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ISBN' 0 41Z = 4

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U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

CONTENTS

1

D.C. clr<:ults IlDd methods .... ciuuillUlaJysis

I'Ii 1 I 5

H 1'! 13

31 II J1

SS II !iQ_

71 11 11

.25_ ss lID.

ill ill I.2!l

129 129 132

IJ1 ill U!!

US ill UO

SIpa1s, wanfurms lUId a.c. """"",n_ Questions

S!>l.lI!iaru

PhMor _IDls of a.c.. drcnits Questions

S_olJtJLDJl'

AmplJ:rom< and. leedbacl<

2:iD1ool1n:

s

eo",billlltionallogic d"",ilS Questions

SI:iIJuiwl:I

Seq LWrtiaIlagic citadts Questions SDIuli.lms

1

AnalOflllHllsilal """,version

~t:r:n~&

8

Memories, IIIicroproasson; ..... ~ Questions

Solutions

Diod ... gad lposist!!l15

~O~;it:."."

l!l

AnaJO!! .... In!nsW;or cl """Its Qucstio~.

~

U rheberrec htl ich ge5c h utztes M aleri"

11

161

Questi!!!lS SoJnljmUi

167 17]

12

Integrated:cimili ledutologt

13

Po ...... ampllllen:

QuestiOll$ Solnrinns_

ISS 185 18~

14

RcpIated d.I:. power supplies Qo,eotions

Sa11!1jQIII

101 201 205

W.""orm. pucntloa Qve1tions SOJntions

111 221 223

16

The ~bduaolooU" oCCraIUisIon Quc$tions

Solutions

231 231 234

17

l'ntercMDections

243 246

U rheberrcc htl ich gesc h utztes Materia

PREFACE

'This book of problem, with worked so.luti.ons ls designed to be used in connectionwilh !he $Iw1y of lbe book EI.ectI'onlcs by Cr.craft, Gorilam cwi SPll'us, publlshed by Chapll1ln 8< Hall (1993) [ISBN 0 412 41320 5 (0442 30880 9 in USA)]. Throughout !his wOIt, Ibat book i. rdem:d to for convenience as "the te:ubookH•

The chapter numbers in this book oorre<po!ld eudly with tbe chapter numbers in the textbook, which e'plains wby this book has no content tc its Cllapter 12. Chapler 12 of !he 1CX1book is concerned with the ,echnology of the manufacture of in,egrated cin:uits, and as ouch has no objecri vesrelating 10 problem solving. Thi book !herefore contain. no problems relalins to !he material of that chapter. Some chapters of !he lexlbook contain more problem-50Ivin, related ~~~ves !han others, and because of !hat seme c"-pIea of this book contain. more problems !han

The problems contained in this book have been chosen 10 serve one or more of several porposes. The firsl pcrpcse i. 10 provide !he oPPOl'hlnity for !he moder to .pr.l'tise skills whicb have been taught in the ICXtbook, particularly wtie:n: I have judged •• kill as being difficult 10 acquire. The second purpose is 10 require the StUdent .0 iDteg .. 1J> ~hnique. from mon: !han one chaplCr of !he te .. .,book in solving. problem. SDmelhing wbich !he lextbook self-assessmenl questi01l$ do 001 gener.tJly attempt. A thW .POZPOSC is 10 osc a problem and !he wording of its solution to clarify a poinl which I consider potentially confusing in the ICXtbook. An occa:<ional fourth putpoSC has been <0 highlight some aspect of the material which I consider imponant, bIn whicb has not been specifically highUgh!ed in the textbook,

Do not espeet to find a di=tpar.illel <0 each. question posed here in !he sclf-usc:ssrQCIIl queltiOllS in !he I""tbook. Mosl of these que.tions will prove more challenging dtaJt Ibose in the texlbook, net ollly because SOII!C require yoo to inlegrall: difftrenl aspecCS of the 1CXtbook material, bul bccaus.e !hey have been designed to require. you 10 think aboul h<>'" 10 apply the theory to !he specific problem in hand.

The solutions 10 !he quostioos are fully worked, and, where ne<:e$SIl1)', contain exp!.anatiOl!$ of why !he approach taken 10 obtain the solution i, !he most apprDp.riale. 1bey even, occasionally, contain some leaching where il has seemed appropria!e or ne<:eSUry.

Having said all IlIAI, iii. a.lSD UU" 10 DY thai all Ihe !heory and method requl red 10 solve these problems is contained in the lexlbook .. You are nOl required 10 seMclt o!her leU, in erdee to be equipped 10 answer !hem.

When 'DIving a p.roblcm in Electronics, or designing' dlal;1 or system, it is normal good practice nowldays 10 Ie., a .olulion by .imol.ting the circuil or system using an appropriale software package. Regrctl1lbly, owing 10 lick of tim< and """.1. 10 appropria!e softwal'e II the righl tio:.e,!he ..,lotio,", gi.cn bere have "'" been so cbcckcd. H you decide> to chock tbem and rUKI My problems, please do OUI besitate to .poinl !hem out 10 me via tbe pobUshen 50 tI!aI future readers can have the benefit of more fully tried and. tested solutions.

From tim. 10 time this book rtf.rs 10 figurt$ in the lel1book. and this occasionaUy creates a po1Cntial for confusion between figutes in this book and figures in !he tcxtbook. Unleu s{}«ifiaJ1ly swed oIMrwis •. aU figu,.., rd.,..,nns in pr(Jblenu and IM;r s<dlLl""''' or. 10 figure. In rl:t1J ~ 110' tMl=bool.

U rheberrcc htl lch gcsc h utztes Iv! ateri"

SYMBOLS USED IN THIS BOOK

Symbols,,", listed uaderthc beadillg ofthecMplu in whicblhcy are fimused, G=ksymbols an: lisled aft er English OIICS. The values of CQIISWI.\ quantities ore given,

ct.pterl .1

I"

R

R"

R,

V

Yr

ChoIpler2 C

f

i

L

r

Y,

v

X

e (epsilon)

to

...

.. (omega)

ChiOpIM"3 A

I

T

V

Y

Z

f (pIti)

ChIpIw. .A,

I<" G G i ..... I. 110 I"A

Cumat (d.c.. a,c, ampli!Ude or s.c, r.m, s, value) Nonon equivalent circait current source

D.C. "",iitance of • resi'tor

N onon equivalent circuit resistance 1Mvonin equivalent eireuit rcsiSWlce

Vol. (d.c .• o.c. omplilDde or I.c. rrm.s, value) Thtvenin equivalent cireuit voltage source

Capacirance F""I.uency

Curren~ Instantaneou'vaJue 1nductInce.

Time

Supply voltage cr souree vollage Voltage. imtanWleOllS value RtaCWICC

Electric. permittivity (0 :, """) PenniUivity of free .pace (,,8.SS4) RoWi ve penniUiv.ity

Angulllf IJeqIlCllC)' ( .. = 2~

VollagC transfer function (phlsnr operator)

Cwrcnt pbasor .

Ti me constant

Voltage pbasor

Adminance (phasor operaior) Impedance (pIwor opmuor) Phase angle.

Low-frequetl"y voltoge l!"iu of aD """,li6 er

Voltage gain of on amp!if .... (pIwor operator) Low-frequency CIoscd~D of a fcedbacl: amplifier

Closed-loop gain of. amplifier (pbasor opellllOr)

EQuivalent input noise cum:ol of an amplifier

fnPut bias current of an amplifier

fnput offset current. of a diffcrmtial amplirler Equivalenl.iPpuI noise cln:m!t of an amplifi er (r.m.s.)

ampere ampere ohm ohm ohm volt voU

farad henz ampere henry

second

voU

volt

ohm

F ..... I

pFm-1 dimensiooless r1Idians .-'

dimensionlcs.

:=

volt $ieroen$ ohm tl1dian

dimcnsionlea • dirnalsionlcss dimcnsionlcs. dimcPSionl"s ampere ampere ampere ampere

..

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

i'NA. Voo VNA Z

p(bcta)

CMpW' 10

I.

ISE

"

K

'"

"Po

"0

H •• H,

Pol>

Po

t-

VA

Vp "(aIpiIa). .... p(bcta). A. SL,{!I!1i)

Po

p(rbo)

a (sigma)

.... '" CMpWl0

II

'~II.

II.

l'it ro

Vee ~(IIII)

CMpWll 1010

ICfifJ

Q Qg

Q ...

Ski!", mist.on<e M smaU-signai J6i$lIIIoe

equlva1ent input noise vol., of an amp~fier

Input offset voltage of a difflcrcnliual amplifier Equivalent inpu1 noise vol. of an amplifier (,.,n.s.) Small-signal irnpedaoce (plwor openunr)

Fccdbad talio

)XI juDClion diode CDrmII Sltumtioa cummt of l po jullCtion

Satutalioo "II!TO!It of die emiller-base junction of a bipolar baIl$lstor

Boltzmann', eonstanl (= \.3806 ~ 100lJ)

ConSIaot • qlkT - 40 otT. 293 K

Intrinsic carrier density in a semiccndactor Equilibrium cIectron demily in p-I)'pC, semiconductor Equilibrium demily of electron. in a semiconductor Acceptor, donor density In a semiconductor Equilibrium hole density in n-type semiconductor Equilibrium densily ofholc$ in. semicon<ll1C1O' EIcdron charge ( .. 1.6 x 10''')

TcmperallUC

Early voltage in abipolar lJaD,islor D.C. vol. applied 10 a diode

D.C. =t ratio of a bipolar Imllsi$lOr Odlf) D.C. cummt ratio of. bipollr IJaDlistor (ldl.) Electron mobility in Silicon - Hole moblUty in .ilicoa

Resistivity

Conductivity

Conductivity of n·regioo. p-regioo. of oiliooo

Small.signal coodlJClall<:e Input. 0U!pUI conducw>cc

MUIUIlI cond~or~ input. 0Il!pUl slope Je$istaQOe of rnnsistor O:C. wpply vol.

l'imeconstant

Common-base collector cut-off currenl Contmoo.cmitter collcclDr cut-off cuneot

0Iatge

Minority camer clwJIe in die base region, of a bipolar lJanSistor

Satunatioo clwge in !he base regioo

ohm

vol!

vol!

volt

ohm dimell$ionJess

ampere ampere

rr.

V-' di.ml:osionlcss dimensionicss <Ii mcasionless dlmeDskmiess dimen.ionIess dimensionless coulomb kelvill

volt

vol! dil!lellSiol1less di.mI:nsioI1Ics m" V-I .-' mIV-t,-' nm

5 m-'

S ",-'

siemet!$ sicmcm AV-' oIun volt occond

ampere ampere cocIomb

coalomb coalOll!b

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes M ateri"

SymboIe;

~

Q .. to.!lgfl'

'rd> ,r,. t,. t~

VT,

'"

fl

~(I.mbda)

...

1'.

ChIopter13 1" c:....,_.1. Ii (II.C, delta) Chapter1!! C,

Ci

C ..

C"

f.

IT

/,

h,.

b"

"b

~(phi)

Chapter 17

c v

z,

a

r (u,c. gamma)

Charge required 10 tum off a rrans:iS!or ,wilCh Chor!:. required to iUm on 0 Imruisto< swilCh Turn-oa, 1Ilm,-off time of a Innsistor 5wilCh

Delay lime. fall lime. riselime, Ammon time of a Innsistor switch

Threshold voltage of a MOSFET Inverse d.e, cllnal! ratio (l.JfcJ Gain f""tor of a MOSfET

CJwmd Iengtb modulaIion factor (MOSFETs) Bue, lmlSif time of • bipolar lmISisto. Saturation time co ns ""'! of a bipolar lraDSi"""

A linite In.;mnen!

Colledor capacitane<:

T~~inP?' capacI~ce

Emitter diffnsion capac,tance,

Emiaer tnIl!Sition-regioo capacitaoce Common-emitter ClIITCIIl-gau. C11I-off frcqoency

Transitioo fmtueocy ,

Frequt:!ley at which !b1,1 = 1

Low-fmtU£llcy. small-signal common-emitltr =1 gaiD Hlgh-l"mjuency, small_signal commoo-eminer cureat gain Extril!Jic base resi5W!Ce of a bipolar transUtor

Contact poICnlial of. po junc:lion

Spood of light and adler electromagnetic wav es Propagation velocity

C!waeto:ri,tic' impedance of a Me,

Anenuation per unit length of a Innrmission boe Vol. reflectioo coefl'fcienf of a Innsmisiio,n ,~ne

coulomb coulomb second

second

volt dimensionlc1ls dimensionless V-I

second second

fallld

Wad

farad

brad

~

benz

~ dimomionles. dimcnsiooless obrn

volt

rDlIi-1

ms-'

obrn oepe>"lII""l dimensiooiesll

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

1 D.C. CIRCUITS AND METHODS OF CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

aUESTIONS

1.1

For d>< circuit of Figure, 1.31 (p_"!e 20) of the tcJttbook. write down the Kirchboff vol.

law equations fo r loops f ABCGEF and EDBCG.E. .

CIO) Use "Tht.~o'. theorem to obtain the n.c ve pin equivalent of the circutt COIIWDed in the doItcd box in Figure 1.1. Hence calculate the voltage across a I ldlload re.istor.

lk.n

~QOQ lold

500D ~

.

Piau", /.1

(bJ Use NortOn". theorem to obtain !he Norton eqllivalent of the cireuit contained in the dOlled bo~ in. Figure 1.1. Hence caleulare !lie earreet duough " I J<n load l'e$i$tor.

(c) Contino thai tile IUIS\II'" obIaiaed in paIlS. (I) and (b) are compatible.

1.3 A moving coil multi.mcter has A coil resistance of 500 0 and a full-scale deHectiOfl CIIrteI1t of O..'imA.

(01) What value of resistance must be colllU:CUd in series with !he roil to provide a full· seaIc deflection. voHage of 100 V?

(b) What Yalue of resistaace must be connected in parallel with the coil to provide a fIIU· $Calc deflection cum,U of I A 1

(c.) What i. the ~ohm.-per.vol~· figure for the·meter?

1.4 Ca) Using any appropriate melhod. caklllale the voltage 1ICfQ$$ resistor RI in the. Circuil of

Fig=1.2..

(b) The voltage across RI is measured ""ing d>< lO volt ( ... d. range of. 5 000 obms-pervoltmovins-coil multimeter. Assuming negligible emirs in the meter. what wiUbe!he meter reading?

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ate,i a

68 k.

Fipnl.2

C c J What pcrtaII3ge emx-.has bcm ilIIrodua:d into !he =ding by Ibo. mcasuremcnI meIhod?

Cd) What will be !he percentage emx- if a 20 000 OIV moving-coil .- is.....c iull:ad1 (A5swne that !lie full;caJe deflection ~oItaae is stiD 10 V.l

FigunlJ

fbI This cunent is measun'ld, using !he same nwltimeler OS in Qucstioa 1.4(b). s,.;tchcd to. curn:al raDge of 100 rnA. The meu:r coil rmSWlCe Is I Wanda sluml rcsisIor is ....... 10 establlslt eadI =11IIIge. Assumiog tbaI negligible en:or exista in the meter. wbIl will be the mctu rcadin&"?

(e) What peteeotage error bas bee!! innocIuc<d i!!to!he reading by !he ~ method?

1.' Cal Figure 1.4(.) is the cim>it of a WbcauIOflt 000:18. $UJlPIied from 811 idc:aI ~OItlgO SOUIU.

U.., TM.c:nin'. tbeorcm 10 caJculate the componc:nl wIleS of the ~c:nin. equivalcnl circuit fot the bridge. Heece caL:u1ale tho CllllpUI ~ltqe from the bridge when loaded with a resillWlCe of I Jdl.

(b) Figure 1.4{b) is the circuit of the same bridp as in partla). but SlJpplied from 811 !deal curren! sowce.. AgaiD caJculaie tho 1b!veoia cqainlem circuit vaIucs.

:z

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

Quutlon.

ll00~ 10000 111lIl~ 10000
lOY 1 1 v" IOmA 1 1 v"
9000 looon 9000 10000
(0) (b) Figure 1.4

(e') Without perfonning aay calcuiau",,", deduce the approxitnatc TheveruD equivaleat ICSistance of the bridge arrangement of Figure loS.

1000.

1,1

Fi8~/,5

Using Norton' s Ibcorem together with !be superposition priD<:iple. cakullte !be Norton equivalent circuit componelltval_ for !be cin:uit of FIgUre 1.6. Hence deduce !be, OIlmont that will flow in a load ncsisumce of 330 n.

1 to"""

Fi,r~1.6

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h "Illes M ateri"

1 .• ,.) Use nodal. analysis 10 obtain !be values of alllbe node voll88eS in the cin:ult of Agure

1.7.

(b) The righl band 4 ill resistor ohbe cin:ull of FiguK 1.7 is replaced with a 10 mA ideal cmrenl source acting Up,"""",. U,ing nodal &IIalysis. ~ulau: !be node voll88eS.

,k.

10.

'5.

IS. 250

FiBURlI.7

1 . 8 Use nodal analysis to obtain !he simlltmcoo. equaliOIlS specifying !be node voltages of Figure 1.8.

'.1 D Figure 1.9 rcpresenu a "cube" 0InlCIIIIC of 12 "",inon. cadr rcsinor havillg!be ame value of I Ul. A C01I$IaDI com:ul source of 60 rnA is collllCCled across DpIII>$ite conrcn of the ~cube". CalculaIe !be voIl8~ across Ihe current S<::IIIICe

(RIAl: rather th&II baviDg 10 perform complex calculations "" ""lye a !&rgc number of simulla1le<JW equat;oo. to ""a]nab: ttdI tno<:II c:um:nt illtUili'<e rhinklng can IeId 10 a soJulioll with miI!imal ailcullllioo.)

FigURIJ.9

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

SOLUTIONS

a.-tion 1.1

For loop FABCOEl'.1be KirchbaffyoiJag<; IaweqWllion;o; V, - ',R, -/~R. -1,11, -I,R, - V, = 0

while for loop EDSCOE the eqUJ.tion is:

1.,11, + I.R, -1,11, -I,R, - V, = 0

~'.2

(e)

To obtain !he TlltveDin equivalent =istancc R-r of !Ix cin:uil contained in tho. dollt:d bl~ in Figure L 1. 'We fint replace the vollage source wilh its i01ema1 'resistance. which in Ibis """" i, zero. Redrawleg llIe figure gives the amng"menl of FigUte 1.10. fro!!> which you ean see lIIat the equivalent ~ of the two 1 idlrc5islors in parallel is 500 n. so Iha! tho. value of R-r i. (500 + 500) D ;n parallel with 500 U. giving:

R, = ,SOO X 1000 n= 1000 n

. 1500 3

SOOa

".[[I-"

Fig"rt! 1.10

To obtain the Thtvell;n equivalenl voltage. doe lQ8d is rmwv ed, 50 tlW me "I"'o-cisl:uit voltage VT an be cak:ulatcd.1n this case. ~ will be exactly ooe--baIf of the vol~ VI in Figure 1.11.

FigUrt! 1.11

v,

SOOD !

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

V I can be caJcuIncd ... lhc vnI1aj;:e aaoss I Idl in parallel with (500 + 500) 0. Le, across SOIl 0.

V, '" 10 Vx SIlO ".I! V

1500 3

V ·",!x!Q.V"'~V

t 2 3 3

n.. circuil of Fig= 1.1 can them"om be repn:_1ed by the Tht~.nin equivolenl shown in Figure 1.12.

Hence:

and so,

I .. d

When the 10Id is I to. the voltage across the Ioadi. gi vea. by:

(b)

For 1hc Norton equivaleal cin::uit, RN wiD be equal 10 Ftr of part (I), so RN '" 100013 D

IN can be.found ~m ,!",drcuil of Figure 1.I~")..ood a eonv~eal way of finding 1hc val."" of IN i.' 10 use 8. ThtvenlD I:IJUIvalenl for part of the =t ti silo ...... 10 fl"1gWe 1.I3(b) .. From this rtSU'" It can euily be ICeD that, <iDee 00 =1 wiU flow in the righlmOOt 500 D resistor because of 1hc shon..arcuit across it. IN - S mAo

Fis"n I./J

The Norton equivalenl circuit is .bDwn in Figure 1.14. md the value of the <;UrfCDI in 1hc 11dl10ld can be calcu1.a1ed using the eorrenl divider rule as:

II

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri"

1=5rnAx 1000/3 =125mA

._ 1000 +l000{3 . -

Fig~n: 1.14

(e)

These two ",suits are ... 1i"'I.y eomparibl., sin •• 1.25 rnA flowing through 1 ill produces a voltage drop of 1.25 V.

Q.-ionl.3

(8)

For ~ fuU-scal<! deflection voltage of 100 V. tile 10fal resistance of meier coj] and series resistor mllSt be 100 V + 0.5 rnA .. 200 ill. The value of !he oericsn:sistor i. lhen:fore 200 Idl - SOO n .. 195.5 ill.

(b)

For a full-scale deflection current of I A. lite <"Unall Ihroogb !he sb.uut "",mOl" must be 999.5 rnA wbon the current thrQugll!he meter i, 0.5 rnA. The resistance of !he shunllllU$l then:fore equal !he resistance of !he coil divided by 999.510.5. Hence the value of !he .buIII ""islO' Is sao x 0.5 + 99S.50" 0.25 n

(co)

The meter Iw an "ohms·per·voll" figure equal to the recip{OCai of !he full'scale deflection =~ i.e, 1/(0.5 mAl = 2000 DlV.

au.tIon 1.4

Then: .... A number of metho<b which can be used 10 obtai" !he solution In this question. For example, ",rerring 10 Figu", 1.2, the volLl,e aeross 1t.1 can be aleulated as a pmponion of the .,,1_ """,", R). which con be. calculaled ... , propOrtion of !hevoltageacm .. Rs, which in nun caD be found as • proportion of !he wun:e voltage. All alternative is to Use IIUd&I BlI&lyS;. 10 oblain equations defining the node vollage! and theJI solve Ibcse eq1Wioos 10 obtain tbc requited amwer. Anothu alternative is 10 use either NorIO.n·' theon:m. or lh!veain's theon:m 10 oblain the equiValent circuit of everything but ,.esistor R1, and ~ alculate the voltage across RI.

In this question, the clue lI!i 10 which is the best method to use i. give" by the other parts of the <jue,tion. whe", pan. (h) and (d) clearly indicate the .-:110 repeat the ealcuillion with an a1ten:d value of R 1. With either the first method suggested abo ve , or the use of nodal aII&lysis (unl ess, of

7

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M aleri"

D,C. dna" .... 1IIOIIhocIa all cIrcuIIlNIyeII

ceerse, you are using a $CIftware package), chansing the value of HI means IqICAIing each part of the e&IcuIation for the qew value. However, with either Norton's thenrem or Tb6venlP's theorem, liace all bul !he final lie» of the calculation is made with RI removed. only the final mp will need repealing for each DC ... valoe of RI. Whether you use Norton's tbeoft!m 0, 1bCvenin'.1beorcm is. maner of personal choice, and I have chosen 10 use 'lb!yenin's lheorem.

(.)

To simplify tbe crtltion of !he Tho!venin equivalent dn:uit. I hive chosen 10 apply 'fbtycnln's dleorern in 6ICps to parts. of !he cin:u:il.TO sIart witb.1 am going to find the cquivalau circuit forthe ooon:e, R6> R5 and IW with R,. ~. and RI removed,

The cqui volent cin:uit compoDClit values will be given by:

Rn. = 47 kSl: + 33x 68 W _ 69.2 k£I 33+68

VTl =50 Vx_!!"_"33.7 V 33+68

(since there is oovohage <hop IICI'O$S IW.

Usiftgtbcse values gives the eqwYa!em cin:uil of Figure 1.15.

~9.2 ko 2l' k.

33JVl

47ko

Figuul.15

Removing Ihe 20 1:0 resistor (H I) allows !he 1b!venin equivalent for thewbolc cin:uil (less H.) 10 be obtained.

Rr, = 271:0+ 47 x69.2 .1:0" 55 kO 47+69.2

V,., _ 33.7 vx_4_1_~ 13.6 V 47+69.2

The: voltage across Rl is then given by:

V~ = 13.6 V x 2O~S5 = 3.63 V

,

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

(b)

When a 5 000 O/V meter on i ts 10 V range is COIIDected ACJ'OSS RI, tho val ... of tho combination of resistance and meter is 20 ItO in panllel with 50 kO = 14.3 ItO. Using the $a!J!C value$ of Rr. and

lIT, as in part (0), the_ala"orllle voll11.8" acrossRI becomes: •

V· "'B.6V>(~=2.g1V

.. 14.3+55

This, lheteforc will be the meter IQding. (e)

The pe=ntlgc error imroduced by the meier wW be:

E= 3.63-2.81 xl00%~ 23~ 3.63

(d)

If a 20 000 O/V meier is tI$M to meUIUe the vollag. across R I, IlIe new value of the combined rcsiSWIC. will be 200 kO in parallel with 20 kO '" 18.2 kG.

The new value of the: voltage ~ HI will then be:

. . 18.2 . . V~ ~ 13.6 V >( 18.2 +55 ~ 3.38 V

E= 3.63- 3.38 xIOO% = 6.9~. 3.63

ou.tIon 1.5

Again. there are a number of dHl'ereJll methods for caleolallng the vawe of the requirod eurreat, Again, .. in Question 1.4, the reqnirnmenl to m..:ak:uW<: rho: value of the com::nl wilb • cbanp value of resis"""'., for pan (b) suggests that either a Tb!venin er a Norton cquivaJcn.1 clreDit will provide the most convenient method. I' bavc again chosen 10 use the ~ cquivakmt circuit because. in Ibis questiort. the, opco.clreuit voltage is easier to caleul3lc than !he, .oo.t:cireui! =1,

(-)

The opcn-circuil voltage of tbe clreui~ wilh the I o resistor considered .. !he INd on the circuit, can be found by cak:ulaliog !he diffcrenee Vo - V A in I'igttn! 1.16.

Uoiog !he correnl d;,vider rule.

11= 7/(6 + 7) A= 7113 A

12 =61(6 + 7) ,A = 6113 A

g

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

So, v,-,. VB - VA =40" M3 A -3 Ox 7/13 A= (24113 -211l3) V =3113 V.

I, I,
30
IAt A
4Q t'\
Figurt 1.16 To calculate the value ot~. replace the comot source with its infinite intemal resistasee, giving:

Rr=6 D inparaUcl with 7 D= 6x 11(6+7) D=.42113 n.

The value of the cum:nt in. the 1 0 rtsI5IO< COODCCtcd betwec1I A and B an1hcn be calculated as:

(1))

If the !!lOving coil _r has a coil resistance of 1000 n and full·..,aIc deflectioo cutrell! of o.:z mA (the reciprocal of the "Ohm5-per-volt-ligurc of 5000).1he voltage drop acru ss it at run··scaIc =DI must be 0.2 V. Hence. when ShWlted 10 provide a full·scale del1ection current of 100 rnA, tile tntal n:slSllncc of _ plus shoot UlIISI be 0.2 V + 100 rnA = 2 n.

To measure the current in the 1 n resister, the meter is connected in series willi the IC.istOf, SO iDcr=;ing the rc,iSWICC of that branch of the cirellil from I 0 10 3 n.

The new value of \be current can then be caIcullllM 8$0

1=::3= (47(~+~)D =i1A =37.0mA

and lltil wiU be the m<ICr reading. (e)

The percentage CrnlI" introduced by !be measuremeoll!ll!thod can be calculated 8$:

E = 54.S - 37.0 X 100% = 32% 54.5

10

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

a.-tIonl.l1 (-)

As in tbc previoes 9ucsllon. Iho value of Vr can be folllld AS Ibe difference betw .... the voltages at Ibe Iwo output lenni""),;. So.

VT=IOVx 1000 -IOVx~=SV-4.~V=O.SV

. 1000 + 1000 900+ 1100

Repbcing Ibe i<leal volLlge source with ilS zero in~a1 resistance give. tbc val .... of RT as:

R,." ](100 x 1000 0 + 9(0)( 1100 0 .. 300 0 + 495 0 .. 995 0

1000 + 1000 900+ 1100

When the bridge is loaded with a resiSlllnet of I ldl. the output voltage wiD have Ibe value:

va'" VT x,___!!£_=O.SVx_I_",O.2S V

II,. +1 ill 1.995

()I)

Because both halves of the bridge have equal tQIal =iOl8!!Ce of Z kfi, Ibe current frolll the source win divide cquauy between lbem. TheTho!venin C<j1IivaleDl voltage can then:fore be oak:nlaled AS'

VT "'5 mAx loooO-SmAx9000= O.S V

Replacing the current sO\UCe. wilh ,its in~nlle in\etltal resi~ gives the 'IM_cnin eqoivalenl teSlSUInCe as (1000 + 1100) 0 ID pamlIel WlIIt (1000 + 9(0) n; I.e.

II,. _ 2HlO x 1900 n .. 991.50 2100+ 1900

(e)

Since the Thtvenin equivalent ",.isutnce is almost exactly 1000 0 with both a zero resistance voltage soeree and an infinite resistance current source, Ibe 'Illblcnin rcsiSWICC 1IIUS1 be p~y ,independent of the resistance of the so urce of bridge e,nergisuion. Hence the Thtvcnin eqtrivaleol rcsU;1aDCC of the cireuit of Figum 1.5 will also be, alrno51 exlCl!y 1000 n.

QIM8tIon 1.7

Re-drawing'tbc circuit as in Figu"', 1.17. the value of RN ca;n be seeD to be 30 n pluslbe pllJllUel combination of 33 n. 33 o,lUld 330 n.

The resistance. of die panlkl combinatioo can be calculated by adding the conductances and then fin<liug tbc reciprocal of tbc sum, i.e.

11

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

R,. = (30+15.7)0 ~45.7n

IN is the current which will flow in a shan circuit acro .. the output terminal, of the PCtWork IS mown in Figure 1.18.

rvf

F'·Bur~ /./8

To 6nd the value of this current we U$O the mperpQsJ1ion principle, calculaliog the <:OIItribulioa to IN of eacb source in tum. all other sou=s being replaced by tbeir IDImIaI resisWlCeS.

'Fint. the I V ,ou= alone (Figure 1.l9).

33.

I

,

'.,

XI.

330.

XI.

12

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

( 1 V ) 1

INI"'~/:~ 30.% =-A=10.4mA

. 330+ 0 96

TIIIO contribution of tbe 3 V sou= will be just Ih= limes !hat olllle I V I0Il= (since !bey ate both in series with a rWsunoe of 33 D), so

I~, - 31.2..InA

'lbe CO!ltribution of the 10..InA S<IUfCC (Figure 1.20) can be found ""ing the =1 divider rule.

I.,
I.,
.5.7 3D
0 0 ~f
- :1300

~l

Fig_I.W

1.,=-]OmAX~=-6.56mA

.. - (30+15.7) .

Adding these Ih= coubibutions together,

I. = I., +1., +1., = (10.4 + 31.2,-6.56) mA ~"l5.0mA

The current through a 330 0 load wilIlbcrefon: be. (Figure. 12J):

Fig,," /.2/ 1- 35.0 <nAX~ g~.26 rnA 330+45. 7

a...uonu (I)

Figure 1..22 shows \be circuit with node vollaFs and branch currents libelled.

13

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

Atuode 1. 6= 13+14 (I)
AI node 2, 13+11 =15 (2.)
t; !ko
a. I, Ii
I, f.
!DV 1 HQ n.
Figur~ 1.22 To make the equations eleanor, assume aU voltages are in '<OIlS, alE =1$ in JDllliamps and all n:sis!4nces in kilohms. "lhc cIpre$Sions fot the =tI in _ of nod .. voltapl can then be written:

f = to-V, I _ EO-V! 1= VI-V, I _.!:i I, _.!j_ , 1'"' 2 ' 2," 4' 4

Subslil1lliDg ~ cunml c1)R5liions in equatiOll (I l.

IO-V, ~ v,-v. +~

2 2 4

S ~ v[l+l+.!.]_.!j_

'2 2 4 2

20 = SV, -2V, (3)

and in equation (2).

V!-V,+IO-V,_.!i.

2 I 4

[I lJ V

to= V, -+,1 -t--- _.:l

422

40a 7V, -2V, (4)

MultiplyequatiOll (3) by 2 and equation (4) by S and add,

14

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

240" 31V, V, ~7.74V

SubstiNldor V~ in equation (3).

20 = SV, -15.48 V .. 3S.48

, S

=7.IV

(b)

ReplaciDg!be right-hand 4 kn le$istor with a JO mA =t S(lIIfQ!! gives Fip. 1.23

flO .....

At node I. Ar node 2.

F!gurt 1.23

12 '" I) + 14 as before.

/J + /1 + 10=0.

"The expre,sion. for CU=!IS!I. 11. iJ and 14 will be Qnchanged rrom part (8). The node J eqlWiOl'l will rberefore be tbe ...."., as in part (a). Le,

20 '" 5V, - 2V, (3)

Tbe n.ode 2 equariOfl is:

VI-V, + 10- V'+10=O

2 1

40 "'3V, - V, (4)

15

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Mate,;"

Solving these IWO equatiOD5 in • similM I!lI!IIIU 10 part (a) yields VI ~ 10.8 V. Vl = 16.9 V

~1.g

In the cin:uil of F'KW" 1.311Jere wiU be 4 unknown node voHages as ~ in Figure 1.24

I, s.

~ 10.

5.

14 10l1li 'Sa I"

~ ~~~==~~--~c=~_.--~~

15.

Fig_I.U

"The node equations (all ClIneDIS in rnA) are:

100 .. /,+1, (I)

1.=1,+1, (2)

I, ml, +1, (3)

I, + I, =", (4)

"The =1 ""pn:o.ious (with aU voltages ill mY) .m!

I, ,. VI - V, , I .. V, - v. .!i I '" VI - V,

S ' 10' I, '" 15" 10'

1 _ V,- V. / _Xa. t V.

~, 15" 5· , -"25.

Equalioa (I) yields

100= VI-V'+ V,-V,

S 10

tOO '" V [!+..!..] _!i. _!J.

'510 10 5

1000 = 3V, - V, -lV,

(Al

Equation (2) yields

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

v, - v, " v, - v, +!l.

10 15 5

0", V [.!..+.!..+.!.]_~_!i 1 to 15 5 10 15

0", 11V, -3V, -2V,

(B)

!'.quati0ll (3) yields

V,-V, ~ V,-V, +!J.

5 10 IS

0" V [.!..+.!..+.!.]_XL_ ~ '10 15 5 5 10

0~IIV,-6V,-3V.

(C)

Equation (4) yields

Queatlon 1.10

Figun: 1.25 i. Figun: 1.9 with the bl1lnch currents identified.

FigM~ 1.25

17

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

D.C. __ 0011 __ otoln:uIt onoIyaio

8ecause Clf Ihl: :!Ii~ of the eiecuh, Ihe values of ~ ~h ClUTeflilS cafl be easily _. For .l.Omple. Ol """" A. the""""'" eurrem will dlvl4o"l .. lly _" ,.., _ mWon ce .... !O<! to t!lain""". so ..... tne """"" ts 11.11"", 13 will w:lI be to IDA.

=YO:od:~.! = ~::!~ '!: =.:~"'::~I.':I,.o'=-f11:~"l~wiif~~

\>c,lOmA.

At n,odc;!: e.. F anti a thc:stClJ.:ftt:nlS reecmblee so thi.L ho...lj I ZInIII/ll Iff: eadllO rnA. =~:!, ~~ . .- Ihn:. <UrRO" «>tIlbi"O to (orm !he cum<Il of 60 rnA flowing

The vaJuc Qf Ibe "oltl8~ &elGIS lb: lOUI't:i: C1r! be eeaiuaed :by ~~g ,iIt.I Y ClnC or tbe panllel patb. t>etw=. IIOdeo A .. ~ K. lor_Ie IlIe pad! AB,fH. The VOltage drop along this path, will be:

V ~ I, I:;QxW rnA +1 J;;Q~IOrnA .. ll<OxWmA ~5QV.

~ g

2 SIGNALS, WAVEFORMS AND A.C. COMPONENTS

QUESTIONS

2.1 Figure 2.1 .bows • square-wavc voltage whim i •• )'IIUIl"Irical about tbe time axis.

I4Y

0, ,,~, Sf

-t----=..j--~---;'+---;+-....:;+_--II.

figur.2.]

(Ill What DR: !he meaJl aDd r.m,s. values of the wavefono?

(h) The voltage is measured on a rectifying n>Oviog..:oil melcr. calibrated to indicate !he r.m.s, vllue of a siol)$(lidal input v(t!uge. Wblt erroc willlhete be in !he indicatiOQ of the r.m.s, val~ of the square.wave because of its non·,iausoidalll&ll'm:. assumiag Ihat the meter itself introduces DO significant error into !be O>e3$IIJ1:ment?

2.2 A .iogle cycle of a repetitive voltage wavefOfTll can be expre'sed mathematically as:

V z (l0 - 41) V for 1 between 0 and I oec:ondi

V = -10 + 4(1- I) V for I between J and 2 sec<>a<h.

(., Sketcb !he waveform.

(h) Cah:u.late its mean and r.m .s, values.

2;3 The followiog .. mp! es of a noo"'inusoidal periodic voltage wovefom! were lakeD al 1 ms intervaJi and cover the, whole of one cycle otthe waveform..

(II) F"md Ihe mean and '.IlU. valLle$ of Ih<! wavefonn.

(b) WbaI is the ftrndamental frcqlletlCy of" 1M wavefonn?

Samples (in voltS):

O. 1.2. ).8. 20. 21. 2.9.5.4.6.8.6.3.4.3. 1.0. -1.5. -28, -29. -2.7. -3.4. -4.5. -s.t, -7.4. -7.2. -4.6. -2.3 • ...0.9.

111

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

2.4 'The Fourier series for the triangle. volr.o.ge ..... vd'onn of Fi8'U<' 2.2 C8!1 be expressed in the fonn

V" ko +k, sin 0)01 + t,sin2<1101 + .t,sinJO)oI + ...

whcn:,f" =~ i. the fuodamenw fteqllency. and the value of k t. k1. «3. etc, tall be found by subUihlling 'values of n. 1, 2. 3. ete, inlo the expression:

t = V (sin(IlI!/2))'

• , ntrf2

II;."IOV

tlnl'llM

10 •• 1014 Figun2.2

(-I U .ing this exp=slDrl. calculale the first 6 tenns of thcFwrier series and draw these CO"""","",1S as _, l,ne f~ """"",,m_

,.

ID

'0

10

(b) WhiclI is the lim non-zero hannonic wilh m amplitude leos!han 10m V7 (You do "0' have 10 calculale the amplilUde of each harmonic until you find oDe less !ban 10 mV.)

A music signal is fdtcn:d 10 produce a signal haying the poower .... ilY spectrum shown in Pi""", 2.3. 'Wbal is thc r ':111.1. voll8ge of !he signal?

...... q ... """', domlyl V'ttz"

o.hIO" •••••••• ----."

, 1

Figlln 2.1

20

U rheberrcc htlich gesc h utztes Mate,,"

2.6 A capacitor is conslruCled from two conducting surface s, each haYing di moosion. 20 mm ~ 250 mm, separared by a diel<ctrie of relative pennimYity t, " 350 and lhiclrness 15 I'm.

(_) What is !he capacitance ohlle capacitor?

(b) What is !he .eactaoc<: of lbe eapactlO< al2 Jdh?

(e) What current willllow in the capacitor wben il i. conaeeied IICfDS$ an a.c, SIIpply of 240 V at SO Hz?

2.7 ,a) What i. the ti me collStanl of the circuit of Fi~2.4?

(b) Assuming ilia! the capacitor is initillly uncIIargcd. what will be the value of the output voltage 4.5 second, after the ,witch position is changed from I 10 21

(e) What will be !he values of the DU!pIII voltage and the capacitor voltage afler IS seconds?

(eI) After I S seconds. the ,witch i, returned 10 position I. Stetch !be variation of output voltage with time after Ibis change, ..",ot.atiag both nes appropriately.

Sf""

Filun2.4

2.8 i-I Use Thtvenin'" Iheorem 10 find tile time C<>lI5Wlt of the clwging, of the capacilor in

Figure 2.5.

(bl What will be the final value ofllte capacitor voltage wben!be charging i. complete? (el WhatwiU be the time COIlStant of the disclwJc when the ,witch i. opened?

IT,

v,t___}J

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

(d) Find the time CODSlaPI of !be charging of the capacitor ill Figon: 2..6. and !he voltage across !he capacitor one time constanl after !he closure of !he swlldI.

[ ...

In

I"",

Lit.

1_21i:d

UtG

Figun2.6

2.9 (II) A coil baYing lndllCtancc 10 mH and nqligible leOistance is coonecttd ae", .. a 20 V

r.III. s., I kHz sinusoidal wpply. What is the amplitude of !he current f1owill.8 In tbe circuit?

(b) The same coil is connecttd inseries willi a 220 n resistor. What 15 !he time con.taIll of the circuit?

(e) ThIs series. combination of resistor and inductor i. COD"""Ied, via a .witcll, across a 30 V de. supply. What will be !he voltage IICfCIS !he indllClor 0.2 ms aft er the switcb c1osu",?

(eI) What wiD be !he ewteJll fIowjog in Ibe cireull 0.1 InS after !he switch closure?

2.10

A transformer Iw a primary coil baving 3000 IUtnS and two secondary coil&. coil I having 250 IUI"IIS. coiJ 2 baVUlg400 tarns. The primary is COIIDeCIEd 10 a 240 V. SO lli: a.c, supply ba ving negligible sou"", reslstance. The magnetisi ng current of tile uansformcr caD be COIlsidered negligible.

(.) A 20 n resistur is connected _ coil I, while coil 2 i.left opeu circuit. Calculate the vollageacroo, !he 20 n ",.iSlor. the current flowing in il and tile. =1 taken fl'OO1 the. seurce.

(b) The 20 n "",""or is \eft COIIIICCIcd CO coil 1 and • 16 nn:sisWr is COIIDCCWI across eoil 2. Wbat will be !he input ",.Isunee of tile prinwy of the transfomlCf, and whal ls !he local power WP from !be source?

ZI

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i"

SOLUTIONS

Q_2.1

TIle mean value ilthe a\lt:l1llle measured over on<: half"Cycle and is tbefef"", simply Va.

llIe mean ,'qu"", value is simply V.2 (oinee the.squan: value remaiqs COIISlaDI at V.l), and .0 the r.m.s, value is al.o V ..

When a rectifying !!loving coil meter measures a &iJJosoidal waveform, it acruaIly measure, the, mo:aD value, which for a wavefonn of "1JIPlitu& V. is V. ~ 21", If !be meter is calibrated to iDdicatc r .!!I.'., ;t then displays this value as V J'/2: Thos a mea!! value of V votu. would be iudicalcd as VN2 ~~~ ~~ ~.nI(z.J2) volts. Thus the indical<:d value will be 111(2"2) = 1.11 timco the

When the waveform of F.gnre 2.1 is rectified, il$value ",maills COI!5U!It at V. a!!d 50 the ,nWl value is V •. Thi1; will be di.played by the meter as 1.11 V •. Since, for the square ..... ve, the actual r.JD.s. value is aIsu V., !be di.played value will be in error by 11% ..

~2..2

(-)

TIl<! wavefQnn i. <howl! in Figure 2.7.

VI.

to ••••••••••••••••••••••• - •••• -

·2 ~

~ .. ·10

(b)

23

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h "Illes M aleri"

n.e r .rn.s, value can be cakula!ed by f .... 1 finding the mean square value.

The mean square value ~IUI be found by inlegrating OYtf the fIrSt half eycle, "nee the .ymmetry means thai die IICC<)nd holf-ey<:1e will have !be """'" mean.rquan: valuc: lIS the. first. Hence.

! ]r-T2

v ~T""vdr

"'i!(tO-4i)'w

- !(HXI- SO, + 16t') dr

[ 161'1

" 1001-40" +-3-

-100-40+1%

'" 196;3 V'

So. !be r.m.3. value is;

V,.111.1- = ..J(I9613) V = 8.08 v,

_u

(tI)

SllIIIIIIiDg BlIthe sample values and dividing by the nU1llbcr of samples (23) gives the mean vaIuc u:

Mean = -12.5 V + 23,,~.S4 V.

Squaring each value and summing (remember thai BII rquamd values will be posi.livc), !hen dividing by the number of samples gives !be mean-square value as 384.75\12 .. 23 = 16.73 V2. The r.m.s, value e""then be f<xmd by taking the .1HjIW"C root of this value.

r.ms. vah>e. '" ..J 16. 73 V. 4.09 V.

(II)

0... complete cycle i. rcpt'U<CDled by 23 ..... ples taken 01 I ms interval.. The period of the waveform i. thelefore 23 IDS and the fundameo1a1 frequeocy is 1000123 Hz = 43.5 Hz..

(II)

In the expression V" k" + k, sin av +1, 5io2ay +.t,sin3ro.t+ .... k, reprc$CJllS the average val.ue of the waveform, which. from AI""" 22 mast be Vafl" 5 v.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

.t "V (5iO(mr!2))'

• • mtf2

~ "V, ('in Jt(2)' , '" v (_!_)" '" V,(3.)' '" OAIV, ,,4 I V

...., I JC/2" :III rrf1. I 'K .... _"

.1:," V.(';:!lJ =0 V ('ince .h"t=O)

.t, " 'v.( sin 3Jt12 J' ~ V, (1... )' ,,0. 04SV ~ 0.45 V

, '311/2 ' 3", •

.t." V (.;n2")' ~O V

• 211:

('lnS1I/2)' ( 2 )'

• =V ~-'- =V -, ,,0.016V .. 0.16V

"'> 'S1tl2 ' S1t •

k,,=OV

The fuudamenw frequenoy " II (25 M5) .. 40 1h. The line .pcctrum is .bown ;n FiBJI'" 2.8 wnplutI'CI'''f

(b)

iO

"

ilO ," 100

Fig ..... 1.8

:HG

For a frequency eempeneet te have an IlIOplilD<i< It$$ than 10 ID V. lb. ~p",ssion V of)JtmJl must have a val"" less than om V. and 10 the ~pressio", (1lm(Jl must have a y;aJ"" tess than 0.001.

25

U rheberrcc htl lch gcsc h utztes Iv! ateri a

i .. e.

"'

(!) ~O.OOI

2. ~ ..,10.001 .. 0.0316 l1li

n > %.0l16l1: = 20.1'

Hence. tbe twenly-finl harmonic will be the fint non,zero harmonic wid! an amplitude less thin IOmV.

au.IIon. z.s Con.ideriQg F!gIIl"I' 2..3,

from SIlO Hz to 1.5 kHz..

;;; = area under triaagle = t x base " height

.,tx I kfuxo. 7x]O-' y' Hz-'

=0.35 v'

from I.S kfu to 3 kHz,

~1.05 y'

from 3 kHz 10 6 kfu.

;;; gtx3 kHzxO.7x.10-' V' Hz"' =l.OSY·

so, ovenll

Hence,r .m.s. voltage. I.S? V

;;; = (0.35 + 1.05 + 1.(5) V· = 2.4.5 V'

E = G,t', =8.854 ppm:' xl5(l .. 3100 pF m-'

C_M _lIlXI ppm" x 20)(10-' .m x2S0x 10" m

r «: ISxIO'im

= 1.0l1IF

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

(b)

At 2 kHz. the copocitive reactance is given by:

Xc -I/DJC-If21!fC - V(2.: x 2 c>< 10' Hz." L03 >< 10" F) =no

(c)

AI SO Hz.

Xc "n (I x (2000 Hz)/{SO Hz) ~ 3080 (I CUrrent I = V/Xc ,,240 V /3080 Q '"' 78 rnA

ou.tIon2.1 (.)

Time COD>tant" CR = 32 ~ 10-" F ~ 41. loJ Q = 1.5 •

(b)

4.5 seconds is equal to 3CR. after which time the cap.acitor vollagc will have reached 9S% of its flJlal value, i.e, 14.25 V.

The 0Il1pdl volrase wllIlhefefol!! be (IS - 14c25) V = 0.7S V. (e)

After 15 seconds, !he value of the output voltage will be given by the, cqua.tioa:

V .. =Via~~YcR)

"15 Ve.p(-IXs)" IS Vap{-IO)= 0.7 mV

n.e value of the capacttor voltage will the,efol!! be IS V minus 0.7 mV which i .. for all practical purposes, IS V.

(eI)

The skcleb of tbo·variation of OUIpUI voltage ~ith time is shaWl! ill Figure 2.9.

Wb=J the swiICb i. moved back to podtion 2, the capacitor voltage is IS V, but the IoIaI c.mf. in the cimQt is zero. The initiel discharge current flowing from the capecltor must thcref= besucb as to generate an initlal v. altage across. thc resistor of -IS V (so Ihat YR. +. Vc = 0 V) ..• As the capacitor dischalges, ilS yo~e falls, so IfIat the magni!Ude of the resistorvohagt eIso falls. The !eSUit is thai the oU1pIIt voltage lJIitially drops practicully io'tantaneou.ly from zero to -IS V. tbcn decays exponentially towards zero with Ii"",· conSl3II1 CR" I . .!is, as shaWl! in the 68I'R-

Z1

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

".

·In

·s.'v

-,.IV

-u ... "

Figun2.9

a...tIo!"o2..11 (.)

Thl;veain'stbeorem can be used 10 create !he Thtven.in equivalenl of the clrcult of Figwe2.S with Ibe .wilCb closed aDd wid! Ibe ""I'*'i1or COCISi<Iered as Ibe road.

~oving the capacitor. the. CQ!!IPOOCOI values of the Thl;v.ni!l equivalem eirouit = given by:

It, '" R, ill parallel with R, -l+'\ and V, .. V, x R, ~ R, Hence. the lime _I for cbatging tbe copacitor '" CR., ~.E&&.

R,+R, (b)

The final value oftbe apacilor voltage will be V~ = ~

R,+R,

leI

WIleD the .witch is opened. the capacilDr can only di5Chargc tbrough R2. The lime constant of the discbarge "therefore CR1.

lei)

Again. .. 1lH!venin equivalent cln:uil for Figwe 2.6 can be auJ>:d, with the capacitor CDMidcrtd. .. the load DO the, circuit.

~viog C gives Figun:, 2.10(8) and the equivalent circuit is Figun: 2.10 (b).

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

!u 1.~t;A- "tL:
_: .. I
lOV-= :- 0-
•• 111:; Ut •
I~ 101 Fi8"T~2.IO

Vr K V. -V. ~10Vxl.5f2.7 - toVxO.9/t.9~5.S6V-4.74 V-O.B2V

Replacing the volrage """ICC with a sbort-cifCllit give.,

II,- ",(1.2XI.5 + I XO.9) kil ~(O.667 +0.474) kil ~ 1.14 W

2.7 1.9

Tbe time ~OD.tanl is ~ ell. ~ 330 x to" F x 1.14·~ 10' n"' 37611"

"The final ca~ilOf voltage =VT" 0.82 V, so the voltage acrms the capac:!tQr after one time CO!IS!anl will be 63% of 0.82 V "0.:12 V

(.)

"The inductive reactance of the coil .. XL " mL .. 2qL = 2K ~ I ()3~ 20 x IO-l 0 .. 126 0 'llleJmore, r.m.s, =1 = '20 V .. 126 0" 159 mAo

The amplitude of the cum:nt is th=i'ore 159 rnA ~ . ./2" 22S mAo (b)

The time constant = ~" 20 x 10" H '" O.09lons R2200

(G)

The Inductor voltage after 0.2 !lIS is giveo by the "'luatioo;

v< - v, e,p(-'I}i) a v, ""1'{-O·%.09I) - 30 V X 0.111- 3.33 V

(II)

Alter 0.1 tnS. Y, .. V, ""p{_O}b.ooll = 30 V x 0.333 = 10 V

So. ". '" V, -0, =WV andlhe.cunenl i-W V/12fJ 0=91 rnA

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

Ca)

'The vollAge across the 20 0 n:sistor is 240 V multiplied by the WInS ra tio.

i.e. V ~ 240 V x 2SOf3000 .. 20 V

The current nowill8 in theresil!Or is I = 20 V ... 20 Q = I A

The current taken from the SOIII'I:C is equal to the ICCOIIdaJy CIlITOIII multiplied by tile IUmS rati<>.

Le, Primary CUfTeftt .. I A x250f3000 - 83 rnA

(b)

The voltage across the l6 D rcmtor .. 240 V x 400/3000 ~ 32 V and Ihe CIIlI'CtII nowing in it i. lhercfo.e 2 A.

Using the ",Jalion.bip ilNI "i2Hz + i)IV3 (see answer to SAQ 21 00 page 90 of !be, textbook). the =1 flowing Intbe primary can be calculated as:

I" 1 A x 2SOf3OOO+ 2 A x400f3000 = 0.35 A

The input resistance of the truIrlmmcr is therefore 240 V ... 0.35 A " 686 Q The power taken from !be source is V x I = 240 V x 0.35 A = 84 W.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h "Illes M ate,i a

3 PHASOR. ANALYSIS OF A.C. CIRCUITS

QUESTIONS

:u (a) Referring 10 the descriptiom of capacitive' and inductive ~"", giveQ in Secti.on 2.5 of !he textbook, and 10 the description of pha$or diagnuns given in Section 3.1 of the textbook draw. as 8CCWaIely as you tall. !he phasor diapam showing !he rdalionship between tho ~urrentl flowing in m., cireu;t of figwe 3.1 and the ,oltagcs V /I. V L and Ye·

.-.1

(50~)

I,. Usin IOOtd A

Figllrd.l

(b) ()Q !be :wne phasor diagram. C(IIIstructlbe phasor represeeting the supply volllgc. and hence deduce (il the phase dirrereDa: between !he supply volrage and the current and (ii) the magnitude of the supply volta8"

(e) What relationship between V LandY c is necessary for !he CUTmllIo be in phase with the snpply YO!.?

U (a) For eacb of !he circuits in Figun: 3.2, obtain an expression (o[ the circuit impedance in

(a + jb) fonn.

roOR mOR

v.l'"'-' C Vs1'"'-' l

OOKTI ~6'll .. 1'i_J_f .. 1 'i_J_J

Fj,~r. 1.2

31

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i"

(b) If R = 1.8.1<0. C = O.33.,F lind L = 200 mil, e~alUlle!be cxpn:ssiOll$ derived in (a, for .,=3000radr'.

Ie) For each ciralil, calcuJato: !be fmqucncy al whicll!be cwrcnlWcn from !be source is 45" oul of phase willi tile sowce voltage.

:u (I) For die circWt of Figun: 3.3. show !hat 1he yoltage tml$fcr fiu>ctioo A= V.,IV, can be expn:ssed inlhe form:

A ~ __!!.__X _I _ R,+R, l+jwT

wbete T = C....!&_.

R,+R,

v.

Figure].)

(b) Skelch Ihe ""aigh'-line appn>ximati<>o. 10 1he Bode amplirude pi'" of !be venege transfer fuu<1ion when RJ = I 1<0. C = 100 of aud R,. = 2. kn.

3.4 (I) For lite circuit of Figun: 3.3. show !hat !he impedance Z;n seen by Ihe .ource can be

expressed in the form:

Z . =(R, +R,)x 1+ joiT,

• l+j<»T,

where T =~ and T ",C" , R,+R,' ''I

(b) For the _values of RI. C and Rl as in QlJO$1:ioa 3.3(b). steidl the variation of 1be mas:nitudo of Zin in !be form of a Slrligbl-line approximation BoeSe plot, wbere die vcrtit:al am is 20 IOSlQ IZIoI dB.

3.5 (~ Show dUlllhe voltage transfer function of the ciR:uit of Figure 3.4 can be cxprcacd in

tho form

~=!z.x (1+ joiT,) V. 1'; (I + jwT,)

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

whe",

T, '" CR. and T, - ~~1

c

.. 1 R'R. l'

o-----_~_

Flgurt).4

(b) If R] '" 4.71dl, Rl " 1.81dl and C", 10 pP, oakulate tbe 0UlpIII voltage ampliwdc wh.cn V. .. .1 0 .in(5Ol,l V. Alio calculate the phase difference. between !he oulp<Il volrage and !he supply voltage.

(0) Sketc:h!he sunight-Hne ap~roximation to the Bodo amplitodo plot of !he voltage; !f3IISfer function of Ibe, ciralll_ dearly labeUing 00110 axes.

3.6 (8) 'The vollage tnIIIsfcr function of the cimrit of F'8IIre 3.5 can he $bowo to be

!a_ j<ol(T,-T,)

Vs _ (1-0,'T,T,)+ j!O(T, + T,)

where T, ., CR, ""d T, = 71r.

Figuu).j

(i) WhaI condition. will cause Vo 10 be: zero when V. is """,zero?

(ii) If Vo i. not zero. at what rrequcllCY will !he output voltage be in phase with !he ,upplyvolrage?

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

(b) If RI" R] a I kO, C~2nFand L-I mH.

(i) AI whal froquoncy is Ihc 0IIIp0It inphase wlllt the lIIppl)i?

(il) Wba~ Is the amplitude or tbe OUIpilI voltage "'h~D .thesupply voltage bas amplirude 10 V and froqUCIICY 10 kHz, and wbat rs ,Ii pbase ",Iabve 10 the supply?

(iii) Show thaI Ihe angu!ufrequellCy &I whlcb !he OIIlpul voltage leads !he inpul voltage by 45· is giVCD by tbe posiri.ve root of !he quadnllic ~uation

w'T,T, +4I(T, + T,)-l-O

and evaluate this angular frequcacy for Ihc compollC!l VIIues giVCD.

3.7 For !he circuit of Rgure 3.S wilb !he componenl and lupply .a1uco glveo in Question 3.6 pan (b), DOe n.eYe!lb!'. ~ to fiDd!be =t which flows iIIa.1oad ~ of 2 kG ~ across !be 0IIIp0It IerminaIs. when. !be supply frcqllCllCy it 10kHz.

SJI (.1 Obtain an """"".;011 for Ihc vobage Iran5fer function of !be networl< sboWD in Rgure

3.6 in. the form (I + j",T,Y(l + jW2).

FigllreJ.6

(bl SkeIdI the Slnlight.1iDe appraUm&lion 10 the Bode amplil10de plot for "'" oetworI<; when RI =7.S W,Rl = 2.7 Wand C=O.I!lf.

(c) Cakullie the phase sbift of Ihc: networI< &I a frcqIIency of 300 Hz.

(eI) A buffM amplifier having a pin of 10 and urn rbase .hill OVM Ihc: range of freqoencies of iDlen:st i. placed between the 0II1pUI 0 !be network or Rpm 3.6 and the input of the network of Quc&tiOll 3.5 (F"iFl"'. 3.4). Sketch !be. IInIight·line approlinwion 10 !be Bode gain pIoI of !be whole network, cleaJly labeUing hotfi axes,

(e) Ora w m rouJb skctcb of"'" Bode: .phe5e pJ.OI of the complete .networli;.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"

3.11 An amplifier has !he $traigbl-line approxirnati(lI! &de g,bn plOt of Figure 3.7. It is p.1.ccd between two identiell 'ingle-hili CR netwolb with C a SO nF and R = I kO.

WhaI is the vol~ mmsl'er function of the amplifier'!

WhaI. ts the ""I!age mmsfer fuoetiOD of the compleu: netwod?

Con.1JUc1 the ,traigln-IiDe approximatioD Bode gain and phase, 'plots for !be. oomple1e neIWod<.

(e)

(II) Calcnlau: !be toW phase shift of the DelWork II a frequeIIey of 3 kHz.

Ipinl/dB

1kHz 10kHz

FjglU~J.7

iO~----------~

3.10 A coil baving an lnductance L and a resistance r ls WllIICCIed in panlIeI with • capacilOr C across a =1 50IItCe I as shu"," in Figure 3.8.

c

(.) (b)

FigunJ.8

Ob!ain an cxpressi.OD for !be inpm admillllnCe YT of!be circuit in ( .. + jb) form.

If ",sonance is defined as !be condiliDII when YT becomes a pwe coDdDCtanee, show !bat the ",SOo"" OIIgular fn:queucy io given by:

w.=~:c-~

35

U rheberrcc hll lch gesc h utztes M aleri"

(e)

Show tha! Ihc: dynamic impedaDce has !be value 7Cr

If L = I mH, r = 10 n and C = I of, <:alclllatc lbc resonaIlt fi'cqueoc)' and the dynamic:, impedaDce.

If 111 = I IDA, w.haI is !be amplitude of the voltage across lbc coil and lbc eapecltor (i) at

~ BOd (ii) at very low. frequency? ' .

Wba, . t pe~nll8C error.' i,.inlrod~ into the,' calculltio~ of "!'e fC$Ooanl angular freqllCllCY If !he expresSIon [0' "b 1$ wumed to be "b = IN(l.C) ,nSICId of lbc correct expcession given in (b)?

(d)

(a)

(I)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ate,i a

SOLUTIONS

o.-tIDn3;1 I.)

The resistor voltage is given by IV.I~ 111 x R and is in pbase wilh the eurrent, The capacitor Volta&e', given by IVel" 111 x Yme and lap the =1 by 90". The indUCIor voltag~ is given by Iv.I-Jllx OJL and leads the c=1 by 90·

Therefore, IV.I "Jllx R " 0.3 A x 68 C " 20.4 V

IVd-JllxYme -O.3Ax I ... 0=095.5 V

IOOltx lOx 10

Iv.I"Jllx.<lll. ,,0.3 A x (1000: 0.8) 0=75.4 V

The. pIwor diagram is shown in Figure 3.9

J v,

I

. :~.,.

'---i---.= ."

v,

FigunJ.9

Figltn J.10

(b)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

(i) Theropply voltage is equal to tbe p!wor sum of V R and V L .. V C , as sbowo in tbe figure. The supply voltage thcrefo", bg. !be =t by II!! IQglc , wbcrc;

laD III = Vc + V, = 95.S -75 .. 4 = 0.98S

V. 20.4

He""", .. WI-I 0.985 - 44.6'

(ii) The IrIlgIIitudc of !he .supply volllll!c V is found by phqor additioo IQd u;

("I

for !he ClIIJenllO be in phase with tbe supply voltage. the length of the pbasor reprcoeatiDg VL + Vc mU5Ibe zero. siDeetbal is the only CO!!<lition which fC$1IlU;p tbephqor~ag VB" VL" Vc being in the· same di=lion as the cumoll

OUMtIonU

(aJ (i)

(ii)

z= R .. jai.

Z = I/. ~WC "_R_,, Rjl- jWCR.) '- R _ jroCR'

R+ jWC jmCR+I l+m'C'R' J+m'C'R' 1+m'C'R'

Z_R.jOJl. .. jtlll.R{R- j<Dl.L m'L'R + jrul.R'

R+j<Ul. R'+OJ'I! R'+OJ'L' R'+m'L'

(ill)

(iv)

(b) (l)

Z=I.8xlO'-j 0' I .. .0 "'1.8xlO'-j~.Q =(1.8-j) to

3x I xO.33xlO 0.99

Z= l.8x 10'+ j3xl0' x 200 x 10" n = 1.8x Ill' +j600Q=(1.8+ jO.6) W

(I + OJ'C' R')" I + 9 x lO' x (0. 33}' x UT" x (1.8)' x Hl" = 1+ 3.IS= 4.IS

&0, Z= I.SxIO' _ j3X10' x 0.33 x 10-< x(1.8)'xI0' .Q ;:(0.43- jO.77) to.

4.1S 4.18

(iv) II ... <II' I! ~ (1.8)' x 10' ... 9 x 10' x4 x 10-> ~ 16 x 10' .0'

(ii)

(iii)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"

z _ (9 X 100x 4 x 10-' x 1.8 x 10' +' 3 x 10' x 0.2 X(I.8), x 10') n = 180 + . S40 n

3.6x 10' J 16><10' J

(0)

The CIIrn:J!1 will be 0145·1.0 the soerce vollal!<' when the impedance phasor has angle + or - 45·. Using the results from part (a) and equaling reallllld .imaginary pares.

(i)

R = I/wC SO OJ = l/CR and l'" X2nCR)

i= I fh = 270 Ih

211:.x 1.8xlO' xO.33xI0" ..

so

(iI)

R" o.>L so OJ =R/ L and f "'R/(2.1CL)

(iii) R = <l!CR2,. SO OJ" IICR andf=2.70 Hz (as in pan (l)). (iy) .lDR"..u!2.0.,,,, RlL and!= 1.4 kHz (as in pan (iill.

There are. a number of different methods of IaOkiing !hi, problem, I have cboaen to show three different approacbes so thaI you can see whi<:b result. in. the simpleOlrnathematical manipuLalion.

M.ethod 1 treats !be circuit as a voltage divider having two imped:am:es Z, IIId Z2 as shown in Figure 3.11. wb=ZI is .imply RI andZ2i, the parallel combination ofCaud R2.

Figun J. II

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

i.e. Z,= Il, and

USing the 'olt.a,ge divider rule,

A=Y~ '" ~+jmCR,)

S R, + (I + jmCR,)

R, _ R,

R, + j~R, + R, _ (Il, + R,) + j~R,

_ _R,_x I

_ R, + R, 1+ JiliCR\'){R, + R,)

Method 2 uses lb!vcnin·, tllc<Rm 10 creal!: a lb!y.nin equivaJenl circ:uil ror Y,. Rl and R2,with C os the load on the, cirelli!' as .hown in F""", 3.12

Fj8~Tt!3.J2 " _ __M__

... R,+R,

By analogy with the!eSUIt ror the simple. low-pass CR cin:uit (p.II] or the rextbook). ~= __ 1_

Y, 1+ jOJCR,

V I

~= I +iiliCR,"5{R, +R,)

So.

MetJoocl 3 uses a lb!venin equivalent cirellil with III "" the load, U sbowo in FI~ 3.13.

U rheberrcc htl lch gcsc h utztes M ateri a

Figun3.1J

~ _ ____&_ _ Ra &(1 + jruCR,l

VT - R,+Zr - R,+%+jruC~) - Ra+j~R,+~

R, l+jruCR,

" R, + II, x I + j~YcR,+ Raj

.!'!!.,,~><!I._~>< __ ] ~><]

v, VT Y, VT n + jruCII,.> ~ + R, t + JruCR,"}{R, + 11,)

(b)

When 11.1" 1 kQ.IIl ,,2 ill and C= tOOnF.

)

~ '" 2 ><]0 ,,0.67. 5{) -f'!;-+ 11 ., 0.67 W

R,+R, 3><10' ., .• '0

Henao.

.!'n. _ ___&_ . . t

V, - ~ + II, x I +10lCR,,){R, +11,)

_ 0.67>< 1", j -0.67>< ..

1+ i","IOO " 1.0 ·"0.67,, 10 1. + i'" "67,, 1.0

l1Ielow frequency arnp~lUde of !he voillge UlIII5fcr fuD<1ion "0.67 (:. -3.5 dB). Tbe corner frequency is at., = 1/(67 ~ ]04 rad ... 1 " 15'~ loJ rad "I.

l1Ie stra.ight line .pproumatlon Bode plot of the voltagJ: transfer function is sbewn in Figu:e. 3.14. CoIfIP'I'" this with the generehsed Bode 1']01 .hown in Figm:e 3.30 (page 120) of !he tal-book.

41

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

~20

IO~

-S.5- !l_I- __ ....

-40

1.5x lD~

Fit: .. re 3./4

au.tIon 3.4 Ca)

Tht impedance Z;,. seen by Ihc sourre COIIsisu of RI in series with the panIi\cl CombillitiOll of C.IIXI R2.

So.

(II)

Whet! Rr = I kG, Rz = 2 ill and C = 100 of,

T _ ~_100)(1()'" ><10' ><2><10'. g61xI0".

, R, +R, 3><10

T, ~ CR, -100><10'" x2>< 10' s =200><10".

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

So.

z ~3 IlIla l+jIDX67xlO""

_ ~ - x x ;f!

1+ jllJx2QO><1O

At very low frequencies, when terms containing .. can be ncgl.ecled, Zoo ,,3 x 10' a. This is in accordance with an intuitive eumination of tbe ci",,,i~ when: aI. low frequeeci .. the reactance of the capao;ilDr is very large, and llIe input impedance, is simply the, series combinllion of !be two resisters.

At very high frequencies, when tho I', ill tbe fiactiO!l can be neglected, Z" ,.10' n. This again accords with intuitive =niDg which sa)'s thatal high enoush frequencies !be cap.1citor becomes a sllon cin::uil. so that the inpol impedance .. simply R,.

At intermediate frequencies, tbe way in whicll the impedance changes can be found by plotting the variation of Zi. with angular frequency. figure 3.1S ""OW5 !lie 5Ir3ighlline appmrimation 10 the pklt of 211 10810 IZ;"I against angular frequency. Tho: low.frequency value is 20 Iog10 3000 - 69.S. The bigh.fn:quencyv&!ue is 20 iogtO lOOO~· 60. The term (I + j",,, 200" 1&-6) in !be denomiblllOl iotroduc ••• come,' from zero s Iope to • 'lope of-20 per decade at an ..,gular frequenq of 11(200 ~ 1()-6) rod .1 ".5000 rae! .-'. The, term (1 + jo>x 67 x ]~) in the nUIQOrIlOr introduces a comer from a slope of-20pcrdccade to ""0 slope II a frequency of 11(,67 x 1&-6) rae! s"" Ij 000 rad .-'.

60

69.5 -1----""

40

lO

105

: 15000 SOOO

Figurd.15

(.)

Considuing the eireult "fFogu", 3.41<> be!J!llde up of two bJlpcdonceo Z, and Zl'" in Figure 3.11, where Z2, is 'imply Rz and ZI is"'" panillcl cornl!ina.liO<l of RJ and C,

we, can write

43

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri"

_ ~ x XmC _ __1L_

z,- -

~-I' XmC J-I'j~

!2__~ _ R,

V. - z, + Z, -% -I' jmCR,) -I' R,

_ R,{L + j0JC'5)

- R,+R,+j~R,

~ 1l. X. (1 + joff,) T, (1+ jwT,)

(bJ

When R) n4.,1 1dl.R:! '" \.8 Uland C", 101'l',

T. = EM.. .. 10x10-4 x4.7x 10' X 1.8xlO' n 1.3xHr'.

, R,+R, 6.SxIO'

T, - CN, -IOxIO" x4. 7xl0' ~4. 7x10"' s

When V.= IO.in (SOsJ.IVJ = 10V and .. = 50nId .-1,.."

V "" 10xU2/!x (1+ j2.35) V

o (H' jO.65)

lVol-2.8x ~1+2.35' .. 6.0V ~1+U6S

LVo '" ..... "2.35 -tan"0.65 =34°

(e)

V T. (1+ 'off) (1+ jWX4.7xlO-»

The voltage transfer function is ~ = ~ x ~= 0.28 x (. ,)

V, T, (I + jwT,J 1+ j"'x 1.3 x 10·

The n"~ It:rm wj]] provide.an upwanllxmk poi"l at an. angular f~DCy given by

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv] ateri"

m= 1/(4.7 x 10"")= 21.2 md,s-J

"The denomlnator term wiJl provido a downward broak point at an angular frequency given by

"The low fRIqUetlcy gain is 0.28 (or -II dB). whi,le!be high frequency gain is 1 (or 0 dB).

The required straight.line appro.imation to the Bode gain plot of the 'oltage transfer function is shown in Figu'" 3.16,

1""'J/dB

~ _ .

-u -+-------1'

-20 +------.-~--__,-.---- .. / ..... ·'

IQ 21'.1 ;Joo

i1 Figu,d.16

~3.6 (-j

(i) Yo will be zero whenT2, = 'Tt,'o making !be numerator of tho voltage transfer I\QJcuoo zero.

Under this condition, Yo wiU be:era whatevcrthe freqllCtlC)' of tho .upply ""hage.

Y, 0 Will, also be Y, ,etl' !mall aI "f)' tow rroqueoci .. , . ( .. approach, inS, ze zero) w!Jeq, the numcnuor became. much .maller tlwt !be dooominalor, and al 'vef)' high frequencies (v approaching infinity) when the oj term in !he denomillllOJ becomes much larger than 1hc '" term in !he numerator.

(Ii) If V. is not zero, the ootput voltage will be in phase with !be supply voltage wben (I - oilTl'1;iJ is :r.c.ro,. In lhis case:., the reaJ pan of both m-=, lI'11merator and dlC:nominator win be ~. iO that both numerator and, donominator ha.e • phase IIIIgle of 90'. n..:, total phuc angle of the voltage transfer ratio i. then zero. Hence the fmjuency at which the output voltage is in phase with the supply ""ltag. is gi ven by

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

(b)

(i) Using !he vllues RJ " R2 " 1 k!l. C", 2 of and l." 1 mH.

T, ~ YR. '" I<rAo' =-10-' s

'T, - CR, - 2)(10-" ><10' -2xI0" •

The frequency 81 which die 0D(pU1 voltage i$ in pIwe with the StIpfIly is given by

, '" V(2tt.JT,T,)"" y( 21f'h l< 10·") Hz .. 1O'/(21<.fi) Hz

-112.5 kHz

(ti) Sub$tilUliJIglhev1lues forTI ar>d T2-logethcrwilb CI)-2KXI0" ""' ..... 1 (j.o./= IOkHz)illlo lbe expressi,OQ for the voltage transfer fuDctiofI 81_:

.!'s!.~ j<l)(T,-T,)

V, - (1- ",'T,T,) + jco(T, + T,)

j)(:2" x 10' ><10"

(1-4",')( 10' >(2)(10.")+ jX2",XIO' ><3>< 10" jx2ltX10·"

(1- 81<' x 10"')+ j><6ltl< 10'" j!l.063

Hcncc,

0.992+jO.188

y.. jO.63

o 0.992 + j 0.188

lVol= J 0;63 ss' =0.62 V 0.992 +0.1

LV" - -taD "L (0. 1 SYo. ml - -10."

(iii) The output will lead !he in, pilI V,ollage by 45,' ",Iaellthe piIIse of the deDomirwor oflbe voI1age IruIsfer function i. 45' {lince!he phase of the nUDlOt8l(Ir Is 9(n

Thls 0CCUt:I "'ben !he lUI and imlginary parts of !he deno,mioator are equal. i.~ when: 1 - (D'T, T, = m(T, + T,)

or

arT,T, + m(T, + T,) - t .. 0

The roots of this eqlllLtiOO arc:

411

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

-(T, +T,)±~(T, +T,), -4xT,T, x (-I)

6>" '

27;T,

_ -(T, + T,) ±,J(T, + T,)' + 4T,T,

- 2T,T,

Clearly. since the quantity under !he square mol is gre.t1U than (T, + T,)'. one I0OI is negative and one is positive. Since .,mu,t be a positive quantity,!be ~ value m~ be equal to rho

positive root. .

I'<lr the component values given,

-3>< 10" + -/9 x 10'" +8 x 10-"

OJ'" 4><10-

~ -3+.Ji7~O.28"IO· !lid .-',

4Xiii"

ou.tIonS.7

FigtlR! 3.11 sho'lls the chcuit of Figwe 3,5 with the load connected, and this is re-d"' .... in Figun: 3.18 with the load removed and the voltage source replaced by its u:ro intemalimpcdaDce.

c

I

L

Figurd,/8

F;g~r~j./1

,. [~]+ [_. I .]

R.] + jtzlT, R, 1+ jtzlT,

For the compooeol and supply val_ giYell.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

, -,

T _mV _271xlO xlO -0.063

m. ,- -YR- 10-·

roT, = ruCR, = 271 x 10' x 2·x 10" x 10' '" 0.126

z, = 10'[ j 0.063 ] t 10'[' __ 1_]

It jo.063 It jO.I26

",10'[; 0.06.3 + l 0.008 + 1 + j 0.063]

(I + jO.063XI+ jO.I26)

-10'[ O.992+jO.[26 J

- 1+ /0.008+ jO.188

= 10.[0 .. 992 + j 0.126] 0.992+ Jo.I88

The llpCD-<:ircuit output voltage l'T Iw akcady beep caladatcd ja Qoe:stk>n 3.6, pan (b) 10 be:

V" jO.63

T .. 0.992+ jO.l gg

The CIJrm1tlhrougb the 2 kn load ",sistOr is then:fo",:

--~~~~~~~A

~=:-~-:-::-:- + 2)( 10'

jO.63 rnA

2.976+ jo.m

Ill. 0.63 mA.0.6JmA,,0.2!mA

~2 976' + 0.502" 3.02

.Ll" 9O"-w-' 0 . .502 ~ 80.4" 2.976

Hence,

I" 0.2IL80.4· rnA

..

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

",11= T, g CR, and T, ~ C(R, + R,.)

(b)

Whom RI = 7.5 kO, ill = 2.7 1<0 and C" 0.11Ll'.

v. _ 1 +jll) >< 0.27:>< 10·' v;-- 1+ jID x 1.02 x 10·'

"The numerator provides an upword break point al

W= __ 1_-., rad s·' =3. 7>< 10' rad.-' 0.27><10

"The dcnominaJor provides a downward break poinllll "'''' ~ rad S' =0.98><10' rad s·, lO2><IO

"The low freqaeney glin (as ",approaches zero) = .1 (= I) dB).

"The higb freqLlellCy gain" 0.27 + 1.02" 0.26 (= -115 dB).

"The 5Ir"igbl·~ne approximation 10 the Bode glin plOi is showD in Figure 3.19

980 3100

Fig_3.l9

, ,

-11.5 _ •• - .- •• : •••••• "-------

, , , ,

-+ -;'r- __ '-- "'...:./radl·.

..

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h "Illes M ateri"

(e)

At 300 Hz. IJJ=21t/= 1.9 x lo-l!Jd .,1, so

L!.. ~ am -, fJJT, - tan -, fJJT, = tan·'(19 x 10' xO.21)(iO-»-1aD -'(I.9 X 10')(102 XIO·1)

v, .

= 27:2· - 62.7"= -35.5·

(d)

The Bode gain plot wiU be !be. combination of !be plou of Figures 3.19 and 3.16, plus. frequeo<y. iudepeodent gaia of 20 dB from !be amplifier .. This combination is shown in Figure 3.20.

la*oI/itB

"'----1.5

2D ---------.-.--r.,------------~

-+ _'_ ~~ ....:... _'_ w/rad.·'

21.2 11 110 llOD

FjlP"~ 3.20

Ie)

Tho Bode phase plot is skttchcd in Figure 3.21.

pMIO/delr'"

oIl

-15

-10

-45

FjK"'~ 1.2 J

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h "Illes M ateri"

1be phase ,. zero at both very low and very high fnq""ociO$ {earresponding with the Iwriwntal portiOIUi of Ihe Bode gain plot), is positive wheD the gain plot bas. lID upward slope and is negative wben Ihe gain plot hal" downward .Iope. You have already colc~latcd the phase, of one ",,!WOrk al an. angularfmjuency of ~o rad " to be +33", and al tbi. low freqlleDCy tbe pbaoe of the other netwo'" i. very small, so tbat the phase of Ihe combined nelworlr. is afmosl +33". You beve abo jusl calculated the phase of the ""twort of Figule 3.6 at a frequency of 1.9 ~ IOJ rnd ..-1 Co be -35.5', and at this frequency the phase 'If the other netwOrk is very small.

Figure 3.21 5II0w$ all these phase values and also shows the approximate, shape of the CU!VC joinlng tbcsc pcinl5.

The low-freq""""y gain pr the amplifier i. +40 dB or 100.

Tbe downward bn:ak.-point i. at a freqoency ar I klh or 6.28 x IOJ nd .-1. 1be voltage transfer function of the netwotk is therefore:

A = looL. '. = 1001 ....

/(1 + J"'/IIl,) 1{1+ j",x 1.6xl0 )

(»I

TIle Voltage transfer funetion of a .inglc .. lag CR !IC!W01k having C = 50 nF and R '" I 1:0 is:

A= V a V

1(1 + jwXSOXIO" xIO') 1(1+ jIllX5xlO"')

TIle voltage transfer func1ion of the complete network i, d1eref"..:

A 100

- (l+ jwx1.6xlO"'KI,. jlllX~ Xl0"XI,. j(llx5xlO"')

(e)

1be Bode gW! plot of the comp~ network will have a low f!'equency val .... of.4O dB, will have a downward break II. f - I klh from, the amplifier, and wiD bave a "cIOlible dowowanl b..u point (i.e.

from a stope of ...:20 dB/decade 10 a slope of -60 dB/decade) at OJ m 1/(5 x 10-') rad.-' "' 2)( .10' rad s-', I .e, f ~ 10'/" Hz - 3.2 kHz. room Ihe twO equal ,""gle-Iq: cin:ul ...

Figore 3.22.howI the. ,.ua;ght-lino "PPn»'imation Bode gain plol.

TIle ,traight-line approximate pba5C plot will be the, combination of ~ phase plots like tbII. of Figure 3.31 of the textbook, one wi.th a blllllk-poinl fnquency of I klh (6.28 ~ 1()l rad rl) , the other two with break-point freqlle",y 3.2 kHz (2 ~ loa rad ..-1). 'Ill<: combined phase ....,. of the th= is shown in Figure 3.23.

111

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h "Illes M aleri"

..

•• +----...,....

-110

II

Fig"", 3.22

.+.~. .~'.

",;;.> -, :;~'::.:.: .• ;. - - - - - --

(eI)

-2~~--T--~----~r--~--~-~ft~.~~=.~

100Hz 120Hz

,b-tr: Hnttl S2 tH:z lIat:ttf

Figure3.2J

At a I'rtquency of 3 kHz, '" = 2K ~ 3 x ] oJ rad :;1 " 18.8 x ] oJ rad:;1 andlhe phase sbift will be<

lI .. -Wl-'(18.8 x 10'1 '.)_ 2 x 1aII-'(.1 8. 8 x 10'/ .)

/6.28 x 10 /2xI0.

= -7l.6·-2 x(413")" -ISS"

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

Y'~Y"'L+Y . ~ __ l_. +jWC

- r+J<l>L

.-jwL .

~ ...,---;:-r + J we r + a) L

~~+j(we-~}

r+ClJL r+ClJL

(b)

At ICSODance. since Y T is a p1IfC' condUC1anCe, so (1lJC - , 1\Il.., ,) ~ O . r +CIJ l:

Hence,

c-~"o

,. +lJJm'lL

qr' + CIJ,'L')""L CIJ.'L'C= L-C.'

1 r' CIJ,''' LC-I!

(l)

Ie)

At resonance, Y, '" ~ but, from equation (I) abo", r' + w,'L' = UC SO that Y, =!E.

r +rJJ,'L . L

and the dynamie impedance i. simply L/( Cr).

(eI)

When L", I mH,I''' Ion and C= I nF,

Hence, the ",sonant f req ueney = 0Jr:I2" =160 kHz.

The d)'l!3ltlic impedance i. given by: ~"Yc,,, lOAIT' x 10 ~ 10' n

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! aleri"

PIIMOr 8MIpIa of .. 0. clreub

(e)

(i) If III = I rnA. the amplitude, of the vollage across bolli, the coil and the capacilOJ II ",sonana: is [()-3 A" lOS 0= lOOV.

(ii) AI very low fn:quwcy. lite ~ of the ooll is simply r because IlIL will be very small, while the reactaeee of the capacitor is infinltely luge. The cin::uil impc:dance is then:forc rand the amplitude of the voltage QCI'OSS the cittnit is t()-3 Ax 100= 10 mV.

If)

If lD actual qlWltity .t. is measwed with • fractiOllBl error of E, then the IDCBSUrCd value .!"mClD be e..:,P~ as.t. = >:,(1:1:1:).

A. can be seeo from the calculBliou of ~ in part (d). the error introduced into the calculation of "'02 by ignoring the second t=nin the e..:pn$Slon ,i. lOS tn 1012 or I pan in 10'. The error In the calculation of .. i. then:fore half this amounl or S parts in lOS.

IN.: this halving of the crrof when taltiD8 • square TOOl ClD be j1lltified as follows:

'TIle enoT in the 1IIC3SIIJ'OII1C! of .t.2 can then be evaluated as: .t.' =x.'(l±d = x.'{[:l:2~+~')

If e is very much smallcr than I. the ,p. COD be neglected and this expression bccomcII .t • .' = x.'(l :1:21:)

'0, if the error in the IllellSW<mCnl of.t. is Eo the error ill the IIIClIiIIJ"eIIIt of ... 2, i. 2e. Logically, then:f_, it folloWll that if the C1JOI" in the cllculation of ~2 is 1 pen in 10', the resBlting error in the calculation of "'0 IIIIISI be IIaIf of IhU valuc.]

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

4 AMPLIFIERS AND FEEDBACK QUESTIONS

4.1 (., l~ SAQ 2 of Chap, er 4 of the textbook, (Page IS8), an amplifier with an """D-circull vol~8e gail! A. of 100 is,boWD to prodoce an ru·fold i!!Crease in the signal developed across a load by a giVCD 5ignalsource. Explam why thi. DCC1lf$.

(b) In !be simation dcocribed iD SAQ 3 of !be same chapter, if R. = R(., by what factor is !be voltage ac,TOSS !be load iDCreased when !he amplifier is introdoc:ed between the source, and the load? E>;plain why this illCl'Wie factor is so much less !haD thai io SAQ 2.

U An operatioaal amplifier baving the follnwing "baracleristic.:

Low.froq....ney gain A. Input resistsace I"m Output mis1BnCe '"<OIl

=2~ (oJ =OOkO =2k!!

is C<)III1eCIed in the, cin:wl confrgllnllioD, ofFigun: ,4.1.

Figllu4.1

Calculate, the [ow·frequency closed- loop gain. input resistance and output resiotance of 1M feedback amplifier.

U The ampHfier of Question 4.2 is DOW replaced by a compensated operationl amplifier bavlng !be following clwacterislics:

Open-cin:uil gain A. Input impedance Ii Output impedance Zo

" 10,iG + jO.0160) ,= lOOkO

-1000

Calculate the closed-loop gain, Input impedance and output impedance of the feedback amplir>er II (0) 10 Hz and (b) I kHz.

U rheberrec htl lch gcsc h "Illes Iv! ateri"

4A Tbe amplifi", in the circuit of Figure 4 .2(a) has the open ·Ioop ga,inn:"1uetlcy characteristic shown in Figure 4.2(b). Assuming tho,1 the effects of the' amphfi.,. s input and OUtpUI impedances can be lgnceed, caJcol3.le the maguitude of the closed-loop gain at fn:qoencies of 15. 30.60. 120 and 240 klli- Plot these results on the no. providl:d in Figun: 4.3 and read off the 3dB bandwidth. Compan: the open-loop and clom!-Ioop gaio-bandwidth products.

IDOInIldS

106

~'p •• -20 dS/d«<d.

(0)

5Hz

~)

Fig"r~4.2

3D

--~~-~------~-----~-----~-----i-

__ ~ __ J_~_~~_~~ __ ~_~ !~_~4.J.

: ! I I :

I II ~ ,

-----'------f-----~-----:-----'-

~ • I * t

-----~------~-----~-----~~----~~

l ~ , • ~

~~--~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~~~-~-~-----~-

I I : : I

- - - - - ~.- - - - -! - - - - - + - - - --:- - -- -,-~-

: trequtl'lCyll:Hz

15 3D 60 0

Figun:4.3

4.5 In the 01",.11 of Figun: 4.4, if the low.fn:quency differenti .. l gaio A.of the amplifier is sufficiently largo_ then Vi is a very small voltage which C3.O be considered ... ro. Ass"",,, thaI til. input impedance of the amplifier is large enough to be co".i,don:d infinite, and the output impedance small enongh !O be lgnored ..

(.) Assuming th.al V; ls zero, show that. for the cireuit of FLgII'" 4.4. v. _'&'(V, - V,) R,

25

20

15

10

U rhcbcrrec h II ich ges" h utz tes ~ t ~tcri a

Figurt4.4

(b) Fo.r the drtnit of Figure 4.5, shew that V, " R,;(~+.!:l.) where R£ is the equivalent

RA Ro

resistance of RA• R. and lie in I'""'liel.

Fisure4.5

v.

Ie) Using the results of pans (a) and (b), Ilvaitwe Vo in terms of VI, V2 and VJ in the dJCUiI ofFi~4.6.

R

Flg"r~4.6

57

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ate,i a

4.8 In the f~bad: circuit of Figure 4.7. Z, ~ 2(1- j 0.01111) W and z" = 20 kO. Assuming thai !he virtual eanh appm~imation is valid, wbat will be the closed-loop gain III angular f""luencies Df 10, 100 and 1000.ad ,.11

~1

1"

~----._------~

Figu~4.7

By calcul3ting the lb!venin. equivalent circuit patameu: .. for the lnput circuit of the feedback amplifier of Figure 4.8. show that the e losed-ioop gain can be e •. presoedin the form

G= V.L: =_&_,,_I_. where T=~

/1'. R,+R, l+jtllT R, +R,

FiCure4.8

(b) If. in Fi~ 4.8, RI = RZ = 5 !dl,RF = 200 kO and C = 0.5 1'1' •.• kelCb the closed-loop Bode gam plot over the frequeI>cy range I Hz!O 10 kHz. (AssIu:oe dw the amplifier bas adICquaIe gIlD over this f~y raogc for the vinual eanh approximation tD lie valid.)

(e) If the amplifier bas gain A. = 2" 10'/(1 + j 0.03IlI). i.!he vinual eanh assumption valid over the range of frequencies of inlclut'1 &plain your answer.

4.8 An operational amplifier has the following "met charactt:ristic&,

Inpu! offset voltage Vm = 2 mV

Input bi.u carren! 1. = ISO nA

InpU! offset cu~ll", = 50 nA

III

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

(.I) The amplifier i$ used in tho circuit of Figuno 4.9. caJculale the oulpllt off$OO{.o)tage. no

v.l

F.gure4.9

(b) What simple change to tho circuit will .minimioc the contribution of 18 to the output o/f$OO{ .ollago without dwlging any other circuit <:haracterUtic1

U A 7410per.ltional ampUfier having the noise characteristics shown iD Figutl! 4.31 of the· teJttbooJ:. (page 190) i1; ~ intI) the tircuJt shown in figure 4.10.

1M.

Figure 4.10

C.) caJcul~e the output noise voltage of the amplifier in the fRquency band 10Hz to 100 kHz, H5umiog pegligible. noise in rho other oitcult OOI!lpOfII!PI$.

()I) Vt aod V2 .,., similar ,ignals. differing only sUghtly in amplitude. so that Vl can be expressed as V I + v whc.., v is a small amplimcfe ,ignal at tho same frequency as V IAsswniDg thai tho inpul signal fiequmcy falls wilhiD tho frequency band to Hz to 100 kHz, and that all other ftequencies can be filtmd out of the output signal, what i. tho minlnmm value of v which will provide a Signal~Doioe rati.O of at least 10001

4.10 The ampUfier in the circuit of Figure 4.9 has a slew r.ote of LO V !WI. The input lignal is a sine-wave voltage of amplitude 2 V.

(.) What i. the mu.imum ,ignal frequency whid! can be amplified wilhout diSlDftion d"" to sJew .ale?

(b) Assuming that lb. aropUner ha$ adequate. galn-bandwidth product. wbat i. the maximum inpDI signal amplitude at a f~uency of I MHz wliich can be amplified without distortion caused by ,lew .tate?

U rheberrec htl lch gC5C h utztes Iv! ateri a

SOLUTIONS

~4 .. 1

(8)

The amJ?liti er pertoems two functioos, firstly it ampHfies the inpUt voltage BOd secondly it cMucea the loading on the source caused by the load.

In this case, without the amplifier, the: signal ~oltage from !be seuree whco ~ <lir=Jy 10 the ""'" ts 8Ilenuated by • factor of 10 (since the .owce resi,tance i. 9 W and the load resi.UUIU is 1 W). With the amplifier inlelpOled between the source IUId the load, tbe amplifier itself loads the source, but by ."..,b I es s, and the anenuatiOll. of the sip! by the input resilWll:e of tho· amplifier Is bya factor of 1.1 oaly (.iDee the amplifier .input ",sistance i. 91 Wl. At tho output of tho amp~, tho attenuatioa oftbe ,ignal c.oll$ed by the load on the amplifier oolpUtl"e$lS1a!lCe is again a factor of 1.1 only (since the load ""jstance. is .. 1. W and the. amplificr.OUlpUt resiswH:e is. 100 0). Cambiumg tbese two attenuati.on.with Ihe amplifier gain of 100 gives aD ove:rallvoltage gain of about 82.5 compared with the attenuation of 10 which occurs without the amplifi er,

{b)

In SAQ 3, if R. = RL !hen,without the amplifier. the .• ignal WQOld be aneouated by a factor of 2 because the load oa the 5OUJ"ee would equal the SOIII"Ce .resistance. When. the amplilier i.< ;,w,rposed, because R, = 'l1I '" rOUl" Rt.- there wiH be twc attenuation factors of 2. combined with. gain of 10, giving an ovendl gain. of 2.5 and an illCrease in load Yol~ by a factor of S.

Thi. is much less than the ioorel$C factor of (a) because (I) the amplifier gain i. lower, CU) the ampliru:r input loads the SOUl« IJIOCC and (iii) tile load causes greater utenttatioo al!be amplifier output because of the higher OUtput resistaeee of the amplitiet rclative 10 the load resisWlce.

a.-tIon4.2

Low jr.qwmcy gain

!...=_A. __ = ZxlO' .. 667

v .. (1+.8A,J 1+1O-'x2xIO'

~ = (I +,BA,)r .. = 3 x60 W = 180 W

OUTPut rtsisulnct

R. ",___Ij,_.,~ W =667 C (1+.8A,) 3

Do.not make the mistake of assuming that /JA. ts much greater than I without ~hedJpg. In this case its value is only 2.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

With the new amplifIer,

z, '" (I + fiA}z '" (I + 10" xIO' )X 10' Q

• • I 1 + jO.016111

~ (101 + jO.01(61) x 10' Q (I + j 0.016(0)

,..; 100

Z, = 7(1+,lIA.)= 10'/ 0

1 + /(1 + j 0.016(0)

= (1+ jMI6tDj xl00 0

(101 + j 0.0161il) .

I·)

AIIO Hz, 41= 20lt ~ .-1 and 0.01641 - I.

10'

G= IOI+j",990L-0.6·

Z, es (1(0] +.)j) x 10' 0 =1.1L-44.4· MO I+J

Z. ~(1+ jl) xlOO 0 =1.4L44 .. 4· 0 101+j

(bl

Hence,

G - ~ -71)4L - 44.7" 101+j100

Z '" (101 +j 100) x 10' ,0 =0 14L-44.7" Mil

, (1+ jl00) ,..

Z " (1+ j (00) xloo 0 :70L44.1" 11 • (101 + jlOO)

.1

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes Iv! alert a

au.1IonU

From 1he graph of gain amplitude against frequency,1he low-ftcquency gain is 106 dB I>1Iicb is a gain of2 x lOS, wbil.1be I>=t-poinl is al5 Hz..

, .

The _I pin k tbert:fore A = 2 x 10 '" ~

cpm oop , 1+ iffS 1+ jO.2!

The closed-loop gain G '" A;(r + PA,) wbere P '" Y2S' Hence

The low-frequency gain is liP = 2S (= 28 dB).

Wbenf=lSxloJHz. C",15/(l+jO.37S)

Whonj= 30x loJ Hz. C=15/(1 + jO.7S)

Whenf=60x 103 Hz.. WIlen!: 120 x 103Hz, W'Irat! = 240 x 103Hz,

G -15/(1+ j I.S) G =25/(1+ j 3) G - 2S/{I+ j6)

SOxlO' _ SOxIO'

25(1 t jO.2f)+ 2x W - ZxlO' + jSf

Itj2Sx10",

IGl = 23,4 (= 27.4 dB). 1Gl- 20 (- 26 dB).

IGJ a 13.9 (m 22.S dB). 1Gl= 7.9 (= 18 dB). 1GJ-4.1 (-12.3dB).

These values an: ploctcd in Fi""" 4.11. The 3 dB po.in! is at a frcqucnc:y of about 411 kHz..

'0 J ~ ~---.-;-----~.

---"'_-__,;,'-~ : : : :

2S J_______ --~-----.-----~.

• I I I

I I • I '

20 ••• ~.~~ ••• ~.~.* ... ~.. .~ .. -.-~.

lS : : i I • :

1D ~_-_-_-_-_l--------·-·T--~- ... ----JII.---- .. ------t---'" - _-_:-

I t I • ,

I • • t I

-----r-----.- ---~--.---~-----~

I • I • I

I 'I: ~ , rr.,,,WlCy; ttcz

':~B ~oInt 60 Fi,"",".l1

Urheberrechtllch qeschutztes ~Ialcrial

The etesed-lcop gain·bandwidlh product is tbefcfore 2S ~ 40 I:Hz = I MHz. The opea-tcop gaiu·bandwidlh product is 2 x I OS ~ S Hz, which is abo 1 .MHz. The gain;bondwi4lb product is un.affcaed by the feedback. as upcclCd.

1-)

Sittee negligible """""t flows in !he InpUt Il:mlinals of the amplifier (infinite inpUl irnpedanc%). the vollllg1:. al tbe non.i.n.erting input of !he amplir..,. can be evallllled using !be vol.ge dividet role as :

v '" V .___&_ ., ~+R,

Since Vj is negligibly smaIl, !be vohage. at !be two inpUl terminllls of !be amplifier must be equal, SO " =V,.,___&_

~ R, +R,

AI tbe non·inverting lapul of !be amplifier, .inee the iupol. CItmOnt 10 !be ampUfier i. negligible. !he =1 rhrough !he inp!ll ""isror HI I1lUSI. oqual !be eurrent flowing in !be f=lbld< ~stor R,.. So,

V, - v. _ v. - Vo

R, - R,

!l.-v (..!...+.!.)~-~

R, '.R, R, R,

f-v·(R,ltl')= -t

SIlb$titUtiDg (or v~.

and hence.

(b)

In the circuit of Figwe 4.5, a coovenient method of cvllluating Vo is to use nodal analysis. The ooly node whose voltage .is unknown j. the jllDClion of R" .. Rs and HC;, and writing !he currenllaw equation. for thisnode gives:

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Hence,

Ie)

In "'" ~in:uit of Figure 4.6, since all resiston are of equal value. using the ~ ofpan (b) gives:

I . .

v, s v, g3(V, + V,)

and .IIt tbe non.inverting input.

v, - "~ _ v_ - V

R - R

VI)::r. 2y~ - VI

V." ~V, +!.V, - V,

3 3

a.-tIonU

In the oircuit of Figure 4.7,

G"-~" 2D

Z. 2(1- j 0.01<11)

to

(l-jO.Dlm)

10

G=--( --)=-IOL5.7"

. l-jO.1

[TIti_s could "'I""Uy be ""~!I$ + I OLII15. 7", bull prefer (0 ",lain !he miDu. si,go to reflect the inherent inversion in the (Ccdbacl: amplifier oonfigurali<>n.1

At (1)= ]00 tad .-1,

G m_....!£.... --7 OL4S' (l-j) .

AI 41" lOOOrad .-1,

G= __ I_O_=_IL84'

(1- jl0)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! aler; a

Solutions

The l~PUI d",";1 or the feedback ampUfier of F1gun:: 4.8 is shown in Figure 4.12. rogelher wilh the Tho!venin equivalent circuit. You are required 10 obtain values for VT and z.r.

Figure 4./2

Clearly.!<ince there i. "" voltage drop in R2 when there, is no load, tht y;aJ"" of VT i$ given by

v, ~V,x ,lIjC<>C ~v.x __ l, _~V$x __ l_,_.

l~ + J/jC<>C jC<>CR, + I 1+ jwT,

z.r will coosjst of R2 in seri es with the panillel combination of RI and C. 7. - R, + R, >< IfjC<>C - R, +___!L_

..,. - R, + IIjC<>C - , jC<>CR, + I

~ jwCR,R, + R, + R, jC<>CR, + 1

,. (R, + R,) xl + jC<>C R,R,/(R, + R,) l+jC<>CR,

= (a, + R,)>< 1 +~lDT,

. 1+ JIIIT,

ReplaciDg the inp"l cin:uit of Figure 4.8 with lhe Tho!,Yenin oquivalent ciraa;t of Figure 4.12 res ults in tht cireuit or Fi8llre 4.13.

Figure4.JJ

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

HtQ«,

~=.&=......&_x 1+ jroT, VT z, R, + R, 1+ iaiT,

!.. ,,!..x!L '" ___&__._xl +jwT, x-. _1_ V, VT V, R, + R, 1+ jroT, 1+ jwT,

m ___&__._X _1_ R,+R, l+iwT,

which " an e~PfC$$ion of !he rcqWrcd form.

(til

For !he given COlOpOl!I!Dt values,

T _ ~_ 0.5 x 10" x25xIO'

, - Ii\ + R, - 10'

• =1.25ms

,

G=!'.."~x I ... " 20 OJ

V. 10 l+jl.25xIO III l-pjl.25xIO III

The low'freque!l<:y gain" 20 (" 26 dlI).

The l>rW!:-poinl mquency = Jj(I.25 x 10") rad s'!" SOO nr.d s-I " 127 Hz.

The straight-linc appmDnwioa to !he dO!ed loop Bode pin plot i. skdchcd in Figure 4.14. _I,e

1M

..

II

"

Figun4.14

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Ie)

Atso plotted on FiIPU" 4.14 U the amplifier'. open.IO<>!' B<><I~ gain plot.

For the "'nul earth 8$sumption 10 be valid, it is necessary that the loop gain A.I! shall be much grealCr than lover all frcq....ncics of interest.

EJc!=,sing gaiItund the feedback fraction in dB.

20 IQglo IA.If» 0 dB

or 20 log,. lA.I + 20 log,o ItII» 0 dB

and 20 loglO IA,.I- 20 IQg" II/If» 0 dB

Since !be closed-loop gain will be eqcal eo III! provided A.I! is mucll grtater than I, for a fiBI assessment of the validity of thc·vinual oarth assumption _ can [001<' III tbo diffo"""", between !be Bode gain plots of the amplifier gain (20 log,o lA.I) and tile closed.loop gain (8$ourned 10 be 20 ,log to 11/1f. If !his diffcrc""" is IlignificanUy greater than 0 dB the<> A.fJ i. much groater than 1.

Looking aI Figore 4.14. the difference belween the two plots is a1ieas150 dB (i.o a value of A.I! of ahoot 300) over all freq....ncics of interest, and heeee the virtual earth a55umptiOll is valid over lIti. frcq<>cncy nmge.

I.)

The oqllation for o"lpIIl voltaS" offsel given in tbe lextbook (page 187) i.

Vo ~ (1 + R./R,)VIO + J.IR.-R,(l + R./R.)] + I .. IR. + R,{I + R./R,))f2 For 1Iti. example. Rp" 120 kO, R I " 30 100 and R) is 2 100.

H=.

V,. {(I+ 13~)"2 "10" + 15(1)< !!)"' ~[120-~1 + 1:)]><10' +SO><W",,[120+{I+ I:)]" IO'P} V = {W"10" + ISO ><:10"" 110+ SO,>< 10" x 1:lOI2} V

= {IO+I6.5+3.25} mY

~29.7SmV

(b)

To minimise !be contribution of 1810 the 0IlIpIII offsetvo~, II!c re.iSlaQCe R15bould be, oqual to the, paralklrcsistance of RJ and Rp. In lIti' case therefOR, R) should be j~ 10 24 Ul (30 Ul in I"'R'ld willt ,120 ~) by ~D8 a ':t2 kO resistor if' ~ne. wid! !be oigDal .source. Since ~ inpot ICSlstancc of litis nO!Hnvertu!g amplifier eonfigluation " "~ry high. the ~ma mJiIln.,., ""II .,......, no significant chao&" 1(1 the closed-loop gain or the, amplifier.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Maler;"

The r .m, s. value of the 10la1 noise output voltage of all ampli 1ier can be calculated as

where VoNV is the r.m. s, output noi se voltage, due 10 the cquivalenlillpul DOise voltage genewor l'NA and VoNI, is Ihe, r .m. •. 0IIIpUI noise voltage due 10 the equivalenl inpul DOi se CUlleDI generowr iw,.

The expression. for VoNV and VoN! are:

where V,." i. the r.m. s, value of \'N", .lNAi. the r.m .s, value of is«.

The value of VilA is f""n<! from the gnpb of spcclrlll den.ily in Figure 4.31(.) of !he ~Ibook as follows.

From 10Hz to I kHz, the av erage value of Ole graph i. about 10-1 S \f.! Hr-I.IO the contribution to V,...... of Ibis portion of the frequency range is

v, • .'(I)" 10-" V' Hz"' x 990 Hz -10'" V'

From I lliz 10 100 kHz, the value of the uaph i. con'1a!I1 al aboul 4.~ 10-16 Vllh""I, 10 the conlrlbutioo 10 Vw. of lhisponion of the (rtquencyrange, i.

v"" '(2). 4 )C,)O~· V' Hz-' x99x 10' Hz .~. 40x III" V'

The toUll me&Jlosquare noise voltage 0_ the frequency range 10 Hz to 100 Idh is !be toIal area under the curve and is therefore the sum of these two cootribution s, so v ... ' - 41 x I II" V'

Hcna: the r.m .s, valeeis V .. = 6.4 "V

The, value of (NJI is found from the, gnpb ofFigurc 4.31(b) of thc r.cxtbool< in a similar manner, From 10 Hz 10 I kHz the BVCIaF value of the gnpb is about 7 ~ 1()-024 A2 Hr-l while from I kHz 10 100 kHz tbe av.."ge val"" is about 5 x IO-lS A2 lh""1. Hence

;;;:::" (7~IO'" A' Hz"' :><990 Hz)+(5xlO'" A' Hz-':<99 Idh) -7~ 10'" +SO~ 10"" A'

-5,7J(1~ A'

.~ I"" ,,24:<10'" A =240 pA

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i"

The component values in !be fQJtllulae for V.NV and VoN! arc R, " 10 kG, Rr = 1 Mil and R3 = 10 W in paml1el with 1 Mil .. 10 kn Hence:

V""" = (1+ R,.IR,)V •• = 101 X 6.4.>< 10-' V .. 646 I'Y

V""' -1",[ R" + R,(I + Rr! R,)] '"' 240x I(r" X (10' + 10' X 101) V =4112 I'V

Hence,

(b)

AS established iu Question 4.S, !be 3!IIplifier configuration of Figun: 4.10 produces an output voltage which i. 100 bmc:lthe lliffemlCe betweea VI and V2, i.e lOll 1imc:I!be voltage ••

For a 'igoaj-lo-noiserntio of lOOO or more at the amplifier OIltpol, the signal-telaUd amplifier output. voltage must be at least 806 m V. Slnee the amp.lifier pin i. 100, -!he: differential inpul voltage. must be at least 8.06 mY.

a.-tion 4.10 ,.)

The closed-loop gtio of tbe ampllfer of Figure 4.9 is 5, SO the amp~tude of the output v ollegt; is lOY.

AI a signal frequency OJ,

and

Hence the maximum value of I1J is given by

<I) .. '" (d •• 1dl),.,..( .. 10' v,}o Y -10' rad"

Hence ,_=ro_f2!1"-I60kHz

(b)

To amplify I Mlh wilho"t distortion,!he lIWIimum output signal amplitude will be given. by

(V,)_=IO'!.",lO'l ,V=t.6 V

/Cil /6.28xIO

and heDCe the mu;mum input ,ipal ""'plitude will he (V.)_ '"' (V.) ... ls-Jo '"' 1.615 V = 0.32 V

..

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ate,i"

5 COMB1NATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUITS

QUESTIONS

5.1 A combinationallogic circuit is reqlri.led whicb produces JIll oo!pllt D from four input signals

A, B. Cl and C2 uccanling 10 the following rutc..

fi) If Cl and C2 are both I, the OU!pIlt D must be O. (i0 If CI. and C2 an: both O. !he output D must be L

(iii) If CI = I and C2 = O. !hen 0II1p111 D must be equal 10 inpm A. (iv) If CI = 0 and C2 m I,!hen 0U1pU1. D must be equal to iopll1. B.

(0) Consttuct the uuth table. far D.

(b) Canstroctlhe Klunaugh map for D.

(e) By combining Is iJl the large., pa •• iblc gt'Oup. 011 the Kam.ugh map. obtain no expression (Of D ill the simplestsum-of-products form.

(eI) Draw rbe BJl!l: implemcnwjOll of Ibe logic cirwil to generarc the output D using AND gates, OR gates and io".,=

5.2 Two 2-bil binary numbers AS and CD. wbw multiplied togc!her,p.roduce a 4-bil binary product EFGH, where eacb binary digit has its usual positional weighting.

(0) Comp1etc the .ruth IIhIe of Table S.I.
A B C D £ F (J H
0 0 0 1
0 0 I 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 I
0 1 0
0 I I 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 I
0 0
0 I 0 0
0 0
0 I
I 0
I I
Tobie!.) U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

(b) Construct w KamJ.ugh map for each of Ihc four output variables.

Ie) From. lheKamaugh maps, obtain an expre .. ion for each of !be outpuls in the simplest possible .~f-producls fonn, and draw the circultto 8l'- each output using only NAND galeS and invertcn;.

lei) From the same Kamaugh maps. by grouping together 0.. obtain an ""pre,';"" for the complemmt of each output, and hence draw the cirroll to genmue each OIIlput using only AND and NOR gIleS. (Yau may assume thaI the complement of each input YlIriable is available, IS well IS !he variable itself.)

!i.3 A logic circuil i. 10 be designed which has. IS inpu!$, Iwo 2-bit binary numbers. AB aDd CD.

The Muil i,' required to generate three ou~ signal" G, LandE. G is to be ] only when the DUmbc:r AS IS greaIer Ihan the number CD, L IS 10 be ] only"ben!he lIumbcs AS IS IeS5 than !he !lumber CD, wbile E i,IO be I O!Ily when Ihc IWO iopull!l!ll!bcn "'" equal.

(a) COfIstnId Ihc IIIIlh lable with AS and CD as inputs and G_ LandE IS outputs. (b) COOSIruCt !he Kamaugh maps for each of !he output variables.

(c) Use !he Klmaugh ma.p$lo obtain an .~pmsion for each output variable in !be simple'l possible sullHlf~producIs form.

(eI) a y re-am.oging the expression for E using the commutati.e and associ.ati ve laws. show how this variable could be sellClllted from tbc inpul variables using two XNOR-~ and one AND-glle.

&,4 The C;",y code is • binary code often lIIed with 1nUIsduccn; whicb 8l'Dente a digital signal proporlionalto rotaJy or linear movemetlt A four-bil Gray code bas Ihc Conn shown in Table 5.2

0 0 0 I 1
0 0 I I 2
0 0 I 0 3
0 I I 0 4
0 I I I 5
0 1 0 I 6
0 I 0 0 7
1 I 0 0 8
I 1 0 I 9
I 1 I I 10
I I 1 0 11
I 0 I 0 12
1 0 1 I 13
1 0 0 1 14
I 0 0 0 15
TobtoU
72
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a lal You are ~oired to design a Gray code to binary code convener. A s a first step. complete the truth lable of Table 5.3.

i "put Gray rode output binary code

A8CD(J,b~d

0 0 0 I
0 0 I 0
0 0 I I
0 0 0
0 0 I
0 I I 0
0 1 I 1
0 0 0
0 0 I
0 I 0
0 1 1
0 0
0 I
1 0
1 1
Tablo5.3 (bl COIISIJUCt !he' Kamaugb map for each of !he output variables and, from these 1I"IlIJI', write an .l<pmsioo for cadi variable in the simplest possible sum-of-products fonn.

[e) By selecting groups of zeros. write an expression for the complement of each output variable in !lie simplest pos.ible sum-of.pmdtIoct$ form.

5.5 I-I Draw the gate implementation of the logic functions for b and c derived in Question 5.4 part (b), us ing AND-ga~. OR.gates and inVedJ!".

(bl Draw !he N AND-gale implementation of tbe .arne logic functions.

,.6 (a) MW: the required additions 10 the limplified logic diagrun of the PAL 14L8 in Figun: 5.1 to show how !he rode convener ofQu.estions 5.4 and 5.5 CO\Ild be implemenled using juslone PAL 14L8.

[BInl: you may find iI, more eonvenlent to think ,bool using the complement fuoction. deri,ved in Question S.4 pan (c) as pan of your solution.]

(b) Using !he rclDlio,nships obtained in Question, 5.4 pam (b) and (c), show how the logic fUPCtioll$ for b, ~ 4IId d cao be manipulated, using the commutative, associative and distributive laws 10 eslablish that all dJrr,e, variables can be generated from the input YlU"iab,les .04., B. C and D tmng only three 2-input XOR.gates. and dmw the required gate implementation.

73

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ate,i a

FigureS./

5.1 A 4-hil Gray code (lIS described in Quo,lion 5.4) i. 10 he used to drive !he 7 ·segment indicalor of Fi&'lf" 5.2(a). The dl.play 10 he produced by each of !be 16poosiblc input codes i.shoW!l in Fig=: 5.2(b). Asume!hal a logic I input is required to iUumiElaie a. segment.

CUIO CID.:Il 0011 'IXI'lO 0110 01ll IIIoUI ~ 010Q

[OJ [] [21[3] [9][5][6] [j]

rl-, I~

·1-1·

-r

(~

,l 1001 10 S, 11 L L }.i.iO 1010 itt i tOG-i, 1,000

[8][9][8J~ [EJ [Q] [[J[d]

("0)

FigllnS.2

U rhcbcrrec h II ich ges" h u Illes ~ I etcrla

Con'IIIICl lite truth table ~howing all possible sUle, of We, i "PUI code and We 7 output .ipols 10 be generated by iIit logic circuit required bel",",," the Gray code inPIII oDd \be display device,

From We truth \nblo, construct We Knrnaugh IDaI' for each or the OUtpUI variable s,

(b)

5.B For tho desiy. exercise of Question 5.7,

I.) Obtain an ""p"'SSiO" rOT each of the output variable, in the simplest po ss lble ,"m.of· products ronn.

(b) Draw the NAND-gale lmplerneraarion of the logic circuit for each of the output variables.

Figure 5.3 (jar Qut.lion 5.9)

U rhcbcrrec h II ich ges" h u tztes ~ I etcrla

5.9 Could the complete logic circuit of the solution 10 Question S.8 be implemented using one PAL 14L8? If so, show, on Fi~ 5.3. the way in which Ihe device would be IIsed. If not. work out how many PAL 1<lL8. would be req_uircd aDd indicole on Fi~ 5.3 bow YOII would obtain maximum possible use of one such deVice.

5.10 The design of Questions 5.7, 5.8 and 5.9 is 10 be modified On the assumption thai only the Gray code. corresponding 10 the denary nllDlbcrs 0 10 9 will ever DCalr as inpul$, and that Ihe.rcfo.", the display generated by the unused codes i. jlJlJl1llerial.

Repeal the design p.rocess of Question S.7 parts <I) and (b) and Question 5.9 for the new situation, Another blan.k diagram for me PAL !4L8 is provided as Figtl", 5.4 for your answer,

Plgun'.4

78

Urhebcrrechtlich qeschutzt s lalcria

SoIuIIDn.
SOLUTIONS
au.1IonS.l
(.) The requin:<l truth tabl<: i. shown ;11 Table 5.4.
" B CI cz D
0 0 0 0 I
0 0 0 I 0
0 0 t 0 0
0 0 I t 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 t 1
,0 1 t 0 0
0 t I I 0
I 0 0 0
I 0 0 1
I 0 I 0
I 0 1 I
1 1 0 0
1 ) 0 t I
I 0 I
I 1 0
TllbIt 5.4 {b) The, Kamaugh map is shown in Figure 55, with the choseo groups of he

AD

ClC2
.. ., II !O
.. 'i 0 0 0
11 l i) 0 0
1Ir--!. _j 0 Ir1
IC~ 0 0 l~ (e)

From !he Kamaugh map.

F'ture5.5

D = A.a + B.Ci + Ci.C2

(<I) The logic circuit is shown in Fi&wc 5.6

A-------I,

o

Cl

Figure 5.6

T1

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

CombiJIItIonIoIIogic ~rcu118
0IMaIJ0n 5.2
(-) The complete IlUtb IIbIe is shown in Table S.~
A B C D E F G H
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 I I 0 0 0 0
0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 I 0 0 0 1
0 I I 0 0 0 1 0
0 I I 1 0 0 I 1
I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 I 0 0 I 0
I 0 I 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 I I 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 I
1 1 I 0 0 I I 0
1 1 I I 1 0 0 1
T_5.5
(b) The Kama"8h maps an: shown in Figure 5.7 C"O A"

.. ., II ..
.. 0 0 0 c
" 0 0 0 c
" 0 0 CD 0
.. 0 0 0 0 (0 E
A" .. " " 10
.. C 0 0 0
" 0
" 0
10' 0 C"O A."

.. " " ..
.. 0 0 0 0
0, 0 0 0 0
" 0 0 0 1(i1
L. a 0 '! [tV CD A"

F

.. . , u ..
.. 0 0 0 0
" o l(i 1) 0
" 0 Il!... ~ 0
.. a 0 0 a /I

FigureS.7

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h "Illes M ateri a

(el The logic funotions arc:

E""A,B,C.D

F~ A,B,C+A,C,j) G.X&C+A~D+A~D+&C.j) H·B.,D

The logio c.ircuit In genetate tbe 0U!ptlt signals is shown ln Figun: 5,8.

o

A

o

c

Fig=5.8

(eI)

The Knrnanglt Q!IlpS wltIt grouped 0. an: """"'" in Figun: 5.9

The resulting expressions for the eomplenw:nlS of the OIllpUlvariables ate'

E=A+lhC+D

F~A+C+B.D D=XH+~~+a~+~D+AB.C.D H~lhTJ

which give the foHowing expression! for !he output variables:

E=A+B+C+»"

F=A.+C+B.D G=A,8+A,C+~TJ+~D+AB.C.D H",if+B

711

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

Comblnlllionallogk cl",uIto

CD

CD

A

B 00 01 11 10
00 C C 0 0
01 0 0 C 0
II 0 0 1 0
10 0 C c lti E

CD AB

00 01 U 10
00 0 0) 0 ILo)
01 ~ LV I I
11 n I 0 I
~ IF
10 o I I
'-' A

B 00 01 11 10
00 0 0 o 0)
DI 0 ro to1 oj
II 0 ~ ~ \
10 a ~ I I
'- F

CD AB

100 D\ 11 ID I
00 10 0 0 (OJ
01 0 I I C
II 0 1 1 0
10 ~ 0 o ~
-
I H

FiglUt 5.9

The cireuato implemenl !he!" fuoctionl using only AND and NOR gates is shoW1l in FtgUn: 5.1 (}

A
7i
A
7!
7i c
D
C
D A B C D Figu,~ .5. /0

aD

U rhcbcrrec h II ich ges" h utz tes ~ t ~\cri a

SoIuIlons
au.tIonS.3
(-I
The required truth table is showr! in Table 5.6.
A, B C D G L E
I
0 0 0 1 0 I 0
0 0 I 0 0 1 0
0 0 I I 0 I 0
0 I 0 0 1 0 0
0 I 0 1 0 0 I
0 I 1 0 0 1 0
0 I .1 I 0 1 0
I 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 I I 0 0
1 0 I 0 0 0 1
.1 0 I I 0 1 0
I I 0 0 I 0 0
1 I 0 1 I 0 0
I I I 0 1 0 0
I I 1 1 0 0 1
TableU
(b)
TheKamaugh map for each of the· OUIput variable, i$Shown in Figure 5.11. ...

c

0
S 00 ., 11 ,.
00 0 0 0 0
0' 1 0 0 0
II 1 1 0 1
I. I 1 0 0 (~J

00 ., 11 I.
00 0 I I I
., 0 0 I 1
11 0 0 0 0
1. 0 0 I 0 CO AS

GO " " 10
00 I 0 0 0
., 0 I 0 a
11 0 0 1 0
10 0 0 0 I ,

Figure 5.11

E

The simples; possible sum..()f1'rodllCl e1p<CSl1ions for the oUIpUU! ""':

G"' AC + A. B.D + B.c.15

L", /i.C+A.1i.D+11.c.D E-X~E15+XB~D+ABCD+A.~C~

.1

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

("I

The ex!=SSioD for E.:an be re-arranged as foUows:

E=X~~D+X&ED+~aCD+~~cD ~ A.C(l1.15 + B.D) + A.£:(8.15 + B. D) D(A.~ +A.C}(!.l)" +B.D) =(AecHBeD)

The gate imp.lemeqwi.oo. of Ibis expression is.oo"", in Fig,tIM 5_12

OUMIIoIIU (.)

The completed truth table ;& shown in Table 5.7.

inpUt Gray code output binary code

ABC Dab c d

0 0 0 I 0 0 0 I
0 0 I 0 0 0 I I
0 0 I I 0 0 0
0 I 0 0 0 I 1 I
0 I 0 I 0 I J 0
0 I. I 0 0 I 0 0
0 I I I 0 I 0 I
I 0 0 0 I I I I
I 0 0 I I I I 0
I 0 I 0 I I 0 0
I 0 I I I I 0 I
I 0 0 0 0 0
I 0 I 0 0 I
I I 0 0 I I
0 0
To\llo$.' U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"

(II)

It is clear from the truth table that a " A.

The Kamangh maps for the olber three, output variables are shown in Figuro 5.13,

CD AS

00 01 11 10
00 0 0 0 0
01 1(1 I I I)
11 0 0 0 0
1,0 IC I I 1 I ) 00 01 11 10
00 0 I 0 1
01 I 0 I 0
It 0 I 0 1
10 I 0 I 0 "

, Figurd.IJ

From TlIe$e maps, bsillg the groups shown,

b",A.B+ A.S

c.~~c+~al+~&C+A~l d=~.ED+X~cD+~aED+~&CD+~aED+AacD+A~E~+A~CD (e)

U';ng grab!" of 0. i1l$lw of groups of I s we get.

b=A.S+A,8 ~.~~r+~aC+Aa~+A.C

(II)

The AND, OR ""d INVERTER pie iroplcl!I<!Ptation of the logic fll!lcliOtl$ for b ""d c fou"" in Question 5.4 pan (b) is shown in Figure 5,14.

13

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

c

A

8

Figure 5.14

fb)

The NAND·sate logic imp1emeaWiQo of tbe.ariabIes band c is shown in Figme 5.15

c

A

8

F;I!~re5.J5

This can be dedoced by using deMorgan's theorem as roUa"",:

H z~ V.W+X.Y then l!:- y'w.YJ' and Z-Z- Y.W.X1' which can be implemented u.ill8 OJIly NAND-gate s.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

(s)

Figure 5.16 shows one. possible implemenwion of the code eonverter u.ing a PAL 141.8. 1bere"", oth .• r valid configun.tions. (I have deliberately omitted the connection which shows ihai Q '" A because il. does noI inyolve the PAL deyice.)

Using the relationship devel.oped in Question 5.4 pan (e).

5=A.lhA.B SO b=A.B+A.B

which represems the output of the uppermost 2.input NOR-galt.

c- A.B.t +A.B.C+A.B.C +A.B.C, c'" A.1i.C + kB.C + A.B.C + A.1i.C which is the output of the upper 4.input NOR·gate.

Similarly, .. ace

The function fur d is less euily implemented, ,illCe !bere is "" provision of an 8-input NOR.gar.c in the device. and hence the product Itml$ must be grOUped Iogdber before being input 10 the final NOR-gate.

I have chosen 10 combine tbe prnduct term. ioro four pairs .. sbowa below.

J - (A. B_C. D +A. B.C .. D)+(A.8.C.D+A.B.C Dj +(A. 111':. 15 + A. B.CD) + (A~. e. D+ A.~. c.l1) = w+x+y·+z

So, d .. W + X + r + ZwiJl be senerared by tbe lower 4.input NOR.S"Ie. The inputs 10 this NOR· gate need 10 be W, X. Y and Z. bot the 2-input NOR·gates generate W, X. ¥ IIId Z. so these terms must be fed !hro\Ish invettms before being fed. vi. $ingle-input AND-gates 10 the fina.! NOR·pte, 3$ shown in the 6gttrt:.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

Jrhcbcr,",chllich geschulzles ~Ialcria

(bl

The exp ress ion for b derived in Question 5.4 pan (b) is:

b'"' ii. B .. t\.O which can also be wrinm b'"' iI Ell B

The expression for c is:

c - :rli.c + if.B.C + il.B.C + il.B.C

wbich can be re-arranged as:

c=(if.1i + iI.B).C .. (ii.BH.B)C -b.C .. b.C - bEilC

The expression:

can also be ",,,,,,,,,,ged i II a simi lar manner to give:

d ~ (ii.H.E .. if. IlC .. A Ile .. AO.C)D+{A.S.C+A.IlC '!-A.lle+ A8.1'.')1) ~c.D+c.li-ceD

Hence !be COfdP1cte decoder can be implemented. by !be eire,,;t of Figure .5.11.

Figuro 5.17

"'_"&.7

(·1

Tbe complete truth table is shown ill Table ~.8. NOt<: !lUl !be input codes bave been wrinm in the order of the denary numbers whleb !bey represe<lt. nuber than in puno binuy order, which previOll5 truth tables bave used. nus means thal a little JDOJe care is required. in constrocting the resulting KMnaugh maps. For YOllr convenience in checking )'OOr solutioll. Table 5.9 contain. the same· information, but with the input ~Briable states listed in pure binary order.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

CombInIIIIoneIIogic clrcultl
Omycode indlcalor segments
8 C D a " d
I 0 0 0 I 0 I I 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 I I I I 0 I I 0 I
3 0 0 I 0 I I 1 [ 0 0 1
4 0 1 1 0 0 I 1 0 0 I I
S 0 I I 1 I 0 1 1 0 1 I
6 0 I 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 I I
7 0 I 0 0 I I I 0 0 0 0
8 1 t 0 0 I I 1 t I I I
'1 I I 0 t I I 1 0 0 1 I
10 I 1 1 1 1 I I 0 I I I
II I I 1 0 1 0 0 I I 1 0
12 0 I 0 1 0 0 1 I I
13 0 1 I 0 0 I I 0 1
14 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 I
IS 0 0 0 0 I I I 0 1
T_5.I
indicelor segmentS
d
I
I 0 0 0 I 0 1 0 0 0
3 0 0 I 0 I I I 0 I
2 0 0 [ I I [ 0 I 1 I
7 0 I 0 0 I I I 0 0 0
6 0 I 0 I 0 0 1 I I I
4 0 1 I 0 0 I I 0 0 I
5 0 1 I 1 I 0 I 1 0 I
IS 0 0 0 0 1 I .1 I I
14 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 I
12 0 I 0 I 0 0 I I
13 0 1 1 0 0 I 1 1 0 1
8 1 0 0 I 1 I 1 1 1 I
9 1 0 1 1 1 I 0 0 1 1
11 I I 0 I 0 0 1 I I 0
10 I I I I 1 I 0 I I .1
TallIe!.!! II

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes Iv! ateri a

~)

The Kamaugh maps "'" shown in FiguR' 5, I B ..

...

1;0
" DO " " ,.
.. " • , ,
., , • , •
u , , , ,
~ • • • , CD ... "

.. " " ,.
.. ' , 0 , ,
., 0 , , Q
II , • • ,
,. " • , , CD
6 .. " " "
.. " , I ,
" , • Q ,
II I I I 0
.. , Q Q 0 D
.. " " "
., , 0 , 0
., 0 I 0 0
II , 0 , ,
" , , , , D
,DO " II ..
., 0 Q , 1
" Q 1 1 ,
" , , , •
10 , , , , ~ FigureJ.18

D
.. ., " 10
DO , I Q ,
., , , , 1
" I I I 0
~ , • , 0 .. " " 10
.. 1 • Q Q
., Q I , 1
II 1 I , 1
It • • 0 1 f

~u (~

PO$.lble sum-cf-products "'Jl'I'$Si0H9 rar the 0U1pU! variables (tbe.e ere altenmi_J ale: ,,~II.B + A. E.13 + A.C.D + 7J.C.lJ

h-.A.B + E.D+A.D +II.B.D c_~B+~E'+~1J+aD+~1J+~CD

d'" 11.15 + H.c + 1I.lf + A. B.D e-AI+AC+AlJ+~E1J+7J.cD+Xa~D /=AB+ac+aD+AcD+X7J.ElJ

g=' II.E +A.c+l.c+B.D

18

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a

COmblnotio .... 1og1o cln:ulbo

(b)

The NAND-gale implemenlati.on. of the logic circ.uilS for !be output variables am ,hoWll in Figure 5.19. The fuU ga~ requirement for eaclI variable has been shown, but in practice, gate, producing the ... me OUpUI function would probably nol be duplicatod. For example, there would only be 4

invcntn, one for """h inpul 'ignal (provided !be gale fan-.out was nOl exceeded); !be fiJDClion A B mighl be gencralcd only once, even though it is required Cor both a and f, etc,

FiB~'~ 5./9

U rhebcrrec h II lch ges c h utz tes Maler;"

8orvUo".

~u

As in Question 5.6 pan (a), the bcsI.pproadItl) the use of (hePAr. .14U device is, because I)f die NOR gate outputs, to start with Ihc logic functioos for the· oomple!l!ellt of eacb output VlIriabJe. lbi:; means extracting the Os from the Kamatlgh maps.

From die maps ef Figull< 5.1 g, the ,""",i~ expre.sions .",: ~-~~E+~~D+~ED+1ac~ b" A.8.D+ A. 8.D+ ~C.~

C" A.c.l1 +.A.li.i:.D+A,I1.C.D

d" ~8.D+A.B.D +8.C.D i.1ac+XBD+1c.~+A&~D+1~ED 7m~D+~~C+1~c+1&~D

i - A.B.E + A.C.~ + A .. Bc.li

Clearly. the", i. a ""Io;"''''''DI for two 4-inpul NOR gales (tl) genenuc a and j). five 3-itlput NOR gales and <me 5-inpul NOR gate. Hl)wev.".. as ;n Question 5.3. functiOllI COD be "pIn inll) pai .. of

product terms 10 enable 2·iapUl NOR !_ CO be used. For example. 1he expression for Ii can be .reIlmUlgcd U:

~,,(A.B,D + ~li.D) + A.c.li Or b '" (A. B.D + A.li.D) + ~C.li

which can be implemented u.ing two 2-input NOR gat.,. and one in_. Tbe ex pression for i can be re-lltI'lIDscd as:

~,,(Of. BC + A. 8.li) + A.C.D)+(~ 8.E.D+ X. 1i. 'C. D) ~ g (A.H.C + A.B.li) + A.C. Z5)+ (A.B.C .D+ A.H.c.D)

which can be implemented using four 2~input NOR gate> aod three inverll: ...

So, to implement the whole logic clreuit would require two 4-inpul NOR gateo, rwelve 2"DpuI NOR gates, II inverten (4 for die input variabJeo and 7 for 1he NOR-OR convcnions) plus the ""Iuisite number of AND gateS (32 in this case).

One PAL 14L8 is the"'fo", not able 10 implement the whole circuit, and another one would be ""Iui~

One PAL 141.8 eould, however. implcment1he ci.!'CUil to Henertte five of the ""Iuire<! output variables, as shown in Figu'" 5.20 ..

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes M ate,i"

CombllUlllonallogic cl",u118

Tbe troth table for the new problem will be the same as thal of Table 5.8 cxcqK that the wt 6 Uncs of the table will coown all Rdoo't care" conditions.

The Kamaugh maps for the output variables will be similar to those of Figure 5.18. but will have Xs ("'J)n'Senling the don't arc conditions) in six squares, as sbown in Figu'" 5.21.

Selecting group' of 0. 10 obWn the comp.le"""'t of each of the output Variables, .. shown in Figure 5.21 gi yes the following expressions.

Urheberrechuich gcschC'izles lalcria

;;: ~ A. C .. D+ B.C.D b=A.B.,D

c~ H.C.D

d= A.D+A.B.D + 8.C.D ;.A.D+ac+c.D+~aD+R~D 7· 11. c+ 1i'.D + A.B.,C.D

g= H.C + A.C,D

cn

D

" '" " u ..
'" I IA I I
" I IW I 0
" 1 I X \!J
.. x x x x ..

c
'" " " 10
.. I I I I
" 1 ICL ~ I
u ! I I I
10 X I I X .. "I " "
.. 0} V I I
~1 ~ I 1 I
" I I X X
to rx Xj X I co "I
.. ., I.
.. , I IW 1
" 1 I 1 1
" 1 1 I I
,. X X i] X co

'" ., " 10
.. , " OJ. oj
" (0 I 1 ,
" I , I I
.. X X Xl xl
! ,

Fj8~re5.21

Can tbe se 7 exp res slons be imp' kme!1tM nsl.g only ant P AI. 14LB1 Variables Q and 8 clenrly each need a 2 .. input NOR ~'" ~ "'Ill require a 4-;npu! NOR plus. 2·;"p'" NOR, d can be impl,,"""'tM using two 2-iDput NORs while f""" 11$0 !he other 4-inPUl NOR. Since b and c """only be gellCJ'a1ed by each utili..ing a 2,iol"'l NOR (ev"" 1h""gh they CO!IuUn no NOR IUncboo) because the only chip OUlpU!S ore from NOR gates, ;1 seems as if the cil'Cllil needs on. mare 2·inpul NOR gate than the

U rhcbcrrec h II ich gOS" hull tes ~ I atcrla

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