A PROJECT REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATIONS OF INDIA (Transportation- Bus

)

Submitted To: Prof: S.Chinnam Reddy Director

Submitted By: Mayur Karavadara Pankaj Patel Vasant Prajapati Vipul Zala

(39) (84) (91) (118)

S.K.Patel Institute of Management & Computer Studies Gandhinagar-23

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4

Topic Preface Acknowledgement Introduction to Transport Industry Introduction to Road Transport Corporation in India 4.1 GSRTC 4.2 DRTC 4.3 RSRTC 4.4 UPSRTC Services rendered by RTCs 5.1 GSRTC 5.2 DRTC 5.3 RSRTC 5.4 UPSRTC Concession provided by RTCs 6.1 GSRTC 6.2 RSRTC Awards to GSRTC Comparative study of different RTSs Theoretical aspects of study 9.1 SWOT Analysis 9.2 Porter’s Five Forces Model 9.3 PESTEL Model Limitation of the study Bibliography

Page No. 3 4 5 10 11 13 14 18 22 22 23 30 33 35 35 37 40 41 43 43 44 45 47 48

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6 7 8 9

10 11

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PREFACE
First of all let’s understand the meaning of the road transport corporation of India. Transport Corporation of India (TCI) was set up in 1958 with one objective. To professionalise the cargo transportation industry in India. Four decades later, TCI today is the foremost conventional cargo transportation company in Asia and the 4th most respected service organization in India. TCI has the largest network of strategically located 1000 company owned branches, covering almost all the cities and towns of the country. TCI owns well equipped and secure godowns, offices and warehouses having an occupied space of over 3 million square feet. TCI handles over 5.5 million tons of cargo annually. Moving a variety of cargo that includes raw materials, industrial products, consumer durables, drugs and pharmaceuticals, agricultural products and recently having moved on to more sophisticated items like refrigerated cargo, time sensitive and high value cargo. TCI operates a mammoth fleet of over 3000 trucks moving 15,000 consignments daily. Using state-of-the-art equipment to transport consignments of any size, weight and dimensions including heavy duty equipment and provide accurate and timely information to its customers and meet shortened response time requirement. It opened its doors to computerization 20 years ago and today all the Controlling Centers have on-line computerized operations. Supported by well documented systems and procedures assuring consistency and efficiency in its operations and customer care throughout the country. TCI has a satisfied client base of 150,000, which includes the top 500 Indian companies. TCI's strength lies in its people. A dedicated team of 4000 employees ensures that the company stays ahead, meeting all challenges, achieving the goals while being guided by the MISSION as laid down by the organization. Meeting the company's commitment towards excellence in every sphere of its activity.

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Due to the usefulness and importance of the transport corporation of India it is necessary to understand it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is the moment of pleasure for us to present the report in front of you. First of all we are very thankful to the institute S.K.Patel Institute of Management and Computer Studies and the Director of the institute Prof: S.Chinnam Reddy to give us the opportunity to work for the project. Secondly we are thankful to the faculty of the institute for giving us the full supprt in each and every step in the report. Lastly we are thankful to each and every person who have helped us directly or indirectly to make the report possible.

Mayur Karavadara Pankaj Patel Vasant Prajapati Vipul Zala

(39) (84) (91) (118)

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INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORT INDUSTRY
Transport plays a principal role in economic development of any area. A well laid-out road network is essential for efficient and cost effective movement of men and materials, without which trade and industry cannot maintain a competitive edge. Transportation industry is the most important industry. Each and every person requires transportation facility to move from one place to other place. We can not imagine what would be the life of human being with out transportation. Mainly transportation can be done through air or through water or through land. In India mainly the common man use the land transportation which includes rail or bus services. Here our focus is on transportation through bus. At ancient people mainly use bullock cart as their transportation need. At that time it took so many days to go from one place to another place. But as India being more global the use of other means of transpiration has increased like railways and air transportation. Until independence, this industry was in the hand of private operator, with the exemption of the few provinces. Due to the heavy competition Government of India enhanced “Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950”. By the year 1987-88 there are 66 RTCs operating in the country. This is the first invention in the bus passengers transport industry. The objectives as laid down by RTC act are “To provide an efficient, adequate, economic and properly coordinated transport services and to run on business principle”. With the changing economic scenario, factors such as globalization of markets, international economic integration, and removal of barriers to business and trade and increased competition have enhanced the need of transportation. It is one of the most important infrastructure requirements which is essential for the expansion of opportunities and plays an important role in making or breaking the competitive positioning. Bus transportation is the only means of mobility and accessibility for a majority of people belonging to middle and low income groups. In India public bus transportation under state supervision, is carried out

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through Road Transport Corporations. Bus depots are the key center to organize the planning, operation and maintenance of bus services. Location and sizing problems do exist both in urban and rural areas. There has been heavy investment in the transport sector since Independence and the progress has been significance. But the task is so gigantic that it would require many years and large doses of investment to bring about the desired improvement in the country's transport system. Today the Indian customer's standard and the level of expectation have gone up dramatically . They have become world class customers and thus expect world class services. Hence it is customer service which is going to give the competitive edge to any industry in the future. This section provides an analysis of trends in the growth of road infrastructure and transport services, as well as information on major road investment projects. A “road” is defined as a formed path suitable for use by all forms of non-guided vehicle transport.

Significance of Transportation
Effective transportation is indispensable to economic progress. Mining, manufacturing, trade and banking and agriculture are also necessary, but these activities, like many others, depend upon transportation. Without adequate facilities for moving goods and people from place to place, economic and social activities can be carried on in a limited way only. Using a mobility index that combines available data on transport facilities and movement of passengers and freight, Wilfred Owen finds out that immobility and poverty go together. The countries with low per capita had a mobility index for freight and passenger transport in single digits, whereas this index was significantly high in countries with high per capita income. Indeed, a more recent study finds out that every one-percentage growth in the Indian economy presumes a growth of 1.2 to 1.4 per cent in the transport sector.

Economic Functions of Transportation
Transportation is an economic function, that is to say, it serves along with other productive functions in the production of goods and 6

services in the economy.

 Creation of Utility. Production has been defined as the creation of utility, i.e., the quality of usefulness. Transportation creates the utility of place, and to a lesser degree, that of time.  As a cost of production. Since transportation is a part of production, an increase in its efficiency helps in reducing the cost of producing goods and thus reduces their prices.  Cheaper transportation has both direct and indirect effects on cost of production. Directly, reduction in transport rates laid to overall lower production costs by lessening the outlays for assembling raw materials and shipping finished products by reducing the expense of travel. Indirectly, cheaper transportation tends towards lower cost of production by making possible more efficient extraction and manufacturing, through promoting the division of labour and large-scale production.  Specialization and division of labour. Transportation enables society to enjoy advantages of specializations of resources, ad the benefits of labour by making it possible for products to be brought great distance, thus avoiding the necessity for local production for all conceivable commodities of need. Each economic region can thus concentrate upon the goods and services for which it is best adapted either through natural resources endowment or through historical development. It, thus, leads to a better economic use of available resources.  Large-scale marketing. Closely associated with the foregoing is the fact that transportation helps to expand the size of market. No modern large-scale producer could operate if he will to serve only the local market. Obviously, a large-scale production is possible when the market extends to the whole nation and in a few cases to the whole world.  Consumption of wealth. Transportation is also related to consumption of wealth. It increases the quality and variety of consumable goods, thereby stimulating wants. There is more production because of the decrease in the cost of production brought about by transportation. A greater variety occurs because transportation enables a community to enjoy even

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those goods that could not be produced in the immediate vicinity.

Social and Political Functions of Transportation
 Transportation performs many social and political functions.  Transportation raises the standard of living, making possible improved housing, clothing, food and recreation.  It helps break the barrier of isolation by promoting social interaction and thus promotes culture and intelligence, especially in a country of the size and population of India.  It promotes national unity in that it promotes homogeneity among the people. Another reason is that it creates a need for political unity, by making the different parts of the country economically interdependent.  It helps in the strengthening of national defense. It is an important agency which helps in the mobilization of the entire resources of a country in the event of war and peace.  In modern world, transport along with energy is the basic infrastructural requirement for industrialization. The developing countries have accorded it an important place in their programmes of economic development. Transport provides a vital link between production centers, distribution areas and the ultimate consumers. It also exercises a unifying and integrating influence upon the economy. Important means of transport are railways, roads, water transport (both inland and overseas) and air transport.

Transport Development in India
The programmes of transport development occupy a significance place in our five year plans. Transport has been seen as the basic infrastructure which is crucial for the success of a

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developmental plan. The second Plan was more forthright in stressing the need for transport development when it stated: "An efficient and well developed system of transport and communication is vital to the success of a plan of economic development which lays stress on rapid industrializations." The theme has run throughout all the plans development. The share of the transport sector has increased over the years, from a mere 1.9 per cent in 1950-51 to about 4.5 per cent in 1994-95.

Growth of RTCs in India
As the bus transportation is the only means of mobility and accessibility for the majority of the people of middle and low income group. The Road Transport Corporation is growing fast in India. Growth of RTCs in India Year 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1987-88 No. of Corporations 28 52 52 66 No. of people transported (in billion) 26.2 80.7 187.5 350.1 Total Employees 141000 277000 421000 708000

No. of Corporations: the no. of corporation has increased from 26 to 52 in the ten years from 1960-61 to 1970-71. the growth rate is 86%. From 1970-71 to 1980-81 there was no visible growth in the no. of corporation. From 1980-81 to 1990-91 the increase in the transport is 27% In the no. of people transported, the growth rate is 208% from 1960-61 to 1970-71, 132% from 1970-71 to 1980-81, 86.7% from 1980-81 to 1990-91. so we can say that the growth rate has decreased. In the no. of employees, the growth rate is 96.45% from 1960-61 to 1970-71, 51.99% from 1970-71 to 1980-81, 68.17% from 1980-81 to 1990-91. So we can say that the growth rate has decreased and now it is increasing.

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INTRODUCTION TO ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATIONS IN INDIA
There are 66 road transportation corporations in India. Some of them are:  Gujarat Road Transportation Corporation  Rajasthan State Road Transportation Corporation  Delhi Road Transportation Corporation  Uttar Pradesh State Road Transportation Corporation  A.P. Road Transportation Corporation  Maharashtra State Road Transportation Corporation  Tamil Nadu Road Transportation Corporation  Karnataka Road Transportation Corporation  Jammu and Kashmir Road Transportation Corporation  Panjab State Road Transportation Corporation and many more…. We have taken four road transport corporation for the study and they are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.

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Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is a passenger transport organisation providing bus services both within Gujarat and neighbouring states. GSRTC came into existence on 1st May, 1960 on formation of Gujarat. From a modest beginning of 7 divisions, 76 depots and 7 divisional workshops and a fleet of 1,767 buses it has gone to,
    

16 Divisions 132 Depots 226 bus stations 1,554 pick up stands 8,500 buses

This remarkable growth is an outcome of unflagging effort of more than 50,000 workforce, dynamic management and sustained support from the state govt. It has built up formidable technical facilities. These are:  Three level maintenance and repair facility- 138 depot workshops, 16 divisional workshops and a central workshop  7 tyre retreading plant  Bus body building plant (1000 bus bodies/ year)  Ticket printing press

Computerization in GSRTC
  20 Local Area Network (LAN) systems 10 bus stations computerized for passenger reservation 11

The following are computerised o Employ P.F & Family Pension o Pay bill System o Ticket Inventory System o Laboratory Test Reports Analysing System o Inventory Management System

Computer Training Periodical training programmes are arranged for imparting basic computer training to the officers/employees working in different departments of central office, Central Workshop and divisions. In addition to this, personnel of the Corporation are deputed from time to time for attending special courses on computer application conducted by Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT), Pune.

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DELHI ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION
Govt. of India, Ministry of Transport took over the local bus services in Delhi in May 1948 in the name of Delhi Transport Service when they found that the services offered by Gawalior and Northern India Transport Company Ltd., the then licensee, were inadequate. A Delhi Road Transport Authority was constituted under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. This Authority became undertaking of Municipal Corporation of Delhi by an Act of Parliament in April, 1958. On the recommendation of a Working Group of Planning Commission which concluded that Delhi Transport as an extension of Municipal Corporation of Delhi had not been functioning efficiently and adequately resulting in leakage of revenue and very high operation cost, Govt. of India took over the management of the undertaking by passing the Delhi Road Transport Laws (Amendment) Act, in 1971. It took over the assets and liabilities from the erstwhile Delhi Transport Undertaking (DTU) operated by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi till 2nd Nov, 1971. Thus the DTC was set up in 1971. In section 22 of the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950, following objectives were laid down for the DTC:

• • • •

To provide or secure or promote an efficient, economical, reliable and properly coordinated system the road transport in Union Territory of Delhi and any extended area. To act on business principles. To achieve a high level operational efficiency. To charge fares not exceeding those prescribed by the State under Section 43(1) (i) of the Motor Vehicle Act, 1939. To attain financial self-sufficiency.

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DTC which was functioning under the administrative control of Govt. of India was finally taken over by Govt. of NCT, Delhi on 05.08.96. Route followed by DTC: Delhi Gate, Jama Masjid, Shanti Van, Firojshah Kotla, Supreme Court, Vijay Chowk, Embassy Area, Qutab, Lotus Temple, Nizamuddin, AIR, Bangla Sahib, L.N. Temple.

RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

RSRTC was established on 1st October 1964 and is the largest provider of intercity bus transportation in Rajasthan. The Corporation has its Head Quarters in Jaipur The Corporation serves a diverse customer base. RSRTC is uniquely positioned to serve this broad and growing market because:  Offers low fares for passengers everyday.  Spacious and convenient Bus Stands with all amenities for waiting and in-transit passengers.  Offers the only means of regularly scheduled intercity transportation to most cities, towns and small villages across the State and neighboring States.  Offers reservation facilities to all deluxe and express buses.  Provides additional seats during peak travel periods to accommodate passengers.  As a socially conscious body offer concessions in fares and facilities to physically challenged.  Offers concessions to the sick, SC and ST, freedom fighters, widows and families of soldiers who died in war.

The corporation has 48 depots spread over the State. The corporation buses daily cover over 1.5 million kilometers catering to nearly 1 million passengers through its network of over 13000 services to all-important places in Rajasthan and adjoining States of Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Uttar

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RSRTC is operating regular air-conditioned and super deluxe buses between Jaipur and Delhi. To keep impeccable safety standard RSRTC maintains a high turn over of buses. Not keeping a bus in service on average for more than seven years. RSRTC is also socially conscious and affords concessional rates to senior citizens, physically challenged persons and relatives of soldiers who died in war.

OBJECTIVES: •

The corporation's main objectives are:-

 To provide efficient, adequate, economical, safe and well coordinated passenger transport service.  Through the development of transport facility, development of this virgin desert land for our national economy. With these objective RSRTC has been providing services not only on notified routes but also on sub non-nationalized routes for the convenience of the public. Inter State Services were also being extended to the neighboring States for a coordinated transport service system.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN R.S.R.T.C.s  One of the highest spenders in implementation of IT  One of the most efficient organizations in operations management

Implementation and effective use of IT has helped RSRTC in :  Better services to passengers  Effective managerial controls  Reduction in work load and waiting time of conductors at the counters  Effective maintenance management of vehicles 15

   

Faster communication of information Reduction of passenger's waiting time Better inventory control Standardization and simplification

Major Areas of IT Applications :

Functional Area Operations

Maintenance Inventory Management System Administration

Name of the application Online Tickets Accounting System Advance & Current Ticket Issuing System Vehicle Maintenance System Stores Inventory System Inventory Management System MIS - Management Information Systems PISPersonnal Information Systems Website & E-mail Management Pay Roll System Financial Accounting Information System

Computer & IT Cell Accounts

Platform Used

Software Used

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Unix System Network systems DOS/Windows/Linux Computerized Vehicle Equipment

Cobol Fox base Fox pro Testing Visual Basic , SQL Server

Achievements in RSRTC computerization:  All Depots are computer.  More then 40 Bus stations are computerized for passenger reservations  This STU have a complete MIS data monitoring software for the entire corporation  Global Positioning System for Bus Tracking  Corporate network and internet Facility at every desk.  Connecting all computerized bus stations for onward and return journey  Interactive Voice Response System(IVRS) for the Shedule Enquiry and Reservation Status.

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UTTAR PRADESH STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

MISSION: Efficient, Economic, Co-ordinated & Adequate passenger Road Transport Services.

ENDEAVOUR: Safety, Passenger Comfort, Environment Conservation, Regulated Services on Road Network.

THEIR APPEAL:  Help us to maintain the vehicles, bus stations and bus shelters neat and clean. Protect them as you would protect your own Properties.  Avoid showing your ire on the buses.

 Insist on getting a valid journey ticket and pay the correct amount, as the money denied to UPSRTC is benefit denied to you, the commuter.

NEWS: -

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UPSRTC turns around to profit in 2004 - 05. (Net Profit of Rs. 3 crore)  The idea is to make traveling by buses an experience from merely a necessity.  Safe & comfortable journey on a wide road network across U.P. & its neighboring states is our objective.

UPSRTC is a public sector passenger road transport corporation providing services in the state of Uttar Pradesh and other adjoining states in North India. With a fleet size of around 6800 buses we operate over 2.1 million kilometers catering to the travel needs of over 1 million people and earning over Rs. 24 million everyday. Provision of adequate, efficient, well co-ordinated, comfortable and economical services to our passengers, while earning enough for self-sustenance & growth, is our motto. BRIEF HISTORY Passenger road transport services in the state of U.P. started on 15th May, 1947 with the operation of bus service on the Lucknow Barabanki route by the erstwhile U.P. Government Roadways. Subsequently, during the fourth Five Year Plan, the erstwhile UP Government Roadways was rechristened as Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) on 1-6-72 under the provisions of the Road Transport Act, 1950 with the following objectives:  For the development of the road transport sector correlated to which would be the overall development of trade & industry.  For coordination of the road transport services with other modes of transport.  For providing or causing the provision of an adequate, economical & efficiently coordinated road transport service to the residents of the state. At the time of establishment of the Corporation it had a fleet of 4253 buses which were operating on 1123 routes, over a total of 122

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thousand kilometers of road length at an average route length of 109 kilometers. The corporation's earned kilometers operated at that time were 228.8 million kilometers. While the total number of passengers carried by its buses totaled 251.3 million. By the end of the decade the fleet of the corporation had attained strength of 5679 buses, the operations had increased to 1782 routes over a road length of 263 thousand kilometers, while the average route length increased to 148 kilometers. As a result of this increase in operations, the earned kilometers totaled about 396.2 million kilometers, while the total numbers of passengers carried totaled over 449.1 million.

The end of the VI five year plan saw a further increase in all operational parameters being achieved by the corporation. With the increase in fleet strength of 6198 buses, the earned kilometers of the corporation rose to 427.7 million kilometers. During the VII five year plan emphasis was placed on strengthening the fleet of the corporation. By the end of the plan period the fleet had risen to 8161 buses from the initial strength of 6198. During the plan period, 5191 new buses were inducted in the fleet, 3228 for replacement and 1963 for augmentation. This increase had to be made in order to compensate for the gradual discontinuation of about 1000 hired / undertaking buses which were operating on the nationalized routes of the state, under control of the corporation. During the VIII five year plan 2722 buses were replaced with new buses however 3142 buses were auctioned. During the IX five year plan 2427 buses were replaced and 3785 buses were auctioned, In the annual plan (2003-04) the corporation has planned to replace 1000 buses. The plan proposes an investment of Rs. 1150.50 million on the purchase and fabrication of new buses and on renovation of old road worthy buses & Rs. 307.7 million on additional passenger amenities for its passengers & modernization of its workshops, procurement of new tools & equipment and computerization. The resources for these investments shall be available from finance from financial institutions (LIC, HUDCO, etc.), commercial banks and public funds through issue of bonds. Further, in view of the paucity of funds to replace the aged fleet, the corporation hired buses to operate on nationalized routes under its control. By the end of 200220

2003, 1167 private buses were being operated under this scheme. The Corporation has also commenced the operation of AC Buses (HIMANI & SHEETAL) and non stop inter city services (PAWAN). INFRASTRUCTURE The corporate office of the corporation is situated at Lucknow. The Corporation has been reconstituted on 31.10.03 with the services in the state of Uttaranchal firming a separate corporation. For efficient functioning the corporation has been divided into regions totaling 15. Each region has a regional workshop where major repair and maintenance work as well as assembly reconditioning work is performed.

Each region has been further divided into operational units called depots. The total number of depots in the corporation is 98, including car-section. Each depot has a depot workshop attached to it to provide supportive maintenance facilities. For heavy maintenance and repair of vehicles, reconditioning of major assemblies, renovation of buses and construction of bodies on new chassis, two Central workshops have been established in Kanpur: Central Workshop, Rawatpur and Allen Forest Workshop, Allen Forest. Six tyre retreading plants are established at Gorakhpur, Ghaziabad, Bareilly, Kanpur, Saharanpur and Allahabad to provide inhouse tyre retreading facilities. For repairs and maintenance of staff cars belonging to the State Government and the Corporation, a separate unit named Car Section is established in Lucknow. For imparting training to drivers and technical staff, a Training School is established in Kanpur. The locational details of the various units of UPSRTC are available in the list of regions. Region No. of Depots 1 2 3 4 Agra Aligarh Moradabad Ghaziabad 21 6 7 5 6

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 TOTAL

Meerut Etawah Kanpur Jhansi Lucknow Bareilly Allahabad Azamgarh Gorakhpur

8 5 6 6 9 6 7 7 6 97

SERVICES RENDERED BY RTCs
GUJARAT ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION GSRTC provides a variety of services, These includes  Mofussil Services connect major cities, smaller towns and villages within Gujarat.  Intercity Services connect major cities - Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Rajkot. These provide a quick and cheap mode of transport.  Interstate Services connect various cities of Gujarat to the neighbouring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan  Parcel Services are available for transporting goods.  City services GSRTC provides city bus services at Surat, Baroda, Rajkot, and Gandhinagar-Ahmedabad.  Special Services :GSRTC provides the following special services
• • • • • •

Services to accomodate some major schedules of railway Festival services Services connecting to industrial zones Services connecting to schools and colleges Services connecting to pilgrim places Contract services - Buses are given out on contract basis to the public for the special occasions 22

Road Safety Week
GSRTC also provide the service of road safety week. GSRTC is committed to ensure safety of its passengers and others. The "Safety Week" is a public expression of this continuing commitment of GSRTC. While each GSRTC bus carries the "Road Safety Week" logo to strengthen all round safety consciousness, the normal procedure of technical checkup of vehicle before departure, careful driving, speed limit adherence and passenger flow management are observed with redoubled vigour during the week.

DELHI ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

DTC City Bus Services
DTC has deployed about 3105 CNG buses for the city/NCR service. There are about 814 routes, out of these routes DTC buses are plying on 750 routes on Delhi Roads. The fares of different category of services are given hereunder: a ORDINARY ) SERVICE ) a. 1 - 4 Kms. ) b. 4 - 8 Kms. ) c. 8 - 12 Kms. ) d. 12 - onwards Rs. 2/Rs. 5/Rs. 7/ Rs.10/ -

b LIMITED SERVICES Rs.10/ ) c NIGHT SERVICES ) d GREEN LINE ) SERVICES e RAILWAY SPL. Rs.10/ Rs.10/ Rs.10/

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) SERVICE f) PALAM COACH SERVICES ) 1. Adult ) 2. Child/Luggage

E Rs.50/ Rs.25/ -

DSRTC also conduct Sight Seeing Tours (Delhi Darshan)
DTC daily operates Sight Seeing Tours from Scandia House. The fare of Delhi Darshan Service is Rs.100/-. The Delhi Darshan ticket of Rs. 100/- will be valid in all city services on the pattern of DTC Green Card. Children between the age of 5 - 12 years will be charged half ticket i.e. Rs. 50/-. The detailed tour programme is given as follows:

(A) Ist Tour Tourist Place a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Red Fort Delhi Metro (Kashmere Gate) Raj Ghat India Gate Indra Gandhi Samriti Qutab Minar Lotus Temple Birla Mandir Duration of Haltage 45 Mts. 45 Mts. 15 Mts. 15 Mts. 30 Mts. 30 Mts. 30 Mts. (Monday closed) 30 Mts.

Green Card Services
DTC issues Green Card daily which is valid for traveling in all DTC City bus services except Palam Coach & Tourist services through out the day. The fare is Rs. 25/- only.

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DTC passes:
• • • • •

DTC introduces Computerized Bus Pass System Download Computerised Bus Pass Application Form You may get DTC Bus Pass Know about Pass Sections Do you know the procedure for obtaining a Bus Pass?

DTC introduces Computerized Bus Pass System
• •

• • • •

DTC launches computerizations of Bus Passes from February, 2001. First introduction at Scindia House and 34 Bus Pass Centres computerized and one pass centre is functioning manual all over Delhi. All Bus Pass Centres shall be computer networked through 64 KBPS Leased lines/ISDN. Bus Passes/Photo ID cards can be issued/renewed from any of the computerized Bus Pass Centres. Bus Passes shall be issued by computers within 2 minutes. Each Bus Pass holder shall be photographed through a digital camera and issued a Photo ID card.

• • • • • •

• •

Photo ID card shall be valid for one year for general public and 5 months for students. Bus Pass shall be valid in conjunction with the Photo ID card only. Service charge of Rs.10/- shall be payable for issuing the Photo ID card. Service charge of Rs.2/- shall be payable by the students for each new/renewal of Bus Pass. Service charge of Rs.7 shall be payable by general public for each new/renewal of Bus Pass. Bus Pass shall be issued for 1-2-3-4-5 months as per choice of the applicant in place of the present system of monthly/quarterly issue of the Bus Passes. No security deposit shall be payable. No requirement of carrying photograph with application. Bus Passes can be renewed during the last 5 days of the expiry of Bus Pass failing which the Pass-holders shall pay Rs. 10/towards reactivation charges. No change in existing Bus Pass fare structure.

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DTC Bus Pass
DTC issues passes to student, general public, police, resident of resettlement colonies, etc. The details of various types of concessional passes issued by DTC for city service is given below: S.N TYPE OF CONCESSIONAL o PASSES 1 ) ) ) 2 Student Concessional Passes a) Monthly Destination b) All Route Passes c) All Route (G.L.S.) d) All Route Ordinary Pass a) Resettlement Colony 0 TO 10 KMS. b) Resettlement Colony Above 10 KMS. 3 4 5 6 7 ) ) ) ) ) General All Route Passes (G.L.S) Police All Route Passes Press All Route Passes 13/13/55/150/50/100/450/400/100/DENOMINATION OF PASSES ( In Rs.)

Senior Citizens Above 60 Years (All 50/Route G.L.S.) Free Passes a.) Disabled Persons Passes b.) Freedom Fighters with one Attendant c.) Sports Man (International) d.) National Awardees e.) War Widows & their Dependents f.) MLA's/MP's of Delhi with one attendant ) ( ) ) ) )

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Inter-state (NCR) passes* a.) Delhi to Bahadur Garh b.) Delhi to Gurgaon c.) Delhi to Faridabad d.) Delhi to Ghaziabad 575/700/825/860/-

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These passes shall be valid for performing unlimited journeys within National Capital Territory of Delhi on All Route DTC buses excluding Palam Coach and Tourist Services in addition to and fro journey to the satellite town route buses mentioned o the bus pass e.g. bus pass for Delhi to Gurgaon shall be valid for performing unlimited journeys within NCT of Delhi and to and fro journey for Gurgaon only.

Pass Sections For the convenience of the public, DTC has opened PASS SECTION at 37 different locations including the centralised location at Scindia House.( Phone No. 23317445 ). Anybody wanting to get DTC Pass, may personally contact at any of the following locations :-

S.NO LOCATION . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Scindia House Central Secretariat Sarojani Nagar Depot Hous Khas Mehrouli Nehru Place Kashmere Gate Timar Pur Azad Pur Terminal Wazir Pur Depot-I Mangol Puri 'S' Block Delhi University South Campus Hasan Pur Depot Raja Garden Terminal

S.NO LOCATION . 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Red Fort Delhi Gate Jheel (Manual) Shahdara Terminal (New) Nand Nagri Depot Noida Sector -32. Karol Bagh Terminal Shadipur Depot J.N.U. Uttam Nagar Terminal Lajpat Nagar. Hari Nagar Depot-I Najaf Garh Terminal Bawana Depot Swami Shradha Nand College, Alipur

Jamia Millia Islamia Univ. 33.

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16. 17. 18.

Peeragarhi Depot Seema Puri Depot -2 East Vinod Nagar Depot

34. 35.

Delhi University (North Campus) Shahbad Dairy

Procedure for obtaining a Bus Pass.
For obtaining the DTC Bus Pass, prescribed form priced at Re. 1/for manual passes and Free for Computerized passes is to be filled-up which is available at all the 37 respective manual and computerized pass sections mentioned above. The following documents are required for different categories:

a) FOR STUDENT CONCESSION PASSES 1 Photo + Form attested by School Authorities b) FOR RESETTLEMENT COLONIES Possession letter of Plot + Ration Card. c) FOR SENIOR CITIZENS Certificate of Age proof + one Photo + Proof of residence of Delhi & attested 'pass form' from Gazetted Officer/MLA/MP to certify that his income from all sources is not more than Rs. 75,000/- per annum. FREE PASSES d) FOR HANDICAPPED PASS Ration-Card of Delhi + Medical Certificate + I.Card issued by S.D.M of respective area. e) FOR WAR WIDOWS PASS Concerned certificate + Ration Card of Delhi + Copy of Pension Book. f) FOR FREEDOM FIGHTER Concerned certificate + Ration Card of Delhi + Copy of Pass Book

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issued by Bank, from where drawing the Pension. g) FOR SPORTS MAN (INTERNATIONAL) Certificate issued by Host Country & Govt. of India for representing India in INTERNATIONAL GAME i.e. Asiad & Olympic + Ration Card of Delhi. h) INTERNATIONAL AWARDEES Concerned certificate + Ration Card of Delhi.

DTC Parking
People are aware that the number of registered vehicles in Delhi is more than the sum total of vehicles in Delhi is more than the sum total of vehicles registered in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Enormous increase in the number of vehicles has compounded the problem of parking, which is already very acute. In order to mitigate the difficulties faced by the public, DTC has taken the initiative to provide parking facilities at its 34 Depots and 14 Terminals at very reasonable charge w.e.f. 19.4.2004. List of Bus Terminals 1. IIT Gate Terminal (Hauz Khas) Terminal 3. Mehruali Terminal 5. Karawal Nagar Terminal 7. Ambedkar Stadium (Delhi Gate) 9. Raja Garden 11. Uttam Nagar 13. Mangolpuri 2. Nehru Place 4. Jal Vihar Terminal 6. Shadara Terminal 8. Azadpur Terminal 10. Karampura 12. Church Road

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RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

Best Travel Options
RSRTC has played a major role in providing travel services to the traveler and to make their travel by bus more enjoyable.  RSRTC operate its services under RTC and MV Act provisions and there by ensure safe and secured journey.  RSRTC ensure punctual and time bound services.  For the safety and security all the passengers traveling are covered under insurance.  RSRTC offers a coordinated and integrated transport system incorporating village travelers– long distance travelers and inter state passengers.  Enhanced public conveyance through online ticketing facility from 20 kiosks in Jaipur city.  Onward and return ticket facility.  Offers free travel facility to section of passengers under social obligation.  RSRTC deluxe and Air Conditioned services provide the best quality traveling condition available in the country.

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DIFFERENT BUS SERVICES  Gold line services: Launched India's most luxury bus services between Jaipur and Delhi using State of Art Volvo Buses – A new traveling experience. This is a 45 seater spacious AC bus.  Air-condition pink line services: RSRTC has a novel concept of providing homely comfort to its clientele for providing better convenience and facility to the public and tourist in special, Air Conditioned Services has been provided in main routes like Jaipur – Delhi, Jaipur – Agra and Jaipur – Udaipur.

 Super deluxe silverline services:More than 150 Deluxe bus services were made available connecting District Head quarters as well as towns and cities with in and out side neighboring States.  Sleeper coach green line: 10 sleeper coaches introduced in long distance night services like Jaipur, Udaipur, Ganganagar, Haridwar, Kota, Bikaner and Pilani.  Long distance express and night services- blue line services: For the convenient of the passengers and to save the passenger time, RSRTC has also operating night services through out the State as well as to neighboring States.  Deluxe coach-star line:At reduced Fare rate comfortable journey was provided in major trunk routes.  Inter state services: -

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Inter State services were made available by RSRTC to the neighboring States of Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.  Ordinary services: For short distance and village travelers RSRTC operate services connecting town and Panchayats to the District and Tehsils as well as to the near by villages.  CTS services: For extending travelling facility to the colonies and suburban towns in and around Jaipur city RSRTC has been operating more than 200 buses per day.  Mela services: For catering the services for the social and religious gathering, RSRTC operates special Mela Services.  On contract services: RSRTC is also providing its buses for the purpose of tour, marriage parties, LTC etc. as per requirement on prescribed rate.  Short distance- gramin services: For short distance and village travelers RSRTC has been operating services connecting town and Panchayats to the District and Tehsils as well as to the near by villages.  Sub urban services: To reduce the mounting pressure of urbanization, RSRTC has been operating Sub Urban Services connecting the cities with near by towns and villages.

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UTTAR PRADESH STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION
HIRED BUS SCHEME A Scheme for hiring of buses of private operators to operate on the nationalised routes. Objective: - The scheme was introduced in 1992 with a view to enable adequate and well coordinated passenger transport services on the nationalised routes to the citizens of the State. Concept: - Buses of the willing private operators are hired through the tendering process for the specific routes on which the requirement exists. The owner is then provided with the operation's schedule and is expected to make available the bus (in proper condition & cleanliness as per the agreement) alongwith the driver. The corporation provides its conductor, ticket & stationary, bus station and other services for its operations. The payment is made on the basis of the kilometers covered, route category and bus type as per the schedule given below: Route Category

S.No. Bus type

A

B

C

D

E

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1 . . 2 . . 3 4 5 6 7 8

Mini Bus (22 - 27 seats) . - Plains 4.41 - Hills 5.65 2 Mini Bus (More than 28 seats) . - Plains 5.05 - Hills 6.50 Ordinary Big Buses 7.30 Express Buses 7.97 Semi-Deluxe Buses 8.47 Deluxe Buses 8.47 Air-Conditioned Big Buses (Ordinary/ Deluxe 13.15 Plains) Air-Conditioned Mini Buses (Ordinary/ Deluxe 8.78 - Plains)

. 4.51 5.75 . 5.20 6.50 7.50 7.97 8.47 8.47 13.15 8.78

. 4.61 5.85 . 5.35 6.50 7.75 7.97 8.47 8.47 13.15 8.78

. 4.71 5.95 . 5.55 6.50 8.00 7.97 8.47 8.47 13.15 8.78

. . . . 6.35 6.50 9.00 7.97 8.47 8.47 13.15 8.78

Apart from the above incentives and penalties based on load factor and revenue generation are also applicable. Details of these are available in the tender form and can also be had from the regional offices or the headquarters.

CHARTERED BUS
Availability Of Corporation Buses On Contractual Basis

The fare rate for hiring a Corporation bus on contract basis is Rs. 20.08/km. In which Rs. 3.48 charges as extra tax and Rs. 16.60 per km. is Corporation's fare (for a minimum of 400 kms of distance per day.)

Booking of UPSRTC's buses for marriage and other social ceremonies The following arrangements have been made for hiring a bus for marriages and other social ceremonies only :
• •

Booking of buses done only for 24 hrs. from 5.00 a.m. of date of booking till next day 5.00 a.m. Limits for minimum km covered is 250 kms instead of 400 kms in the month of April, May and June and for rest of the month it is 200 kms instead of 350 kms. The rate of booking is Rs. 16.72/km and taxes will be charged extra.

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For the above purpose only those buses made available who have age of more than 4.00 lakh kms and have bus utilisation is 245 kms/bus/day and Load factor 65% or less.

For UPSRTC's employee
• • • • •

This facility is given to all employees for one time only throughout the service period buses could be given only availability of the buses. Relaxation for employee is 50% on fare. Rest 50% fare, passenger tax and surcharges will be borne by the employee. Under this policy only one bus will be allotted. At regional level only R.M. is authorized to give permission for hiring a bus.

CONCESSION PROVIDED BY RTCs
GUJARAT STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION Fare Structure
Ordinary Services: 1. Rs.2.00 per passenger per stage of 6 Kms. or part thereof, but Rs.1.00 per sub-stage of 3 Kms. or part thereof shall be chargeable up to 40 stages. 2. Thereafter, Rs.1.50 per passenger per stage of 6 Kms. Or part thereof shall be chargeable. 3. In addition to the fare calculated above, the passenger shall be chargeable additional fare of Rs.2.00. 4. The minimum fare shall be Rs.5.00 per adult passenger and Rs.3.00 per child passenger for the first stage of 6 Kms. or part thereof. 5. There shall be no sub stage beyond 10 stage.

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Express Services: For Express Services the fare structure will be remain same as shown above for ordinary services plus the following additional fares namely, 1. Rs.5.00 per passenger per stage of 6 Kms. or part thereof shall be chargeable up to 5 stages. 2. Rs.7.00 per passenger for journey from 6 stages to 10 stages shall be chargeable. 3. Rs.10.00 per passenger for journey beyond 10 stages shall be chargeable. 4. The minimum fare shall be Rs.10.00 per adult passenger and Rs.5.00 for child passenger for the first stage of 6 Kms.or part thereof. 5. There shall be no sub-stage.

Gurjar Nagri bus services: For Gurjar Nagri bus services the fare structure will be remain same as shown above for ordinary services plus the following additional fares namely, 1. Rs.10.00 per passenger for journey up to 10 stages shall be chargeable. 2. Rs.20.00 per passenger for journey beyond 10 stages shall be chargeable. 3. The minimum fare shall be Rs.15.00 per adult passenger and Rs. 8.00 for a child passenger for the first stage of 6 Kms or part thereof. 4. There shall be no sub-stage.

City Services Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar and Gandhinagar internal City as well as other City services operated by GSRTC.

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1. Rs.2.00 per passenger per stage of 2 Kms. or part thereof for first stage. 2. Thereafter Re.1/-per passenger per stage or part thereof from 2 stage to 9 stages. 3. Thereafter Re.1/- per passenger per every three stage or part thereof beyond 9 stage. 4. In addition to fare calculated above Rs. 2.00 shall be chargeable in Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar Point Services and Rs. 1.00 shall be chargeable in Gandhinagar city point services.

Explanation 1. The child passenger fare shall be half fare of adult passenger fare in all above services. 2. Where the total fares calculated under any of the provisions of Ordinary, Express, Gurjarnagari and city services is not an exact multiple Re.1/-, it shall be rounded off to next higher multiple of Re.1/-

RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION CONCESSION BY RSRTCs
The Corporation provides concessions & facilities to various sections of society including the physically challenged, students, journalist, freedom fighters. In order to avail these concessions, prior authorization by the respective depot, after fulfilling the requirements, etc. is essential. For further information, please contact any of our Depots or Bus stands. The following category of passengers can avail concessional travel facility in RSRTC services at the specified rate:-

SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS
Journalist Blind FREE FREE

37

Freedom Fighter & Attendant Widows of Freedom Fighter War Widows & Dependent Tribal Girls Students (class I To VIII) Mentally Retarded with companion Physically Challenged & Leprosy Cancer,Thelesimia Patient with companion Deaf & Dumb Student Sr. CITIZEN, WHOSE AGE IS 65 OR ABOVE.

FREE FREE FREE FREE 50% 75% 75% 75% 50% 30%

FARE & CONCESSIONS BY USRTCs
The fare of our services is based on the distance traveled, terrain of operations - hills &/or plains and type of services - ordinary, express, semi-deluxe &/or deluxe. The fare includes additional tax @ 21/121 of the gross amount. Further, the fare also includes accident surcharge and passenger amenities surcharge as below: -

Additional Surcharge over & above total fare w.e.f. 14.03.2000
Kms Range 0-85 86-100 101-200 201& above Accident Claims Surcharge 0.50 1.00 2.00 3.00 Passenger Amenities Surcharge 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00

CONCESSIONS
The Corporation provides concessions on its fares &/or free travel

38

facilities on it's buses to various categories of citizens. The concessions/free travel applicable to different category of citizens are shown below. A: CHILDREN CATEGORY UPTO 5 YEARS OF AGE MORE THAN 5 YEARS BUT UPTO 12 YEARS CONCESSION FREE TRAVEL 50% OF FARE

TRAVEL CONCESSIONS
1: DISTINGUISHED CITIZENS The categories of distinguished citizens given below are permitted to travel free in corporation buses, the expenses of their travel are paid by the concerned departments of the administration. DISTINGUISHED CITIZENS
MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENTLOKSABHA/RAJYASABHA AND ONE COPASSENGER MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY U.P. AND ONE CO-PASSENGER MEMBERS OF LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF U.P. AND ONE CO-PASSENGER DISTINGUISHED REPORTERS. FREEDOM FIGHTERS AND ONE COPASSENGER EX-MEMBER LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF U.P. AND ONE CO-PASSENGER EX-MEMBER LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF U.P. AND ONE CO-PASSENGER

PAYING DEPARTMENT
TRANSPORT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY SECRETARIAT UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL SECRETARIAT UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW INFORMATION DIRECTORATE UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW FREEDOM FIGHTERS WELFARE CORPORATION LUCKNOW ASSEMBLY SECRETARIAT UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL SECRETARIAT UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW

2: CITIZENS DECORATED WITH BRAVERY AWARD Citizens of the state who have been decorated with bravery awards are permitted to travel free of charge in corporations buses. The extra charges and the taxes other than the fare of the buses are to be only paid by them. 3: PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED & BLIND CITIZENS

39

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Those who are totally blind or are partially blind (According to the definition of physically handicapped public act 1995) Those who are dumb, deaf or both (According to the definition of physically handicapped public act 1995) Those whose one arm or leg or both are amputated. Those whose one hand and one leg or both hands or both legs are handicapped (paralyzed) Those who are mentally retarded or challenged (According to the definition of physically handicapped public act 1995) Leprosy free physically handicapped.

AWARDS TO GSRTCs
GSRTC has received a number of national awards for its performance. The awards include its performance in various fields like productivity fuel conservation etc.  The Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA)award for the Second Highest KMPL, 1997-98. Chairman (PCRA) and Secretary, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, presenting the award to Sri Parmanand Khattar, Chairman of GSRTC.  The National Productivity Council Award for its performance, 1995-96. Sri K.R. Narayanan Hon'ble President of India presenting the award to SriSomubhai Patel, Chairman of GSRTC at New Delhi

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 Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) award for the best diesel conservation for Junagadh division, 1997-98. Sri Varesh Sinha, Managing Director of GSRTC presenting the IOC award t Sri J.D. Tilavat, Divisional Controller at Junagadh..  Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) award for the best diesel conservation for Upleta Depot, 1997-98. Sri J.G. Hingrajia, Joint Managing Director of GSRTC presenting the IOC award to Sri B.R. Mishra, Depot Manager-Upleta.

Comparative Information of Various STUs

Comparative Information of Various STUs
2003-04 A.P. Gujarat Karnataka Maharashtra M.P. U.P. Haryana
8963 86.23 4396 95.29 16121 94.16 1690 88.17 7394 93.44 3334 96.37

Sr.No.
1

Item

Average No. of Buses 19012 Ion Road Fleet % 99.32 Age of Fleet (yrs.)

2

6.01

4.41

5.87

9.58

5.06

3.69

41

Overaged Buses % 3 No. Of Accidents 2339 No. Of Fatal Accidents 742 Earned Kms. (lakhs) Vehicle utilisation (kms/bus/day) Fuel Average (kmpl) No. of Employees Staff per Bus Employee Productivity (kms/empl/day) 6 7 Load Factor % No. of Passengers (Lakhs) Passengers / bus / day Total Income (lakhs) Total Expenditure (lakhs) Profit / Loss (lakhs) Income per Km. Expenditure per Km. Profit / Loss per Km. 10 Income per bus/day Expenditure per bus/day Profit / Loss per bus/day

43.67 1618 266

7.30 838 158

15.34 3282 413

46.50 169 60

43.20 930 340

4.00 389 171

4

22666 326 5.37

10126 309 5.24

5622 349 5.25

17652 299 4.81

1351 219 4.03

7483 275 4.88

3984 327 4.68

5

119219 6.27 51.95 60

54523 6.08 50.74 57

23626 5.37 65.01 74

102464 6.36 47.07 45

10665 37747 6.31 34.62 62 5.82 49.04 58

18972 5.69 57.38 71

9125 480

9967 304

6168 383

20705 351

571 92

3622 134

3968 325

8

289566 292958 -3392 1278 1293 -15

124451 151269 -26818 1229 1494 -265

77319 74698 2622 1375 1329 47

268819 291393 -22574 1523 1651 -128

18000 81692 22500 85365 -4500 -3673 1332 1665 -333 1092 1141 -49

61040 67391 -6352 1532 1692 -160

9

4161 4210 -49

3794 4611 -818

4806 4643 163

4556 4939 -383

2910 3638 -728

3019 3154 -135

5002 5523 -521

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THEORITICAL ASPECTS OF STUDY
SWOT ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT INDUSTRY
The full form of the SWOT is strength, weakness, opportunities and threats Strength and weakness are internal to the company and opportunities and threats are to the external of the company. STRENGTHS:      Government Enterprise Less private players Low fare Availability at all places For all class of people

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WEAKNESSES:     Less facility and poor services Timings are not kept Continuous losses Inefficient Buses

OPPORTUNITIES:  Through CNG buses it can compete with competitors  To be a profitable industry  Due to hike in prices of petrol people may transfer from private vehicles to buses THREATS:  Private players are emerging like Jeeps and Private agencies  People are buying their own vehicles for transportation.

PORTER’S FIVE FORCES MODEL

There are mainly five factors that affect the business and it has to keep in mind these five forces. 1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers The suppliers for transport industry (Bus) are mainly the body building industry like Ruby Rushi if they will increase the price or the make their own buses. 2. Bargaining Power of Customers  Anytime shift from bus to any other private Vehicle  Anytime like may purchase their own Vehicle 3. Threats of Substitutes  Substitutes may take over the market share of the company.  Substitutes like Railways, Plane and Water (sea) transport. 44

4. Threats of Competitors Competitor may lower the price or provide deter service so it is also the threat for transport industry. Competitors like Jeeps, Travel agency etc. 5. Threats of New Entrances New company or new product may come and it affects the business For e.g. New entrance like Tata’s one lakh rupees car.

PESTEL MODEL
There are basically six factors that affect the business and they are: • • • • • • P- Political Factors E- Economical Factors S- Social Factors T- Technological Factors E- Environmental Factors L- Legal Factors

Political Factors: The transport industry is basically owned by Govt and due to the Govt ownership always there will be a problem in the decision. There will be a influence in each and every stage in the process.

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Economical Factors:The factors like National Income, Population growth, Infrastructure etc. They affect the business of the bus transport. If the population bellow poverty line increase then there business of bus transportation increase and otherwise may decrease.

Social Factors Social factors such as people feeling, perception affect the business. People do not perceive Bus as the fastest way of transport so they use the private players service.

Technological Factors Due to the technological factors the Tata will introduce one lakh rupee car so people may purchase the car and it will reduce the use of bus transport. Due to the technological factors the new and new things are coming up so it may lead to some problem of the bus transportation.

Environmental factors Environmental factors also affect the business. The Govt will not allow the bus to create more pollution creator so they have started the CNG Bus services. So they have to take into account the environmental factors.

Legal Factors Legal factors include the law and rules and regulation. The bus transport has to follow all that and it may hamper the business.

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LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 First limitation is related to the time factor. Because it is very difficult to cover all the aspect of road transport in a short time duration.

 We have included only four transport corporation in to consideration for the project and not all because to take all it is almost impossible.

 We got majority of information from secondary source but it may not be up to the mark.

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 Road Transport Corporation is very wide topic so we are not able to cover all the information.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOK: Transport Management By S. Nagabhushana Rao WEB SITES: www.gsrtc.com www.dsrtc.com www.tci.com www.upsrtc.com www.rsrtc.com

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No. of Vehicles Registered (In Lakhs)
Type of vehicles Private vehicles Four Wheelers Two Wheelers Commercial Vehicles Auto Rickshaw Taxies *Buses Goods Vehicles Total 1993-94 20.14 5.22 14.92 2.25 0.72 0.12 0.24 1.17 22.39 2003-04 39.18 12.68 26.50 2.66 0.75 0.16 0.39 1.36 41.84 Annual compound growth rate 6.64 9.27 5.91 1.69 0.38 3.09 4.84 1.55 6.45

In that period, Delhi Govt.’s expenditure on Delhi Transport Corporation was planned to be a paltry Rs 618 crores, most of which will be used to cover Delhi’s

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financial losses rather than buying new vehicles or upgrading its fleet to modern highcapacity low-floor air conditioned buses.

5th Five Year plan (2002-2007) allocation for Delhi
% plan Outlay 23.68 6.27 2.69 10.90 3.82 Rs. Crore 5446.4 1441.41 618 2507.8 879.19 23000

Transport Sector Mass Rapid Transport System DTC Roads, Flyovers Others Total plan Outlay

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