T'b ryqeHHTB naepTH ors Ilananopmne, TaSH HMeHHO, KOHTO HMa epopMaTa ua ,llsa CKa"leHH JI'bSCKH xpaxa (N9 29, Ta6.n. I 6). TyKb xy.u.O>KHHK'bTb He ce e saaoaoaam, caao CD TOSa,1I;a .!t8.u.e aa nadrrara epOPM8 aa CHJIBO CTHJIH3HP8HH JI'bBCKH Kp8K8, HO SaB'bpmSa 1"'B3H xpaxa CD DTINK rJIaBH, a B'bpXy mapoxara HM'b cxaseua 'IaCTb nocrass rnasa aa rpHepOH'b. H cnt.u.'b BCHlfKO rona HeMY naK'b ce crpysa, senaneaara naocKOCTb He e .u.OCTaT'bqHO yxpacesa, T8 SI 06rpa}l{,na OIU,e CD rpasapaaa JIHHH.H H CnHpaJIH, 6e3'b HHKaKBa ecrecraeaa Bp'b3Ka CD >KHSOTHHCKHrl epOPMH. H306IU,0 JlOO'bJIHHreJIHHTi> opHaMeHTH HrpaSlT'b rontMa poas B'b TpaKHHCKHH JleKOpaTHSeH'b CTH.JI'b. Ocooao 06HtlHH Qt. cnapaaars, KOHTO ce nocraaars 06HKHoseHo aa OH-B38 MtCTa, .u.tTO sanoxaart, xpasara, Ttx'b HHe HaMHpaMe He caao B1> tlHCTO TpaKHHcKHrl' npt,nMeTI:l, KaTO naepTHrt OTb Bpt30BO Bb BHJl'b na JIe)KaUl"b KOHb (Nt! 6, ra6n. I 4), HO raxa caruo Ii npa >KHBOTHHrl B'bpXy asparioreaara no.ll.'b rp'suxo BJlHSlHHe Cpc:"6bPHa npom.arosara nJIaCTHHKa 0T'b Ilaaanopame (Nt! 23, Ta6J1. III 1). Baaaaauero aa onamxara S'b BHJl'b aa cnapaza npn H-BKOH OTb >KHBOTBHrl m-pxy Cpe6'bpHHrl peJIHecpH 0T'b Ilaaanoparne (N!! 23 H 24, Ta6n. III 1-3) ce .u.1:J1>KH see aa cxmara .lI.eKOpaTHSHa reaJleHUHSl. Ilpa no-aaT8T'bUlHOTO aaeaasaae aa Ta3H TeH.lI.eHUHSl ce CTHra HaH·nocnt .lI.O rrsaaara nerenepanaa sa }KHBOTHOro, KoeTO ce o6p'bIU,a Ha enaa sanaereaa CHCTeM8 OT'b KpHBB JlBBHH H Kp~rOBe, Sb xosro rrspsonasaaaara )KHSOrHHCKa cpopMa ensa Belle MO}Ke na ce .!tOJIOSH. HaM- .a06PH npHMtpH aa rosa Htm.O HMaMe Sb 6POH30BHTB naeprH 0T'b BtJJ.HSlKOBO (N!! 44 H 45, 06p. 28), a .lI.OatKH..lI.t H Sb enaara ryseaa nadrra 0T'b Ilaaanopame CD csepraaaara aa .lI.eJlepHHb (N!! 30, r86n. I 7).

Hapem, CD rlSH tlHCTO epOPM8JlHH OC06HOCTH, npOH3BeJleHHSlTa aa Tp8- KHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO nparexaeers H npyra 0T'b TeXHHtleCKH xapaxreps. Tt ce 3aKJlIO'IaBaT'b. KaKTO sese H3T'bKHaXMe no-ropt (CTp. 40 cn.), Bb spi>3aBHS1 peJIHeep'b (relief en creux) H Sb YHHIU,0>KaB3HerO aa HeYTpaJlHHSI penBecpeHb tP0Hb. OT'b rJIe,nHllle Ita nnaCTH'IHOCTbTa spt3aHHSlTb penHeepb npsncrasa roni>MH Hey,n06CTsa, TbA KaTO npa Hero CS060.ll.HOTO H SlCBO Mo,neJIHpaUe sa epOPMHrl H csanauaaero aa nnOCKOCTH CD paSJIHqHa SHCOllHmi cp'snta roJltMH 3aTpY.ll.Hc:"HHSI. 06alle TOH orroaaps MHoro .lI.06pt aa 'IHCTO nesopa-

B. ¢lHJlOBb, naMeTKHUH aa TpaKHitcICOTOH3ICYCTBO

47

THBHlfT'B TeU).I.fHl.{HH aa TpaKHKCKOTO H3KYCTBO, JJ.ilTO OT).I.tJIHHn CPOpMH HtMaT'b caMOCTOHTenHO aaavenae. Ha C,,",ll.{HT'B TltH).I.eHI{HH ce ).I."bJI>KH H YHHIl.{OlKaSaHeTO sa aeyrpaaaas penHeq,eH'b ¢OH"b Qpt3"b CBo(0).l.SOTO H3pi;3- aane sa rJIaBHHT'B CPOpMH H Qpt3"b aarpyrrsaae aa opHaMeHTH, KOHTO noKpHSaT'b scetrsao npt)1.Ha3Hal.feHOTO aa ).I.eKOpal.{HSI npOCTpaHCTBO, KaKTO Toea MO>Ke na ce KOHCTaTHpa He caso npa BCHqKH naq,TH on l.fHCTO sapsapcsara rpyna, HOTaKa CHiW.O H npa cpe6"bpuHrl raaaa aa rpHcpOHHT-B on 6P'B30BO (oN!! 2). H B"b TOBa OTHoweHHe ce npossaaa naKD BJIHHBHeTO aa craporo KOSHHCKO H3t<yCTBO, KoeTO CA'i.W.0 He TbpnH npa3).1.HH nnOCKOCTH. 06aQe npa Hero T03H npaanarrs aaxora He e 6Hn"b npoxapsaas CD raxaaa Kpai-iua nOCJIt).l.OaaTeJIBOCTb, KaKTO npa naMeTHHl.(Hrn CD 'IHCTO TpaKHikKH xapaKTep"b.

On Ka3aHOTO ).1.0 TYKa CTaBa BBHO, l.fe TpaKHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO no CBOHTa C1lUlJ.lIOCTb H B"b CBOH HaH-l.fHCT"b BH).I."b np1;JJ.CTaBH H1;mo CDB"bpmeHO pa3JlHl.fHO on CTapOrp"bl.{KOTO H se TO HMa, nH).I.a ce xasee, cBOR cooCTBeH"b e3HK"b, caoa CTHJl"b, pa3JIH"IeU"b on rp"bl.{KHSI. 06a'le T03H oparaaaaerrs H qymroBan TpaKHil:cKH CTHJI"b, KOil:TO npt).l.CTaBH rOJI1;M"b KOHTpaCT"b He cauo cnpsso nosese HJIH nO-MaJIKO HarypaJIHCTHqHHH xapaxrep's aa BHeOKO pa3BHTOTO rp'snxo H3KYCTBO, HO B"bOo.llle H Cnp'BMO Bc1;KO npHMH' THBHO lf3KYCTBO, KoeTO no He06xo).l.lfMOCTb e HaTypaJIHCTH"IHO, Ii KOf:l:TO e B"b3MO>KeH"b caao npa e).l.HH"b npO).l."bJIlKHTeJIeH'b nponecs aa pa3BHTHe, He e Hilmo CDBc1;M"b H30JIHpaHO H CSOHCTseHO caxo sa Tpaxas. S'b nt\: aapeseHHrl CKHTCKH naMeTHHl.{H, npanacaaaa aa OU1;3H CPO).l.HH no Me>K).I.y CH nneMfHa, H3BtCTHH nozrs KOneKTHSHOTO HMe CKHTH, KOHTO B"b crapo Sp"BMe c""' 06HTaBaJIlf mlfpOKHT'B CTenH aa IOlKHa PYCHH qaK"b JI,O YpaJI"b, HHe HaMHpaae sepra no uepra BCHqKH OC06HOCTH sa TpaKHf:l:cKHH CTHJI"b H JIeCHO MO>KeM"b ).I.a KOHCTaTHpaMe ro.rsxara npaaasa Me>Kn:y npOH3SelI,eUHSlTa sa rpaKHAcKOTO H sa CKHTCKOTO H3KyCTBO.l) Ta3H npHJIHKa He e He06xoll,HMO .u;a

1) BbPXY CKHTCICHTt naaermms, M3Kapb Tt If na CAl. H3stcnrH Bb MHoro nO'rOJltMo KOJlHqeCTBO, OTKOJlICOTO TpaKHltcKKrl;, orne He npHTe}f(8BaMe enna H3'1epnaTeJlUl!. H HanDJlUO ynOBJleT80pHTeJlUa, OC06HO no 01'HOweHJ'Ie aa pen POAY KUHJITi>, ny6i1fIK3UUI'I. DOJlWRHCT80TO onTtn CiI'o 06Bap0J(8aHlI Bb MHor06pollHflTt " 06HKHOBeso MiI'o'lHO J10CTiI'onHH PYCKH apxeoJlOrHqeCKH CIlHC8RHlI H U3J1.aHHII. CP8BHHleJIHQ ualt·Jl.66pt opaearspa BbPXY TtXb BTOP""n. TOMb 0Tb H3BtCTsOTO Cbl£HHeHHe aa To JI C T 0 it H K 0 H .IJ. 8 K 0 B b, • Pyccxis npeBHOCTH Bb naMnSHK3Xb H3KYCTBa', C'b nOJl.3arJl31lHe • .llpeBHOCTH CKH90-capMaTCKill", Cn6. 1889, lCoeTO S3e.[lKO CD nbpBHII H TpeTHIi TOMb Ha CAntOTO Cb'IHBeHHe (.KJiacCHqeCKlII Jl.peBHOCTHo H • .llpeBHoCTK SpeMeH'b npeceneats HapOllOBb"j e H3Jlt.31l0 H B1> ¢lpeHCKH nptBO.IJ.b (T 0 1st 0 I, Ko n d a k 0 v et Re i n a c h, Anfiqultes de la Russie meridionale, Paris 1891; TOBa Cb'lHHeSHe He MH 6trne Jl.OCTa.nHO). HaJlt.SJlOTO aaOOCJIt.[lbKb rOJlt.MO H COJIH.IJ.HO Cb'lHHeBHe aa aHrJlHlIclC.1iB Y"IeH'b E 111 s Min n s, Scythlans and Greeks, Cambridge 1913, Bb KoeTO CHCTeMaTH"IeCKH 11 TB'bPJlt nptraenao CA H3J10}f(eBR peSYJlr8THTt on. BCH'IKH no-paauraa U3CJ1tnB8HUIl Bbp.xy CKHTHTi>,

48

6. ¢lHnoB'b, naMeTHHUIt sa TpaKHltcKoTo H3"YCTBO

ce 06CHOBasa HenptMeHHO CD eraoaerasecso pOllCTSO Me>f(.llY llsaTa aapona, MaKap"b TaKOBa pOllCTBO MOlKe 68 8 na e cxurecrsyaano. TSI 68 ce o6S1- CHlfna lJ.OCTaT"b'lHO If CO ennaxaars KynTypHH yenoBHSI H 6nH3KH CHoweHHSI na rpaHH'Iew.~'lTt no MelKllY CH TpaKHHUH H CKlfTH.

Ouie no-paso, npa onxcaaaero aa OTlJ,tnHHTB nptllMeTH, HMaX.Me sese cnyqaH na I10COqHM"b HtKOH aaanoraa MelKllY uaxOllKHT1; OT'b IOlKKa PYCHSI (crp. 5 en" 10, 19,31 3a6. 1; cp, H CTp. 50). Cera MOlKeM'b lla xoacrarapaxe CJKW.OTO CXOllCTBO H no OTHoweHHe aa 061IlHSI xapaxrep's MelKllY TpaKHHcKHrl H CKHTCKH naMeTHHUH, 113s1;cTHo e, se HaH-OTJlHqHTeJIHaTa xepra aa CKHTCKOTO H3KYCTBO ce 3aKJHOqaSa Bb CA'l.W.HH OHSI qYlJ,HoBaTb lKHBorHKCKH CTHn"b, Kolho xoacrarapaxae H B'b naMeTHHUHr-B aa TpaKlfHcKoTO H3KYCTBO. T03H CTHJI"b ce HnrocTpHpa HaH-llo6pt MelKllY CKHTCKHT-B naMeTHHUH 0T"b H3BtCTHaTa 3J1aTRa nnaCTHHKa S'b BHll'b aa JrelKaw.o eaeirs (06p. 35), HaM-BpeHa npt3" 1830 ron, B"b MOrHJlaTa KYJI"b·06a npa Kep'l"b aa KHMepHi:icKHSI 6oc<J>op'b, eaaa OTb HaH-60raTHrl norpe6aJlHH MorH· JlH Sb rolKHa PYCHSI.1) TtJloTO aa eaeaa S"b Ta3H nJlaCTHHKa e yxpaceao CO pa3HH npyra >KHBOTHH, a HMeHHO m.pxy 6YTa CD rpa<pOH'b, B'bpXY xopexa CD 3aSlK'b H JloB'b, a nom, WHSlTa e npH6a-

06p. 35. - 3naToa unaCTHHKa OTb Kyn'b-061L

seao lIerHaJIO Ky'le (ra. 06p. 35). nocntaHHHTb por-s aa eaeaa npbxaaaaa Bb rvrasa na OBeHb, a onanncara aaaspuraa Cb raaaa ua nTHU3. no Tt3R Cit OC06BOCTH 3JlaTHaTa nJlaCT1fHKa on KYJI'b-06a, KOHTO ll3THp3 0T"b V StK"b np. Xp.,2) ce cxozcna H3rI'bJiHO C~ n3<pT3Ta on Ilaaanopame B'b

CDJlop>Ka H eaaa raaaa, nOCBereH8 cneuaaaao aa CKHfCKoro aaxycrao, 3a >K3nOCTb H 81. rosa C'bQHHeHlte pellp0P;YKnHHT5 sa CKHrCKH naMerRHU.H He CA YJlOSJier80pl1TenHH H noerarssao HS'IepnareJiHiI, Bopxy n3XOIlKHrb on nocn1>IlHHrl; rOJl.hHH Hail-Ilo6pt. opaearapars orserars, KOHro ce .IlaBaTb peaoaao Bo Archllol. Anzeiger aa Jabrbuch des Deutschen archaol. Instltuts H So 113st.C'[ili RMIlepar. apxeoa. KOMMHCciR •

• ) Ton c T 011- Ko H.a a K 0 B D, Pyccsts npeeaoera II L1'p. 149 06p. 126; Rei n a C h, Antlquites du Bosphore Clmmerien CTp. 73 H raIM. XXVI 1; Pur tw a e n.g l er, Kleine Schrlf!en I 480 cn. (= Der Goldfund von Veftersfelde CTp. 15 en.); Min n s, Scythlans and Greeks CTp. 203 o6p. 98.

2) furtwaengler, Der Goldfund von Vettersfelde CTp. 17 (= KLeine Sehrlflen I 482) H Y Roscher, Lexlkon dec grlech, und rom, Mylhologie I 1771, a.-t.ro eel13Ka31l8 no-onpt.J.(1). aeao D'b noaaa aa rrspaara rroaoaaaa on V Bt.K'b rrp, Xp.

6. 4l~1110Bb, naMeTHHUH aa TpaKHAcK.OTO H3KYCTBO

49

BHlI.D aa cxasena JlbBCKH xpaxa (Ng 29, Ta6J1. I 6), KOHTO nptMHH8BaT'b Bb nTHliH raaaa, a BbPXY nrapoxara CH sacrs C.t\\ yxpaceaa orne CD raasa sa rpHq,oHb.1) nOnO>KeHReTO nbK'b aaeaeaa C'b 110ll.SHTH xpaxa H npHnt~ neaa KbMb ibP6a My pora, npt.11H3BHKaHO 6e3b CDMHtuHe caao OT'b >KenaRHeTO, .11a ce .11a.11e aa >KHBOTHOTO no-aaspxrneaa aexoparaaaa q,opMa, HanOMHH na4JTUTB 0T'b 6P-B30BO B'b BH,llb aa Jle>K8llib KOHb CD u3BUTa BbPXY rop6a MY rvrasa (N!! 6, T86n. I 4). J1306Ulo Jle>K8lUHHT'I> Cb ne,ll8HTH H03t eJleu'b npUHa,llJle>KH K'bM'b aaa-pasnpocrpaaeaare H THnHqHH H306pa>KeHHSI BbPXY CKUTCKH naMeTHHUH. 2) Bb TpaKHH, lI.'hTO TOM: psnxo ce e cp'hUlaJlb, HO 8b 3aM-BHa H8 TOBa KOHeBb)lCTBOTO e 6RJlo canso pa3BHTo, aa HerOBO M-BCTO, KaKTO nOKa3BaT'b nOMeHaTHT-B na4JTH 0T'b 6pt30BO, ce SlBSI.8a KOHbT'b. OTb TOBa MO>Ke )la ce 3aKJ[IO'IH, lie 06 UlOTO, KoeTO TpaKHH:CKOTO H CKHTCKOTO H3KYCTBO HMaTb no Me>Kll.y CH, sacsra noaese CTHna, OTKOJIKOTO caMUTt CIO>KeTH, H36HpaHH 6e3b CDMHtHHe cnopezrs M-BCTHHTt ycnOBHH. Cnt)lOBaTenHO Bb cny'laSl He MO>Ke .n;a CTaBa lI.YMa sa cntno nonpaseaaae aa 'Iy>K)lH 06pa3uK, no 38 ,llBt caxocrosreaaa xYllO>KeCTBeHH TeqeHHR, Bb KOHTO ,lltMCTBYBaT1> e.1lHH H CJYi.IU.H .llBHTaTeJlHH TeH.lleBUHH.

Ha BTOpO MtCTO me cncaeaesrs, KaTO xapaxrepna aa CKHTCKHH CTHn'b, )lBt. cpe6'bpHH YKpaweHHSI 0T'b 103.11H aa KOHe (o6p. 36 H 37), u8MtpeuH Bb KpaCHOKYTCKara norpeoaana MorHn8 6nH30 npa Exarepaaocaam, aa p. JlHtnpb.B) J1 TyKb naKb OCHoBHun MOTHBH aa opH8MeHTHKaTa c~ >KHBOTHHCKH raaaa, otPOSlTHO aa KOBe .• Ooa'le rt C~ naKb CHJlHO CTHJlH3HPaHH H nptMHHaBaT'b BD 'IKCTO .1leKOpaTHBHK q,OpMH, TbR se ry6S1T'b CDBciM'b nbpSOHaqaJlHOTO ca auaueaae H SHlI.'b. Tt.3H YKpaweHHSI MOraT'b no CTHJl'b na ce CpaSHHT'b CD ryseaara nadrra 01'1> Flaaanopaure Sb BH,llb H8 .1leJJ4JHH'b (.N'!l 30, Ta6n. I 7). KaKTO H Cb 6poH30suTt naq,TH OTb 6-B.1lHSlKOBO (.NIl 44 H 45, o6p. 28).

4Yll.HOBaTHSlT'b cpe6bpeHb aMYlieib OT'b £pt3080 (N!! 4, Ta6n. I 3) HM8 Ci'i'\W,O T'bA CBOSlTa aaaaoraa Me>KllY CKHTCKHTt naMeTHHI.{H, a HMeHH,O ell

1) 3aenYlKa88 na ce oro'MiilKH, 'Ie yxpacasaaero aa eJl.HO lKHBOTHO C'b Hs06palKeUHA ua llpyrH nO-ManKH >KR80THH RJUI Ra OTll'MKH lKHBOTHHCKH IPOPMH He ce cpama B'b "pOH38elleHRBTa aa craporo ltoFudtCKO H3KYCTBO (cp, CAl.UlO H Re ina C h, Rev. archeol, 1901 I 29 en ). 06a'le T03H Ha'lHRb H8 AeKopaUHR Ha~lHpaMe H Bb 4IPHfHfI (F u r twa e n g 1 e r, Kleine Scbrifteo [ 508), 'IHeTO H8CeJleHHe, K8KTO e R3BtCTHO, e 6H!lO OT'b TpaKHllcKo npOH3XOlKAeHHe (Kr etscbmer, EinJeit. in die Oesch. del grtech, Sprache, 172 en. H 191 en.).

!?J Furtwaengler, Der Ooldfund von Veitersfelde CTp. 19 en, ( = KI. Schriften ( 484).

Cp, CXUlO Min n s o6p. 65, 75, 83, llS, 129 H JlP. Sf, OO-CTapHT I; exseMDllflpR raaaara aa eaeaa e 06'bPHaT8 H8Sa,!l.'b H npHII1lneH8 K'bMb IDp6a, BcntACTBlte na KOe:rO UMOTO lKHBOTHO JI06HBa Kplilf1l8 IPopMa, KaKTO e enY'l811Tb C'b KOHli "PH oaIPTHr1i 0T'b lipt3!JBO.

S) TOil C T 0 It u K 0 H a.a K 0 B b, PyccKill APCDlIOCTH IT CTp. 104 cn. 06p. 91 H 92; Min n s, IlHT. C'b'l. crp, 167 en .• o6p. 56 H 57.

l13BtCTH. ua ApI. APYlK. VI

..,

6. <PHIIOlJ'b, naMeTHHUH aa TpaKHllcKoTO HSKYCTBO

eAHH'b CbBciM'b H.n.eHTHqeH'b no CTUn'b H no CPOPM:l eK3eMnnHpb,l) HO aanpaaem, OTb snare, OTKpHTb B'b XMHpeBaTa MorHna ilPH rp. MenUTOnOJIb Bb Taapasecxara ryoepnas.

Haa-nocrs MOlKeM'b aa nOCOqHM'b aa easa aHaJlOrHH H aa Cpe6'bpHHT'B KpR..rOBe C'b H306pa1KeHIllI na )IOI.BOTHH 0T'b Flaaanopmne (N!! 24-26, Ta6J1. III 2-4 H 06p. 17). MelKAY npi>)I.MeTHrl. aa 3HaMeHHTOTO C'bKpOBH~e OT'b Vettersfelde (H3TOtIHa flpYCHH), qHeTO npOH3XOlK.lI.eHHe OT'b IOlKHa PYCHS! ,llHeC'b He nO)I.Jre>KH aa HHKaKBO CbMHi>HHe, ce HaMHpa H e.ll.HO rOJli>Mo 3J1aTHO yxpauresae, cscroeuie ce OT'b qeTHPH KpR..ra C'b H3qYKaUH peJrHe<pH na )KHBOTHH (o6p. 38). TOBa yxpaureaae. KoeTO SaelI,HO Cb .npyrHT'B npi>.n.MeTH on

06p. 36. - Cpeospaa yxpaca OTh KpacHoKYTCK'b.

06p. 37. - Cpe6'b-PRa yKpaca OTh KpacBoKYTCKD •.

Vettersfelde narapa on xpas aa VI B-BK'b np. Xp., II) e 6HJlO aoceno B-SPOHTHO 8'bpxy r'bp)I.m OT'b H-BKOH CKHTCKH BJla.n-BTeJIb. OT.lI.-BJlRHrl. xpxroee, KOHTO BCHqKH HMaTh HsniItKHaJI'b nJi\n'b B'b Cp-B)I.aTa CH, ce cxo>K,lI.an Han'bJIHO~C'b

r) OT'IeTbi (Compte rendu) HMnepaT. apxeon. KOMldllCcift 1898 CTp. 27 H o6p. 27; Min n • CTp. 169 o6p. 61. - B" IOlKHa PYCHH CAl. RaM1;peHH H npyrH nptAMeTH OTh C£mHR BHA'b; KOHTO o6aQe ee OTnH'fa03T'b C'b no-rpysara CM' H3pa6oTKa II MOraTh J1a ce CpaBHIIT'b CD HaWHR eK3eMrrnAp'b OTh 6t)IHlrKOBO (Ng 46). TaKHBa ex nptllMeTHT1;, 06HapO)IBaRK sa CJri>l1HHrt. /dl;CT8:

Minns, UHT. Cb'l. 158 (oro MorHflHHII rpo6'b npa AneKClIH)IpOnOfl'b. cxuro OT1> anaro); I-13B1;· cnll HMnepaT. apxeon, KOMMHcciH, asm. 35, 1910,85 H o6p. 39 (lIaM1;peR'b B'b OI(OnHOCTbTa aa KKCO'b, 01'1. 6poH3'b); Archaol, Anzeiger 1912,377 II o6p. 68 (came OTh 6poH3'b, HSMtpeH'b B'b .JleMeruoBa MormJa" D'b Taspasecsara ry5epRIDI). Vl3Jl3TeJJbT'b 113 T03H 11 oc.rrl;JlII II II eK3eMnllllp'b ro tqRT3 ~aTO yspauieaue OTh rzaaara ua KOIl b. noaexe e CiUII'b Halolt.perl'b B'b e.ll,UR'b

rpo6'b SaeD-BO C'b KOCTlIrt. H8 KORb. TOBa T'bJIKY03ne He e aeB1;pOIITRO; 06a'le TO csrypao He 611 Morno na ce npHJlollUl D'b BCl1'1KH CIlY'l3fi, Thll KaTO eK3eMnnllp'bT'b:OTh 61;AHIIKOBO 83- rnelKl1a J18 HilM8 BHIUO o6mo CD I{i;K3K'hB1> KOBb, OCBtS1> aKO ce .nonycae, xe B"h rpo6a e 6Hl1a nOCTaBeU8 B iosnara aa KOIUI sa uorpecaaas, 6es'b .Ita e 61-1n1> norpeeam, 11 Ca",IIATb KOBb.

2) Fur twa eng 1 e r, IlHT. CM. 44 CII. (Kl. Schrlften 1 .508 CJI.).

B. ¢lIIIlOB'b, n8MeTHHUH HB TP81CittiCKOTO H3ICYCTBO

51

Rpa.rOSeTB OTb Flaaanopaure,") OC06HO CD naara OTb TBX'b, KOHTO ca. yxpaceaa C£l1l,O TbH CD 06pa3H aa >KHBOTHH (.N!! 24). HaHCTHHa CTHJI'bTb aa >KHBOTHHTB OTb Vettersfelde, KaKTO MHoro }l.o6p-S H3T'bKBa TOBa <l>YPTBeSrnepb,2) e 'IRCTO HOHHAcK" H He ce cxo}l(.n.a CJJt.llOBaTeJIHO Uan'bJlHO C'b CTHna aa CKHTCKHTB H TpaKHHCKH npt}l.MeTlf. B'b Kpi'KrOBeTB OT'b Vettersfelde >KUBOTHUTt C£ He caao MHoro nO-.Ilo6pt H3pa60TeHH H lJ,H3eJIHpaHH, HO B'b rlX'b JlHnCBan H 'IY>K}l.H Jl,eKOpanIBHH eneMeHTU, K.aKBHTO CJI!i. aanp. CrlltpaJlH.TB B'bpxy >KHBOTHHTB on Ilananoparue. Ocasm, TOBa, CDrJlaCHO B'b3npHeTaTa B'b AOHHHCKOTO H3KYCT.s0 Tpa}l.HlJ,HfI,S) )l(lfBOTHHn B'bpXy Kp.1i\rOBerl OTb

I'

06p. 38. - 3JiUH8 nllaCTII"K8 on. Vettersfelde.

Veltersfelde, noaesce C.li. np'sncraseaa B1.. npoQ>UJT'b1 C.li. u306paseHH caao no CD nsa KpaKa,TbH KaTO Jl,pyrHTB Jl,Ba ce CM-BTaTb aa nOKpHTH on n'bpBHn. )f(HBoTrmTB B'bpXY xpxrosers OT'b Ilauanopauie C.li. np-B}l.CTaBeHH H CD qeTiiplfrl CH xpaaa, MaKap'b H rl na C.li. .n;a.l1eHH B'b npo<pHJl'b. T1;3H

I) J.1Jni'l.Klla'lllIRT'b IlJot.n'b liP" Kp..v.roBert on. Vettersfelde ce OTJlH'IaBa no roaa, ~e Tofl ne e H3'1yl<aO'h on Ci'l.UlOTO napse, HO e Hapa60TCO'h OTn;I;llHO II noc.qi; npHKpi;ne8'h nocpsnClOO"'h OC0680 fB03Jletiqc.

2) KI. Schriften I 481 ca., 507 CII. II 51 L

:1) Furtwaengler, KI. Schriften 1481 CJI.

52

6. ct>!fnOBb, naMeTHHUH aa TpaKHUcKoTO H3KYCTBO

paSJIHlJHSI ce OOSlCHSIBaTb KaKTO CD OOCTOSlTCJICTBOTO, 'I.e np-SJJ,M{!THTt. OTb Vettersfeldc, MaKap'b H na CIK OHJlH naraaceun cnopezrs THnHlJHHn aa eKHTCKOTO H3KYCTBO <pOPMH, CIK OHJlH paOOTCHH OTb rp'bUKH MaKCTopH H aa TOBa CIK 3anaSHJIH 'CBOH lIHCT'b HOHHKCKH CTHJT'b, raxa H C'b pa3J1H1:1HeTO Bb BptMeTO. KoeTO .ll.-S.llH HaXOJJ,KHrl OTb Vettersfelde H THH 0T'b Ilaaanopaute.

Bb CBpb3Ka Cb BCHlIKO TOBa He e «Se3b 3HalJeHHe .lJ.a C~ cnOMUH H 06CTOSITCJlCTBOTO, lIC CKHTC.KOTO H TpaKHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO 3aeMaT'b crrpsao rp'bUKOTO eJJ,HO H C)iI\.(UO nOJIOlKCHHe H CC HaMHpan Sb enaaxaa saBHcHMocrb OTb Hero. B'b TOBa OTHoweHHC rp'bUKHrB KOJlOHHH Bb CKHTHH H Sb TpaKHSI ClK. HrpaJIH enaa H cxrna POJIH. ETo aauto MelK.lJ.Y CKHTCKHn naMcrHHUH cc HaMHpaT'b CXlU.O raxa H lJRCTO rp suxa, KaKTO H Bb Tpaxsa, a BJlHHHHCTO ua rpbUKOTO H3KycrBO BbPXY CK"TCKOTO He C OHJIO nO-MaJIKO, OTKOJIKOTO B'bpXy TpaKHAcKOTO.

11 raxa HHe MOlKCM'b aa KOHCTaTHpaMC, se MelK,.!I.y naMCTHHUHTB ua TpaKHAcKOTO H na CKHTCKOTO H3KYCTBO cxuiecrayea TBbpP.t rOJI-SMo CXOn.crso, KOCTO CC H3paSHBa He TOJlK03b a'b C}()lKCTHrn H B'bHWHHrl. ¢OPMH ua npi>AMeTHrl, saeacema BUHarH OTb Mi>CTuHn YCJIOBRH, KOJIKOTO Bb R3nbJIneaaero, B'b craaa aa nSH npi>.ll.MeTH. TOBa CXOJJ,CTao C TOJIKOSb rOJIi>Mo, ue, aKO Aa He 3HaeXMe MtcroHaXO>KAeHHeTO aa H3Bi.CTHH naMCTHHUU, He 6HXMe 6UJIH SbC'bCTOSIHUC na KalKcMb, ,.!I.anH n Tpi>6Ba na ce npanaura'rs ua TpaKHHUHn HnH na cxarara, On TOBa CJli>.ltBa, 'Ie HHe He OHXMe MOrJlU n.a TerJIHMb pi>3Ka rpasaua MC)l(.lJ.Y rpaKHAcKOTO H3KYCTBO H CKHTCKOTO H qe ine Tpt6B8 cnt.lJ.OaareJlHO na npHeMCM'b CI'i\(UCCTBYBaHCTO aa C.1I.HH'b OCO- 6eu'b TpaKHticKo-CKHTCKHCTHn'b, 00111;'& ~ sa nsara sapona. T03H CTHJIb, KoATO J],O cera otwe H3BtCTeHb raaauo no naMcTHuUH on CKHTHH, C npxero Aa ce HapHlIa >K.HBOTHHCKH HJIH TCpaTOJIOrHIICCKH H e urpaJI'b no-xscao MHoro rontMa pOJIH KaKTO Bb H3KYCTBOTO na cssepna Espona, raxa H 8b BU3aHTHHCKOTO H3KYCTBO.

Bsrrpocsr» sa npOH3X01k.llCHHCTO aa >KHBOTHHCKHH CTHn'b He MO>Ke na ce CQUTa oiue aa OKOHQaTeJIHO paepsureus, MaKap'b H3StCTHHrl .lJ.0 cera HerOBH HaH-CTapH naMeTHHUH na YKaSBaTb aa CKHTHH H TpaKUH KaTO aa HcrOBO oresecrso. HanoCJIi>.lI.bKb ce H3TbKHaXa HtJ(OH HHTepeCHH aaaaoraa Bb naMeTHHuHTt aa ypSJlo-aJlTaHCKHn nJlCMCHa Bb CH6HPb, Y. KOHTO cxuto HaMHpaMe e.lJ.HH'b CHJlHO pa3BHT'b lKHBOTHHCKH CTHJI'b, KOHTO Bb MHoro orsomesas ce CXOlKJ],a CD TpaKHHCKO-CKHTCKHR. TOBa CXO.lJ.CTBO C .nH rOJli>Mo, qe He MOH<e,.!l.a ce oraaae aa HtKaKBa cnyqaAHOCTb, HO me Tptosa na ce 06RCHH qptsb B3aHMHH Bb3.lltACTBBSl. HHe HC MO>KeM'L na ce anyrnaae TyK'h no-nO.lJ.pOOHO BbPXY n3B Bb3.lltACTBHH MClK.llY CKHTCKOTO H3KYCTBO OT'b eaaa

15. (j>1fJ10Bb, n~MeTnHUII ua TP3KHllcKOTU 1131(yCTDO

crpana H H3KYcrBOTO na ypaJIO-aJITaHCKHTB nJIeMeH3 B'b CHOHP'b 0T'b .lI.P) ra,') 3 me ce OrpaHHqHM'b caxo D..a H3T'bKHeMb AtKOH 06crOSlT~JICTBa, KOHTO CA'\ OCOOHO Ba>KHH sa onpbzrsaaaero sa n'bpBOHa'laJ1HOTO oresecrso aa >KHBOTHHCKHR CTHJI'b.

Haa-craparn H38i>CTHH no cera CHOH'PCKH naMeTnHUH aa >KHBOTHHCKHSI CTunb npUHaJlne>K3TD OT4aCTH aa OPOH30BHSI, OH3erH sa panHHSI )f(eJIt3eH'b BtK'b Bb CHOHP'b.2) ObpBHTB OTh rlX'b ce OTJlH"IaBaT'b no HaTypaJlHCTHqHHSI ca crUJI"b, CBOHCTBeH"b aa BetKO npHMHTHBno H3KYCTBO. TtxHaT8 JleKOpaUHSI ce C'bCTOH OHno 0T'b reOMerpH4eCKH opaaxeara, OHno 0T'b IPurypH ua >KHBOTnU, KOHTO CII'\. npt]la]leHH C'b SIBHO crpeaaeaae K"bM'b cnasaanero aa ecrecrseHHrl IPOPMH.ll) OPH naMeTHHUHTB (lTD panaas lKeJlt3eHb BtK'b B'b CHOHP'b HaMHp3Me HanpOTHB'b Be'le TaKHB3 eJIeMeHTH, KOHTO cscrassrs OTJIHqHTeJIHH otnt3H H aa TpaKHficKO CKHTCKHR >KHBOTHHCKH CTUJI'b, KaTO KpHJIaTH 'IeTBepoaora, porose a8B'bpWBalUH CD rnaaa sa nTHUH, xoae CD rnasa na nTHUH H B'bOOme pa3HH cpaHTaCTH"IHH CHJIHO crHJIH3HpaHH C}il:.1UeCTBa.4) fJIaBHHHT'b UeHT'bpb aa TOBa CHOHPCKO H3KYeTBO H3rJIe>K.lla na ce e HaMHpaJI'b no ropHeTO reseaae aa pbxara HeHHceH, B'b OKOJIHOCTbTa aa MHHYCHHCK'b.D} ,UaJIH T'bKMO tyK'b me TptoBa zta ce JlHpH H n'bpBOHa"laJIHOTO OTeqeCTBO aa rpaKHHCKO-CKHTCKHH >KHBOTHHCKH CTHJ1b, HJIH nbK'b HanpOTHB'b LUe Tpt6Ba lla ce npaeae, se T08 e OHJlb C'b3J(.alleHb HaH-Hanpt,a'b no optroBeTB na 4epHO Mope, OTb lltTO nOCJI-B ce e pasnpocrpaaaa-s 'IaK1> ]l0 CHOHP'b, He MO>Ke otne ]la ce ycraaoaa C'b nOJIO>KHTeJIHOCTb. rJIaBHaTa MN.'IHOTHR ce C'beTOH B1> TOBa, 'Ie narara na paHHI:IR >KeJIt3eH1> BtKb B'b CHOUP'b He e ome onpan.'BJIeHa.1l) 00 Ta3H npH"IHHa He e B'b3MO>KHO U zta ce K8>Ke, .nann cH6npCKHT'B naMeTHnUH sa' lKHBOTHHCKHH CTHJ1b C}iI:. no-crapa 0T'b TpaKHHCKO-CKnTCKH1"B HJIB He. Ilpa TaKHBa ycnOBHH 8'bnpOC'bT'b aa O'bp80Ha'laJIHOTO OTeqeCTBO ua

I) ce, P. Re in ec« e, Zeltschr, fur Ethnologie XXVIII, 1896, 35-37; S. Re inac b, Rev. areheol, 1901 I 21-37; Minns, I\HT. Cb'l. 261/2, 210-282_

2) HeMCKHIIT'b Y'IeBb PaJl.llOBb tit nptJ(npHeJ1'b np1;ab 1865 H 1866 ro.a. enso 8ay'l80 lIA>TYBaJle Bb CH6HPb, lItTo ToA npaBHJI'b Ii apxeonOrH'IeCKH paaKOl)KH. Heroaoro CbllHueHBe (Radloff, Aus Sibirlen, 2 TOMa, Leipzig 1884), xoero R AO cera e rJ13BHJ!lIn 8H H3TO'lBHK'b B'bpXy crapara cHtiHpCl(a KyJ1Typa, He MH ~tUle .aOCTa.nHO "3UMO. Tasa aerosa '1acn, KORTO ce OTHaCIi "MeRKO AO CTapHrIi CH6HPCKH naMeTRHUH (II 68-143l, e optBe.aeBa H aa PYCKH on rpa4la A. Ei 0 6 p H H C K 0 A, nOA" saraaaxe ,CK6HpcKill apeaaocra" (Bb 3snHCKH HMnepiT. II px eoa. oemecrsa B'b C. nenpoSyprl;, VII 1896, H B'b OTAtllua KlDlra). A3'h ce nonsYS8X'b 0T'b flYCI(OTO B3AaURe. Iloti·bPT> nptrneAbBp'hxy CHoSHpcKHn naMeTHHu,H BB MBI Ii Min n s, UHT. C'hQ. CTp. 241-2b3 II 271-282. Cp, Ta1(1 CA\UlO TOJ1cToll H K08UKOB'b, PyccKill npeeII0CTH, III 43-71 (sa TOBa Cb'lHHeHHe rJ1. no-ropt CTp. 47 3a6. 1).

S) PunoBb-EiotiPHHcKoA, UHT. C'hll. 17 H 21; Minns. UHT. C'b'l. 248 . • ) Pa.n:nOB'b-EiooSPHHcKOA, UIlT. C'bq. 56 CJ1.; Minns, UHT_ C'bq. 250.

Il) Minns, UHT- C'bq. 261 CJ1. Cp, CJf.lIlO H S. Re l na ch, Rev. archeol, 1901 142. 6) Cp. PS.D.J10B,,-606pHHCKOII, UHf. Cb'l. 31-34.

53

6, cl>UJIOP'h, Ilaaern JiU,H sa rpaKllllcJ{Q'TO 113KYCIIJO

rpaKHikKO-CKHTCKHH )l{HBOTHHCKH CTHJI'b OCT.aBa orne OTKPHT'b. 3a CHrypHO MO)Ke ,lI,a ce C"IHTa caao TOBa, 'Ie aa Bc-BKH cnY1JaH TOH ce e pa3BHn'b oHnO Bb lOrO-H3TO'l.H.a Espcna, 6Rno Bb nerrrpazraa AgHR H Cni;,lI,OBaTenHO TOH e npO,ll,yKTh Ha e,ll,HHb KyJITypeH'b KpJKr'b, cbBbpweHo pa3n1f'l.eH'b 010 T03!-f, 'I~iho U.eUThpb ee e HaMHpanb OKOnO H3TO'lHHH OaCeHH'b aa Cpi;,lI,H3eMHO M9pe. CKHTCKHTB H TpaKHHCKH naMeTHHlJ.H npancrasar-s KpaHHHrl H3,l1,aHKH sa T03H CTliJlb K'bMb roro-aanasrs, ,lI,t.TO rl ce cptlUaTb sese serrocpbnQ.;B.€HO Cb SJHUlHHH. I<OHTO 113XQ>KJJ,aTC OTb KynTypHHSI KPJKI"b aa Cpbna- 3eMHO Mope.

~ Haji-nocrs uexa crroaeaesrs, qe Hanorn-Sn.'bK'b H3BtCTHH YlleHH1) H3- Tbl(BjiTl> C;Klll.O raxa HHTepeeHH aaaaoraa Me>KJlY CKHTCKOTO H CHOHPCKOTO H3KyCT~0 Ofb ensa .crpaaa, H HpaHCKOTO H KHTaHcKoTo OTC zrpyra, AKO r-ssa aHaJlOrHH He nOtJHBa1'b caso sa enua cnY"laHHOCTb, a ce ilbJl>Ka.Tb Jl.tHCTBMTeJlHO H8 nO'OJlH3KH H TBbP.llt CTapH KyJlTypHH Spb3KH Me)KJIY CbOTBt.THHrl aapczm, K8KTO e MHoro stPOHTBO OC0080 3a CKHTHSI H Hpaa», 1'0 iae Tpi;osa aa npHeMeM'1>, lie >KHBOTHHCKHSlT'b CTHJlb ce e C03,naJll> H pasBHSan'b HaliCTHHa B'b senocpsncraeao COct.,lI,CTSO C'b Hpam, H KHTaA - 00- CTOHTeJlCTBO, KoeTO rosopa CJKW.O Bb noaaa aa uearpaaaa A3HH KaTO crpaaa fIa HerOBOTO. npoaaxoscaeuae, B'b TaK'bB'b cnyqaH He. e HHKaK'b 'IY,ll,SO, 'I.e t:pet'.i'bpH~U[T'b .8MYJleT'b OTC opt30BO (Ng 4, TaOJl. I 3) nOKa3.Ra TaKOBa rOJlt.Mo CXO,ll,CT80 C'b npOB3Be,ll,eHHH OTb KpaiiHHH H3TOK'b, KaHTO HMaXMe sese CJIYllaA

,lI,li H3T'bKHeMb TOBa no-rep's (CTp. 8). .

, . no BCH"II{Q H3rne>KD:a, 'Ie TpaKHiicKoTo H3KYCTBO He e MOrJIo,na sarraaa D.'bJlroBpi;Me CBOSI caMo6HTel:I'b xapasrept., KOJl1<OTO noeese eJlHHHCTHqeCKOpHMCKaTa KyJlTypa e npOHHKBaJIa Bb TpaKHH, TOJlK03b noaese H xYJ!,O>KeCTB~HHrl npOH3Be,ll,eSHH aa Ta3H crpaaa CJK B'b3npHeMaJiH ¢>OpMHrl H CTHna sa KnaCHlIeCKOTO H3KYCTBO. ETO aamo npt3b nO-KbCSHTh CTOJl-BTHSI, OC0680 np sas pHMCKaTa enoxa, ffH~ saMHpaMe Bb TpaKHSI caao naaeraaua C~ enaHlfc:.rHlIeCKo~pHMCKH xapaxrep's, KOHTO HtMaTh Belle aauio oemo C'h .lKHBOTHSCKHH CTHJJ'b aa nO-CTapHT-B TpaKHHCKH npOH3Be,ll,eUHH H KOHTO TB'bP.lli; MaJIKO ce pa3JIHlIaBaT'b OTh CbBp-BMeHHHTt. rlMb naMeTHHltH B'b ,lI,pyrurl ~HIMCKH npOBHHll.HH.

~. ~ . .?KHBOTHHCKHHTC CTHJlb ce nOSIBHBa HaHOBO B'b Espona npts'b n"bt>BHrl Bi>KoBe na XPHCTHHUCTBOTO. no Bpt.Me na BeJIHKOTO npaceaeaae aa sapoii.'Att, H' npOHHKBa cera no HaH-lt.ane'IHH'ri> KJKTOBe sa cssepaa H 3ana-!1Ha Espona. 3a HerOBH HOCHTeJ:m- ce ClJwrST'b OOHKHOBeHO HaXJJYBaw,Hrl U3'b

... , ~

f'~) P, Reinecke, ZeitschiHt fiiI Ethnologie XXIX, 1897, crp. 140-163; S. Rel n ach R.evll~ archeol, 1901, I 40 -42: Cp. CAl.IUO Mi n n s, UHT. CM. 270 ·en.

6. <PlIlIOB"b, naMeTHHUIl 1i3 rpaKHIl.cKO'[lO HSKYCTBO

55

B,"II;.'J'p-BWHOCTbra na crapara CKlffHSI rOTH. MOlKeM"b CJI-B~OBaTeJIHO C'b n"bJIHO npaso zra npHeMeM"b, qe r03H CTHJlb, CJi-B,1l;1>. KaTO e ~OCTHrHaJIb n"bpSHH ca paSUB-B1'1> B'b H3KYCTBOTO sa CKHTHT'B H rpaKHHUHT'B,e npOIl.bJllKaaaJI'b ,Ila C,"II;.meCTBysa orne .~'bJlro Bp-BMe B'bJiaTeHTBO C'bCTOS'lHHe H3b CTeUHT'B sa lOlKHa PYCHSI 1l sananna A3HS!, .lI.O~-BTO HCTopHtJeCKHr-B C'bOHTHH My ~ .l{aJlH Bb3MOlKHOCTb na sci;e aosa H )KHBOTBOpa3 crpys Bb HSlKHB-BnOTO ce Belle auTHlIHD H3KYCTBO H .l{3 arpae ITO T03H HaqHHb TB"bP.l{-B Sa)KRa POJlS! B1> essaaaaHeTO aa HOBOTO eaponejicxo H3KyCTBO. ECTeCTBeHO e, lIe BOSOTO reseaae e aaesraano TBbPllt qYSCTSHTeJlHOH BaJIKaHCKHSI ITOJlYOCTPOBb. BH3aHndkKOTD H3KYCTBO,a nO'KbCHO H crapo-6"bJlrapcKOTo,cl¥i. .zr.3nH Db CBOHn npOR3selleHHS! WHpOKO Mt.CTO aa )KHBOTHHCKH5I CTHJI"b, rJIaSHO S"b OOJlaCTbTa aa opH3MeHTHKara, .ll.tTO HaH-.lI.06pt C,"II;. MorJlH l{a ce npOHBHT'b aerosars ocofiHOCTH 11 aerosara C,"II;.UJ.H:OCTb. ETO sauto MelKJJ:Y pa3rne.ll.aHHr-B Tyl<b rpaI(HBCKH naMeTHHUI{ 11 opH3MeHTHrB sa CTapO'ObJIrapCKHrB p,"ll;.KOnHCH C.%IU.eCT8ysa Maoro nO-r-BCHa Bpb3Ka, orxoaxoro na npbB"b noraezrs, npa rontMoTO pasJlRqHe aa enoxara, 6H Morno .lla ce npt.l{nOJlO)KH.

Tpaxakcxcro H3KYCTBO, 'IilHTO naMeTHHI{R H3HaC5IMe TyK'b sa np'bB"b [JIKTb 8b HaYKaTa, npbncraas aa cera ellHa 06JIaCTb, 'IHeTO H3CJli>.lI.SaHe npaHa.ll.JlelKH scetrsno sa 6£.llamero. 06alIe OTb nOCOqeHHT-B Tyffl> cpaBHeHHH MOlKe sesena ce SHIVI, Qe3HaQeaHeTO aa rosa H3KYCTBO HtMa caxo noKaJleH"b xapaxrept- .. 01'1> eaaa crpana BP'b3KHTt aa rpaKHAcKOTO H3K)'CTBO C'b ueHTpalfHO-a3:HHTCKOTO, OT'b llpyra erpaaa ponsra, KOSITO lfCHBOTHHCKHS!T"b CTUJI"b e Urp8J1"b lIP" essnaseaero aa nO'HOBOTO esponeacxo H3K)'CTSO,. HH HaBelK~aT'b H8 npooneMH on MHoro ITO·06r..u.b xapaxrep's, qHerO paapsmetrae np!,lHa . .ll.JIelKH caao OTllaCTH na KnaCH'IHara apXeOJlOrHH. Ilocraseua ao raxaaa apssxa, TpaKHRcKHr-B xynoscecraeaa naMeTHHUH 1l0t5HSa1'1> roJItMO asaseaae H sa sceotiuiara I'ICTOPH5I aa H3KYCTBO-rO. [10 Ta3H "MeHHO npanaaa, He3aBHCHMO on BCHlIKH llpyrH C'b06palKeRHS!, JlaY'IHOTOH3CJitJJ:saHe sa norperianaarf MorHnH Y sacs, 0T'b KoeTO caxo MOlKe na ce osaxea yBeJUilIeHHe aa MaTepH.an8 II paapsureaae sa H31'1>KHaTHr-B np06neMH,. 6H Tpt6- sano na ce npt.l{npHeMe H l{a ce opraaasapa KOJIKOTO e S'b3MOlKHO nO-CKOpO H nO-CHCTeMaTHqeCKH.

Den k m ~ 1 e r de r t h r a k i s e hen K un s t. - Es werden hier erruge Denkmaler veroffentlicht, die hauptsachllch aus Hngelgrabern in Sudbulgarien stammen und sicb jetzt im Nationalmuseum zu Sofia befinden, Sie

56

6. cl>HJlOBl>, nIlMC1"lIHUH 1111 TPIiKHAcKOTO 113KYCT80

gehoren noch dem 4. Jahrh. v, Cbr. an und lassen sich ihrem Kunstcbarak .. ter nach in drei verschiedene Gruppen einteilen: eine griechische (n° 11, 16, 19, 21, 22, 31,32 und 36), eine griecbisch-barbarische (nO 1,2 und .23-26) und eine rein barbarische Gruppe (no 3 -7, 29, 30, 44-46 und 51). Es wird der Versuch gemacht, die Gegenslande der 2. und 3. Gruppe als Erzeugnisse von thrakischen Meistern nachzuweisen und auf Grund dessen das We sen und die EigentUmlichkeiten der thrakischen Kunst zu bestimmen. Da diese Abhandlung gleichzeitig aucb in den Mitteil. des Deutschen Archaolcgischen Instituts, rom, Abteil., erscheint, beschranke ich micb hier daraul, auf die deutsche Publikation hinzuweisen.

B. Filow.

npHHOCb K'bMb 6bJIrapCKaTa HYMH3MaTHKa

On H. A. MYWMOB"b

l. Mt.ll.HH MOHeTH OT'b uaps CpaUHMHpa CaMb H Cb CHHa My KOHCTaHTHHa (1360-1396 r.).

B'b HYMH3MaTHKaTa enna MOHorpaMa, a qeCTO H caao enna 6YKS3, e B'b C'bCTOSlHHe }].3 nanpasa ui>JJ'b npsapara, H noirsxora aa 3a6J1Y}].H H HaAonHTHHSI HYMH3MaT'b. OC06HO JleCHO 1.J0stK'b MOJKe }].3 ce 3a6J1Y}].H S'b 6'bJlrapcxara HYMH3MaTHKa. a3lUOTO MaJlKO ex.. 6'bJlr3pcKHrl MOHeTH, KOHTO HMaTb utJl'b aannacs, Iloaesere BMtCTO H3}].nHC'b HM3T'b caxo MOHorpaMH HJlH C3MO OT}].tJlHH 6YKSH, KOHTO 03H31.JaB3T'b HMeH3 H KOHTO He BHHarH MOraT'b }].3 ce OTraTHaTD. no Ta3H npHlJHHa l.JeCTO ce npaaars npi>llnOJlO}f(eHHH, KOHTO OTnOCJI-B ce YKa3SaT'b norp'suiaa.

npt3'b 1910 ron, nporpecop's B. 3J13TapCKH, B'b craTHHT3 CH .. K'bM'b 8"bnpOC3 aa HaA-CTapHrl 6'bJlrapCKH MOHen,", l) MeJK}].y npyroro onaca " eJJ:Ha Mt}].Ha MOHeT3 (crp, 48 orip. 8), KORTO ornane H3 naps I1s. ActHSI II. B'b MOSI K3rMOn:. nAHTH'IHHrt MOHerH· ,CTp. 485 N2 7491 H T36n. LXIII I, 33b nptH3}].a}].oX'b ex..Ul3T3 MOHeTa, a nom, N!! 7462 H T30JJ. LX1ll 2 06- uapoasax» H }].pyro no}].ooeH'b eKSeMnJlHp'b, KOHTO OTJJ:3JJ;OX'b ua C}hUlHS! naps, Oease Tpt6sawe na ce HaM-BpS!T'b H npyra eK3eMnJlHpH 0T'b CJKLUHS! rarrs, aa na ce npoysa asnpocvrs no-06CToHHO, U B'b peayarar-s ce YKa3a, l.Je noxeaarar-s no-rep's JJ:Bt MOHeTH, a 33eJJ:HO C'b rtX'b H SCHlJKH }].pyrH 0T'b C}hUlHS! rarre, He ex.. na uaps HsaHo AciDS! II, a eJJ;HH 0T'b rlX'b aa uaps CpaUHMHpa caM", ..a.pyrH aa CpaUHMHpa H CHHa MY KOHcraHTHHa, KaKTO roaa me BH.ll.HM"b no-noaa, We nosua C'b MOHernrB aa uaps CpaUHMHpa CaM'b.

1. (Odp. 39). Jl HU e: MOHorpaMa 0T'b CJJt.nHHrl 6yKBH: B'b ropHFHI Kpaii na MOHeTaTa S'b ntso 6YKsaTa I S'b XOpH30uTanHp noaoxeaae, AO aes W, Cpi;.llHHTa nHHHS! aa KOSI TO npi>cHlJa nonero H3 MOHera T'bKMO np'S3b nOJlOSHHa H nocrara AO J(OJlHHH KpaH; n011.'b 6YKS3Ta W, Sb ntso, cnt11.sa

I) 113u1;c:nlll I 29-53.

58

H. A. MYWMOBb, Ilpaaoc» K'bMb 6bJ1rapCKara BYMH3MarHK3

MaJI'bK"b opsaaears H nons Hero 6YKsaTa A. COe.l{HHeHa co ~eHTp3JIHaTa JlHHHSI. Tt3H TpH 6YKBH 03HaQaBaT'b IWd(H). Cpnmy 6YKBaTa A, B'b .l{eCHO, npaabneaa .l{0 nearpanaara nHHHH, e npsncraeeaa 6YKBaTa C, a nozrs nes H 6YKBaTa A e npannereaa XOpH30HTanHO lIpt3'b nearpaaaara JlHHHSI 6yKaara A, rOpHHSlT'b Kpait sa KOSlTO, saenao CD uearpaanara JIHHHSI .n;O ]1,ont 06pa3YBa 6YKBaTa p. B's noaero, B'b necaara nonoaaaa sa MOBeTaTa, CDS· ctM'b caMOCTostTeJlHO e npt.l{CTaBeHa MoaorpaMaTa Lf.P , KOSITO ce CuCTOH OT'b 6yKBHTt lI,HP. a orrops 6yKBa M. Hacp'suia, B'b ntBaTa nOJIOSHHa ua MOaerara, e npbncraaeaa caMOCrOSlTeJlHO MOHorpaMaTa 'f . Ilo-ropb xaaaxs, lie 6YKBara P e oepasyaaua on ropasra qaCTb na 6YKBaTa A, KOSITO HapOIlHO aa Ta3HU"SJlb e aaspxraeaa Sb ropHWI CH Kpait, KaTO e nphrmerena xopa- 30HT3nHO aa nearpaaaara JIHHHSI no]1,'b 6yKBHrlA Ii c. CH\lUHstTb ropexs KpaA Jl3 6YKsara t\ CD uearpaaaara nHHHSI H nonaara xacra OTb 6YKBaTa C 06- paaysa 6YKBaTa s. T'bM qe ~tJlIUIIb H3,1J,mfCD rnaca: IWA(H) Gpdll,HMHP 1~.tP Gt\(rApoM). Haoxono apsusecrs Kp~r'b, aanaaerrs caao OrqaCTH.

06p .. 39. - M1>AH3 MOHera OIl> CpaU.IIMHpa.

06p. 40. - Mt.QH3 MORera OIl> CpaUHMHpa.

o n a K 0: fiK>CT'b aa XpHCTa aacp suta, CD oesasa ors TOIlKH oxoao rnaaara H 3HaUHrl IC-X, 6narOCJI3BH CD ]1,Btrl p.tKut, KOHTO C£ paSTBOpeaa. Haoxono 3p'bHlIeCT'b KP~I"b, sanasem, CaMO OTlIaCTH.

Moaerara e Mt]1,Ha, T'bHHa, naocxa, e]1,HHHSlT'b it Kpait H3S1.1l.eH'b, llHaM. 17 MM.; 0.55 rp. On C6HpKaTa aa HapO)lHH5I MyseR B'b COqJHH.

2. (06p. 40). JI H n e: Moaorpaxara e npH6nH3HTeJIHO 0T'b C~W.HjI rarrs, TyK"b 6YKBaTa I e npsncraaeaa naK'b XOpH30HTaJIHO, HO B'b ]1,eCHO, BMtCTO B'b ntBO. Henocp'sncraeao no]1,'b 6YK8aTa W cnt.n;S3 S'b JltBO 6}'KBaT3 A. KORTO He e CDBctM'b RCHa. 6YKBaTa \V orropb e yxpaceaa co TpH TOqKH. OCBtH'b 6YKsaTa I B'b necsara nOJIOBHHa sa MOHeTaTa JlIPIaT'b 6YKBHrl C H M H MOHorpaMaTa "i4'. KOftTO ce C'bCTOH on 6YKBlirl qHp. B'b JItBaTa none-

BH.H3 aa MOHeTaTa e nphacraaesa caMOCTOSlTeJIHO MOBorpaM3Ta4' CD .. sa spaa, Toit lie ~tJIHSlT'b Ra]1,n.HC'b raaca : IWd(H) ~(ll)aqHMHp l\(.t)p ...

On a K 0: Cif.lUOTO H306p32KeHHe sa XpHCTa, RaKTO npa 6poA 1.

H. A, MYW.M08"b, npIIHOC'b K"b.M'b 6"bJlrapCK3Ta HYMII3.MaTllK8

59

3p"bHQeCTHSlT'b Kp£I"b e sarraaem, QaCTHqHO caao Ha JlHueTO, a Ha onaKOTO e H3TpHT"b. MOHeTaTa e Mt11.Ha, naocxa, T'bHKa, ,lJ;HaM. 18 MM.; 087 rp. OT'b c6HpKaTa aa HapO)IHHSl MYseH B"b C0<pHSI.

OT'b paas'spsaasero aa MOHorpaMHTt B"bpxy ropasr-s .Il.Bt MOHeTH CTaBa HBHO, 'Ie Tt3H MOHeTH npaaaaaescar-s sa naps CpaUHMHpa. Ilpa ace TOBa, aa na He OCTaHe HHKaKBO CDMHtHHe B"bpXy Bi>PHOTO nposaraae aa B"bnpOcHHrt MOHorpaMH, me onama H nptJlCTI'IBH TyK"b aa cpasaeaae Ii enna OT'b cpetispaa'rs MOHeTH aa naps Cpauaaapa,

3. (06p. 41). JI H ue : Llaps CpaUHMHp"b Ce.ll.Han"b aa npscrom, aacpbma,

CD opeoas H C"b HH3Ka xopoaa CD BHCYJIKH npa ywurl, B"b .lI.eCHaTa p£Ka .ll."bplKH CKUnT"bp'b, yxpacerrs aa ropaas

••

KPaH es JlHJlHSI, a B"b JItBaTa - CBHT'bK'b. Paxeuara ua np'seroaa ~w.o C£ yxpaceaa CD JlIMHH. HaOKOJlO aannxcs : t Iw ep4- I\HMHP u,p .. S,u'K - lI10aHb CpaUHMHp'b uaps 6"bJirapOM"b Bnaros'spaa), HaOKOJlO 06p. 41. - Cpe6"bpHa .MOReTa on. Cpauaaapa,

On a K 0: 61OCT'b ua XpHCTa aacpfnna, CD .lI.eCHaTa p£Ka 6narOCJIaSH, a CD J1tBaTa .Il."bplKH esaureaae. Haoxoao C£11I.KK aannacs H ABa SP"bH-

secrx xpxre,

MOHeTaTa e cpedspaa, .lI.HaM. 18 MM.; 1.25 rp. On c6HpKaTa aa HapO.ll.HHSI MyaeH B"b COcpHSl.

<l>opMaTa aa 6yKBHrt B'hPXy cpe6"bpuHrl MOHeTH e CDBct.M"b enaaxea CD oaas ua Mt,lJ;HaTa MOHeTa [JO,ll"b 6pOH 2. I1MeTo ua naps H OT'b .lI.Bt.rt CTpaHH aa Cpe6'bpHHT'B MOHeTH e aanacaao CD BCH4KHrt 6YKBH ~PIIU,HMHP, AOKaTo B:OpXy Mt..lI.HOrl MOHeTO TO e aanacauo 6e3'b 6YKBaTa 11- GpU,HMHP, KaKTO e D'b CaMOpNt.qHHH nOADHC"b aa naps CpaUHMHpa B'hPXy rpaaorara, zraneaa na ,6paWOBCKaTa 06111.HHa. 3a cpasaesae TyK'b .lI.aBaM"b Bb cpaKCOMHJle 1'03"" nOAIlHC'b (o6p. 42), cnopem, I1J1bHHCKit:i:. I'paxora

. • • ''- • Boarapcxax» uapea. 1) S"b He-

.......,.... '-"'" .

. it:i(f1t1 ;J1 [.{ml~

ro HMeTO Ha napa e .ll.OCYIU'b

06p. 42. - nO.llnlic'b aa Cpauaaapa 8'bpXY 6pawo8cKaTa rpaaora.

C.ll.HaKBO, KaKTO D'bpXY Mt..Il.HHrl MOHeTH no.ll.'b 6poft 1 o 2, 11 TyK'h H TaM'L e 6e3"b

6YKBaTa II. 11 TyK'b H TaM'b e

npt.ll.CTaBeHa cxmara MOHorpaMa OT'b 6yKBHrl IJ,HMjl BMtCTO I\H ... 'H 11 , noaese 6YKBaTa H H TyK'b e nocrasena aa ABOKHO H31l0JI3YBaHe. OCBtH'L

I TpYIlbl CJl38HHCK'OIt KOMMHCiH, MOCKBa. ]911, V T36Jl. 7.

60

Ii. A. MYWMOOb, npli.HOCb KbM'b 6"nrapcK3T3 UYMII3M3n1K3

TOBa, B'b )lYMaT3 'W411,. H TYK'b OYKB3Ta Ii e npaacraeeaa B'b cxmara ¢OpMa, KaKTO npa MOHeTOn OpOH 1 H 2, npaasneaa K'bM'b JltB8Ta OTBtcHa nHH1HI 0T'h 6YKsaTa w, On naH naa npasrspa CTaB8 SIBHO, lie B'bnpOCHH'rn MtAHI{ MOHeTH He MOra'l"b na oao)lan aa naps HB8H'b AcimSi II HnH aa )lpyr'b HtKOH naps, 3 aa Cpauaxapa,

Cera ocrasa .aa xasca HtKonKO )lyMH M sa MOaeTHT'B, KOHTO TptOB8 na ce ornaaar-s aa uaps Cpanaaapa C'b caaa My KOHCTaHTHHa. OT'b nanpaseaars AO cera H3cnt)lS3HIHISbPXY o'bnrapCKara HYMH3MaTHKa ce aoxasa 110 e)lHH'b uaH-HeC'bMH-BH'b HallHlf'b, 'Ie BCHlIKH o'bnrapCKH nape, KOHTO npa B'b3u.apHBaHeTO CM cs; HManu caaone - Hacnt)lHHu.H ua npaCTOJia - CJl. npomaraacsaana T'B3H 110cnt)lHHT'B no BH3aHTHHcKH OOHllaH aa csynpaaareaa aa napcrsoro C'b rarnara naps, a ihXHHT'B JlHKOBe saenao cs HMeHara HM'b OHJIH H306pa3S1BaHH B'bpXy MOHerHT'B. OT'h aanaseaar-s nHCMeHHH naaersaua ne cera 6-Bwe H3BttrHO caxo aa uaps HaaH'b AJleK' caanpa, lie e HMaJl'b sa csynpaaareas sa uapcrsoro CHRa CH MHxaHna, H on n3H .Il.BaMa uape C)i\ H3BtCTH.H, KaKTO ce saae, CpeO'bpHH Ii Mt)lHH MO' nera C'b 06pa3Hrl H HMeHara H aa JI.RaMara. 06alle npt)lH naps 11B. AneK· caxapa aa csynpa BHrenH ua uapcraoro cao "MaJlH naps Caerocaaes CHRa CH Feopra II Tepreps, a MUXaHJI'b III lllHWM3Hb - CHua CH HaaRa ere¢aRa. TOBa ce ztoxaaaa 0T'b ny6nHKYBaUHn Belle Mt..Il.HH MORerH 0T'b n3H n,BaMa 6'bnrapCKH nape cs rt.XHHr3 caaoee-csynpasarean. 1) KaKTo w.e 8H.Il.HM'b 0T'b H3J10lKeHOTO no-non's, no npasrspa aa rOpHHT'B nape H ua 6aw.a ca He, AneKCaHltpa, uaps Cpa~HMHp'b e HMaJl'b cxuro sa csynpaeureas aa uapcraoro CHRa eli KOHcraHTHHa, KOHTO, KaKTO e H3BtCTHO 0T'b HCTopHSlTa, entA'b CM'bpTbTa aa oaw.a ca nonaraa B'b BH)lHB'b rrspaoro B'b3CTaHHe npoTHB'b rypcxara BJlaCTb, xoero ooaqe 6t norymeso B'b 1409 ron. JlHlIHO on cYJlTaH'b ClOneHMana. Ha Cpauaaapa 3aeJI.HO CD CHHa MY KOHcraHTHHa MOraT'b na ce npanatnar-s cnt.llHHrl. MOHerH:

4. (Otip. 43). JI H u e: U3Pb Cpau,HMHp'b H CHH'b My KOHCTaHrHH'b, 06- JltlleHH Bb yxpaceao CD 6HeepH OOJltKJlO, aa rJlaBHn CD BUCOKH TP"K.f'bJlHH KOPOHH, CTOSlT'b npaaa aacpbuia H 3aeJ{HO )l'bplKaT'b npbnopem, aa JI.'bJIra B'bpJIHSa, KO'SITO onapa B'b 3eMSlTa. Haoxono 3p'bRlIeCT'b KPR..f'b, cera 'IaCTHQHO sanasesrs. 3a 3aotnt3BaHe e, lie tyK'b KOPOHHrl. C'bBctM'b

ce paanasaaart, on, OHlISI, npaacraseaa S'bpxy

OGp. 43- Mll111f8 MOlfeT1l OT'b Cpau'RMHpa 11 KOHCT3HTRR8.

SCHlIKH H3BteTHH .11.0 cera ObJlrapCKH MOHeTH, T'bH KaTO TyK'h CN. TpH' N..f'bJlHH H nO-CKOpO npHJlHlIaT'b aa DanCKH THapH.

I My UBI 0 B 1>, l1ai31;c1n11 IV CTp. 54 en., 136)1. VI 6 It CTp. 275.

-----------------------------

H. A. MYWWOB'L, npHHOCb K"bM'b 6bJlrapCKaTa HYloHI3MaTHK8

61

011 a K 0: C;1I;.maTa MOHorpaMS KaKTO OHaH, npsncraseaa aa JlHl..I;eTO ua MOHeTHtt, OIlKCSHH nOAb 6pOH 1 H 2 cs cntAHHtt OTKnOHeHHH. Cp1>.a.HHTa nHHHS! ua 6yKSSTa W e npsacraaeaa Sb q,OPMS ua KpbCT'b. npt3b uearpaanara nHHHH e np'snnereaa apyra JlHH.HSl, KOHTO sa npbBb noraem, npaausa na yxpaureaae, S Db C;1I;.Ul.HOCTb Sb nOJleTO Sb ntso TH otipasyaa aaeaao CD sacn, on nearpanaara JlHRKS! 6YKSS A. Bb .zr,ecHO, SaeJI.HO CD AOJlHHH KpaH sa uearpanaara nHn"H, o6paaysa 6YKBa p. rOpUHHT"b KpaH aa nphnaereaa'ra

JlHHHH HapOlJHO e s.zr,a.zr,eHb Sb noaero Bb .lI,eCHO OT"b uearpaaaara nHHHH H 6YKBaTa e e cseaaaeaa CD T03H xp a it, aa .zr,a ce nonYlIH 6YKBaTa tc (HHHUHanb ua KOHCTaHTHHs). S" necao on nest MOHorpaMa OT"b 6yKSUtt Ll,Hj1, a HU" Best sacrs OT"b 6yKBata M. Bb ntso cna60 n.HlJH MOHorpaMaTa u.P. Cnt· .zr,OBaTeJJHO U-BJlHstT"b aannacs raaca : U.(A)p Iw.s(H) GpAU.HA\HP If K(OHCTAHTHH"b).

MOHeTaTa e Mt.!lHa, naocxa, T'bHKS, ant aanaseaa: AHaM. 17 MM.; 1.07 rp. OM> c6HpK8Ta aa Haponuaa MyaeA Sb C04HIH.

AKO na He 6twe npHMtp'bn CD MOHeTHTB aa uaps Ha, Aaexcaanpa CD CHua My MHxauJia, .zr,tTO HMeTO aa Aaexcanapa Bb HtKOU MtJI.HH MO' HeTH e nosra rrsaao - IWA,D.O KaTO aa MHxaHna e 03HalJeHO caao C'b 6YKBaTa M, unH M", HnK "'d 8b MOHorpaMa, urbrne na 8Ma MtCTO aa naraue, samo B'b MOHeTutt sa Cpauaaapa H KOHCT3HTHUB HMeTO ua n'hpBHS! e utno, a ua nocntAHHH e OSHalieHO CaMO CD HerOBHH· HHHUHan'h. 06alle nptA'b HaJlHlIHOCTbTa aa AneKcaUllposHTt MOHeTH TaKOBa naraue ca HtMa MtCTOTO. ,Ua}Ke H .zr,a He 6iiwe nphacraaeaa Sb MOHorpaMaTa "a ropscnacanara "MoneTa 6YKsaTa K, naxs, nptAb HanHlJUOCTbTa aa MOHeTHtt ua Cserocaaaa Cb CHRa My Feopra Il Teprepu, sa MHxaHna III IllaurMana C'b CHUa My Hsaaa Cre4>aHa H aa ORHS! na He, Anexcaanpa CD CHHa My MuxaHna, naara uapcxa 06paS3 aspxy MouerHtt sa uapb CpaUHMHpa He MOraT'b na nptACTaSSlM> HHIIlO npyro, OCStHb caMBS! CpaUHMHpa H CHAa My KOHCTaHTHHa. On H3DtCTHHtt 110 nsees 6'bnrapCKH MOHerH CTaBa HSHO, qe 6'bJJrapcKHTi> uape He ~ UManH 06Hqa~ Aa nptACTaBSIT'b Sopxy MORe· TUtt o6pa3Htt aa CBOHtt uapaua,

5. (06p. 44). Jl Hue: On sanaaeaara sacrs ua H306palKeHHero ce BH>KAa, lie aa nHuetO CJIiIi. 6HAH npt.zr,CTaSel{H nsa o6pa~ npasa, C'b HB3KH KOPORU ua rnaBHtt; rl; C)II\ ,Il,'hp}K8nH 3aeARO AsoeHb KpbCT"b, Koiho onapa S'b SeMHTa . .LJ.ecHHHT'b 06pa3'b e

06p. 4. - M1;JlH3 MOHeTa OT"b Cpau.HMllpa. If KOlltT8HTHHa.

C'bBctM'b aaJlBlJe~'b. H3rne>K.D;a, KaTO lie nH TOBa aa,.l]HlIaBSHe e CTa.HaJlO on y Aapb Co T;1I;.no opxnae B'bpXY l'as~ sacrs ua MOHeTara. Haoxoao 3pbHQeCT"b Kp;1l;.r:b

62

H. A. MYWMOB'b, npHH0C'b K'bMD 6'bnrapCKaT8 IfYMH3MaTHK8

o II a K 0: Cxruara MOHorp3Ma, KaKTO aa nHIleTO npa 6pOH 1 H 2.

TYKD 6YKBaTa C He otipaaysa 6YKBa K saemro C"b nenrpaanara nHHHSI, KaKTO e npa 6poa 4. T'ba se Ta3H MOHeTa rpt6Ba na ce ornane ua CpaUHMHpa H KOHCTaHTHHa caao sarosa, sautoro aa nauero e HMana .n,Ba o6pasa.

MOHeraTa e Mt.ll.Ua, nnocxa, e.ll.HHHH"T'b Kpaa noasnaruar», )lHaM. 17 MM.; 1.32 rp. On c6HpKara na Hapomras Myse,HB'b CO¢HSI.

Ta3H e cxtnara MoaeTa OT'b xoaesnaara na B. ABpaMOS'b, xosro np'bB'b H3.l1.a.n,e nporpecop-s B. 3naTapcKH, a CJItll'b Hero R 33'b H no norptmKa SI OT.lI.allOXMe na traps HSaH'b AC'tHlI II.

II. MtJlHH MOHeTH OToLlapb KOHCTaHTHHo .ACtH5I (1258-1277 r.).

[-U'b AT. KOlKyxapOS'b, npbnceaarem, U3 Craposaropcxorc Apxeoaorasecso .n,pYJKeCTBO, HMa JJ106e3HOCTbTa .I1.a MH asrrpara ellHa 6'bnrapCK3 Mi;llU3 MORera, S'bpxy KOHTO 6t nposem, H3AnHC3: KWHCT"HTHH..... CJli;llOB3TeJlHO Tpi;6sa na ce npaeae, 'Ie .lltHCTBHTeJlHO TSI e OT'b 6'bnrapCKHSI uaps KOHCT3HTHHb AdHSI. llo cera He 6txa n03uaTH MOReTH 0T'b rOSH naps, KaKTo e Hssi;CTHO, TOH e napysam, 0T'b 1258-1277 r. - utnH 19 rOARHH, H HaHCTHHa ,qYllHO 6H 6HJlO, aKO TOH He e ctK'bn'b HHKaKBR MOHeTH ..

ETO onacaaaero aa rasa MOReTa.

6. (06p- 45). JI H ue: Ilaps KOHCTaHrHU'b S'b 6oraro o6ni;Kno, na raaaara CD HHSKa xopona, yxpaceaa CD

06p. 45. - M-tAoa MOBera on KOBCT8BTKHD AdBS.

BHcynKH. Ce)lHaJJ'b sa nptCTgn'h aacpt rna , S'b necaara CH p}il\Ka A'bplKH rrpanopens, a' B'b ni;sara - l-BHT'bK'b.

KW

B'b noaero nom, npanopeua CJIt.l1.HHSlT'b u3.11.nHCD: HCT B'b noaero B'b

(.t)H

.lI.eCHO .ll06pt nHqH 6YKBaTa " npa ntsoro paao aa naps, a npa caaara My Jl1>sa p}il\Ka CJIa60 e sanaaeaa 6YKsaTa c. Ham, 6YKDaTa " MOHeTaTa e Ylla· peaa H 0T'h T03H YAap'b rroxra e CMa3aHa MOHOrpaMaTa I4p. UUHHT'b Ha.l1.nHC'J:' raaca : l4.:1p ... KWHCT.:IHTHH'1I. JkkHk, I'opb D'b noaero S'b .I1.ecuo e nptACTaBeR'b He6eCHHSlT'h caozrs, npt3'b xoaro ce nonasa BO>KHSITa necaaua, KOHTO 6JrarOCJIaBSI napa. 06aqe KaKTO CBOll'bT'b, T'bi-\ H p}il\KaTa CA'\ yzapeaa cs TRono opxnae H C}iI\ CHnHO CnJ1eCHaTH.

H. A. MywM.OB'b, npHBOC1> K'bMb 6'hJ1rapCKaT8 HYMH3MaTlIKa

til

00 a K 0: Paaaocrpaaem, Kp'hCT"b eb WltpOKR KpaHma, o6pasysaH1.

Olb .11BOHHH JIHHHU. 81. ropnsrra 1I8crb H8 KpeCTa npa paaeaara Ci'J\ npiia,· craseaa 00 eAH.8 3si:.3,lla urecronepsa, a B1. ,llOJIHIHI KpaA Kp'hCT"bT'b e yKpa· ceHD CD TpH TOt.(KH.

MOHeTaTa e M-BlI.H8, Kopy6ecra,,llH8M. 27 MM.; 1.25 rp. Haxapa ce cera B'h c6npKaTa HB Hap0,llHHSI MY3eH B'b CO~HH.

Ta3H MOHeTae e,llHaK8.aCD )l;stTt M'5)l;HH M"OHerH, H3,!{a,lleHH SD H.3- BiiCTHH IV CTp. 51 06p. 17 U CTp. 5206 p. 18, KOHTO no aen1.nHHSi sannaes (ae) ornanoxt, aa ActHH II. 06aQe npiiJl:h HanWIHOCTbTa aa ropaonacaaara MOHeTa 11 HeRRlUI n'bneR'b HaZUlHC'b, He OCTaBa HHKaKBO C'bMB.t.RHe, qe H TPHTt ril3H MOHeTH.CN.. 0T'b KOHCTaHTHH1. Aci;HSI.

Ill. MOHeTHT-B Co xpbnocraa CTtHH.

3a MOHeTH on naps 118. Aaexcaaapa np'hB"b noaeaa np'Ba"b 1900 r, B. llo6PycKH S'b .6t.Jlt.IKKH K'bM"b 6'bJirapCK8Ta HYMH3MaTHKa",1) Jlt.1'o, KaTO C'b06m8S8, q·e 81. HapOll.HHSI MY3eH CN.. noCT",rlHJJH HeH3sterHH no TOrasa MOReTH '01'1. CBeTOCII8Ba H Ha, WaW:M:8H8, Kassa, lie "Me»my Tt.XD U.Ma H meers MOHeTH on ua pb Ha, A.)JeKCaHlJ.pa -. nOHe)l(eBCHqKHl"B meers 6uJiH e,llRaKBH, 1'08 OURCBa caMOe,llHH'b eK3eMUJlSlpD OT'b rlX'b raxa (erp. 98):

JI liLt e: l.J.apbT'b " Llapauara, C'b KOPOHH aa raasa Ii o6J1i>lIeHli B'b ll,'bJIro, yxpaceao o6nt..l(JIO,CTOHT'b npasa Ii ll,'bplKaT'b ell,HH'b )l(eS'hJI'h cs Kp'bCT'b aa aspxa, - Ha aecao on JlHKa ce serart, csxpameaaara IW(A)U,p, KOHTO 03HaQaBaT'b Iw(aH'b)a(JleKCaH.ll'bp'b) u,(apb).

o n a K 0 TO: THn'bT'b sa ran crpaaa He e xcerrs, HO H306pa>Kaaa Bi>POSITUO Hcyca Xpscra, CeltHan'b sa npt.CTOJI'b. ,UuaMeT'bp"bTb sa l"B3H MO HerH e 20 MM..; 8Ma 0'J"'b rlX'b meers eK3eMUJUlpa CJla60 Kopy6eCTH.

llo cera He 6inlle H3B'tCTHa HH eaaa MOHeTa 0T'bT03H naps",

CP'h6CKHHT'b HCTOpHK'b JI. KOSaqeBUq'b, B'b cr3THHTa cHnHaj crapaja 6yrapcKH UOBaLt3·, 2) He noaenysa UHmO saril3HMoHerH, MO}f{e 6H no npanaaa, lie Tt He MY C,'K 6HJlH H3BtCtH:H. Ilporpecopt, B. 3J1aTapCKH, Bb CTarHS1ra elf .• K'bM'b BDnpoca sa Ha.R-CTapHTt 6'bJIrapCKH MOHer""}) rI'f OTll,aaa Hfl uaps Aci;HH II. On ri3H MOHerH,. KOHro B·CHqI(H ca. Mtlt.IUI, no noanaaaaero na KHHraraMH .AHTHlJHHn MOHeTH sa 6aJlKaHCKIUJ noayocTPOB'b" Bb c6HpKara II;) HapO.1l.IIIHf MyseH Bb COq:,.HH liMawe caxo QCeMb

1)6'bnrapCK.H nptrne.u.b VI, 1900, 97-100.

2) Faac Cpn. AKaD.et.lHje LXXVI. (Ilpym pa.apM 46), 1908. CTp. 69 - lOll. 5) '.13atCTlfli I C1'p. 29 sa.

64

H. A. MYlllMOB'b, npHHOC'b K'bM'b 6'bnrapCKara H)'MH3MaTIIK3

CK3t'!MnJISlpa, a cera HMa neraanecers. Tt He eN- BCH'IKH easaxaa, 3aTOBa TyKD me onaura pa3JIHlIHHTt BapHaUHH cnopens eK3eMrrJISlpHTt on c6npxara na HapOAHHH MyseH.

7.(06p.46, 1). JI Hue: .uBt uapcxa ¢HrYPH B'b 6oraTO o6ntKJJO, aa rJI3BHTt HMb HH3KH KOPOHH Cb 6HcepH H 6HcepHH SHCYJIKH npa yWHTt, CTOSln npasa aaepsrua H saenao .ll.bp>Kal'b npsrropem, aa .lI.bJIra BbplIHHa. Bb DOlIeTO, npa paMOTO aa JItsaTa q,Hrypa, 14M3 6YKsa A\ C'b IJ'bpTHua orrops, a nom, HeH, B'b aepraxanem, pe.ll.D, CJI'B.lI.s3n 6YKBaTa .t H MOHorpaMaTa I1,P; nannHC'bT'b Tpt6sa .I1a ce sere &(HX)"(HA"h.) u,"Ph.; Sb noaero npa .I1eCHaTa IPHrypa, C~LUO' Bb aepraxaaem, peas, lIH'IaTb 6}'KBHTt IWA U,11, KoeTO 3Ha'lH 1",,,("",,) I\4P". HaOKO}lO 3pbHlIeCT'b KP~f'b, cera IJaCTH'IHO aanaseas.

o n a K 0: Kpi;nOCTHH mHH aa JJ:Ba erasca: BTOPHHT'b erases e nonpas.lI.'h}leH'b aa TpH KylIH, cHa6neHH ropt C'b no TpH 3&6epa. BD nOlIeTO B'b }I-Bao, Me>KJJ:Y KYJIaTa H dPbH~eCTHH KPN-f'b, KOHTO otirpaacaa crsaxr s, JIHlIH 6yKBa T, a .I10n"B a'b orpsaa - 6yKDHTt HK. TYKb 6YKBaTa H e Bb HeraTHBHa ¢opMa H sarosa npHJIH4a aa H. On Ta3H MOHeTa H oaas nO.l1b 6pOH 8 ce Y<"TaHOSHS3 no naH-nono>KHTeneH"b HallHHb, lie 6yKBHTt aa onaKOTO cx. TUK. Hannacvrs .ll.OrtbJIHeHb Tpt6Ba Aa ce sere : 1'(" ... ) H (0)&("'),

MOHeraTa e Mt.l1H3, xopyriecra, )'{HaM. 20 MM.; 1.35 rp.

8. (06p. 46, 2). JI Hue: CN-LUOTO H306pa}f(eHHe. B'b nonero npa lItsaT<l (~Hrypa e aanasesa caao 6YKBaT3 .. H MOHorpaMaTa u,p; npa ,ll;eCHaTa ¢H' rypa cna60 nH'IH ropt caao 6yKDa I, aD,06pt c"'" sanaseaa " H 1~11. Ilpa rlIaBHT-B aa UapCKHTt q,HrYPH MoaeTaTa e CHlIHO H3TpHTa.

o n a K 0 : KpimoCTHH mHH aa asa eraaca, B'b cp snara C'b csonecra nopra, orpaaeaa C'b ap'saua ; rOpHHHT'b erases e pa3.l1.tlIeH'b aa TpH KynH, cHa6AeHH ropt no C1> TpH 3~6epa, KOHTO cna60 JIHlIaT'b, noaesce MOHeTaTa e H3TpHTa. B"b nonero 81> lItBO 6yKBa l' H .110 HeH T04K3, a D,OlIt 8b OTp'ssa - 6YKBHTt HK. 11 TyKb 6YKBaTa H e Bb HeraTHBHi cpOpMa. HaOKOlIO 3pbHlJeCT'b Kp","f'b.

MOHeTaTa e Mi;D,Ha, xopytiecra, AHaM. 21 MM.; 2.55 rp.

9. (06p. 46, 3). 11 Hue: C~m.Hrt uapcxa q,HrypH. B1> noaero npn raaaara na ntsaTa ¢Hrypa OMa 6yKsa 1\\, a nOD,1> .I1eCHaTa p~Ka aa C~LUaTa <pHrypa nHqH MOI:lOrpaMara u,p Bb HeraTHBHa ¢opMa. Ilpasaoro none Sb .a.eCRO e C'bSciMb H3rpHTO. Haoxono ap1>H4ecrb KP&f'b.

On a K 0: KptrtO(''THH ertHH aa .D.Ba eraxa, KOHTO ce pasrpanasaear-s CD e.l1Ha 3p1>HlIeCTa nHRHH. Bb cphaara aa 1l0nHHH eTa}f(b HMa caonecra nopra; .110 HeH 81> D,eCHO Asa nposopeua eD,HH'b "a.ll.b D,PYf'b, a Db lIteo - ellHltb npoaopeirs BHCOK1> xomcoro noprara, So ropnaa eTa>K'b ce 8H1K-

------

H. A. MYWMOBlo, npHROC"b KbMb 6bJlrapCK3rll :UYMlf3MaTH!(3 65

~~--- ~---

•. ~ ..•. ' .• = .

. no 0

" .-

. .~.~

.~~ ' .. ~

'If) . _ -:

.

06p. 46. - M1;.JJIIH MOlierHOT1> 1'11'1 •. AncKcaHApa II Ml-txaU.I1a.

Hntn Ij" H a Apx. .lip,,"'. V I.

5

66

H. A. MYUlM08'b. npHBOC1> K1>M'b ('j1>lJrapCKara FlYMH3MaTHKa

.llan .D.at CTpaHHlJUH KyllH CD no TPH 3",6epa, a B'b cptmara ce H3.lJ,Hra rpers Kyna, .lJ,BORUO nO-BHCOKa, CD TpH 3a.6epa H nposopeirs Db cpbnare. MOHeTaTa ce OTIlHlJaBa CD nO-A06paTa CH H3pa6?TKa. TH e Mi;.D.Ha, cna60 xopyeecra, .lJ,HaM. 20 MM.; 0.87 rp.

10. (06p. 46, 4). JI Hue: Ca.IUOTO K306palKeHHe. <l>HrypHrl, BMtCTO np'snopeirs, ll'bplKaT'b KPbCT'b ua llbnra BbpllHHa, oopasysam, on ners K'bJJ6a. Ilpa raasara aa ntBaTa ¢Hrypa HMa 6YKBH M CD r orrops, a nOAb necaara pa.Ka aa CX-lUaTa !lmrypa - MOHorpaMaTa 1\1'. Iloaero npa r nasara sa .lleCHaTa ¢pHrypa e H3TPKTO, HO npa JI'BBaTa pxsa IlHlIH 6yKBa .t H nO)lb HeR MOHorpaMua ll,.I'. Haoxono caaeo aanasem, 3p'bHlIeC'T'b KpA\f'b.

o n a K 0: Kpi;nOCTHH CrlHH aa ABa eraxa: Bb cphaara aa llOIlHHH erases e oaaaseaa caoaecra nopra H OT'b CTpaHHn H no ellHHb np030- peus. Ilom, noprara JlHlIaT'b 6YKBHn H H K. CrtHHrt aa ropnas eTalKb eN. npH6nH3HTellHO KaKTO npa N99. MOHeTaTa e Mt.ll.lla, cna60 xopyoecra, llHaM. 20 MM.; 1 rp.

11. (06p. 46, 5). JI Hue: Cx-m,OTO H306palKeHHe. Ilpa raaaara aa n-BBaTa ¢Hrypa cna60 nHlIH caao necaara nOnOBHHa OTo 6YKBara M; npa aecaaa n8KeT'b aa czurara ¢Hrypa nHlIH HCHO 6YKBaTa A H nOAb HeR MOHorpaMaTa 1\1'. Iloaero npa .lleCHaTa ¢urypa e C'bBctM'b H3TpHTO H CJla60 nH'lH caxo 6yKBa .t. Haoxono 3pbHt:feCT'b Kp.lil.ID.

o n a K 0: C,y,m,OTO H306pa>KeHHe CD Ta3!! pa3JIHKa, 'Ie Bb ropaaa CTa>Kb aa Kp-BnOCTbTa JUi11aT'b HHWH. MOHeTaTa e Mt.llHa, caaeo xopyeecra, ,llHaM. 20X20 MM.; 1'42 rp.

12. (06p. 46, 6). n Hue: CK.m,OTO H306palKeHHe H MOHOrpaMB. Haoxono 3pbHlJeCT'b KPK.f'b, KoATO e nOqTH C'bBctM'b HSTpHT'b.

o n a K 0: C"'lUOTO H306p8lKeHHe. CBO,llbT'b Ha noprara ce aaaea TyK'b Db ropaaa eralKb. Bt, orpsaa nHlJaT'b 6YKBHTB H H K. 5YKBaTa H e B'b HeraTHBHa l!>0pMa. MOHeTaTa e MtllHa, naocxa, .lJ,HaM. 19 MM.; 1'28 rp.

13. (06p. 46, 7). Cxmoro H306palKeHHe H MOHorpaMH. Flonero Bb necao e C'l>BctM'b H3TpHTO H cna60 IlHlJH caxo MOHorpaMaTa 1\1'.

o n a K 0: CX-lUOTO H306palKeHHe. Bb orpsaa nHqan 6YKBHT'B H K. Moaerara e M-BllHa, cna60 xopytiecra, ,D.HaM. 21 MM.; 2·37 rp.

14. (06p. 46, 8). JI H ue ~ CX-lUOTO Hs06pa>KeHHe H MOHorpaMH, KOHTO JIH.lJaTb no-caaeo, noaexe MOReTaTa e nocra H3TpHT8.

o n a K 0: CK.m,OTO H306palKeHHe, KoeTO no THnb ce CXOJKll,a Hali-MHoro C'b MoneTaTa .M! 11. B1> 9TPi;33 ca. ocranaaa C.1li;,D.H OTb 6YKBaTa II, KOSITO cera npHJlHlJa aa (. MOHfTaTa e M-B,n;Ha, naocxa, ,llHaM. 18X20 MM.; 1'21 rp.

H. A. MYWMOB'b, npHHOC'b K'bM'b 6'bJlrapCKara HYMH3MaTQKa

67

15. (Oep. 46, 9). J1 Hue: C"'UlOTO H306pa>KeHHe. nOJIeTO Bb JI~BO e C'bBcl;Mb H3TpHTO H sa rosa OYKBHrt He JIHl.JaTb. B'b )leCHO e .lto6pt sana- 3eHb Ha)lnHCDT'b IW 4 ~p Sb BepTHKaJIeHb pe)lb.

o n:a KO: CAI\UJ.OTO H300pa>KeHHe. MOHerara e CHJIHO H3rpHTa, HO npa Dee rORa Bb noneTO Sb JItso HCRO .JIHI.JH OYKBara T, a B'b oTpt3a 6YKBaTa N. MOHeTaTa e MtltHa, caatio xopyeecra : )lHaM. 21 MM; 2'02 rp.

16. (Oop.46, 10). JIHue: Cxmoro H306pa>KeHHe H MOHorpaMH, 3JIi> sanaaeaa,

0" a K 0: C"'W.OTO H306pajJ{eHHe.~ CBO)l'bT'b aa noprara e B)la)leHb Bb BTOpHH~ erases. MOHeTaTa e M1;)l8a, cnaoo xopytiecra : )lHaM. 20 MM.; 1.23 rp. 17. (Oop. 46, 11). CAI\DtOTO H300pa>KeBHe. 6YKBHrt He JIHl.JaT'b, T'bA KaTO MOHerara e C'bBci>Mb H3TpHTa H ocsseaa aaoxoao, ra HMa H3rnE'ltb na OCMO'" ("bJlHH K'b.

On a K 0: H300pa>KeHHeTO e C"'lllOTO, KaKTO "PH 6poA 9, HO on nononem, CTHJIb. MOHeTaTa e Mi>)lHa, xopyeecra, )lHaM. 18 MM.; 1.95 rp.

18. (Oop.46, 12). JI H U. e : C;r.ru.OTO H306pa>KeHHe. MOHeTaTa e MHoro H3TpHTa H 3a1'0Ba He JIHl.Jan HHKaKBH OYKBH.

0" a K 0: nO)lOOHO H300pa>KeHHe KaKTO npa 6poA 17. MOHeraTa e Mt.llHa, xopydecra: .llHaM. 17 X 19 MM.; 0.95 rp.

19. (Oep. 46, 13). JI Hue: C"'UlOTO H300pa>KeHHe. MOHorpaMHrt C'" H3TpHTH.

On a K 0: C"'LUOTO Hs06pa>KeHHe. CBO.llbT'b aa noprara e B)la.lleHb Db ropsas erases. Sb orpssa n.Hl.JaT'b 6yKBHrt H K. 6YKBaTa H e Bb HeraTHBHa cpopMa. MOHeTaTa e M~AHa, nzocxa ; .llHaM. 19 X 16 MM.; 1.24 rp.

20. (06p. 46, 14). JI H U. e: C"'LUOTO H300pa>KeHBe H MOHorpaMH, OTI.JaCTH H3TpHTH.

On a K 0: C£IllHrt KpimoCTHH mHH; KYJIHrl Bb ropaas eTa>K'b HMaTh no TpH 3&Oepa. Bb orpaaa e aanaseaa caao ropasra nacrs on 6YKBara K. MOHeraTa e Mt.llHa, Kopy6eCTa, CD l1.00bPb CTHJlb; )ll:faM. 19 MM.; 1.10 rp.

21. (Oop. 47). J1 HU e: C;r.W.OTO H30- 6pa>KeHUe H MOHOl'paMH, OTQaCTH H3TpHTH. o n a K 0: CX.IIlHrt KpimoCTHH crsaa , Db noaero Db JItBO e sanaseaa 6YKBara T, a Db orpsaa OYKsa H utJIa H ropaara nono-

06p. 47. - M'!;llHa MOReTa OT'b He. AJleKC3HJ[pa H MJlXaHna.

BBBa on K. HaOKOJIO ABoeHb 3p'bHl.JeCT'b KP.ll.f'h, 06pa3YBaHb aaaspao BCJI~ACTBHe aa H3M-BCTB8He ua MOHeTaTa npa OTCHl.JaHeTO H. MoaeTaTa e Mtl1.H8, nnOCK8, .ll.H8M· 23 1AM.j 1.55 rp.

..

68

H. A. MYWMOBb, npHHOC1> K'bM"b O'bJIl'apCKaTa IlYMH3MaTlIKa

Orb onacaaaero aa H36poeHHTt no-ropt MOHerH craaa SlSHO, 'Ie rl BeH'IKH CAlI. HMaJiH B1> nOJleTO npa aecaara 4>Hrypa aannacs IWd qp, a IlPH JltBaTa "'X u,p UJIH """ ua, caao lie Bb HtKOH eK3eMnJlSlpH n3H 6yKBH CJI~60 JlHqaTb, noaeace elK H3TpHTH. HtMa CbMH-BHHe, se HMeTo, KOeTO nonaa CD '", Tpt6aa na ce sere M.HXdHNh.. Cnt,llOSareJIHO n3lf MOHeTH Tpt6sa na ee ornaaars aa l1aaHb AJIeKCaHJlpa, KOHTO, KaKTO e H3BT.CTHO, e HMaJIb sa CBOH csynpaeareas CHRa ca MHxaHJla (1331-1355). Bb nozxpana sa TOBa Htll.\O MOraTh na ce npaaenars H cpe6bPHHTt MOHerH aa r03H naps, KOHTO aa nauero ca HMarb CIKIl.\OTO H306pa>KeHHe. Ocstab rosa 6YKBHn '" X " ce cptll.\aTh H aspxy enaa cpe6bPHa MOHeTa, sa KOHTO He MO>Ke na craaa cnop's, qe npHHaAJIe>KH aa I1s.. Aaexcaaapa H CHHa My Ma:xaHna (06p. 48). Bspxy rasa MOHeTa, KORTO sa cera e enaacreem, eK3eMTIJUlpb Bb Hap0.lt.UHR MyseA.1) 6YKBHn '" H " C)IIi. CSbp3aHH Bb MOHorpaMa, a 6YKBaTa X e OTrOpT., KaKTO npa nosesero llpyrH cpe- 6bPHH MOHeTH on I1saH'b Aaexcaaapa CD CHHa My MHxaHn8. BbPXY .llpyrHTt cpe- 6bpHH MOHeTH OTh CK-.Il.\HR Uapb 6YKBaTa M e nptACT8BeHa caaa HJlH Bb MOHorpaMa

CD 6yKBHr-B " H X (06p. 49).

06p. 48. - Cpe6"pH3 MOReTa OTD Hs. AneKC3BJlpa H MHX3RJl8.

Tpt6Ba A8 sa6tnt>Ka, qe npa MOHeTHrn sa Ha Asexcaaapa Cb CHHa My MHXBHJla He e cnasaaao crporo enaooopasae B1> nOJlO1KeHHeTO aa uaaOJICHrl. Taxa aanp. BbPXY MOHeTHrt C'b KptnoCTHH CTtHH RaactKAll.At HMeTO sa AneKcaHllpa e npa zteceara 4>Hrypa, a OHOBa aa MHxaHna - npa n1;-

aara, llOK8TO BbPXY cpe6bPHHrl MOHeTH e oeparao.

a 6

06p. 49. - Cpe6'bpHH MOReTH or" I1B. AileKCl1H.llpa H MHXl1HJ!a.

OT~TCTBHeTO Bb HaWHn MOHeTH sa H3B-BCTHaTa MOHorpaMa on 6YKBHTt Me, KOHTO ce cp'suta BbPXY nosesero MOHeTH on HB. Aaexcaanpa, rpt6Ba Aa ce 06HCHH CD OOcrOSITeJICTBOTO, se MOHerHn CD KptnoCTHH mBa CDBctMb ce pa3.IJHQaSaT'b OTb apyrar-s MtAHH MOBeTH aa T03H uaps,

1) BTOp.l eK3eMTIJlllp" on. T83H MOlteTa 6t n8M:!;peU'b OTh lOp. rOcnO~IHIOIl'b np'H pasKonKHTt "PH C. l,{o6an·Aepe, E . .lI.}I(YM8IlCKO, 0P:!;3" 1914 rOA.

H A. MYWMOBl>, IlPflROCb K"bM"b 6'bJ1rapCKllTa HYMIl3M3TIIKa

69

KOHTO nosesero na onaKOTO HMaTh caao noxenarara MOHorpaMa, a aa nB~eTO CH Rt.Man HHKaK'bB"b lia.n;nHC'h (06p. 50).

OPH MOHeTHn C'h KptnoCTHH rnHH ce 3a6tnt3Ba orne eABa ocoeeHOCTh. Bspxy SCHliKH eK3eMDn$lpH cs HMeTO aa MHXaHJla nHlIH H MOHorpaMaTa 14P, .n;OKaTO B'b BCHIJKH .n;pyrH MOHeTH OTh He. AJJeKCaHnpa H MHxaHna Ta3H MooorpaMa nHIIH caao npa HMeTO na Aaexcasnpa. To sa 06CTO$lTencrso HH Haae>KJla aa MHC'bJIbTa, lie Tt3H MOHeTH CJi'\ 6HnH ci;lIeHH a"b nocntJlHHn ro-

Olip. 50. - Mt.l1H8 MOBeu on Ho. AneKcaHD.pa •

.n;HHH on >KRSOTa sa MnxaHna, xoraro Toli e

6Hn"b aa no-apbaa B"b3paCTb H e B3eMan"b nO-aKTHSBO vsacrae S'b ynpaaaeRHeTO na uapCTSOTO. Bsnpocnarf MOHeTH no KalleCTSO, CTHJI'b H aanpaaa ce OTJlH'IaSaT"b OTh .ZlpyrHTt M'BJlHH MOHeTH on Ha, AneKCaH.1I;pa, aa KOHTO uanpasara e no-npocra, CTHn'bn no-rpytrs, a H caMHrt MOHeTH C~ nO-T'bHKH.

H.Ile$lTa, na np'sncraaa KptnoerHrt na Llapesetrs H Tpaneaaua S'bpxy MOHeTHrl, KOHTO HH 3aHHMaSaT'b, naps HB. AneKCaHJl'bp'b rptelsa na e S3eJl'b on M.o.Ht'rHn aa BH3aHTHHcKHrt asmeparopa Teonop's III .!lyKa (1255- 1259 r.), AH.llPOBHKD U Flaneoaor-s (1282-1323 r.), AH,llpOHHKD II H CHH'b My MHXaHJI'b IX (1294-1320 r.), H MaoyHn'b II Ilaneoaor-s (1391-1423 r.), aspxy KOHTO cxmo ~ npancraaena H3BtC!HH yKptneHH rpaaose. HaacTHHa, HHTO e,llHH'b 0T'b rt3H BillaJli>'renH He e 6HJI'b C'hSptMeHHHK'b aa Hs. Aaexcaaapa (1331-1371 r.), no aarosa nbKb nosesero C1I'\. HerOBH nptJlurecraeaana, ra CD rontM3 S'BPOHTROCTb Mome na ce np'snnoaara, lie Ha. Aaexcaszrsp» no. rtxeH'b npHM'Bp'b e HCKall'b ~o na nptACTasH B'bpxy MOBeTHrt CH spsnocnrrs aa CSOHTa CTOJlH~a.

Opt.n;H na caspura, Tpt6aa aa Kama HtKo.nKO .nyMH sa OC06HOTO 38a'IeHHe aa Mo.HeTHn C'b KptnoCTHH crsaa, Tt C1I'\. eJlHHCTsellHT'h, S'bpxy KORTO e or6tnt3aH'b rp8,ll'bT'b, ,a,tTO C.1I. ci;lIeHH Mo.HeTHrt. OTJltnHHrt 6YKSH T" K sa onaxoro na HtROH on ri;X'b He Mo.raT'b .Ila osnaxaaar-s .Zlpyro, oestH'b HMero aa rpaaa T'bPHOSO. On TOBa 6H xorac Aa ce S3KJlIO" 1m, lie Sb T'bPHOSO e HMano MOHeTapHHua B'b SptMeTo. aa Hs. AneKC8HJlpa.

Be itr a g e zur bulgarischen Nu m t s m a t ik. - I. Kupfermiinzen des Konigs Srazimir und seines Sohnes Konstantin (1360-1396). Diesen beiden Herrschern gehoren die Kupfermunzen Abb. 39, 40, 43 und 44

70

H. A. MYllIMOB'b, npHHOCl> K'bM"b 6'bnrapCKaT8 UYMH3MaTHK8

die frUher talschlich dem Iwan Alexander zugeschrieben wurden. Die Monogramme auf der Vorderseite der beiden ersten Exempiare lauten IW"{H) Gp(")U.HMHP I~A" &I\(I'''''CO''') und (WA(H) G("A)II.HMHP 1\(4)" .... Die Vorderseite des dritteo Exemplars bietet uns die Bilder Srazimirs und Konstantins. Auf der Rnckseite die entsprechende durch viele Ligaturen wiedergegebene lnschrift 1\(4)" IWACH) Gp(A)U.HMHP und K(COIIC'J"AIlTHH'lI.). -II. KupfermOnzen des Konigs Konstantin Assen (1258-1277). Die gut erhaltene Inschrift des auf Abb. 45 wiedergegebenen Exemplars beweist, dass diese Mtinzen, die der Verfasser Iruher falschlich dem Iwan Assen II. zugeschriebeu hat (Izvestia IV 51 f. und Abb. 17 und 18), von Konstantin Assen gepragt worden sind. - III. Kupfermnnzen mit Festungsmauern. Wie die Monogramme zeigen, sind diese MUn~en (Abb. 46 und 47) unter Iwan Alexander und seinem Sohne Michail (1331-1355) gepragt worden. Aui der Ruckseite bieten sie noch die Buchstaben THIl, die AbkOrzung des Namens der darnaligen bulgarischen Hauptstadt Tirnovo (Tp'll.HOR .... ).

N. A. Musch mow.

06p. 51. - K0J1lK3·)lepMellcK3T3 'MOrHn3, rneJ13H3 on K'bMb ctoepo·san3.[[b.

Konaca-Ilepaencxara MOrHJla npn rp. WYMeHb

On. P. nOROa1o (CD r36n. IV-VI)

-,..-

Illecrs H nOnOBRHa KHno.MeTpa na c1>Bep'b on Illyaem., Db

MtCTHOCTbT8 .KD~)I(a-.nepMeH'b", TOKY no uiocero sa Pasrpazrs, Kpaii Crpaseeacsara ptKa, ce H3.11Rra naocxa MarHna cs Kp~rn8 OCHOBa, qld~TO .I1HaMeT'bp'b Mi;pH OKDno 60 I'll., a BHCOllHH8Ta If 1l0CTHra 6.5-7 M. (06p. 51) npi>3'b npcasrsra aa 1907 roa. pa6DTHHltHTi> no nosocrpoemoro ce urocd llIYMeH'b -- Pasrpajrs, sa JJ,a nocraaars npucrs aa rpacero, 6txa pasxonaaa sacrs Dn C.-H3TDQH1UI (KnDH'b aa MorHn8Ta. Cntn.'b KaTO ce jranpaaa Hym· sara nocrxnxa npi;JJ,'b M'BcraaTa BJl8CTb, lla6~.I1e 3.a6paHeHD nO'H8T8nW' H.DTo. KDn8Be, cxmara rOJJ,HHa Hanp8BHXMe Hi>KDnKD CDUJJ.8lK8 B'O MDrHn8T8, KDHTD npDJJ,'bJJ>KHXMe H npi>3'b 1908 rDJJ,. Ui>nbT8 UH 6i>U1e .118 aaKpa..rJlHM'b aanpaaeaarb Belle p83KDnKH H JJ,a C'b6epeM'b H3KDnaHHR H a8XB'bpneH'b DT'b pa6DTHHltHr1; M8TepH8J1'b. nDcn'B.I1HHSI'I"b, KaKTD H TDSI, KaATD UHe nonylIHXMe ors CDH;lJ.alKHr1;, 1) CDxpaHRBaH'b cera B'b c6HpKHr1; ua lllYMeHcKHSI OKpa..lKeH'b MY3eA, nptJJ,CT8BR rDn'BM'b HayqeH'b anrepecs ; np'B.ll'b BHJJ,'b sa TDB8 npt3'b 1914 rDJJ,. 6txMe KDM8HJJ,OPDB8HH on MHHHCTepCTBDTD JJ,a Hanp8BHM'b CHCTeMaTHlIHH pa3KDnKH CD Cp'B.llCTB8T3 na HapD.I1HHSI MY3e.A . .nD6HTH8n, pe3ynT8T'b me 6a..JJ,e nptJ{MeT'b H8 r33H CTaTHR.

I) P. Il o n 0 8 'It, nepHO.ll. cn. LXX CTp. 505.

72

P. nonOBb, KOJl.>Ka-LlepMeRCK8T8 Morllna npu rp. WYMeHb

KO,zUKa-.llepMeHcKara MOfHJla nptACTasSi aacarn, 0T'b nerreaaa npocJ10AKH, paasrsceaa C'b SAli.fJlHllla, lKHSO-THHi:KH (ptAKO 1I0SllWKH) KOCTH, crpoureaa CN.,llose H 0PAII.,llHSI, aanpaneaa 0T'b KOCTb, por-s, KpeM'bK'b.H KaM'bK'b. TtS8 HenpaSHJlHH npOCJIOAI<H, "IHSlTO AeOeJlHHa e HSOOIllO HeSHa"lHTeJIHa, ce OOHSlT'b C'b nJlaCTOBe 0T'b casa HJlH lK'bJlTO'lepBeHa oropsaa npscrs, KaKTO H C'b TaKHBa, KOHTO np'sncrassr-s aarpynanaaenpaeaaao fnHHeHH MaSHJIKH, CO ornexar-sua 0T'b xoaose, npxra H CJI3Ma. BCHIIKO rosa noKaSBa. se MOfHJlaTa npsncraaa aacarrs 0T'b oCTaHKHrl aa cemnne, KoeTO e saeaaao npocrpaacrso He no-ronaao 0T'b TOBa Ha ocsoaara aa MOfHnaTa H xoero ce e C'bCTOSlJlO OT'b HtKOJIKO caao - KonHOH. OPH C'bOapHHeTO aa

06p. 52. - rmmeRI! CIi\.D,OBe, OT'I8CTH paaroneaa OTb onoscapaaaae.

nOCJIt,ll,HHTt, TaBaH'bT'b KaKTO H crBHHrt C£ n3}J.HaJlH aspxy nona H CJI-BJl'b aarpomaaaaero HM'b ua fontMH H MallKH K£coBe, oopaayaanH CAli. naacrs, .lle6eJI"b OOHKHoBeHo 40-50 CM. THSI K.¥.coae, 6nafO,llapeHHe aa TOBa, lie KaKTO rnHHrl, rasa H TaBaRHT'B CAlI. 6HnH asneseaa 0T'b no-paso, CAli. MOfnH JI,a ce aarraasrs )];0 zmecs. O'bPBHT"B H HaA-CTapHrt oCTaHKlI OTb lKHJHI,. ina HaMHpaMe B'b caxara ocaoaa na MorHnaTa, a nO~'B..n:HH·rt, cnt.a.osaTeJIHO HaA-HOBHn, saeaars 8'bpxa. HaQHH'bT'b H3 CTpOe>Ka aa e,llHHrt H APyrHrt CH ocrasa eJlH~'b H CN.1ll'b. OpH rosa, xaro HMaMe npt)J.'b BH:,1t'b, 'Ie KynTYPHHTt OCTaHKH (np-B,llHMHO f.1HHeHHrt csaose), HaM-BpeRH D'b HaAcraparaa HaA-HoBHrt nOCTpOHKH, C£ e,llHH H CAli.IllH, CJI-B,llBa ,lla ce 3aKJlIOQH, 'Ie ceaamero e cxuiecrsyaaao np-Ba'b e,llHH'b nepaozrs, npta'b KoAro He e

P. Ilorreas, KOltlK8-.nepMeHCK8Ta MOrMJJ3 npu rp .. Wy~eH'L

73

craaana HHKaKBa CR.w.ecrseHa npOM-BHa BD KynT)'pHOTO C'bCTOHHHe aa 06uTaTeJlUn na KOJl>Ka ·1I.epMeH'b. Ha)1.'b aaH-CTapHn OCTaHKH OT'b .>K:UJlHIlla HenOCp-B.D.CTBeHO CnBJI.BaTb aropa, Hall'b TBX'b JlpyrH H T. K. TOBa HBHO nOKaSBa, "Ie r.rBCTOTO aa MorHn8Ta, KaTO cemnue, 6narOJlapeHUe ua 6naronpHHTHHn OKonHH ycaosas sa >KUBOT'b, He e 6uJlO aanymaao OT'b nptJlHCTOpH'IeCKHKl"b qOB-BK'h, KOHTO MO}l{e 6H pem, CTontTHH e npOJl'bJl}l{aBan'b na crpoa HOBH }l{HnHm.a B'hpxy ocraaxar-s na OHHSI' 0T'b HerOSHn npaJl-BJI.H. 11 raxa, MarepHanbT'b OT'b paspyureaars KOJlH6H H H3XB'bpmlHaTa 0T'b oraamara aeneas rrOCTeneHHO ca. ce narpyneaaa, .ZI.O KaTO HaCHn'bTb e JlOCTHrHaJl'b H-BKO.l1KO Me1'pa BHCO"lHHa. Taxa 06paSYBaHa, MorHnaTa rrspaoaasaaac e HMaJla <popMa aa np-BCe"leH'b KOHYC'b C'b KpR.rna OCHOBa, a C'b rexeaee na Bp-BMeTO, 0T'b .D:liiiCTBueTO aa aTMoc<pePU.I1UHTh, TSI Jl06HBa JlHeWHHSI CH aa06.1eH'b BHA'b, KaTO 3Ha'lHTe.I1HO H3ry6Ba on mspaoaasannara CH BHCO'IHHa. TaK'bB'b e cntJlOBaTe.l1HO npOUSXOJl'bTb aa nosesero np-BJlHCTOpH'IeCKU MorHnH y sacs, KaKBHTO H306H.I1HO cpbmaae KaKTO B'b csaepaa, rasa H B'b lO>KHa D'hJlrapHSI'. )f{HnHm.8Ta, OTKpHTH B'b OCHOBaTa na MorHnaTa, KaKTO H OHHSl npa B'bpXa, C}I'\ crpoena no eAHH'b H C'R.IllH HaqH~'b: 0T'b xoaose H npRoTH, a 0T'b nOCJI-B rpH>KJJHBO HSMasaHH C"b rJIHHa, KOSl'TO np'snsapareaao e 6Rna Jl06pt paasrsceaa C'b cnaaa. KaMbK'bT'b, M3K3p"b H306H,IleHb Bb OKonHOCTbTa, He e H3nOJl3YBaH'b K.aTO CTpOYTeneH'b MaTepHaJl'b. 3a <popMaTa aa KonH- 6un MO}l{eM'b Jl8 C}I'\JlHM'b 0T'b HaM-BpeHHTB rJlHHeHH MOlle,llH, KOHTO onacsaae no-noaa, HtKOH 0T'b KOnR6uTt CR. 6UBanH paapymasaaa np-BAH Jla 6R.JlaT'b OKOH"IaTenHO HSOCTaBeHH 0T'b TBXHHTB 06HTaTeJlO. lie TOBa e 60no raxa, aae Jla HH yBtPH <paKT'bT'b, JltTO B'bpXy noxa aa HtKOH KonH6H, nom, cpyreHHSI nOKpHB'b H cnHH, HaMHpaMe utnHH HHSeHTap'b aa nOK}I'\w.HHHaT8 : ca.JlOBe, Opa.JlH$I, HaKKTB H np. (Cp3BHH 06p. 57 H 58), KOHTO, no eaaa RnH npyra npasaaa, npt,llHCTOpHqeCKHHT'b qOB"BK'b e nM3.11'b B"b3MOlKHOCTb,lla crraca. E,llH8 OTb npa'IHHUTI; sa np-B>K,lleBp-BMeHHOTO aanymaae aa >KHnBIllaT3 C.}I'\ 6HJlH cnY'IaHHHTI; noacapa. B" TOBa MO}l{aXMe Aa ce y6"BJlHM" 0T'b cn-BJlHHH iPaKT'b. Bspxy nona sa H"BKOJIKO L<OJlH6H HaMtpHxMe CR.,llOBe nOIlTH pasronena H C'bB'bpmeHO ,lle<popMHpaHH, KOHTO B'b TOBa C'bCTOHHHe He 6Hxa MornH Jla cnymaT'b S8 HHK8KBa l1,"Bnb. Oco6eH0 aarepeceirs e CJlYl:J8HT'b C'b CR.AOBert, np"BACT8- BeHH ua o6p. 52. HaMtpHxMe ra B'bpXy noaa aa e,llHa KOJlH6a, nOCT3BeHH eAHH'b R'b npyr-s. Ta3H crpaaa, KOHTO e 6HJla nO-6JIH30 no On.UH H cn"BAOBaTeJlHO ce e aarphsana nO-CHJlFlO, ce e pa3TOOFIJla. B'b nO-rOn-BMHH ca.ll'b ce aaaspaxa 5 nO-ManKO, noctaseaa e,llHR'b B'b ,llpyrb, H Ha~-B}I'\Tp"BmHOSl'T'b 0T'b TtX'b ce e 3aOa3BJlb nO'lTH aencspsnem, 0T'b nomapa.

74

P. nOnOB'b, KO,!{}I(a-llepMeHcK3T8 MOrl1118 npl1 rp, WYMe""

PaSKOnKHrB aa KOD.>Ka-LJ.epMeHcKaTa MorHna XBopnHxa aosa CB'BTJIHHa BopXY .nOMaWHHH >KHBOT'b na nptD.HCTOpHqeCKHH qOBtK'b. TOBa HMa na ce 6n:aro.1lap" aa J]0·.1l06p'B sanaaeaars OCTaHKH Olb HerOBHn )f{HJlHlUa (cp. naaaa aa paaxonxars, 06p. 53 H 54; aasepraaoro none 81> 06p.53 03Ha· saaa paaxonanara qaCT& ;CRHMKH· 1'1; na 06p. 54 CA aaaeceaa no Koop.1lHHaTH na OCbTa A B). B'b TpH 0T'b pa3KpHTHrS KonH6H nae HaMt· pHxMe oraama, KOHTO HMaTh $opMa aa MaCHBHH H HH3KH npaaoxr'snaa npH3MH, C1> rpH>KJIHBO H3MaaaHH crsHH, a TOKy no CaMliTt ornunra CA'\ 6uJI" rpaneua MenHHltlf, C'b KOHTO

KOJl:>Ka11epMeHeltbTb CH e nparor-

OOp. 53. - nJlallh aa MorllJlaTa.

BJlJlb (Spawno. 33 11a ce 3an0311aeMb cs aanpasara ua THJI .1l0MaWHH MeJI-

(

/

- F ! :..

aOe I

H~

: a

1

o

, , 'I .

'io,,/- 18 ...

/ _" J

'"

n

00 06'0

06p. 54. - nnaH'b aa pa3KpIITI1rt KOn"!)".

HHUH, KOHTO no <popMa np'B,IJ;CTaBJlT'b ABa rana, KaKTO H cs YCTpoA· CTBOTO na )f{HJJHmaTa, me onauresn, HaKpaTKO OCTaHKHTB on TpH KOJIH6H.

P. Ilonoa-s, KOD)K8·)lepMeHcKara IIIonlna "PI! rp. WYMeR"

75

KOJIli6a 1. Ilpa 3SnOlJBSHe aa pa3KonKHTB I1bpBHn OCTaHKH 0T"b >KHJIHlIle OTKpHXMe aa A'bJI60IUfBa 3 M. on nOBpbxHOCTbTa ua MOrHJIaT8 H 1 M. 0T"b OCHOBaTa H. nOAbT"b aa KOJIH6aTa,,lI,e6eJIb OKOJIO 10 CM., nptACTaBH nOJIYH3nelJeHa rJIHHeH8 Ma3HJIKa, KOHTO Jle>KH BbPXY nJIaCT"b 0T"b CHBa CJIHBa .CD .zr.e6eJrIfHs 1 M. Ta3H rJIHHa, I.II:1HTO UBtTb ce A'bJI>KH HS neneasra, e passrsceaa CD MHO}l{eCTBO }J(H.BOTHHCKH KoeTH, BNt.rmUUS, IPparMeHTH OTb c~.zr.OBe, crpomeaa OpiKAHH OTb KOCTb H KpeMbK'b H cnYl.laiaHo nonansaaa snpaaa TaKHBa. T03H KYJltypeHb nJlSCTb IIQKa3Ba, 'Ie KOJlH6sTS, OCTaHKHTB sa KOSITO pa3KpHBaXMe ryxa, He e OTb Hsii'CTapHrl, KOHTO, KaKTO HM8XMe

06p. 55. - 4aCTb or" noaa aa Koml6a 1.

cn:ylJaA }.[.a CnOMeHeM'b no-paao, C£ rpaneaa aenocpaacraeno B'bpXy nospsxHOCTbTa HS aapaaara noxaa. Bspxy noaa aa KOJlH6aTa 6txa aarpynaaa roJltMH H MSJlKH K~COBe 0T'b Ma3HJIKH, 06psayBalIlH 40 CM • .lle6eJIb nJISCTb. THH KA'i..COBe on asnesena rJIHHa, CD OTIleqaT"bUH 0T'b KOJlOBe, npA'i..TH H MaMa, npOH3XO>K.l1,an QT'b rnBJfTB H rasana HS cpyreaara KOJlH6a. Ilpa BHHMaTeJIHOTO pa311HCTBa"e ua uacana, B'bpxy nona HaA-HanptJl'b ce OTKpHxa OCTaBKHn on oraame (o6p. 55 Aj cp. nnaaa aa pS3KOnKHTB aa 06p. 54 KO- 1IH6a I T). 8HCOlJHHaTa MY, MtpeHa on nOBp'bXHOCTbTa na nona, .1l0CTHra~ 30 CM., a JlHaMenp'bn He HatlMHHaBa 1 M. OKOJTHHn rnRH ~ rpyoo H3Ma-

'16

P. nOnOB1>, KOJDK8·.llepMeHc.KaT8 MOfHJl8 npn rp. WYMeH'b

aaaa, llOKaTO OTrOp'B OOap'bXHOCTbTa e raanxa H nOJlHrOHaJlHO aanyxaaa. OKOJlO oraamero ce HaM'BpHXa H3XB'bpJleHa rreneas, Kap60HH3HpaHO )KHTO H H'BKOJlKO crpomeaa CA\llOBe.

Ha 20 CM. 0T'b aanaaaas pA\6'b aa oraaniero ce OTKpHxa OCTaHKHT'B aa ellHa npHMHTHBHa MenHlu,{a (06p. 55 B; cp .. nnaaa 06p. 54 KOJlH6a I H). nocn'BllHSlTa HMa 410pMa aa nonxoaa H e aanpaseaa OT'b ll06p'B asneseaa H SlKO saspsneaa B'bpxy nona raaaa, Cnoun H, cs MRor06poRuH crnesar-sua OT'b caraa nn'BBa, B'b cpaaara HMaT'b BHCOqHHa 15 eM., a MaKCHMaJlUarra HMb lle6e.nHHa (npa ocaoaara) M'kPH 4 CM. HU,Jlb)K'b MenUHI.{8Ta aaeaa eaao paaCTOSlHHe OT'b 80 CM., a HamHp"- 60 CM. B~TP'B B'b BeSi ce HaMtpHxa TpH xpo-

06p. 56. - P"''1H8 MeJlUHU8 OT"b KOJlH6a I.

Menue .KaM'bKa on enpoaspaecrs nt.C'hlJHHK'b. HaH·rOJlt.MIUIT'b Me>KJI.Y nXb, nO'lT" HanOJlOBHHa saMaSaH'b a'b noaa ua KOJlH6aTa, HMa roxypesa 'IeTB'bpTHTa 41opMa, C'b llHaMerpH 31 X 20 CM. Tolt e 6Hn'b OCHOBHHS! XpOMeJlb. ,npyrHT'B ;lI,Ba, nO·.MaJlKH, ce HaMtpHxa no caMHSI Hero H ~ cnY)KeJlH aa crpasaxa, EllHBHSlT'b OT'b nocntllBHT'B e C'b enua, llpyrJUlTb - C'b llBt. asraaneaa OJlOCKOCTH. OKOJlO XPOMeJIHHT'B rrnO'IH ce HaMtpH ezno KpeMeHHO opxnae, ezso Kap6oHH3HpaHO ll"peo H npOll1>nroBaTH MOHHCTa QT'b POID H KOCTh. Peeraspapaaa naaaae MeJIBHuaTa aa o6p. 56.

KOJlH6a II. Iloaexe OCTallKH HaMtpHXMe sanaseaa B'b npyra enaa KonH6a, KOHTO BD naana (06p. 54) 03HaQaBaMe CD II. OT'b oraamero e aanaseaa caMO eABa Q8CTb (o6p. 57 A H sa nnaaa II T). To e HMaJlO BHCO'lHHa

P. nOilOBD, KOlJ)Ka-JlepMeRcK3Ta MorW13 npH rp. UlyweH"b

77

20 CM., a JlHaMeT'bp"b - 1.35 M. Flpa ocaoaara ua H3TOIIHaTa My crpaua ce OTKpH npaaoxr-saua MaaHlIKa (o6p. 57 D, ua naaaa II L), Jl'bJIra 80 CM., urapoxa oxoao 69 CM., I<ORTO orpascaaure Jl~a mHHeHH ca.,!(a (o6p. 57 B H C). Me>KJlY Ti;X'b 6i>xa nocraaena naa MOll.eJIa aa KOJIIiOH. OT'b ni>so aa Ta3H Ma3HJIKa .aenocpbncraeao e CJltJlBaJIa sropa (rJI. rraaaa II H), C'b ClKutHrl pa3Mi>pH, o6aQe, no enaa HJIH apyra npanaaa, He e MorJIa,!(a ce aanasa. TSI e orpaacaana elJ.H.H'b crpoureas XpOMeJl"b OT'b xoaraoaepar-s, aaxpsnern, 8"bpXY HH3"bKl> CT'bJIO'b on rJIBHa. Ti>3H Jl.si> MaSHJ1KH npbncraBSlT'b STOPH THnD MeJIHHua. MaSHJIKaTa, KOHTO aarpasena XpOMeJIa, e CJIy' >KeJIa Bi>pmtTtlO aa C'b6RpaHe na CMJUIHOTO opamHO, KoeTO ce e CDxpaHHaaJIO a'b ClKD.OSeTt, "OCTaSeHH Bb C'bct.JlHOTO OTAi;neHHe. Ha H3TOQHaTa crpaaa

OCip. 57. -llacTb on nOM ua KOJ1fli5a 11.

na oruamero ce paakpa enaa Ma3HJIKa, HeHO qrpaHH411'Ha OTKbMb Sa-T, pamaara crpaaa sa KOJIH6aTa, KaKTO H orropb (o6p. 58 AB HOOp. 59 AB BbPXY rraaaa oep, 54 II E) . .lI.o TaSH Ma3HllK3, KOSlTO Bt. P o SlTK o· !1OCOLJ'Ba BXOJl.a sa >KRJIHIU.eTO, ce HaM'BpHXa HtKonKO cxaa, IlOCTaBeHH B'b eAHH"b pe)l.b, H TpH KaMeHHH OpR.JlHH (oop.58 I, II H III). nOLJTH nepneHAHKYoIIHPUO aa Ta3H Ma3HJIKa, Ha C.'H3TOKb 01'1, OrHHuteTO, ce OTKpR OCHQsaTa aa enaa crsaa (o6p. 58 AC, oep. 59 AC H na o6p. 54 Il F), scao OrpaHHI.I,eH3 caxo OTKbMb sa-TpiHIlHa-ra crpaaa . .a'bJI2KIIHaTa Ii .n.OCTHl'a 5 M.

KOJ1HOa III. Bs Ta3H J(oJlH6a, !10AbT'b ua KOHTO CTOH oxono 1'5 M. noHH31{0 OTb TOR ua KOJIli6a II, ce OTKpH C""IlJ.O raxa eARO ornmne, rontMo;

.J

78

P. nO.llOBb, KOB.lKB·.!lepMeHcK3T3 MOrlll13 npn rp, Wy~reH."b

no'mi rOJUCOB3., KO.llK01'O OHOBa npa 1l0cnt.AHIlTa KOnl-i6a (rJl. nJlaHa,06p. 54 HI T) Ilpa OCHOBaT3 aa c-aartanaara My crpaaa I1Ma MB3liJiKa C'b ABt. oTAtJIeRHH (ra. rraaaa, ofip. 54 III N), 3HaJl'OrHQHa aa OH;3H UP" BTOpaTa KOJIHfia. S"b eARO Olb oTAt..IIeHHIlTa ce H3MtpHxa ABa K3M"b1<3, fies'b o6ne Aa HOCHT'b CJItAH orb ynoTpt6a. XpOl4eJUiHrl nJlo'"!H, KOIUO C}h 6HJlH nocraseaa BD THlt oT,l1.1iJIeIflUI, H3MtpHxMe He ,Il3J1.ell.'h :OT'b oraamero. Ha )o.-san.l\.lIJIUa crpasa sa nocrsnaero ce OTKPHX3 fJIHBeH:l'l DOXJlynKH Ii C£)lOBe, litKOH onrnx'b nocraseaa f"AHHb B'b APYro,

Sb l.JeTB1>pra easa KOJlH6a, nOA1>T'b na KOIlTO CTOH caxo H'5·K01lKO caaraxerpa nO'HH3KO OTb TOl'! HB aropara, ceOTKpH BbPXY nOJl.aMa3.HJlK3 (rn. nnaaa, o6p. 54 IV K), nOAo6Ha sa OHaH, I<ORTO Bb OJIaHa U3 sropara l<oJlH6a

06p. 58 .. - 4.3Clh 011> noza ua, KoJlll6a II.

03H3'1HXMe C1> E. Henocp sncraeao no BeS! cn-SD.Ban ABt nepneHAHKYJlSlPHO p33nOJlO>KeHH M33HJlKH (C'b Ae6eJlHHa 5 CM., BHCOQHH3 20 eM.). nOc.ntltHHrt.,. no scsxa BtPOSlTHOcrb, npt)l:CTaBSlT'b OCTaHKK 0T'b MeJIHUua C'b Ast OTAtntHHfI. BbPXY noaa lia KOJlll63Ta ce HaMtpHxa c.~aOBei KpeMeHHH 0P~lIiHlt H lIisa rJlHHeHK MO,lleml sa KOJlfl6H. ITPH ltPyrHrl pa3:KpHTH KOJIH68,. OCBtH'b H3:Ma3:aH"b nom, H MHomeCTBO crpourean 8'bpXY Hero C.:KAOBe, nOKpHTH C'b ne6eJI'b OKOJIO 40·50CM. !IJIaeT'b ot1> rJIFlHeHH MaSIMI<H, I<OH10 npOH3:XO>K.a:3T'b on. CPYTeHHrl crtHH H raeaas, C-IIt.D.H OT"b orMHlU3 If MeJlHIIIUH He ce HaMtpH.Xa; aKO rrspsoaaeaano e HMano raxaaa ,. rl anocaaacraae e.:K 6.HJlH OHli EUO>KNIH.

P, floncs-s, KOIVlCa-.aepMellt.Ka-rB srorana "PH rp. WYMeH'b

79

nO'rontMara xacrs OTb KepaMrf1lHHfl MaTepHan'b, KOHTO onacsaxe noD.ont. ce HaMtpH BbPXY 1l0.n,OBeTt aa pa3KpHTHTt >KHJIHlll,a, .n,OKaTO noselJeTO OpAUlHH npoaaxoisnars on 60KnYlJ:HHrt "aCHOR.

ent.n,'b nUl np snaapareaaa 6tJIt>KKH, ocraaa HH.n,a ce 3an03F1aeM'b CD .n,Of)HTHTt 0T'b paasornorrs npt.n,MeTH, KOHTO pasnptD.tJlHMe cnopem, xarepuana, on Kotho eN,. narrpaseua.

,

06p. 59.- 4aC:Tb on "':noJla;';HB KOIIm6a. !.

1. npt.QMeTH OTb KpeMbKb.

illYMeHCKOTO nnaro, npa nOD.HOlKHf!TO sa xoero nelKH MtCTHOCTbTa KOD.>Ka-JIepMeHb, npJ'tHaD.JJe>KH aa xpenaara ¢!opMaUHH. Ocaosara aa naaTOTO e CbCTaBeHO Ol"b HeOKOMCI<H (Neocomien) .H fiapeMcKH (Baremien) naac roae, ,l{OKaTO rOpH}1Ta My sacre npHHal{1le>KH aa ropaara xpena H TO sa exwepHeHCKHH (Emscherien) H arypcxs (Aturien) nonsaroae .. Bb nJiacroBeTt ua mIaTOTO KpeMbKbT'b ce cpbura Bb $opMa 'Ha no-rOJJtMH flJIM nO-MaJII(IJ .rHta.n,a, a ocoeeno nOCJltD.HHTt H306HJICTByearb 5b CHHK8BHrt Me preJlJ'I ,

P. nODOS'b, KOJIlKa·llepMeBCKllTa !dOrHlla npl! rp .. WYldeH'b

KOUTO J1emsn nOA'b eMWepl'IeHCKHTt n-SC'bllHHUfI., KaKTO Jil B'b 61>.IutrB arypcxa BapOBHUH, C'l> KOHro naaroro SaB'bpwss.

EJ1.1i30CTbTS HS xarepaasa e ltSJla B'b3MO)KHOCTb . na ce pS3BHe .n:OCTa 60raTS I<peMeHHa HH.ltycrpHlt Bb Ko.n;>KaJ1.epMeHCKOTO CeJiHJ..LJ;e. TOBa B.H>KltaMe OT'bMBoro6.poAHHrBKpeMeaBH OpN.llHB, KOHro ce OTKPHX;S npa paSKOnKHTB. CYPOBHflT'b MarepH811'b e 6.Jilll'bltOHaC:BH'b B'b ceaamero Ii ryKb e 6HJ1'b nonJISraHb HS o6pa6oTKa. 3a TOBa CSHn:trenCTBYSST'b MHOltCeCTBOTO flltpa (Nuclei), ltBt 01"b KOHTon:aBSMe aa 06p.. 60, KS.KTO H MHoro6poaHHn xpeMeHHH nyCfIH (o6p. 61), .KOH1'O eN. ee OT.utnsIJIH npH irsneaero HS HOlKoBert, CT'bpranKHT'B H ap. KpeMeHHHn 0PiY\1J;J.ul,cno-

80

a

6

05p. r·o. - l{pe~IC!H1.11 Hnpa.

peD,'b U;BJlI>Ta, sa KOnroCH. 6Hn.H n pH rOTBR Ii Ii I npt..n;crsBBTb·: 1 )Sb pxoae aa.cTptlUl, 2) H.oltCose,3) crspranKH, 4) GpallS" H 5) 60AHH rnnxn.

06p. 61. - KpeMemll1 lIycnH.

i !

,~

06p. 62. - l{peMel:leIl'b B P'bX'b 8 a cTp1;n2.

B'b P X 0 Be 3 a c r p -BJl H. 06p. 62 np't.1I.CTaSSI eD,HHCTSeHHSI H8MtpeH'b Bb Morunara BpbX'b sa crpaaa .. Toa liMa CPOpM8 na paeacpaxeaeat, ,PHA\f'bJIHHK'b C'b cn'BD,Hlf1·t pa3M'BpH: .1I.'bJJ}KHHa 5'3 CM., mHpHH8 "PH OCHOBaTa 2 CM., ,lI,e6eJllma 0-5 eM. Bspxoaeaa CTp'Bn.H., uanpaaeaa OTb OrfleR'b~l<peM"bK'b,

P. Ilenoes, KOlIlKa-)J.epweucK3Ta MOrHJla npH rp .. WYMeR'h

81

aKO CR.,llHM'b OT'b .lI.06HTHT"B .lI.O cera peaYJITaTH, CAf. pt.nKOCTb S'b npaaacropHqeCKUT"B MOrHJIH y aacs. H'hKOJIKO eK3eMTIJUlpa ex aaMtpeHH S'b CYJITaaesara MorHJIa (nonOBCKO), a R'b CaIIMaHOBCKaTa He ce yxaaa HHTO e.ll.HH'b. S'b HeOnHTHqHHTi; nJIaCTOBe na ceJIHmeTO npa , C. Ma.ll.apa (IIIYMeacKo) HMaxM~ cnyqaA .lI.a HaMtpHM'b noaese 0T'b 30 exsexnaspa, MaKap'b paaxonKHT"B, npt.ll.npKeTH 0T'b aacs npt3'b 1903 H 1909 r., na HMaxa xapaereps aa coa . .lI.aH<H. Jlancara aa KpeMeHHa B'bpXOBe sa crp-BJIH B'b KO.ll.lKa-LlepMeHcKaTa MOrHJIa He MOlKe .lI.a ce oraaae sa JIHOCaTa aa MaTepHaJI'b; HanpOTHB'b, Illy. MeHCKOTO nJIaTO, npa nO,lJ;HOlKHeTO aa KoeTO ce HaMHpa MorHJIaTa .. H306HJIcrsyaa C'b KpeMeHHH nrsana, KOHTO npi>.lI.HCTOpHqeCKHSIT'b qOS-BK:b e C'b6H' pall'b H HOCHJI'b S'b CeJIHmeTO, HO rH e ynoTpt6S1BaJI'b caxo sa HO>KOSe, CT'bpraJIKH H 6PaASH. Hapezrs C'b THSI Op.IK.lI.HSI HHe HaMi>pHXMe He caxo MHOr06poAHH aapa, 0T'b KOHTO T"B C.IK OTqYOBaHH, HO H ui>JIH nrssaa 0T'b orHeH'b KpeM'bK'b, npbaeceaa S'b CeJIHmeTO, sa za 6.IKllaT"b 06pa60TeHH B'b KpeMeHHH 0P~.lI.UH.

Ille Tpt6sa cntllosareJlHO APyraJl.t Aa Jl.HpOM'b OpHqHHaTa sa JIHOCaTa aa KpeMeHHHT"B B'bpXOBe S'b MOrHJIaTa. Baxa 6HJIH S"bSMO}KHU .nBt npaanoJIO>KeHUSI. Il'spso .. 5H Morno na ce .Il0nYCHe, lie Opt.llHCTOpHqeCKHSlT'b sostK'b D'b KO)J)Ka·LlepMeH'b, KaTO ceo. e nptAaJI'b aa OO-MHPHH aaHSlTHH, nO-MaJIKO e lIYBCTsysaJI'b HY}Klla .lI.a 60pasH C'b crpsaara. JIOB'bT'b, KaTO Cpt.ll.CTBO aa npaxpana, e OCTaHaJI'b aa STOPH nJIaR'b nptA'b aeMneJl.tnHeTO H C.KOTO· B'b.llCTBOTO. Bropo. 6H MorJIO Aa ce npt.ll.nOJIO}J{H, qe, aKO CTptJIaTa e 6HJIa enaa 0T'b salKHHri; Op~>KHSI aa aanaaeaae, sautara H JlOB'b, TO 6ea'b apyro B'bpXOOeT"B ~ 6HJIH npHrOTBSlHH He aese OT'bKpeM'bK'b, a 0T'b APYro ~aTepHaJI'b. n'bpBOTO npt.llnOJIOlKeHHe He e BtPOHTHO, 3aIItOTO, MaKap'b aeMne.ll.-BJIHeTO. H CKOTOS'b.llCTSOTO, aa KOHTO ce nphaaaa O'bpBo6HTHHSlT'b

'II

lIOstK'b npt3'b HOBOKaMeHHaTa eOoxa,.Ila CJi<. CMtK'lHJlH 3Ha'lHTeJIHO RerOBHH

apas», see n8K'b CTptJIaTa My e 6HJIa Heo6xOAHMa sa JIOB'b. 4e JIOB'bT'b e 6Hn'b sa Hero enaa Heo6xo.ll..HMOCTb aa AOCTaBHHe Ha xpasa, CBt.~O'laT'b MHO~06pOH' BUT"B KOCTH OTh AHBU xempaaora }KHBOTHH H OTHUR. KaTO' e raxa, OCTaBa .Ila npHeMeM'b BTOPOTO opt.,1J.nOJIOlKeHHe, se opt.ll.HCTOpHlIeCKRSIT'b qOBtK'b B'b O.KOJIHOCTbTa sa KOA>Ka-LlepMeH'b e npHrOTB.SlJI'b S'bpXOBe sa crptnH on APYro MaTepHaJI'b, KOHTO nO-JIeCHO 6H MOroJI'b aa ce 06pa6oTBa. CnOMeBaXMe norops, lie B'b CeJIHIlleTO npa c. Mazrapa HaMtpHXMe MHor06poHH.H B'bpXOSe sa CTpi>JIH on KpeM'bK'b, MaKap'b 'Ie oOcni>.lI.HHSlT'b B'b OKOJIHOCTbTa aa ceJ10TO He ce cpbuia, a e .lI.OHaCSIH'b on nO-,1J.aJIe'lHH pa3CTOSlHUH. LlOKaTO S'b pa3KOOaHHT"B ao cera MOrHJIH y aacs noaese e passxra KOCTHaTaHH,lI,yCTpHR, B'b Ma.napCKOTO ceaame rrspso Mtcro )J,'bP}KH xpexeaaara. TOBa, KaKTO H .llpyrH

!-bailCTHH HIl Apx . .IlP)'lK. VI 6

82

P. Ilonoss, KOIDKa·llepMlmCK~.'ra MOrH,fJ3 npa fp •. WYMeH'I1

~o6pameH"H, lUi Kapan .l[a cqHTaMe .KYJlTypaTa aa Mal[apCKOTO np'h,llHCTOpjiqeC" 1(0 c.eJlKlUe sa no-erapacreneas aa MJlal[OKaMeHHara enoxa, a TaRBb MOfHJlHT'B 3a no-xsaaa. KaTO e TaKa, KOl[lKa.nepMeHeUbT'b) xaro nO-KYJlTypCHb, aKO MOmeMb TDH na ce .H3p,a3HM'b, e U'BHlM'b sptMeTO H rpYl[a,H, sa l[a C.H npHrOTBH Bbpxose aa crptllH, TOH e H30craSH.Jl'b. KpeMbKa, Ko.Hro na·Mi¥i.qHO ce e o6pa60TSaJl'b, a e np'B.llnOlleJIb KOCTHn Ii porara. KaTO aspxsae aacrp'saa CN..CJlYlKHJll:! nptl[craseHHrB aa 06p~ 88 ocrpaeraors KOCT-b H port-, KaKTO H 1J3KYCTBeHo aaocrpeuar-a 6e.neMIlHTH (Belemnites pistiliformis), I<OH10 IfMaXMe CJIyqaH na HaM-Sp.HMb npts'b 1908 ron, Sb cxmara Monma.

(j

a

8

06p. 63, - KpeMcmIH HO}l(OBe,

-.

Hom as e. HmKoserl. C3\ npozrsaroeara, ncsexe HJJH nO-ManKO )<opy· 6ecTH KpeMeHHH .,1lycne, npI::ITH.nCHH npa 6yJl6yCHH:H KpaH, aaaocrpeax aa npoTHBOnOJlO)f(HHSJ,. Oe3'b no-eara'rsunra o6pa60TKa (otJYKBaHc H pUyWHpaae), XbJlOO'llHHn p£.ooBe ca. ClI.)1HO aaocrpeaa. Kaxro QJopMara,. raxa Ii aaoerpesm-s p}f..60Be CH.. eCTeCTB~Hb peaYJlraTb OT'bJlOMa ua KpeM'bK8. On. MHor06poAHHTt uoscose JlUaMe H.I o6p. 63 caao xerapa," MeiKlI.Y KOHTO Haii-roJltMHgT'b HMaJtbJllKHHa 14'6 CM.

e To P r a J1K K, 06p. 64. Tosa THnb KpeMeHHH OP.a.,llHB, lIHH.TO 6POH He orcrxnsa aa HO>KOBerB! cx". ca.W;O raxa nJlOCKH!CJJaQOKopy6ecrli

P. Ilonoau, KOlllK3·!lepMeHcK3T3 MOnI.rJ8 npa rp. WYMeR"b

83

JlaMemf, rpH>KJIHSO peryurapaax caao SbPXy ORSI KpaH, KOfiTO e CJlY>KeJlb aa patiora (aa IZT'bp>KeHe). Iloaesero ?l"b CTbpramHfTB CHi. cs ycrropensa crpaHHIUlH pa.OOBe, Jl.iKrOBHJI,HO HaSHTH npx perYWHpaHHSI KpaA. OTb rosa

06p. 64. - KpeMeoHH cTbpra'JlKn.

naH-OOHl<HOBeH"b nmo npasSll"b H3KJIIOl.JeHl.fe C8M'O' Ht.KOJIKO eK3eMnJlSlpa, KOHTO Jl,aBaMe na o6p. 65.

6

6 2 a

06p. 65, - KpeMeRIllI cr.bprl1JIK~I.

e

Epa Jl,S H. 1. 06p. 66 a. KpeMeHH3 6pa.1{Ba, JI,'bJlra 1 :t'5 eM., WHpO.K3 5'6 eM., Jl.e6ena 3 CM.

P. nOrrOBb, K01l.'lK8·11epMellcKaTa MOriina I1pl1 rp. UJYMeHb

84

2. 06p. 66 6. Kpexenaa 6pa,ll;sa, ll'bJIra 10.8 eM., WHpOKa 6 CM., ne- 6eJIa 2'5 CM.

3. 06p. 66 8. Kpeaeaaa 6paAsa, )l.'bJIra 11'2 CM., niapoxa 6'4 ca., )l.e6ena 3 CM.

TMSl 6pa.l{SH ce OTJIH'laS3T'b Cb rpyeara ca o6pa6oTKa; nparorseaa CN. caao C'b osysaaae, 6e3'b perymaposxa. AHaJIGrH'IHH 6palJ,BH CN. HaMtpeHH S'h Heo.JllIrWIHara CTaHIJ;Hfl npa EYTMHP'b.1) Xbo.PHeCO paaaxsasa ,!lst CTa,QHH npa oripatiorxara KaKTD xa 6pa.,!lBHT'B, raxa H aa ,lI;JltTaTa, )l.o.Karo. n, Qpt3'b mJlHcpDBKa, 6N.,QaT'h aexe Han'bJIHO ro.TOBH. Ilpa rrspaara cra,l(HII "Ipt3'h osyxaaae ce AaBa caao lKeJIaRaTa cpDpMa H rOJItMHHa sa DpH.Jl.HerD, KaTO 110. no.Sp'bXHOCTbTa ce nD,1lYLJaSaT'b MHO)l{eCTeo. H311H.KHaJIo.CTH H ocrpa pH.6o.se, KDHTO eCTeCTSeHo. ce ,!l'bJI)I{aT'b aa xapaxrepaaa Jlo.M'b~ Ha~KpeM'hKa.

6

06p. 66.- KpeMeltHH 6paJlBfI.

8

a

Ilpa sropara CTa,!ll1f1 H3ni\l.KHaJIOCTHT'B. H pN.60Bert no. nDBp'bXRo.CTbTa ce o."IYKSaT'h, CJItll'h xoero 0p..l\,QHeTD ce nonnara aa WJIHcpDSKa. Cnopem, o.6pa6DTKaTa, HaMtpeHl'l'rB S'b Konzca-Ilepaeacxara Mo.rHJIa eK3eMnJIHpH DT' roaapar-s aa 6YTMHPCKHTt ors rrspsara CTa,ll;HfI.2) Tpt6sa,ll;a 3a6tJIt»niM'b, se nOJl.06HH KpeMeHHH 6pa.l{8H y aact, CH. HaMtpeHH DO 11TH S'b SCHIIKH pasxonaaa ,lI;O cera Mo.rHJIH H, cnopezrs otipaticraara CH, ellHH CIK aHaJIorHqHH CD 6yTMHpCKHrl DT'h rrspsara, .n:pyrH Dn sropara craaas: o6alie He ca. aaMtpeHH WJIH¢OSaHH, ocetH'b enaa OT'b C1apD3aropCKD, na KOHTO caxo OCTpHeTO e WJIHcposaHO. 8)

1) Ho e r n e s, Bulmlr I. T86n. XV 11 XVI.

2) Ho e r ne s, oaK"!> Taldt., 'Ta6n. XV. il),i.Hap. MY3,. H.BB. 566.

-.

P. Honout, KOJl)!(8-.LJ.epMe.I!CKa1"3 ~f:lrl-l.Ja llpH rp .. WYMeR"b

85

60 it H H Ton K H. Me}f{)l;Y MHoro6pOKHHrB ecrecrseao 3ao6JleHH pi;LUIH SaJIYTall,H, KORTO HeCDMHimo CIK 6HJIH ynoTpt6HBaHH sa 601'\1:111 KaM1>HH, ce HaMtpHxa HtKOJIKO TonKH, narrpaseaa OTb KpeMbK'b. Tt ClK O'l"b pasaa SeJIH'IHHH. HaA-roJlt.MaTa M('JoK.llY TtXb HMa )lHaMe1pH 6'S X 8-5 eM., a Hait-Mallxara - 45 X 5·1 CM. Ceneas O'l"b THSl TonKH ztaaaae na o6p. 67. Ha C1\UI~HSI otipas s e np sacraaeaa e.n,Ha JlHMOHHTHa ronsa (HaH-MaJIKaTa OTJltSO) Cb np3SFlJlH3 C<pePI:ILlH3 rpOPMa.. 'uHaMeTbpb 4 CM. TH stPOHTHO e HMaJia cxmara ynorp stia. AHaJlorHlJHH KaMeHHH TonKH y "aCD C.iK HaMtpeHH Sb ,Uel:leSaTa MODIJla,1) HeOJlHTHLIHOTO CeJIHUJ,e npa C. MaJl.a.pa,2) 8b neutepara MOpOBHQa,!l) Sb MOrHJlaTa rrpa C. Ksoce-Baaaprna's (WYMeHCKO).j) H B1>

ceno CYJlTaHb (nOTlOBCKO).U)

06p. 67. - 60t.l.JJH ronsa 011. KpeM1>K1>.

II. n ptJJ.MeTH OT'b KaMb.Kb.

6 pall. BH. Hasrapenar-s KaMeHHH 6pall.BH, aanpasesx rJlaBBO on W H' tPepb, H.Ma'l"b rpaneuaa tPopMa. nOCJJt,n:HHT8 npa H'BKOH eKSeMnJlllpH ce npH6JIHEaBa Jl.O npaBO.iKf"bJlHHKb, npa ztpyra - 1I.0 TpH.iKr'bJlHHKb. BCH'!KHTt o6aQe C~ on rana n JI 0 C K H 6 P a It, B H. Ilpa 110Se'leTO eK3eMnJlHpH crpaHH'IHHTt p.iK60Be CJi\. CHJIHO aaoerpeaa, npa HtKOJ1KO caao Tt C.iK 01- 'IaCrH npi>TR.neHH (06p. 708), a npa elI.HBb caao eK3eMnJlHp'b 3a06neHH .11.0 raxasa creneas, tie Hanpt'lHlfHT'b pa3pi;s"b aa 6pa.ll.SaTa HH npbncraaa

I} P. non 0 8"h, H381icrmr IV 203, o6p. 193.

2) R.. Pop pOW, Praehlstorische Zellschrift IV 97, 06p. 8-15. B) P. non 08 P, i-1301iC1"IHI 1lI :288, 06p. 211-214.

4) Hap. MY3ell, HHB. 18, 3.

II) Heoenaponeam, M3TepHanlJ.

86

P. nOnOB'b, KOJl.H<a-.QepMeBCK.na MOfllJla rrpu rp, WYMeRb

eJIHnCa (oep. 70 a). Pi>AKO ABi>rl crpaaa aa apaABHT"J:. .~ eAHaKBO nJIOCKH; B'b nosesero CJIyqaH enaara crpaaa (r'bpa'bT'b) e nJIOCKa, a npyrara (nanero) noaexe HJIH nO-MaJIKO H3Arra. nO-AOJIi> onacaaae THnH'IHHri> H nO-Aoapi> 'aanaseaa eK3eMnJlSJpH-

1. Otip. 68 a. KaMeHHa 6pa.ll.S3, aanpasesa OT'b CHBOqepHa cxana, I1Ma aenpasaaaa rpaneuaa cpopMa_ npOTHBOnOJlO}KHHHT'b aa oerpaero Kpa" nocrerreaao H3TbHSJBa; no T03H HallHHb MaKCHMaJIHaTa Ae6eJlHHa ocraaa Bb cp'k.ll.aT3. Ll'bJI}KHHaT3 H MtPH 8'5 CM., UIHpHHaTa npa ocrpaero - oxoao 4 CM., .lI.eaeJlHHa - 1 CM. CTpaFm'lHHrl pa.60Be ca.. CHJlHO 3aoCTpeHH.

2. Oep. 686. Bpansa OT'b TbMH03eJIeHa cxaaa. 11Ma nO'lTH TpHx..r'bJiHa <p0pMa. ll.'bJl}KHHa 6'3 CM., MaKCHM3JIHa mxpana npa ocrpaero 4'2 CM., MaKCHMaJJHa .n.e6eJIHHa 1·5 CM. CrpaHH'IHHT-B H pa.60Be ca. cxmo aaOCTpeHU.

a

6

06p. 68. - 6pa,a:BH on KaM'bK'b.

8

3. 06p. 688. Bpanaa OTb sepaa CKaJIa. 11Ma rpaneuaa <popMa C'b caaao 3aOCTpeHH crpaaasaa pa.6ose. Ll'bJl}KHHa 6'5 CM., MaKCHMaJIHa inapaaa 3'5 CM., M3KCHManHa .lI.e6emma 1'2 eM.

4. 06p. 69 a. ManKa KaMeHHa 6paABH"IKa, B'b <popMa na rpanerrs. Hanpaaena e OT'b seaeaa csaaa. Pa.60seri> if ca. aaoerpeaa, Ll'bn)f(HHa 4'5 CM., MaKCHMaJIHa lDHpHHa npa ocrpaero 3'2 CM., MaKCHMaJIHa ll.e6eJIHHa 1 eM.

5. 06p. 696. ManKa KaMeHHa 6pa.a.SH'Ixa, nanpaaeaa OTD TbMH03eaeua cxaxa. Ll'bJI)f(HHa 4'7 cx., M3KCHManHa lDHpHHa npa ocrpaero 2'9 CM., a n:e6eJlHHaTa no ut.noTo if nporaseeaae ocraaa enaaaaa - 1 eM.

6. 06p. 698. Ilpom.aroeara KaMeHHa 6paJl:BHlIKa OT'b seaeaa CKaJJa, BtpOSJTHO cepnesrmrs, I1Ma nO"'TH npaaoxt-sana <popMa CD 3ao6J1eHlf CTpa-

----_ -_ -- -- - ----

P. Ilcnoes, KOIl)l{a-.uepMeHCKa1'3. MorHlla npa rp. WYMell'b

87

HHIIHH p",60se. ,U'bn>KHHa 6 CM., mapaaa npa OCTpHeTO 2'8 CM . .lle6enHsara Ii no LttnoTO nporsseeaae ocrasa ensaxsa - 1'2 CM.

7. 06p. 69 2, BpaD.8HIIKa. OTb sepaa cxana. I1Ma rpaIJeUH3 cpopMa. ,UDJI)fClfHa 5'1 CM., MaKC.HManHa WHpHHa 3') CM., .lle6ellHUa 1'4 eM. CTpaHHlJHHTB Ii p~60Be ex OTlJaCTH nptT~neHH,

a

II

06p. 69. - fiPMSIl on. KIIM1,K'b.

8. 06p. 70 a. ManKa KaMeHHa 6pa,ll;SHliKa 8'h cpopMa na rpaneirs, aaoeaeaa B'hpxy npOTHSOnOnO>KHHR ua OCTpHeTO Kpait ll'hJJ>KHHa 4'1 CM., urapana npa ocrpaero 3'4 CM., .lle6ellHHa 1'5 eM. P~60Be 3ao6J1eHH.

9. 06p. 70 6. MaJma 6pa;1l.BHlJK3 OTb aeneua caana, <l>opMa rpanensa, OTlJaCTH 3a06neH3 B'hPXy nporaaonoaoacaaa na oerpaero Kpaf.!.

,

a

8

06p. 70. - 5pall8H on. KaM'bK'b.

,U'hll>KHH3 3'5 eM., mapuaa 3'3 CM., .lle6enHHa 0.8 CM. CTpaHHQHHTB U p~- 60Be elK 3aOCTpeHH.

88

P. flOROB"b,. KOJl.>K8-11epMeRcKaTH. Mon1,lf8 npu rp. lllYMeH"b

10. 06p. 70 8. ManKa 6pan;SH'IKA. OTb TbMH03eneHa cxaaa. <I>opMa rpaneuaa, npOTlfBOnOJIOlKHHHT'b na ocrpaero H Kpat% e 3ao6J1eH'b, a CTpaHHtlHHrl piYI.6ose orsacra nptTiYl.neHH. LI:'bJIlKHHa 3'6 CM., WHpHHa npa oCTpHeTO 3'1 eM., ae6eJIHHa I CM.

Jl:JItTa. Ha 06p. 71 e np'sncraeeuo eAHHCTBeHOTO KaMeHHO .lI.JltTO,

xoero, BCJI-B.n;CTBHe onoacapasane, e A06HJlO eHSO)l{'bJIT'bUB-BT'b. HMa npozrsarosara ¢opMa. OcrPHSlT'b My KpaH e op:BJlaH'b OTb aBtrl crpaHH. CTpaHH'mHT-B My piYI.60Be CiYI. OCTpH.ll'bn)l{H· aa 5'4 CM., urapaaa 2'2 CM., ae6eJrHHa 1'5 CM.

4 Y K 0 Be - 1. 06p. 72 a. <I>pa rMeHTh

crs crponrem, KaMeHeH'b qYK'b CD saocrpeaa piYI.60Be . .D.'bJI)I{HRa 7'3, MaKCHMaJIHa uiapaaa 4'8, MaKCHMaJIHa ae6eJlHHa 4'1 cM.-.2. 06p. 72 6. AHaJIOrH'IeH'b ¢parMeHT'b, ll'bJl'bI:'b 3'5 CM., MaKCHMaJlHa nrapaaa 4'5 CM., MaKCHM3JIHa ne- 6eJIHU32'7 CM. - 3. 06p. 72 8. KaMeHeH'b tIYK'b

Oop. 71. - .lI,JJtTO on KaM"bI<'h. 6e3'b n;ynKa.'u'bJl>KHUa 10 CM., MaKCHMaJlUa

mapaaa 5'5 CM., MaKCHM3JIH3 .!I.e6eJIHHa 5'5 CM. ,UBaTa xpas C~ OqYKaHH. AKaJIOrHtIHH qYKOBe C~ HaM-BpeHH Y aacs S'b CeJlHmeTO npa Pamesara BOnenana npa rp. 5lM60Jl'b. 1)

a

(j

8

OOp. 72. - Crpoureaa KaMeSHH qyt<ose.

PaSHH APyrH npt)I.MeTH OT'b KaM'bK'b. - 1. OCS-BH'b cncaenaTUrl no-paso XpOMeJIH, HaMtpeHH 3aeAHO CD MeJIHHu.aTa, nonannaxa H MHO)KeeTSO KiYl.eOBe OTh erpoureaa TaKHB3. BCH'IKHTB C£ aanpaaeaa O1''b KOJ{-

1) Hapa, MyseJ1, HHB. 333-339.

P. Flenoes, KOAlKa·nepMe8CKa'fa MOrl1na lIP!! rp. llJYMeH"b

89

r.1l0MepaT'b, lJHiiTo BH,!l'b HanOMHH TOH HaKOHr.nOMepaT3 Bb c. Manapa (lilyMeHCKO), on ,!lino Bi>POHTRO e GUll'b ,!locraseHb.

2. 06p. 73. KaMeHHo Op..ll.,Il,He, aanpaseuo on cnTH03bpHeCT'b ni>C'blJHHKb. I1Ma 4>opMa sa np sceseaa serapacrsaaa nepaaazta C'b 3aoGJleHH p)!t.60Be. BUCOtUlHa 11 CM., .lUI' aMeT'bp1> ua OCHOBaTa 6'4 CM.

Ill. n pt)1.MeTH OTb KOCTb.

1. 06p. 74 a. Opxnae, aanpaseao OTb JlbJlrHn KOCTH aa enpo >KHBOTHO, atpoHTHO r oseao. .ll.'bmKHHaTa My nocrara 22'4 eM. E.rr.HHHHTb My KpaH e ecrecrseao 3arR-neR'b, .rr.OKaTO nporaaonoaosorasr» e H3KYCTseHHO saocrpeirs. OOBP'bXHOCTbTa My e rpHmJnmo aarvranena, nOlJTH nonapaaa.

2. 06p. 74 6. AH3.lJOrH"IRO OpR-.lJ.He, ,ll'bJJ' ro 19·2 eM.

TnH 1l.Bt OpHo.AHSI no 4>opMaTa CH HaOOMHSiTh WHJJaTa, KOHTO HaH-qecro CH. 6HJlH npaBeHH OTb CTHo.OaJllH!TE KOCTH aa oaua, oGalJe, nopana .3UalJHreJlHMrn CH paasrspa. e1l.S3JIH 611xa MOrJlH 11a HMaTh C.H.llI.3- ra ynorpstia. OPHB'bp. sana llKO B'bpXy A'bJirH .nPb:lKKH, aanpaseaa OTb npKTH, rl 6Hxa MOfJlH OTJlHliHO zta CJIY:lKaT'b aa 8bPXOBe aa KonHH.

3. 06p. 75. lllHJlO' 06p.73. _ Opxmre on 06pa3Ho opxnae OT'b KO-

6

a

CTb. E)lHH1UITb My Kpaii e 06p. 74. - Op8\IlHH on KOCTb.

IGIM'bK".

3aOCTpeH'b. a nporaao-

nOJIO>KHHHT'b KOHyco06pa3HO H3.n'bJl6aH'b oxoao 2 CM. H CTpaHH'HIO npoGlIT'b. Taxa aanpaseao, TOBa opxnae stPOSITHO e 68,110 saxp'aneao aa zrspaesa

P. [lonos's, KO)l>Ka • .1lepMeBcKara MorHIIS npa rp. WYMel:l"b

90

Ap'blKKa H e cnYLKeno aa ap'bXb aa crptna. OOBP'bXHOCTbra My e raaaxa. 'ubmKHHa 5'4 CM.

4. 06p. 76 a. liIHJlO, aanpaaeao OT'b crxnaasara KOCTh (os carpus) na osua, H30CTpeH8 B'bpxy ropaas KpaA. ,U'bJI)KHlfa 8'7 CM.

5. 06p. 76 6. lIlHJlO, aanpaaeao or's C3t.IIJ.HH BHA'b KOCTb. T)II.nHHT'b My Kpaii e CTpOWeH'b. B'b rosa C'bCTOHHHe A'bJl>iOlHaTa My Mt.PH 7'6 CM.

6. 06p. 77 a. Illaao, aanpaseao OT'b C3t.lllHH SHA'b KOCTh, asocrpeaa S'bpxy AOJlHHH KpaH. ,U'bJDKHHa 6 eM.

7. 06p. 77 6. OnOC'hK'b xocrem, npilAMeT'b ED;HHHHTb My KpaFi e nO'WHpOK'b H pa.BHO H3pt- 3aHb, noxaro npOTHBOn0J10)KHHHT'b e ManKO H30' crpeirs. ,U'bJDKHHa 6 eM.

8. 06p. 78 a. Keereao WHJ10, A'bJIrO 10 CM.

Oop. 75. - Opxane on xocn..

9. 06p. 78 6. Op)II.Il.He, aanpaeeso 0T'b pe6po. EAHHHHT'b My KpaH e rxno aaocrp eH'b. ,U'bJl)KHHa 10'3 CM.

10. 06p. 79 a. Fpytio xocreao opxlI.He, orsacra saocrpeao npH no-urapoxaa KpaFi. JhmRHHa 8'1 eM.

(j

a

a

Q

Otlp. 77. - OPJil.J.lHII on xocrs.

Oop. 76. - Illnaa on KOCTh.

11. 06p. 79 6. ,Un-tro, aanpaseao OT'b CT)II.nanHaTa KOCTb sa rp'ssonaCHO >KHBOTHO. ,UbJl>KHHa 10'9 CM. AHaJIOrH'lHH Irn-BTa HMaXMe cJlyqaH A3 HaM-tpHM'b S'b ,UeHeBaTa MOrHJla npa C. CaJlMaHOBO (llIYMeHCKo).l)

I) P. Il o n o e s, M3Si>CTH5I IV 207, oop. 201.

P. OOn081>, KOil}t(3-11epMeeCK3Ta Monilia nps rp, illYMeH~

91

12. 06p. 80 a. 4acTb OT'b pe6po sa roseno, aapsaauo OTb K'bM'b B.D.JIR\6uaTaTa crpaaa qaK'b 1{0 cspueaaaara. EAHHHHl'b My KpaH e crpotneirs. Bs rosa C'bCTOSlHHe TO HMa A'bJDKHHa 12 CM. Bspxy 3JJ:paBHSI KpaH peoporo e npo- 6HTO; raxasa JJ:YIlKa me na e HMaJlO Ii aa .ll.pyraTa crpaaa (crpoureaaa KpaA).

13. 06p. 80 6. flo.ll.06eH'b npi>.ll.MeT'b, C,lI;.~O 0T'b pe6po. np06HTHSlT'b KpaH e crpannsao apsaarrs, atpoHTHO 3a no sapaao rrpuaspaaaae. np0Ti'IBOnOJlO>KHIU1T'b KpaH, KoiiTO e 61iJI'b rasa C,lI;.llI,O cHa6.ll.eH"b C'b,ll;ynKa, e CTpOWeH'b. Ilpbnnoaaraae np-B.ll.MeTHrt na o6p. 80 .n.a C,lI;. CJly>KeJIH sa npHBe3J1a aa rJlHHeHH exnose, cHa6.n.eHH Cb MaJIKH MaCHBHH ,ll;P'b)KKH, npo6HTH BepTHKaJlHo.

6

a 6

06p. 78. - OP;I\IVUI on xocrs

OGp. 79. - OpN.1UlR OTb KOCTb.

14. 06p. 81 a H 6. ,Usa acrparaaa OTb ABYKonHTHH rpbsonacaa }KHBOTHH C'b H3KYCTBeHO aarnaaeaa CTpalH-IlIHH rnroina, KoeTO nOKa3Ba, lie c.¥.. HMaJHI H-BKaKBa ynorpsoa. Ilonoona acrparana HMaXMe CJIYllaH na HaM-B' pl1M'b B'b pasxcnxar-s aa ,UeHeBara MOrllJla npa c. CaJlM3HoBO, B'b HeOJU-lTHlIuoro CeJIHllI,e npa c. Ma,ll;apa (WYMeHcKo) H np,

15. 06p. 81 8. ¢>aJIaHra, stPOl-ITHO 0T'b eaeas, xaxycreene aarnaaerra OT.l{OJlt.. Taxasa CMe HaMHpaJiH B'b cnoaenarars no-rapt MOrHJla H npsnaeropHqeCKO cename, 06aqe sa rtX'b, KaKtO H aa acrparanarb, TpYllHO e aa ce Kame KaKBO Ha3HalJeHHe C.¥... HMaJlH; B'b BctKH CJIytfaH rsxuara npaxrasua ynorpt6a e H3KJllOlJeH3. BtPOSlTHO rt npancraasr-s H'BKaKBH HrpalJKI1. HHTepeCHO e, Lie "Hrpara H8 aWHKb" C'h OBliH acrparann e paerrpccrpaaena

92

P. nOnOB'b, KOJUKa-lLepMeltcl<3T3 MOrllJl3 npa rp. WYMell'b

Me»<,lI,Y ,lI,-Bu;aTa Bb utna 6bllrapIUI H MdKe.llOHHH. 4eCTO nN..TH THHKOCTH oH'BaTb 3arJIaH<,a:aHH no CN..lU.IHI HaIJIHib, KaKTO CA'i. H THH, BaMHpaHH Bb np'B,lI,HCTopHtJeCKRrB MOrHJIH Y sacs. He Cli cHno CM'BnO, axo irrO)lHpHMb HaqaJIOTO aa TaSH roH pasnpocrpaaeaa arpa Y HaCb Bb npt.n,HCTopHtJecKaTa erroxa, TonK03b nosese, 'Ie MHDro 06HQaH H arpa, aanaaeaa ,a:Heco Me>KlI.Y aapoaa, HH BO)lSlro KbMb e3HtJecKHn aptMeHa. Tasn arpa e 6HJIa BnpO'leMb TBbp,n:h MHoro pasnpocrpaaeaa KaKTO MC>K.llY lI,i>naTa. Tbfl H Me»<.llY BbspacHHrt npt3b aHTH'IHaTa enoxa. nnOCKH KocTeH'H "),tOJIH.

1. Otip. 82 a. 1140JIb, uanpaaerrs OT'b lllJJHcj:JOB8Ha' KOCTeHa nJJ3CrHHKa. BHCO'lHHa 7'6 CM., M3KCHMaJIHa mapaaa 2'5 CM. MaKCHM3.1llia nefieJIHH8 0·3 eM. 4pt3b CTpaHHtJHH ep-B3B3HIHI nnaCTI{HKara e pa3Jl.-BJJeH3 ua TpH HepaBHH qaCTH, oro KOHTO ropusra me nptJl.Cr3SSI rnasara, Cpt,!l8S1Ta - rl:'PJJ.HrB, a JJ.OJIH.sna, Bai%·rOJJ-BMaTa - xopexa 38 eJl. If 0 Cb Kp3KaT3. Bb TOBa OTHOllleHHe

o 6 KOJl.>KaJl.epMeHCKHn KOCTeRH H.ll,OJlH HanO.ll,OOSIBaTb

06p. 80.- OP-'l:JlIIII OTb pe6pa.

TliSi on MOrlolJlaT3 Bb C. CYJlTaHb (nOJ]OBCKO).1)

2. 06p. 82 6. <PparM:eBTb oro nO)lOoeBb HJl.OJl'b. l1Man'b e pa3MtpH e.ll.HaKBH cs TIbpB.HfI.

a 6 6

06p 81. - 3arJl3.1lemi acrparann (0 II 6) II q>lInaHra (s).

IV. npt.l1,MeTH OTb pora.

So 60KJlYtJHHrB HaCHnH sa MOfFlJI8Ta H306HJlCTByaaTb KOCTH H pora on eneM'b (Cervus elaphus) H cspaa (Cervus capreolus). Toea noxaasa, 'Ie Bb npt,l{HCTOpH'IeCKHrB BptMeHa, xoraro OKonHOCTbTa aa illYMeH'b e 6HJJa nOKpHTa C'b OOWHPHH ,ntscTaeHH ropa, THSI ztaa sana en;, lKHStllH Sb OKOJl-

I) lJ 1I.r. H H r H po B 'I., C60PBIIK"b 33 Flap. YMOTB. XXV, Ta6.11. I II n.

P. nOIIOB"!>, KOJl)!(a-LLepMeOCKara Morllna npa rp, WYMeH'b

93

ROCTbTa aa J{aJJ,>Ka-,UepMeH'h H C.lK 6HJUJ. yoaBaHH on JlOSll.H aa Mt.CTHOTO CeJIHw.e. Mecoro ua y6HTHn eJIeHH H C'hPR" e CJIY>KeJlO sa.xpaaa. KOlKHn -sa OOJlt.KJIO OP'B3" 311M3Ta, a porara - aa aanpasa sa pa3HH Opt¥.;J;HSJ, on KOHTO no-nons we OI1HWeM'b HtKOH nO-HHTepeCHH eKSeMnJlSJpH.

1. Otip. 83 A. 4YK'b, H3.n.tJl8H'h on C"lDOJlOTO na eaeaoas per's, ,U'b}}' :li<HHa 15'6 CM., MaKCHM8J1Ha .n.e6eJIHHa OKOJlO 7 CM. 'uynKaTa sa .n.P'blKxara HMa npaaoxr-saaa cpopMa co :pa3MtpH 3'5 X 2'6 CM .. flOSP'bnIOCTbTa sa Op"'J-lHeTO e rpy6a, MaKapb ecrecraeaars rpanasxaa na pora na eN.. aarnaaeaa.

2. Otip. 83 B. Aaaaorasem, '1yKb. .D.'hJIJKHHa 11'6. CM. 'uYUKaTa sa .n.p'b>KKa HMa rrpaaoxr-saaa cpopMa C"b paasrspa 2'8'X 2 eM. nO-T'hHKHHT'b KpaH aa opt¥..n.HeTO e OHnb lI)J'BTOSH.l(HO aaocrpea's, ooaqe, Bcnt)l;crsae aa ynorp stia, crpomeirs. Opx.l(H~TO npbncraas qYKb·ceKHpa. flospbXHoeTb r na)l;Ka.

3. oee. 83- C H D. 4aCTl-l OTb CTbonaTa aa eneHOBH pora, npoea rH 8b cp'snara.

4. Ofip. 83 E. Opxaae, nanpaseao aT"b KJlOHOBeTt aa eaeaoas por-s. llbn· >KHHa 12'7 CM. flO-TbHKHSJTb Kpai1 e .n.JltTOBH.n.HO saocrpem, (o6p. 84 a). Ilynxara, aspsaaaa RbMb no-zteoeaara crpaaa sa opxnaero, HMa nosra enHneOBH)J,Ha CPOPM8; 2 X 1'5 CM.

5. 06p. 83 F. ManKO Op.lK;J;He

6

a

06p. 82. - nnOCKH socreaa HAoml.

on 8lopxa aa eneHOS'b HnH cspaeuixa

po ['"b , ,UbnlKHHa 7'7 eM. E.n.J.lHIUITb MY KpaH e .n.JltTOBH;J;HO aaocrpes's, a npOTHBononOlKHHSJTb np06HTb. flOSPbXHOCTb aarnaaeua.

6. Oop. 83 G. AHaJIOrHIIHO opt¥.)J;He. llbJllKHHa 11'7 eM. llynKaTa, tJHHTO cpopMa ce npHOJIIDKaS8 no eaanca t2 X 1'5 ca.), e H3pi>3aHa 'npa no-rbcaas KpaA, 8 nO-Ae6eJIIUIT'b e .l(n'BTOSH;J;HO saecrpea's, l.Ipt3b aap sasaae caao na eAHaTa crpasa (oop. 84 6).

7. 06p. 83 H. BP'bXb on eneHOBb por-s, Ilpotiaaaaero My aenom.pmetro. ll'bJIlKHHa 9'5 ca.

8. 06p. 83 L BPbXb OTb eneuoas peru, npo6HTb npx .n.e6eJlHH KP8J':i, 00aQe .n.ynK8Ta e T"BCHa H e nparonesa S'SpOHTHO sa OKatJ.BaHe aa np'snMeTa. nOSpbXHOCTb rJl3D,Ka. llbJIllmHa 10 CM.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful