[files were scanned in and so could contain spelling/typo issues] Key To Database 1978 Education of women, 15th

to 18th centuries 1979 Reign of Terror, French Revolution 1980 Witchcraft Scare 1981 Class Attitudes toward Industrialization 1982 Child-rearing in GB 16th to 18th c. 1983 Flemings and Walloons 1984 German Aircraft Industry 1985 Juvenile Crime and Treatment in GB 1986 Sudan Crisis (1884-1885) 1987 Literacy in Old Regime France 1988 Gin Act in G.B.; 18th c. social history 1989 Women‟s Status/Suffrage in late 19th/early 20th c. 1990 Spanish Civil War 1991 Anti-slavery during the Enlightenment and French Revolution 1992 Pan-Slavism 1993 Renaissance Education 1994-1997 (not included in file b/c available for sale with answer keys and student essays from the college board) 1998 German Unity before 1848 1999-2003 (not included in file b/c available at the college board website for download)

1978 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Document Groups A-C This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents and assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your answer.

The Question: Discuss the extent to which early modern European Society encouraged education for women. What criteria were used to evaluate women‟s education or its role, and women‟s potential for learning? What evolution, if any, can be seen in attitudes toward education for women from the Renaissance through the early eighteenth century?

Document Group A: THE RENAISSANCE (1) “The Court Lady, must have not only the good judgment to recognize the kind of person with whom she is speaking, but must have knowledge of many things, in order to entertain that person graciously. . I say that women can understand all the things men can understand and that the intellect of woman can penetrate wherever a man‟s can… there have always been women who have undertaken wars and won glorious victories, governed kingdoms with the greatest prudence and justice, and done all that men have done. As for the sciences, do you not remember reading of many women who were learned in philosophy? Others who excelled in poetry? Others who prosecuted, accused, and defended before judges with great eloquence?.....‟ Castiglione, The Courtier, Italy, 1528 (2) Abbot: Distaff and spindle are the proper equipment for women. Lady. Isn‟t it a wife‟s business to manage the household and rear the children? Abbott: It is. Lady: Do you think she can manage so big a job without wisdom? Abbot: I suppose not. Lady: But books s teach me this wisdom. Abbot: I could put up with books, but not Latin ones. Lady: Why not? Abbot. Because that language isn‟t fit for women. Lady: I want to know why. Abbot: Because it does little to protect their chastity. Erasmus, “The Abbot and the Learned Lady”, Switzerland, 1524

(3) “Study busies the whole soul…. It is not only a weapon against idleness but also a means of impressing the best precepts upon a girl‟s mind and of leading her to virtue. Erasmus, Christiani monii Institution, Switzerland, 1526 (4) All I can do is to beg our virtuous ladies to raise their minds somewhat above their distaffs and spindles and try to prove to the world that if we were not made to command, still we should not be disdained as companions in domestic and public matters by those who govern and command obedience. Apart from the good name that our sex will acquire thereby , we shall have caused men to devote more time and effort in the public good to virtuous studies for fear of seeing themselves left behind by those over whom they have always claimed superiority in practically everything ….. If there is ,anything to be recommended after honor and glory, anything to incite us to study, it is the pleasure which study affords A letter from the poet Louise Labe to a friend, France, 1555 (5) I have just given you my opinion of the advantages that women may derive from a superior education. However, I have nearly always found that such preparation turned out to be useless for women of middling rank like yourselves…. There is the fact, moreover, that a disproportionate elevation of the mind is very apt to breed pride. I have seen two had effects issue from this: (1) contempt for housekeeping, for poverty, and for a husband less clever than oneself, and (2) discord. And so I conclude that 1 would be most reluctant to encourage girls to pursue book learning unless they were princesses. obliged by their rank to assume the responsibilities, knowledge, competence, administration, and authority of men. Théodore Agrippa d‟Aubigné, writer and historian, to his daughters, France, circa 1590

(6) “She has just passed her sixteenth birthday and shows such dignity and gentleness as are wonderful at her age and in her rank, Her study of true religion and learning is most eager. Her mind has no womanly weakness, her perseverance is equal to that of a man, and her memory long keeps what it quickly picks up. She talks French and Italian as well as she does English, and has often talked to me readily and well in Latin, moderately in Greek Roger Ascham, describing his student, the future Queen Elizabeth 1, 1549

dare they not write about it. . Edmond Auger. and declare it one to the other. and accordingly they possess intelligence.Document Group B: REFORMATION AND CATHOLIC REFORMATION (1) “Men have broad shoulders and narrow hips. there is no need for the women or the artisan to take time out from their work and read the Old and New Testament . Women have narrow shoulders and broad hips. 1566 (2) To learn essential doctrine. a devout Calvinist. and they can‟t help falling into error. the way they were created indicated this. Women must be silent in Church. Table Talk. . 1566 (3) “If God has done the grace to some poor women to reveal to them by his Holy Scriptures some good and holy thing.” 1539 .” Martin Luther. Is it not foolishly done to hide the talent that God has given us?” Marie Dentière. . writing in “The War and Deliverance of the City of Geneva. for they have broad hips and a wide fundament to sit upon (to keep house and bear and raise children). . . Women ought to stay at home. a French Jesuit. as Saint Paul says... speak about it. Then they‟ll want to dispute about it and give their opinion .

though both Not equal. not only an ability for commerce of all kinds but a strong aptitude. as their sex not equal seem‟d. keeping an eye on her servants. and to have the full knowledge and use of Arithmetic and Merchants-Accounts. love and delight in it. nobody knows how the pot is cooking…. . . . 1672 (3) “The prodigious increase in the riches of the Netherlands may be the wonder of all future generations. The Learned Ladies. And vet the means whereby they have thus advanced themselves are sufficiently obvious. A New Discourse of Trade. of either sex. and managing her budget thriftily are all the study and philosophy she needs Women today … want to write books and become authors. and Mars. the well understanding and practice whereof doth strangely infuse into most that are the owners of that quality. In my house. be they of never so great quality or estate. John Milton.. and carry on their trades after their deaths. Stop trying to find out what‟s happening on the moon and mind what‟s going on in your own house where everything is upside down. France. . sister . which are no concern of mine and …. running her household. and all their reasoning has driven out reason. and sweet attractive Grace. For contemplation he and valor form‟d For softness she.. it doth encourage their husbands to hold on in their trades to their dying days. they know all about the moon and the pole star and about Venus. knowing the capacity of their wives to get in their estates. then] The education of their children. He for God only. they always take care to bring up to write perfect good hands. . Paradise Lost. Apart from the big Plutarch that keeps my neckbands pressed.Document Group C: SEVENTEENTH AND EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES (1) „Whence true authority in men. you should burn them all.” Sir Josiah Child. as well daughters as sons: all which. and there are plenty of reasons why it isn‟t. Teaching her children good principles. England. . It‟s not decent. 1667 (2) “I‟m speaking to you. Reasoning is the pursuit of everyone in my household.” From Moliere‟s play. 1668 . and since the women are as knowing therein as the men. Get rid of this fierce-looking telescope and all the rest of these gadgets…. [the writer lists several. for a woman to study and know so much. I don‟t like all these useless books of yours. she for God in him. Saturn.

. Teach them their domestic duties. and God resists our endeavors to be other than He intended us to be. Arithmetic is different.(4) “There is little point in girls of common extraction learning to read as well as young ladies or being taught as fine a pronunciation or knowing what a period is. . Don‟t even contemplate embellishing their minds. All they need is enough to keep their accounts and memoranda: you don‟t need to teach them fine handwriting or talk to them of style: a little spelling will do. It is the same with writing. .” From Mme. They need it. to be modest with customers. etc. . honest in business . . and how to look after their children and train their small staff. mistress and later wife of Louis XIV. to two women. in charge of girls‟ secondary schools. 1713 . to go regularly to church on Sundays and holidays. de Maintenon. . both former students at her school in St. Tell them that nothing is more displeasing to God and men than stepping out of one‟s social station—all are ordained by Providence. . Educate your middle-class girls in the middle-class way. Teach them to be moderate and that the peasant must not try to ape the bourgeois nor the bourgeois the gentleman. obedience to the their husbands. Cyr.

1979 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Document Groups A-G. The country was also in economic crisis. Troops were sent to deal with the secessionist areas. instituted a series of sweeping reforms to deal with the emergency situation. shot. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents and assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your answer.000 people out of a total population of 25 million had been guillotined. When the Terror ended n July. Read and analyze the documents and answer the question. To the north and the east the Prussian and Austrian troops were pushing back the armies of France and threatening to invade the infant republic.) . which governed the Republic. In August and September. In Lyon. 1794. The country was in disarray. A Revolutionary Tribunal (court) was enlarged. 14. [Historical setting: In the summer of 1793. In constructing your answer DO NOT simply summarize or repeat the contents of the documents. In western France a war of secession was underway backed by various social groups including the peasantry. the Committee of Public Safety. and a law of suspects was passed that legalized local revolutionary committees. The British navy threatened the coasts of France. and there was agitation in several cities in the south and southwest. another secessionist movement opposed the authority of the radical government in Paris. or drowned. The Question: Discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the Terror as an instrument of the French Revolution. the radical Jacobins purged their moderate rivals from the National Convention and took over ~he government of revolutionary France.

Document Group A: Statistical Data on the Terror Document 1: France 1793 .


journalist and former ally of Robespierre. It is subjected to less binding and less uniform regulations . Marseille. in a speech to the National Convention. . and the banks of the Rhine. those egoists.Document Group B: Leaders of the Convention Look at the Terror (4) “Revolution is the war waged by liberty against its enemies. 1793 (5) “Citizens. . . . Bordeaux. Since the month of May last. Custine had abandoned Mainz. In a speech to the National Convention. these weaklings. . In that period . because it is compelled to deploy. Under a constitutional government little more is required than to protect the individual against abuses by the state.” Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. December 20. February 26. 1793 . . To good citizens revolutionary government owes the full protection of the state. 1794 Document C: THE TERROR AS SEEN FROM THE MODERATE RIGHT (6) “You want to remove all your enemies by means of the guillotine I Has there ever been such great folly? Could you make a single man perish on the scaffold without making ten enemies for yourself from his family or his friends? Do you believe that these women. Calvados was in revolt. The strong and the brave have emigrated. Its force to repress must be commensurate with the audacity or treachery of those who conspire against it……” Maximilien de Robespierre. . how could anyone delude himself that you are inhuman? . the Palatinate. to the enemies of the people it owes only death. . Yet the greatest of our misfortunes was a certain fear of the concentration of authority necessary to save the state. new resources to meet new and pressing dangers. The revolutionary government has to summon extraordinary activity to its aid precisely because it is at war. They have perished at Lyon or in the Vendée. our armies were being beaten in the Pvrenees and around Mont Blanc. you were being betrayed by everyone. these old men. the remainder (consisting of some rentiers and shopkeepers] do not merit your wrath. Lyon. a constitution is that which crowns the edifice of freedom once victory has been won and the nation is at peace. whereas revolutionary government is obliged to defend the state itself against the factions that assail it from every quarter. are really dangerous? Of your enemies there remain among you only the cowardly and the sick. the Vendée was victorious. whom you imprison. . December 25. . It must adopt the general principles of ordinary government whenever these can be rigorously applied without endangering public liberty. in le Vieux Cordelier.” Camille Desmoulins. these stragglers of the Revolution. our history is a lesson about the terrible extremities to which indulgence leads. and Toulon were in arms against the French people. swiftly and incessantly.

‟ people remarked. that they acquit the innocent and punish the guilty. „The law is just.” January 28.‟ The verdicts of the Revolutionary Tribunal are always applauded. cupidity.” March 2. jealousy. but in that class we should expect all to be patriots. What.” February 23. 1794 . although murmurs are heard among the public at their judgments.Document Group D: Public Opinion and the Terror in Paris The documents in this group are excerpted from reports to the government on public opinion. „it strikes rich and poor indiscriminately. It is a fact that there is no section in Paris which is not dissatisfied with its revolutionary committee or does not seriously desire to have them abolished. (7) “The majority of the citizens agreed in unanimously [sic] saying that the tribunals act well. 1794 (8) “Bitter complaints already expressed numberless times. who plunder the nation and oppress citizens. and. their being counter-revolutionists. every human passion. people said. were repeated today of the arrest and imprisonment of citizens who are good patriots and are victims of ambition. 1794 (10) “The revolutionary committees are every day falling into discredit. You daily hear that they consist of a number of intriguers. have these wretches allowed themselves to be corrupted? If they were nobles or rich people it would not be strange. in short.” March 30. 1794 (9) “On seeing peasants on the scaffold.

. probably an opponent of the terror.Document E: A Suspect Appearing Before a Revolutionary Committee Contemporary French engraving of a revolutionary committee by an unknown artist.

it is necessary that the flames from their devastated dens proclaim tar and wide the punishment that is destined for those who try to imitate them. perhaps. the most terrible and gigantic. . a leader of the Revolutionary Army that subdued Lyon.Document F: The Terror in Lyon (12) “The guillotine and the firing squad did justice to more than four hundred rebels. the spirit of a people called forth by the impulse which acts so strongly in such a situation. or what rational prospect can there be of the permanence of their exertions? William Pitt. and. in one single moment. reformist member of Parliament and sympathizer with the French Revolution. may have the effect to make them brave in the moment of action. But a new revolutionary commission has just been established. . that the French have distinguished themselves in the field. independently of any other circumstance. November 7. in a speech to Parliament. more than four thousand conspirators. should he guilty or rather be governed by those who are guilty of such unheard of crimes and cruelties. that has. .” Charles James Fox. 1794 . and in a few days the grape shot. The Republic has need of a great example . in a speech to Parliament. December 17. January 21. what can be the dependence on the steadiness of their operations. . They are compelled into the field by the terror of the guillotine— they are supported there only by those resources which their desperate situation affords. which must exterminate them in an instant. nor will it be denied that. But their efforts are merely the result of a system of restraint and oppression. British Prime Minister. fired by our cannoneers will have delivered to us. in these circumstances.” A letter from General Ronsin. 1793 Document Group G: REACTION BY BRITISH LEADERS (13) “What a pity that a people [the French] capable of such Incredible energy. whilst the thunderbolt. 1793 (14) “But it has been urged. . ever existed. will carry terror into the departments where the seed of rebellion was sown.

the Scientific Revolution. The total number of accused witches who were tried exceeded 100. Switzerland. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents.The Witch DBQ 1980 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Document Groups A-D.000. Witches were persecuted in most of Europe. instead use the documents in a historical context and draw conclusions from them. You will have 60 minutes to read and analyze the documents and answer the question. in England the trials were generally conducted without the use of torture. but the trials were concentrated in southwestern Germany. and the consolidation of national governments. In constructing your answer DO NOT simply summarize. This was the period of the Protestant Reformation. Torture was used to extract confessions in many areas. Write your answer to the question on the lined pages of the free-response booklet. The Question Using the following documents. Poland.] . You may make notes and plan your answer on the green insert or on the printed pages of the pink free-response booklet. or repeat the contents of the documents. paraphrase. identify and analyze at least three major reasons for the persecution of individuals as witches in Europe from the late fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries. [Historical setting: The witch craze lasted from about 1480 to 1700. the Catholic Reformation. but not in others. Construct a coherent essay that integrates the analysis of documents into a treatment of the topic. England. and parts of France. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents and assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your answer. Scotland.

He made her many promises to help her in her poverty and need.. his wife vied noble dames in the richness of her array. scurried special accusers. . . from court to court throughout the towns and villages of all the diocese. And. . . . dragging to trial and torture human beings of both sexes and burning them in great numbers . " The Canon Linden. The children of those convicted and punished were sent into exile.. .Document Group A: THE TESTIMONY OF ACCUSED WITCHES AND EYEWITNESSES (1) “Walpurga Hausmannin . . she had become a widow.. . Meanwhile notaries. has. This she did as follows …. A child of the Governor here . Inquisitors. . canons of sundry collegiate churches . which was also roasted.. . 1592 . . and innkeepers grew rich. She had also rubbed a salve on a beautiful son of the .” Testimony of a licensed midwife at Dillingen. He died likewise…. and went clad in gold and silver. Him she enticed with lewd speeches and gestures and they convened that they should . copyists. confessed her witchcraft and admitted the following. Chancellor. When . meet in her . but the Evil One [the Devil] in the latter‟s guise …. burned 1587 (2) "This movement was promoted by many in office. . there to indulge in lustful intercourse …. their goods were confiscated. For the Judge with two Burgomasters. wherefore she surrendered herself to him body and soul …. . .. she cut corn for Hans Schlumperger…. Three years ago she had sucked out the blood of [citizen] Kung‟s child. . a twin. . or a suckling pig …. so. . were swept away in this ruin . this child had lovely faire hair and she had given him a hobby horse so that he might ride on it till he lost his senses. . For food she often had a good roast or an innocent child. Germany. . upon kindly questioning and also torture‟ . Germany. like a noble of the court. Nor were spared even the leading men of the city of Trier. [ But] it was not the said bondsman who appeared unto her. The executioner rode a blooded horse. . . several Councillors and Associate Judges. she had so infected with her salve that he died within three days …. so that it died….. dwelling. eyewitness to persecutions in Trier. [The Evil One] also compelled her to do away with and to kill young infants at birth …. who hoped for wealth from the persecution. .

. and their babes at nurse. She taketh upon her to help by the way of charming. my heart did rise against her . . " Report of Churchwardens in Gloucestershire. and presently my child.(3) "Presently he cryeth out of some poor Innocent neighbor that he or she hath bewitched him. and I denied it." a poem written in 1621 . and in part Make me to credit it. and God forgive me. cloth bewitch their corn Themselves. For. myself. my sheep. circa 1650 (4) "There is one Alice Prabury in our parish that useth herself suspiciously in the likelihood of a witch. *makes prophesies or predictions against 'The Witch of Edmonton. my hog. my wife. taking upon her not only to help Christian people of diseases strangely happened. my horse. This they enforce upon me. That my bad tongue (by their bad language made so) Forespeaks* their cattle. or else how should these things be" Thomas Ady. such an old man or woman came lately to my door and desired some relief. as I dare swear she is a witch. my cat. And being ignorant of my self. was thus and thus handled in such a strange manner. saith he. urging. their servants. but also horses and all other beasts. my cow. England. and in such ways that she will tell nobody her sayings. describing the feelings of an English householder. 1563 (5) Some call me witch. my sow. they go About to teach me how to be one. my dog. or somewhat.

not even if you are an earl.. but one torture will follow another until you say you are a witch . and if a judge is so clear and open as to declare himself against the impious vulgar opinion. a handbook used by the Inquisition. . And it should be noted that there was a defect in the formation of the first woman. 'Sir. she always deceives. or that he is pleased to divert himself with the good people's cheese. Germany. a rib of the breast. since she was formed from a bent rib. . Invent something.. I beg you.. as you may see by all their trials. For whoever comes into the witch prison must become a witch or be tortured until he invents something out of his head and-God pity him. the mayor of Bamberg. and that when they use this quality well they are very good..(6) "It is seldom that a poor old wretch is brought to trial . that is. for God's sake confess something.." Roger North. for he doth not believe in witches.. this Judge hath no religion. for one is just like another. yet you will not escape. pigs and geese. The Hammer of Witches.. But the natural reason is that she is more carnal than a man. The second reason is. Innocent must I die.. . to his daughter 1628 GROUP B: RELIGIOUS OPINIONS (1) "As for the question. written in 1484 by two Dominican monks . . .. which is bent as it were in a contrary direction to a man. brother of the Chief Justice in Exeter.. ... When at test (the executioner) led me back into the prison he said to me. . ' Dear child. that the devil himself has power to torment and kill innocent children. . but there is. Kramer and Sprenger. cry. even if you bear it all... for you cannot endure the torture which you will be put to. for your father Johannes Junius will never see you more. . a popular rage that could little less than demand her to be put to death. . Innocent have I been tortured.. that they are more credulous. the first is. and. .. and more" ready to receive the influence of a disembodied spirit. .bethinks him of something ." Letter of Johannes Junius. at the heels of her. but when they use it ill they are very evil. why a greater number of witches is found in the fragile feminine sex than among men . whether it be true or not. butter. England in 1682 (7) "Innocent have I come into prison. And since through this defect she is an imperfect animal. keep this letter secret so that people do not find it.. Good night. that women are naturally more impressionable.

and punishment of the aforesaid persons for their said offences and crime. .. that . Indeed. imprisonment. desiring. . as is our duty . ." Martin Luther. . We are therefore taught by these examples that we have to wage war against an infinite number of enemies.. do hereby decree. inquisitors . nor a few foes. Institutes of the Christian Religion. but great armies. not two. raise storms. . Pope Innocent VIII. . .. We therefore. . the . not that the Devil is unable to do these things by himself without sorcerers. . ." 1484 ( 3) ". .(2) "It has recently come to our ears. and force people into love and immorality . preaching in 1522 (4)"Moreover. ride on goats or broomsticks. "The Witch Bull. Luke 8:2].. give themselves over to devils male and female. in order that we may be aroused and exhorted .. which wage war against us. . . that it shall be permitted to the . many persons of both sexes. . . . to remove all impediments by which . to exercise their office of Inquisition and to proceed to the correction. . change things into different shapes so that a human being seems to be a cow or an ox. inquisitors are hindered in the exercise of their office . for he is lord of the world yet he will not act without human help. return to his empty possession [Matt. For Mary Magdalene is said to have been freed from seven demons by which she was possessed [Mark 16:9. torture babies in their cradles. . 12:43-45]. John Calvin. if you make room for him again. and Christ bears witness that usually after a demon has once been cast out.. . lame or maim people. .. .. a whole legion is said to have assailed one man [Luke 8:30]. he will . not without great pain to us. by virtue of our apostolic authority. sorcerers or witches are the Devil's whores who steal milk. heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the Catholic faith. Scripture makes known that there are not one. . 1536 .

E. My object is also medical. in that I have to show that those illnesses. come from natural causes." Johan Wier (a Belgian physician). having both bodies and minds in a higher degree corrupted. should work both these and greater mischiefs?" W.. A Parallele or Conference of the Civil Law. whose origins are attributed to witches. . they use their very breath and their sight.. . and with the other reaching at me to tear me away to torments... stinking prisons unfit for humans and inhabited by evil spirits that torment the prisoners. the fright that I have had. Rogers.. the Canon Law and the Common Law. Christians should be less ready to throw these poor mindless old women into dark. I fight with natural reason. that childish old hags called witches can do anything to harm men or animals . De Praestigiis Daemonum. Since witches are usually old women of melancholic nature and small brains [women who get easily depressed and have little trust in God].. having sparkling firebrands in one of thelr hands. being apt for contagion. whom I thought I saw [everywhere] . 1618 (2) ". when they [become diseased with malice. there is no doubt that the Devil easily affects and deceives their minds by illusions and apparitions that so bewilder them that they confess to actions that they are very far from having committed.. black. For if they which are troubled with the disease of the eyes called opthalmia do infect others that look earnestly upon them. Some Account of the Life and Opinion of a Fifth-Monarchy Man. Oh the leaps that I have made. . Fulbecke. .. to the vexation and destruction of others. From consideration of their age and sex. and by the Devil whetted for such purpose." From the diary of a young Protestant boy. is it any marvel that these wicked creatures. the fears that I was in. late 16th century. . 1563 . 1867 DOCUMENT GROUP C: SCIENTIFIC OPINIONS (1) The bodies of aged persons are impure. which.. and sometimes with great rolling flaming eyes like saucers.(5) "I suffered terribly from fear of Hell and the devils. .

1546HUSBANDS 1680 Laborer 23 Farmer 11 Tailor 4 Yoeman 4 Mason 2 Sailor 2 Beer Brewer 1 Shoemaker 1 Weaver 1 Gentleman 0 From Alan Macfarlane. Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A Regional and Comparative Study.060 (78%) France From Alan Macfarland. 1970 (2)MALES AND FEMALES EXECUTED IN SOUTHWESTERN GERMANY. 15461680 OCCUPATIONS OF NUMBER RECORDED. 1970 .050 (82%) Germany Switzerland & Selected Parts of 305 (22%) 1. Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: a Regional and Comparative Study. SWITZERLAND.Document Group D: WITCHCRAFT STATISTICS DRAWN FROM CONTEMPORARY COURT RECORDS (1) OCCUPATIONS OF THE HUSBANDS OF THOSE ACCUSED OF WITCHCRAFT IN AN ENGLISH REGION. AND SELECTED PARTS OF FRANCE AREA MALES FEMALES Southwestern 238 (18%) 1.

(3)AGE OF SUSPECTED WITCHES SIZE OF DATES SAMPLE Basel 1609-1617 10 MEDIAN AGE 60 (1 under age 50) 60 (2 under age 50) 60 (24 under 50) 60 (2 under 50) Fribourg. From H.C. 1607-1683 9 Germany Geneva 1537-1662 95 Essex. Eric Midelfort. England 1645 15 Deot ofthe 1542-1679 39 55 (14 under 50) Nord. Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany. Fr. 15652-1684: the Social and Intellectual Foundation. 1972 .

instead use the documents in the historical context of the question and draw conclusions from them. In constructing your answer DO NOT simply summarize. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Divine and Moral Songs for Children. Belgium. For Satan finds some mischief still For idle hands to do. The documents suggest. From Isaac Watts. You will have 60 minutes to read and analyze the documents and answer the question. Did any attitudes cross social class lines? Historical setting: The following documents are drawn from England. Construct a coherent essay that integrates the analysis of documents into a treatment of the topic. You may make notes and plan your answer on the green insert or on the printed pages of the pink freeresponse booklet.1981 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Document Groups A and B. France. which was largely guided by members of the middle class: How doth the busy little Bee Improve each shining hour And gather honey all the day From every opening flower. Write your answer to the question on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents and assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your answer. the attitudes toward work produced by contact with the early stages of industrialization. or repeat the contents of the documents. In works of labour or of skill I would be busy too. Document Group A: Middle-Class Observations (1) A Sunday school hymn composed for the English Sunday school movement. then. and Germany during the first century of industrialization (1801-1910). The Question: Compare middle-class and working-class attitudes toward work and its effect on the worker in nineteenth-century Western Europe. Workers and their middle-class employers generally had opinions on what work should be and the way in which these ideals compared to work as they actually experienced it. when most workers and employers had at most only a generation or two of experience with the organization and technology of factory industry. 1869 . paraphrase.

like the rock. The dull routine of a ceaseless drudgery. they were delighted to show it off to any stranger. but I wish we could get them to work as hard as our own schoolboys work. France: “It is simply false to equate the hours of work in our factories with arduous work. for example. to cultivate in him the habits of an animal From James P. . The Moral and Physical Conditions of the Working Classes Employed in Cotton Manufacture in Manchester. resembles the torment of Sisyphus—toil. in some measure. I will admit only that my second generation of workers. in which the same mechanical process is incessantly repeated. Kay. is not calculated to develop the intellectual or moral faculties of man. taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles—enjoying the mobility natural to their age. The intellect slumbers in supine inertness. they are like children. To condemn man to such severity of toil is. . 1832 (3) Another comment on Manchester textile workers by a manufacturer: “I have visited many factories. The scene of industry. They seemed to be always cheerful and alert. (1835) (4) Report by the owner of a textile factory in Lille. continued from day to day. in principle put in ninety hours a week. and I never saw children in ill-humour. in which habit gave them a pleasing dexterity. Really. . was always exhilarating . They seize on any occasion to wander around the factory or even walk outside. “Report of Barrois.(2) A report on Manchester textile workers by a medical doctor: “Prolonged and exhausting labour. The mind gathers neither stores nor strength from the constant extension and retraction of the same muscles. Philosophy of Manufactures. who grew up in the factory. . My workers. F124705. Conscious of their skill. and can be made to work only against their will. so far from exciting sad emotions in my mind. The work of these lively elves seemed to resemble a sport. Sometimes I think that they do not know what work is. but I am lucky to get seventy -two hours of work from them. .” 1837 . recoils perpetually on the wearied operative. and to chatter with each other. both in Manchester and in the surrounding districts. are somewhat more amenable From Archives Nationales de France. .” From Andrew Ure. and from year to year.

called steam engines. the manufacturer had to seek out some spot where he could obtain a suitable fall of water. and he necessarily bestowed some attention.(5) Management report filed in 1888 by a Ruhr coal-mining company: “Another very disturbing and damaging factor is the high turnover of workers. nor any further solicitude about their future fate than if they were so many old shuttles From Walter Scott. . .” From Black Dwarf. they are all alike fatigued and exhausted. had knowledge of their persons and characters. and exercised a healthy influence as over men depending on and intimately connected with him and his prospects. Familiar Letters. This is no over-drawn picture: it is literally true . but in part simply to get some time off from work. there was work for all. and workmen lost their power over their labor. . though of course other workers are eager for such shifts to earn extra money. and in the community of family and friends. . They talk of the old days. without having any further connection with them than to receive a week‟s work for a week‟s wages. on their morals and on their necessities. where a man may assemble five hundred workmen one week and dismiss them the next. . the manufacturers are transferred to great towns. and then his workmen formed the inhabitants of a village around him. and at a proper pace. came into use . From Gerhard Aldelmann. to get the profit. The same feeling causes some of the resistance to overtime shifts. This is now quite changed. which. Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der sozialen Betriebsverfasung: Ruhrindustrie (Collected Sources on the History of the Social Management —Worker Agreements in Industry in the Ruhr Area). and then he goes home to get refreshed for the next day. for they believe that they are pushed to produce more than men ought to produce in any event. [the worker] has no relaxation till the ponderous engine stops. is always a problem. or reduce the number of jobs and so throw many workers into unemployment. This was before those terrible machines for superseding the necessity of human labour. Reprinted Bonn 1965 (6) A personal letter written in Great Britain in 1820: “The unhappy dislocation which has taken place between the Employer and those in his employment is owing to the steam engine. They show little concern for maintaining their skill or productivity. 1818: “Locked up in factories eight stories high. 1818 . When the machinery was driven by water. 1894 Document Group B: Observations by Workers (7) Impressions of a Manchester spinner. when they were not driven so hard. When the spinning of cotton was in its infancy. less or more. along with absenteeism. Workers change jobs for various reasons. and that if they work too hard the company will simply cut their pay. no time for sweet association with his family.

A Travers le Centre: Croquis et moeurs. 1907 . and even with the labour of those hours. . Some of them have special expenses of course. An Investigation of Labor and Industry). I know the effect that ten hours labour had on myself From John Fielden. 1905 (10) Comments of an early twentieth-century Belgian coal miner: “As if the bosses weren‟t enough. Aus der Tiefe. but they just plod along like animals. energyless working. No more incentive. My forehead burns like fire. I then sit on the side wall of the mountain in order to slurp the last remaining coffee .(8) Recollection of a child laborer in a British textile mill: “For several years after I began to work in the mill. They are tomorrow‟s foremen. . But in my head it rages and paralyzes me beyond control or without my being able to think. and they don‟t care how they make us look or what they do to our jobs. The Curse of the Factory System. like a sick child and then that‟s all right. work any hours. is put beside another one. I occasionally experience a slight dizzy spell. fresh from the countryside. I allude to this fact because it is not uncommon for persons to infer that. and another one and finally this „modern‟ circle has closed in on the entire working force. they‟re dangerous to work with. and does not fatigue them. They have no skill. the spirit too.” From Jules Lekeu. and make more money. the hours of labour at our works did not exceed ten in the day. the labour is. or worse. no more haste. Arbeiter Briefe (From the Depths: Workers Letters). but some just seem to want to show the bosses how good they are. we are worn out and mindless. . enquete ouvrière et industrielle (Through the Center: Sketches and Customs. winter and summer. When it becomes unbearable I stop my slow. degenerates. Then we have the Flemish peasants. A few are eager beaver types. And one drudge. The reverse of this conclusion I know to be the truth. And that is not all. as if they were still on the land. therefore. Most of them hope to go back in any event. 1836 (9) A miner relating his experiences working in a German coal pit early in the twentieth century: “The work is becoming increasingly mechanical. because the children who work in factories are seen to play like other children when they have time to do so.” From Adolf Levenstein. I shall never forget the fatigue I often felt before the day ended. They too will do anything they‟re told. we muddle along wearily. As a consequence of the anemia from which I suffer. light. and the anxiety of us all to be relieved from the unvarying and irksome toil we had gone through before we could obtain relief by such play and amusement as we resorted to when liberated from our work. most of my workmates and I feel the pressure of some of our own fellows. the conscience of the individual. and they don‟t care about a sensible life here. grown vacuous through his work. They‟ll always try to fill the most wagons with coal or work overtime when we‟re asked. And they call us bums for taking our breaks and a day off to play now and then.

This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. a Calvinist minister writing in Godly Form of Household Government. and the sweetness of his temper and vivacity of spirit. He has the liberty of ranging the garden and the fields and on church days has the sole responsibility for the ringing of the bell. If this spark be allowed to increase.1982 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Document Groups A-C. and. They must correct and sharply reprove their children for saying or doing ill. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents and assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your answer. In constructing your answer DO NOT simply summarize. He is purely happy because he knows no evil. How did adult views of children shape adult practices toward their children? Document Group A: Perceptions of Children (1) “The young child which lieth in the cradle is both wayward and impulsive. Therefore parents must be wary and circumspect. yet he hath a wrong-doing heart. You will have 60 minutes to read and to analyze the documents and answer the question. it will rage over and burn down the whole house. and though his body be but small. paraphrase. whereas in time it becomes a blurred notebook. The Question: Analyze continuities and changes in methods of child-rearing among the English upper classes from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. For we are changed and become good not by birth but by education. joined with the innocence of his age renders him the delight of all about him. He is in perfect health and seems contented. an Anglican minister writing in Microcosmographie. and is altogether inclined to evil. seven years old] you have left in our hands. he smiles on his beater.” Robert Cleaver. Write your answer on the lined pages of the free-response booklet.) It is suggested that you take five minutes to plan and outline your answer on the green insert or on the printed pages of the pink free-response booklet. instead use the documents in the historical context of the question and draw conclusions from them.” Letter of an Anglican rector to the Verney family. Construct a coherent essay that integrates the analysis of documents into a treatment of the topic.” John Earle. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. He kisses and loves all. His soul is yet a blank paper unscribbled with observations of the world. when the sting of the rod is past. 1598 (2) “A child is man in a small letter yet the best copy of Adam before he tasted of Eve or the apple. 1721 . or repeat the contents of the documents. 1628 (3) “I can no longer contain my joy for our good fortune to have that dear child [Ralph Verney.


Document Group B: Infant Care---Nursing and Clothing Nursing: (5) “Because it hath pleased God to bless me with many children, I thought good to open my mind concerning the duty of nursing (breastfeeding) due by mothers to their own children. Women ought to nurse their own children rather than hire a wet nurse*. They are very willful or ignorant if they question it. I know I should have done it, but partly I was overruled by another‟s authority and partly deceived by some ill counsel and partly I did not consider my duty in this motherly office. Now I try to regain my peace by preventing many Christian mothers from sinning in the same way. *a woman who cares for and suckles an infant not her own Elizabeth Clinton, The Countess of Lincoln‟s Nursery, 1622

(6) “Lady Fitzwilliam and her newborn son are perfectly well. She has breastfed him several times. I think in my life I never saw so happy a creature as Lord Fitzwilliam. He really is almost out of his senses with joy, and can see, think and talk of nothing but his child.” Letter from Lady Duncannon to Georgiana, Lady Spencer, May 6, 1786

(7) “The first of the parental duties which nature points out to the mother is to nurse her own offspring. To transfer to a stranger, as modern example dictates, the task of nursing your child, when your health and strength are adequate to the undertaking is to exhibit a most shameful degree of selfishness and unnatural insensibility.” Thomas Gisborne, author of a popular handbook entitled An Enquiry into the Duties of the Female Sex, 1799

Clothing: (8) “By experience we can see that mothers in swaddling* their little ones do lay their limbs right, each in its place: likewise if a child be lefthanded, they scold him: yea, sometimes they bind it up, or otherwise restrict the use of it.” *to wrap narrow strips of cloth around an infant Robert Cleaver, Godly Form of Household Government, 1598

(9) “In the past, parents wanting to make a show of the infant as soon as it was born, were ambitious to have as much finery heaped upon it as possible, and the poor child, as soon as it came into the world, had as many rollers and wrappers applied to its body, as if every bone had been fractured in the birth; while these were often so tight, as not only to irritate and wound its tender frame, but even to obstruct the motion of the heart, lungs, and other organs necessary for life. In several parts of Britain, the practice of rolling children with so many bandages is now, in some measure, laid aside.” William Buchan, M. D., Domestic Medicine; or the Family Physician, 1772

Document Group C: Modes of Discipline (10) “When I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silent, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it, as it were, in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world, or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches and bobs*, and other ways I will not name for the honor I bear them, that I think myself in Hell. . *blows with the fist Account by Lady Jane Grey of her childhood experiences in the 1530‟s, later related to her tutor Roger Ascham

(11) “I myself have known some furious parents who have vied to strike and buffet their children about the face and head, and to lay upon them like malt-sacks with cudgels, staves, pitchfork or fire shovel or whatsoever came into their hands; yea, and very often have cast them on the ground and spurned and kicked them like dogs. If parents would use only the rod, then they would have the means to rejoice and become parents of wise and worthy children.” Bartholemew Batty, The Christian Man‟s Closet, 1581

On the same principle. such. and above all. pathetic. Lord Holland insisted he should be gratified and in spite of Lady Holland‟s protests had it placed on the floor for the child to jump in and splash about at his pleasure. When there is no avoiding it.(12) “You must begin early to make your children love you so that they will obey you. The Lady‟s New-Years Gift.” Letter of Sir Philip Francis to his son‟s tutor. or stupid. by the mere influence and persuasion of generous. 1774 . or Advice to a Daughter. The children came in at the dessert. fasting. Let them be more in awe of your kindness than of your power.” Sir George Savile. as confinement. 1760 (14) The object which I have in view is to make my son an English gentleman. you must deny them gently. for instance. which will give right to the rest of claiming the same privilege. That way of degrading can produce no good effect. first Marquis of Halifax. being kept from play. I would not have him called a dunce. etc. then in petticoats. or rational motives. neglect. I am convinced that his mind may be moulded into any form. or blockhead. whim. flattering away their ill-humors and taking the next opportunity of pleasing them in some other things before they either ask or look for it. had a desire to get into it. February 17. I absolutely forbid the use of blows. 1687 (13) “Lord Holland‟s education of [his son. A great dinner was given at Holland House to all the foreign ministers.” Notes by Lady Louisa Stuart on George Selwyn and His Contemporaries. and caprice. take heed of supporting a favorite child in its impertinence. There are a thousand better ways of restraining and correcting a child. Charles. spying a large bowl of cream in the middle of the table. With respect to discipline. You must deny them as seldom as you can. Charles] was a system of the most unlimited indulgence of every passion.

Until the First World War. Belgium's liberal constitutional monarchy united population groups of different cultural backgrounds. and social tensions developed between the two groups? Historical setting: In 1830 a new independent nation-state. Construct a coherent essay that integrates the analysis of documents into a treatment of the topic. and political developments with its Western European neighbors. .1983 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-12. shared many economic. The Question: Identify the major features that distinguished Flemings from Walloons in Belgium in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. At the same time. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. long a leader in European commerce. What political. economic. social. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. this small mineral-rich state. was created out of the southern provinces of the kingdom of the Netherlands. religious. Belgium. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. the unique cultural composition of Belgium raised special problems not faced elsewhere in the West.

"To the south of the line lives another race of Celtic origin. "The Celtic Walloon is impatient of political or priestly control. inhabiting the country north of a line drawn near the city of Brussels. the nearly two million Walloons who live south of the line look upon the majority Flemings who live north of it as aliens and foreigners. but differing in language." Henry Hilliard. has little regard for political or religious tradition. ruled by the same laws. the [French-speaking] Walloons. against the advance of Roman legionaries and the attacks of savage barbarians.Document 1 Document 2 "The Flemish people of Belgium. and resisted and defeated them. blood. there is no racial fusion. The savage German barbarians were either absorbed or driven back. custom. but is readily disposed to absorb new faiths and modern politics. are of Teutonic origin. customs. or language obtained no foothold in the country of the [Dutch-speaking] Flemings. and Roman law. Except upon the arbitrary divisional line. American diplomat in Brussels. Supporting the same monarchy. 1842 . Their ancestors battled against the march of the constantly invading sea. and traditions. the Roman legions marched over the land but never conquered it.

0 54% 4. is resented by most of the Flemings.4 33% 1.4 32% Areas Dutch Speaking 2." Flemish pamphlet. No longer can those who use the French language make French the predominant language. 1846-1910 (in millions and by percentage) 1846 1880 1910 Percentage Percentage Percentage of Total Population of Total Population of Total Population Population Population Population French Speaking 1.Document 3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE BELGIAN POPULATION BY MAJOR LANGUAGE AREAS. who see them as a foreign occupying power receiving their orders from the Francophones of Brussels. these northern Francophones [French speakers] are but 5 percent of the region's population.1 55% Areas Brussels Area ." L'independance belge.0 13% (Bilingual) Total Belgian 4.3 31% 2.3 100% 5.5 100% Population Extracted from statistical data compiled by the Belgian Ministry of the Interior Document 4 "In the (Flemish) north.6 100% 7.8 15% 1. Their economic power. The improvement of educational facilities for all Belgians requires real equality in the respect shown the Flemish culture. 1872 Document 5 "To acknowledge the linguistic rights of the Flemings is to accept the inevitable consequences of bilingualism. a Brussels-base "middle-of-the-road" daily newspaper. but are an elite that controls much of Flanders' wealth.2 51% 3. 1879 . especially in commercial enterprises.7 16% . the most ardent supporters of the national government leadership are the French-speaking upper bourgeoisie.

but instead dwell on this language or that language. continues to this day. reflect these crucial differences and their importance. Smeenk.Document 6 "The Flemish are more Roman Catholic and more royalist than those in the south. from the early days of the potato famine in the 1840's and the government's decision to give aid and relief to paupers." French diplomatic observer. This pattern of 'hand-outs.' together with the absence of national investments that would improve the entire Flemish region. however. etc. Walloons are by nature anticlerical (one might say even bent on the dechristianization of Belgium) and display only a lukewarm affection for monarchy. Flemish political leader in the Chamber of Deputies." C. 1890 Document 7 "The Flemish have always suffered under a system of economic exploitation. The quarrels between the two in the political arena do not. 1896 .

The Catholic party. 1902 Document 11 "The conflict between these two language groups-the Dutch-speaking. It is not simply a question of who should speak Dutch or French and when and where. the language of the rich ruling classes and the language of atheism. and it is led by the dominant Catholic party. not professed. If viewed properly. We demand nothing less than equal language rights." F. The differences in the two regions come out of different views of history. religion. has gained some new supporters with its call for social democracy but has not committed itself to language reform. 1899 Document 9 "For over 50 years. largely peasant population of the northwest and the French-speaking. The Flemish regions have remained agricultural and commercial. Two sectors of the Belgian economy have evolved: one advanced and comparable to its major [Western] European neighbors. These sectors coincide with the language communities.Document 8 "The Flemish struggle has been transformed into a struggle for political power. army. Vandervelde. emerging as a weapon to free workers from distress and oppression. toward an industrial shape. and politics. The purely scholarly cause is now a political battle pressing for reforms. It is an assault on French. That French is used exclusively by the government. a weekly government publication. 1900 Document 10 "One cannot shrug off the Flemish movement or dismiss it as the eccentricity of a few extremists. the Catholics have appealed to a newly enfranchised peasantry of Flanders which has discovered a connection between the economic decline of their region and the prosperity of the Walloon provinces The Belgian Workers' party (Socialist political party). in the courts. equality of his language and cultural ways. our nation has worked its way. then. one less advanced in the spread of steamdriven machinery. in Wallonia." Le Moniteur beige. French observer. Payen. and can be understood only if the economic and social structures of each area are seen as decisive." E. not the Socialist. Belgian political leader. has understood that the Flemish movement that aroused the masses was politically so important that its demands had to be met. more industrial population of the southeast-is no longer confined to a small intellectual circle of Flemings and the Frenchspeaking [central] government in Brussels. at a rapid pace. With the 1893 (universal suffrage) revision of the Constitution. universities and secondary schools is a state of affairs we bitterly resent. 1912 ." Flemish publicist. activity in textiles and metallurgy is dominant. the Fleming yearns for real.

There have been French movements and Flemish movements. So there is a great deal of politics mixed up with the only cause for jealousy which divides the two races. Namur. and Luxemburg. 1913 . and has suffered from the defection to French of Maeterlinck. and of late years it is the Flemish movement which has been the more vigorously conducted with effects on education and on politics which time will show to be important." The Times of London. Flemish has given to Belgium poets like Ledeganck. France is held to be a Liberal and anti-Catholic language.Document 12 "One thing still separates Fleming from Walloon-the difference of language. a Walloon playwright. May 14. Flemish a Conservative and Catholic one. Between the Teutonic Flemings and the German frontier is the French or Walloon speech of Liege. Roughly speaking. The Walloons have produced many savants and historians and among them imaginative writers.

most of the European powers had recognized the military potential of airplanes. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. Did the army support or hinder the technological development and the production of aircraft? Historical background: The first German aircraft firms were founded in 1908. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates the analysis of the documents. In the course of the First World War the airplane became an indispensable weapon of warfare. . This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. experimented with various designs. which were small in scale. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. As you analyze each document. The Question: Explain the role of the German army in the development of the German aircraft industry between 1908 and 1918. The firms.1984 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13. By the end of the war.

. so that it can test all aircraft improvements that appear to be militarily worthwhile.. In light of the anticipated heavy loss of aircraft in the field. I also request that the military aviation research unit be as well equipped as possible.DOCUMENT 1 Excerpt taken from the German army publication. Annual Report on Aviation. since no type of flying machine has yet demonstrated its suit-ability for military purposes. November 8. and contests to promote the further development of our domestic aircraft industry. March 15. September 1908 The German army presently believes that its own work in the field of aviation technology is not yet absolutely necessary. subsidies. Otherwise the creation of exceptional aircraft with high performance under good conditions will occur. The solution to the problem should therefore be left to private firms with whom the army should maintain constant contact. A special military aviation organization is necessary to make the airplane useful for military purposes.. 1911 I am pleased that the newly created military aviation commission provides for prizes. the presence of an industry capable of delivering sufficient and usable replacements in time of war is a vital matter. but not the creation of aircraft that will be usable and safe in the field under difficult conditions. 1910 The development of the airplane has been the fastest of any modern technical creation. DOCUMENT 3 Taken from a memorandum of the chief of the German general staff to the War Ministry.. DOCUMENT 2 Taken from a memorandum issued by the German Army Transportation Research Unit.

it seems in the interest of the national aircraft industry that any new factories be large-scale. 1912 It must be concluded that the army will be almost the sole customer for aircraft in the immediate future. Therefore. in the opinion of the army.DOCUMENT 4 Figures taken from Statistics on Aircraft Manufacture. Freiburg. 1912. May 19. 1914-1918. The army recommends that the Aircraft Manufacturers' Trade Association impress these conditions upon its members. German Archives. May 6. 1919 DOCUMENT 5 Letter from the War Ministry to the German Aircraft Manufacturers' Trade Association. and build only types of aircraft that are assured of success. well-capitalized. published in the German Aviators' Journal. .

October 1913 In order to prevent further accidents like Lieutenant Eckenbrecher's recent crash. DOCUMENT 8 Memorandum issued by the chief of field aviation of the German army. Progress is retarded. 1915 Military aviation must presently rely upon a few factories whose capabilities are totally inadequate to meet the great demands of the near future. Thus the firms avoid costly experiments. Aircraft firms however are pointing out that they cannot meet these demands overnight and that several months will be necessary for construction and testing. 1914 The army recently set new performance requirements for airplanes. *Establish and publish requirements (standards) for materials used in aircraft construction. Without fail. December 2. we must induce our large industrial enterprises to undertake aircraft construction. Furthermore the firms have already prepared the materials for a planned large series of aircraft machines.DOCUMENT 6 Recommendations of the Military Aviation Crash Commission accepted and enacted by the German army. aircraft manufacturer. June 5. In stating the above points. and achievement stands still. thus the army will not be saddled with responsibility for the performance of the manufacturers‟ aircraft. *Continue to award monetary prizes for instruments that measure the stresses on aircraft in flight. the aviation commission proposes that the army proceed in the following manner in the future: *Subject all army aircraft types to practical weight tests to ascertain their strength. These materials must first be used up before the firms can consider starting a new type of aircraft. either by building new plants or by buying the most proven small factories and transforming them into large plants. Froebus of the LFG Aircraft Company to August Euler. the commission believes that the army flight safety codes will still allow the factories sufficient freedom to innovate. . DOCUMENT 7 Letter from Director W.

father of the thick wing and all-metal airplane. His theories have frequently been in advance of his time. quoted in Flying Dutchman: The Life of Anthon y Fokker. such as bombing. I concentrated on designing an altogether new and advanced pursuit plane. instrumentation. with cantilever wing construction which required no external bracings. The enlargement and development of the aircraft industry caused by the war contracts is almost completely a matter of expanded production. I was forced to admit that the ship was simply too far in advance of its time. and ailerons [movable parts of an airplane wing] to be fabric-covered to facilitate manufacture. and went through all combat maneuvers like greased lightning. They wanted something visible supporting the wings. in developing an all-metal single-seater monoplane. May 30. quoted in Flying Dutchman: The Life of Anthony Fokker. DOCUMENT 10 Anthony Fokker. They seemed a little disappointed that the wings hadn't fallen off in the air to confirm their views. Yet Junkers refused to give up his all-metal construction for the sake of wartime necessity. After an entire day of futile argument. Even the so-called scientific members of the group could not bring themselves to recommend it for military use. Staring coldly at my biplane. more was achieved before the war for the war than has been achieved during the war for the war. elevator. It had both speed and climb. Soon I had developed a biplane of radical appearance. they walked around it as if it would bite. Someone wondered idiotically what was going to keep the wings on. This was the sort of thing to which they were accustomed. For example. 1931 In late 1915 I was asked by the army to cooperate with Hugo Junkers. Those changes that the war has brought about are limited more to specialized technical matters. and accessories. radiotelegraphy. and urged him to permit the rudder. 1916 With regard to aviation technology and research. I telephoned a request to army officials in Berlin to come at once. 1931 In the fall of 1916. photography. DOCUMENT 11 From a position paper prepared by the German Aircraft Manufacturers' Trade Association in defense of patent protection during wartime. I persuaded him to construct many parts of his planes of steel tubing. Professor Junkers is one of the pioneers in airplane construction. but he has trouble modifying them for immediate practical purposes. .DOCUMENT 9 Anthony Fokker. Desperately I flew the plane as it had never been flown before.

In other words. but a steadier and more equal advance by the different manufacturers. These directions have permitted a reduction in the number of types of military aircraft being produced. One can only reply that it was not a matter of profits as huge as other armament firms. DOCUMENT 13 Richard Blunck.DOCUMENT 12 From a memorandum on German and Allied aviation from the records of the United States Army Air Force. Hugo Junkers: A Life for technology and Air Travel. The results of this method are perhaps a slower improvement than ours in machines. Builders have been brought in contact one with the other. September 20. Research tasks dominated. Standardization has simplified and cheapened production. Junkers maintained the essence of his enterprises-research. enabling his firm to recover quickly after the apparently hopeless collapse of aircraft factories at the end of the war. . and they cannot keep their discoveries or the result of their studies to themselves. but that Junkers ploughed his profits completely into new research work. the Germans have brought about a far greater standardization in construction than have the Allies. 1918 The German army has controlled its aircraft manufacturers by a central technical organization which has given the general contractors technical instructions to follow. 1951 It was often asserted that Hugo Junkers‟ firm had made huge profits during the war.

LEGAL TREATMENT IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY Document 1 On the day the members of the Committee visited Tothill Fields Prison. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. And of these. your Committee finds that out of the 4. Parliamentary Papers. For example. charged with felony. Upon a review of the present state of Clerkenwell Prison. 470 were under 20 years of age. responding to the public‟s fear that lawlessness was increasing. Select Committee Report on the Prisons of London. took measures to reduce crime. punishments were based on the assumption that crime stemmed from an individual‟s weak or evil character. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates the analysis of the documents.063 prisoners who were sent there during the last year. In the same yard were two persons imprisoned for assault with intent to perpetrate an unnatural offense. Generally. one was as young as 8. As you analyze each document. they found that those who had committed misdemeanors and assaults were confined together in a yard which opened into one where the vagrants were detained. 1818 . the British government. it established a professional police force and created committees to study the justice system. one 11 and the other 12. The Question: To what extent did changing views on the causes of juvenile crime affect legal treatment of the juvenile offender in nineteenth-century Great Britain? Historical background: Early in the nineteenth century.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. In that yard were two children. and sixty-nine were under 14 years of age.1985 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13.

a visiting justice at the Clerkenwell House of Correction. Estcourt. 1838 . to Newgate or any other prison. knowing them to be stolen property. The child was sentenced to transportation and the mother to six months‟ imprisonment. there are three children.B. 1828 Document 3 At the present time. Since the child‟s years would furnish sufficient proof that she could not be fully aware of the nature of her offense. one 8. Estcourt: You think transportation to Australia is not a fit punishment for a boy of fourteen or fifteen years of age? Birnie: I am talking of transportation as inappropriate for those of nine and ten years of age. to the London Court Sessions. and leaving him there two months before he is brought to trial? Sir Richard Birnie. Esquire. all of whom were undergoing confinement in separate cells in the Clerkenwell penitentiary. Chair of the Select Committee on the Police of the Metropolis: Do you not think there is a great evil in committing a young boy to Newgate Prison for simple larceny. one 7. Estcourt: In what way would you advise that young boys should be punished? Birnie: I should recommend a little flogging at a certain age. Testimony of Mr. Minutes of evidence before the Select Committee on the Police of the Metropolis. Chief Magistrate in Middlesex County: Yes.G. and another 10. very great. Parliamentary Papers.Document 2 T. The youngest child has been convicted at Manchester of having stolen certain goods which the mother had received. Hoare. the child‟s sentence was commuted to solitary imprisonment under the separation system.


and he uses them as a means of supplying himself with a luxurious existence. 1829 Document 6 Young thieves have often confessed to me that their first attempts at stealing began at apple stalls. Report of an address to the Town Council of Liverpool by its magistrate. and art of living. “These lads have been trained by a vicious father to the work of plunder. John Wade. Miles. Rushton. In fact. August 21.” Unless the evil power of the parent be destroyed and his mischievous teaching counteracted. who often educate their offspring in the art of thieving and live upon the proceeds of their children‟s depredations. mode of thinking. 1850 . They find companions to cheer them and instruct them. Report on Prison Discipline. habits. W. The Times of London. He has taught them how to steal with dexterity. It‟s no matter to him where he exists as long as he has food and some clothing. having their peculiar slang. it is clear that no valid hopes of reformation can be obtained.Document 5 Delinquents are born thieves. London. Imprisonment is no punishment. Mr.A. In speaking of three children whose lives of crime he relates. Rushton observes. they have gradually progressed in crime. Acquiring confidence by a few successful adventures. presented to the House of Lords. girls to share their booty and applaud them. 1835 Document 7 One grand cause of depravity and crime in children is the vice of their parents. A Treatise on the Police and Crimes of the Metropolis. Esquire. They form a caste of themselves. Mr. many lads have admitted to me that they learned more in jail than out of it. Mr. It is their inheritance.

Adderly. Hence. Place their dwellings at a considerable distance from each other. in charge of the Redhill Reformatory School. circa 1855 . Give them separate fields of labor. it shall be within the power of any Court. 1862 LEGAL TREATMENT IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY Document 9 When any person under the age of sixteen shall be convicted of any offense.B. Letter of the Reverend Sydney Turner. Binny. what reward can society look for from this moral anarchy and destitution? Here is the real explanation of juvenile delinquency. 1854 Document 10 If you want success. Mayhew and J. London. for not less than two years and not exceeding five years. If then the mother be away from home the greater part of her time. Handling a spade spoils the fingers for the delicate operations of pickpocketing. as well as the high price of rent and provisions. Youthful Offenders Act. There is nothing like gardening and farm-work for giving a new direction to the young criminal‟s tastes and habits.Document 8 The scanty wages given to many forms of labor. in addition to the sentence passed as a punishment for his offense. And the sights and sounds of Nature turn interest from these activities. Separate and distribute the inmates into households. C. to Mr. H. make it almost impossible for a man alone to support the family. follow the new plan of family division. most of the wives of the unskilled workpeople have to forego their maternal duties. Make each family a complete school or institution on a small scale by itself. and the children be left to gambol in the gutter with others as neglected. The Crimina Prisons of London. and devote themselves to some kind of drudgery to add to the petty household income. to direct such an offender to be sent at the expiration of his sentence to one of the Reformatory Schools. Member of Parliament.

so that by good conduct a child may accumulate a small sum for the time when its period of detention shall be over. An outcome of this tendency may be found in the creation of Reformatories and Industrial Schools for younger and. as a rule. but not beyond the age of 16. Parliamentary Papers. there is a growing tendency to make grave distinctions between the treatment of juvenile and adult criminals.Document 11 There can be no doubt that the Reformatory Schools. Mary Carpenter. Besides this. The practice of flogging nevertheless still exists. Still. As an instance. the sentences passed on children are much lighter than they were. Royal Commission Report. Undoubtedly. they have also had the effect of preventing a large number of children from entering a career of crime. 1864 *This legislation provided for the education and vocational training of neglected or delinquent children. His term of imprisonment was changed from a month to seven days by the Home Office which reviews Magistrates‟ sentences. with putting an end to the training of boys as professional thieves. Tuckwell. and a check is exercised on the Magistrates. London 1894 . Our Convicts. and not long ago a policeman told me. that he had birched (whipped) as many as sixty boys on a single day at one court session. with having broken up the gangs of young criminals in the larger towns. A system of rewards in money obtains both in Reformatory and Industrial Schools. and with rescuing children fallen into crime from becoming habitual or hardened offenders. are doing important work in arresting crime in the country. under 14 and generally under 12 years of age. 1884 Document 13 The proportion of children now sent to prison is much smaller than it was. as a result of the Act of 1854. They also confer a great benefit on the young persons who seem destined without help to a life of crime. when the Industrial Schools‟ Act* was passed. Such a measure was obtained on August 17. But the entrance to the Reformatory is through the prison first. Gertrude M. more innocent children. Document 12 Industrial Schools are credited. when they were committed by a court. A child could be committed to an industrial school for such a period as the court thought proper. with relish. The State and Its Children. It therefore appeared increasingly important to establish the Industrial School where young persons could be sent by a Magistrate without some time spent in jail. The necessity for corporal punishment is minimized by the system of rewards. 1857. we believe justly. I will quote the case of a boy sentenced to a month‟s imprisonment for stealing fruit.

. 1. and explain why the government acted as it did. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates the analysis of the documents.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. As you analyze each document take into account its source and the point of view of the author. A Muslim religious leader known as the Mahdi led a popular rebellion against Egyptian rule and foreign influence in the Sudan. the territory south of Egypt under Egyptian control. Historical background: In 1883 a major crisis arose in the Sudan. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. The rebellion attracted the attention of the British government. Analyze the pressures on Great Britain's Liberal government during the Sudan crisis (18841885). From 1880 to 1885 the Liberal party under the leadership of Prime Minister William Gladstone was in power in Great Britain. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents.1986 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13. which had become deeply involved in Egypt's affairs by 1880.

Document 1 EGYPT AND THE SUDAN. 1884 .

How much this will contribute to British influence in the Near East and to the stability of your rule in India. 1884 Document 3 The Marquis of Salisbury (Conservative party leader in the House of Lords debate) February 12. the members of Her Majesty's government. His name is respected throughout Egypt.Document 2 General Gordon started last night for Egypt. . January 19. and it is ending with a policy of panic. and not be deterred by the concerns of the European bondholders and the creditors. To do what is needed. We should get out of Egypt as soon as we possibly can. You. The Times. I protest against going to war with the Madhi. but will rest content with rescuing the garrisons. to provide in the best manner for the safety of the European population of the capital Khartoum and the Egyptian garrisons [permanent military installations] still in the country. do not care for empire. It went on to a policy of indifference and fear of responsibility for the Sudan. nothing is so pleasing to you as evacuation. 1884: I earnestly hope that the government will not enter on a great war in the Sudan. from the debate in the House of Commons) February 12. as well as [to provide] for the withdrawal of all Egyptian military units from the Sudan. General Gordon is probably better suited than any living man. The Gladstone government began with a sound and sober policy of recognizing the Sudan as Egypt's possession. His immediate purpose is to report on the military situation in the Sudan. Document 4 Sir George Campbell (Liberal party member of Parliament. 1884: The dishonor upon the Egyptian army and upon our English officers caused by the defeats at the hands of the Madhi comes from inconsistency in the British government's policies. London. and his prestige in the Sudan has been unrivalled since he served as governor there between 1877 and 1879. I protest against a war of Christianity against Islam in the Sudan. I leave to your lordships to imagine.

unfortunately remains exceedingly precarious. Yesterday we published the unwelcome report that he is now totally isolated.Document 5 Sir Wilfred Lawson (Liberal party member of Parliament.1884: Who got us into this trouble in Egypt and the Sudan? The Conservative party's leader began it in 1882. when he went to a meeting presided over by the chairman of the British holders of Egyptian government bonds and made fire and thunder speeches. most of them probably wished for an expedition. member of the Gladstone cabinet. The Conservatives were divided. A month ago the British government was fully warned that it would become necessary to employ something more than moral force at Khartoum. but the government has not yet ordered the commander of British and Egyptian forces in southern Egypt to march to Khartoum. All communications have been cut. others hot for abandonment of him. Commentary in The Times. They want us to go away. some wishing for an expedition to rescue Gordon at Khartoum. The present Liberal government has been trying to get out of Egypt. 1884 Document 7 In the spring of 1884. our bondholders. London. published in 1917 . and they cannot get out. and our European residents governing them. The necessity is now becoming urgent. March 20. besieged at Khartoum. from the debate in the House of Commons) February 14. The Egyptians do not want our diplomats. Memoirs of Sir Charles Dilke. Document 6 The position of General Gordon. but they were afraid to say so. too.the Liberal party was divided on the question of the Sudan.

he should state to us the cause of his staying and his intentions. the object of our action ought to be to bring him away at once from Khartoum. . Memorandum from Prime Minister Gladstone to Foreign Secretary Lord Granville Document 9 Sir Michael Hicks-Beach (Conservative party member of Parliament. If Gordon continues at Khartoum knowing that we cannot approve of supplying him with any forces for military expeditions. and he ought to know that. we have to act by military means. in consequence of his being in danger. he would have been enabled to stem at Khartoum the wave of religious fanaticism and anarchy led by the Madhi. (Cheers) If General Gordon had been supplied with materials of war earlier. 1884: I believe that the people of this country are determined that General Gordon shall be saved together with those who have trusted in him. Her Majesty's Government must leave no stone unturned to avert from this country the intolerable stain which would be left upon her honour by any injury inflicted upon General Gordon. except for the safety of Gordon and his party. It is our duty to complete the commitments which we made when General Gordon went out to the Sudan. from the debate in the House of Commons) May 12. 23 April 1884 We ought to act in the Sudan only by peaceful means. If.Document 8 10 Downing Street.

and all the frightful loss of life. Should necessity arise. the government shall do this. There is something worse involved. (1908) . 1884. and it is this task which the gentleman desires to saddle upon England. While authorizing these actions." On August 26.Document 10 Prime Minister Gladstone (from the debate in the House of Commons) May 12. 1884 The government was and is pledged to shield General Gordon from danger. 1883-1907. The Right Honorable Gentleman Sir Michael Hicks-Beach has said. I put aside for the moment all questions of climate. Document 11 It was not until August 8. though. Lord Wolseley was appointed to command the expedition to rescue Gordon. that the British secretary for war authorized preliminary steps for moving troops south from Egypt into the Sudan. however. the government stated in Parliament: "Her Majesty's government is not at present convinced that it will be impossible for General Gordon to withdraw from Khartoum. that it is the duty of England to keep the Mahdi's movement out of Egypt and to put it down in the Sudan. Sir Evelyn Baring. of the enormous expenses. British Consul General in Egypt. of distance. It would be a war of conquest against a people struggling to be free. Modern Egypt. That means the conquest of the Sudan. I.

Feb 5. General GORDON'S fate uncertain" .Document 12 "Too Late!" Telegram. Thursday Morning. "Khartoum taken by the MAHDI.

Your Majesty's ministers were well aware that climate and distance were far more formidable than the sword of the enemy. I am not altogether able to follow Your Majesty's conclusion. 1885 . Probably abundant anger will be poured out on Your Majesty's ministers. Excerpt of a letter from Prime Minister Gladstone to Queen Victoria. stating that it is too frightening to consider that earlier action might have prevented the fall of Khartoum and saved many lives. but a partial consolation may be found in the fact that no gross error in the application of means to ends has marked these difficult proceedings. February 5.Document 13 I have had the honour to receive Your Majesty's telegram.

1987 DBQ DIRECTIONS: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-14. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. . THE QUESTION: Describe the variations in the levels of literacy in Old Regime France and trace these variations over time.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. As you analyze each document. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. Analyze the factors that promoted or discouraged the spread of literacy. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents.

Reading and Writing: Literacy in France from Calvin to Jules Ferry." . 1982.Document 1 LITERACY IN FRANCE Adapted from Francois Furet and Jacques Ozouf.

1730-1789 Document 3 LITERACY IN FRANCE BY SOCIAL GROUP 1680's Male Female Nobels and Professionals 95% 60% Artisans 50% 20% Prosperous Peasants 20% 0% Sharecroppers and 5% 0% Laborers 1789 Male 95% 80% 45% 15%` Female 85% 50% 10% 0% . BY SELECTED REGIONS (1730-1789) From pastoral visits. bishops' inquiries and reports by intendants.Document 2 PERCENTAGE OF FRENCH VILLAGES WITH SCHOOLS.

Arthur Young. Francoise d'Aubigne. but aristocratic young ladies need further instruction. measures weights and the allowed profit. Marquise de Maintenon Founder of a school for aristocratic women. Ready markets for every sort of produce are an incentive for improvement. an aristocratic young lady should receive broader instruction than a wine grower's daughter: a wine grower's daughter need only know what is absolutely essential for salvation. Wine growers' daughters will make themselves ridiculous by reciting verses. vineyards. it is not a question of embellishing their minds. demand and activity of all kinds: nor does it yield on the average the half of what it might. In contrast. a miserable system that perpetuates poverty and excludes instruction. Excerpts of letters. The poor people who cultivate the soil here are sharecroppers. The vast range of country is an unbounded plain. while poetry is good for aristocratic young ladies. Travels in France 1770's .1780's Document 5 Although their souls are equally precious to God. poor and ugly region of the country seems to lack communication.Document 4 I found scattered farmhouses in Northern France. English agricultural expert. 1715 . This region contains the cream of French agriculture: the soil is excellent. **** Merchants' daughters should learn about exactitude in commerce. in the south of France. All are collected in villages: small towns and villages are everywhere in sight. This unimproved. the country is all hill or valley. the whole scattered with rich meadows. farmhouses are everywhere scattered instead of being collected in towns and farming here is backward. gardens and forests. Neither poetry nor conversation is necessary for the daughters of the bourgeoisie.

he is skilled enough.Document 6 The school procures immense benefits. But shouldn't the guidance of their priests suffice for that? In all centuries and especially in ours. A French Bishop. spiritual as well as temporal. As long as a peasant can form the letters of his name. which equips them to engage in commerce. and what he might know beyond that is of no utility whatever to him. and even less that they know how to write. which is the only resource they have for pulling themselves out of poverty. by instructing youth. 1737 Document 7 The unremitting and arduous physical labors to which peasants are destined for cultivation of the land and for hauling do not at all demand that they know how to read. A government official in southern France. Excerpt from a government report. 1744 Document 9 Schools should not be open except on holidays and on Sundays after church during the summer and at night during the winter. Letter. Letter. a leading French Physiocrat Essay on Land Management 1759 . because by this means a great number of children learn writing and arithmetic. knowledge has made few good believers and has led many others astray. but they would have arms accustomed to digging the earth: that would make workers and soldiers. 1738 Document 8 I know that one argues in favor of schools on the pretext of religion: saying that it is important that peasants know and understand on their own what they should believe. Most people would then know nothing: hooray for that! They would know neither how to read nor how to write. Francois Quesney.

even the lower classes want to study. it is scarcely necessary to know how to read and write. instilling in them respect for the first sex. A French aristocrat and jurist. We have the sorrow of seeing that these young people who do not know how to read forget soon after their first communion even the most elementary parts of religion that they had learned in their childhood. 1763 Document 11 It is not possible to form true worshippers of God and faithful subjects of the king without the help of instruction. Schoolmasters teach reading and writing to people who should never have learned more than a little drawing or how to handle the plane or the file. This would preserve them from loose thoughts. A French author. Among the people. 1777 . Presented to a provincial parlement. Essay on National Education or Plan of Studies for Youth. and when they have received a wretched education.. they fling themselves into the monasteries. Priests writing to their archbishop.. which has taught them merely to despise their fathers' trades. 1769 Document 12 All women should be prohibited from learning to write and even read. A man who sees beyond his own sad profession will never ply it with courage and with patience. and who now don't want to do this..Document 10 Today. become priests or officers of justice. and frequently turn out to be a danger to society. Laborers and artisans send their children to schools. confining them to useful tasks about the house. Nor is it possible for priests to instruct in the faith those coarse inhabitants of the countryside who do not know how to read. Restif de la Bretonne. The good of society requires that the knowledge of the people not extend farther than its occupations.

surveying.Document 13 I have always found that it was better if there were no schools at all in the villages. writing. A peasant who knows how to read and write leaves agriculture. New agricultural knowledge could spread on from province to province. a great remedy against a crowd of abuses to teach the inhabitants of the countryside to read.. The proprietors and inhabitants of this parish think that it would be very useful if there were in each village a good schoolmaster capable of teaching children reading. arithmetic. and to calculate with facility. Letter 1782 Document 14 A great part of the ills which we have suffered would not have existed or would not have been so lasting if the inhabitants of the countryside had been better instructed. 1789 . and measuring. had been able to read regularly the good or bad laws and to express their own clear observations on the good and evil which would result. which is a great evil. a great service to the government.. The long winter evenings would make many peasants hardworking and studious. An intendant. It would thus have been a great public benefit. Cahier (a list of grievances) of a village near Paris. to write..

the license fee and the tax were significantly lowered within a few years. hath of late years increase. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. the government imposed a high license fee for gin retailers and a high per-gallon tax. Finally the Gin Act of 1751 (a) prohibited gin distillers from selling to unlicensed merchants. Analyze the arguments for and against the restriction of the sale of gin in eighteenth century England. Write your answers on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. "Whereas the immoderate drinking of distilled liquors by persons of the meanest and lowest sort. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. and proposed such laws and provisions as appear to us to be more likely to put a stop to the same. to the great detriment of the health and morals of the common people. In 1689 the English government opened the distilling trade to all English people who paid certain taxes. for example. ever attentive to the preservation and health of your Majesty's subjects. (b) restricted retail licenses to substantial property holders. have taken this great evil into our serious consideration. With the Gin Act of 1736. yet. the government regulated the sale of gin with an inconsistent taxation policy." From the Preamble of the Gin Act of 1751 Historical Background: After the Glorious Revolution in 1688. 1. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. and (c) charged high fees to those merchants eligible for retail licenses. however. . the commons of Great Britain in Parliament assembled. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise). As you analyze each document. gin began to rival beer as the most popular drink in England.1988 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13. Over the next sixty years. and assess the degree to which the issues of the debate were reflected in the following excerpt from the Gin Act of 1751.

the distilling trade is one remedy for this disaster as it helps to carry off the great quantity of grain in such a time of plenty.Document 1 Customs Library. 1736 . go out o find the means to return to the same dreadful pursuit. or having spent all they had. 1713 Document 3 Everyone who now passes through the streets of the great city of London and looks into the gin shops must see. Anonymous Distilled Liquors: the Bane of the Nation. women and children. cursing and quarreling with one another over repeated glasses of these destructive liquors. Daniel Defoe. as his wretched guests get intoxicated. author and social commentator. even in shops of creditable and wholesome appearance. Because gin is made from grain. Review. they are laid together in heaps. In times of plenty and a moderate price of grain. a trader has a large empty room where. In one place not far from East Smithfield. a crowd of poor ragged people. when they proceed to drink on. 1701-1751 Document 2 Nothing is more certain than the fact that the ordinary production of grain in England is much greater than our people or cattle can consume. men. until they recover their senses. the distilling of grain is one of the most essential things to support the landed interest and therefore especially to be preserved. Excise Revenue Accounts.

They deserve the care and the consideration of the British House of Common. His Majesty will lose a yearly revenue of 70. an alehouse. and drawn into all manner of vice and wickedness. an important distiller. or a coffeehouse in the kingdom. but what owes a great part of its profits to the sale of gin. Petition to Parliament. Letter to John Moore. 1736 Document 7 We have observed: That the drinking of gin. Speech by a member of Parliament. 1736 Document 5 This year's Gin Act with its very high license fees strikes at the very root of property rights and is a prelude to a general excise tax at the next session of Parliament. and other distilled liquors has for some years greatly increased. That great numbers of others have been by its use rendered unfit for useful labour. great numbers of his Majesty's subjects.Document 4 Let us consider. speech in Parliament. or to the sale of such liquor. County Magistrates from Middlesex. 1736 .000 pounds a year for the last eight years. Because the proposed Gin Act of 1736 will raise fees so high that nobody will pay them. Accordingly. have entered this business. there are now multitudes of families in the kingdom who owe their chief if not their only support tot he distilling. This probable loss ought to be made known to His Majesty. William Pulteney. There is not an inn.000 pounds. 1736 Document 6 His Majesty's share of the taxes upon gin has amounted to 70. that the gin trade has been carried on for about 100 years and that it has been very much encouraged by several acts of Parliament. That the constant and excessive use thereof has destroyed thousands of his Majesty's subjects. No one could imagine that the trade is in itself detrimental to the health and welfare of the people. Sir. especially within the last 40 years. landowner. I cannot give my consent to any regulation which will put them out of the business to which they owe their chief support. debauched in morals.

Whatever some physicians may say. drunkenness. Lord Lonsdale. brawling. and to be saved from their sins. even of the pernicious liquor called gin. was either a crime or a sin. damp and often foggy climate of England makes such an aid to nature absolutely necessary. fighting. John Wesley. It is expected of all who continue therein. others will tell you that a moderate drink of some sort of liquor is necessary upon many occasions for the relief or support of nature. they not only fill our streets with madness and our prisons with criminals. that they should avoid evil of every kind: the taking of the name of God in vain. Those women who riot in this poisonous debauchery are quickly disabled from bearing children or else produce children diseased from their birth. speech in Parliament. A Plain Account of the People Called Methodists. the profaning the day of the Lord. the cold. 1737 Document 9 These liquors not only infatuate the mind but poison the body. Lord Bathurst. 1743 Document 10 There is only one condition required in those who desire into our religious society: a desire to flee from the wrath to come.Document 8 I never heard that a single drink. quarreling. 1749 . but our hospitals with cripples.

with Fury Fraught." William Hogarth...Document 11 GIN LANE "Gin. Cursed Fiend. Gin Lane. 1751 .

Beer Street..Document 12 BEER STREET "Beer." Willian Hogarth. 1750 . Happy Produce of Our Isle..

we have no great hopes of redressing those many calamities that attend national drunkenness. The children must be born in gin. and forget labour and sobriety. they must live upon spirits. If the evil of gin increases in the next ten years as it has done in the last. live in drunkenness and kick out of the world without having enjoyed one sober thought. drunkenness must become the characteristic of the people. The cheapness of gin encourages the poor to drink. brought up in a gin shop. but private vices are public benefits.Document 13 We make ten times the quantity of gin we made forty years ago. Excerpt from The London Tradesman. and while they continue such. 1747 .

This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. The Question: In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The debate that developed around the many issues raised by organizers for women‟s rights became known as the “woman question. Analyze AND compare the major points of view concerning suffrage and the ways in which individual commentators believed woman suffrage would affect the political and social order. legal.” In particular. people had strong opinions about whether women should vote. in no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a “laundry list” fashion.1989 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13. and economic rights. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. women in many European countries organized and agitated for greater political. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. .) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. As you analyze each document.

Anna Mozzoni. 1869 Document 2 When the people acquired the right to vote in 1848. advances women in the economic sphere. the navy. are largely nourished. and not from practical experience? If this is true.. and weakens the power of traditional prejudices. equal before taxes both direct and indirect as well as before the penal code. are equals. 1871 . besides being intimates. and matters commercial. diplomatic. authority on the one side and subordination on the other prevent perfect confidence. leading Italian feminist. The moral regeneration of mankind will only really commence when the family is placed under the rule of equal justice and when human beings learn to cultivate their strongest sympathy with those who are equal in rights. thinking individuals understood that the exclusion of half of humanity was a gratuitous insult for women. The Question of the Emancipation of Women in Italy. women would have to make judgments on the basis of information obtained second hand. in which the virtues of despotism. but also its vices.Document 1 The family is a school of despotism. John Stuart Mill. Even with true affection. French political activist. discredits the rule of force. Thorough knowledge of one another hardly ever exists. and that it was ironic to call universal a suffrage that rejected women as minors lacking in judgment. speech in the House of Commons. the influence of the clergy over women will be enormous. 1871 Document 4 The woman question affirms more profoundly the roots of democracy. The Subjection of Women. except between persons who. equal to men as French persons. 1870 Document 3 Is it not true that in all matters connected with the army. Henry James. and if suffrage is adopted. Julie Daubiê. and legal.

speaking in the Italian Senate.” 1889 . This distinction seems to result in man‟s keeping the supremacy in every sphere to himself. With respect to the home as woman‟s natural sphere. you find peace. will contribute more precious elements to the national life without the vote than with it. liberal Italian politician and future prime minister. the risks of politics would be enormously increased. 1883 Document 7 Women will be more valuable citizens. on behalf of a group of prominent English women. which are amongst the peculiar excellencies of women. you retreat into your domestic sanctuary. the willingness to lay aside prudential considerations in a right cause. are in their right place when they are used to influence the more highly trained and developed judgment of men.Document 5 We cannot separate domestic politics from social conditions of life. it is by no means a domain she rules. you will find war. the day when women participate in public business. But if this quickness of feeling could be immediately and directly translated into public action. Humphrey Ward. after a political struggle in parliament. Mrs. If we are told that we have nothing to do with politics. “An Appeal Against Female Suffrage. popular novelist. Arabella Shore of the London National Society for Women‟s Suffrage. for as wife and mother she has hardly any legal rights. The quickness to feel. Francesco Crispi. 1877 Document 6 When. we can but answer that politics have a great deal to do with us.

Document 8 .

If women helped. “Women‟s Right to Vote. Remember that a slave cannot be the mother of a free citizen. give them land and freedom. who are unfairly treated and without rights even within our families.Document 9 We hope that the representatives will support the people. Count Reventlow. and open the doors of the prisons to liberate the fighters for the people‟s freedom and the people‟s happiness. we demand it as a social right. addressing the German League for the Prevention of the Emancipation of Women. 1912 . but women of the Spartan and old Germanic kind. and in their effort to acquire their full humanity. That was man‟s work. who stood behind their men in battle and fired them on to kill as many enemies as possible [fervent applause]. We socialists do not only demand women‟s suffrage as a natural right with which women are born. German socialist leader.” 1907 Document 11 Women want to rule and we don‟t want to let them. Petition from the peasant women of Nogatkino to their deputy in the Russian Duma. We hope that the representatives obtain civil and political rights for themselves and for us Russian women. 1906 Document 10 It is the duty of women in the socialist movement in all countries to participate with all their energy in all battles waged by the socialist parties for the democratization of the suffrage. The obtainment of suffrage helps the bourgeois women to tear down the barriers in the form of male prerogatives which tend to limit women‟s educative and professional opportunities. It arms the female proletarians in their battle against class exploitation and class rule. it was not women of the sort involved in the new women‟s movement. Clara Zetkin. The German Empire was created with blood and iron.

for if the woman descends from her truly regal throne. to which she has been raised within the walls of the home by means of the Gospel.Document 12 Rather than handling the ballot. about 1919 Document 13 This false liberty and unnatural equality with the husband is to the detriment of the woman herself. the hands of women are meant to be kissed----kissed devotedly when women are mothers. she will soon be reduced to the old state of slavery and become as among the pagans. encyclical On Christian Marriage in Our Day. the mere instrument of man. 1930 . Pope Pius XI. and lovingly when wives or fiancees Speaker for a French Senatorial Commission examining a bill on women‟s suffrage.

A few months later.1990 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-16. and nationalists seeking autonomy for the Basque region or for Catalonia. . This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. Among the groups resisting this attack were moderate republicans. and civil war followed. communists. socialists. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. The forces supporting the Republic were finally defeated in 1939. Over the next three years. Be sure to include in your analysis the differences within and among the groups presented by the documents. take into account the source and the point of view of the author. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. conservative military officers rose against the government of the Republic. conservatives and fascists attempted to overthrow the Republic. in no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a “laundry list” fashion. Historical Background: In February 1936 a general election in the Republic of Spain brought to power a government supported by a coalition of center and left-wing parties. As you analyze the documents. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. anarchists. The Question: Describe and analyze the ways in which the defenders of the Spanish Republic represented their aims and their attitudes.

1937 . 1936 Document 2 The Republic attempted to introduce a new modern political mentality through moderate reform. 1936 Document 3 Workers‟ wives did their grocery shopping without paying for anything for the very good reason that they were accompanied by toughs waving eloquent revolvers. centrist republican deputy in the parliament. Clara Campoamor. We are moderates. Unfortunately. the Socialist Left tried to turn from this process. The Spanish Revolution As Seen by a Republican. Liberal Republican party speech. recollection. Manuel Azana. We want peace and order. civil servant and member of the Liberal Republican party. prime minister. Andres Marquez.Documents 1-4: REPUBLICANS Document 1 We want no dangerous innovations. Men and women—republican volunteers—aimed their rifles at passersby and at windows.

Document 4 .

the Socialist party made a big mistake. speech. through the victorious achievement of socialism. Communist party newspaper. The left wing of the Socialist party blocked this. 1939 Documents 7-9: COMMUNISTS Document 7 We shall follow the path of completing the bourgeois democratic revolution until it brings us to a situation in which the proletariat and the peasantry themselves assume the responsibility of making me people of Spain as happy and free as are the Soviet people. through the dictatorship of the proletariat. Divided. the Socialist party was not able to channel or lead the revolutionary ferment. February 1936 . February 1. Dr. it should have joined the government. This is a struggle of two civilizations. leader of the Socialist Youth Movement. we are defending democracy in all countries. Without renouncing the aim of taking power. moderate socialist. 1936 Document 6 In fighting for democracy in our country. prime minister. In those months.Documents 5-6: SOCIALISTS Document 5 After the victory of the Liberal Republicans in the General Election of 1936. recollection. Worker’s World. of Christianity against Fascism. Socrates Gomez. Juan Negrin. the Socialist party—the most Marxist in Europe—could have shared governmental power. the government failed to produce a coherent program of social and agrarian reform.

radio broadcast. Not at all. worker and Anarchist party youth member. Manuel Carabaño. Dolores Ibarruri. support and defend this government because it is the legitimate representative of the people who fight for democracy and liberty. major problem. They wanted the Republic to tackle the country‟s fundamental problems. if not the. July 1936 Document 9 It was not a revolutionary period leading to socialism. The Republic of Spain is a legal government. The peasant masses weren‟t agitating for socialism. recollection. Narciso Julián. We. That was just the pretext the Fascists used to justify their rising.Document 8 The battle of the Spanish people is the battle of a people that has risen against the criminal aggressions of the reactionary military castes. the Communists. Communist party leader and orator. Communist railway worker. Help us prevent the disappearance of democracy in Spain! Stop the German and Italian fascists from intervening in our country. and land was one. Militarization goes hand and hand with the hierarchical type of Communist organization. Such a professional army would lead to the creation of a state and any state is an oppressor. 1936 . July 1936 Documents 10-12: ANARCHISTS Document 10 The Communists want to form a disciplined professional army to fight the Fascists.

January 1937 Document 12 Two things are beginning to disappear: the privileges of class from which develops the monstrosity of war and the privilege that converts men into autonomous beings and women into slaves. but we never hear these liberators refer to the necessity of declaring women free. Everything that is said to the contrary is reformist and counterrevolutionary. Free Women. every day in Spain we hear talk of liberty for the oppressed.Document 11 It should be clearly understood that we are not fighting for the Democratic Republic. We are fighting for the triumph of the proletarian revolution. 1937 . Still. an Anarchist women‟s paper. The revolution and the war are inseparable. Anarchist party information bulletin.

it created tremendous conflicts of conscience. Recollection. who stood for the destruction of the sort of society the Basques believed in. The Basque Nationalist party‟s decision to ally with the Communists and the Socialists. Juan Málzaga. was the great drama of the Basque country. religious and politically moderate.Document 14 The Basque nationalists were middle class in the main. Basque factory owner. Summer 1936 .

together with the Communists. merchant seaman Recollection. began the counterattack. diary. The hate between the factions had risen to a feverish pitch. minister of information. May 1937 . they are against anyone who opposes their cause. Mariano Puente.Document 15 In Barcelona there are Catalonian nationalists. 1936 Document 16 The Anarchists revolted against the Republican government in May 1937. Catalonian Nationalist Liberal party. Jaume Miravitlles. Fighting broke out all over Barcelona. The Republican forces and the Socialists.

During the Enlightenment. The populations of these colonies included African slaves. in no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a "laundry list" fashion. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. Slaves. Historical Background. and freed Black people had no political rights. mulattoes. French intellectuals addressed the institution of slavery. The Question: Analyze the views of those addressing the issue of slavery during the Enlightenment and the French Revolution AND explain how those who debated this issue thought its resolution would affect the economic." The application of this statement raised issues concerning the French colonies in the West Indies: Saint Domingue (now Haiti). Guadeloupe. at the time of the French Revolution. Martinque. . As you analyze each document. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. French Merchants supplied these islands with slaves. and French planters used the slaves to maintain their sugar and coffee plantations. mulatto landholders and freed Black people. take into account its source and the point of view of the author. political and social order.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Right of Man (August 27. 1789). Saint Lucia and Saint Martin. Tobago.1991 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-15. then. French colonists. which begins: "All men are born free and remain free and equal in rights.


1756 Document 3 I have seen those vast unfortunate lands that seem only destined to be inhabited by slaves. Denis Diderot. 1765 . was fundamentally opposed to Black slavery? The answer is that those nations needed slaves for their colonies. Everything tells us that we can not take away from a person that natural dignity which is liberty. Louis de Jaucourt." Encyclopedia. Essay on Morals and Customs. and their mines. I have averted my eyes from that sordid sight with loathing. 1761 Document 4 Why did the Christian powers not consider that their religion. "The Slave.Document 1 Everything concurs to let humans enjoy dignity. The New Heloise." Encyclopedia. work in sugar mills. their plantations. 1765 Document 5 Masters who acquired new slaves were obligated by law to have them instructed in the Catholic faith. and seeing one fourth of my fellow humans changed into beasts for the service of others. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. and tobacco---things unknown to our ancestors. Louis de Jaucourt. independent of natural law. I have grieved to be a human. "Natural Liberty. horror and pity. 1755 Document 2 One hundred thousand slaves. indigo and cocoa plantations. Voltaire. which is natural. Black or mulatto. cocoa. sacrificing their lives to gratify our newly acquired appetites for sugar. this motivated Louis XIII to authorize this horrid commerce in human flesh. coffee. "Blacks." Encyclopedia.

when you will cast a glance of compassion on these unfortunate people who have been made a barbaric object of trade. Essay on the Administration of Saint Domingue. National Assembly. it is the beauty of nature. and the ruin of commerce would result in stagnation for the merchant marine. thus to make the best of this precious soil. A delegate from Bordeaux. I demand to know by what right the 23. opening meeting of the Estates General. in thought and. agriculture. Count Mirabeau. and the arts. above all. May 1789 Document 9 I demand to know how the twenty White people here from the colonies can be said to represent the people of color from whom they have received no authority.000 White voters have refused their fellow citizens the right to name representatives and have arrogated to themselves the right to choose representatives for those whom they have excluded. these people who are similar to us. speech. it has been necessary to find a particular species of laborers. in their capacity to suffer. The colonies bring in an annual income of more than 200 million livres. Five million French citizens exist only by the trade they bring. National Assembly. 1790 . 1781 Document 7 Why are Black people enslaved? The color of people's skin only suggests a slight difference. 1788 Document 8 A day may come. speech. There is no discord between day and night. gentlemen. Guillaume Raynal. the sun and the moon and between the stars and dark sky.Document 6 White people are incapable of working in the field under the hot sun in Saint Dominque. All is varied. 1789 Document 10 The abolition of slavery and the slave trade would mean the loss of our colonies. July 3. Saint Domingue is a milder climate for the slaves than the hot climate from which they have been transplanted. the loss of the colonies would strike a mortal blow to commerce. Why destroy nature's work? Olympe de Gouges. Reflections on Black People. Jacques Necker. March 2. speech.

Document 11 SLAVES DELIVERED BY FRENCH SHIPS Document 12 Seems to me that it would be possible to conciliate the interest of commerce. that of the colonies. Charles de Lameth. and that of all France. speech. National Assembly. in a few days. early 1790 . We will gain time. this committee will present to you. and for that I propose to name a committee which will be sent all the papers relative to Saint Domingue and to Martinque. a definite plan of procedure.

National Assembly's Committee on the Colonies. under a kind of humane government. whatever it might be. in the name of those members of the Assembly who do not want to destroy the Constitution. National Assembly. where.Document 13 End our fears by declaring that your proclamation on the Rights of Man does not extend to the Black people and their descendants. date unknown Document 14 We have reached this level of prosperity thanks to our colonies. and transplanted them to French colonies. National Assembly. A delegate of the Owners of Property in the French Colonies of America Residing in Bordeaux. that we will not sacrifice to the colonial deputies.. Antoine Barnave. indeed. is preferable. May 15. try to force us to legislate in their private interest! I declare in the name of the Assembly. but they live without fear for tomorrow. I say that any other course. I declare in the name of the entire nation which wishes to be free. 1791 . report. If someday they must gain independence. with their threats. we must make sure to postpone that day so that we will be able to lose them without an economic shock and without a disturbance to our political existence. 1790 Document 15 I am here to defend the Declaration of the Rights of Man. but we discovered them in the hardest and cruelest slavery. Let the colonies perish if the planters. Maximilien Robespierre. they work. speech. We have not enslaved them.

take into account the source and the point of view of the author. the movement experienced a surge of popularity and activity beginning in 1848. began to emerge in the early nineteenth century. where growing nationalism and international rivalries for control over territories and peoples persisted throughout the century. You may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents.1992 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-14. a movement intended to promote the unity of all Slavic peoples. . in no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a “laundry list” fashion. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. The Question: Identify and analyze the political and cultural issues in the debate over Pan-Slavism Historical Background: In the nineteenth century most Slavic peoples lived in multinational empires in eastern and southern Europe. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. Pan-Slavism. As you analyze the documents. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet.

.Document 1.


1843 I . and there are also several Slavic homelands. 1842 Document 5 There is only one way for Austria to forestall the penetration of Russian influence among the western and southern Slavs --. literatures. a Serb? And you. which in reality does not exist. a Pole? My children.Austria must put itself at the head of the Slavs and promote their national development. hatred. At one stroke Austria will thus destroy all illusions of a Russian PanSlavism and will find a firm and unshakable support among its own peoples. Scattered Slavs. and no longer mere fragments. would lead Poland astray. To put the Polish national cause under the protection of a Slavic idea. 1829 Document 4 There are Slavic languages. let us be a unified whole. a Russian? And you. An editorial in Contemporary Austrian Review. seek unity! Say: I am a Slav! Jan Kollár. a Czech? And you. Let us be all or nothing. Among the Slavs nationality comes after humanity. oppression. who would no longer regard Austria as an alien ruler.Document 3 In other nations humanity comes after nationality. Polish author. Karol Sienkiewicz. introduction to a collection of historical studies on Slavs. there is today neither a single Slavic language nor a common Slavic literature nor a Slavic homeland. and differences of language. Who are you. Due to ignorance of each other. Slovak poet and early advocate of PanSlavism.

and liberty. Christo Boter. etc. The Prussian is a German. the Poles. The Slavs would rush into this battle in great number. article entitled “Slav and Czech. Mikhail Bakunin. darkness. I would destroy.. Russian anarchist. and there is only the silence of death. sympathies. The name Slav is and should forever remain a purely geographical name. You ask for life. the Piedmontese is an Italian. the Ottoman and the Austrian empires. Bronislaw Trentowski. you aspire toward resurrection. 1848 Document 9 The idea of Slavic unity appeared only recently among the southern Slavs. and has developed little because it ignores our distinct identities. and slave labor. thereby winning the hearts of the Czechs. Prague. Polish philosopher. Cracow. A small federation of southern Slavs should be built so that no nationality may be wronged. Bulgarian poet.” 1848 Document 8 If I were tsar today. I would first renew an independent Poland. religion. right. and in Russia there is only mechanical obedience. 1867 . etc. uplift. but a Bulgarian is not a Serb and a Serb is not a Russian. 1848 Document 7 I express my firm conviction that the Slavs. Karel Havlkek. the Serbs. Czech journalist.Document 6 At the present time there is no place for your Pan-Slavic goals in the Russian empire. lecture. the Czechs. without effort. are not one nation. and there are only death. you demand independence. Everywhere I would plant the banner of liberty. and all the southern Slavs. I mean the Russians. state of education. Nationality is not only determined by language. speech at the Pan-Slav Congress. but also by customs. then I would form a free and happy Pan-Slav Empire. form of government.

Russia and Europe: An inquiry into the Cultural and Political Relations of the Slav World and the Germano-Roman World. I must therefore reject in advance every idea of a Czech republic or any other republic within the present boundaries of the Austrian empire. blood. Nikolay Danilevsky. 1914 . article in the Viennese weekly The Reform. 1873 Document 12 The danger that Austria has to face is the diversity of language and race in the empire. 1869 Document 11 The Pan-Slav party in Russia seeks to absorb and to destroy our nationality. Russian. for this. 1887 Document 13 Russia is united by faith. Our Slavic nationalities are likely at a moment of dangerous crisis to develop pro-Russian tendencies. Think of the Austrian empire divided up into a number of republics. Memoirs. Tsar Nicholas II. What a delightful invitation for the Russians to create a universal monarchy! Frantisek Palacky. Manifesto. Austrian foreign minister and imperial chancellor (1866-1881). Russia must steel them and itself in the spirit of independence and Pan-Slavic consciousness.Document 10 A great and strong Russia has to face the difficult task of liberating its racial brothers. and historical tradition with the Slavic peoples and has never regarded their fate with indifference. Czech. The fraternal feelings of the Russian peoples for the Slavs were aroused in unanimous enthusiasm and with special force when Austria-Hungary put before Serbia conditions manifestly unacceptable to a sovereign state. Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust.

Russian journalist. Gabriel de Wesselitsky. and tried unsuccessfully to excite Russian sympathy. Pan-Slavism in a theoretical sense existed only among the weakest and most oppressed Slavic peoples. and no agitation in that sense has ever been practiced in Slavic lands by the Russians. These people used to visit Russia to complain of their sufferings and persecutions.Document 14 No Russian ever wanted the reunion of other Slavs with Russia. Russia and Democracy: The German Canker in Russia. 1915 .

Italian humanist educator. rhetoric. which the ancients called the “Humanities. Document 1 So far we have touched upon studies (grammar. In no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a “laundry list” fashion. On the Method of Teaching and Learning. This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Do not simply summarize the documents individually. In your analysis of the documents. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. However. Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini. to a sound forecast of the future.” are peculiar to man. Battista Guarino. to a right estimate of the present. darkness covers the land. As you analyze the documents. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. Where Letters cease. Analyze the extent to which these values and purposes were transformed and challenged over time. take into account both the sources and the authors‟ points of view. music) by which we may attain enlightenment of the mind. Need I then impress upon you the importance of the study of Philosophy and of Letters…our guide to the true meaning of the past. The Question: Describe the various values and purposes of Renaissance education. geometry. 1450 Document 2 Learning and training in Virtue. you may refer to relevant historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. Italian humanist who later became pope. we have not yet directly considered how we may most surely distinguish the true and the just from the base and degrading. for they are the pursuits and the activities proper to mankind. On the Education of Free Men. 1459 .) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet.1993 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-13. and a Prince who cannot read the lessons of history is a helpless prey of flattery and intrigue.

dance and sing and dress well. The student devotes his attention to the content of the literatures of ancient Greece and Rome because with slight qualification the whole of attainable knowledge lies therein. For although it is not wise to spend too much time cultivating these arts. at least he will be capable of judging the writing of others. which are things that seem more decorative than substantial in a man. When a woman is taught to read the classics. Juan Luis Vives. I made light of good penmanship. prudent and chaste. 1511 Document 5 Learned women may be suspected by many who say learning is a nourishment for the maliciousness of their nature. I wished I had not done so. On the Art of Learning. play. The Book of the Courtier. Francesco Guicciardini. in prose and verse. and historians. the whole stress of teaching must be laid upon a close yet wide study of the greater writers. and the commoner figures of speech have been mastered. Baldassare Castiglione.Document 3 The courtier should be passably learned in the humanities. Reflections. And when she learns to write. especially in our own vernacular. 1530 . 1528 Document 4 When once the simpler rules of composition. Skills of this sort open the way to the favor of princes. I have seen that they lend dignity and reputation even to men of good rank. Spanish humanist. northern humanist and theologian. But later. 1523 Document 6 When I was young. who are usually fond of such things and even if his writings should not merit great praise. Desiderius Erasmus. Italian diplomat and author. in the Latin poets. orators. taken out of holy scripture or the sayings of philosophers. knowing how to ride. Italian Statesman and historian. let the books teach her good manners. In this way he will never want for pleasant entertainment with the ladies. The Instruction of a Christian Woman. and should also be practiced in writing verse and prose. let not her example be trifling songs but some sober sentences. and sometimes to great profit and honors.

“Of Presumption. for music you must pay extra. reading. A Consolation for our Grammar Schools. for our instruction. and discipline. From the School Ordinances of Wurttemberg. the scholars at fifteen or sixteen years of age have little sense of the meaning and true use of learning.Document 7 At least twice a year. permanent harm must result. John Brinsley. not only for learning the liberal arts. they waste their friends‟ money and their own precious time. not those books which contain the soundest and truest opinions. writing. 1622 . and it has succeeded. but also the fear of God. Afterwards. England. English schoolmaster. It has selected. almost as crude as when they went. Germany. nor what is useful to them in worldly life. She has teachers for singing and playing instruments. each pastor should admonish his parishioners that they be diligent in sending their children to school. in most of our common schools. When they go to the universities. they return home again.” 1578-1580 Document 9 Let me recommend the gentlewoman whose school we spoke of: she teaches girls embroidery. learning nothing about what is needed for their salvation. 1559 Document 8 The aim of our absurd educational system has been to make us. late sixteenth century Document 10 It is notorious that. French essayist and politician. but learned. but can only write Latin no one of judgment will want to read. Michael de Montaigne. Letter to Lady Ferrers of Tamworth Castle. but those which speak the best Greek and Latin. and dancing. as children grow up without fear and knowledge of God. Otherwise. virtue. Anne Higginson. without discipline. not good and wise.

those things which are real. more hard-working bodies than dreamy and contemplative spirits. Rhetorical. mid-seventeenth century Document 12 Percentage of Justices of the Peace Who Attended University (by county) Date 1562 1584 1608 1626 1636 Kent 2 % 16 40 63 68 Northhamtonshire 6 % 17 19 54 72 Somerset 3 % 15 36 50 55 Document 13 Learning is not enough accommodated to the uses of our life. John Amos Comenius. Letter to the Parlement of Dijon concerning the reopening of a French Jesuit school. A Reformation of Schools. more soldiers than priests. More farmers are needed than magistrates. being reserved for the Universities. The fault whereof must be laid upon that inveterate custom. and fit to enlighten men‟s minds. and Logical toys. educational reformer in Bohemia. The study of literature is appropriate only to a small minority of men. it can be said that schools are useful in a civilized society. and to prepare them for action. whereby all the time of youth is spent in Grammatical.Document 11 In general. but having too many of them is always a bad thing. more merchants than philosophers. or rather disease of Schools. 1642 . to teach us how to behave ourselves in the occurrences thereof. Such study weakens the body and inspires contempt for all other occupations.

1998 DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-11. During the Napoleonic Wars.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. the Germans were divided among more than three hundred states. The Question: Describe and analyze the views of those who were concerned about the problems of the political. some Germans hoped for German unification under a single constitutional monarchy. Historical background: In the eighteenth century. In no case should documents simply be cited and explained in a “laundry list” fashion. In your analysis of the documents. ranging from great powers (Austria and Prussia) to small city-states and principalities. . This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. and social order in the German states before the revolutions of 1848. In 1815. after the defeat of Napoleon. all grouped under the Holy Roman Empire. The map on the following page shows the major states of that confederation. economic. take into account both the sources and the authors‟ points of view. you may refer to relevant historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. much of the previous social and political order was restored. Do not simply summarize the documents individually. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. There were thirty-eight states loosely tied together in the Germanic Confederation. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. As you analyze the documents.

Document 1 Source: Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet and professor, 1813. Where is the German‟s Fatherland? Is it Bavaria? Is it the Prussian-land? Is it Tyrol? Is it where the Swiss dwell? Ah! Austria surely it must be? Oh no! More great, more grand Must be the German‟s Fatherland! Where is the German‟s Fatherland? Wherever resounds the German tongue!

Document 2 Source: Joseph von* Goerres, German publicist and scholar in exile in France, pamphlet entitled “Germany and the Revolution,” 1819. In Germany I am pleased a new idea is added to those that caused the revolution in France — the idea of national unity, which will render the ferment stronger than ever. A German revolution must end with the expulsion of the reigning princes, the overthrow of all ecclesiastical establishments, the destruction of the nobles, and the introduction of a republican constitution. *The term “von” is a sign of aristocratic status.

Document 3 Source: Klemens von Metternich, Austrian chief minister, memorandum to the Austrian emperor, 1819. Formerly the German revolutionaries were separated by the states in which they lived. It was clear to those conspirators that under such circumstances they could strike no effective blow. Some of these men now take the correct road from a revolutionary point of view. They direct their eyes to the union of all Germans in one Germany. This evil idea must be conquered.

Document 4 Source: David Hansemann, an industrialist in the Prussian Rhineland, private letter, 1830. We liberals insist that no one suffer distress, and so one institution after another is founded to feed the poor, to educate their children, to care for the old, to help poor mothers, etc. But herein lies the most direct invitation to wastefulness and laziness, the two vices which will most effectively nourish good-for-nothings among the lower classes. These good-for-nothings are dangerous to the public safety.

Document 5 Source: Friedrich List, Wurttemberg economist and academic, pamphlet, 1834.

Thirty-eight customs borders dividing the German states cripple our internal commerce and bring about the same effect as binding up every part of the human body so that blood cannot flow from one to the other.

Document 6 Source: Essay by Johann Riegel, a bookseller in a university town in Wurttemberg, 1842. We live in a transitional period. Factories are taking the place of craft production. Nearly all the crafts are either in decline or in the grip of drastic changes in their shops to meet the competition of industrialization.

Document 7 Source: Bettina von Arnim, author and wife of a Prussian aristocrat, This is the Responsibility of the King, book dedicated to King Frederick William IV of Prussia, 1843. The father weaves cloth for jackets and pants, but he himself is in rags. The children are naked, trying to warm themselves in the straw. The mother spins threads from daylight to dark, but her efforts can never satisfy the needs of her children. The state demands taxes from the family, and they must pay their rent or the landlord will evict them.

There. Let our princes have the courage to turn to the masses. 1846.Document 8 Source: General Joseph von Radowitz. Our German princes still have the resources to survive the struggle against the triumphant mediocrity of the middle classes. are their natural allies. advisor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. among the lower and most numerous classes of the population. . book. Concerning State and Church. The bourgeoisie has been corrupted by the evil education of the times and has lost its loyalty and faith.

Document 9 .

and show that you were not born to be hunted like wild animals by the prince‟s police. A new spirit is now irresistibly asserting itself in Germany. It is an honor to be called “the proletariat. It is a strengthened public spirit. and in our times the German people cannot be put off as they were in previous years. and the rule of law be secured for our future public life. It is the unquestionable conviction of the whole people that only by developing the principle of a representative and constitutional monarchy throughout Germany can the unity of the fatherland be strengthened. When it comes time to fight— attack! . Show what you are worth.‟ Be worthy of this honor. government official in Hesse. 1847. speech before the Hessian State Assembly.Document 10 Source: Hans von Gagern. Document 11 Source: Anonymous pamphlet confiscated by the police in Frankfurt. 1847. freedom come forth. Men of the Proletariat! German workers! You are the heart of the people.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful