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P ar kinso n dise ase

:Done by
Wh at is parkinso n
d ise ase
• Parkinson's disease (PD; paralysis
agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease
of the substantia nigra (an area in the
basal ganglia of the brain). The disease
was first discovered and its symptoms
documented in 1817 (Essay on the
Shaking Palsy) by the British physician
Dr. James Parkinson
.Co nt
• Parkinson's disease is chronic and

• Onset is usually in middle to late life

• Disability is progressive

• Patients with advanced disease often have

Pa rkin so n's d ise ase
is c haracterize d b y

• Tremor at rest

• Rigidity

• Hypokinesia
Ca use s
• Primary (75%):
• Idiopathic Parkinson's disease
• Secondary (25%):
• Vascular disease
• Infectious and postinfectious
• Postencephalitic
• Neurosyphilis
.Co nt
• Toxins:
• Manganese
• Cyanide
• Methanol
• Carbon monoxide
• MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-
• Pesticides
.Co nt
• Drugs:
• Neuroleptics
• Metoclopramide
• Dopamine-depleting agents (e.g. reserpine)
• Methyldopa
• Calcium channel blocking agents
• Lithium carbonate
• Valproic acid
• Fluoxetine
R isk f actors
• Advancing age
• Family history of Parkinson's disease
• Previous central nervous infections
• Exposure to toxins (manganese, cyanide, methanol,
carbon monoxide, MPTP)
• Exposure to drugs (neuroleptics, metoclopramide,
reserpine, methyldopa, calcium channel blocking
agents, lithium carbonate, valproic acid, fluoxetine)
• Lifestyle activities involving repeated head trauma