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Constant Composition Expansion
Constant Volume Depletion
This Manual was prepared to provide suitable guidelines to deal with PVT activities in order to obtain the best results in each situation. The experience of our technicians involved in PVT studies was used with the final goal to offer a user friendly Manual to any Department or Subsidiary which has to deal with the studies of reservoir fluids or any other related activity. In order to achieve this purpose the Manual was designed in six independent sections. Each one of these sections is concerning with a specific subject, mainly investigated from a practical point of view for supporting our colleagues during their daily activities. The Manual has been succesfully used as a tool for the training as well. We ‘ ll be pleased to any one who will send us his suggestion or comments which will be used to improve and keep updated future versions of this Manual.
PVT BEST PRACTICE
QUALITY OF THE LABS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
RESERVOIR FLUIDS SAMPLING
Aim Well conditioning Method When and how much to sample Documents Sampling containers Field controls Suggestions
6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15
CONTROLLING THE VALIDITY OF SAMPLES
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS
Pressurised liquids H2S in pressurised liquid samples Pressurised gas H2S in pressurised gas samples CO2 in pressurised gas samples Stock-tank liquids
19 20 21 22 23 24
PRELIMINARY TESTS AND RECOMBINATIONS
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
REQUESTING A PVT STUDY
Reservoir fluid: DRY GAS Reservoir fluid: OIL Reservoir fluid: VOLATILE OIL Reservoir fluid: CONDENSATE GAS
32 36 48 55
3 1. QUALITY OF THE LABS .
1 GENERAL INFORMATION The study of reservoir fluids provides the reservoir engineer with fundamentally important data. are all requisites for this level of quality. The most reliable technology in use today is based on windowed PVT cells and motorized pumps which work with mercury and mercury-free systems. . which are able to ensure high quality results. For this reason these studies must be handled by qualified PVT labs.000 Kg/cm2 (15000 psi) and 200 °C (392 °F). The most updated apparatus can work computer assisted. Some labs have quality certification issued by authorized organizations and boards. The use of established analytical procedures. Usually. as well as reliable techniques for data evaluation and precision control methods for measurements taken based on accurate calibration of equipment. A PVT lab must be fitted out with equipment of different types and sizes.4 1. Today the standard services of a good PVT lab can provide for experimental determinations on reservoir fluids up to pressures of 700 Kg/cm2 (10000 psi) and temperatures of 150 °C (300 °F). The most well equipped labs have instruments which can operate up to values of 1. suitable for the widest range possible of temperatures and operating pressures. each item of equipment is purposely designed and developed to provide an optimal performance for specific types of reservoir fluids and for particular kinds of experimental surveys.
RESERVOIR FLUIDS SAMPLING .5 2.
. the quality of a PVT study and subsequent engineering calculations which are based on data of the study cannot be better than the quality of the fluid samples originally collected during the sampling. in order to ensure a final result which is accurate and reliable.6 2. In any case. The PVT study supplies characteristic data of the collected sample. Irrespective of the accuracy of the study. Sampling must be considered just as important as subsequent lab analyses.1 AIM The aim of sampling is to collect a sample which is representative of the reservoir fluid at the time of sampling. The sample may not be the true “average” fluid of the whole reservoir and so the results may have to be slightly adjusted successively. It is therefore advisable to carefully read the comments attached to PVT reports. the quality of experimental lab determinations depends on whether (or not) the tested sample is representative of fluid in the reservoir or at least in the drained area of the well. A good PVT report must include accurate comments on the validity of the samples used for the study.
.check the validity of the GOR value measurements During sampling.2 WELL CONDITIONING One of the most important factors for obtaining representative samples is adequate well conditioning before sampling. by displacing it with original fluid which comes from the furthest part of the reservoir. The validity of PVT analysis depends on the accuracy of the GOR value used to recombine the separator gas and oil samples. the GOR value should remain absolutely stable over time and not change with varying well flow rates. Well conditioning before sampling is particularly important in reservoirs with saturated or slightly undersaturated fluids and in condensate gas reservoirs. the recombination GOR must be calculated as an average value of all the reliable values recorded during the sampling. The aim of well conditioning is to remove non-representative reservoir fluid present around the well.reduce the drawdown of bottomhole pressure to the minimum . The “API Recommended Practice for Sampling Petroleum Reservoir Fluids” of the American Petroleum Institute (API RP 44. fully describes the recommended conditioning techniques and different sampling methods. January 1966). Well conditioning basically involves managing the well’s flow rates.7 2. but fluctuates. When the GOR is not perfectly stable during sampling.increase the bottomhole flowing pressure to the maximum . controlling and recording the production trend for as long as possible before sampling and gradually reducing the well’s flow rate in order to: .
Suitable well conditioning and correct sampling techniques at the separator are particularly important for these types of fluids and must therefore be carefully carried out. In the case of undersaturated oils. it is recommended to take gas and oil samples at the 1st stage separator and then physically recombine them in the lab.surface sampling. low viscosity liquids and this can be done using water as the displacement fluid instead of mercury. irrespective of whether they are saturated or undersaturated. the sampling procedure stated in the “Standard Practice for Containing Hydrocarbon Fluid Samples Using a Floating Piston Cylinder” (ASTM D 3700-78) should be adopted.bottom hole sampling . such as: • • • • • • • • the type of reservoir fluid to be sampled the degree of reservoir depletion the well’s flow conditions the volume of sample to be collected required to complete the entire programme of PVT lab tests the well’s location the type and set up of surface separation equipment available the mechanical conditions of the hole the availability of qualified personnel Depending on the above. to carry out mercury free sampling for light.3 METHOD The choice of sampling method may be affected by several important factors. When cylindrical containers fitted with a mobile (floating) piston are used. bottomhole sampling is always suggested. or cylinders which are fitted inside with a piston or membrane. one of the following three sampling methods can be used for PVT analysis: . This standard is the exact equivalent of the specification “GPA Standard 2174” which is suggested for sampling natural gases using the same type of sampling container. If the oil is saturated. it is recommended to collect samples at the separator.8 2. The choice of which method to adopt basically depends on the type of reservoir fluid and on whether it is undersaturated or saturated at formation conditions. In the case of condensate gas reservoirs.well head sampling . whenever possible. if possible. Conventional sampling of pressurised liquids requires the use of mercury. according to the volumetric gas/oil ratio (GOR) of the separator. . In any case it is advisable.
1986).9 Conventional sampling of pressurised gas requires the use of cylinders previously air evacuated. Pressurised natural gas sampling may be recommended to be carried out according to the standard “Methods for Obtaining Natural Gas Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA Standard 2166.1980) . Other reference standards include: .“Sampling Manual ISO 3170” .“Standard Method of Sampling Natural Gas (ASTM D 1145 .
10 2. If the works programme to be carried out at the PVT lab is more complex than the standard one and includes multistage separator tests. preferably after a few weeks of production.and/or at least 3 separator gas samples in 20 litre cylinders and 3 separator oil samples in 600 cm3 cylinders. it is advisable to collect at least six cylinders of separator gas. It is advisable to collect the following.at least 3 bottomhole samples or 3 well head samples.5 litres for the condensate gas studies). the volume of samples to be collected must be agreed on beforehand with lab experts. for each tested production interval: . so that original virgin reservoir fluid can be obtained before the formation pressure. in 600 cm3 cylinders . swelling tests or miscible displacement tests. drops below the fluid saturation pressure. This is the minimum number needed for checking the reciprocal consistency of the samples. If separator pressure is very low (less than 10 kg/cm2) and the GOR is higher than 300 Nm3/m3. In normal conditions.4 WHEN AND HOW MUCH TO SAMPLE It is suggested to collect samples immediately at the beginning of the reservoir’s life. in any case. . this number of samples is sufficient to ensure a reservoir fluid volume for performing a complete PVT study (1 litre for the oil studies and 0.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • initial static pressure of the reservoir flowing pressure at the sampling depth reservoir temperature for the studied production interval well head temperature and pressure separator temperature and pressure flow rates of stock-tank oil. how stable flow conditions were. documents containing sampling data and the production test report should be attached to the PVT works programme. . the GOR measurement is extremely important.5 DOCUMENTS It is to be pointed out that the documents containing the sampling data must accompany the samples and that the Production Test Report must be sent to the PVT lab appointed to carry out the study. make comparisons between field test data and lab test data.11 2. separator oil and separator gas characteristic factors of separator gas (Z. etc. The information included in these documents is used to check the validity of samples. the reservoir and test parameters listed below must be measured and recorded on sampling documents. at reservoir temperature. In the case of bottomhole sampling. how long the well has been stabilised for. the flowing pressure at the sampling depth is extremely important and must be significantly lower than the saturation pressure of the sampled fluid. and obtain reliable data for the accurate recombination of separator gas and liquid samples. whether sampling was carried out using mercury or water. volumetric ratio between 1 st stage separator gas and stock-tank oil produced pour point remarks on prevailing conditions during sampling (for example. In all cases. whether H2S and/or CO2 are present. In the case of sampling at the separator. During sampling. it is worth requesting and checking that the measurement tools which are used. d or Fpv. Fg) separator oil volumetric shrinkage factor (Fsh) Bottom Sediment & Water (BSW) water cut API gravity of stock-tank oil GOR. conform to standards and have been properly calibrated. As this parameter is a consequence of gas and oil flow rate measurements.
“Volumetric Measurement by Displacement Metering System” (ISO 2714.12 Reference should be made to the following standards for measuring gas flow rates: .“ANSI Publication 2101 (1981)”.“Volumetric Measurement by Turbine Metering System” (ISO 2715. API Ch 5. Reference should be made to the standard below.2) .3) . API/ANSI 2530 Standard). for measuring liquid hydrocarbon flow rates using a turbine-flowmeter: . API Ch 5. AGA Report 3.“Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids” (GPA Standard 8185. .
These containers must be certified by recognised institutes (for example Lloyds Design Approval. or by the actual manufacturers who guarantee the integrity of materials and technical performance at working pressures. correctly designed to support high pressures and these must be accurately packed for safe transport to the lab. with or without an internal moving piston. For example. the “Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation” and in Italy the regulations issued by the Ministry of Transport for compressed. In the case of sampling pressurised fluids which contain H2S. liquefied and dissolved gas containers destined for road transport (DM 12-9-25 and subsequent Integrative Provisions). it is possible to use teflon-lined cylinders equipped with a piston to prevent the fluid’s contact with mercury or other auxiliary fluids. usually cylindrical. It should be noted that cylinders for sampling pressurised hydrocarbons must comply with national and international standards on transport.6 SAMPLING CONTAINERS Pressurised samples must be collected in steel containers. Pressurised cylinders are also subject to IATA regulations in the event of air transport and IMDG regulations in the event of sea transport. Bureau Veritas Certification). in the USA.13 2. mercury or any other toxic product can be present in the sampling cylinders special declaration and shipping cautions are requested. . When H2S.
The main test is for determining the saturation pressure of the collected sample.the fluid saturation pressure at field temperature.7 FIELD CONTROLS In the case of bottomhole sampling.the pressure inside the sampler when it came up to the surface . to avoid jeopardising the validity of the collected sample. . it is highly likely that representative and reliable samples have been collected. The fluid contained in the sampler is transferred by a pump to a high pressure cylinder suitable for transport to the lab. This involves injecting mercury or any other hydraulic liquid into the sampler by a step by step procedure to pressurize the sample progressively. If two or more of the samples collected at a short time interval from each other have the same measured properties. The relation between the injection pressure and the cumulative volume of injected fluid can be used to calculate the following properties: .14 2. identified as the discontinuity point on the “pressure-volume” plot. some simple field tests can be performed to check whether or not the collected samples are reliable. This operation should be done at high pressure conditions to assure monophase fluid flow. taking all necessary precautions .
a different and more suitable sampling depth can then be chosen for the other run. If most of the collected fluid is water. This sampling approach is also recommended when a large volume of reservoir fluid is required (10 . if a well is particularly important in strategic-economic terms. during bottomhole sampling. Bottomhole sampling should be carried out with the well flowing through the smallest choke possible. and if sampling repetition does not seem possible in the future. It is also possible to perform bottomhole sampling with the well closed.20 litres) for performing a complex scheduled programme of thermodynamic studies. the flowing pressure high and have new virgin reservoir oil constantly flowing into the well.15 2.8 SUGGESTIONS When it is particularly hard to identify the optimum depth for positioning the sampling tool. . The comparison between bottomhole samples and recombined samples may be useful for a better understanding of the real reservoir fluid. it is advisable to collect different samples at various depths. because of water in the well. it is advisable to open the first collected sample to check its contents. it is suggested to perform both bottomhole and separator sampling at the same time. This makes it possible to keep the pressure “drawdown” at minimum. In this case. If there are any doubts about collecting representative fluid samples (for example fluids which are slightly undersaturated).
16 3. CONTROLLING THE VALIDITY OF SAMPLES .
. the first and most important action.) and the composition of all samples must be strictly identical each other. at well head. and if these saturation pressures are below reservoir pressure and flowing pressure values. before proceeding with the complete reservoir fluid study. at reservoir temperature. no air must be present in the samples (< 1% mol.in the case of bottomhole liquid (BHS) or well head (WHS) samples. Prior to this. If the samples have saturation pressures which differ from each other with deviations above 2%. In the case of condensate gas samples collected from the bottomhole. If the saturation pressures of at least two samples are similar to each other. due to their extremely elastic behaviour. is to check the validity of samples. The results are then compared to reservoir static pressure and flowing pressure values. the cylinder must be heated to a temperature above the separator temperature to ensure the vaporisation of all components.in the case of separator gas samples by determining the cylinder opening pressure. the samples may be considered as reliable and representative of reservoir fluid. the air content and chemical composition of the gas mixture. or at the separator must be controlled to check its validity. whether collected bottomhole. The reciprocal consistency of a set of samples collected in similar conditions is checked as follows: . The opening pressures of every cylinder must be close to the separator pressure value. . with a reciprocal deviation below 2%. it is advisable to request validity tests to be carried out in a windowed cell. In the case of volatile oils.in the case of separator liquid samples by determining their saturation pressures at separator temperature. the validity tests must be carried out by determining the Dew Point of each sample in a windowed cell at reservoir temperature. This problem is handled by PVT and reservoir experts and is solved case by case. then the problem exists of deciding which sample is the most representative or whether all samples are unreliable.17 3. In all cases. and in extreme cases. Their saturation pressure must coincide with separator pressure value.1 GENERAL INFORMATION As the representativeness of a PVT study depends a great deal on sampling conditions. each sample. The samples will be consistent if they have the same Dew Point and are valid if the Dew Point is lower than the reservoir pressure value. by determining the saturation pressures at ambient temperature. at reservoir temperature. .
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS .18 4.
according to the volumetric ratio of the two phases (GOR) measured during the test.19 4. usually up to C13 plus. using the techniques mentioned in the next sections. Fisher or other methods) and gas chromatography respectively. This procedure is suitable for samples of separator oil. The volumetric ratio between the released gas and the stock-tank liquid is measured (GOR). A flash test is directly performed on a fairly large volume of liquid at atmospheric pressure. This technique is less accurate for rich gas mixtures (condensate gas). . These compositions are then recombined using a specific calculation procedure. in order to obtain the calculated composition of the original fluid. These compositions are usually determined up to the fraction C13 plus for liquid and up to the fraction C7 plus for gas. for which the error inherent to measuring the volumetric ratio (GOR) is fairly small. particular (not-standardised) techniques can be used to recover all the condensable components and these should be agreed on with the PVT lab in order to obtain the most accurate information on the percentages of the heavier components present in the mixture. In these cases. well head and bottom hole oil. The compositions of the produced stock-tank liquid and released gas are then determined by distillation (mini-Podbielniak.) is known as the “blow-down method”. where the volume of condensate which is developed as a result of the blow-down is moderate (high GOR values). separator oils. Extended liquid and gas analysis are possible if specifically requested.1 PRESSURISED LIQUIDS The most common procedure for determining the chemical composition of pressurised liquids (reservoir oils. thus two stabilised phases are produced: a gas and a stock-tank liquid phase. etc.
equipped with a floating piston.2 H2S IN PRESSURISED LIQUID SAMPLES When hydrogen sulphide is present in pressurised liquid samples. the sample undergoes a “flash test” directly at atmospheric pressure (blowdown method) and the percentage of H2S present in the released gas must be immediately measured using one of the ASTM or UOP measurement methods for sour gas analysis. If it is not possible to use teflon-lined cylinders. in the lab. The composition of gas with that of stock-tank oil are the recombined by calculation to obtain the concentration of H2S in the original pressurised liquid. it is advisable to check that the sample has been collected in teflon-lined cylindrical containers. to avoid the consumption of H2S caused by its reaction with the steel of the cylinders. we suggest carrying out this measurement as quickly as possible after the sample has been collected. Afterwards.20 4. .
ISO 6974 It is advisable to request the chemical gas composition to be determined immediately on site at the field when: . these results include the determination of non-hydrocarbon permanent gases such as O2.immediate results are needed . N2.GPA Standard 2261 .more accurate and reliable values on the content of those components (H2S) which could chemically react with the material (steel) of the sampling container and/or with other components present in the gas mixture (CO2.ASTM D 1945 . the chromatograph may be modified with capillary columns to improve its performance. when appropriate equipment is available. CO2.21 4. H2S and usually group the heavy components such as C7 plus. The following advantages may be achieved by this approach: . The results are expressed as a molar % of single components up to n-C5 and of the C6 family. by adjusting the values in relation to any air present.3 PRESSURISED GAS The samples of separator gas and natural gas are generally analysed using gas chromatography (GC Method). Raw chromatographic data are compared to those of a standard gas and normalised to 100.the well is located in distant places. determinations which extend to C15 plus components may also be carried out.90 .good quality and immediately available results . The analysis is then corrected. The gas sample is injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with packed columns as per IP 354 standards. H2O vapour). . Reference should be made to the following international standards for natural gas analysis: .hydrogen sulphide or other sulphide gas compounds are present . In particular cases when gases are very rich or greater precision is required.
. which can cover a wide range of concentrations. It is still based on the principle of adsorption. a methylene blue colorimetric method.4 H2S IN PRESSURISED GAS SAMPLES Hydrogen sulphide in the gaseous phase should preferably be directly determined on site at the field as this component is absorbed in different degrees by the metal surface of the containers used for sampling. If mercaptans are also present. for H2S concentrations below 50 ppm. from 1 ppm to a 7% volume (70000 ppm) and the accuracy of measurements varies from 5% to 10%. The gas is forced to flow through a train of adsorbers. . but can only be applied to H2S concentrations above 100 ppm. The accuracy of results is ± 1%.ASTM D 2725-70.ASTM D 2385 (IP 103) This measurement method is even more accurate and able to distinguish gaseousH2S from mercaptans.UOP 212/77. with the first two of them containing cadmium sulphate to adsorb the H2S and the third containing a mixture of cadmium sulphate and hydroxide to adsorb the mercaptans. . Basically speaking.Adsorption with the Draeger tube This is a quick method. Other standardised methods which can be used are: . The measurement technique used to determine the amounts of H2S depends on the value of the H2S concentration to be measured and on the degree of precision required. using potentiometric titration.Tutweiler Burette (UOP 9-69) This measurement method is more accurate than the previous one. for any H2S concentration. This method is the same as the IP 103 method and the GPA Standard 2265 “Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulphide and Mercaptan Sulphur in Natural Gas (Cadmium Sulphate Iodometric Titration Method)”. the following methods are adopted: .22 4. . these are measured as H2S.
2%. the CO2 concentration is then determined according to the reduction in the gas volume. . a known volume of gas is put in contact with a solution of sodium hydroxide that reacts with the CO2.23 4.Orsat (UOP 172) This is a simple. which can be used with precision only for CO2 concentrations above 0.5 CO2 IN PRESSURISED GAS SAMPLES The following techniques for measuring CO2 can be performed at the field. when a chromatograph is not available: gas . . subtracting it from the gaseous phase.The Draeger tubeThis is an adsorption method for the quick determination of a wide range of concentrations. chemical method. though values are approximate.
but up to 400°C. corresponding to the UOP 109 standard. The residue is characterised by experimentally determining its molecular weight (using cryoscopy) and specific weight (using a U-tube type vibrating densimeter). The oil is first distilled in a special packed column according to a procedure which complies with international Standards (mini-Podbielniak.even up to C25 plus and/or C30 plus components . In most cases. The lightest fractions are then analysed by gas chromatography. the residue consists of C13 plus components. up to 350°C. corresponding to a TBP (“True Boiling Point Distillation”) with 15 theoretical plates. but the latter produce closer peaks which make it possible to identify a greater number of single components and so they are more selective. . .ASTM D 1160 Strong vacuum distillation. by distilling at temperatures of 350°C and using capillary column equipment. but a more detailed analysis . The distillation makes it possible to separate the highest boiling point and heaviest fractions (residue) from the lightest and intermediate ones. The intermediate fractions are analysed by gas chromatography using capillary columns.can be performed. .ASTM D 158 Saybolt distillation. for single components up to n-C5 and for pseudo-components for the heavier than C5 family up to the Cn plus residue.ASTM D 2892 Vacuum distillation which can separate components up to the C20s. and the most widely used are: . The packed columns are easier to be used than capillary ones.ASTM D 216 - .6 STOCK-TANK LIQUIDS The composition of stock-tank liquids is determined using the procedure in the attached flow chart. Fischer or other ASTM methods).24 4. which makes it possible to extend the analysis beyond the C20s. The overall results are expressed as weight %. then converted to molar %. The distillation methods are standardised.
25 Engler distillation.ASTM D 86 Distillation equivalent to the IP 123 standard. . equivalent to the UOP 77 standard. .ASTM D 285 Hempel distillation. A good quality PVT report should mention the method used composition of the fluids analysed. The best distillation method to be used can be agreed on. but which characterises liquids cuts by distillation temperature intervals rather than by single components. .ASTM D 1078 Distillation suitable for liquids with a restricted distillation range. suitable for oil products in general. with the lab technicians. to determine the chemical The composition of stock-tank oil can also be determined using the ASTM D2887 gas chromatography technique (“Gas chromatographic simulated distillation technique”). suitable for extremely volatile liquids. case by case. .
.26 STOCK-TANK OIL DISTILLATION LIGHT FRACTION INTERMEDIATE FRACTION RESIDUE GC ANALYSIS CAPILLARY GC ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS OF: SPECIFIC WEIGHT MOLECULAR WEIGHT MOLAR COMPOSITION MOLAR COMPOSITION RECOMBINATION MOLAR COMPOSITION OF STOCK-TANK OIL Flow Chart of the procedure for determining the chemical composition of stock-tank oil.
IP 356.PNA analysis this is suggested when request is made to determine the relative proportions of paraffin. based on distillation of a fluid sample using Dean & Stark equipment. ASTM D 4007. to be determined according to the standards ISO 219 / ASTM D 2500 . after having removed all the asphaltenes present (BP 237). FINA Aquatest.the cloud point. -BS&WThe percentage of bottom sediment and water can be determined using three equivalent methods. the result provides an estimate of the oil’s origin. with a good rate of precision.fingerprint analysis this is a gas chromatographic technique where liquid hydrocarbons can be compared by simple visual examination of the raw chromatogram.paraffin deposition the simplest indicators to assess the probability of paraffin deposition during production are: . . As the method is visual.30°C. based on Karl-Fischer potentiometric titration. . the “cloud point” is the minimum temperature at which the liquid goes cloudy. Basically speaking. quick method which is less accurate than the others and can be used mainly for field measurements on site. it can only be used for clear and transparent liquids. which are all based on the centrifugation of a sample prepared . other analyses can be performed on the stock-tank liquids. aromatic and naphthenic compounds. due to the formation of a cloud of precipitating paraffin crystals.5% in volume. IP359. a simple. ASTM D 4006. such as: . . The specific definitions of these two parameters are stated in the ISO 1998 standard.5% in volume. For dark fluids.27 Upon request. ASTM D 4377.the pour point. ASTM D 96. widely used for liquids with a water content of more than 0. IP 358. without having to identify the single components and determine their concentration. These standards are advised for water concentrations below 0. the cloud point is determined instead using non-standard methods such as “differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)” or tracing the “viscosity-temperature” profile of the oil. The concentration of paraffin in oil is expressed as a % by weight and is determined by precipitating the waxes at a temperature of . The ”pour point” is the minimum temperature at which liquid flows. to be determined according to the standards IP 15 / ASTM D 97 / ISO 3016.concentration of water water emulsified in oils can be determined using one of the three methods below: ASTM D 95.
depending on the type of capillary viscosimeter used.ASTM D 1298. using a hydrometer . using an Anton Paar digital densimeter . . using a Warden or Hubbard capillary picnometer.000 cSt. The range of measurement is wide.density the density of stock-tank oil. The time needed for a given liquid volume to flow through a calibrated capillary viscosimeter under the action of gravity. The dynamic viscosity. It should be noted that the terminology and definitions concerning the various types of water present in crudes are stated in the standard ISO 3171 . can be determined using one of the standard methods below: .ASTM D 4052. .28 by mixing 50% oil with 50% toluene saturated with water. at a controlled temperature.viscosity The kinematic viscosity of oil is determined using the ASTM D 445 method. even at different temperatures. which is equivalent to the IP 71 method and the ISO 3104 standard and valid for hydrocarbons mixtures of Newtonian rheological behaviour. expressed in centipoises. The measurement can be taken at different temperatures and expressed as centistokes. is measured.IP 190. up to 300. the value obtained is usually lower than the actual value. is obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity by the density of the stock-tank oil at the same temperature.
PRELIMINARY TESTS AND RECOMBINATIONS .29 5.
measuring the density of the separator oil under separator conditions.determining the volumetric shrinkage factor which characterises separator oil. . The value of this factor is always less than 1 and depends on the type of oil.for the shrinkage factor of the separator oil. A study of the results. When the validity of the GOR value measured at the field is uncertain. the right volumetric proportions are given by the GOR (volumetric Gas/Oil Ratio) measured at the field and adjusted: . the recombination GOR is immediately available. For this purpose. This preliminary study is especially recommended for condensate gas.30 5. to confirm that during two separate and independent tests the recombined fluid has the same saturation pressure. In most cases. in terms of reliability. A “flash test” is performed on the sample from separator pressure to atmospheric pressure.Saturation Pressure” study. The physical recombination of separator fluids involves creating a significant volume of reservoir fluid in a PVT cell.for the gas compressibility factor determined at the field (Fpv = 1/ √ z) and in the lab. it is advisable to request a preliminary “GOR . usually for each type of oil this value decreases as the separator pressure increases. this is done by mixing gas with separator oil in the right volumetric proportions.1 GENERAL INFORMATION The main preliminary lab tests involve: .for the gas density determined at the field (Fg = 1/ √ d) and in the lab . taking into account the separator’s operating conditions . Sometimes instead of GOR is preferred to present a GLR (volumetric Gas/Liquid Ratio) or a CGR (volumetric Condensate/Gas Ratio) . In some cases. expressed as the ratio “Nm3 of separator gas / m3 of separator oil at separator T&P” The physical recombination should be done at least twice. compared to reservoir conditions. where several separate recombinations using different GOR values are performed and the saturation pressure value of each mixture is determined. can clarify which is the true fluid present in the reservoir. use of an Anton Paar densimeter is suggested.
31 6. REQUESTING A PVT STUDY This section describes the typical tests to be requested for performing a complete PVT study on the following types of reservoir fluid: Dry gases Oils (heavy. medium. light) Volatile oils Condensate gas .
1 Reservoir fluid: DRY GAS General information Dry gas is defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons (usually natural gas) with a chemical composition which is such that no condensate liquids are produced. Chemical composition of reservoir gas Determined according to the procedures stated in section 4. Whenever traces of condensates are produced at the separator or tank. not even at the surface plants.32 6.000 Nm3 / m 3 (200 MScf/bbl). 1 shows the procedure adopted during the PVT study for dry reservoir gas. the gas is defined as wet gas. These types of gas are characterised by a GOR value above 35. . When minimum amounts (often negligible) of condensate liquids form. Controlling the validity of samples According to the procedures stated in section 3. these should be taken into account and sampled in order to obtain a correct evaluation of the reservoir fluid. A dry gas may be correctly sampled at both the well head and separator. Fig.
In these cases it is advisable to ask the PVT lab to determine the z factor. also known as the “gas deviation factor” is determined within a range of pressures from reservoir pressure to atmospheric pressure. The observation window is used to check whether any amounts. in conditions of thermodynamic equilibria. Vs). The z factor. Gas density - . It may also be important to know the z value of a dry gas at temperatures other than reservoir temperature.0332 Kg/cm2 = 0. especially for gases containing non-hydrocarbon products such as CO2. even minimum.* -------------Tg * Pstandard Vstandard Note that Tstandard = 273 + 15 = 288 °K = 60 °F Pstandard = 1. form when the pressure decreases and the cell cools down to ambient temperature. of condensed products. The gas is then displaced from the cell and collected in a volume measuring device at atmospheric pressure to determine the Nm3 equivalents (standardised or normalised value. Measuring the z value is advisable. The volume taken up by the gas at reservoir temperature and many pressures (at least six different ones) is measured. H2S. even at temperatures of specific interest. The z factor at the i-th pressure is calculated using the expression Pi * Tstandard Vi z = --------------------.10 MPa = 14. in a PVT cell fitted with an observation window.7 psia The results are plotted on a graph and enable the z = f (P) curve to be traced at reservoir temperature. N2 which change the real gas behaviour a great deal if compared to the ideal gas and therefore make the theoretical methods for determining z values less reliable.33 Compressibility factor (z) of reservoir gas This determination is the most important for characterising the volumetric behaviour of gas and must be carried out at reservoir temperature (Tg).
. if it were possible to liquefy all the hydrocarbon components. can be experimentally determined using an Anton Paar densimeter. This data is calculated and presented as “m3 / MM Nm3” (gallons/MM Scf). Gas viscosity Reservoir gas viscosity. from C3 to the heaviest (C3 plus). at reservoir conditions. at reservoir conditions. is suitably calculated on the basis of the gas chemical composition. The density of the same gas at atmospheric conditions is usually calculated on the basis of the chemical composition. Potential liquid products These are defined as “the volumetric amount (m3 at 15 °C) of liquid which could be produced by 1 Million Nm3 of initial gas at reservoir pressure. from C5 to the heaviest (C5 plus)”. from C4 to the heaviest C4 plus).34 The density of reservoir gas.
1 .35 GAS SAMPLES VALIDITY CHECK OF SAMPLES COMPOSITION OF RESERVOIR GAS SELECTION OF THE MOST REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE EXPERIMENTAL DENSITY EXPERIMENTAL Z FACTOR CALCULATED GAS DENSITY CALCULATED GAS VISCOSITY CALCULATED POTENTIAL LIQUID PRODUCTS Fig.
in reservoir conditions. the stages of the PVT study are performed according to different procedures. well head or at the field separator. at pressures below the saturation pressure (bubble point) give rise to a continual and cumulative shrinkage of the volume of liquid as a result of gas being released. Fig. are liquid and which. Depending on the type of samples available. medium and light oils. Fig. The GOR values which characterise these oils are as follows: heavy oils medium oils light oils 0 < GOR < 50 Nm3/m3 51 < GOR < 200 Nm3/m3 201 < GOR < 350 Nm3/m3 An oil may be correctly sampled at the bottom hole. 2 shows the procedure for performing a PVT study on reservoir oil samples collected from the bottom hole or at the well head. .36 6. depending on the amount of gas dissolved in these oils and the characteristics (viscosity and specific weight) of stock-tank oil. Chemical composition of reservoir oil Determined according to the procedures stated in section 4.2 Reservoir fluid: OIL General information Oil is defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons which. 3 shows the procedure for performing a PVT study on reservoir oil obtained by recombining the fluids sampled at the separator. Validity check of samples According to the procedures stated in section 3. A distinction is made among heavy.
Isothermic Oil Compressibility . is submitted to depletion. No other fluids are removed or injected in the cell during the test. 8 steps are sufficient. The saturation pressure value is identified by visual inspection and by the point of discontinuity on the “pressure-volume” curve. four above and four below the bubble point. RESULTS The following parameters are calculated from the CCE test and indicated in a standard PVT Report : Relative Volume This is the ratio between the volume of the mixture at the i-th general equilibrium pressure and the volume of the same mixture at bubble point pressure. the pressure at which the first gas bubble is released from the liquid. i. DESCRIPTION A sample of fluid. this involves applying a series of thermodynamic equilibria at various pressure steps and experimentally determining the volumes occupied by the mixture at equilibrium conditions. Usually. It is labelled as CCE test. The above is also known as “Constant Mass Expansion” and as the “Pressure-Volume relation”. This value is adimensional. New PVT mercury-free apparatus allow to carry out the CCE test with 30 cm3 of reservoir fluid. At least 10 equilibrium pressure steps are recommended for light oils and high reservoir pressures. and can therefore be repeated several times on the same sample. The test is performed succesfully on fluid volumes of approximately 150-200 cm3. inside a windowed PVT cell adjusted to reservoir temperature.e.37 Constant composition expansion This is a classic test performed at reservoir temperature to determine the saturation pressure (bubble point pressure) of the reservoir fluid. The test is non destructive. REMARKS The number of equilibrium pressures (steps) to be investigated depends on reservoir pressure and on bubble point pressure values. resulting in a constant mass and constant composition expansion.
using the following ratio: 2 (V1 . the Y function This is an adimensional parameter defined by the ratio P sat . if corrected.38 This is calculated from the experimental volumetric measurements. the experimental volumetric data.Vsat ----------------Vsat This parameter represents the deviation percentage of pressures in relation to the deviation percentage of volumes. compared to saturation conditions. The parameter is only calculated for pressures values below saturation pressure. In this field.Pi ----------------Psat Y = --------------------------------Vi .V2) c = -------------------.: Y = a + bP All these results are shown on a graph and in a suitably set out table. The unit of measurement is m3/(m3 x MPa).* -----------------(V1 + V2) (P1 . the temperature higher and the pressure lower. when plotted on a graph as a function of pressure. for each generic equilibrium pressure Pi. . ranging from reservoir pressure to saturation pressure. or in other words 1/MPa.P2) and is calculated for one or more pressure intervals. must produce Y calculated values which must lie on a straight line. and so only in the biphase range. The compressibility of oils is greater when the oils are light.
The mass and composition of the mixture are variable during the test execution and so this type of test is destructive. unless a new volume of the whole original sample is used. to verify that the initial quantity of hydrocarbons has been recovered both as gas and as residual oil. which gradually decrease according to a programme previously scheduled according to the characteristics of the oil to be tested. RESULTS - . a gas phase develops which is in equilibrium with a liquid whose properties are different if compared to those of the original oil. It cannot be repeated. the oil which has remained in the cell undergoes flashing up to atmospheric pressure. The volume. about 700 psi) only need 3-4 pressure steps. The number of pressure steps to apply depends mainly on the bubble point value of the original oil. For more accurate characterization studies the chemical composition of the residual oil is determined too. z factor and chemical composition of the gas are then determined. is submitted to a series of equilibria steps at different pressure values. the best labs perform a global mass balance and a molecular mass balance of each component as a control. thus producing degassed residual oil. At the final pressure stage. previously transferred in a windowed PVT cell at constant reservoir temperature. With the new PVT mercury-free apparatus and suited sampling techniques also 30-40 cm3 of reservoir fluid sample may be suitable for reliable results. using an Anton Paar densimeter. It is suggested for light and volatile oils in particular. At each pressure value lower than the saturation pressure of the original oil. All the gas which has been released is therefore transferred outside the cell. REMARKS Each pressure step is usually in the range of 30 Kg/cm2 (450 psi). at constant pressure to avoid changing the thermodynamic equilibrium. The volumes assumed by the mixture at equilibrium conditions are measured at each pressure step. medium and light oils (black oils) it is worldwide acknowledged that differential vaporisation is the process which satisfactorily approximates the phenomena which occur in the reservoir during its depletion. The residual oil is measured and recovered in order to determine the specific weight at atmospheric pressure at 15°C and at reservoir temperature. density. DESCRIPTION A reservoir fluid sample. In the case of heavy.39 Differential vaporization This is a conventional test performed to simulate the behaviour of original reservoir oil during reservoir depletion from initial pressure to atmospheric pressure. 2200 . In order to ensure accurate results.3600 psi) require approximately 6-7 pressure steps below the bubble point. and is collected in a suited sampling device. Oils with a high bubble point (from 150 to 250 Kg/cm2. while oils with a low bubble point (up to 50 Kg/cm2. The test is performed consuming 200-250 cm3 of fluid with the standard equipment.
It is expressed as a mole % for each single component. It is indicated by the symbol Rs and expressed as Nm3 of dissolved gas for every m3 of residual oil at standard conditions (SC. . and expressed as m3 (T&P) / m3 (SC). 15°C and atmospheric pressure). at reservoir temperature and at any given pressure. It is expressed as Kg / m3 (T&P).gas volume factor This is the ratio between the volume occupied by a given mass of gas in equilibrium conditions at reservoir temperature and at any given pressure and the volume occupied by the same mass of gas at standard conditions. It is indicated by the symbol O. The value is always greater than one. It is indicated by the symbol Bt and is expressed as m3 (T&P) / m3 (SC). The value is adimensional.chemical composition of gas This is the composition of each equilibrium gas released by oil at reservoir temperature during the test. and the volume of residual oil at standard conditions.z factor This is the deviation factor of gas in equilibrium conditions in relation to ideal gas behaviour. All these results are given in the PVT Report as both tables or graphs. .total volume factor This is the ratio between the sum of the equilibrated oil and gas phase volumes. at reservoir temperature. . Separator tests - .reservoir oil density This is the specific weight of oil at any given pressure. relative to air in the same conditions. . .gas solubility This is the volume of gas dissolved in the oil at any given pressure. The value is adimensional.reservoir oil volume factor This is the ratio between the volume of oil which remains in the reservoir at any given pressure and the volume of residual oil at standard conditions. determined at 15°C and at atmospheric pressure. . or Bo.R. . It is indicated by the symbol Bg and is expressed as m3 (T&P) / Nm3 (SC).F.gas density This is the density of equilibrium gases. .40 The parameters below are then calculated from the experimental raw data of this test and included in the standard PVT Report.V.
DESCRIPTION A measured volume of a sample of the reservoir oil is removed from a PVT cell at constant pressure and in monophase conditions and is suddenly expanded (flash test). These tests simulate a complex separation system. High separation temperatures (from approximately 50 to 70 °C) and low separation pressures (below 10 Kg/cm2) are expected for heavy oils. while higher separation pressures (from 30 to 50 Kg/cm2) and temperatures in the range between 20 and 30 °C are expected for light oils. in order to maintain a constant separation pressure. The pressure values to apply are chosen on the basis of the studied oil properties. and . which are assumed to reach a condition of thermodynamic equilibrium at separation conditions. Each set of four independent tests requires about 200 cm3 of fluid. which means that the separation process takes place in several cascade stages. allowing it to flow into a sampling equipment which is suitable for determining the volume. The tests are destructive as they lead to the irreversible consumption of the sample used. If requested. These tests usually involve at least four different operating pressures of the first stage separator. The reservoir oil which is injected into the separator produces a gas and a liquid (separator gas and oil).41 These are a set of “flash tests” performed to simulate the production process in order to determine the separator pressure value which can ensure maximum recovery of stock-tank oil (degassed) at a pre-defined separation temperature. the volumetric coefficient which quantifies the maximum recovery compared to oil available in the reservoir is determined. the gas is continually removed from the top of the container. in order to perform a more complete study. at different separation temperatures. At the same time. REMARKS A set of single stage separator tests is usually performed at the temperature which is expected to happen during production at the field. Multistage separator tests may also be requested. with an additional volume of gas being released and fully degassed stock-stank oil being produced. density and chemical composition. During the test. Repeat tests therefore require additional amounts of sample. the tests can be repeated. This test is defined as a single stage separator test. The separator oil is then depressurised until it reaches atmospheric pressure. through a valve in a windowed container (separator) which is kept at a constant separation temperature and previously pressurised with inert gas to the chosen operating pressure.
It is indicated by the symbol O. . It is indicated by the symbol O.Separator GOR This is the ratio between the gas volume (measured in standard conditions).V.Total GOR - . It is expressed in Nm3 / m3 (SC).Stock-tank GOR This is the ratio between the gas volume (measured in standard conditions). . and the volume of the resulting stock-tank oil at standard conditions. The value is always greater than one.oil formation volume factor This is the ratio between the volume of oil available at reservoir temperature and at bubble point pressure and the volume of stock-tank oil which could be produced through a separation system operating at the indicated separation temperature and pressure. with traditional separators for the remaining low pressure stages.F. in order to maximise the production of condensates. and expressed in m3 (T&P) / m3 (SC).42 are recommended for volatile oils only. It is expressed in Nm3 / m3 (SC). Usually the tests are carried out by assembling in cascade a series of PVT cells for the high pressure separation stages. released by the reservoir oil at the separator and the volume of stock-tank oil produced and associated to it.F. and is expressed in m3 (T&P) / m3 (SC). where a separation process through multiple stages may probably be designed. . The value is always greater than one. released under atmospheric pressure by the separator oil and the volume of stock-tank oil produced and associated to it. . . Each separation stage takes place at temperatures and pressures which are constant yet different from those of other stages. RESULTS The parameters below are then calculated from the results of this test and included in the standard PVT Report. at the separator’s operating temperature and pressure.separator oil volume factor This is the ratio between the volume of separator oil.F.V. There is no standard lab equipment suitable for these tests.
It corresponds to the sum of the two previous GOR values and is expressed in Nm3 / m3 (SC). The results of the tests are completed by experimentally determining: .the viscosity of the stock-tank oil produced. . All these results are given in the PVT report both as tables and graphs.the density (API gravity) of the stock-tank oil produced. . measured at the studied temperatures.the chemical compositions of the gases released at the separator and tank. .43 This is the ratio between the total gas volume (measured in standard conditions) released in the separation system by reservoir oil and the volume of stock-tank oil produced and associated to it.
For pressures values below the saturation pressure of the reservoir oil. For pressures values above the saturation pressure of the reservoir oil. It should be noted. in all operating conditions. The viscosity tests are particularly important for medium and heavy oils. the viscosity of the integral original oil is measured. At each pressure a small magnet of the viscosimeter is disabled thus enabling a calibrated steel ball to roll through the liquid along the calibrated tube. accurate measurements are required. that deviations of around 10% from the viscosity values determined in different labs are possible. the released gas is collected in the upper chamber of the viscosimeter. . In these cases. Reservoir pressure is applied and the viscosimeter is shaken until a liquid monophase condition is obtained. with a viscosity above 30 cP. REMARKS This measuring system is valid for all liquid hydrocarbon mixtures which show a Newtonian rheological behaviour in measurement conditions. The equilibrium pressure required for taking the measurement is then applied according to a stepby-step depletion. It is not possible to take accurate measurements on reservoir oils which have an emulsified water content of more than 1% in weight. the viscosity of the equilibrium liquid phase produced during a step-by-step differential process vaporisation is measured.44 Viscosimetry Viscosimetry is a test performed to determine the dynamic viscosity of reservoir oil at reservoir temperature and at a range of pressures values between the original reservoir pressure and atmospheric pressure. The time occurred for the ball to move along the tube is measured. The viscosities of gases in equilibrium conditions are calculated on the basis of their chemical composition. DESCRIPTION A rolling ball viscosimeter equipped with a calibrated measuring tube is filled up with reservoir fluid at reservoir temperature. using accurately calibrated equipment. For pressures below saturation pressure. in any case. thus enabling the calibrated measuring tube to be entirely filled with oil in equilibrium conditions only.
The results are given in the PVT report.45 RESULTS The viscosity is calculated using the following equation u = k t ( d1 . in both tables and graphs.d2 ) where: d1 = the density of the steel ball d2 = the density of reservoir oil at the measurement pressure k = the calibration constant of the measurement tool t = the measured time u = the dynamic viscosity. measured in centipoises (cP). .
2 .46 Well Head Samples Bottom Hole Samples Transfer from the sampling cylinder Determination of the saturation pressure and of the P-V relation Selection of the most representative sample Separator tests Determination of viscosity Constant mass study Blow-down at atmospheric pressure Differential Vaporization study Chemical analysis and mathematical recombination Composition of reservoir fluid Fig.
Samples of separator oil Samples of separator gas
Determination of saturation pressure
Gas chromatographic analyses
Selection of the most representative sample
Blow-down at atmospheric pressure
Composition of separator gas
Chemical analysis and mathematical recombination
Selection of the most representative sample
Composition of separator oil
Mathematical recombination of compositions of separator fluids
Composition of reservoir fluid
Physical recombination of samples
Recombined sample of reservoir fluid
Determination of viscosity
Constant Mass study
Differential Vaporization study
Reservoir fluid: VOLATILE OIL
General information Volatile oil is defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons with the same behaviour as that of “oils”, but characterised by a “critical point” very close to reservoir conditions. A volatile oil is more correctly defined as a “near critical oil”. These types of oil are very light reservoir oils (> 45 API), most of them have a high saturation pressure and high volume of dissolved gas. The GOR values of these oils range from approximately 350 to 600 Nm3/m3. They are therefore high shrinkage oils, which, even when just below their saturation pressure, release large amounts of gas enriched with products that are condensable at surface conditions. A traditional PVT study can be conducted on these types of oils. However, in order to simulate their behaviour in the reservoir, it is recommended that these oils undergo ”constant volume depletion” rather than conventional differential vaporisation as the former test best represents the depletion process of a reservoir containing these types of oils. Fig. 4 shows the procedure for conducting a PVT study on volatile reservoir oil obtained by bottom hole or well head sampling. Fig. 5 shows the procedure for conducting a PVT study on volatile reservoir oil obtained by recombining the fluids sampled at the separator.
Validity check of samples According to the procedures stated in section 3.
Chemical composition of reservoir oil Determined according to the procedures stated in section 4.
Constant Composition Expansion According to the instructions stated for oils, in section 6.2.
49 Constant Volume Depletion -
This test is performed at reservoir temperature, assuming that depletion takes place in a reservoir whose volume remains constant. It is known as the CVD test. This test is applied to obtain information on the properties of the oil which remains in the reservoir and on the gases which are produced during depletion.
DESCRIPTION A sample of reservoir fluid, previously put into a PVT cell equipped with a long window and set to constant reservoir temperature, is submitted to a series of equilibrium steps, at pre-set and decreasing pressures, according to a programme previously defined for the studied oil’s characteristics. At each pressure step which is above oil saturation pressure, the volume occupied by the monophase mixture in equilibrium conditions is measured. At the saturation pressure of the original oil, the volume occupied by the mixture is accurately measured and this value is assumed as the reservoir volume to be kept constant during the subsequent equilibrium steps devoted to simulate the depletion process. At each pressure step which is lower than the saturation pressure of the original oil, a gaseous phase develops which is in equilibrium with a liquid oil phase whose properties are different if compared to the original oil. The volumes occupied by this oil and by the entire biphase mixture are measured. Then, at constant pressure in order to maintain the thermodynamic equilibrium, the initial constant volume occupied by the original fluid at its saturation pressure is restored, by removing the excess part of the equilibrium gas from the cell. This displaced gas is collected in a special sampling device and the volume, density, z factor and chemical composition are then measured. The cycle (expansion at a lower equilibrium pressure, followed by removal of the released gas to restore the constant volume) is repeated several times, until a pressure which is sufficiently low to be considered as the reservoir “abandonment pressure” is reached. In this situation, the gas cap in equilibrium conditions is measured, by removing it from the PVT cell. The remaining oil undergoes a flash test in a cell, from abandonment pressure to atmospheric pressure. The volume of the released gas and residual oil are measured and the density and chemical composition are determined.
RESULTS The parameters below are then calculated from the results of this test and included in the standard PVT Report. The value is adimensional. a PVT cell fitted with a window which is sufficiently long to enable liquid volumes to be measured at each equilibrium is needed. It expresses the entity of the reservoir oil shrinkage factor below saturation pressure. . and the consequent high volumetric oil shrinkage. In relation to the high saturation pressure value and the large volume of dissolved gas at least 8-10 different equilibrium pressure steps need to be applied in order to better describe the depletion process of these oils. This value is adimensional. The test is performed with 200-250 cm3 of fluid with standard traditional mercury PVT cell.50 REMARKS Given the large amounts of gas released. It may also be expressed in moles produced every 100 initial moles.cumulative gas produced This is the amount of cumulative gas produced during the reservoir depletion.).P. which is characteristic of these types of fluids. so it is a destructive type test. With the new PVT mercury-free equipment and suited gas sampling techniques.000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at saturation pressure.reservoir oil shrinkage factor This is the ratio between the volume of oil at each equilibrium pressure and the volume of original oil at saturation pressure. The mass and composition of the test are variable. . The abandonment pressure is chosen freely and usually ranges from 30 to 50 Kg/cm2 (450 to 750 psi). unless a new volume of whole sample is used. also 30-40 cm3 of reservoir fluid may be suitable for reliable results. caused by the release of gas.z compressibility factor of the gas produced This is the deviation factor of equilibrium gas behaviour in relation to the ideal gas behaviour. . . even just below saturation pressure. In order to correctly and accurately perform this test. It cannot be repeated. it is advisable to apply the first equilibrium at a pressure very close to saturation pressure (about 8-10 Kg/cm2 below B. It is expressed in Nm3 of gas for each 1. the best labs perform a global mass balance and a molecular mass balance of each component so that the initial load of the hydrocarbons is recovered both as gas and as residual oil. In order to ensure accurate results.
etc. can also be calculated.chemical composition of gas This is the composition of each equilibrium gas released by oil at reservoir temperature during the test. It is expressed as a molar % for each single component. unless specifically requested. . These products are evaluated theoretically by calculation and expressed in m3 of liquid at 15°C for each 1. it is not a standard routine of all labs to include these data in the PVT Report for a CVD test. i. starting from a determined amount (volume) of reservoir fluid at saturation pressure. Rs. . It is indicated by the symbol Bg and is expressed in m3 (T&P) / Nm3 (SC).000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at saturation pressure. However. Bo. .potential liquid products These are the liquid volumes which could be produced at the surface from each type of gas produced. . These products are calculated on the basis of the chemical composition of the gas and are expressed in m3 of liquid at 15 °C for each 1. All the other traditional parameters of the Differential Vaporisation test.gas volume factor This is the ratio between the volume occupied by an equilibrium gas mass at reservoir temperature and at a generic pressure and the volume occupied by the same gas mass at standard conditions.e.51 .cumulative potential liquid products These are the cumulative liquid volumes which could be produced at the surface in relation to each depletion level of the reservoir. Bt.000 Nm3 of gas produced.
In any case. Some labs do not perform experimental tests. but obtain data by calculating the thermodynamic equilibrium of a flash process. Viscosimetry Determined according to the procedures stated for oils. for these types of oils it is advisable to be submitted to a set of experimental multistage separator tests.2. in section 6. where an Equation of State (EOS) is previously calibrated to reproduce the saturation pressure value of the studied oil.52 Separator tests These tests must be carried out according to the procedures stated for oils. . these calculations are performed with suitable PVT software packages.
53 Well Head Samples Bottom Hole Samples Transfer from the sampling cylinder Determination of the saturation pressure and of the P-V relation Selection of the most representative sample Separator tests Determination of viscosity Constant mass study Blow-down at atmospheric pressure Constant Volume Depletion study Chemical analysis and mathematical recombination Composition of reservoir fluid Fig. 4 Samples of separator oil Samples of separator gas .
54 Determination of saturation pressure Gas chromatographic analyses Selection of the most representative sample Blow-down at atmospheric pressure Composition of separator gas Chemical analysis and mathematical recombination Selection of the most representative sample Composition of separator oil Mathematical recombination of compositions of separator fluids Composition of reservoir fluid Physical recombination of samples Recombined sample of reservoir fluid Separator tests Determination of viscosity Constant Mass study Constant Volume Depletion study Fig. 5 .
6 shows the procedure for performing a PVT study on reservoir condensate gas obtained by recombining fluids sampled at the separator. the volume of the condensate retrograde liquid continually increases. recombininging the separator fluid compositions according to the separator GOR (measured or calculated from the field GOR).55 6. Controlling the validity of samples According to the procedures stated in section 3. Usually the condensate gases are correctly sampled at the separator. As the depletion become deeper and deeper. because of pressure values below its saturation pressure (Dew Point). a partial re-evaporation of condensate components takes place along with a consequent reduction in the volume of retrograde liquid. As the depletion progresses. leads to the formation of a liquid phase. is in a gaseous monophase state and which. Bottomhole sampling is sometimes carried out. The composition of reservoir fluid is obtained by calculation. in reservoir conditions.4 Reservoir fluid: CONDENSATE GAS General information A condensate gas is defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons which. Fig. Chemical composition of reservoir condensate gas The composition is determined by analysing the separator liquids and gases according to the procedures stated in section 4. The GOR values which characterize these fluids are above 700-800 Nm3/m3 approximately (40004500 Scf/bbl). .
the pressure at which the first drop of liquid condenses. This test is also known as the “Constant Mass Expansion” and as the “Pressure-Volume relation”. measured at formation conditions. DESCRIPTION In a PVT cell fitted with a long windowed area and set to reservoir temperature. In most cases. four above and six below the Dew Point pressure value. 10 pressure steps are sufficient. The test is performed on volumes of approximately 300-350 cm3 of reservoir fluid. For pressures below saturation or dew point pressure. i. This test is non destructive and so it may be repeated several times on the same sample.e. With the new PVT mercury-free apparatus and suited sampling techniques also 30-40 cm3 of reservoir fluid sample may be suitable for reliable results. the volumes of condensed liquid are measured using a high precision optical device (cathetometer). with an experimental determination of the volumes occupied by the mixture in equilibrium conditions. a sample of fluid is depleted by applying a series of thermodynamic equilibria at various pressure steps. REMARKS The number of equilibrium pressure steps to apply depends on the reservoir pressure and on the dew point pressure.pressure” curve. The saturation pressure value is identified by visual inspection and as the discontinuity point on the “condensed liquid volume . RESULTS - .56 Constant Composition Expansion This is the traditional test performed at reservoir pressure to determine the saturation pressure “dew point pressure” of the reservoir fluid.
This value is expressed as a volumetric percentage.000 Nm3 of original gas at saturation pressure.000 Nm3 (SC). .z factor This is the deviation factor of reservoir gas behaviour in relation to ideal gas behaviour at various applied pressures above dew point pressure. . This value is adimensional. In the second approach. In the first approach this value is expressed as the volume of retrograde condensed liquid starting from 1.volume of retrograde liquid This is the volume of condensed liquid at various equilibrium pressures below dew point pressure. this value is expressed as the volume of initial reservoir pore space (made equal to 100) occupied by the retrograde condensed liquid.57 The parameters below are then calculated from the results of this test and included in the standard PVT report. The data may be expressed in two different ways. . . The value is adimensional.relative volume This is the ratio between the volume of mixture at the i-th generic equilibrium pressure and the volume of the same mixture at dew point pressure. It is expressed in m3 (T&P) / 1.
followed by removal of a further amount of gas) is repeated several times. by removing the excess part of the equilibrium gas from the cell. At each pressure step above the saturation pressure (Dew Point). from abandonment pressure to atmospheric pressure. obtained by recombining separator fluids in a PVT cell set at constant reservoir temperature. in order to simulate depletion in a reservoir whose volume remains constant. at a constant pressure in order to maintain the thermodynamic equilibrium. The cycle (expansion at a lower equilibrium pressure.58 Constant Volume Depletion This test is performed at reservoir temperature. density. the initial constant volume occupied by the original fluid at its reservoir pressure is restored. Then. It is known as the CVD test. . by removing it from the PVT cell. This value is assumed as the reservoir volume to be kept constant during the subsequent equilibrium steps for simulating the depletion process. At each pressure step which is lower than saturation pressure (Dew Point). A sampling device for trapping the heaviest components of the gas is located into a special low temperature device. In this situation. z factor and chemical composition are then measured. DESCRIPTION A sample of reservoir fluid. a liquid phase develops which is in equilibrium with a gas whose properties are different if compared to the original condensate gas. The condensate left is submitted to a flash expansion in the cell. until a pressure which is sufficiently low to be considered as the reservoir “abandonment pressure” is reached. the volumes occupied by the monophasic gas mixture in equilibrium conditions are measured. The volume occupied by the gas mixture at reservoir pressure is accurately measured. This test is applied to obtain information on the amount of condensate which remains in the reservoir and on the properties and amount of gases which are produced during depletion. is submitted to a series of equilibrium steps at pre-set and decreasing pressures according to a programme previously defined for the studied gas according to its characteristics. the “gas cap” of the equilibrium is measured. The volumes of the gas which is released and the residual condensate liquid are measured and the density and chemical composition are determined. This displaceded gas is collected in a special sampling device and the volume. The volumes occupied by this liquid and by the entire biphase mixture are measured.
The abandonment pressure is chosen freely and usually ranges from 30 to 50 Kg/cm2 (450 . the best labs perform a global mass balance and a molecular mass balance of each component as a control. It is expressed in m3 (T&P) / 1. In the second approach. . . so it is a destructive type test. volume of retrograde liquid This is the volume of condensed liquid at various equilibrium pressures below dew point pressure. a PVT cell equipped with a window which is sufficiently long to enable liquid volumes to be detected and measured at each equilibrium is needed.000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at initial reservoir pressure). RESULTS The parameters below are then calculated from the results of this test and included in the standard PVT Report. It is expressed in Nm3 of gas from each 1. The value is adimensional. In order to ensure accurate results. The data may be expressed in two different ways.000 Nm3 of original gas at saturation pressure. but may also be atmospheric pressure. to verify that the initial quantity of the hydrocarbons has been recovered both as gas and as residual condensate liquid. The mass and composition of the test are variable.700 psi). This value is expressed as a volumetric percentage. this value is expressed as the volume of initial reservoir pore space (made equal to 100) occupied by the condensed liquid. . The test is performed with 300-350 cm3 of monophase reservoir fluid. In relation to the high saturation pressure value and the large volume of condensable liquid at least 8-10 different equilibria pressure steps need to be applied in order to get a better simulation of the depletion process of these fluids.59 REMARKS It is advisable to apply the first equilibrium at a pressure very close to saturation pressure (about 15-20 Kg/cm2 or 200-300 psi below the Dew Point) in order to evaluate even the small amounts of retrograde liquid which form in the reservoir.000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at saturation pressure (or from each 1.z compressibility factor of the gas produced This is the deviation factor of equilibrium gas behaviour in relation to ideal gas behaviour.000 Nm3 (SC). unless a new volume of whole sample is used. In order to correctly and accurately perform this test. In the first approach this value is expressed as the volume of condensed liquid starting from 1.cumulative gas produced This is the amount of cumulative gas produced during the reservoir’s depletion. It cannot be repeated.
. starting from a pre-set amount (volume) of reservoir fluid at saturation pressure (dew point) or at reservoir pressure.000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at saturation pressure or from each 1000 Nm3 of initial equivalent gas at reservoir pressure.cumulative potential liquid products These are the cumulative liquid volumes which could be produced at the surface in relation to each depletion level of the reservoir.potential liquid products These are the liquid volumes which could be produced at the surface by each type of gas produced. These products are calculated on the basis of the chemical composition of gas and are expressed in m3 of liquid at 15 °C for reach 1.000 Nm3 of gas produced. It is expressed as a molar % for each single component. These products are calculated and expressed in m3 of liquid at 15°C from each 1.60 .chemical composition of gas This is the composition of each gas produced and in equilibrium with the condensed liquid at reservoir temperature formed during the test. All these results are given in the PVT Report both as tables and as graphs . .
61 Separator tests - As a general rule. by calculating the flash equilibrium at selected separation conditions. A standard PVT Report usually provides the results obtained from a thermodynamic simulator. these are not required. . For these types of fluids it may be advisable a set of multistage separator tests to be carried out.
62 Samples of separator oil Samples of separator gas Determination of saturation pressure Gas chromatographic analyses Selection of the most representative sample Blow-down at atmospheric pressure Composition of separator gas Chemical analysis and mathematical recombination Selection of the most representative sample Composition of separator oil Mathematical recombination of compositions of separator fluids Composition of reservoir fluid Physical recombination of samples Recombined sample of reservoir fluid Constant Mass study Constant Volume Depletion study Fig. 6 .
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