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# A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences
Near Toyota Kirloskar, Off Mysore Rd, Bidadi-562 109

Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Information Sciences and Engineering Computer Prog ramming Laborator y I Year BE, All Branches Lab Manual – Cycle I & II

Unversity Seat No. Name of the Student Branch Semester Section

: : : : :

Prepared and Programmed by Mahesh Lohith K.S Aravinda C.V
Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Contents
Cycle : 1
1)Solving Quadratic Equation for roots 2)GCD and LCM of two numbers using Euclid's algorithm 3)Reversing number to check for Palindrome 4)Evaluating polynomial using Horner's rule 5)Replacing blanks in a string with a single blank 6)Binary Search 7)Bubble Sort 8)Word Length of the Host Machine

Cycle : 2
1)Tylor series and exponential value of 0.5 2)Matrix Multiplication 3)Parallel program to add elemments of two arrays 4)Rotating integers to right by n places 5)Program with function to check for prime 6)Parallel program for generating primes using SieveEratosthenes method 7)Reversing strings 8)First occurance of any char of string2 in string1

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program 1:
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to find and output all the roots of a given quadratic equation, for non-zero coefficients.*/ /*compile this program using the command gcc quadratic.c -lm*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> void main() { float a,b,c,disc,x1,x2,realpart,imagpart; system("clear"); printf("Enter the Co-efficients of the Quadratic Equation: "); scanf("%f%f%f",&a,&b,&c); //a has to be a non-zero value// if((a*b*c)==0) printf("\n The input co-efficients does not form a Perfect Quadratic Equation\n"); else { disc=b*b-4*a*c; /*if disc is zero the roots are equal*/ if (disc==0) printf("\nThe equal roots are x1=%4.2f and x2=%4.2f\n",-b/ (2*a),-b/(2*a)); else if (disc > 0) { /*if the disc is greater than 0 the roots are real*/ x1 = (-b + sqrt(disc))/(2*a); x2 = (-b - sqrt(disc))/(2*a); printf("\nthe Real roots are x1=%4.2f and x2=%4.2f\n" ,x1,x2); } else if (disc < 0) { /*if the disc is less than 0 the roots are imaginary*/ printf("\nThe roots are imaginary\n"); realpart = -b/(2*a); imagpart = sqrt(fabs(disc))/(2*a); printf("\nThe roots are x1=%4.2f+i%4.2f and x2=%4.2f-i %4.2f \n", realpart,imagpart,realpart,imagpart); } } }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 2
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to implement Euclid’ s algorithm to find the GCD and LCM of two integers and to output the results along with the given integers.*/ #include<stdio.h> int gcd_rec(int,int); void main() { int firstno,secondno,gcd; system("clear"); printf("Enter the two no.s to find GCD and LCM:"); scanf("%d%d",&firstno,&secondno); if(firstno*secondno!=0) { gcd=gcd_rec(firstno,secondno); printf("\nThe GCD of %d and %d is %d\n",firstno,secondno,gcd); printf("\nThe LCM of %d and %d is %d\n",firstno,secondno, (firstno*secondno)/gcd); } else printf("One of the enterd no. is zero:Quitting\n"); } /*Function for Euclid's Procedure*/ int gcd_rec(int x, int y) { if (y == 0) return x; return gcd_rec(y, x % y); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 3
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to reverse a given four digit integer number and check whether it is a palindrome or not. Output the given number with suitable message.*/ #include<stdio.h> void main() { long int num,revnum=0,rem,quo; system("clear"); printf("Enter a no. to reverse:"); scanf("%ld",&num); quo=num; if(num!=0) { while (quo > 0) { rem = quo % 10;/*finding the reminder*/ quo = quo / 10;/*finding the quotient*/ revnum =revnum*10 + rem;/*reversing in steps*/ } printf("\nThe reverse of no. %ld is %ld\n",num,revnum); if(num==revnum) printf("\nThe no. %ld is a Palindrome\n",num); else printf("\nThe no. %ld is not a Palindrome\n",num); } else printf("\nThe entered number is 0: Quitting\n"); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 4
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to evaluate the given polynomial f(x) = a4x4 + a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x1+ a0 for given value of x and the coefficients using Horner’ s method.*/ #include <stdio.h> //prototype declaration double horner_rule(float *, int , float); //Main function where the co-efficients are read and the function horner's rule is called*/ int main() { int array_len=5; float co_effs[array_len]; int counter; float x; system("clear"); printf("Enter the Co-efficients of a 4th degree polynomial:"); for(counter=0;counter<array_len;++counter) { scanf("%f",&co_effs[counter]); } printf("Enter the value of x:"); scanf("%f",&x); printf("%5.1lf\n", horner_rule(co_effs, counter,x)); return 0; } //function to apply horner's rule double horner_rule(float *co_effs, int s, float x) { int i; double res = 0.0; for(i=s-1; i>=0; i--) { res = res * x + co_effs[i]; } return res;

}

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 5
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to copy its input to its output,replacing each string of one or more blanks by a single blank*/ #include<stdio.h> void main() { char string[' ']; int i=0,flag=0; system("clear"); printf("Enter the string to be copied to the output:"); gets(string); system("clear"); printf("\nThe entered string is:%s\n",string); while(string[i] != '\0') { if(string[i]==' ') flag=flag+1; else flag=0; if(flag<=1) printf("%c",string[i]); ++i;

}

} printf("\n");

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 6
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to input N integer numbers in ascending order into a single dimensional array and perform a binary search for a given key integer number and report success or failure in the form of a suitable message.*/ #include<stdio.h> void main() { int array_len,i,mid,low,high,ser_no,flag=0; int no_array[20]; system("clear"); printf("Enter the width of array : "); scanf("%d",&array_len); printf("\nEnter %d sorted elemens: ",array_len); for(i=0;i<array_len;++i) scanf("%d",&no_array[i]); printf("\nEntered %d elements are:",array_len); for(i=0;i<array_len;++i) printf("%d ",no_array[i]); /*bin search part*/ printf("\n\nEnter the No. to be searched:"); scanf("%d",&ser_no); low =0; high = array_len-1; mid=(low+high)/2; while(low<= high) { if (no_array[mid]==ser_no) { flag=1; break; } else if(no_array[mid]>=ser_no) high = mid-1; else low = mid+1; mid = (low + high)/2;

}

} if(flag==0) printf("\nThe no. %d not found\n",ser_no); else printf("\nThe no. %d found at location %d\n",ser_no,mid+1);

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 7
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to input N integer numbers into a single dimensional array, sort them in ascending order using bubble sort technique and print both the given array and the sorted array with suitable headings*/ #include<stdio.h> void swap(int [], int, int); void main() { int a[100],n,i,j,temp; system("clear"); printf("Enter the width of the array of numbers:"); scanf("%d",&n); //reading the nos. to be sorted// printf("\nEnter %d Nos to sort: ",n); for(i=0;i<n;++i) scanf("%d",&a[i]); system("clear"); printf("\nEntered %d Nos are:",n); for(i=0;i<n;++i) printf("%d ",a[i]); //sorting// for(i=1;i<n;i++) for(j=0;j<n-i;j++) if(a[j] > a[j+1]) { swap(a[],j,j+1); } //printing the sorted nos.// printf("\nThe nos after sorting:"); for(i=0;i<n;++i) printf("%d ",a[i]); printf("\n");

}

void swap(int b[], int i, int j) { int temp; temp=b[i]; b[i]=b[j]; b[j]=temp; }
Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 8
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to compute and print the word length on the host machine.*/ #include<stdio.h> void main() { int count=0; int unsigned word; /*All bits of the word are set to one by taking one's complement of zero*/ word=~0; system("clear"); /*Counting Word Length using bitwise shift operator*/ while(word!=0) { word=word<<1; ++count; } printf("\nThe length of the word on the host machine is: %d\n",count); }

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program: 9
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to calculate the approximate value of exp(0.5) using the Taylor Series expansion for the exponential function. Use the terms in the expansion until the last term is less than the machine epsilon defined FLT_EPSILON in the header file <float.h>. Also print the value returned by the Mathematical function exp( ).*/ //Macro Definitions// #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> #include<float.h> /Function Prototypes// double power(float, int); double exponential(void); long int factorial(int); void main() { system("clear"); printf("The value of FLT_EPSILON from float.h is \ %0.9lf\n",FLT_EPSILON); printf("The exponential value of 0.5 using Tylor Series is %0.9lf\n",exponential()); printf("The exponetial value of 0.5 using function exp() from math.h is %0.9lf\n",exp(0.5));

}

//function to calculate the integer power of a real number double power(float x, int pow) { float prod=1; int i; for(i=1;i<=pow;++i) prod=prod*x; return(prod); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 11

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

//function for tylor series double exponential(void) { double expovalue,sum=1,prevterm; int pow=1; while((fabs(sum)-fabs(prevterm)) > FLT_EPSILON) { prevterm=sum; sum = sum + power(0.5,pow)/factorial(pow); pow = pow + 1; } return(sum); } //function to calculate the factorial of a number long int factorial(int number) { if(number == 1) return(1); else return(number*factorial(number-1)); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 12

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 10
/*Design, develop and execute a program in C to read two matrices A (M x N) and B (P x Q) and compute the product of A and B if the matrices are compatible for multiplication. The program must print the input matrices and the resultant matrix with suitable headings and format if the matrices are compatible for multiplication, otherwise the program must print a suitable message. (For the purpose of demonstration, the array sizes M, N, P, and Q can all be less than or equal to 3)*/ #include<stdio.h> /* Declaration of function prototypes*/ void readmat(int [][10], int, int); void writemat(int [][10],int, int); void matmul(int [][10], int [][10],int [][10],int,int,int); void main() { int mat1[' '][10],mat2[' '][10],resultmat[' '][10],row1,col1, row2, col2; printf("Enter the No. of Rows and No. of Columns of Matrces 1 and 2:"); scanf("%d%d%d%d",&row1,&col1,&row2,&col2); if( col1!=row2) printf("\nThe two matrices cannot be multiplied:\n"); else { printf("Enter the %d elements of first matrix:",row1*col1); readmat(mat1,row1,col1); printf("Enter the %d elements of second matrix:",row2,col2); readmat(mat2,row2,col2); matmul(mat1,mat2,resultmat,row1,col2,row2); system("clear"); printf("\nThe elements of the first matrix are:\n"); writemat(mat1,row1,col1); printf("\nThe elements of the second matrix are:\n"); writemat(mat2,row2,col2); printf("\nThe elements of the resultant matrix are:\n"); writemat(resultmat,row1,col2); printf("\n"); } }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 13

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

/*Function for reading a matrix*/ void readmat (int a[][10], int row, int col) { int count1,count2; for(count1=0;count1<row;++count1) for(count2=0;count2<col;++count2) scanf("%d",&a[count1][count2]); } /*Function for writing a matrix*/ void writemat (int a[][10], int row, int col) { int count1,count2; for(count1=0;count1<row;++count1) { for(count2=0;count2<col;++count2) printf("%d ",a[count1][count2]); printf("\n"); } } /*Function for Multiplying two matrices*/ void matmul(int a[][10], int b[][10], int c[][10],int row1, int col2, int common) { int count1,count2,count3,sum; for(count1=0;count1<row1;++count1) for(count2=0;count2<col2;++count2) { sum=0; for(count3=0;count3<common;++count3) sum=sum+a[count1][count3]*b[count3][count2]; c[count1][count2]=sum; } }

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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 11 /* Design, develop and execute a parallel program in C to add, elementwise,two one-dimensional arrays A and B of N integer elements and storethe result in another onedimensional array C of N integer elements.*/ /*Compile this program with gcc -fopenmp filename*/
#include<stdio.h> void main() { intfirstarray[100],secondarray[100],resultarray[100],width, count; int chunk = 5,trdid;//trdid is for thread id// system("clear"); printf("Enter the width of the two arrays: "); scanf("%d",&width); printf("Enter %d elements of first array: ",width); for(count=0;count<width;++count) scanf("%d",&firstarray[count]); printf("Enter %d elements of second array: ",width); for(count=0;count<width;++count) scanf("%d",&secondarray[count]); system("clear"); printf("The %d elements of first array are: ",width); for(count=0;count<width;++count) printf("%d ",firstarray[count]); printf("\nThe %d elements of second array are: ",width); for(count=0;count<width;++count) printf("%d ",secondarray[count]); #pragma omp parallel { #pragma omp for schedule(dynamic,chunk) for(count=0;count<width;++count) { trdid=omp_get_thread_num(); resultarray[count]=firstarray[count] + secondarray[count]; printf("element:%d Thread ID:%d\n",resultarray[count],trdid); } } printf("\nThe %d elements of result array are: ",width); for(count=0;count<width;++count) printf("%d ",resultarray[count]); printf("\n");

}
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Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 12
/*Design and develop a function rightrot (x, n) in C that returns the value of the integer x rotated to the right by n bit positions as an unsigned integer. Invoke the function from the main with different values for x and n and print the results with suitable headings.*/ #include<stdio.h> int rightrot(unsigned int, int); void main() { unsigned int num; int places,shiftnum; system("clear"); printf("Enter a number to rotate right: "); scanf("%d",&num); printf("\nEnter the number of places to be shifted thru: "); scanf("%d",&places); shiftnum=rightrot(num,places); printf("\nThe no. %d after rotating thru %d plces is %d",num, places,shiftnum); printf("\n"); } int rightrot(unsigned int passnum, int passplaces) { int i; for(i=1;i<=passplaces;++i) if(passnum%2==0) passnum=passnum>>1; else { passnum=passnum>>1; passnum=passnum + 32768; } return(passnum); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 16

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 13
/*Design and develop a function isprime (x) that accepts an integer argument and returns 1 if the argument is prime and 0 otherwise. The function must use plain division checking approach to determine if a given number is prime. Invoke this function from the main with different values obtained from the user and print appropriate messages.*/ /*Compile this program using command gcc -lm filename*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> int isprime(int); main() { int prime[10]; int noele,ret_val,count,primeno; system("clear"); //input the no. of elements to be read printf("Enter the no. of elements to Check for prime: "); scanf("%d",&noele); //read the elements printf("Enter %d elements to check whether they are prime: ",noele); for(count=0;count < noele;++count) scanf("%d",&prime[count]); system("clear"); //writing the elements to be checked whether they are prime. printf("The entered elements are: "); for(count=0;count < noele;++count) printf("%d ",prime[count]); printf("\n"); //to check whether the elements are prime or not for(count=0;count < noele;++count) { ret_val=isprime(prime[count]); if (ret_val==1) printf("The number %d is a prime no.\n",prime[count]); else printf("The number %d is not a prime no.\n",prime[count]); } }
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A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

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//Function to check whether the no. is prime int isprime(int p) { int count,flag=1; for(count=2;count<=sqrt(p);count++) { if((p%count)==0) { flag=0; break; } } return(flag); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 18

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 14
/*Design, and print algorithm /*Compile develop and execute a parallel program in C to determine the prime numbers which are less than 100 making use of of the Sieve of Eratosthenes*/ this program using gcc -fopenmp -lm filename*/

#include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> #include<omp.h> main() { int i,j,prime[101],range; system("clear"); printf("Enter the Range of elements to search for primes:"); scanf("%d",&range); for(i=1;i<=range;++i) prime[i]=1; printf("\n"); for(i=2;i<=sqrt(range);i++) if (prime[i]!=0) { #pragma omp parallel for for (j=i*i;j<=range;j+=i) prime[j]=0; } system("clear"); printf("The prime nos up to %d are: ",range); for(i=2;i<range;++i) if (prime[i]) printf("%d ",i); printf("\n"); }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 19

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 15
/*Design and develop a function reverses (s) in C to reverse the string s in place. Invoke this function from the main for different strings and print the original and reversed strings.*/ #include<stdio.h> void reverse(char *word); int lenstr(char *word); void swap(char *word,int lbound,int rbound);' void main(int argc,char *argv[]) { char *word; int count=1; system("clear"); while(count < argc) { word =argv[count]; printf("The entered string is %s\n",word); reverse(word); printf("The string after reversing is %s\n",word); ++count; } } //function to reverse the word void reverse(char *word) { int count; for (count = 0; count<=(lenstr(word)/2)-1; ++count) { swap(word,count,(lenstr(word)-count-1)); } } //function to count the length of the word int lenstr(char * word) { int count; for(count = 0; word[count]!='\0';count++); return(count); }
Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 20

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

//function to swap the contents two character locations void swap(char *word,int lbound, int rbound) { char temp; temp=word[lbound]; word[lbound]=word[rbound]; word[rbound]=temp; }

Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 21

A Manual of Lab Programming: C Programming Lab

Cycle I& II

Program : 16
/*Design and develop a function match any (s1,s2) which returns the first location in the string s1 where any character from the string s2 occurs, or – 1 if s1 contains no character from s2. Do not use the standard library function which does a similar job! Invoke the function match any (s1. s2) from the main for different strings and print both the strings and the return value from the function match any (s1,s2).*/ #include<stdio.h> int matchany(char [], char []); void main() { char firstr[' '],secstr[' ']; int place,placecount=-1; system("clear"); printf("Enter the first string: "); scanf("%s",firstr); printf("Enter the second string: "); scanf("%s",secstr); place=matchany(firstr,secstr); if(place==-1) printf("Any character of \'%s\' is not found in any place in\'%s\'\n",secstr,firstr); else printf("The first occurance of any character of \'%s\' in \'%s\' is in place %d\n",secstr,firstr,place); } int matchany(char firstr[],char secstr[]) { int flag=100,count1,count2,placecount=-1; for(count1=0;firstr[count1]!='\0';++count1) for(count2=0;secstr[count2]!='\0';++count2) if(secstr[count2]==firstr[count1]) { if(flag > count1) flag=count1+1; placecount++; } if (placecount==-1) return placecount; else return flag; }
Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, Bangalore-562 109 22

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