MCCB Fundamentals | Relay | Transformer

Superior Series MCCB

current limiting moulded case circuit breaker

LK-Electric Company

The History of LKE Electric
The acronym LKE stands for Lauritz Knudsen Electric. In the late 1970s, the LK Electric Company was established in Singapore by its parent company, LKE (Europe) of Denmark. It is to manufacture LK’s range of products, namely, the Domino, the Tabular of low tension switchboards, the ELC-24 medium voltage panel and the Ring Main Unit (RMU). By the mid-80s, with an influx of technology from Denmark, a Components Division was set up. This was also to cater to the growing demands in the low voltage sector. Popular products such as the Switch Fuse of the QSA series, Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB), Moulded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB), Load Break Switches (LK’s ELC-24) and Vacuum Circuit Breakers (LK’s VB-1) were all produced in the Singapore factory. In 1992, the LKE Electric Company was established in Malaysia and by 1994, has offices in Zhuhai, Shanghai and Beijing in China. At the same time, LKE Electric entered into a partnership with the Cubic Modular System A/S company of Denmark to produce the Cubic Modular Switchboard. And since then, there is no looking back for the company. The company is always striving to benefit its customers. Efforts in R&D are constantly focused, especially with the current era of modern technology, to enable its products to be of a higher quality and safer, yet at the same time, aesthetically pleasing and affordable. The company also prides itself with upgrading of its production facilities, in keeping up with technology, to fulfill stringent process and quality control requirements. Building a relationship with the customers and understanding their needs with a zero-defect and unbeatable range of products are the main objectives of LKE Electric. Focusing on these objectives, LKE Electric has become an industry leader with its MCCB Superior Series, 6 & 10kA MCB series, 12kV Load Break Switch (LBS) and Vacuum Load Break Switch (VLBS) and SF6 Breakers.

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Superior Series Current Limiting MCCB
LKE Electric’s Superior Series Current Limiting MCCB was developed with the latest technology for heavy duty usage: a magnetic trip unit for reliable quality tripping when short circuit occurs, repulse force for moving and fix contact construction, zero arc distance for the arc chute moulded in with thread nut for the case and cover and a long lasting BMC material for mounting, super mechanical and electrical strength. Application The current limiting MCCB Superior series is suitable for circuit protection in individual enclosures, switchboards, lighting and power panels as well as motorcontrol centers. The MCCB is designed to protect systems against overload and short circuits up to 65kA with the full range of accessories. Mechanism The MCCB Superior series is designed to be trip-free. This applies when the breaker contacts open under overload and short circuit conditions and even if the breaker handle is held at the ON position. To eliminate single phasing, should an overload or short circuit occur on any one phase, a common trip mechanism will disconnect all phase contacts of a multipole breaker. Material The Superior series circuit breakers’ housing is made of BMC material, which is unbreakable and has a very high dielectric strength, to ensure the highest level of insulation. The same material is also used to segregate the live parts in between the phases. Accessories To enhance the Superior series MCCB, internal and external modules can be fitted onto the breaker. They are as follows: • shunt trip coil • undervoltage release • auxiliary switch • alarm switch • motorized switch • rotary handle • plug-in kit (draw-out unit) • auxiliary & alarm switch International Standards The MCCB Superior series conform and meet the requirements of these international governing bodies: • IEC 60947-2 from the International Electrotechnical Committee • BS EN60947-2 from British Standards • BT/T14048-2 from China • NEMA AB-1 from American Standards • VDE 0660 from Germany.

NEMA
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Accreditation of the Superior Series MCCB
Having undergone rigid testings and achieving accreditation from SIRIM QAS of Malaysia and TILVA from China, these test reports affirm the superior quality of LKE Electric Company’s Current Limiting Superior Series MCCB.

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7KA at 436V • Breaking time of approximately 0. to 106KA (maximum peak let-through current) • Interrupting fault current. This includes: • Limiting short-circuit current. resulting in lower thermal stresses in down-stream equipment and connecting cables. As a result. lp.00949 seconds • Arc-quenching time at approximately 0. This leads to a substantial reduction in electrodynamic stresses in the overall system.Exceptional Current Limiting Quick-Breaking Performance The MCCB Superior series has exceptional performance characteristics at the rated breaking current of 50KA. Ic. l 2 let-through (proportional to the shaded area) is considerably reduced. 50. the peak short circuit current (lp) is limited to the cutoff current (Ic). Testing Current Wave Curve 4 .0066 seconds.

The Superior Series MCCB an in-depth look Features 1 1 BMC material for base and cover 2 2 Arc chute 3 Mounting for ST or UVT connection block 3 4 5 6 7 4 Trip-free mechanism 5 Moving contacts 6 Clear and IECcompliant markings 7 Magnetic trip unit 8 9 8 Thermal trip unit 9 Compact size a b c d i Features a Arching chamber b BMC c Handle d Magnetic trip unit e BMC f Tripping mechanism g Moving contact h Fixed contact i Thread nut h g f e 5 .

e. i. Repulsive Force (diagram 5) An electromagnetic repulsive force is where the force works between a current of the movable conductor and a current (I) in the reversed direction of the fixed conductor.The Technology of Tripping Devices MCCB Arc Chamber (diagram 1) The MCCB arc chamber is specially designed with an arc channel as a flow guide to improve the capability of extinguishing the arc and reducing the arc distance. If a short-circuit occurs. This is an improvement of the electromagnetic force during breaking over other models. Fixed Contact (diagram 3) The MCCB fixed contact does not have any mounting screws near the contact points. Majority MCCB manufacturers in the market use pheonolic compounds with less electrical and mechanical strength. bold moulded compound (BMC). Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 5 Diagram 4 Diagram 3 6 . Materials (diagram 4) The base and cover of the MCCB are made of a specially formulated material. it will cause the contact points to be welded or melted. MCCB Base (diagram 2) Mounting screws are used to insert thread nuts in the MCCB base. The cover can withstand high electromagnetic force during a short-circuit. It has a high-impact thermal strength. A steel screw can generate heat and the magnetic flux surrounding the conductor carrying the current can create a very high temperature. fire resistant and capable of withstanding high electromagnetic forces that occur during a short-circuit. this prevents the MCCB cover from tearing off. This is an improvement over selftaping screw of other models.

The delay is obtained by the viscosity of silicon oil. the magnetic force of the coil overcomes the spring and closes to the pole piece. Hydraulic Magnetic Type MCCB Superior Series. an instantaneous operation will actuate the trip bar. all models Time-Delay Operation Time-delay operation occurs when an overcurrent heats and warps the bimetal to actuate the trip bar.The Technology of Tripping Devices Thermal Magnetic Type (Solenoid) MCCB Superior Series. Instantaneous Operation If the overcurrent is excessive and the magnetization of the solenoid coil strong enough to attract the armature. thereby attracting the armature and actuates the trip bar. Instantaneous Operation If the overcurrent is excessive. the armature is instantly attracted without the influence of the moving core. selected models only Time-Delay Operation In an overcurrent flow situation. Thermal magnetic tripping (available for all models) Hydraulic magnetic tripping (available for LKS-63 C and S and LKS-100 C models only ) 7 .

LKE designs MCCB according to the international standards (see below).05 In (cold state) Operative Time (hr) 1. It is shown in Table A (distribution circuit breaker) and Table B (motor protection circuit breakers). land +40ºC. They incorporate heat sensitive elements for protection against overcurrent and the rated current of the releases (Ith) must be equal to or greater than the operating current of the circuit breaker.30 (In < 63) 1.30 In (heated state) Operative Time (h) Operating Current for Magnetic Release (A) 10 ≤ In ≤ 63 1 2 1 2 10In + 20% 10In + 20% 5In + 20% 10In + 20% 8In + 20% Table A 63 < In ≤ 100 100 ≤ In ≤ 800 2 2 630 ≤ In ≤ 800 2 2 Thermodynamic Release Ambient Temperature. Inverse Time Delay Tripping The thermodynamic release of LKE’s circuit breaker affects the inverse time delay tripping. Thermodynamic Release Ambient Temperature.Tripping Characteristics Bi-metal Overload Tripping Bi-metal overloads are designed to protect the motor against overheating due to excessive current loading and at the same time. To date. marine +45ºC Rated Current (A) 1.05 In (cold state) Operative Time (h) 1. land +40ºC.05 (In < 63) 1.30 (In > 63) Tripping Time > 1hour > 2h < 1hour < 2hour Operating Condition cold cold warm warm These thermomagnetic overcurrent releases (bi-metal) are non-interchangeable thermomagnetic devises. while the magnetic release affects an instantaneous tripping.30 In (heated state) Operative Time (hr) Operating Current for Magnetic Release (A) Table B 10 ≤ In ≤ 63 2 2 12In + 20% 8 . marine +45ºC Rated Current (A) 1. allow full utilization of its rating. Multiple of Set Current (A) 1.05 (In > 63) 1.

4 4.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 185 185 240 Copper Bar Dimensions for Currents above 400A Rated Current (A) Copper Bars Number 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dimension (mm) 30 x 5 40 x 5 50 x 5 60 x 5 80 x 5 100 x 5 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 9 . mm) 1 1. If the security seal of the circuit breaker is kept intact for 24 months from the delivery date.7 13. socket head screw M12 c/w terminal bar Tightening Torque (Nm) 2.4 22.5 2. socket head screw M8 Hex.31.8 .12. When the handle is at the trip position.5 18. socket head screw M11 Hex. it must be pulled backward first so as to reset the breaker and be ready for closure.37. The handle of the circuit breaker has three positions which will indicate when the breaker is closed.7 .2 .6 . any inherently defective product will be repaired and/or replaced at no further expense to the customer.2 40. and instructions are followed for its storage and maintenance.Installation and Fittings Further adjustments are unnecessary or allowed for the circuit breaker or its accessories during service as their settings have been fine tuned by LKE Electric.22.3 .9 7.65.7 Preferred Conductor Size with Preference to Current Rating Current Range (A) 8 12 20 25 32 50 65 85 100 130 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350 400 Conductor Size (sq. opened or tripped respectively.5 . socket head screw M10 Hex. socket head screw M10 c/w terminal bar Hex.3.9 . Recommended Tightening Torque of the MCCB Terminal Screws Terminal Screw Pan head screw M5 Pan head screw M8 Hex.6.

Arc Quenching Distance Due to the unique design of the arc chute with an Arc Top Plate. Model Code Arc Quenching Distance A & B (mm) 15 LKS-63C LKS-63S LKS-100C LKS-100N LKS-100S LKS-100H LKS-225C LKS-225N LKS-225S LKS-225H LKS-400C LKS-400S LKS-400H LKS-600S LKS-600H LKS-800S LKS-800H 20 50 60 100 measurements are in millimeter (mm) Side view Front view 10 . the arc quenching level is very low compared to other conventional models.

to arrive at the projected fault level at transformer terminals of the secondary side. Ics: service short circuit breaking capacity whereby the prescribed conditions according to a specified test sequence includes the capability of the circuit breaker to carry its rated current continuously. One can safely use an empirical formula. The right selection requires a detailed understanding of the complete system and other influencing factors. Fault Current Icu. The range available are as follows: a ) Under voltage release b ) Shunt-trip release c ) Auxiliary contact d ) Trip alarm contact e ) Rotary operating mechanism f ) Motor operating mechanism g ) Insulation barrier h ) Plug-in kit 11 . Ics 3 ) other accessories required 4 ) number of poles Nominal Current To determine the nominal current of a MCCB. The impedance of the cables and devices up to MCCB further reduce the fault current.How to select a proper MCCB for protection It is very important to select and apply the right MCCB for a long lasting and trouble-free operation in a power system. it is dependent on the full load current rating of the load and the scope of load enhancement in future. assuming a 5% impedance of the transformer. Ics It is essential to calculate precisely the fault current that the MCCB will have to clear for a healthy and trouble-free life of the system down stream. Icu: ultimate short circuit breaking capacity whereby the prescribed conditions according to a specified test sequence does not include the capability of the circuit breaker to carry its rated current continuously. The factors for selecting a MCCB are as follows: 1 ) nominal current rating of the MCCB 2 ) fault current Icu. The level of fault current at a specific point in a power system depends on following factors: a ) transformer size in KVA and the impedance b ) type of supply system c ) the distance between the transformer and the fault location d ) size and material of conductors and devices in between the transformer and the fault location e ) the impedance up to the fault junction. This means that the projected fault current will be approximately 20 times the full load current of the transformer. Other Accessories Required The selection of other accessories required will depend on the control and indications as required.

Quick & Wide Selection Guide The Superior series current limiting MCCB is available in 8 frame sizes. S and H configurations for various breaking capacity. from 15A to 800A in frame sizes. with ratings from 10A to 800A. at AC 415V. Available in C. 415V AC Symmetrical 10 15 20 30 40 LKS-63C LKS-63S Interrupting Capacity (kA) 5 15 18 35 50 65 LKS-100C 50 60 75 LKS-100N LKS-100S LKS-100H Breaker Rated Current (A) 100 125 150 160 LKS-225C 180 200 225 250 300 LKS-400S 315 400 500 LKS-600S 600 700 LKS-800S 800 LKS-800H LKS-600H LKS-400H LKS-225N LKS-225S LKS-225H 12 . N. the S and H configurations have a higher interrupting capacity. the space-saving current limiting MCCB Superior series provides greater design flexibility than before. A bestseller worldwide. is actually an upgrade from the C and N range. up to 65kA. Also for general usage. The C and N configurations are for general use in a general circuit. the C and N ranges from 60A to 800A in frame sizes. Each frame size offers several interrupting capacities (Icu).

20.15. 100 18 35 50 65 A Rated Current at 40˚ C 10. 20. 30.6 Mechanical Characteristics a a c c b 75 90 mm b 130 155 c 68 68 13 . 50.MCCB – Electrical & Mechanical Features LKS-63 Model Code C AF Frame Size LKS-100 S C N 100 S H 63 Ui Rated Insulation Voltage (V). 50 Hz Rated Voltage (V).9 1. 40. 63 Icu Rated Ultimate Short Circuit Breaking Capacity (kA) 415V 5 15 240V 10 30 35 70 100 130 Ics Rated Service Short Circuit Breaking Capacity (kA) 415V 3 8 9 18 25 33 240V 6 15 18 35 50 65 Overcurrent Releases Thermal & Fixed Magnetic Trip Unit Adjustable Thermal & Magnetic Trip Unit available available – – Test Trip Button available available kg Weight (3 pole) 0. 40. 30. 50. 50 Hz 690 690 Ue 415 415 Electrical Characteristics P Poles 3 with current w/o current 3 1000 1500 n Operational Performance Capability 8500 8500 15. 75. 60.

5 10. 200.LKS-225 C N 225 S H LKS-400 S 400 H LKS-600 S 600 H LKS-800 S 800 H 690 690 690 690 415 415 415 415 3 3 3 3 1000 1000 1000 500 7000 4000 4000 2500 125. 160. 315.5 6 9. 225 250.5 105 140 210 210 165 257 275 275 86 103 103 103 14 . 400 500. 180. 350. 600 700. 800 18 35 50 65 50 65 50 65 50 65 35 70 100 130 100 130 100 130 100 130 9 18 25 33 25 33 25 33 25 33 18 35 50 65 50 65 50 65 50 65 available available available available – – available available available available available available 3.

H LKS-600 S. S LKS-100 C. S. H LKS-225 C. H LKS-800 S. H 15 . H LKS-400 S. N. N.Outline Dimensions of the MCCB LKS-63 C. S.

H 16 . H LKS-600 S. H LKS-225 C. S. N. N. S LKS-100 C. H LKS-800 S. H LKS-400 S.Operating Characteristics & Ambient Compensation LKS-63 C. S.

It also acts as an indicator whether the circuit breaker’s status is opened or closed. Configurations: Alarm switch 1 NO + 1 NC 2 NO + 2 NC 17 . Pick-up voltage is ≥ 85% of the rated coil voltage. The potential free change-over contacts can be utilized for indicative and circuit control purposes. The operating voltage is AC 220V or 380V at 50/60Hz. Shunt release Alarm Switch (AS) When a tripping occurs in the MCCB.Internal Accessories Auxiliary Contact (AUX) The auxiliary contact is used for remote signalling and control purposes. The operating voltage is 70% to 110% of the rated voltage. This consists of one or more than one potential free change-over contacts. Undervoltage release Shunt Trip (ST) The shunt release is used for remote tripping of the MCCB under abnormal conditions. The tripping threshold is 35% to 70% of the rated voltage. The UVT can also be used for remote tripping and electrical interlocking purposes. Configurations: Auxiliary contact 1NO + 1NC 2NO + 2NC Undervoltage Release (UVT) The undervoltage release is used to trip the MCCB when there is a drop in voltage. it is indicated by the alarm switch.

External Accessories Insulation Barrier The insulation barrier should be utilized on the MCCB to facilitate termination of cable links. Used on the incoming side of the MCCB. It is designed to be attached directly onto the MCCB and transform the toggle handle movement into a rotation switch to serve as a position indicator switch. Motor operating mechanism 18 . Rotary handle Motor Operating Mechanism (MOD) The motor-operated mechanism enables the MCCB to be switched ON or OFF automatically. The insulation barrier prevents accidental contacts and flash-over between each phase and is highly recommended for the breakers especially during installation of a switchboard. the plug-in kit has a better contact performance in the MCCB when there is less force and a low temperature. it provides additional safety as it is made of superior insulating materials that have good mechanical and electrical properties. Suitable for isolation. It is also important to note that the MCCB can be drawn out without disconnecting the incoming live cable. Plug-in kit Rotary Handle (RH) The MCCB toggle handle operating mechanism is used to facilitate the ON/OFF operation when the MCCB is installed in the cubicles of distribution boards. The MCCB should also be equipped with an alarm switch for automatic resetting purposes. Plug-in Kit (PIK) The MCCB plug-in kit is designed to replace the standard terminal with a rear connection to improve the opening capability.

15 mins 7 .15 mins 7 . S 100 C.15 mins 7 . N.Internal Accessories Specification Shunt Trip MCCB model 63 C.3 1 1 0.15 mins 7 .3 6050 360 > 0. S & H 225 C.3 10 120 > 0.05 100A < In < 630A 3 0. S & H 400 S & H 600 S & H 800 S & H Cut-off Switch equipped equipped equipped equipped equipped equipped Operating Voltage 240V 240V 240V 240V 240V 240V Operating Time 5 .3 1 1 0. N.15 mins Auxiliary Contact and Alarm Switch “Open” Position “Close” Position Circuit Breaker > 400A 2 NO + 2 NC Circuit Breaker > 225A 1 NO + 1 NC Circuit Breaker > 400A 2 NO + 2 NC Circuit Breaker > 225A 1 NO + 1 NC Auxiliary Contact Durability Frame Size Conventional Current (Ith) Rated Operational Current at AC 380V I/Ic Make U/Uc Cos ø I/Ic Category AC-15 Break U/Uc Cos ø Number of cycles Frequency (t/s) Time (s) Make & Break Capacity 100A < In < 630A 3 0.3A 10 1 0.3A 10 1 0.05 19 .15 mins 7 .

Installation and Fittings External Accessories 20 .

21 . • when door is locked in ON position. • protective class (based on IEC529 standards) at IP54. can be opened in OFF position.Outline Dimensions of Rotary Handle & Door Hole Outline & Mounting Drawing Shortest Distance between Hinge & Handle Center and available Shaft Space Door Hole for Handle Handle Features • can be pad-locked in both ON and OFF positions.

Selection Table & Installation Guide for Accessories Name of Accessory LKS-63 LKS-100 LKS-225 LKS-400 LKS-630 LKS-800 Alarm Switch * Trip Indication Auxiliary Switch * On & Off Indication Shunt Trip * Remote Trip Unit UVT * Undervoltage Release Shunt Trip + Auxiliary Switch Shunt Trip + UVT 2 Auxiliary Switch Auxiliary + UVT Alarm + Shunt Trip Alarm + Auxiliary Switch Alarm + UVT Alarm + Auxiliary + Shunt Trip Alarm + 2 Sets of Auxiliary Alarm + Auxiliary + UVT item Left Side Right Side symbol * * 1. Only lead wire type is available 2. Auxiliary. MCCB On/Off Toggle Alarm Auxiliary switch Shunt trip UVT 22 . For Alarm.a module is mounted externally on the cover. Switch and UVT.

5 60 37.400 62.5 23.5 ACMSST .6 ACMSAL .4 ACMSVT .5 34.9 Alarm Switch Model Code A B C D ACMSAL .7 38.5 30.5 22 ACMSST .6 37.Outline Drawings of Accessories Shunt Trip Release Model Code ACMSST .5 23.5 43 30 ACMSST .5 ACMSAL .5 50.63 A 39 B 30.5 31.8 97 27.4 28.630 58.225 29 34.5 30.100 29.5 35 63.100 35.225 39.630 63.5 C 37.1 ACMSVT .630 55 63 28 39 measurements are in millimeter (mm) 23 .5 28 ACMSST .225 37.400 55 63 28 29.5 60 37.100 29 32.6 40 28.2 30.3 ACMSVT .6 ACMSAL .63 A 39 B 31 C 42 D 23.5 D 23.400 58.5 28 Undervoltage Release Model Code ACMSVT .5 30 29.3 ACMSVT .

400 55 63 28 29.6 ACMSAX .6 40 38.5 27 37.100 29.100 29.630 55 63 28 39 measurements are in millimeter (mm) 24 .6 40 28.5 30.225 37.5 30.6 ACMSAX .5 23.6 ACMSAA .225 37.5 23.5 27 37.5 ACMSAA .400 55 63 28 29.630 55 63 28 39 Auxiliary + Alarm Switch Model Code A B C D ACMSAA .5 ACMSAX .Outline Drawings of Accessories Auxiliary Switch Model Code A B C D ACMSAX .6 ACMSAA .

50 100 25 49 68 ACMRH .5 90 91 ACMSMOD .100 117.630 195 129 83 110 measurements are in millimeter (mm) 25 .100 104 30 49 69 ACMRH .225 143 35 55 72 ACMRH .400 195 129 83 110 ACMRH .Outline Drawings of Accessories Motor Operating Mechanism Model Code A B C ACMSMOD .400 226 132 143 ACMSMOD .225 156 105 101 ACMSMOD .630 226 207 143 Rotary Handle Model Code A B C D ACMRH .

5 105.Outline Drawings of Accessories Plug-in Kit model code A A1 B B1 C D D1 E E1 F F1 G H H1 J K L L1 M m m1 m2 N MZ1-100/30 92 60 30 70 104 6 0 134 0 60 M10 13 26 16 M10 14 90 60 M5 0 62 122 0 MZ1-225/30 108 70 38 73 106 6 10 144 26 70 25 13 34 15 6 17.5 70 M5 108 79 134 18 MZ1-400/30 136 44 50 135 175 10 13 225 32 87 28 18 40 24 8 27 144 87 M8 120 79 0 15 MZ1-630/30 213 140 58 143 184 10 13 243 0 140 44 17 53 20 11 27 210 140 M8 0 146 0 15 measurements are in millimeter (mm) 26 .

• the type of supply system. is to protect overloads and bring the effect of this faulty condition under control at a fast speed in order to reduce the damages. The LKE Superior series MCCB. whereby the normal insulation of the system. it will create a highly damaged and abnormal condition to the system. is one of the more reliable circuit breaker protection device available. one must be able to differentiate the various types of short-circuit. The function of the MCCB as a protection device. with the right combination of accessories and proper selection to coordinate between the down-stream and up-stream of the rated current and fault level. depending on the number of conductor affected and with or without fault-to-earth. Types of Short-circuit Before calculating the short-circuit current at any point of the network. • the length and cross section of the cable and device lying in between the source of supply and fault-junction. The value of the short-circuit current at a fault-junction depends mainly on: • the kVA of the supply source. Three-phase fault Isc = Uo ∑z Two-phase fault Isc = Uo ∑z One-phase shorted to Neutral Isc = Uo √3 z Cross-country – three-phase shorted to Neutral Isc = Uo z = 1/z1 + 1/z2 + 1/z2 27 .Definition of Short-circuit and Short-circuit Current Short-circuit in a Network When a short-circuit in a network occurs. short-circuits are generally classified as below. equipment and load. be it the cables or equipment and load. In a three-phase network. It is important to understand the full load current and fault level to determine the rated current and short-circuit kA of the MCCB before selecting the right MCCB to protect the down-stream cable. (either a transformer or generator). are damaged.

The Peak Value of the Short-circuit Current When an R-L series circuit is closed with an A/C source. 28 . the D/C component is zero and the fault current is symmetrical or balanced. b ) when the breaker is closed at zero voltage. The arc component is superimposed on the D/C component. the D/C component is asymmetrical or unbalanced. the current component results in: 1 ) an A/C component with a phase shift with respect to the voltage 2 ) a D/C decaying component. The two extreme cases are: a ) when the breaker is closed at peak voltage. The initial peak value of the short-circuit current depends on the voltage at the instance of the breaker closing.

The electro-dynamic stress on the current carrying parts depends on this peak value “Ip”.1].rated current of the transformer (Full load current) Z . it is generally assumed as 5%. a rough estimate of the short-circuit current is sufficient. Z = 5% and Ue = 415 V In = 1000 kVA x 1000 / √3 x 415 V = 1393 A Isc = 1393 A x 100 / 5 = 27860 A In this example. In practical applications. The shortcircuit current can be calculated with the help of the following simple rule: Isc = In x 100/Z where. 29 .g. whether as a transfer switch or a distribution breaker close to the transformer. Otherwise. Calculation of the Short-circuit Current close to the Transformer If the MCCB is used as a main switch. This is applicable if a high breaking capacity MCCB with an ultimate shortcircuit breaking capacity Icu = 35 kA or 50 kA is used here.short-circuit current ( A ) In . The short-circuit current calculated above can also be read out from the table “Rated and short-circuit currents of 3-phase standard transformers” (refer to page 30).Determination of the Fault Current The initial peak value depends on the instance of the breaker closing and on the factor “K = R/X” [Refer Fig.5. Isc . It is immaterial whether the simple formula used above is sufficiently accurate or not. the value of “K” lies mostly between 1. : A transformer with S = 1000 kVA.percentage impedance of the transformer The rated current of the transformer is calculated as follows: In = S x 1000 /√3 x Ue S = rating of transformer in kVA Ue = rated voltage at the low tension side in Volts e.1 to 1. the short-circuit current close to the transformer is ~28 kA. The breaking capacity of the MCCB installed at this point must be higher than this value. The percentage impedance of the transformer Z can be read out from the name plate. The selected circuit breaker will have enough capacity in reserve.

Transformer Rating (kVA) 50 Rated Current (A) at full load current 70 Short-circuit Current (A) at secondary terminal 1391 100 139 2782 160 223 4452 200 278 5565 250 348 6956 315 448 8765 400 556 11130 500 696 13912 600 836 16714 700 975 19500 800 1115 22286 900 1254 25072 1000 1393 27860 1250 1741 34820 1500 2089 41780 2000 2786 55720 2500 3482 69640 3000 4179 83580 Secondary rated voltage = 415V AC. percentage impedance of transformer “Z” = 5% 30 .Determination of the Fault Current at Transformer Terminal Rated and Short-circuit Currents of 3-phase Standard Transformers at Secondary Terminal.

50 kA. and then down to Table D to the upstream fault current.2 1.6 11 12.47 4.45 5.2 8.5 2.5 5.5 9.95 5 5 5 5 Table D 20 25 30 50 60 70 100 31 .3 7. To calculate the maximum level possibility of the short-circuit current. Rapid Determination of Fault Currents The following monogram provides a simple method of determining the fault current at any distance of cable from a transformer.2 22 23 23.4 7.5 Table C Upstream Fault Current (kA) Short-circuit Current (415V) 10 15 9.2 5.5 2. follow towards the cable size.7 29 30 32 9.5 4.6 13.85 5.3 12. all the impedances lying between the transformer and the MCCB must be considered. be it with formula or simple diagram. e.85 4.5 4 6 6 10 16 25 25 35 50 95 120 150 70 95 120 1.8 14.3 8.3 13 15. length of cable = 60 m Cable cross section = 3 x 95 mm2 Fault current at source = 50 kA Then.g.8 9.4 5.6 17.6 15.2 16.6 19.5 4 4 6 10 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 16 25 35 50 70 95 35 50 70 10 6 1.3 9.6 10 11.5 24 9 12 14.25 8. from the 80 m column in Table C.5 4 4 6 1. the higher the impedance.2 12.g.4 24 32 34 36 38 9.6 19 2.0 8.5 1.2 27 39 43 47 53 9.9 10 10 6.7 7.5 2 3 4 6 8 12 15 20 30 45 60 80 120 150 6 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 185 4 4 6 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 150 35 50 70 120 150 185 2.8 13. As such. Each length of conductor or device in the circuit provides an impedance which reduces the short-circuit current.9 4.0 9. the lower the value is for the short-circuit current.7 14 18 21.8 16 16.6 20 20 8.4 7. Copper Cable Cross-section (mm2) fault current at fault junction It may be noted that a 100kA fault at upstream side can be reduced to a mere 5kA level at the end of a 150m long 70 sq.mm cable.9 8.75 4.8 9.4 16 17 19.1 11.2 19.5 5.9 14.35 5.5 7 9 9. the further away from the transformer. that is 12 kA. To determine the fault current at the end of a line through monogram for a cable with a cross section of 3 x 95 mm2 and at a length of 60 m is as follows: The upstream ( source ) fault current.source Calculation of the Short-circuit Current in a Supply System In a supply system. e. at the intersection reads the current value. Length of Cable (m) 1.5 2.7 17 20 22 27.5 2.5 12 12.5 5. If.3 4.

1350 1500 1650 .2438 2771 .1680 .2181 2463 .2150 2400 2700 3000 3360 3780 4200 Rated Current of Alternator (A) 975 1091 1232 1386 1540 1724 .Voltage 400V Rated Power of Alternator (kVA) 630 710 800 900 1000 1120 1250 1400 1600 1800 2000 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 Rated Current of Alternator (A) 909 1025 1155 1299 1443 1617 1804 2021 2309 2598 2887 3248 3608 4041 4547 5052 Rated Current of Circuit Breaker (A) 1250 1250 1250 1600 1600 2000 2000 2500 2500 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 6300 Frequency 60Hz .1732 1925 2117 .2155 .1700 1920 .2758 3079 3464 3849 4311 4850 5389 Rated Current of Circuit Breaker (A) 1250 1250 1250 1600 1600 2000 2000 2500 2500 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 6300 32 .1900 2160 .Voltage 450V Rated Power of Alternator (kVA) 760 850 960 1080 1200 1344 .Protection for Generators Frequency 50Hz .

the MCCB long time delay must exceed that of the thermal overload relay’s curve. Coordination with Wiring The wiring leading to the motor should be installed in accordance with international standards requirements. Other major components may also require replacement or complete assembly. 4. 3.4 to 1. Selection Principle 1. the protection is then taken over by the MCCB. For star. A margin of about 50% should be allowed for the starting time to allow for the voltage drop or increase of a mechanical load friction. the MCCB magnetic trip should be at least 2 to 2. contactor and thermal overload relay.delta or auto-transformer starters. Coordination with Thermal Overload Relay In a system arrangement with a MCCB. The MCCB current rating should be higher than the motor full load current. Category B – coordination is when repair requirements are only to the component parts. where the current may reach 5 to 7 times the motor rated current. The MCCB magnetic trip current should be 1. while those with starting times of longer than 15s are considered undesirable for any standard motors. In case of a short-circuit or heavy overload such as a locked rotor.4 times the motor rated starting current (or lock-rotor current). the thermal overload relay is able to operate instead of the MCCB. Category C – a perfect coordination is achieved when no damages are sustained by the contactor. 33 .7 times the motor rated starting current ( lock-rotor current). Motors with starting times longer than 30s are considered dangerous and should be avoided altogether. The motor starting current and starting time should be below the minimum time/current curve of the MCCB. This is important when any overload on the motor occurs.Protection of Motor by Breakers The IEC standard classifies the coordination of the breaker and contactor into the following 3 categories for damages on the contactor when a fault occurs on the load side: Category A – coordination is when the magnetic contactor is damaged to the extent that it will require replacement. 2. due to welding of contacts or melting of the thermal relay heater. Coordination with Motor Starting Current Motors with starting times of 15s or less are generally considered safe.

773 2.16 1.773 + j3.89 2.66 2.696 1.76 3.064 + j6.62 1.449 + j25 Zs = Za = Impedance of Power Source (Zs + Zt) • Zm Zs + Zt + Zm 34 . Cap (kVA) 50 75 100 150 200 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 Average Impedance in 3-phase Transformer Total % if Impedance of Power Source ZA (%) 28.607 + j3.99 6.48 2.1 + j24. the circuit breaker must be derated b 30%.6 + j31.5 20 30 50 75 90 120 150 190 225 300 Circuit Breaker Rating (A) 25 40 63 100 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 Current at Capacity (A) 18 29 44 72 110 132 173 216 274 324 433 Impedance in 3-phase Capacity (converted to 1000kVA standard capacity) Trans.11 + j24.8 + j10.9 2.21 0.0 + j18.22 1.372 0.68 + j6.7 + j82.71 2.56 + j7.055 + j12.21 5.Selection Guide Capacitance Load The capacitors must be able to withstand a continuous overload of 30% due to the harmonic currents.03 8.0 + j24.266 Transformer Capacity (kVA) 50 Impedance (%) %R 1.26 1.27 3.55 + j123.48 1.99 0.48 + j32.28 1.74 + j16.4 + j13.47 16.33 75 100 150 200 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 where 0.81 4.2 8.62 1.914 + j9.36 2.33 18.16 1.278 0.57 6.2 + j493.32 5.44 2.67 1.57 + j3.341 + j16.07 % Impedance of Trans.60 1.88 4.4 + j164.8 27.22 + j49.64 3.39 13.46 + j23.14 %X 1. Capacitor Capacity (kVAr) 12.44 1.8 10.8 41.28 + j29. As a result.161 + j12.8 4.327 + j5.22 + j5.07 7.2 54.8 21.62 5. Zt (%) 33.035 % Impedance of Motor Zm (%) 82.4 20.957 + j4.8 + j328.50 1.3 13.4 + j37.98 + j36.

178 0.122 0.261 0.126 0.142 0. closed single core 6cm distance 0.080 0.5 5.170 0.097 0.148 0.088 0.20 3.073 0.103 0.134 0.111 0.083 0.4605 log10 D/r (m/H/km) (D = core center to center distance.095 0.172 0. The reactance value L = 0.256 0.152 0.086 0.104 0.116 0.134 0.100 0.Selection Guide Impedance of Electric Cable Resistance Cable (mm2) ø1.303 0.173 0.196 0.106 0.099 0.083 0.216 NOTE: The resistance values are based on JIS C3307 660V grade polyvinyl chloride insulated and vinyl sheathed cable (w).214 0.104 0.092 0.106 0.105 0.098 0.152 0.24 5.5 8 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250 325 400 500 Reactance Xw (mΩ/m) Rw (mΩ/m) 8.378 0.092 0.116 0.092 0.097 0.112 0.142 0.110 0.087 0.261 0.084 0.115 0.087 0.020 0.076 0.273 0.824 0.078 0.195 0.097 0. 35 .101 0.33 2.167 0. f = frequency was calculated).287 0.075 0.045 0.218 0.091 0.123 0.204 0.31 1.327 0.105 0.086 0.096 0.187 0.234 0.120 0.107 0.143 0.089 0.079 0.037 50Hz 2-core.283 0. closed single core 6cm distance 2-core.084 0.206 0.138 0.092 0.110 0.225 0.344 0.0 mm ø2.30 0.161 0.314 0.145 0.101 0.279 0.127 0.100 0.144 0.134 0.180 0.072 0.081 0.092 0.118 0.487 0.079 0.186 0.6 mm ø2.078 0.073 0.094 0.127 0.134 0.087 0.082 0.076 0.π fl x 10 -3 (mΩ/m).623 0. 3-core 60Hz single core. then Xw = 2.091 0.335 0.057 0.092 0.094 0. 3-core single core.118 0.115 0.151 0.236 0.161 0.095 0.247 0.072 – – 0.35 9.140 0.230 0.086 – – 0.182 0.92 5.05 + 0.110 0.65 3.308 0.245 0.111 0.095 0.178 0.118 0.126 0.100 0.6 mm 2 3.155 0.297 0.090 0.

56 0.36 .158 0.017 0.0.12 2.4 2 Torque (T) Tst/Tdol 1 0.7 1.014 0.84 0.37 0.72 0.085 0.127 0.016 0.0.017 Comparison of Different Methods of Starting Method of Starting Current (I) Ist/Idol 1 0.54 0.014 0.33 0.25 0.4 2 Ist/In 4-8 1.020 0.12 .046 0.7 1.028 0.0.1.011 60Hz 0. severity 1.2.039 0.25 .033 0.0 36 .33 .4.7 Rheostat.32 .039 0.025 0.0.64 1.5 1 1.33 0.065 0.56 .012 0.49 0.041 0. severity 0.59 0.4 Rheostat. severity 2.5 1 1.4 Direct-on-line Star-delta Auto transformer 50% Auto transformer 60% Auto transformer 75% Rheostat.56 .4 Tst/Tn 1 .017 0.024 0.36 0.013 0.28 0.018 0.39 0.2.3.013 400 600 800 1000 1200 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.014 0.36 .15 0.Selection Guide Impedance of Bus Duct (Zb) Rated Current (A) Resistance (mΩ/m) Reactance (mΩ/m) 50Hz 0.24 1.022 0.053 0.

This selectivity technique is used particularly for links between main boards and secondary boards. such as the MCCB1 & MCCB2. but only for fault currents lower than the maximum prospective short circuit currents that may occur in the line connected to the B breaker. Current Selectivity This technique is commonly used in low tension switchboards. The purpose of selectivity is to coordinate the 2 circuit breakers in cascade. up to the maximum prospective short circuit current of the breaker B. both B & A breakers may trip together. achievable by adjusting the tripping unit current setting. Selectivity Techniques (Diagram 3) There are two techniques for ensuring selectivity: 1. For 2 breakers in series. For a higher fault current. up to the prospective short circuit current of the B breaker. This means only the B breaker trips in case of fault occurring at C and a continuous supply of power to the remaining loads through the A breaker. the pick-up current on the upstream breaker is set to a value higher than the prospective short circuit current at the point of the fault junction of the down stream breaker. Time selectivity These 2 techniques are effected intervening in the operation of the breaker of setting the tripping current (Im) & the tripping time delay (Tm). Total and Partial Selectivity (Diagram 1 & 2) • Total selectivity between A & B breakers is when fault occurs at C. eg. Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4 37 . and only when the B breaker is tripped while the A breaker remains untrip. • Partial selectivity between A & B breakers is when the B breaker trips but the A breaker does not. is also called discrimination. Time Selectivity (Diagram 4) This time selectivity technique requires the “selectivity” circuit breaker – a breaker with an adjustable time trip device: • Time delay with adjustable unit in the breaker tripping system • The breaker must be able to withstand the thermal & electrodynamic effect of the short circuit current for the period of the time delay. Current selectivity 2.Selectivity What is Selectivity? Selectivity between 2 protective devices in series. A and B (see diagram).

LKE’s Low & Medium Voltage Range of Products LK-VB1 Vacuum Circuit Breaker LK-GLBS SF6 Load Break Switch LK-LTPM SF6 Ring Main Unit LK-LBS Compressed Air Load Break Switch LK-LTHO SF6 Pole-Mounted Switch Disconnector LK-VLBS Vacuum Load Break Switch LK-CUBIC Low Voltage Switchboard LK-LCA Compressed Air Ring Main Unit LK-ATS Auto Transfer Switch LK-LCA SF6 Ring Main Unit LK-ACB Air Circuit Breaker LK-MCCB. LK-SF. LK-RCCB Low Voltage Circuit Breakers capacity of products range from 380VAC – 36kV and rated current from 5A – 6300A . LH-MX.

For further technical references.OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS SUPERIOR QUALITY I N S TA N T D E L I V E R Y ALL ROUND SERVICE As standards.R. Subang Jaya Industrial Estate 47500 Petaling Jaya..R. 200437 P. applications and designs may change from time to time.com www. please refer to the respective product catalogue.E. Selangor D. please contact our nearest agent for the latest information. 159546 SINGAPORE telephone 65 271 5388 facsimile 65 271 5088 LKE Electric (M) Sdn Bhd 1 & 3 Jalan SS13/3C. No 159 Handan Road Shanghai. MALAYSIA telephone 603 5633 7010/7011 facsimile 603 5633 8368. LK-Electric Co Pte Ltd Blk 219 Henderson Industrial Park #06-03 Henderson Rd. of CHINA telephone 86 21 6555 7237 facsimile 86 21 6555 7119 LKE Electric Europe A/S Egestubben 16-26 DK 5270. North of Industrial Area Xiangzhou Zhuhai. Odense.com Printed in Malaysia 05/2002 .lke-electric. 519000 P. DENMARK telephone 45 63 18 1560 facsimile 45 63 18 1590 info@lke-electric. of CHINA telephone 86 756 226 7005 facsimile 86 756 226 7007 CUBIC Electric (Shanghai) Co Ltd 18th Floor. 5632 3014 LK-Electric (Zhuhai) Co Ltd No 4.

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