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Volume 2

Bilingualism -
Concessive

Bilingualism 1

Bilingualism
Li Wei, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle many people have learned foreign languages at school
upon Tyne, UK and only occasionally use them for specific purposes.
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. If we count these people as bilinguals, then monolin-
gual speakers would be a tiny minority in the world
today.
What Is Bilingualism? Yet the question of who is and who is not a bilin-
Bilingualism is a product of extensive language con- gual is more difficult to answer than it first appears.
tact (i.e., contacts between people who speak different Baker and Prys Jones (1998: 2) suggest that in defin-
languages). There are many reasons for speakers of ing a bilingual person, we may wish to consider the
different languages to get into contact with one an- following questions:
other. Some do so out of their own choosing, whereas . Should bilingualism be measured by how fluent
others are forced by circumstances. Among the fre- people are in two languages?
quently cited factors that contribute to language con- . Should bilinguals be only those people who have
tact are education, modern technology, economy, equal competence in both languages?
religion and culture, political or military acts, and . Is language proficiency the only criterion for asses-
natural disasters. One does not have to move to a sing bilingualism, or should the use of two lan-
different place to be in contact with people speaking guages also be considered?
a different language. There are plenty of opportu- . Most people would define a bilingual as a person
nities for language contact in the same country, the who can speak two languages. What about a per-
same community, the same neighborhood, or even son who can understand a second language perfect-
the same family. ly but cannot speak it? What about a person who
However, although language contact is a necessary can speak a language but is not literate in it? What
condition for bilingualism at the societal level, it does about an individual who cannot speak or under-
not automatically lead to bilingualism at the individ- stand speech in a second language but can read and
ual level. For example, Belgium, Canada, Finland, write it? Should these categories of people be con-
India, Luxembourg, Paraguay, and Singapore, to sidered bilingual?
name but a few countries, are bi- or multilingual, but . Should self-perception and self-categorization be
the degree or extent of bilingualism among the resi- considered in defining who is bilingual?
dents of these countries varies significantly. There are . Are there different degrees of bilingualism that can
large numbers of bilingual or multilingual individuals vary over time and with circumstances? For in-
in Luxembourg, Paraguay, and Singapore, but con- stance, a person may learn a minority language as
siderably fewer in the other officially bi- or multilin- a child at home and then later acquire another,
gual countries. Mackey (1962) claims that there are majority language in the community or at school.
actually fewer bilingual people in bilingual countries Over time, the second language may become the
than there are in the so-called ‘unilingual’ ones, be- stronger or dominant language. If that person
cause the main concerns of bi- or multilingual states moves away from the neighborhood or area in
are often the maintenance and use of two or more which the minority language is spoken or loses
languages in the same nation, rather than the promo- contact with those who speak it, he or she may
tion of bilingualism among their citizens. It is there- lose fluency in the minority language. Should bilin-
fore important to distinguish bilingualism as a social gualism therefore be a relative term?
or societal phenomenon from bilingualism as an
individual phenomenon. The word ‘bilingual’ primarily describes someone
with the possession of two languages. It can, however,
also be taken to include the many people in the world
Who Is Bilingual? who have varying degrees of proficiency in and inter-
People who are brought up in a society in which changeably use three, four or even more languages. In
monolingualism and uniculturalism are promoted as many countries of Africa and Asia, several languages
the normal way of life often think that bilingualism is coexist and large sections of the population speak
only for a few, ‘special’ people. In fact, one in three of three or more languages. Individual multilingualism
the world’s population routinely uses two or more in these countries is a fact of life. Many people speak
languages for work, family life, and leisure. There one or more local or ethnic languages, as well as
are even more people who make irregular use of another indigenous language which has become the
languages other than their native one; for example, medium of communication between different ethnic

2 Bilingualism

groups or speech communities. Such individuals may iii. How is the knowledge of two or more languages
also speak a foreign language – such as English, used by the same speaker in bilingual speech pro-
French or Spanish – which has been introduced duction?
into the community during the process of coloniza-
Taking the acquisition question first, earlier obser-
tion. This latter language is often the language of
vers of bilingual children concentrated on document-
education, bureaucracy and privilege.
ing the stages of their language development. Volterra
Multilingualism can also be the possession of indi-
and Taeschner (1978), for example, proposed a three-
viduals who do not live within a multilingual country
stage model of early bilingual development. Accord-
or speech community. Families can be trilingual when
ing to this model, the child initially possesses one
the husband and wife each speak a different language
lexical system composed of lexical items from both
as well as the common language of the place of resi-
languages. In stage two, the child distinguishes two
dence. People with sufficient social and educational
separate lexical codes but has one syntactic system at
advantages can learn a second, third, or fourth lan-
his or her disposal. Only when stage three is reached
guage at school or university; at work; or in their
do the two linguistic codes become entirely separate.
leisure time. In many continental European countries,
Volterra and Taeschner’s model gave rise to what is
children learn two languages at school – such as
now known as the ‘unitary language system hy-
English, German, or French – as well as being fluent
pothesis.’ In its strongest version, the hypothesis
in their home language – such as Danish, Dutch, or
supposes that the bilingual child has one single lan-
Luxembourgish.
guage system that they use for processing both of
It is important to recognize that a multilingual
their languages in the repertoire.
speaker uses different languages for different purposes
In the 1980s, the unitary language system hypoth-
and does not typically possess the same level or type of
esis came under intense scrutiny; for instance, by
proficiency in each language. In Morocco, for in-
Meisel (1989) and Genesee (1989). They argue that
stance, a native speaker of Berber may also be fluent
there is no conclusive evidence to support the exis-
in colloquial Moroccan Arabic but not literate in ei-
tence of an initial undifferentiated language system,
ther of these languages. This Berber speaker will be
and they also point out certain methodological incon-
educated in Modern Standard Arabic and use that
sistencies in the three-stage model. The phenomenon
language for writing and formal purposes. Classical
of language mixing, for instance, can be interpreted
Arabic is the language of the mosque, used for prayers
as a sign of two developing systems existing side by
and reading the Qur’an. Many Moroccans also
side, rather than as evidence of one fused system.
have some knowledge of French, the former colonial
Meisel’s and Genesee’s studies led to an alternative
language.
hypothesis, known as the ‘separate development hy-
pothesis’ or ‘independent development hypothesis.’
More recently, researchers have investigated the pos-
Theoretical Issues in Bilingualism sibility that different aspects of language (e.g., pho-
Research nology, vocabulary, syntax, pragmatics) of the
bilingual child’s language systems may develop at
Chomsky (1986) defined three basic questions for
different rates (e.g., Li and Zhu, 2001). Care needs
modern linguistics:
to be taken in interpreting research evidence using
i. What constitutes knowledge of language? children at different developmental stages.
ii. How is knowledge of language acquired? Although the ‘one-versus-two-systems’ debate (i.e.,
iii. How is knowledge of language put to use? whether bilingual children have an initially differen-
tiated or undifferentiated linguistic system) continues
For bilingualism research, these questions can be
to attract new empirical studies, a more interesting
rephrased to take in knowledge of more than one
question has emerged regarding the nature of bilin-
language (see also Cook, 1993):
gual development. More specifically, is bilingual
i. What is the nature of language, or grammar, in acquisition the same as monolingual acquisition?
the bilingual person’s mind, and how do two Theoretically, separate development is possible with-
systems of language knowledge coexist and inter- out there being any similarity with monolingual
act? acquisition. Most researchers argue that bilingual
ii. How is more than one grammatical system ac- children’s language development is, by and large, the
quired, either simultaneously or sequentially? In same as that of monolingual children. In very general
what aspects does bilingual language acquisition terms, both bilingual and monolingual children go
differ from unilingual language acquisition? through an initial babbling stage, followed by the

Bilingualism 3

one-word stage, the two-word stage, the multiword that children learning English and German simulta-
stage, and the multiclause stage. At the morpho- neously are prone to overgeneralize SVO word order
syntactic level, a number of studies have reported in their German because the VO order is reinforced
similarities rather than differences between bilingual on the surface of both the German and the English
and monolingual acquisition. Garcia (1983), for ex- input they hear.
ample, compared the use of English morpheme cate- Most of the studies that have examined cross-
gories by English monolingual children and bilingual linguistic influences in bilingual acquisition focus on
children acquiring English and Spanish simultaneous- morphosyntactic features. One area that has hitherto
ly and found no systematic difference at all. Pfaff and been underexplored is the interface between phonet-
Savas (1988) found that their 4-year-old Turkish/ ics and phonology in bilingual acquisition. Although
German subject made the same errors in Turkish case most people seem to believe that the onset of speech
marking as reported in the literature on monolingual by bilingual children is more or less the same as for
Turkish children. Muller’s (1990) study of two monolingual children, there are indications that bilin-
French/German children indicates that their use of gual children seem to develop differently from mono-
subject–verb agreement and finite verb placement in lingual children in the following three aspects: the
both languages is virtually identical to that of compa- overall rate of occurrence of developmental speech
rable monolingual children. De Houwer (1990) found errors, the types of speech errors and the quality of
that her Dutch/English bilingual subject, Kate, used sounds (Zhu and Dodd, 2005). For example, studies
exactly the same word orders in Dutch as monolin- on Cantonese/English (Holm and Dodd), Putonghua/
gual Dutch-speaking children, both in terms of types Cantonese (So and Leung), Welsh/English (Ball et al.),
and in proportional use. Furthermore, De Houwer Spanish/English (Yavas and Goldstein), and Punjabi/
found in Kate parallels to monolingual children for English (Stow and Pert) (also in Zhu and Dodd, 2006)
both Dutch and English in a range of structures, such bilingual children seem to indicate that bilingual chil-
as nonfinite verb placement, preposed elements in dren tend to make not only more speech errors but
affirmative sentences, clause types, sentence types, also different types of speech errors compared with
conjunctions, and question inversion. monolingual children of the same age. These speech
Nevertheless, one needs to be careful in the kinds of errors would be considered atypical if they had oc-
conclusions one draws from such evidence. Similari- curred in the speech of monolingual children. More-
ties between bilingual and monolingual acquisition over, although bilingual children seem to be able to
do not mean that the two languages a bilingual child acquire monolingual-like competence at the phone-
is acquiring develops in the same way or at the same mic level, there are qualitative differences at the pho-
speed, or that the two languages a bilingual child is netic level in terms of production. For example, using
acquiring do not influence and interact with each instrumental analysis, Khattab (also in Zhu and
other. Paradis and Genesee (1996), for example, Dodd, 2006) finds that although Arabic–English bi-
found that although the 2–3-year-old French–English lingual children have similar patterns of production
bilingual children they studied displayed patterns that and use of VOT, /l/, and /r/ in some respects to those
characterize the performance of monolingual children of monolinguals from each language, they also show
acquiring these languages separately, and they ac- differences that are intricately related to age, input,
quired these patterns within the same age range as and language context. These studies and others are
monolingual children, they used finite verb forms reported in Zhu and Dodd (2005).
earlier in French than in English; used subject pro- There is one area in which bilingual children clearly
nouns in French exclusively with finite verbs, but differ from monolingual children; namely, code-mix-
subject pronouns in English with both finite and non- ing. Studies show that bilingual children mix elements
finite verbs, in accordance with the status of subject from both languages in the same utterance as soon as
pronouns in French as clitics (or agreement markers) they can produce two-word utterances. Researchers
but full NPs in English; and placed verbal negatives generally agree that bilingual children’s mixing is
after lexical verbs in French (e.g., ‘n’aime pas’) but highly structured and grammatically constrained,
before lexical verbs in English (‘do not like’). Further although there is no consensus on the nature of
evidence of cross-linguistic influence has been the specific constraints that organize their mixing.
reported by Dopke (1992), for example, in her study Vihman (1985), who studied her own son Raivo,
of German–English bilingual children in Australia. who acquired English and Estonian simultaneously,
These children tended to overgeneralize the –VO argued, for example, that the language mixing by
word order of English to German, which instantiates bilingual children is qualitatively different from that
both VO and OV word orders, depending on the of more mature bilinguals. She invoked as evidence
clausal structure of the utterance. Dopke suggests for this claim the fact that young bilingual children

4 Bilingualism

indicate a propensity to mix function words over . Community: The language of one of the parents is
contentives (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives) – a type the dominant language of the community.
of mixing that is rare in older bilingual mixing. How- . Strategy: The parents each speak their own lan-
ever, Lanza’s (1997) study, although finding similar guage to the child from birth.
patterns in the mixing produced by her two
Norwegian–English bilingual subjects, argued that Type 2: Nondominant Home Language/One Language,
children’s mixing is qualitatively the same as that of One Environment
adults; their relatively greater degree of mixing of
. Parents: The parents have different native lan-
function words is evidence of what Lanza called
‘dominance’ of one language over another rather guages.
. Community: The language of one of the parents is
than of a substantial difference from bilingual adults’
mixing. Both Vihman and Lanza, as well as other the dominant language of the community.
. Strategy: Both parents speak the nondominant lan-
studies of children’s mixing, show that bilingual chil-
dren mix their languages in accordance with con- guage to the child, who is fully exposed to the
straints that operate on adult mixing. The operation dominant language only when outside the home,
of constraints based on surface features of grammar, and in particular in nursery school.
such as word order, is evident from the two-word/two- Type 3: Nondominant Home Language without Communi-
morpheme stage onward, and the operation of con- ty Support
straints based on abstract notions of grammatical
. Parents: The parents share the same native lan-
knowledge is most evident in bilingual children
guages.
once they demonstrate such knowledge overtly (e.g.,
. Community: The dominant language is not that of
verb tense and agreement markings), usually around
the parents.
two years and 6 months of age and older. As Genesee
. Strategy: The parents speak their own language to
(2002) points out, these findings indicate that in
the child.
addition to the linguistic competence needed to for-
mulate correct monolingual strings, bilingual children Type 4: Double Nondominant Home Language without
have the added capacity to coordinate their two lan- Community Support
guages in accordance with the grammatical con-
. Parents: The parents have different native lan-
straints of both languages during mixing. Although
guages.
these studies provide further evidence for the separate
. Community: The dominant language is different
development, or two-systems, argument, they also
from either of the parents.
indicate that there are both quantitative and qualita-
. Strategy: The parents each speak their own lan-
tive differences between bilingual acquisition and
guage to the child from birth.
monolingual acquisition.
Another area of interest in acquisitional studies of Type 5: Nonnative Parents
bilingual children is the role of input and social con-
. Parents: The parents share the same native lan-
text in the rate and order of language acquisition.
guage.
Earlier assumptions were that the bilingual child
. Community: The dominant language is the same as
would have half, or less, of the normal input in each
that of the parents.
of their two languages, compared with the monolin-
. Strategy: One of the parents always addresses the
gual child. More careful examinations of bilingual
child in a language that is not his or her native
children show considerable variations in the quantity
language.
and quality of input, interactional styles of the par-
ents, and environmental policies and attitudes toward Type 6: Mixed Languages
bilingualism. On the basis of Harding and Riley’s
. Parents: The parents are bilingual.
work (1986), Romaine (1995) distinguished six
. Community: Sectors of community may also be
types of early-childhood bilingualism according to
bilingual.
the native language of the parents, the language of
. Strategy: Parents code-switch and mix languages.
the community at large, and the parents’ strategy in
speaking to the child. The three headings Romaine used to classify the six
types of childhood bilingualism – the languages of the
Type 1: One person, one language.
parents, the sociolinguistic situation of the communi-
. Parents: The parents have different native lan- ty, and the discourse strategies of the parents and
guages, with each having some degree of compe- other immediate carers – are critical factors not only
tence in the other’s language. in the process of bilingual acquisition but also in

Bilingualism 5

Figure 1 Lexical association model. Figure 2 Dual-store model.

the final product of that process (i.e., the type of evidenced in grammaticality and fluency of speech,
bilingual speaker it produces). Arguably, the six types and some ‘coordinative’ bilinguals show difficulties
of bilingual children would grow up as different in processing two languages simultaneously (i.e., in
types of bilinguals with different mental representa- code-switching or in ‘foreign’ word identification
tions of the languages and different patterns of tasks). It must also be stressed that Weinreich’s dis-
language behavior. tinctions among bilingual individuals are distributed
Research on the cognitive organization and repre- along a continuum from a subordinate or compound
sentation of bilingual knowledge is inspired and influ- end to a coordinate end and can at the same time be
enced by the work of Weinreich. Focussing on the more subordinate or compound for certain concepts
relationship between the linguistic sign (or signifier) and more coordinate for others, depending on, among
and the semantic content (signified), Weinreich other things, the age and context of acquisition.
(1953) distinguished three types of bilinguals. In Weinreich’s work influenced much of the psycho-
type A, the individual combines a signifier from linguistic modelling of the bilingual lexicon. Potter
each language with a separate unit of the signified. et al. (1984) presented a reformulation of the manner
Weinreich called them ‘coordinative’ (later often in which bilingual lexical knowledge could be repre-
called ‘coordinate’) bilinguals. In type B, the individ- sented in the mind in terms of two competing models:
ual identifies two signifiers but regards them as a the Concept Mediation Model and the Word Associ-
single compound, or composite, unit of signified; ation model. In the Concept Mediation Model, words
hence ‘compound’ bilinguals. Type C refers to people of both L1 and L2 are linked to amodal conceptual
who learn a new language with the help of a previ- representations. In the Lexical Association Model, in
ously acquired one. They are called ‘subordinative’ contrast, words in a second language are understood
(or ‘subordinate’) bilinguals. Weinreich’s examples through L1 lexical representations. As can be seen in
were from English and Russian: Figure 1, the models are structurally equivalent to
(A) ‘book’ ‘kniga’ Weinreich’s distinction between coordinative and
? ? subordinative bilingualism. At the same time, several
/buk/ /kn’iga/ researchers (e.g., Kolers and Gonzalez [1980] and
Hummel [1986]) presented evidence for the so-called
dual-store model, as represented in Figure 2. This
latter model has also generated considerable research
on the existence of the putative ‘bilingual language
switch’ postulated to account for the bilingual’s
ability to switch between languages on the basis of
(C) ‘book’ environmental demands (e.g., MacNamara, 1967;
| MacNamara and Kushnir, 1971).
/buk/ Subsequent studies found conflicting evidence in
|
favor of different models. Some of the conflicting
/kn’iga/
evidence could be explained by the fact that different
Weinreich’s distinctions are often misinterpreted in types of bilingual speakers were used in the experi-
the literature as referring to differences in the degree ments in terms of proficiency level, age, and context
of proficiency in the languages, but in fact the rela- of acquisition. It is possible that lexical mediation is
tionship between language proficiency and cognitive associated with low levels of proficiency, and concept
organization of the bilingual individual, as concep- mediation with higher levels, especially for those who
tualized in Weinreich’s model, is far from clear. Some have become bilingual in later childhood or adult-
‘subordinate’ bilinguals demonstrate a very high hood. Some researchers called for a developmental
level of proficiency in processing both languages, as dimension in the modelling of bilingual knowledge.

6 Bilingualism

Figure 3 Revised hierarchical model.

Kroll and Stewart (1994), for example, proposed the
Revised Hierarchical Model, which represents con-
cept mediation and word association not as different
Figure 4 Adapted from Grosjean, 1982: 129.
models but as alternative routes within the same
model (see Figure 3).
An important distinctive feature of being bilingual
is being able to make appropriate language choices. mode of speaking, emanating from a single code-
Bilingual speakers choose to use their different lan- switching grammar.
guages depending on a variety of factors, including One important aspect of the code-switching gram-
the type of person addressed (e.g., members of the mar is that the two languages involved do not play the
family, schoolmates, colleagues, superiors, friends, same role in sentence making. Typically, one language
shopkeepers, officials, transport personnel, neigh- sets the grammatical framework, with the other
bors), the subject matter of the conversation (e.g., providing certain items to fit into the framework.
family concerns, schoolwork, politics, entertain- Code-switching therefore is not a simple combination
ment), location or social setting (e.g., at home, in the of two sets of grammatical rules but grammatical
street, in church, in the office, having lunch, attending integration of one language in another. Bilingual
a lecture, negotiating business deals), and relationship speakers of different proficiency levels in their two
with the addressee (e.g., kin, neighbors, colleagues, languages or speaking two typologically different lan-
superior/inferior, strangers). However, even more guages can engage in code-switching and, indeed,
complex are the many cases in which a bilingual vary it according to their needs. The possible exis-
talks to another bilingual with the same linguistic tence of a code-switching grammar calls into question
background and changes from one language to an- the traditional view of the bilingual as two mono-
other in the course of conversation. This is what is linguals in one person (for further discussions, see
known as code-switching. Figure 4 illustrates a deci- Grosjean, 1985). One consequence of the ‘two-
sion-making process of the bilingual speaker in in-one’ perspective is that bilingual speakers are
language choice and code-switching. often compared to monolinguals in terms of their
There is a widespread impression that bilingual language proficiency.
speakers code-switch because they cannot express For example, some researchers have suggested that
themselves adequately in one language. This may be bilingual children have smaller vocabularies and less-
true to some extent when a bilingual is momentarily developed grammars than their monolingual peers,
lost for words in one of his or her languages. How- while their ability to exploit the similarities and
ever, code-switching is an extremely common practice differences in two sets of grammatical rules to accom-
among bilinguals and takes many forms. A long nar- plish rule-governed code-switching was not consid-
rative may be divided into different parts expressed in ered relevant. In some experimental psycholinguistic
different languages, sentences may begin in one lan- studies, tests are given without taking into account
guage and finish in another, and words and phrases that bilingual speakers may have learned their two
from different languages may succeed each other. languages under different conditions for different
Linguists have devoted much attention to the study purposes and that they only use them in different
of code-switching. It has been demonstrated that situations with different people. It is important to
code-switching involves skilled manipulation of over- emphasize that bilingual speakers have a unique lin-
lapping sections of two or more grammars and guistic and psychological profile; their two languages
that there is virtually no instance of ungrammatical are constantly in different states of activation, and
combination of two languages in code-switching, they are able to call on their linguistic knowledge
regardless of the bilingual ability of the speaker. and resources according to the context and adapt
Some suggest that code-switching is itself a discrete their behavior to the task at hand.

Bilingualism 7

Bilingualism as a Sociopolitical Issue be damaging for nation-building efforts and disad-
vantage children by limiting their access to the wider
Language choice is not a purely linguistic issue. In
world. It should be pointed out that there is no scien-
many countries of the world, much of the social iden-
tific evidence to show that multilingual countries are
tification of individuals, as well as of groups, is ac-
particularly disadvantaged, in socioeconomic terms,
complished through language choice. By choosing
compared to monolingual ones. In fact, all the re-
one or another of the two or more languages in
search that was carried out in the 1960s and 1970s
one’s linguistic repertoire, a speaker reveals and
on the relationship between the linguistic diversity
defines his or her social relationships with other peo-
and economic well-being of a nation came to the
ple. At a societal level, whole groups of people, and in conclusion that a country can have any degree of
fact, entire nations, can be identified by the language
language uniformity or fragmentation and still be
or languages they use. Language, together with cul-
underdeveloped, and a country whose entire popula-
ture, religion, and history, is a major component of
tion speaks the same language can be anywhere from
national identity.
very rich to very poor. It might be true, however, that
Multilingual countries are often thought to have
linguistic uniformity and economic development re-
certain problems that monolingual states do not. On inforce each other; in other words, economic well-
the practical level, difficulties in communication being promotes the reduction of linguistic diversity. It
within a country can act as an impediment to com- would be lopsided logic, though, to view multilin-
merce and industry. More seriously, however, multi- gualism as the cause of the socioeconomic problems
lingualism is a problem for government. The process of a nation.
of governing requires communication both within the Multilingualism is an important resource at both
governing institutions and between the government the societal and personal levels. For a linguistically
and the people. This means that a language, or lan- diverse country to maintain ethnic group languages
guages, must be selected as the language for use in alongside the national or official languages can prove
governing. However, the selection of the ‘official lan- an effective way to motivate individuals while unify-
guage’ is not always easy, as it is not simply a prag- ing the nation. In addition, a multiethnic society is
matic issue. For example, on pragmatic grounds, the arguably a richer, more exciting, and more stimulat-
best immediate choice for the language of govern- ing place to live in than a community with only one
ment in a newly independent colony might be the dominant ethnic group. For the multilingual speaker,
old colonial language, as the colonial governing insti- the availability of various languages in the communi-
tutions and records are already in place in that lan- ty repertoire serves as a useful interactional resource.
guage, and those nationals with the most government Typically, multilingual societies tend to assign differ-
experience already know it. The old colonial lan- ent roles to different languages; one language may be
guage will not, however, be a good choice on nation- used in informal contexts with family and friends,
alist grounds. For a people that has just acquired its while another for the more formal situations of
own geographical territory, the language of the state work, education, and government. Imagine two
that had denied it territorial control would not be a friends who are both bilingual in the same ‘home’
desirable candidate for a national symbol. Ireland has and ‘official’ languages. Suppose that one of them
adopted a strategy in which both the national lan- also works for the local government and that her
guage, Irish, and the language of the deposed power, friend has some official business with her. Suppose
English, are declared as official; the colonial language further that the government employee has two pieces
is used for immediate, practical purposes, and the of advice to give to her friend: one based on her
national language is promoted and developed. How- official status as a government representative, and
ever, in many other multilingual countries that do not one based on their mutual friendship. If the official
have a colonial past, such as China, deciding which advice is given in the ‘government’ language and the
language should be selected as the national language friendly advice in the ‘home’ language, there is little
can sometimes lead to internal, ethnic conflicts. chance that there would be any misunderstanding
Similarly, selecting a language for education in a about which advice was which. The friend would
multilingual country is often problematic. In some not take the advice given in the ‘home’ language as
respects, the best strategy for language in education official.
is to use the various ethnic languages. After all, these There is a frequent debate in countries in which var-
are the languages the children already speak, and ious languages coexist concerning which languages
school instruction can begin immediately without are a resource. The favored languages tend to be
waiting until the children learn the official language. those that are both international and particularly
Some would argue, however, that this strategy could valuable in international trade. A lower place is

8 Bilingualism

given in the status ranking to minority languages, Changes in Attitudes Toward Bilingualism
which are small, regional, and of less perceived
From the early nineteenth century to about the 1960s,
value in the international marketplace. For example,
there was a widespread belief that bilingualism has a
French has traditionally been the number one
detrimental effect on a human beings’ intellectual and
modern language in the British school curriculum,
spiritual growth. Stories of children who persisted in
followed by German and Spanish, and then a choice
speaking two languages in school having had their
between Italian, Modern Greek, and Portuguese. One
mouths washed with soap and water or being beaten
may notice that all of these are European languages.
with a cane were not uncommon. The following is a
Despite large numbers of mother-tongue Bengali,
Cantonese, Gujarati, Hakka, Hindi, Punjabi, quote from a professor at Cambridge University that
illustrates the dominant belief of the time, even
Turkish, and Urdu speakers in England, these lan-
among academics and intellectuals:
guages occupy a very low position in the school
curriculum. In the British National Curriculum, the If it were possible for a child to live in two languages at
languages Arabic, Bengali, Chinese (Cantonese or once equally well, so much the worse. His intellectual
Mandarin), Gujarati, Modern Hebrew, Hindi, and spiritual growth would not thereby be doubled, but
Japanese, Punjabi, Russian, Turkish, and Urdu halved. Unity of mind and character would have great
are initially only allowed in secondary schools (for difficulty in asserting itself in such circumstances.
11–18 year olds) if a major European language (Laurie, 1890: 15)
such as French is taught first (Milroy and Milroy,
1985). Professor Laurie’s view represented a commonly
Clearly, multilingualism as a national and personal held belief throughout the twentieth century that bi-
resource requires careful planning, as would any other lingualism disadvantages rather than advantages
kind of resource. However, language planning has one’s intellectual development. Early research on
something that other kinds of economic planning bilingualism and cognition tended to confirm this
do not usually have: language as its own unique cul- negative viewpoint, finding that monolinguals were
tural symbolic value. As has been discussed earlier, superior to bilinguals on intelligence tests. One of the
language is a major component of the identity of most widely cited studies was done by Saer (1923)
a nation and an individual. Often, strong emotions who studied 1400 Welsh–English bilingual children
are evoked when talking about a certain language. between the ages of 7 and 14 years in five rural and
Language planning is not simply a matter of standar- two urban areas of Wales. A 10-point difference in IQ
dizing or modernizing a corpus of linguistic materials, was found between the bilinguals and the monolin-
nor is it a reassignment of functions and status. It is gual English speakers from rural backgrounds. From
also about power and influence. The dominance of this, Saer concluded that bilinguals were mentally
some languages and the dominated status of other confused and at a disadvantage in intelligence com-
languages are partly understandable if we examine pared with monolinguals. It was further suggested,
who holds positions of power and influence, who with a follow-up study of university students, that
belong to elite groups that are in control of decision- ‘‘the difference in mental ability as revealed by intelli-
making, and who are in subordinate groups, on gence tests is of a permanent nature since it persists in
whom decisions are implemented. It is more often students throughout their university career’’ (Saer,
than not the case that a given arrangement of lan- 1923: 53).
guages benefits only those who have influence and Controversies regarding the early versions of IQ
privileges. tests and the definition and measurement of intelli-
For the multilingual speaker, language choice is not gence aside, there were a number of problems with
only an effective means of communication but also an Saer’s study and its conclusions. First, it appeared to
act of identity (Le Page and Tabouret-Keller, 1985). be only in the rural areas that the correlation between
Every time we say something in one language when bilingualism and lower IQ held. In urban areas,
we might just as easily have said it in another, we are monolinguals and bilinguals were virtually the same;
reconnecting with people, situations, and power con- in fact, the average IQ for urban Welsh–English bilin-
figurations from our history of past interactions and gual children in Saer’s study was 100, whereas for
imprinting on that history our attitudes toward the monolingual, English-speaking children it was 99.
people and languages concerned. Through language The urban bilingual children had more contact with
choice, we maintain and change ethnic group bound- English both before beginning school and outside
aries and personal relationships and construct and school hours than did the rural bilinguals. Thus,
define ‘self’ and ‘other’ within a broader political the depressed scores of the rural population were
economy and historical context. probably more a reflection of lack of opportunity

Bilingualism 9

and contexts to use English and were not necessarily First, the educational tests used to measure lan-
indicative of any sociopsychological problems. guage proficiencies and to differentiate between peo-
More important, however, is the issue of statistical ple were insensitive to the qualitative aspects of
inference in this and other studies of a similar type. languages and to the great range of language compe-
Correlations do not allow us to infer cause-and-effect tences. Language may be specific to a context; a
relationships, particularly when other variables – person may be competent in some contexts but not
such as rural versus urban differences – may be med- in others. Second, bilingual children are still in the
iating factors. Another major factor is the language process of developing their languages. It is unfair to
in which such tests were administered, particularly compare them to some idealized adults. Their lan-
tests of verbal intelligence. Many such studies mea- guage skills change over time. Third, the comparison
sured bilinguals only in the second or nondominant with monolinguals is also unfair. It is important to
language. distinguish whether bilinguals are ‘naturally’ qualita-
At around the same time that Saer conducted tively and quantitatively different from monolinguals
studies on bilinguals’ intelligence, some well-known in their use of the two languages (i.e., as a function of
linguists expressed their doubts about bilingual being bilingual). Fourth, if languages are relatively
speakers’ linguistic competence. The following is underdeveloped, the origins may not be in bilingual-
Bloomfield’s characterization of a Menomini Indian ism per se but in the economic, political, and social
man in the United States, whom he believed to have conditions that evoke underdevelopment.
‘deficient’ knowledge of Menomini and English: The disparaging and belittling overtone of the term
‘semilingualism’ itself invokes expectations of under-
White Thunder, a man around 40, speaks less English
achievement in the bilingual speaker. Thus, rather
than Menomini, and that is a strong indictment, for his
Menomini is atrocious. His vocabulary is small, his than highlighting the apparent ‘deficits’ of bilingual
inflections are often barbarous, he constructs sentences speakers, the more positive approach is to emphasize
of a few threadbare models. He may be said to speak no that when suitable conditions are provided, languages
language tolerably. (Bloomfield, 1927: 395) are easily capable of development beyond the ‘semi’
state.
This is one of the early statements of a view that One of the specific issues Bloomfield raised in his
became fashionable in educational circles; namely, comments on the language behavior of members of
that it was possible for bilinguals not to acquire full the Menomini Indians in North America was the
competence in any of the languages they spoke. Such frequent mixing of their own language and English.
an individual was said to be ‘semilingual.’ These peo- It has been described as ‘verbal salad,’ not particular-
ple were believed to have linguistic deficits in six areas ly appealing but nevertheless harmless, or ‘garbage’
of language (see Hansegard, 1975; Skutnabb-Kangas, that is definitively worthless and vulgar. Unfortunate-
1981): ly, although switching and mixing of languages occurs
1. Size of vocabulary in practically all bilingual communities and all bilin-
2. Correctness of language gual speakers’ speech, it is stigmatized as an illegiti-
3. Unconscious processing of language mate mode of communication, even sometimes by the
4. Language creation bilingual speakers themselves. Haugen (1977: 97),
5. Mastery of the functions of language for example, reports that a visitor from Norway
6. Meanings and imagery. made the following comment on the speech of the
Norwegians in the United States: ‘‘Strictly speaking,
It is significant that the term ‘semilingualism’ it is no language whatever, but a gruesome mixture of
emerged in connection with the study of language Norwegian and English, and often one does not
skills of people belonging to ethnic minority groups. know whether to take it humorously or seriously.’’
Research that provided evidence in support of Gumperz (1982: 62–63) reports that some bilingual
the notion of ‘semilingualism’ was conducted in speakers who mixed languages regularly still believe
Scandinavia and North America and was concerned such behavior was ‘‘bad manners’’ or a sign of ‘‘lack
with accounting for the educational outcomes of sub- of education or improper control of language.’’ One
mersion programs in which minority children were of the Punjabi–English bilinguals Romaine inter-
taught through the medium of the majority language. viewed said: ‘‘I’m guilty as well in the sense that we
However, these studies, similar to the ones conducted speak English more and more and then what happens
by Saer, had serious methodological flaws, and is that when you speak your own language you get
the conclusions reached by the researchers were two or three English words in each sentence . . . but
misguided. I think that’s ‘wrong’’’ (Romaine, 1995: 294).

10 Bilingualism

Attitudes do not, of course, remain constant over assembly and association, political representation and
time. At a personal level, changes in attitudes may involvement, and administrative autonomy.
occur when there is some personal reward involved. However, real changes in attitudes toward bilin-
Speakers of minority languages will be more moti- gualism will not happen until people recognize or,
vated to maintain and use their languages if they better still, experience the advantages of being bilin-
prove to be useful in increasing their employability gual. Current research indicates that there are at least
or social mobility. In some cases, certain jobs are eight overlapping and interacting benefits for a bilin-
reserved for bilingual speakers only. At the societal gual person, encompassing communicative, cognitive
level, attitudes toward bilingualism change when the and cultural advantages (adapted from Baker and
political ideology changes. In California and else- Prys Jones, 1998: 6–8):
where in the southwestern United States, for instance,
Communicative advantages
pocho and calo used to serve as pejorative terms for
Relationships with parents: Where parents have differing
the Spanish of local Chicanos. With a rise in ethnic first languages, the advantage of children becoming bi-
consciousness, however, these speech styles have be- lingual is that they will be able to communicate in each
come symbolic of Chicano ethnicity and are now parent’s preferred language. This may enable a subtler,
increasingly used in contemporary Chicano litera- finer texture of relationship with the parent. Alternative-
ture. Since the 1960s, there has been a political move- ly they will be able to communicate with parents in one
ment, particularly in the United States, advocating language and with their friends and within the commu-
language rights. In the United States, questions nity in a different language.
about language rights are widely discussed not only Extended family relationships: Being a bilingual allows
in college classrooms and language communities but someone to bridge the generations. When grandparents,
uncles, aunts and other relatives in another region speak
also in government and federal legislatures.
a language that is different from the local language, the
Language rights have a history of being tested in
monolingual may be unable to communicate with them.
U.S. courtrooms. From the early 1920s to the present, The bilingual has the chance to bridge that generation
there has been a continuous debate in U.S. courts of gap, build closer relationships with relatives extended
law regarding the legal status of language minority family.
rights. To gain short-term protection and a medium- Community relationships: A bilingual has the chance to
term guarantee for minority languages, legal chal- communicate with a wider variety of people than a
lenges have become an important part of the language monolingual. Bilingual children will be able to commu-
rights movement. The legal battles concerned not just nicate in the wider community and with school and
minority language vs. majority language contests, but neighbourhood friends in different languages when
also children vs. schools, parents vs. school boards, necessary.
Transnational communication: One barrier between
state vs. the federal authorities, and so on. Whereas
nations and ethnic groups tends to be language. Lan-
minority language activists among the Basques in
guage is sometimes a barrier to communication and to
Spain and the Welsh in Britain have been taken to creating friendly relationships of mutual respect. Bilin-
court by the central government for their actions, U.S. guals in the home, in the community and in society have
minority language activists have taken the central and the potential for lowering such barriers. Bilinguals can
regional government to court. act as bridges within the nuclear and extended family,
The language rights movement has received some within the community and across societies.
support from organizations such as the United Language sensitivity: Being able to move between two
Nations, Unesco, the Council of Europe, and the Eu- languages may lead to more sensitivity in Communica-
ropean Union. Each of these four organizations has tion. Because bilinguals are constantly monitoring which
declared that minority language groups have the right language to use in different situations, they may be
more attuned to the communicative needs of those
to maintain their languages. In the European Union, a
with whom they talk. Research suggests that bilinguals
directive (77/486/E EC) stated that member states
may be more empathic towards listeners’ needs in com-
should promote the teaching of the mother tongue munication. When meeting those who do not speak their
and the culture of the country of origin in the educa- language particularly well, bilinguals may be more
tion of migrant workers’ children. The kind of rights, patient listeners than monolinguals.
apart from language rights, that minority groups may
Cultural advantages
claim include protection, membership of their ethnic
Another advantage of being a bilingual is having two or
group and separate existence, nondiscrimination and more worlds of experience. Bilingualism provides the
equal treatment, education and information in their opportunity to experience two or more cultures. The
ethnic language, freedom to worship, freedom of monolingual may experience a variety of cultures; for
belief freedom of movement, employment, peaceful example, from different neighbours and communities

Bilingualism 11

that use the same language but have different ways of to be said that for many bilingual people, identity is
life. The monolingual can also travel to neighbouring not a problem. Although speaking two languages,
countries and experience other cultures as a passive they are resolutely identified with one ethnic or cul-
onlooker. However, to penetrate different cultures tural group. For example, many bilinguals in Wales
requires the language of that culture. To participate and
see themselves as Welsh first, and possibly British
become involved in the core of a culture requires a
next, but not English. Others, however, find identity
knowledge of the language of that culture.
There are also potential economic advantages to being a real, problematic issue. Some immigrants, for in-
bilingual. A person with two languages may have a stance, desperately want to lose the identity of their
wider portfolio of jobs available. As economic trade native country and become assimilated and identified
barriers fall, as international relationships become clos- with the new home country, while some others
er, as unions and partnerships across nations become want to develop a new identity and feel more com-
more widespread, all increasing number of jobs are like- fortable with being culturally hyphenated, such as
ly to require a person to be bilingual or multilingual. jobs Chinese-American, Italian-Australian, Swedish-Finn,
in multinational companies, jobs selling and exporting, or Anglo-French. Yet identity crises and conflicts are
and employment prospects generated by translational never static. Identities change and evolve over time,
contact make the future of employment more versatile
with varying experiences, interactions, and collabora-
for bilinguals than monolinguals.
tions within and outside a language group.
Cognitive advantages
More recent research has shown that bilinguals may Bilingualism is not a static and unitary phenom-
have some advantages in thinking, ranging from creative enon; it is shaped in different ways, and it changes
thinking to faster, progress in early cognitive develop- depending on a variety of historical, cultural, politi-
ment and greater sensitivity in communication. For ex-
cal, economic, environmental, linguistic, psychologi-
ample, bilinguals may have two or more words for
cacti object and idea; sometimes corresponding words
cal, and other factors. Our understanding of bilingual
in different languages have different connotations. Bilin- speakers’ knowledge and skills will grow as research
guals are able to extend the range of meanings, associa- methodology is defined and refined and our attitudes
tions and images, and to think more flexibly and toward bilingualism change to the positive.
creatively. Therefore, a bilingual has the possibility of
more awareness of language and more fluency, flexibility See also: Bilingual Education; Bilingual Language Develop-
and elaboration in thinking than a monolingual. ment: Early Years; Bilingualism and Second Language
Learning; Interlanguage; Lingua Francas as Second Lan-
It would be misleading to suggest that there is no
guages; Society and Language: Overview.
disadvantage to bilingualism. Some problems, both
social and individual, may be falsely attributed to
bilingualism. For instance, when bilingual children Bibliography
exhibit language or personality problems, bilingual-
ism is sometimes blamed. Problems of social unrest Baker C & Prys Jones S (1998). Encyclopaedia of bilingual-
may unfairly be attributed to the presence of two or ism and bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual
more languages in a community. However, the real Matters.
Bloomfield L (1927). ‘Literate and illiterate speech.’ Ameri-
possible disadvantages of bilingualism tend to be
can Speech 2, 432–439.
temporary. For example, bilingual families may be Chomsky N (1986). Knowledge of language: its nature,
spending significantly more of their time and making origin and use. New York: Praeger.
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bring up children bilingually. Some bilingual children tion. London: Macmillan.
may find it difficult to cope with the school curricu- De Houwer A (1990). The acquisition of two languages
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However, the individual, cognitive, cultural, intellec- Dopke S (1992). One parent, one language. Amsterdam:
tual, and economic advantages bilingualism brings to Benjamins.
a person make all the effort worthwhile. Garcia E (1983). Early childhood bilingualism. Albuquer-
A more complex problem associated with bilin- que: University of New Mexico Press.
Genesee F (1989). ‘Early bilingual language development:
gualism is the question of identity of a bilingual. If a
one language or two?’ Journal of Child Language 16,
child has both a French and an English parent and 161–179.
speaks each language fluently, is he or she French, Genesee F (2002). ‘Rethinking bilingual acquisition.’ In
English, or Anglo-French? If a child speaks English Dewaele J-M, Housen A & Li W (eds.) Bilingualism:
and a minority language such as Welsh, is he or she beyond basic principles. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Welsh, English, British, European, or what? It has 204–228.

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Grosjean F (1985). ‘The bilingual as a competent but MacNamara J & Kushnir S (1971). ‘The linguistic indepen-
specific speaker-hearer.’ Journal of Multilingual and dence of bilinguals: the input switch.’ Journal of Verbal
Multicultural Development 6, 467–477. Leaning and Verbal Behaviour 10, 480–487.
Gumperz J J (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Meisel J M (1989). ‘Early differentiation of languages in
Cambridge University Press. bilingual children.’ In Hyltenstam K & Obler L (eds.)
Hansegard N E (1975). ‘Tvasprakighet eller havsprakighet?’ Bilingualism across the lifespan: aspects of acquisition,
Invandrare och Minoriteter 3, 7–13. maturity and loss. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Harding E & Riley P (1986). The bilingual family. Press. 13–40.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Milroy J & Milroy L (1985). Authority in language.
Haugen E (1977). ‘Norm and deviation in bilingual London: Routledge.
communities.’ In Hornby P (ed.) Bilingualism: psycho- Muller N (1990). ‘Developing two gender assignment sys-
logical, social and educational implications. New York: tems simultaneously.’ In Meisel J (ed.) Two first lan-
Academic Press. guages. Dordrecht: Foris. 193–236.
Hummel K (1986). ‘Memory for bilingual prose.’ In Vaid J Paradis J & Gensee F (1996). ‘Syntactic acquisition in bilin-
(ed.) Language processing in bilinguals: psycholinguistic gual children.’ Studies in Second Language Acquisition
and neurolinguistic perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence 18, 1–25.
Erlbaum. Pfaff C & Savas T (1988). ‘Language development in a
Kolers P & Gonzalez E (1980). ‘Memory for words, syno- bilingual setting.’ Paper presented at the 4th Turkish
nyms and translation.’ Journal of Experimental Psychol- Linguistics Conference, Ankara.
ogy: Human Learning and Memory 6, 53–65. Potter M C, So K-F, VonEchardt B & Feldman L B (1984).
Kroll J & Stewart E (1994). ‘Category interference in trans- ‘Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and
lation and picture naming: evidence for asymmetric con- more proficient bilinguals.’ Journal of Verbal Learning
nections between bilingual memory representations.’ and Verbal Behaviour 23, 23–38.
Journal of Memory and Language 33, 149–174. Romaine S (1995). Bilingualism (2nd edn.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Lanza E (1997). Language mixing in infant bilingualism. Saer D J (1923). ‘An inquiry into the effect of bilingualism
Oxford: Oxford University Press. upon the intelligence of young children.’ Journal of
Laurie S S (1890). Lectures on language and linguistic meth- Experimental Psychology 6, 232–240, 266–274.
od in school. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skutnabb-Kangas T (1981). Bilingualism or not: the educa-
Le Page R & Tabouret-Keller A (1985). Acts of identity: tion of minorities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Vihman M (1985). ‘Language differentiation by the bilin-
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. gual infant.’ Journal of Child Language 12, 297–324.
Li W & Zhu H (2001). ‘Development of code-switching Volterra V & Taeschner T (1978). ‘The acquisition and
and L1 attrition in L2 setting.’ In Almgren M, Barrena A, development of language by bilingual children.’ Journal
Ezeizabarrena M-J, Idiazabal I & MacWhinney B (eds.) of Child Language 5, 311–326.
Research on child language acquisition. Somerville, MA: Weinreich U (1953). Languages in contact: findings
Cascadilla Press. 174–187. and problems. New York: The Linguistic Circle of
Mackey W F (1962). ‘The description of bilingualism.’ New York.
Canadian Journal of Linguistics 7, 51–85. Zhu H & Dodd B (eds.) (2006). Phonological development
MacNamara J (1967). ‘The linguistic independence of bilin- and disorder: a multilingual perspective. Clevedon:
guals.’ Journal of Verbal Leaning and Verbal Behaviour Multilingual Matters.
6, 729–736.

Bilingualism and Aphasia
P C M Wong, Northwestern University, Evanston, proficient in the languages they know, often profi-
IL, USA ciency and use depend on the social/functional
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. situations (e.g., work vs. family settings). Thus, it
has been argued that bilinguals are not truly ‘two
Bilingual individuals, sometimes referred to as multi- monolinguals in one person’ but are holistic, unique,
linguals or polyglots, are broadly defined as individ- and specific speaker–hearers (Grosjean, 1989). In
uals who know (and use) two or more languages. the case of aphasia (language deficits as a result of
These individuals possibly acquire (or are still acquir- brain damage), the various languages can be affected
ing) the two or more languages at different times in and recovered differently. Consequently, assessing
their lives and use these languages at different levels and rehabilitating bilingual aphasics warrant con-
of proficiency. Although the term ‘perfect bilingual’ siderations that are different from (or additional to)
has been used to refer to individuals who are equally those associated with monolingual aphasics.

12 Bilingualism

Grosjean F (1985). ‘The bilingual as a competent but MacNamara J & Kushnir S (1971). ‘The linguistic indepen-
specific speaker-hearer.’ Journal of Multilingual and dence of bilinguals: the input switch.’ Journal of Verbal
Multicultural Development 6, 467–477. Leaning and Verbal Behaviour 10, 480–487.
Gumperz J J (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Meisel J M (1989). ‘Early differentiation of languages in
Cambridge University Press. bilingual children.’ In Hyltenstam K & Obler L (eds.)
Hansegard N E (1975). ‘Tvasprakighet eller havsprakighet?’ Bilingualism across the lifespan: aspects of acquisition,
Invandrare och Minoriteter 3, 7–13. maturity and loss. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Harding E & Riley P (1986). The bilingual family. Press. 13–40.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Milroy J & Milroy L (1985). Authority in language.
Haugen E (1977). ‘Norm and deviation in bilingual London: Routledge.
communities.’ In Hornby P (ed.) Bilingualism: psycho- Muller N (1990). ‘Developing two gender assignment sys-
logical, social and educational implications. New York: tems simultaneously.’ In Meisel J (ed.) Two first lan-
Academic Press. guages. Dordrecht: Foris. 193–236.
Hummel K (1986). ‘Memory for bilingual prose.’ In Vaid J Paradis J & Gensee F (1996). ‘Syntactic acquisition in bilin-
(ed.) Language processing in bilinguals: psycholinguistic gual children.’ Studies in Second Language Acquisition
and neurolinguistic perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence 18, 1–25.
Erlbaum. Pfaff C & Savas T (1988). ‘Language development in a
Kolers P & Gonzalez E (1980). ‘Memory for words, syno- bilingual setting.’ Paper presented at the 4th Turkish
nyms and translation.’ Journal of Experimental Psychol- Linguistics Conference, Ankara.
ogy: Human Learning and Memory 6, 53–65. Potter M C, So K-F, VonEchardt B & Feldman L B (1984).
Kroll J & Stewart E (1994). ‘Category interference in trans- ‘Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and
lation and picture naming: evidence for asymmetric con- more proficient bilinguals.’ Journal of Verbal Learning
nections between bilingual memory representations.’ and Verbal Behaviour 23, 23–38.
Journal of Memory and Language 33, 149–174. Romaine S (1995). Bilingualism (2nd edn.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Lanza E (1997). Language mixing in infant bilingualism. Saer D J (1923). ‘An inquiry into the effect of bilingualism
Oxford: Oxford University Press. upon the intelligence of young children.’ Journal of
Laurie S S (1890). Lectures on language and linguistic meth- Experimental Psychology 6, 232–240, 266–274.
od in school. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skutnabb-Kangas T (1981). Bilingualism or not: the educa-
Le Page R & Tabouret-Keller A (1985). Acts of identity: tion of minorities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Vihman M (1985). ‘Language differentiation by the bilin-
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. gual infant.’ Journal of Child Language 12, 297–324.
Li W & Zhu H (2001). ‘Development of code-switching Volterra V & Taeschner T (1978). ‘The acquisition and
and L1 attrition in L2 setting.’ In Almgren M, Barrena A, development of language by bilingual children.’ Journal
Ezeizabarrena M-J, Idiazabal I & MacWhinney B (eds.) of Child Language 5, 311–326.
Research on child language acquisition. Somerville, MA: Weinreich U (1953). Languages in contact: findings
Cascadilla Press. 174–187. and problems. New York: The Linguistic Circle of
Mackey W F (1962). ‘The description of bilingualism.’ New York.
Canadian Journal of Linguistics 7, 51–85. Zhu H & Dodd B (eds.) (2006). Phonological development
MacNamara J (1967). ‘The linguistic independence of bilin- and disorder: a multilingual perspective. Clevedon:
guals.’ Journal of Verbal Leaning and Verbal Behaviour Multilingual Matters.
6, 729–736.

Bilingualism and Aphasia
P C M Wong, Northwestern University, Evanston, proficient in the languages they know, often profi-
IL, USA ciency and use depend on the social/functional
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. situations (e.g., work vs. family settings). Thus, it
has been argued that bilinguals are not truly ‘two
Bilingual individuals, sometimes referred to as multi- monolinguals in one person’ but are holistic, unique,
linguals or polyglots, are broadly defined as individ- and specific speaker–hearers (Grosjean, 1989). In
uals who know (and use) two or more languages. the case of aphasia (language deficits as a result of
These individuals possibly acquire (or are still acquir- brain damage), the various languages can be affected
ing) the two or more languages at different times in and recovered differently. Consequently, assessing
their lives and use these languages at different levels and rehabilitating bilingual aphasics warrant con-
of proficiency. Although the term ‘perfect bilingual’ siderations that are different from (or additional to)
has been used to refer to individuals who are equally those associated with monolingual aphasics.

Bilingualism and Aphasia 13

Bilingualism and the Brain knowledge in the neurobiology of monolingual
aphasia. For example, studies suggest that perilesional
In order to better understand how neurological inju-
areas may be recruited in aphasia recovery (Warburton
ries may affect the linguistic abilities of individuals et al., 1999). If, as Kim et al. (1997) suggested, L1 and
who speak more than one language, it is important to L2 in late bilinguals (who likely speak L2 with rela-
consider how multiple languages may be organized in tively low proficiency) are in the same gross neuro-
the brain. Traditionally, the debate has been centered anatomic region but nonoverlapping, then one
on ‘language laterality’ or ‘hemispheric specializa- language may be associated with the perilesional
tion’; that is, whether one side of the brain (the left areas, areas that surround the injured area, in certain
side) is mostly responsible for both languages, wheth- instances of brain injury (i.e., one language might be
er the right hemisphere contributes in the case of more preserved). Consequently, relying on these
bilinguals more so than in monolinguals, and whether perilesional areas (and the less disrupted language) in
one hemisphere contributes mostly to only one lan- rehabilitation of these individuals might be more pro-
guage (Paradis, 1990). Although the issue of laterality ductive than rehabilitation of their early bilingual or
has some bearing on predicting the presence or ab- even monolingual counterparts whose injury might
sence of aphasia as a result of brain injury, it only have caused disruption of all language(s) they speak.
considers the brain in very gross neuroanatomic terms It is important to note that although some ideas
(i.e., left and right hemispheres). Recently, the precise have been proposed (Green and Price, 2001), little
neuroanatomic circuits within and across cerebral evidence exists to support one rehabilitation strategy
hemispheres have been considered, as have other over another in bilingual aphasia.
structures in the nervous system, along with factors
such as language use, age of acquisition, proficiency,
and level and medium of exposure, which potentially
Types of Bilingual Aphasias and Patterns
have more extensive clinical implications. Recent of Recovery
neuroimaging studies, although involving only isola- Different types of bilingual aphasia, as well as differ-
ted linguistic tasks, suggest that attained proficiency ent patterns of recovery, have been reported, involv-
and the age of language acquisition may be deter- ing not only speaking and understanding speech but
mining factors in whether the two languages are also reading and writing (Streifler and Hofman,
subserved by the same neural circuits. Wong et al. 1976). In addition to cases in which the two or
(2005) found that even though both native more languages are equally impaired, it has been
Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking adults reported that some individuals showed selective
(who do not speak Mandarin) were able to discrimi- aphasia in which signs of aphasia were evident in
nate Mandarin lexical tone patterns, a feature of the one language but not the other (Paradis & Goldblum,
Mandarin language, the two groups used regions near 1989). Differential aphasia has also been reported
the inferior frontal gyrus but in opposite hemispheres where different types of aphasia were shown in dif-
when doing so, presumably due to their ferent languages (Albert and Obler, 1978; Silverberg
corresponding attained proficiency or lack thereof in and Gordon, 1979) – for example, conduction apha-
Mandarin. sia in one language and global aphasia in another.
Kim et al. (1997) found that early but not late In addition, some individuals showed involuntary
bilinguals showed spatially overlapping brain activa- blending of grammatical elements (e.g., syntactic
tions in the left inferior frontal gyrus associated with and morphologic units) of two languages (Glonig &
sentence generation in first (L1) and second (L2) lan- Glonig, 1965; Perecman, 1984) – for example, com-
guages. Late bilinguals also showed activation in the bining syllables of two languages, thus creating a new
left inferior frontal gyrus, but the centers of activation word (Paradis, 1998). This is different from ‘code
were further apart relative to the early bilinguals. switching,’ which involves the alternative use of two
However, since early bilinguals tend to have a higher or more languages in the same conversation (Milroy
level of proficiency in both languages, other studies and Myusken, 1995). Code switching can function to
have suggested that attained proficiency might be the convey emotional content, to emphasize or clarify the
most important factor in determining whether or not references being made, and to quote (De Fina, 1989),
the two languages are subserved by the same neural and it is considered to be an important aspect of
circuit (Perani et al., 1998; for a review, see Abutalebi normal bilingual discourse in many communities
et al., 2001). Converging evidence on brain and bilin- (Heller, 1995). Patterns of code switching were also
gualism is being built and shows great promise for the found to be different between bilingual aphasics and
effective assessment and rehabilitation of bilingual normal individuals (De Santi et al., 1995; Muñoz
aphasics, especially when combined with existing et al., 1999).

14 Bilingualism and Aphasia

It has been suggested that the degree and type of Bilingual Aphasia Assessment
linguistic impairments in bilingual aphasics may be
When evaluating a bilingual aphasic individual, vari-
specific to the structures of the language. For exam-
ous important issues warrant special considerations.
ple, it has been found that although Mandarin–
First, a ‘direct translation’ is not the same as cross-
Cantonese bilinguals showed impairment in the
language equivalency. Different languages have dif-
production of lexical tones (pitch patterns used to
ferent (nonoverlapping) grammatical structures and
contrast word meaning), a greater degree of deficit
vocabulary that can potentially influence how
was found in Cantonese production, possibly because
thoughts are expressed; consequently, certain linguis-
Cantonese contains six tonal contrasts, whereas
Mandarin contains only four (Lim and Douglas, tic impairments may or may not manifest themselves
depending on the language, as suggested previously
2000). In Friulian–Italian bilingual aphasics, the
in the Mandarin–Cantonese and Friulian–Italian
most frequently made errors in Friulian but not Ital-
bilingual cases. Furthermore, languages are used
ian involved the omission of the second obligatory
in different social and cultural contexts, resulting in
pronoun, which is a typical feature of Friulian but not
context-dependent interpretations even for the same
Italian (Fabbro and Frau, 2001). In other words, a
utterance. Second, because bilingual aphasics use the
type of linguistic impairment may not be apparent in
two or more languages in different social settings, and
one language because it does not occur as often (or at
all) in that language. This also reinforces the idea of because the two or more languages can be affected
and recovered differently, all languages the individ-
assessing multiple languages in bilingual aphasic
uals speak premorbidly need to be assessed in order to
individuals because impairments in one language do
gain a more complete picture of the aphasia. Third, in
not necessarily predict the same impairments in the
addition to any formal measures, a thorough case
other.
history detailing use and proficiency of each language
With regard to patterns of recovery, as well as
needs to be taken because it can potentially affect the
improvements in both languages in terms of compa-
rehabilitation process.
rable rate and extent (parallel recovery), individuals
show the following kinds of recovery: selective recov- Different formal/standardized test batteries are
available for assessing aphasics who speak different
ery, when only one language improves; successive
languages. These include tests that are originally con-
recovery, when one language improves before the
structed in English but then translated into other
other language; or differential recovery, when one
languages with considerations of the appropriate
language improves more so than the other. Most
linguistic and cultural contexts and/or normative
interestingly, some individuals show antagonistic
data for the specific groups. For example, there is a
recovery, namely improvement in one language but
Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia Battery
deterioration in another (Paradis and Goldblum,
1989). Some even demonstrate alternating antago- (Yiu, 1992), a Spanish version of the Boston Naming
Test (Taussig et al., 1992), and a Japanese version
nism, in which the improvement–deterioration pat-
of the Communication Abilities in Daily Living
tern of the two languages alternates (Paradis et al.,
(Sasanuma, 1991). In addition, there are also tests
1982). It has also been reported that some individuals
designed for assessing bilingual individuals, including
showed paradoxical recovery, namely when the
the Bilingual Aphasia Test developed by Paradis and
patient recovered a ‘dead’ language – that is, a lan-
colleagues for more than 65 languages and 170
guage the individual once had some knowledge of
specific language-pair combinations [e.g., an Urdu
but had never used it premorbidly for ordinary
communicative purposes. For example, Grasset version (Paradis and Janjua, 1987) and a Bulgarian–
French version (Paradis and Parcehian, 1991)] and
(1884) reported a case of a monolingual French-
the Multilingual Aphasia Examination in Chinese,
speaking Catholic woman who started to speak
French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish
single Latin words and prayers (the language of the
(Rey and Benton, 1991).
church) a few days following a left-hemisphere stroke
but was unable to speak French. It is worth noting
that it is not known what single factor influences
Rehabilitation
the pattern of recovery (Paradis, 1998). For example,
it is not always the case that the language spoken Traditional approaches employed in aphasia rehabili-
most proficiently premorbidly will be the language tation still apply to rehabilitating bilingual
affected the most or the least by brain injury or the aphasic individuals, such as language stimulation ap-
language that will be recovered first. proaches that emphasize individual linguistic units

Bilingualism and Aphasia 15

and processes such as grammar and naming, as well Bond S (1984). Bilingualism and aphasia: word retrieval
as compensatory approaches that target the indivi- skills in a bilingual anomic aphasic. Unpublished master’s
dual’s participation in vocational and social settings thesis, Denton: North Texas State University.
despite linguistic impairments. However, additional Chlenov L (1948). ‘Ob Afazii u Poliglotov.’ Izvestiia Aka-
demii Pedagogucheskikh NAUK RSFSR 15, 783–790.
challenges exist when more than two languages are
[Translated version: Hervouet-Zieber T (1983). ‘On
present. For example, should rehabilitation focus on
aphasia in polyglots.’ In Paradis M (ed.). 446–454.]
one or two languages? If one, which one? No one set De Fina A (1989). ‘Code-switching: grammatical and func-
of widely accepted guidelines exists for selecting one tional explanations.’ Ressenga-Italiana-di-Linguistica
or all languages in aphasia rehabilitation, and evi- 32, 107–140.
dence and arguments exist for either consideration DeSanti S, Obler L & Sabo-Abramson H (1995). ‘Discourse
(Bond, 1984; Chlenov, 1948; Linke, 1979; Wald, abilities and deficits in multilingual dementia.’ In Paradis
1958). Similarly, it is still unclear whether skills ac- M (ed.) Aspects of bilingual aphasia. San Diego: Singular.
quired from the rehabilitation of one language can be 224–235.
transferred to another. Evidence suggests that skill Fabbro F & Frau F (2001). ‘Manifestations of aphasia in
transfer across affected languages may be optimal if Friulian.’ Journal of Neurolinguistics 14, 255–279.
Gloning I & Gloning K (1965). ‘Aphasien bei Polyglotten.
the languages are closely related (e.g., Spanish and
Beitrag zur Dynamik des Sprachabbaus sowie zur Loka-
Italian) (Paradis, 1998). As stated previously, differ- lisationsfrage dieser Störunge.’ Wiener Zeitschrift für
ent individuals use their multiple languages in differ- Nervenheilkunde 22, 362–397. [Translated version:
ent social and vocational settings. In rehabilitation, Greenwood A & Keller E (1983). ‘Aphasias in polyglots.
the affected individual and her or his family should be Contribution to the dynamics of language disintegration
counseled to consider the preponderating need of one as well as to the question of the localization of these
language over another. For example, the social penal- impairments.’ In Paradis M (ed.). 681–716.]
ty of linguistic impairments in English may be greater Grasset J (1884). ‘Contribution clinique à l’étude des apha-
for Spanish–English bilinguals whose immediate sies (cécité et surdité verbales).’ Montpellier Médical,
peers are English-speaking, even though Spanish January (Observation II), 33–34. [Translated version:
might be the more proficient language. Mitchell C (1983). ‘Clinical contribution to the study of
aphasias.’ In Paradis M (ed.). 15.]
Green D & Price C (2001). ‘Functional imaging in the study
of recovery patterns in the bilingual aphasia.’ Bilingual-
Conclusion ism: Language and Cognition 4(2), 191–201.
Grosjean F (1989). ‘Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual
Basic knowledge of how multiple languages are is not two monolinguals in one person.’ Brain and
represented in the brain and what factors influence Language 36, 3–15.
representation undoubtedly have bearing on the Heller M (1995). ‘Codeswitching and the politics of lan-
clinical process. Moreover, careful documentation of guage.’ In Milroy L & Muysken P (eds.) One speaker,
linguistic impairment characteristics and the course two languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
of recovery in the two languages can also inform us 115–135.
about how the brain is organized. With increasing Kim K, Relkin N & Lee K (1997). ‘Distinct cortical areas
interaction between individuals from diverse linguis- associated with native and second languages. Nature
tic and cultural backgrounds, due to factors such as (London) 388, 171–174.
Lim V & Douglas J (2000). Impairment of lexical tone
immigration, globalization, and state unionization,
production in stroke patients with bilingual aphasia.
the number and proportion of individuals who Academy of Aphasia meeting at the School of Human
know and use more than one language will most Communication Sciences, Australia: La Trobe University.
likely increase. The clinical population as well as Linke D (1979). ‘Zur Therapie polyglotter Aphasiker.’ In
clinical needs will likewise increase. Thus, a greater Peuser G (ed.) Studien zur Sprachtherapie. Munich:
basic and clinical understanding of bilingualism and Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
the brain is warranted. Milroy L & Myusken P (1995). ‘Introduction: codeswitch-
ing and bilingualism research.’ In Milroy L & Myusken P
(eds.) One speaker, two languages. Cambridge, UK:
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Muñoz M, Marquardt T & Copeland G (1999). ‘A com-
Abutalebi J, Cappa F & Perani D (2001). ‘The bilingual parison of the codeswitching patterns in aphasic and
brain as revealed by functional neuroimaging.’ Bilingual- neurologically normal bilingual speakers of English
ism: Language and Cognition 4(3), 179–190. and Spanish.’ Brain and Language 66, 249–274.
Albert M & Obler L (1978). The bilingual brain. New Paradis M (ed.) (1983). Readings on aphasia in bilinguals
York: Academic Press. and polyglots. Montreal: Didier.

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Paradis M (1990). ‘Language lateralization in bilinguals: from the Asian-Pacific region. San Diego: Academic
enough already!’ Brain and Language 39, 576–586. Press.
Paradis M (1998). ‘Acquired aphasia in bilingual speakers.’ Silverberg R & Gordon H (1979). ‘Different aphasia in two
In Sarno M (ed.) Acquired aphasia, 3rd edn. New York: bilingual individuals.’ Neurology 29, 51–55.
Academic Press. 531–549. Streifler M & Hofman S (1976). ‘Sinistrad mirror writing
Paradis M & Goldblum M (1989). ‘Selective crossed apha- and reading after brain concussion in a by-systemic
sia followed by reciprocal antagonism in a trilingual (oriento-occidental) polyglot.’ Cortex 12, 356–364.
patient.’ Brain and Language 15, 55–69. Taussig I, Henderson V & Mack W (1988). Spanish trans-
Paradis M, Goldblum M & Abidi R (1982). ‘Alternate lation and validation of a neuropsychological battery:
antagonism with paradoxical translation behavior in performance of Spanish- and English-speaking Alzhei-
two bilingual aphasic patients.’ Brain and Language 15, mer’s disease patients and normal comparison subjects.
55–69. Paper presented at the meeting of the Gerontological
Paradis M & Janjua N (1998). Bilingual Aphasia Test Society of America, San Francisco.
(Urdu version). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Wald I (1968). Problema afazii poliglotov. Voprosy Kliniki I
Paradis M & Parcehian P (1991). Bilingual Aphasia Test Patofiziologii Afazii. 140–176.
(Bilingual-French version). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Warburton E, Price C & Swinburn K (1999). ‘Mechanisms
Erlbaum. of recovery from aphasia: evidence from positron
Perani D, Paulesu E, Galles N S et al. (1998). ‘The bilingual emission tomography studies. Journal of Neurology,
brain. Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 66, 155–161.
language.’ Brain and Language 121(10), 1841–1852. Wong P C M, Parsons L M, Martinez M & Diehl R L
Perecman E (1984). ‘Spontaneous translation and language (2004). ‘The role of the insula cortex in pitch pattern
mixing in a polygot aphasic.’Brain and Language 2, 43–63. perception: the effect of linguistic contexts.’ Journal of
Rey G & Benton A (1991). Examen de afasia multilingue: Neuroscience 24, 9153–9160.
manual de intrucciones. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates. Yiu E M-L (1992). ‘Linguistic assessment of Chinese-
Sasanuma S (1991). ‘Aphasia rehabilitation in Japan.’ In speaking aphasics: development of a Cantonese aphasia
Sarno M & Woods D (eds.) Aphasia rehabilitation: views battery.’ Journal of Neurolinguistics 7, 379–424.

Bilingualism and Second Language Learning
T K Bhatia, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA lingualism different from late bilingualism? Does sec-
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ond language learning have adverse cognitive effects
on children? And how are two (or more) languages
represented in the brain? This chapter attempts to
Introduction answer these and other questions concerning bilingual
language learning and use.
There is a widespread perception in monolingual
societies, particularly in the United States, that bilin- Key Concepts
gualism is a rare and exceptional occurrence in com-
munication. By contrast, from a global perspective, Before discussing language development among bilin-
bilingualism is a world-wide phenomenon. In fact, guals, it is crucial to give an overview of key funda-
global communication is often carried out through mental concepts concerning language development in
a speaker’s second, third, or even fourth language. children and adults. Also, it should be mentioned that
According to David Crystal (1997) approximately the term ‘second language learning’ is used in a wider
two-thirds of the world’s children grow up in a bilin- sense to include the learning of any additional lan-
gual environment which, in turn, leads to adult guage during a period ranging from childhood to
bilingualism/multilingualism. However, childhood bi- adulthood. An additional language may be a lan-
lingualism is not the only reason for adult bilingual- guage of the country or spoken outside the country
ism. A host of different factors (such as marriage, (i.e. foreign language).
religion, education, linguistic plurality of a particular
Acquisition vs. Learning
region, migration, jobs, government policies, urbani-
zation, etc.) also lead to adult bilingualism. How, A child’s process of learning languages is different
then, do humans become bilingual? Is adult second- from an adult’s process. A child can learn any lan-
language learning different from child-language guage relatively effortlessly, while the same task
learning? Is bilingual-language acquisition different becomes rather challenging for adults. For this rea-
from monolingual-language acquisition? Is early bi- son, some second language researchers (Krashen,

16 Bilingualism and Aphasia

Paradis M (1990). ‘Language lateralization in bilinguals: from the Asian-Pacific region. San Diego: Academic
enough already!’ Brain and Language 39, 576–586. Press.
Paradis M (1998). ‘Acquired aphasia in bilingual speakers.’ Silverberg R & Gordon H (1979). ‘Different aphasia in two
In Sarno M (ed.) Acquired aphasia, 3rd edn. New York: bilingual individuals.’ Neurology 29, 51–55.
Academic Press. 531–549. Streifler M & Hofman S (1976). ‘Sinistrad mirror writing
Paradis M & Goldblum M (1989). ‘Selective crossed apha- and reading after brain concussion in a by-systemic
sia followed by reciprocal antagonism in a trilingual (oriento-occidental) polyglot.’ Cortex 12, 356–364.
patient.’ Brain and Language 15, 55–69. Taussig I, Henderson V & Mack W (1988). Spanish trans-
Paradis M, Goldblum M & Abidi R (1982). ‘Alternate lation and validation of a neuropsychological battery:
antagonism with paradoxical translation behavior in performance of Spanish- and English-speaking Alzhei-
two bilingual aphasic patients.’ Brain and Language 15, mer’s disease patients and normal comparison subjects.
55–69. Paper presented at the meeting of the Gerontological
Paradis M & Janjua N (1998). Bilingual Aphasia Test Society of America, San Francisco.
(Urdu version). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Wald I (1968). Problema afazii poliglotov. Voprosy Kliniki I
Paradis M & Parcehian P (1991). Bilingual Aphasia Test Patofiziologii Afazii. 140–176.
(Bilingual-French version). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Warburton E, Price C & Swinburn K (1999). ‘Mechanisms
Erlbaum. of recovery from aphasia: evidence from positron
Perani D, Paulesu E, Galles N S et al. (1998). ‘The bilingual emission tomography studies. Journal of Neurology,
brain. Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 66, 155–161.
language.’ Brain and Language 121(10), 1841–1852. Wong P C M, Parsons L M, Martinez M & Diehl R L
Perecman E (1984). ‘Spontaneous translation and language (2004). ‘The role of the insula cortex in pitch pattern
mixing in a polygot aphasic.’Brain and Language 2, 43–63. perception: the effect of linguistic contexts.’ Journal of
Rey G & Benton A (1991). Examen de afasia multilingue: Neuroscience 24, 9153–9160.
manual de intrucciones. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates. Yiu E M-L (1992). ‘Linguistic assessment of Chinese-
Sasanuma S (1991). ‘Aphasia rehabilitation in Japan.’ In speaking aphasics: development of a Cantonese aphasia
Sarno M & Woods D (eds.) Aphasia rehabilitation: views battery.’ Journal of Neurolinguistics 7, 379–424.

Bilingualism and Second Language Learning
T K Bhatia, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA lingualism different from late bilingualism? Does sec-
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ond language learning have adverse cognitive effects
on children? And how are two (or more) languages
represented in the brain? This chapter attempts to
Introduction answer these and other questions concerning bilingual
language learning and use.
There is a widespread perception in monolingual
societies, particularly in the United States, that bilin- Key Concepts
gualism is a rare and exceptional occurrence in com-
munication. By contrast, from a global perspective, Before discussing language development among bilin-
bilingualism is a world-wide phenomenon. In fact, guals, it is crucial to give an overview of key funda-
global communication is often carried out through mental concepts concerning language development in
a speaker’s second, third, or even fourth language. children and adults. Also, it should be mentioned that
According to David Crystal (1997) approximately the term ‘second language learning’ is used in a wider
two-thirds of the world’s children grow up in a bilin- sense to include the learning of any additional lan-
gual environment which, in turn, leads to adult guage during a period ranging from childhood to
bilingualism/multilingualism. However, childhood bi- adulthood. An additional language may be a lan-
lingualism is not the only reason for adult bilingual- guage of the country or spoken outside the country
ism. A host of different factors (such as marriage, (i.e. foreign language).
religion, education, linguistic plurality of a particular
Acquisition vs. Learning
region, migration, jobs, government policies, urbani-
zation, etc.) also lead to adult bilingualism. How, A child’s process of learning languages is different
then, do humans become bilingual? Is adult second- from an adult’s process. A child can learn any lan-
language learning different from child-language guage relatively effortlessly, while the same task
learning? Is bilingual-language acquisition different becomes rather challenging for adults. For this rea-
from monolingual-language acquisition? Is early bi- son, some second language researchers (Krashen,

Afterwards.e. Children do not learn a period hypothesis. largely because of a loss of child himself/herself. but only has to resulting in tacit knowledge of the language (i. The role of pa. the child has an innate every normal child is capable at birth of acquiring capacity to acquire languages in an environment any human language. it is also shown Usually children become bilinguals or multilingual in that in spite of considerable effort and motivation. language acquisi- puberty. A Japanese child learns to choose the head-final sys- tem. it has been frequently (LAD)..PAST-PAST]. In this case. observed that even very proficient bilinguals fall short of being perfect bilinguals. by contrast. One such biological. without any by adults is seldom achieved. grammar. In the process of acquiring a lan- other differences in language acquisition and recovery guage.’ For instance. quest to become bilingual. ‘language learning’). while the role of tion of human organism. These principles are generally refereed to as a child’s language acquisition device In addition to degree of effort. choose between already specified values – head- ‘language acquisition’).PAST].’’ which is sensitive to age. Research on child-language ac- brain plasticity resulting in the completion of the quisition reveals that the child learns the language by lateralization of the language function in the left using the ‘rule formulation strategy. called the ‘head parameter. thus to prevent the child’s grammar from overgener- gardless of gender. whereas an adult has either limited or no access. A normal child can become a fluent ultimate attainment of some grammatical structures bilingual by the age of five. Similarly.. specific to due to the number and types of input conditions. this burden is carried by the effort and motivation. In theoretical studies following which is termed a ‘natural’ environment. the child still does not (1991) and Bhatia and Ritchie (1999) for details. That is. the a natural way. from the Chomskyan mentalistic framework. Re. different grammatical structures of language. In this process.’ describes linguistic factors that can lead to a varying degree . the language to which the child is exposed. adults and school-age children learn lan- nate ability is termed the access to universal grammar guage in formal settings such as schools and colleges (UG). Recent research claims have additionally English-speaking child learns on his/her own that by shown that there are different critical periods for the addition of the inflection ‘-ed’ to a verbal stem. the critical and produces utterances such as ‘I go-ed’ [go-PAST]. Since one generates the corresponding past tense form of the accent (phonetics and phonology) of a second the verb. race. mastery of syntax. in which nearly effortless and complete tion studies show that neither motherese nor imita- language acquisition is possible. Instead. adults undergo the latter in their metric values even from the one-word stage.) or imitation from aphasia Lenneberg (1967) proposed the ‘‘critical is important but limited. etc. their speech is marked by traces of Unnatural Settings the first language accent. Bilingualism and Second Language Learning 17 1985) distinguish between two types of mechanisms how a child does not have to even learn the specific in language development: a subconscious process word order of his/her language. provided negative from five to seven years) is earlier than that for evidence] by the mother or caretaker that the child morphology and syntax. whereas. In spite of the complete Input and Learning Environment: Natural vs. period for phonetics and phonology (approximately Even after being corrected [i. and a more conscious process initial or head-final – based on the nature of the (i. or nationality. for instance. This language by mindlessly imitating the input provided hypothesis claims that there is a period in the matura. and other non- parameter. lasting from two years to parental input cannot be ruled out. These and other universal principles of gram- matical structures and principles of learning largely Defining and Measuring Bilingualism lead a child’s language development. In other words. language learning requires more development. the role of input (motherese. reject the rule s/he has formulated in his or her mind Access to Universal Grammar (UG) and which s/he still produces in utterances such as ‘I went-ed’ [go. To explain these and formal training.e. this tion plays a significant role in a child’s language hypothesis notes. alization. While children go through input language. Children begin to learn to set para- the former process. whereas an English-speaking child chooses the The Critical Period Hypothesis and Its Biological Basis head-initial value.e. the child over-generalizes language is the most difficult to attain. this in. The role of the adult is Children are born to acquire human languages. socio-psychological. ethnicity. What is bilingualism and who is bilingual? Defining rental input then becomes to trigger an appropriate and measuring bilingualism is a very complex task value for innately given or set parameters. by mothers or caretakers. an hemisphere. a child has full access to universal through a formal instructional method. See Johnson and Newport meant ‘I went’ [go.

Hildegard. When the child is exposed to two languages to more This working definition of bilingualism is offered by or less the same degree from birth onward.18 Bilingualism and Second Language Learning of bilingual competencies. In short. and one language to one social agent or social setting and categories are employed to characterize bilinguals. primary vs. unbalanced. The distinction In general. etc. such an individual is called a receptive lowing: (a) one-parent/one-language (e. in societies where bilingualism is not when parents provide input.’’ restricts the use of Instead. Even if parents go to the absurd length of strategies to ensure the smooth exposure to the family identifying the language of each word or sentence language.g. balanced proach. prime their input with a language identification it becomes imperative for families to plan meaningful label. whereas a productive bilingual demon. speaking one lan- who learns his second language after the age of five guage in the kitchen and the other elsewhere). See McLaughlin conducive to bilingualism. a balanced bilingual (see Grosjean 1982 or the attainment of one language first and the second Edwards. a their children receive input from two languages. spoken. or an asymmetrical relation. and (d) a topic-related ap- non-fluent. a bilingual is not equivalent to on age and the degree of exposure to two languages. whereas sequential bilingualism describes i.e. Other major distinctions such as simultaneous vs. One such strategy that families employ in they use.g. (1984) and De Houwer (1995) for either theoretical where bilingualism is viewed as natural. After all. there is is not a challenging task. If the other language to other social situations. sequential are discussed in the Childhood Bilingualism next section. pattern of childhood bilingualism. non-functional.e. during ship (dominance) between two languages. the pat- Bloomfield (1933). sharp contrast. (1999) as ‘‘discourse allocation. societal (attitudes towards bilingual. In simultaneous bilingual) in initial stages. For instance. she de- pound vs. language later.. complete refer. preferably before the age of seven. The a bilingual can understand but cannot speak a second various manifestations of such strategies are the fol- language. Other factors such as age and amount of exposure to ism).. One of the most intriguing aspects of the childhood guage policies. This strategy was employed by the second language is acquired in a natural setting Leopold (1939–1949) in his classic study of bilingual before the age of five that individual is termed language development of his daughter. language/time approach.. either to a varying command in monolingual child.g. coordinate bilingual refers to the way two veloped a rule that fathers speak German and languages are processed in the brain. writing. If speaks the other. described by Bhatia and Ritchie widely-accepted definition or measures of bilinguals. Labels such as fluent vs. the early stages of Hildegard’s bilingualism. secondary.). Similarly. two monolinguals. functional vs. there is no this second setting.. a rich range of scales. and political (i. in India. Similarly.. For that reason. bilingual language development than developing bi- listening. The same is also true for no consensus among scholars about the exact line of those societies where social and political systems are demarcation between the two. taneous. who claimed that a bilingual is tern of language development is referred to as simul- one who has a native-like control of two languages. bilingualism can be viewed from individual. they do not tag or valued or where the language of a minority is distinct.e. The list is by no mothers speak in English. research on bilingual language acquisition is based son. 2004 for more details). particularly in a natural setting (i. an early bilingual. Although there is unanimous Providing either a natural environment or inputs in agreement among researchers about the validity of monolingual/dominant language speech communities the simultaneous and sequential bilinguals. it leads to different patterns in different types of language proficiency (e. lingualism in a natural setting. a bilingual person demonstrates many between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals in complex attributes rarely seen in a monolingual per. the child’s bilingual. the term late bilingual is used for those Patterns and Mechanisms in Bilinglual sequential bilinguals who acquire their second lan- guage at a relatively younger age than adults learning Language Development a second language. A com. linguistic groups and communities do bilingualism is how children learn to separate the two not need to take any special measures to assure that languages. and further nurtured by government lan. dichotomies. government policies toward the two languages also result in differences in the bilingualism) perspectives. in contrast with a late bilingual (b) one-place/one-language (e. and partial is better than providing no input and thus raising a vs. mother speaks one language and. For instance. (c) a either in home or in schools. but something entirely different. means exhaustive. Although the discourse allocation approach vs. these labels are semantically empty for . the child’s father strates a spoken proficiency in two languages. approved or methodological grounds. by society.

stylistic English bilingual child. distinguish them immediately. no translational equiva. the code-mixing refers to intra-sentential mixing stages before s/he is able to separate two input lan. What explains to distinguish the two lexicons and grammars of the this behavior of language mixing? Earlier research linguistic systems. but the child mixing. if one mixes the capacity of separating the two grammars and lexical two juices. child is capable of developing two distinct lexicons a linguistic item is temporarily unavailable in one using a syllabification strategy. According the unitary system hypothesis (Volterra for those researchers who distinguish between the and Taeschner. children and adults shows that such considerations port to this hypothesis.g..e. bilingual parents unwittingly For a more detailed treatment of the shortcomings of make the task of separating the two languages even the unitary system hypothesis and the strengths of the harder for children because of their normal tendency dual system hypothesis. addressee’s perceived [subject-verb-object] for English and SOV for Hindi.. behavior. two linguistic systems separate. a distinct from the systems right from the beginning. with three distinct types of linguistic inputs: two lan. two different word orders develop – SVO strategies of participants/topics. 1978). The same is true of bilingual lan- cross-linguistic studies (e. apple vs. During the second stage. see Bhatia and Ritchie 1999: to mix two languages. some researchers do not distinguish system hypothesis and the dual system hypothesis. but begin to evidence motivating the three stages of bilingual lan. tential mixing in bilinguals.e. they have a single attempted to explain it in terms of the language defi- lexicon made up of items drawn from the lexicons ciency hypothesis: it was claimed that bilinguals in of both languages. upon the theoretical and empirical objectives of their tempt to shed light on this question are the unitary research. orange juice) ren- and language specific parameter setting.e. Findings of recent research sion of the dual system hypothesis. but they often mix how does the child learn to separate the two lan. As claimed by the unitary system hypothesis the lack Volterra and Taeschner claim that their two bilingual of synonyms compels them to mix the two lexical subjects at the ages of 1 year 10 months and 1 year systems during stage I.. As it has been shown earlier in the discus- bularies and grammars. The consideration of guage development is full of shortcomings and con. Cross-linguistic synonyms emerge. children do not go reveal that the unitary system hypothesis cannot sus. each in an unmixed/pure form. the child experi. stage II yields the 6 months had a hybrid list of 137 words with no mixing of two language systems due to confusion. general and children in particular have language gaps. Hence. discourse months. During the first stage. not only are bilinguals capable of keeping the a mixture of two languages. item less complex or salient in one language). and different word order types) lends sup. the child undergoes three two. Depending as a source of input. s/he is unable as well as adults show this behavior. lents or synonyms are found in their vocabulary. Another fascinating feature of bilingual speech is guages. At the age of 1 year 7 language). Both bilingual children ences confusion. applies the same set of syntactic rules to both lan. During the first two stages. the effects. An analogy drawn from the The dual system hypothesis states that bilingual beverage industry further explains this point. guage mixing. it is clear that at age 2. elaboration. based on their access to Universal Grammar separation of juices (e. systems at their disposal.. clarification. in a study as semantic domains and semantic complexity (an devoted to the language development of a Hindi. semi-bilingualism) leads to tems. In translational equivalents. The two hypotheses which at. interlocutor’s identification. Research on the linguistic and socio- tions – one parent/one language and mixed input linguistic motivations for language mixing both in condition. The language augmentation hypothesis is capable guages. Bilingualism and Second Language Learning 19 children. At this stage. However. other words. The children. and one with that. For instance. through the initial stages of treating the two linguistic tain the scrutiny of the succeeding research and the systems as if they were one system. the result is a new taste. have the ders two distinct tastes. language (i. Similarly.. It is only during the third stage that the child of offering deeper insights into the bilingual mixing becomes capable of separating the two sets of voca. linguistic capability and speaker’s own linguistic . Furthermore. relief strategy (i. A wide variety of two pure juices. In short. the absence of balanced bilingualism) but is still unable to separate the grammatical sys. Given this state of affairs.g. while the term code-switching refers to the intersen- guages. optimization leads bilinguals to mix language with an tradictions both on methodological and empirical aim to get maximum mileage from the two linguistic grounds. or both languages (i. guages in question? This task is not challenging for This behavior is often termed ‘code-mixing’ or ‘code- a monolingual child because only one language serves switching’ in sociolinguistic literature. the lack of proficiency in either one the child slowly learns to separate the two lexicons. between the two terms and use them interchangeably. different input condi. a child is provided 591–614. them either within a sentence or inter-sententially.

and Sanskrit. like L1 learners. of a second language as a laborious and conscious these qualities color their second language learning. second language (L2) learning also affects their school achievement. there comes a tive adverb in both cases). teaching methods. Latin. from L1 learning is the influence of the mother tongue 2. one should not draw a conclusion context of language teaching the distinction between that there is nothing in common between the two. The hypothesis which aims at Approaches to Second Language Learning accounting for these differences between the child In adult language acquisition research. and other complex socio-psychological rea. unlike children who are For instance. The direct method: Also known as oral or natural on second-language learning. and the achieve- both undergo stages of language development. Research on grammatical errors of L2 shows zation receives a back seat in the learning of the that L2 learners transfer the grammatical rules – second language. the two languages. For these reasons. . influence second language acquisition in children. morphological. appropriate auxiliary verb. In ment levels to be attained. for more details).. and syntactic on acquiring spoken and listening competencies. learners transfer all grammatical features of L1 to L2. unvoiced unas- and Ritchie. while reading and written comprehension receives overwhelming importance.20 Bilingualism and Second Language Learning ability. therefore. adults rarely achieve 1. in the process of gram- A number of approaches have been developed to mar construction. other words.’ This stage is marked with second lan. As pointed out earlier. adults who learn a second language after they have Adult learners possess a relatively higher level of logi- learned their mother tongue experience the learning cal and cognitive ability than do children.e. is viewed as fundamentally different from first lan- guage (L1) acquisition. phonological. This method is per- Native Language Influence and Dominance haps the oldest method of language teaching An important way in which L2 learning is different which dates back to the 19th century. unvoiced aspirates. 2. However. speaking learner of Hindi has difficulties in hearing ty. Learners memorize nominal and verbal paradigms initial placement of negation. rules – of L1 to their second language. development: the intermediate stages of grammar Some of the following are notable: development between the initial stage and the ulti- mate stage are termed interlanguage grammars. memori- sition. The mother tongue or methods. the two is made to highlight major differences in the What is common between L1 and L2 learners is that learning aims. Similarly. pirates. Adult Bilingualism: Second Language Learning It would be a gross simplification to claim that L2 In contrast to sequential childhood bilingualism. in the and L2 learning. this method places learners of English shows the same stages of develop. two. ment as in L1 English learners – Stage I: the sentence. An English- sons. such as attitudes. Grammar-translation method: Following the tra- the case of the development of negation in English L1 dition of teaching classical languages such as and L2 learners. special emphasis is placed phonetic. by choosing the remote loca- ing degrees of competence. adults can learn a second language with vary. Not only does the mother tongue guage errors which no amount of training can cor. voiced unaspirates. the term sec- and the adult language is termed the fundamental ond language is used in a wider sense to include both difference hypothesis. it rect. Stage II: preverbal of the second language and translate L1 into L2 or placement of negation with no auxiliary verb. task. English-speaking learners of Hindi will able to universally and uniformly acquire native com. not translate there in these sentences: petency in their mother tongue. societal values. The chair is over there Depending on the level of their motivation and hard work. The grammar of negation in L2 Greek. and vice versa. the acquisition of a second language which may or In spite of the asymmetrical relation between L1 may not be foreign to a country. and voiced aspirates). However.e. prompt bilinguals to mix two languages. The list and producing a four-way contrast between Hindi of motivations is by no means exhaustive (see Bhatia aspiration and voicing contrast (i. Take 1. it departs from the grammar-translation L1 plays an important role in the process of L2 acqui. and personali. 1996. emphasis on memorization and rote learning. L2 learners undergo stages of facilitate the learning of second/foreign languages. in an identical way (i. it would be an point during the second language learning that even oversimplification to claim that childhood bilingual- the most talented learner cannot bypass the stage of ism is free from the dominance relationship between ‘fossilization. method in three important respects: one. There is a chair in the room native-like competency in their second language. Very little emphasis is placed on devel- Stage III: preverbal placement of negation with an oping spoken proficiency in the foreign language.

However. bilingual education in the United States. and Malayalam) from southern the natural setting of the native speaker’s learning India. environment in an actual classroom setting. versy on the basis of their merit and outcome. While there is rapid growth of bilingual education programs Socio-Psychological Factors in the United States.. and Switzerland are however. Native language is never used ism in education.e. 4. the This method exposes learners to different structur. opportunities. Bilingual education programs in cess of the Canadian language immersion model con- America aim at minority students learning English. gram. nations such as India.). Psycholog- for instance. French) in which children used their mother A number of other methods such as the natural ap- tongue to communicate with a bilingual teacher proach and ‘suggestopedia’ have been proposed. In other words. An em. and other factors. tion program is termed the language immersion pro- tural linguistics were applied to language teaching. For example. The discussion in the key mersed in schools in the second language of students concept section shows the limitation of this model. while learning the school/dominant language. favors the advancement of linguistic ical factors such as the affective filter (Krashen. practice there are severe constraints on replicating Telugu. In addition to learning two national as a tool to explain either grammar or other intri. Kannada. bilingual education in the United States. A large intelligence. such as number of bilingual education programs in the United their attitude toward the target language and culture.or multi-lingual education programs like 3. sonal communication skills (BICS) proficiency to cognitive-academic language proficiency (CALP) in Bilingual Education: Additive vs. the language policies of bilingual external rewards (monitory gains. the introduction of the target language diversity and pluralism by the introduction of the is free from any reference to the native lan. ensure the maintenance of the child’s mother tongue. educa- phasis is placed on spoken and listening compe. etc. Three Language Formula. whereas CALP requires a type Teaching children a school language. good jobs. Introduced in the 1960s in Quebec. attempts to simulate the native speaker environ. Keeping in mind the motivation and the learners’ while they offer children a transition to learning the attitudes. tend to be less successful learners than very conducive to the promotion of language rights integrative learners. there are two types of learners: instrumen- school/majority language. U. the school language. who have a positive attitude for minority languages. languages. (i. Children were im- acquired through imitation. The structural method: In order to speed up the A notable feature of the Canadian bilingual educa- acquisition of foreign languages. program was introduced at the request of the En- al patterns and transformation drills. in actual to learn one of the four Dravidian languages (Tamil. The suc- education programs. States aim at subtractive bilingualism. is one of the major challenges for bilingual suited for abstract and analytical thinking. Bilingualism and Second Language Learning 21 and three. 1985) . glish-speaking minority to provide their children a high level of proficiency in schools in the dominant Audio-lingual structural models assume that L2 is language of the region. BICS refer to the language profi- ciency level of students with restricted vocabulary Subtractive Bilingualism and simpler syntax. who learn a language for the purpose of gaining In contrast. French. but who would reply in French. particularly if of proficiency suitable for academic pursuits – a de- the school language is different from the child’s home veloped vocabulary and sufficiently complex syntax language. insights of struc. Instrumental learners. teaching methods but also on learners’ motivation. students are expected cacies of the target language usage. tional policies are not conducive to linguistic and tencies.S. This process leads chil- the fact remains that no method has a grip on the dren from what Cummins (1981) calls basic interper- complexity involving learning a second language. This model to learn a third language beyond their native tongue. While bi. students are expected ment of the target language. rather than on written ones. cultural diversity. this is not the case with languages for overseas military operations. in northern India. The government of India. toward the culture of the target language. which calls for trilingual- guage of learners. Hindi and English. the aim of such programs is not always to introduce additive bilingualism which Successful language learning not only depends on ensures the maintenance of the child mother tongue. The audio-lingual method is a byproduct of World India’s do not view bilingualism in general and the War II during which the United States experienced maintenance of minority languages in particular as a an urgent need to quickly train its troops in foreign threat to national integration. in that process they do not tal and integrative learners. tinues to generate enthusiasm and controversy in Such programs have attracted a great deal of contro. Canada.

misguided T & Ritchie W (eds. New York: Basic Books. in the United States pointed out that exposing chil. mance levels (semi-lingualism. London: Longman. Edwards J (2004). Schooling and minority language stu- impairments such as low intelligence. and even schizophrenia. Second Language Acquisition: Phonology. children demonstrate more cognitive flexibility than Johnson J & Newport E (1991). was revolutionary in its own right. witnessed around the world. Cambridge: also to a wide variety of cognitive and psychological Cambridge University Press. which was con. Evanston. Speech development of a bilin- gual child: A linguist’s record (4 vols). since guage. 569–643. ‘The acquisition and neither two monolinguals in the brain. it takes a toll on Mixing. the positive effects of bilingualism. 311–326. Bloomfield L (1933). Language.22 Bilingualism and Second Language Learning either inhibit or promote the learning of a second indicate why no theory of language learning and/or language: negative influences such as anxiety. English as global language. State University. Mirror of language.’ Journal bilinguals clones of each other. they put themselves in a disadvantageous position in terms of language acquisition. and linguistic – Peal E & Lambert W E (1962). Syntax. Similarly. ‘Early bilingualism: methodological and theoretical issues. Life with two languages.) Handbook of child their findings and the work of succeeding researchers language. The factors lead to life-long bilingualism. Teaching. ‘Foundations of bilingualism. intelligence. a bilingual is Volterra V & Taeschner T (1978). left-handedness. particularly on children? Earlier research language acquisition. minority children tend to raise See also: Bilingualism.’ In Ritchie W C & Bhatia T K Crowding their brain with two or more languages. Consequently. Cambridge. CA: Academic Press. Grosjean F (1982). Solid on methodological grounds. Peal and Lambert’s study revealed a positive view of MA: Harvard University Press. etc.’ Cognition 39. Bhatia T & Ritchie W (1999). San Diego. essarily pessimistic.) A number of diverse and complex conditions and Early bilingualism and child development. linguistic deficiency. 219–250. 215–258. The study. bilingualism. Inc. Interlan- their progress in language acquisition. dren to more than one language during their child. however. social. Leopold W (1939–1949). including the conclusion that bilingual Hakuta K (1986). 7–31. 2 for details). Lisse. (eds.’ In Paradis M & Lebrun Y (eds. Research by Peal and Lambert (1962). Cummins J (1981).) Handbook of child language acquisition. CA: Academic Press. language development. and non-verbal measures. and second language acquisition. Bibliography Effects of Bilingualism Bhatia T & Ritchie W (1996). De Houwer A (1995). ducted in Montreal. (see Hakuta. 19–45. Conclusions McLaughlin B (1984). Bilingual Lan- the affective filter. issues and perspectives. This study has Lenneberg E (1967). Contrary to previous studies. psychological. Bilingual Education.) Handbook of second nitive effect. Biological foundations of language. Oxford: (biased toward immigrant communities).) Handbook of bilingualism. San this research suggested. Thus. stuttering.’ In Bhatia sions of earlier research were premature. provide ample evidence that these negative conclu. and inadequate motivation can behavior and the mechanisms leading to bilingual create serious obstacles to successful language learn. but Crystal D (1997). IL: Northwestern University Press. ing. Los Angeles: California tion. These complexities of Child Language 5. Morphology. mental retarda- dents: a theoretical framework. Code Switching and comprehensible input. lack teaching is capable of explaining bilingual verbal of self-confidence. both in competence and perfor. ‘Bilingual language mixing. bilinguals universal properties of language: The status of subjacency performed better than monolinguals in both verbal in the acquisition of a second language. been replicated in a number of countries confirming New York: Wiley Press. . The input hypothesis: issues and implica- changing the face of research on bilingualism forever tions. These factors – Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.’ In Does bilingualism have an adverse linguistic and cog- Ritchie W C & Bhatia T K (eds. Second and Foreign Language Learning and adults show more self-consciousness than children.’ In put to rest such a negative view of bilingualism: Fletcher P & MacWhinney B (eds. Blackwell Publishing. ‘Critical period effects on monolinguals. Krashen S (1985).). Universal Grammar. 1985: Chap.’ Psychological Monographs 76. Foreign Language Teaching Policy. ‘Bilingual language acquisition. not only leads children to Diego. nor are two development of language by bilingual children. Due to a lack of self-esteem and a higher level of performance anxiety. biological. and unnec. New York: Holt. ‘Relation of bilingualism to account for a varied pattern amongst bilinguals. 627–688. 1–23. which results in the reduction of guage Development: Early Years. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. ‘The bilingual child: Some hood leads them to semi-bilingualism and confusion.

we say and nonpronouns. Chomsky (1981. as shown In contrast. if two nominals do not corefer. UK Binding theory is typically stated in terms of con- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Reciprocals like each other and one another must Binding Domains also be bound by a local antecedent and are grouped in binding-theoretic terms with reflexives: Traditional definitions of binding domains distinguish local from nonlocal domains. here the subordinate clause Gonzo voted for Wasow (1979). (1b) She voted for her. are annotated by iden- often simply called ‘pronominals’ or ‘pronouns’ (in tical subscripts. Reinhart himself. her. and Pollard and Sag (1994).’ reserving the (2a) Hei voted for himselfi. Büring (2004) provides a recent comprehen. Oxford. (1a) He voted for himself. of ungrammaticality (*) beside the illicit index. The reflexive cannot be bound by the (1993). that he is the binder of himself.j] Reflexives and reciprocals are together called anaphors. Instead. and us are called nonreflexive pronouns. nominals are tra- in (1a) himself must refer to the same individual as he. sentence: (3b) * Ii voted for each otherj. Huang (2000) higher subject Bill. and binding condition. the syntactic region that constitu- What Is Binding? tes the domain of binding. For the purposes of binding theory. Pronouns nonpronouns. which are collectively Two nominal expressions that corefer. In an example like Hei voted for himselfi. 1986). Ottawa. The first major division is between pronouns and are called reflexive pronouns or reflexives. nominal reference. Consider the following (3a) Theyi voted for each otheri. This yields three classes for the purposes of binding theory: anaphors. or refer to the referred to as ‘anaphors. Oxford University. and other pronouns. Dalrymple (1993). which must corefer with some other noun phrase in the sentence. ditionally partitioned into several classes. main. here: vidual as she. It particularly focuses on the pos- sible coreference relationships between a pronoun Classes of Nominals and its antecedent (the nominal that a nondeictic pronoun depends on for its reference). Binding Theory 23 Binbinka See: Wambaya. Pronouns are then further subdivided like she. pronominals. We will here refer to non- are annotated with different subscripts: reflexive pronouns as ‘pronominals. All rights reserved. Reinhart and Reuland is Gonzo. Carleton University. ditions that refer to three key aspects: the class of nominal involved. Binding Theory A Asudeh. and a structural condition on the syntactic relation between a nominal and its Binding theory concerns syntactic restrictions on potential binder. which is outside the reflexive’s contains a rich cross-linguistic survey of pronominal local domain. the sentence must mean that (4) some person voted for some other person. bound in its local domain: . Each class is governed by its own that the reflexive pronoun himself is bound by he. sive overview of the syntax and semantics of binding A pronominal in the same position must not be and presents a new synthesis. The reflexive himself must be bound in its local do- Some major works on binding are Faltz (1977). Pronouns like himself or ourselves. This is indicated by placing the marker systems. in (1b) her cannot refer to the same indi. same individual or individuals. term ‘pronoun’ for the class that includes anaphors (2b) Shei voted for herj. they opposition to anaphors). into reflexives and reciprocals. For instance. The only appropriate binder in this domain (1983).’ and nonreflexive pronouns. (5) Billi said that [Gonzoj voted for himself*i. Canada Binding Conditions M Dalrymple.

It can. This required dominating A also dominates B. Principle B. (10a) An f-structure A f-commands an f-structure B if 1981): and only if A does not contain B and every A. Other theories define a command relation on lin- al relation to command the name. binding in- (9a) A c-commands B if and only if A does not volves the requirement that the binding nominal be dominate B and the first branching node in a structurally dominant position. and Y does not dominate A. a typical statement of called ‘f-command’ and is defined as follows: binding conditions is as follows (based on Chomsky. these binding principles In the f-structure in (10b). Following Chomsky (1981). above as command. command is relativized to cannot be bound within some local domain. bound in its local domain. The command relation relevant for binding in LFG is Bringing these ideas together. Y that contains B but not A. in them. the f-structure labeled A are often referred to as Principle A. Notice also (8b) * Hei said that Gonzo voted for Billi. Nonpro. the first branching node dom- (7) Gonzoi’s friendj voted for himself*i.24 Binding Theory (6) Billi said that [Gonzoj voted for himi. ‘c-command’ but defines it as m-command. then B also m-commands In (8a) and (8b). B. in diagram (9b). not dominate B. and C are also called Conditions A. the condition on nonpronouns. inating A. Notice that in (10). nodes other than the first branching node. Although the pronoun grammar (LFG). structures. One commonly assumed version of command is the tree-configurational relation of Command c-command (Reinhart. not f-command A because there is an f-structure Principles A. which lies outside the local domain. We referred to this relation subject. by contrast. that if X is a maximal projection and Y is not a maximal projection. whether local ple. A and Y f-command each other. A nonpronoun must not be bound. B does inals. and A does The entire subject Gonzo’s friend can bind the reflex.j. The structural condition on binding means that certain elements cannot be binders. because the not c-command A. and Principle C. command is defined on f(unctional)- and the name corefer.*j] Variation in Structural Relation The local domain for the pronominal is also the sub. A c-commands B. A pronominal (nonreflexive pronoun) must not be bound in its local domain. In (8c). but the possessor Gonzo cannot. (10b) B. labeled X. dominating B is Y. C. the sentences are literature on binding continues to use the term ungrammatical on the indexation indicated. Some in the nonpronoun being bound. B. and the on anaphors. and it cannot be bound in this do. the pronoun is in the proper struc. We have thus far seen that anaphors must be bound Other tree-based definitions of command have within some local domain and that pronominals been proposed. also dominates B. as indicated by the coindexa. and the sentence is adjuncts and subcategorized grammatical functions. guistic structures other than trees. Thus. however. the similar relation of m-command makes refer- or nonlocal: ence to the first maximal projection dominating A. An anaphor (reflexive or reciprocal) must be f-structure that contains A also contains B. and C. (8c) When hei voted for George. Since this results B dominates A and B does not dominate A. even if they fall within the correct syntactic domain: In the tree in (9b). be bound by the matrix of the binding relation. Gonzoi was drunk. the condition on pronom. B does ive. because the first branching node possessor does not command the reflexive. In lexical functional noun is too deeply embedded. a maximal projection (see X-Bar Theory). the pronoun is not in the proper structur. which represent predicates and their tion. All versions of binding theory incorporate some notion ordinate clause. A because the first maximal projection dominating tural relation to command the name. For exam- nouns cannot be bound in any domain. Therefore. f-structure X that contains A also contains B. the condition f-commands B: A does not contain B. 1983): Besides a syntactic domain condition. just as in a tree there . relation between a pronoun and its binder is called (9b) ‘command’ and is defined in different ways in differ- ent theories. grammatical. because the pro. there is no binding relation. of structural domination or superiority as a component main. A m-commands B if X is (8a) * Hei voted for Billi.

A o-commands B because tribution. *himselfi. the 1999) defines binding on the ARG-ST (argument struc. plementary distribution. where a-command can be defined by replacing Although the English examples above are amenable all mention of o-command in (12) with a-command to a treatment along these lines. local domain for the pronominals in (14b) and (15b) ture) list. Cases of mutual f-command like the above occur not Chomsky (1981) proposed that the local binding just between subjects and objects but among all coar. and so on. In contrast. the anaphor’s local domain becomes the are also similar in using the relational hierarchy to domain of the containing NP. which are ordered according to the (13a) Gonzoi saw himselfi/*himi. main. anaphoric and pronominal binding conditions (Prin- ciples A and B) is the same: anaphors are required (11) Hei injured himselfi. predicts that anaphors and pronominals are in com- which in turn outranks the other arguments. such as Agent > Goal > the subject and Y the object. Binding Theory 25 is mutual c-command between sisters. mand. For example. The ARG-ST version of taining the pronominal since Principle B is satisfiable HPSG binding replaces o-command with a-com. languages have several anaphors. there is no possibility of satisfying Principle tion are similar in that they are defined on structures A within the noun phrase that contains the anaphor. to be bound in exactly the same domains in which pronouns are required not to be bound. To the extent languages indicate that a unified notion of local bind- that ARG-ST encodes thematic relations like agent ing domain for all anaphora is inadequate. The two theories Therefore. we need an additional Theme (Jackendoff. aforementioned obliqueness hierarchy: the subject is (13b) Gonzoi thought that George liked himi/ the first member of SUBCAT. within this domain. Some (logical subject) and patient (logical object). Early work in HPSG defined a version of Huang (1983) subsequently pointed out that the command called o-command on the SUBCAT list. prediction above is incorrect. each with a differ- command version of HPSG binding is related to ent local domain. (12a) A o-commands B if and only if A does not (14b) Theyi saw theiri pictures. B does not by proposing that the local domain for anaphoric o-command A. Consider the two Norwegian proposals that define the structural binding relation reflexives seg and seg selv: . domain for both anaphors and pronominals is the guments of a given predicate. data from other and all mention of SUBCAT with ARG-ST. (15a). a prediction that seems to In head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG). the object is the second. A simplified the following: definition of o-command follows: (14a) Theyi saw each otheri’s pictures. based on examples like in terms of this obliqueness relation. Since A can be on a thematic hierarchy. principle to ensure that the subject binds the object but not vice versa. the a. on the other hand. This obliqueness. or A o-commands X and X contains B. For the anaphoric cases in (14a) and mand relation in HPSG and LFG’s f-command rela. (15a) Theyi saw pictures of each otheri/themselvesi. a basic representation of argument structure. 1972. the sentences are grammatical. (14a) and (15a) are bound in this slightly larger do- More recent work in HPSG (Manning and Sag. because B does and pronominal binding is the smallest domain in not precede A on a SUBCAT list and B does not which the binding constraint in question could o-command anything that contains A. (12b) (15b) Theyi saw pictures of themi. be borne out by examples like the following: grammatical functions are encoded on SUBCAT (subcat- egorization) lists. 1988). in which the subject outranks the object. the anaphors and pronominals occur in identical positions: there is no complementary dis- In the SUBCAT list in (12b). The o-com. is the smaller domain constituted by just the NP con- rather than on SUBCAT. Such cases are handled governing category. Wilkins. since the anaphors in define binding constraints. Otherwise a perfectly grammatical Variation in Binding Domain sentence like (11) would be a Principle B violation because the object reflexive would bind the subject Some theories assume that the local domain for the pronominal. contain B and A precedes B on a SUBCAT list. In (14) and (15). Chomsky (1986) addressed this problem A o-commands X and X contains B. be satisfied. that encode grammatical functions. where a governing category for by an independently motivated relational hierarchy an element is the minimal domain containing a of grammatical functions based on the notion of subject and the head that selects the element.

heard us talk about self introducing a more complicated indexing system. Norwegian has a third reflexive (ham selv) that has (20) yet a different binding domain. ple. B requires disjoint reference. Although there are many examples of reflex- ive pronouns that need not be locally bound. many languages have long-distance The referential dependency of the pronoun on the reflexives that must be bound within the same sen- two nominals is represented by linking it to both tence but place no further restrictions on their binding antecedents simultaneously. which he marked as ungrammatical: With the move to set-valued indices and a notion of (17) * We like me. but ent of the subject. leading to the impossibility of a rather coreference and disjoint reference. told me about self ‘Jon told me about himself.26 Binding Theory (16a) Joni fortalte meg om seg selvi /*segi (18) They like him. For exam- does not lead us to expect this difference in behavior. Cole et al. Notice that this treatment of indexation coreference. the group of people whereas Principle A still requires coreference. referred to as they cannot include the referent of him: total overlap/equality of set indices: . J. B is empty. Dalrymple (1993). 1977. Lasnik (1981) discussed examples like (17). they refers to two indivi- self or Norwegian seg selv allow only local binding. In (21). i and j. Furthermore. (22) They{i. Principle B would be reformulated to require that the index of a pronominal must not overlap with the index of a commanding nominal in the pro- Defining the Binding Relation nominal’s local domain. Thus. Pica. 1991. whereas the lexical entry for seg specifies that This mechanism is particularly adept at representing it must be bound in the minimal finite clause in split antecedents—cases in which a plural pronoun’s which it is contained but cannot be bound by a co. Overlap is understood in set- In all of the examples we have examined so far. part of the lexical entry for seg selv specifies that it must be (19) bound to an argument of the same syntactic predi- cate. i. ‘Jon heard us talk about him.l}. as discussed above. 1987): containing an index value for each individual in the morphologically complex reflexives like English him- set (Lasnik. Lasnik also claimed that in (18). Manzini and Wexler antisymmetrical linking mechanism. binding. Thus. Treating reflexives and reciprocals as must now refer to overlap of set-valued indices rather anaphors that must obey the same binding principle than simply to identity of atomic indices.j} like them*{i. the speaker is included in the refer.j}/*{i.k}/{k. Indeed... a single language can have various nominals: anaphors. overlap based on intersection. each with its own binding domain. individual j: A puzzle that has gone largely unaddressed in the literature on binding is the local nature of reciprocal (21) They{i. which reciprocals. This index value is used to prevent the whereas morphologically simple reflexives like Nor- object him from referring to either individual i or wegian seg allow long-distance binding. theoretic terms: a set index A does not overlap with a the relation between the pronoun and its potential set index B if and only if the intersection of A and antecedent has involved either coreference or non. domain (Koster and Reuland. antecedent is made up of two syntactically separate argument. there This move necessitates a corresponding adjustment seem to be no comparable examples of long-distance to the binding condition for pronominals. the binding relation no In this example. represented by (1987). In more complicated cases involving also blocks readings in which there is overlapping plurals. The most extensively explored revision to the 2001).j} like him*{i}/*{j}/{k}.’ Examples such as these have prompted some research- (16b) Joni hørte oss snakke om segi /*seg selvi ers to revise the treatment of the binding relation by J.’ Higginbotham (1983) proposed that the symmet- rical coindexation mechanism be replaced with an Based on data like the above. longer concerns coreference and noncoreference. 1981). The possibility for a reflexive to allow long- standard coindexation mechanism is the proposal to distance binding has been claimed to correlate with represent the index for plural noun phrases as a set its morphological form (Faltz.e. Principle pronoun referring to the speaker in object position. the possibility of partial overlap of reference reference between plural pronouns: arises.k}/*{j. duals. and others argued that an arrow notation: binding constraints must be parameterized as lexical properties of particular pronouns.

even if notions like subject and Mary. The function SELF thus The idea is that elect is a collective predicate and reduces the arity of the relation that it applies to. Example (23c) illustrates Semantic Approaches to Binding Theory that overlap of reference or intersection is not suffi- Bach and Partee (1980) provided a semantic alter- cient for reflexive binding. xi is in R. the grammatical sequence they{i. predicates. theories discussed in an earlier part of this article are ference lies in whether the predicate taking the two such theories. predicate is interpreted collectively. then overlapping reference is possible. and coindexation that can make the set index of the certain ungrammatical instances of overlapping refer- reflexive equal to the set index of the antecedent ence similarly do not involve obviously distributive (himself cannot be plural).j. their binding theory is similar to the ungrammatical indexing they{i. instances of overlapping reference do not obviously (23b) They{i. the context of (24) makes it tactic/semantic approach to binding theory. Binding Theory 27 (23a) They{i. In addition. Similarly.j} like themselves{i. able for many speakers: but they noted that one advantage of their semantic (24) John and Mary often connive behind their binding theory is that it generalizes readily to lan- colleagues’ backs to advance the position of guages whose syntactic structure is less configu- one or the other. for these speakers. but vote for treatment of reflexivization as an arity-reducing func- involves each individual voting separately and is tion is shared by Bach and Partee (1980). show that a semantic binding theory achieves a cov- which. cates whose collective reading is logically distinct Example (23a) is ungrammatical because there is no from their distributive reading (Büring. However. is accept- erage equal to syntactic binding theories (of the time). even predicates. and. by con. This is meant to derive the difference Bach and Partee theory (1980) the advantage of ap- between the grammatical (25a) and the putatively plying readily to nonconfigurational languages.k}. when applied to a binary relation R returns the set of (25b) * We voted for me. . then overlapping reference is deals principally with reflexives and shares with the impossible. ory.j} like themselves*{i. A semantic predicate is a predicate and its though vote for is presumably equally distributive semantic arguments. which only indirectly model proposed that the crucial difference between ungram. These matical examples that appear to be structurally iden- assumptions can be thought of as analogous to bind- tical to the ungrammatical examples above. These languages nonetheless have rules of in the main offce. pronominal as an argument is interpreted collectively Keenan (1988) also offered a semantic binding the- or distributively. but one based on his semantic case theory rather cate. 2004). The ungrammatical (25b): basic insight behind Keenan’s theory of reflexiviza- tion is that a reflexive denotes a function SELF that (25a) We elected me. This the overlapping reference is allowed. In this respect. rendering the sentence un.j} like himself*{i}/*{j}. terms of grammatical functions rather than on struc- Reinhart and Reuland (1993) and Kiparsky (2002) tural configurations. since the sentence cannot native to syntactic binding theories. provided A problem for this approach is that there are gram- that certain auxiliary assumptions are made. but if it is than on Montague semantics. therefore distributive. This time they got her a job rational. trast. His binding theory a distributive predicate. They argue that functional likes another group of people that includes only application in the semantics yields a sufficiently rich some of the first group. Bach and Partee principally sought to and Hestvik (1997) presented the following example. Example (23b) is.j}. couched in have an interpretation in which a group of people Montague semantics. x such that hx.j} got her{j} a object in these languages are not defined configura- job appears to be identical in binding-theoretic terms tionally. structural relation to model binding theory. semantic composition similar to those of configu- Since they refers to John and Mary and her refers to rational languages. many with syntactic predicates distinguished from semantic speakers find (25b) just as grammatical as (25a). A syntactic predicate is a head.k}/*{i. If the predicate is a collective predi. grammatical: the set index of the reflexive and its antecedent are equal. crucially. certain grammatical all of its selected internal arguments.j} like him{j} for to syntactic binding theories that define binding in (18). Their clear that John and Mary together got her a job – the theory centers around the notion of predication. grammatical functions. Berman ing constraints. while syntactically similar to (18). involve collective predication or do not involve predi- (23c) They{i. Reinhart and Reuland (1993) offered a mixed syn- grammatical. The HPSG and LFG binding matical and grammatical instances of overlapping re.

A reflexive-marked syntactic predicate is reflexive. 1994). Constraints on the distribution of exempt anaphors land proposed the following two binding conditions: are often claimed to be defined in nonsyntactic terms. In this view. This predicts that sentences like (28) are ungrammatical: Exemption and Logophoricity (28) * Gonzoi downloaded her picture of himselfi. HPSG’s in the NP. For example. For example. In an LFG account. then it is not a subject in predication-based that their Principle A requires a reflexive-marked theories. Runner the reflexive in the following sentence is an exempt et al. Crucially. anaphor is not locally commanded. the reflexive is not tic predicate must have a subject. In an HPSG binding theory. sketched earlier. allowed because the predicate is reflexive but not Theories of exemption differ on the treatment of reflexive-marked. exempt anaphors are used to refer to an antecedent 2. A reflexive semantic predicate is reflexive-marked. theory. Pollard and Sag (1994) argued that 1. either because it can be bound in this Principle A states that a locally commanded anaphor minimal domain (in Chomsky’s 1986 account) or must be locally bound (where the command relation because the head noun counts as a syntactic predicate is either o-command or a-command. Reinhart Kate injured himselfi is unacceptable since injured is and Reuland’s theory (1993).28 Binding Theory an external argument (a subject). Recall ment. contrast with approaches Pragmatic and Blocking Approaches to like that of Chomsky (1986). 2001. under the rubric of logophoricity. like Chomsky’s (1986). poses of binding theory. In cases of noncomplementary distribution. exemplified by (29) supports predication-based bind- tary distribution with a pronoun and is treated as ing theories that do not treat possessors as subjects. a sentence like Gonzoi such as (27). If an account). exempt from binding constraints: such as certain versions of HPSG and LFG binding (27) Gonzoi saw a snake near himi/himselfi. For example. in (27) the reflexive is in noncomplemen. whose point of view is being reported. it does containing a subject. the reflexive must be bound purview of binding constraints. a syntac. (1987). speakers in fact find sentences like from binding (Pollard and Sag. A predicate is reflexive-marked if and only if one of exempt anaphors are subject to discourse and prag- its arguments is a reflexive. A predicate is reflexive if matic constraints. as discussed above).. In Binding Chomsky’s view. Therefore. of view in pronominal systems is typically discussed indexed). which corresponds to the matrix not count as a syntactic predicate. Given these conditions. The sentence *Gonzoi injured himi is dis. the reflexive in syntactic predicate to be reflexive. The binding theory A and Principle B derive a kind of blocking effect: of LFG is similar in this regard. Reuland’s Principle A does not apply to it. They noted that the possessor in the noun phrase is not an argument of the head noun and The binding theory of Reinhart and Reuland (1993) is concluded that if the possessor is not a semantic argu- similar in treating some anaphors as exempt. Kuno argued that the reflexive indicates injured himselfi is allowed since injured is a reflexive. And the sentence *Gonzoi said the specifier or possessor of a noun phrase. pronouns are in general barred where reflexives are . Asudeh and Keller (2001) argued that the result Similarly. reflexives in examples like (27) are not exempt from binding but rather must be bound in In the binding theories reviewed thus far. that is view but the pronoun does not. and Reinhart and clause. Theories like these. The encoding of point reflexive (the arguments of the predicate are co. that the speaker has taken on the subject’s point of marked predicate (marked by himself). Certain formulations of binding theory allow some Since the specifier her is in the right structural posi- occurrences of anaphors to be excluded from the tion to count as a subject. Principle a slightly larger syntactic domain. as discussed extensively by Kuno and only if two of its arguments are coindexed. HPSG’s Principle Recent psycholinguistic evidence has been shown to A does not apply to it: the anaphor is exempt bear on this issue. (28) grammatical (Asudeh and Keller. although exempt but must be bound in the minimal domain the noun picture in (27) is reflexive-marked. 2003): anaphor: (29) Gonzoi downloaded her picture of himselfi. Reinhart and Reu. reflexive-marked but not reflexive (Kate and himself treats specifiers of noun phrases as subjects for pur- are not coindexed). depending on and is reflexive marked (in the Reinhart and Reuland the version of the theory. (26) Gonzoi downloaded a picture of himselfi. in which some anaphors are exempt from binding constraints. (29) is exempt.

’ transformational work. in languages principles that explicitly compare structures contain. in (30b) it simply marks the verb as using the feature assignment [#a. For example. 2000). they are by the same ments assume that the passive example of A-move- token seriously challenged when the complementarity ment in (32a) and the wh-question example of A-bar breaks down. A-movement (movement to an argument position) Although blocking accounts arguably provide an and A-bar movement (movement to a nonargument explanation of pronoun/reflexive complementarity position) in transformational grammar. in which shown to give rise to different meanings or pragmatic the t represents the original position – the trace – of effects in such environments. options (Kiparsky. heard us talk about self ries has been considerably revised in more recent ‘Johan heard us talk about him. Pronouns and reflexives are thus predicted (30d) * Johan skyndade Maria. tion: brid binding theory that includes blocking principles. pronom- ‘Johan hurried up. Binding Theory 29 required. 2002. since the verb cannot take a full transformations in terms of binding requirements on local reflexive or a free object. Reinhart and Reuland (1993) offered an explanation tual disadvantage of lacking deep motivation: the of these facts based on the observation that long- general complementarity seems merely coincidental. pragmatics. semantic role of a predicate. although J. Examples (30c) and (30d) show that the cation enables the statement of locality relations on verb is intransitive. #p].’ inals and reflexives are both claimed to be grammati- (30c) * Johani skyndade sig självi. His account sented by Sells et al. Pica. 1977.e. The serves as an argument long-distance reflexive in trace in wh-movement is grouped with nonpronouns (30a). Huang (2000) presented an alternative sort of (31a) Gonzo behaved himself. i. In this view. Huang. In many languages. hurried self lexical insertion. like English.. and Reflexive forms do not always fill a syntactic and traces do not seem to fit into any of these categories. This classifi- intransitive. syntactic and semantic valence reduction was pre- ing. 1987). and it can mark intransitivity or plied the classification to covert noun phrases. However. The passive trace is grouped with in other cases. Reflexives and pronouns must be movement in (32b) involve transformations. traces of moved elements. Huang’s analysis followed in an estab. Kiparsky (2002) noted long-distance reflexive is used for valence reduction. valence reduction. full reflexives seem to serve a similar func- an overview of the issues involved and offered a hy. which he reviewed extensively. #p]. The binding-theoretic treatment of empty catego- (30a) Johani hörde oss prata om sigi. the However. Chomsky (1982) gave a featural break- same form can play two roles. (32b) Whoi did someone accost ti? The fact that binding theory applies to these examples might initially appear puzzling since binding theory is Reflexives and Valence Reduction about anaphors. the connection by claiming that anaphors are the J. J. Hornstein (2001) revived (30b) Johan skyndade sig. (1987). in which the blocking constraints rely on notions of featural and Binding and Movement morphological economy rather than on pragmatic Binding theory is invoked in certain treatments of principles. with no associated semantic role. contrasts with that of Kiparsky (2002). blocking account based on a theory of neo-Gricean (31b) * Gonzo behaved David. However. cal formatives introduced during derivations. empty categories. hurried M. Such treat- that nonblocking accounts lack. He gave reflexives. It can be a reflexive down of overt noun phrases in terms of the features pronoun with an independent syntactic and semantic [ ! a(naphor)] and [ ! p(ronominal)] and then ap- role in some cases. distance reflexives are morphologically simple He argued that the grammar should include blocking (Faltz. pronominals. not by J. and nonpronouns. which lack morphologically simple ing pronouns to ones containing reflexives. This treatment of binding has the . the Swedish form sig anaphors using the feature assignment [þ a. to be in mostly complementary distribution. with the result that the the coindexed element: blocking relation fails to apply since it chooses only between semantically or pragmatically equivalent (32a) Gonzoi was accosted ti. the complementarity is relaxed in certain situations. that this derivative notion of blocking has the concep. A detailed study of reflexivization and its relation to lished tradition of pragmatic approaches to bind. A question raised by this pattern of data is why the using a variety of mechanisms. hurried self result of overt A-movement.

Dordrecht: Foris. (34b) What nobodyi was was sure of himselfi. ordinary. and use. it treats deictic Coreference: Identity and Similarity.] tive movement-based account in which a resumptive Berman S & Hestvik A (1997). subject must at some nonsurface level be the subject Oxford: Oxford University Press. as lexical items introduced through lexical Binding: Semantic Aspects. ‘Experimental evidence pronouns. further evidence for bind. the free rela. MA: MIT Press. evidence that the wh-phrase in (34a) must be recon. 554–560. Chicago: Chi- be explained by treating resumptive pronouns as cago Linguistic Society. San diagnostic tool for the extraction site for movement. the free relative’s Huang Y (2000). as well as other issues concerning binding to movement. it faces a number of challenges. ora: Pragmatic Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge therefore do not lend straightforward support to the University Press. ‘Split antecedents. al. Knowledge of language: its nature. resumptive pronouns do Boeckx C (2003).’ In Kreiman J & Ojeda A E (eds. Ball C. or the result of movement but are rather MIT Press.D. or exempt/ Anaphora: Philosophical Aspects.’ Ph. as in the following Swedish example: for a predication-based binding theory. Chomsky N (1982). tive’s antecedent. Cambridge. This could parasession on pronouns and anaphora. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.] Higginbotham J (1983). Büring (2004: chapter 12) Jackendoff R S (1972). Command Relations. logophoric reflexives. Faltz L M (1977). extend to long-distance. diss. This raises the question of why nondeictic personal pronouns. diss. non- pronoun is the result of spelling out a head whose coreference and DRT. Logophoricity. Similarly. Binding theory. Anaphora: a cross-linguistic study. In a recent overview of Chomsky N (1981).) Compositionality in formal semantics: selected papers of Barbara Partee. Asudeh A (2004). [Reprinted in Partee B H overt traces that result from a last-resort attempt to (ed. [Reprinted by Garland Press. insertion. ‘Which student did Maria think cheated?’ Bach E & Partee B (1980). binding. ‘Anaphora and semantic struc- This example seems to indicate that wh-movement ture. Pica P & Rooryck J complement has moved away to become the resump. number 36.’ In Bennis H. . and nom- The locality of reflexive binding has been used as inals. New York.) Papers from the has left a pronoun in the extraction site. of the second copula. Scope and inals.) Proceedings of the (33) Vilken elev trodde Maria att han fuskade? Chicago Linguistic Society 37. 1985. and connectivity. binding-as-movement view.30 Binding Theory advantage for transformational grammar of reducing connectivity. Move! a minimalist theory of constru- structed in its base position. 1–28. 1–14. (eds. However. In addition. CA: CSLI ing has been crucial: Publications. [CSLI Lecture Notes. They Büring D (2004). 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tions/University of Massachusetts.’ Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the North Eastern Lin- In Hawkins J A (ed. 17. body movements (such as instinctive motor patterns tation. where the ‘interpretant’ is the sign concept tation of signs. theory. and signs between organs and cells in the nado).’ Linguistic Inquiry 18. [CSLI Lec- structional aspects of linguistic explanation.’ In Iida M. Reinhart T & Reuland E (1993). For instance. why a small gazelle. Biosemiotics S Brier. Wechsler S & Zec D (eds. guistic Society. whole behavior and properties. discourse. 483–500. types of sign. who founded semiotics as a logic and scientific study of dynamic sign action in Semiotics develops a general theory of all possible human and nonhuman nature. Koenig J-P & Webelhuth G (eds. biosemiotics attempts kinds of signs. ‘Dissociations between structure.’ reference. ture Notes. 191–214. Essays on anaphora.) Working argument structure and grammatical relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Peircian bio- Biosemiotics (bios. and in the organism that makes it see/recognize something movements. such as sounds. ‘Reflexivization varia- drecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Functional syntax: anaphora. signs of the living systems. and lexical Manning C D & Sag I A (1999). Sussman R S & Tanenhaus M K (2003). ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Stanford. vol. ‘On the nature of the reflexivization cycle. Biosemiotics 31 Keenan E L (1988). and empathy. Ghent: Manzini M R & Wexler K (1987). beings transcend the conceptual foundation of the Denmark other natural sciences. to use semiotic concepts to answer questions about mation. and meaning. Stanford. Wasow T (1979). Dor. 179–226. ‘Reflexivity. Story. body (such as plumage for another bird and small- tional signs in humans.’ In Kaufmann I & Stiebels B (eds. sign) is a growing semiotics builds on Peirce’s unique triadic concept of field that studies the production. Kuno S (1987). nonintentional signs. also pox for a physician) as signs. and further patterns between animals as well as between animals and and differences in nature (such as the track of a tor- humans.’ In In Wilkins W (ed.’ In Kathol papers in grammatical theory and discourse structure. memory. ‘On two recent treatments of disjoint picture noun phrases: evidence from eye movements. Head-driven phrase structure pronouns. Anaphora in generative grammar. [no. Sells P. life and semion. objects. and a psychic world. but is usually the biologic and evolutionary emergence of meaning. Zaenen A & Zec D (1987). Wilkins W (1988). and therefore accepts involuntary of the tools and notions of semiotics such as interpre. 413–444. number 11. is seen as prey for a cheetah. B1–B13. mimicry. San Diego: Academic Press.’ Journal of Linguistic Research 1. in as an object.) (1991).) Explaining language universals.’ Pica P (1987). Peirce’s semiotics is the only one that deals systemati- and communication are of interest for biosemiotic cally with nonintentional signs of the body and of research. learning. [Also in Lasnik H (1989). restricted to human communication and culture. Kiparsky P (2002). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. not an elephant. The in animal courtship) and patterns of and within the biosemiotic doctrine accepts nonconsciously inten. Verlag. words. 53 in Studia Grammatica] Berlin: Akademie Reinhart T (1983). As nition. CA: CSLI Publications. This is its interpretation of what the an attempt to integrate the findings of biology and outer sign vehicle stands for in a motivated context semiotics to form a new view of life and meaning as by relating to a code that is connected to that specific immanent features of the natural world. ‘Disjoint reference and the typology of Pollard C & Sag I A (1994). and interpre. Thus contemplations of the similarities and differences of the biological processes between and within living signs of inorganic nature. semantics. smells. 21. ‘On semantics and the binding theory. 48–58. as well as signs on molecular scales.) Lexical and con. categorization. 105–144. Koster J & Reuland E (eds. Anaphora and semantic interpretation. Long-distance ana. 657–720.) More than grammar. vol. intentionality. Copenhagen Business School. and learnability.] tion: Relations between syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] CA: CSLI Publications. ‘Parameters. Life and functionality. MA: GLSA Publica- Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.) Syntax and semantics: thematic rela- McDonough J & Plunkett B (eds. action. . Copenhagen. their modes of signification and infor. ‘Thematic structure and reflexivization. 169–238. semiosis. The biology of recog. A. binding E. Amherst.) Proceedings of the tions. semiosis. together with the analysis of the application nature at large. 63–78. Inquiry 24. All rights reserved. Runner J T. London: Croom Helm. Cognition 89. ‘Assignment of reference to reflexives and pronouns in Lasnik H (1981). it has become the main source for semiotic body and between cells in the body or in nature. and semiosis are seen as coexisting.’ Linguistic phora. In the tradition of Peirce.

) Proceedings of the tions. ture Notes.) Explaining language universals. Sussman R S & Tanenhaus M K (2003). and semiosis are seen as coexisting. Peirce’s semiotics is the only one that deals systemati- and communication are of interest for biosemiotic cally with nonintentional signs of the body and of research.’ Journal of Linguistic Research 1. where the ‘interpretant’ is the sign concept tation of signs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and in the organism that makes it see/recognize something movements. Wilkins W (1988). Biosemiotics 31 Keenan E L (1988). Anaphora in generative grammar. and signs between organs and cells in the nado). In the tradition of Peirce. [Also in Lasnik H (1989). and empathy. signs of the living systems. 169–238. biosemiotics attempts kinds of signs. B1–B13. 21.’ In Kaufmann I & Stiebels B (eds. Life and functionality. Kuno S (1987). but is usually the biologic and evolutionary emergence of meaning.) More than grammar.) (1991). whole behavior and properties. This is its interpretation of what the an attempt to integrate the findings of biology and outer sign vehicle stands for in a motivated context semiotics to form a new view of life and meaning as by relating to a code that is connected to that specific immanent features of the natural world. San Diego: Academic Press. body (such as plumage for another bird and small- tional signs in humans. not an elephant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. sign) is a growing semiotics builds on Peirce’s unique triadic concept of field that studies the production. semiosis. Peircian bio- Biosemiotics (bios. and therefore accepts involuntary of the tools and notions of semiotics such as interpre. as well as signs on molecular scales. Wasow T (1979).’ Linguistic phora. semiosis. life and semion. Kiparsky P (2002). semantics. Sells P. For instance. 483–500. ‘Dissociations between structure. to use semiotic concepts to answer questions about mation. it has become the main source for semiotic body and between cells in the body or in nature. and lexical Manning C D & Sag I A (1999). why a small gazelle. The biology of recog. 105–144. Stanford.] tion: Relations between syntax. number 11.) Lexical and con. 63–78. theory. types of sign. 48–58. 191–214. together with the analysis of the application nature at large. 179–226. As nition. ‘Thematic structure and reflexivization. nonintentional signs. memory. [CSLI Lec- structional aspects of linguistic explanation. and further patterns between animals as well as between animals and and differences in nature (such as the track of a tor- humans. Koenig J-P & Webelhuth G (eds. mimicry. The in animal courtship) and patterns of and within the biosemiotic doctrine accepts nonconsciously inten. CA: CSLI Publications. and interpre. Dor. 17. Stanford.’ In Kathol papers in grammatical theory and discourse structure. 53 in Studia Grammatica] Berlin: Akademie Reinhart T (1983).’ Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the North Eastern Lin- In Hawkins J A (ed.’ In Iida M. Inquiry 24.] CA: CSLI Publications. ‘On two recent treatments of disjoint picture noun phrases: evidence from eye movements. Head-driven phrase structure pronouns. Verlag. and learnability. Biosemiotics S Brier. vol. Koster J & Reuland E (eds. Cognition 89. Story. ‘On semantics and the binding theory.’ Linguistic Inquiry 18. action. Anaphora and semantic interpretation. categorization. [no. All rights reserved. A. Essays on anaphora. . intentionality.’ Pica P (1987). ‘Disjoint reference and the typology of Pollard C & Sag I A (1994). Runner J T. Wechsler S & Zec D (eds. also pox for a physician) as signs. Long-distance ana. smells. Amherst. ‘Parameters. tions/University of Massachusetts. words.’ reference. Ghent: Manzini M R & Wexler K (1987). body movements (such as instinctive motor patterns tation. Reinhart T & Reuland E (1993). is seen as prey for a cheetah. guistic Society.’ In In Wilkins W (ed. who founded semiotics as a logic and scientific study of dynamic sign action in Semiotics develops a general theory of all possible human and nonhuman nature. in as an object. MA: GLSA Publica- Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. objects. learning. ‘On the nature of the reflexivization cycle. 413–444. 657–720. vol. beings transcend the conceptual foundation of the Denmark other natural sciences. ‘Reflexivization varia- drecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. London: Croom Helm. Copenhagen. ‘Assignment of reference to reflexives and pronouns in Lasnik H (1981). Zaenen A & Zec D (1987). ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Functional syntax: anaphora. and meaning. restricted to human communication and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and a psychic world. Copenhagen Business School. such as sounds. ‘Reflexivity. discourse. binding E. Thus contemplations of the similarities and differences of the biological processes between and within living signs of inorganic nature. their modes of signification and infor.) Working argument structure and grammatical relations.) Syntax and semantics: thematic rela- McDonough J & Plunkett B (eds.

Examples of biological pairs in DNA can be information for coding. He also points to the peculiar fact that the lift them out of the physical world’s efficient causality proteins in the living cell are different from proteins through the informational realm of formal causality created through external spontaneous chemical pro. but also on the development of semiotic As the biosemiotician Kalevi Kull (1999) points out. natural law but is motivated from a living signifying Semiotics is also defined as the study – or doctrine – system. function. The scientific approach to the origin and Thus a code is a set of process rules or habits (for evolution of life has overlooked the inner qualitative instance. and survival of the cell). proteins) in a specific meaning context (here on physical. biosemiotics considers the living cell to be produce their own elements and internal organiza.. codes for recogni. He defines codes as rules of correspon. how the ribosome works) that connects aspects of sign action.g. is a part of some self-reproducing system. Biosemiotics argues that codes are the information of the genome. and Biosemiotics sees the evolution of life and the evolu- processes are determined by internal codes and they tion of semiotic systems as two aspects of the same are therefore in a certain way artificial. molecules as coded signs and interact with them sembler machine. Thus machines do not make codes them- of signs and sign systems. causally after the codes we have made and installed). in chemistry into the final causation in semiotic pro- cesses. and even informational the creation. Thus. but is codes are those for the production of proteins from not a code in itself. tion of foreign substances and life form in the immune As Alexis Sharov (1998) notes. directly from natural laws. where sign systems are most selves. Living systems function based on Barbieri (2001) has pointed to the importance of self-constructed codes. chemical. which function. for the reception and triadic sign processes where an interpretant makes the effects of hormones. that is an or. Living biological macromolecules are composed of minor systems are thus built out of artificially produced. The mine the amino acid sequence in the proteins. To most biosemioticians. signal physical. to deter. atoms and make three-dimensional shapes. factured by molecular machines (the ribosomes and In Peirce’s philosophy. and neurotransmitters spring to motivated connection between objects and signs mind as obvious biological sign systems. possibilities. template. determined by its contribution to the reproductive A code gives meaning to differences or information value of the entire system. and with signals as information in that are capable of assembling molecules by binding a dualistic proto-semiotic matter. The evolution of life is not only based (e. It is the evolution of semiotic freedom that creates the . processes. A living system’s structure. Marcello (representamens). chemical. Semiosis. Final causation is their subunits together in the order provided by a semiotic signification and interpretation. efficient causality works connected processes). Thus semiosis is a crucial in certain contexts. They are autopoietic (self-creating) through final causation in semiosis. molecules often put in sequences. biosemiotics works with more types of as physical and chemical systems because the protein causation than classical sciences inspired by Peirce’s molecules they are self-constructed from are manu. Cells interpret the code-based molecules from the cell’s molecular as. are systems fitting. Cell proteins have the sequences of their both in the form of signification and communication. Molecules are composed of sequences of comes out to the ribosome from inside the nucleus. difference. a sign is an object that system. teract informationally through formal causality. – as pointed out by Maturana and Varela – as they Thus far.g. chemical.32 Biosemiotics and the cultural and linguistic signs of humans living it is crucial that the correspondence is not a universal together in a society. or semiotic freedom as one of the found- codes are correspondences that cannot be inferred ing biosemioticians. process. through the transfer of energy and is quantitatively ganelle in the cell constructed by huge RNA mole. Jesper Hoffmeyer (1996). But information is not a code in part of those processes that make systems living and itself. semiotic philosophy. and puters do not make their own codes as they function between nerve cells and muscles. and even DNA. etc. The ribosomal system for building proteins the informational explanations of how computers uses the base sequence of messenger-RNA. A sign is dence between two independent worlds such as the always useful for the system and its value can be Morse code standing for letters in the alphabet. A sequence of differences such as the base often understood as codes. leading to a reduced picture elements in one area (e. organization. and technological systems (com- codes for hormones and between nerve cells. genes) with another area of causality. amino acids determined by the internal code system is viewed as an important part of what makes living in the cell connected to the genes in the nucleus’s systems transcend pure physical. They in- in itself a template of the gene in the DNA. The ribosomes. Living systems are not natural in the same way cesses. Formal causality works through pattern cules connected with several enzymes. simplest system possessing real semiotic competence.. calls it. measurable. tion. This differentiates them from codes in living systems such as the genetic code.

significa- tion. When these spheres are combined through sociocommunicative autopoietic language games. constraining their action. biosemiotics also represents a suggestion for a deep- Complex self-organized living systems are not only er foundation that can connect biology with the governed by physically efficient causation. biosemiotics can be viewed as a root of biology ly exo-semiotic social processes between individuals and semiotics rather than a branch of semiotics (in constructing language and first-person experiences its conventional limit to human languages). where thought semiosis is conceptualized thinking. theory. or rather the species. To simplify this model. shown). I have placed all the cybernetic-autopoietic concepts on the left and all the biosemiotic ones on the right. they are humanities in another way than sociobiology and also governed by formal and final causality. or the entire organism) dation of human language games and the tertiary to its individual cells. As such. These downward causation from a higher level structure sign games are the primary system behind the foun. an organ. the head is also part of biological autopoiesis and the location of endosemiotic processes. the psyche. as well as external (exo) signification processes plex self-organized systems. Organisms are governed by final causality in Multicellular living individual beings are then un. Thus. theoretical biology. and the linguistic system as autopoietic (closed and self-organized). The human body is seen as in learning. They evolutionary psychology do. zoosemiotic system of sign games. out. Biosemiotics 33 Figure 1 The model classifies types of semiosis and proto-semiotic (informational) processes. has developed through evolution. As Sharov (1998) points building up a signification sphere (Umwelt) and final. biosemiotics organized in swarms of swarms of biological and draws upon the insights of fields such as systems as layer upon layer of internal (endo) semiotic pro. On the far left side are the signification processes toward the environment that consists of nonintentional potential signs that become the signification sphere when they are interpreted as signs. Endosemiotics is made up of the processes between cells and organs in the body. 1998). In this sense (Brier. Phenosemiotics is prelinguistic sign processes in the mind such as emotions and imaging. the sense that they tend to take habits and generate derstood as swarms of communicatively organized future interpretants of the present sign actions. as well as a level of structural couplings that the organism. a common signification sphere of culture is created. and the physics of com- cesses. for example. exosemiotics also has a level of biopsychological. as the bio. One part of exosemiotic signification is based on the linguistic processes of conceptualization and classifications. The localization of the processes in this diagram is symbolic and not really related to actual physical locations. On the left side is Luhmann theory of viewing the body. as semiotic cellular units. but system of culture such as Thomas Sebeok and Marcel also endowing them with functional meanings in re- Danesi (2000) have thoroughly shown in their lation to the entire metabolism (as systems science has Modeling System Theory. (see Figure 1). . Each person is placed within a signification sphere (Umwelt).and are governed by formal causality in the sense of the cybersemiotician Søren Brier (1995) calls it. although all concepts concern both persons. Underneath the language games is the biological level of instinctually based sign games. and under that is the informational exchange through structural couplings. or emphatic. (such as a tissue.

biological. the biosphere and the semiossphere are linked in a the theory of the embodiment of consciousness and closed cybernetic loop where meaning itself powers language and internal mental causation. the biosemiotic group in Copenhagen in the 1980s). Dario Martinelli (zoosemiotic musicolo- cyborgs because our minds are artificially formed gy). S. as Kull Kalevi Kull (the Jakob von Uexküll center). The efforts of molecular biology. the metaphysics of dimension. Thus. we look into the foundations around differences or informational bits. early pioneers of biosemi. Zoosemiotics is concerned more with the syn- tems. standing. viour. It was tional dynamics of disease and possible relevance coined in 1963 and it deals with species-specific for medical diagnose and treatment. have also contributed as part of their more general But computers only work on and are organized work. 2001). through the collaboration of otics are Jakob von Uexküll (1864–1944). Examples of Ever since Umberto Eco formulated the problem of relevant topics are sign functions in physical. and neurobiology. they and specific theories. the two large special volumes view combining several researchers’ contribution to of Semiotica on biosemiotics (Sebeok et al. In 2004. and the emergence of interpretants not only human nonverbal communication but also in biotic evolution? Biosemiotics can help develop all sign processes between and within animals the theory of biological self and its relation to the (Sebeok. first the Copenhagen and next the Tartu school of Apart from C. He pointed out that we are living in emotional and sign-producing systems in animals a world of signs: a ‘semiossphere. the semiotic threshold. Sebeok’s name among organs. which focuses more on the diachronic signs in swarm intelligence. Sebeok (1920–2001) and Thure von ration with biosemioticians in Prague. systems. now also in collabo- are Thomas A. Charles these schools of biosemiotics. who did not notably 2002). cognitive sci. 1999). In the following.’ such as psychoneuroimmunology. mental. the study of animal sign use (Sebeok. 1990). was the to Peirce. the study of communication systems and their signifying beha- the semiotics of complex systems. Marcello Barbieri. The same goes for information in natural first to use the term in 1962 in the Annals of the New systems. biosemiotics. ferences under the name Gatherings in Biosemiotics and Giorgio Prodi (1928–1987). and artificial systems (Emmeche. and Winfried Nöth organized communicatively by semiotic processes. the founding fathers has been developed since 2000.. Heini Hediger (1908–1992). 1972). Later. Markos. Søren Brier. S. With Sebeok’s enthu- be a short and bold formulation of the biosemiotic siastic support as editor. As we can call humans language. Anton material systems. the semiotics of chronic perspective than the ethology of Lorenz and collective biological phenomena such as emergent Tinbergen.’ Sebeok argued that as well as the linguistic thinking system in humans. tornadoes. for example dissipative structures such as York Academy of Sciences 96: 774–784. the immune system. cognitive ethology. Uexküll (1908–2004). and real life. and in the brain is associated most of all with the term ‘zoosemiotics. artificial life. Peirce. They are communicative structures. F. Tommi Vehkavaara. However. 1998). Alexei (2001) argues. Lucia Santaella. Sebeok’s research succeeded in broaden- Darwinism: can semiotics provide a foundation for ing the definition of semiotics beyond human lan- a new evolutionary paradigm through Peirce’s idea guage and culture to a biosemiotics encompassing of Thirdness. a series of annual con- Morris (1901–1979). and semioticians such as Floyd Merrell. it is interesting that are dualistic and therefore proto-semiotic (Nöth. Frederik cyborgs because they are made of coded molecules and Stjernfelt. robotics. Myrdene Anderson. Rothschild (1899–1995). and computational systems such as oped further into the realm of biology. we can call all other living systems sign. 2001) were edited by program. Thomas Sebeok (1920–2001) have led to the devel- ence. John by language. the representa.34 Biosemiotics Biological systems are then understood as being second wave are contemporary scholars such as held together for communicative reasons and are Jesper Hoffmeyer and Claus Emmeche (who formed therefore not natural in physical–chemical under. chemi. Such may creation in self-excited circuits. a view that is as close to consensus as possible for and on Jakob von Uexküll’s contribution to the foun- the leading researchers in this still young research dation of biosemiotics (Kull. One could also call them discursive Sharov. as genuine semiosis is triadic according influence the development of biosemiotics. anticipatory sys. and the founders of the through further cooperation with the Italian school . communication opment of a biosemiotics encompassing all living of all living systems including the area of ethology. Biosemiotics offers a rich field of exploration and Thomas Sebeok’s Development of ongoing research into the life of signs as they are Zoosemiotics and Biosemiotics found in the actual world’s ecological. including plants and microorganisms as the semiotics of cellular communication in the body sign users (Petrilli and Ponzio. Deely. Peircian semiotics has devel- cal.

not molecules are the basic units of the study of life As von Uexküll’s concept of ‘tone’ becomes and the semiotic niche is the species home. J. although it is unclear wheth- whole individual or phenotype. Biosemiotics finds The empiricist and natural science readings Sebeok its place as a master science. accused of reductionism. Peirce. this conceptual difference can be terms. 1991) of the foundational code duality of gram as the concept of motivation. 1982) on the species- ideas merged with the ideas of the Danish biochemist specific and subjective Umwelt in animals. in their applicability to human oped from Sebeok’s studies of animal communication culture and society.’ the ‘subjectively defined ob- evolution is a development toward more semiotic ject’ becomes the ‘sign stimuli’ in ethology. one finds Jesper Hoffmeyer’s communicative view of life and the roots of important concepts such as sign stimuli. it is clear that von Uexküll’s biophenomenological concepts differ from the bio- The Roots from Uexküll and Ethology cybernetic and partially mechanistic framework found in the theoretical foundation of Lorenz and Although biosemiotics is already prefigured in Jakob Tinbergen’s articles from around 1950. The functional memory and self-representation and the individual tones are the number of functions an animal can dis- living body is a code for action and interaction tinguish in its surroundings. the per- Uexküll’s theory that all living beings are the center ceptual object is created on the basis of a functional tone. The gene is a code for er Gibson ever read von Uexküll. Brier (1999) has coined the term other-descriptions. First in the von Uexküll’s Umweltlehre. However. Thus signs and presemiotic Uexküll model of object perception. but it seems even more closely related to in the gene or genotype and an analog code in the Gibson’s affordances. (2002).. 1989). This global conception of semiotics. and fi- freedom. arriving at the thesis that symbiosis and semiosis are Animal Languages or Sign Games? one and the same (Sebeok. von Uexküll. although not in semiotic new biosemiotics. otics field. and T. As Uexkull was one of Konrad Lorenz’s most throughout his work in the context of ethology. his and the biophilosopher Claus Emmeche’s theory innate release mechanisms. referred to as ‘Figure 3. Sebeok and ethology. von Uexküll and Charles S. The egg and the hen as two inter. to merge them into an original whole. von Uexküll’s writings (J. Biological Lorenz’s ‘motivation. which creates its func- with the real world and its ecology. The important teachers. of a phenomenal Umwelt (Sebeok. 1989). for a modern biosemiotics. von Uexküll’s living systems: they see living systems defined by the ‘tone’ concept is the root of Lorenz’s specific interactions through evolution between a digital code motivation. T. with whom Sebeok interacted in creating the foundations In J. namely biosemiotics. Sebeok fruitfully combined the influences of solved using Peirce’s philosophy (Brier. Figure 2 shows the time and space is another example. work on starting a Journal of Biosemiotics has begun. It is carried by an inspiration from Jakob von recursive e processes between receptors and effectors. This idea was carried on through Thure von Uexküll.’) In cybernetic tion. these 1934. 1991. shows that some of this controversy may find itself . von Uexküll et al. ‘signification sphere’ to give a modern semiotic term acting aspects of a living system evolving through to Uexküll’s presemiotic concepts. and effectors’ becomes the ‘IRM’ (innate response mechanism). Hoffmeyer and are later utilized in Lorenz’s ethological research pro- Emmeche. Biosemiotics 35 of semantic biology (Barbieri). In the late 1980s. Thus life appears tional images of ‘thing’ that thus becomes ‘object’ in also to be an interplay of different types of self. Hoffmeyer and Emmeche’s Theory of Code Duality Later Sebeok decided that that zoosemiotics rests on a more comprehensive science of biosemiotics. Figure 2 Jakob von Uexküll’s functional circle that demon- equates life with sign interpretation and communica. which encompasses the offers for communication were new to the semi- parallel disciplines of ethology and comparative psy. Hoffmeyer’s contribution to biosemiotics nally the ‘functional relation between receptors is summarized in Emmeche et al. References to animal models are made chology.and the animals Umwelt. and ‘functional tones’ that (Emmeche and Hoffmeyer. in an evolutionary perspective. controversial and. the ethology he and Tinbergen approaches of ethology and sociobiology have been developed fitted nicely into biosemiotics as it devel. strates his (phenomenal constructivistic) concept of objects (von Uexküll 1957: 10–11. 2001).

Secondness. Peircian biosemiotics is distinct from other semiot- lular organisms. the hormone system’s.36 Biosemiotics played out in the new transdisciplinary framework of The Peircian Influence biosemiotics. and recognition. patterns of an inanimate nature. von Uexküll et al. and zoosemiotics (Deely. Thus the major classification interplay between nervous system and environment categories in biosemiotics are: bacteriosemiotics. which get to know about it in time – is a differentiation has to be called the primary one. For instance. on a book they edited in 1980. as a self. Biosemiotics begins with mentioned. The other one. plants. inside the perceiver’s mind. all with a nucleus). with bacterial communication. signification. thus languages between the object of the organism and the environ- become secondary and culture tertiary. the symbolic semiotics of human language that cyber- According to one standard scheme for the broad clas. anthroposemiotics encom. sification of organisms. is that it only deals with the human mal (here a small fish) as understood through bio- body and the biological parts of human cognition semiotics can be modeled as shown in Figure 3. that leading biosemioti. has supported Uexküll’s older concept of object protistosemiotics. Anthroposemiotics as Part of Biosemiotics Peircian Biosemiotics But biosemiotics does not only deal with animals in zoosemiotics. and semiotic philosophy. and semiosis in an ani- cians share. the genome. intentional signs such as symptoms of the body and iology. (Brier. 1981). ic paradigms in that it not only deals with intentional 1993) deals with communication between the cells in signs of communication. as already ment or universe outside it. There are two biosemiotic reproducing the closure and internal organization interpretations of anthroposemiotics. it also deals with signs in plants Modern Peircian biosemiotics is very different from in phytosemiotics. Speaking of apes. tic capabilities. Thus aspect of reality (in secondness) as the inner aspect of biosemiotics does not entail that there are no signifi- matter manifesting itself as awareness and experience cant differences between human and ape linguis- in animals and finally as consciousness in humans. the cell Within zoosemiotics. he and his wife Jean Umiker- The majority of biosemiotics builds on Peirce’s Sebeok published ‘The semiotic web 1991’ as a vol- unique triadic concept of semiosis. In the framework of endosemiotics. a special area of immunosemiotics breaks with the traditional dualistic epistemological dealing with the immunological code. where the inter- ume titled Biosemiotics. Sebeok Peirce’s differentiation between the immediate object and Danesi (2000) argued that a zoosemiotic system of semiosis and the dynamic object – that is all we can exists as the foundation of human language. and communication. the process of knowledge: how signification occurs within living systems.and closure-organizing system recursively passes the human race. Going into the body of multicel. the autopoiesis. 1995). This volume was predicated pretant is the sign concept in the organism’s mind. Peircian semiotics for instance. objects as eigen functions of this recursive cognitive animals. making perception and cogni- tion possible. five super kingdoms are now The theories of Heinz von Foerster on recursive func- distinguished: bacteria. immunological problem of first-order science by framing its basic memory. but also in the nature . The interaction between signification. One is that it of living systems. and fungi. that a rent investigations of the ability of apes to learn lan- raised fist’s object is a physical threat. neticians distanced themselves from many years ago. endosemiotics (T.. Triadic semiotics is integrated the immunological system’s communicative codes into a theory of continuity between mind and mat- work on each other is considered to be the basis of ter (Synechism) where the three basic categories the biological self: an endosemiotic self-organized (Firstness. Sebeok showed in a profound critique of the miotics is based on Peirce’s theory of mind as a basic way the experiments were constructed that it is part of reality (in Firstness) existing in the material very doubtful that apes have such capabilities. The way that we now know concept of cognition. Varela’s concept and theory of autopoiesis. protists (protozoa-like slime tions in the nervous system establishing perceptual molds and primitive algae. within a triadic that the nervous system’s. which is the interpretation of what the outer sign which presented a detailed critical evaluation of cur- vehicle stands for: its object. phytosemiotics (Krampen. including human phys. there is. but also encompasses non- the body of all living systems. 1990). the development of the Copenhagen school of guage and culture plus the embodiment of human biosemiotics (Brier. Peircean biose- guage. 1996). In 1992. But through biosemiotics. Humberto Maturana and Francisco mycosemiotics. have had a significant influence on encompasses the traditional area of semiotics of lan. and Thirdness) are not only cybernetic system with a homeostasis.

but as something full of potential quali. Biosemiotics 37 Figure 3 Brier’s model showing two autopoietic systems (males) of the same species (gene pool) see the same sign in an object. for simplicity. There is thus competition between the infor- are seen as a First. This is connected to the second important informational terms (Brier. John Deely (1990) is one of the more prominent promoters of a Peircean Biosemiotics and Information in view of semiotics as a transdisciplinary theory encom- passing both the human mind and its text production Computer and Physiosemiotics as seen from phenomenology and hermeneutics as The essential question for the current debate about well as all of nature and life seen from a biosemiotic the possibility of a transdisciplinary information/ as well as a physiosemiotic viewpoint. by regularities). mating. these phenomena are proto-semiotic. which is not to be explained further mational and the semiotic approaches in producing (for instance. i. living systems. That is not signification science is whether the Percian biosemi..e. as general habits and knowledge in dynamic objects But some scholars even accept to use the sign con- and semiosis in Thirdness. living system. It is interesting to see that semiotics thus has moved cal terms. namely point of view. with seen as the lack of law. and machine: physiosemiotics. or quasi-semiotic. objects were previously described in physical–chemi. 1992). This is combined with an evolu. and finally the social aspects of language and con- ties to be manifested individually in Secondness and sciousness in communication. Now some adherents of the paninforma. These are signs per se. From a Peircian ontological belief in Peirce’s philosophy. 2003). creating the interpretant of a female of the same species. when compared to the semiosis of teristics of Firstness. because they are only displays of Sec- tionary theory of mind (Agapism). the female’s point of view as a species-specific autopoietic system. from the humanities into biology and from there even tional paradigm want to explain them in purely into the other natural sciences at the same time as the . and other spontaneous genera. that new transdisciplinary framework that can unite forming and evolution. as it is in mechanicism and the new understandings of computers and cognition rationalism. This is the deep foundation cept on processes between nonliving entities in nature of Peirce’s pragmaticism (Brier. which again generates the mating sign game or ground (Peirce). It is the basis of habit. The chaos of Firstness is not the traditional views of nature by the sciences. This occurs through the partially inherited structural coupling that ethology calls the innate response mechanism (IRM). where mind has a ondness in the well-argued view of Winfred Nöth tendency to form habits in nature. the discussion of whether any natural thing can be- otics can comprise uninterpreted natural objects. I have excluded here. perceived. as sign stimuli. The whole model is within one life form (naturalizing Wittgenstein’s concept). Thycism that sees chance and chaos as basic charac. come a sign when placed in a meaningful context by a dissipative structures. which is tuned to anticipate certain differences as significant for survival and proliferation. Chaos and chance (2002). but if the objects and their processes tions of order and patterns in nature as signs.

human intelligence. which he calls Cybersemiotics. But to do this. delimited from a semiotic point guage.’ and ‘signal’ are used elements have to be integrated. and communication sci- ence framework that encompasses biosemiotics and information science and well as second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis to this transdisciplinary area. and AI. On finally as consciousness in humans. tized version of Luhmann’s triple autopoietic theory tional bottom-up functionalistic view of organization. and communication. On the left side is a hierarchy of sciences itself as awareness and experience in animals and and their objects. to create a . new terms ‘informational. machines and pattern-forming. although an explicit theory of how the inner world of an or- both claim to encompass the entire spectrum. but there is a great osis. netics considers their subject area: goal-oriented tics may contribute to a new transdisciplinary frame. and differentiation of biological. social systems. Information science is thus moving from mation as well as autopoietic views on structural computer science down into nature and up into cog. The width of the two paradigms in correlation matic theories of embodied social meaning. differences.’ ‘coding. therefore. cognition. nature. self-organized pro- work in understanding knowledge. lan. and metaphysics will be affected of view.38 Biosemiotics and communication coming from cybernetics and computer science with the semantic pragmatic approaches coming from the linguistic point of view and semiotics if we want to bridge this gap in our culture and knowledge. interpretation including mind – at least as immanent and organizations in the information processing in nature – is possible. cognition. instead of Information theory is now an important part of the through either physical causality or meaningful semi- consciousness research program. The meaning. how first-person views are possible and are just as real as matter. foreshadowed by Wiener. Peircean cybersemiotics is based on Peirce’s theory of mind as a basic part of reality (in Firstness) existing Figure 4 The relevance of the bottom-up informational view in the material aspect of reality (in Secondness) as and the top-down semiotic view in the area of the foundation of the inner aspect of matter (hylozoism) manifesting information science. of communication (see Figure 1) combined with prag- mission. humans. making it possible to mainly in cybernetic contexts for these systems. self- organizational behavior: (1) the semiotic top-down paradigm of organization. often in the form of coding. is part of what classical first-order cyber- by the biosemiotic development. and social systems developed in second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis theory need to be integrated into theories of embodiment and Peircian biosemiotics. self-or- ganization. consciousness. Systems of Secondness have established an infor- deal of work to do for serious philosophy. ganism is constituted and. and communication in competition The term ‘pro. Through this been used as the basis of understanding all types foundation for semiosis. Such a theory has been missing from the modern discus- formulation of objective informational concepts has sions of a science of consciousness. Peircian biosemio. This area. Combining this the right is an illustration of the two most common scientific schemas for understanding and predicting communicative and with a general systems theory of emergence. signal trans. cesses in nature that are based on information. Cyber(bio)semiotics Søren Brier (2003) has developed such a philosophy of information. Concepts of closure. it forms with the various subject areas shows an estimate of how the relevance of the paradigm is generally considered. consciousness and of language in the biosemiotic perspective. a theory of meaning and of cognitive processes in animals. and a semio- signification. and communicative and (2) the informa. be- unite the functionalistic approaches to information fore attempts. considering mation level above the energetic and causal level of how many central philosophical topics of mind. psycho- logical.and quasi-semiotic objects’ recog- with semiotics that is moving in the other direction nizes that systems in nature and culture work with (see Figure 4). couplings can be combined with pragmatic theories nitive systems. and closure/autopoiesis. and cybernetic views of infor- paradigm. from physics to humanities and vice versa. epistemology. machines.

This difference in Human Knowing 3(1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ontological character may be one of the keys to Brier S (1996). Jacobsen. these levels can be bound also of organization and type of predominant cau- together by Synechism. become autopoietic and alive is not sufficient to capture the communicative. This level is ontologically domi. tion. codes: an introduction to semantic biology. bined with an evolutionary view of the interactions 4. ‘Information and consciousness: a critique causation manifests clearly and where the regula. linguistics. ‘From second order cybernetics to cyber- understanding the differences between physics and semiotics: a semiotic reentry into the second order . 2003). The the actual semiotic interactions emerge.’ Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(2/3). useful for analyzing life at the chemical level. Umberto Bohr and Einstein. 1992). eigen value in the mind (an interpretant) and be pretations. but it ary self-organization. It is not only a matter of complexity but biosemiotic philosophy. Cyberse. duality and sign games in bio-semiotics. This realm is ontologically dominated by physics as classical kinematics and thermodynamics. PeQuod. Thomas Albert: Modeling Systems Theory. 1932). attempting to exploit the entanglement to explain Luhmann. and between organisms such as in sign tendency to form habits is crucial for understanding games. Charles (1901– 1979). Thus Peircean cybersemio. 71–94. also holds qualia and pure feeling. Intelligence is closely 1. Republished in 2003 as The organic physics. On the contrary. where life has self-organized. Information Theory.’ Cybernetics & nated by the chemical sciences. Sebeok. Eco. causality is not considered physically dead. they what lawful is necessary for it to be a fairly stable cannot claim that there is no room for new inter. This is one of the reasons why Maturana and To summarize. Peirce. First inter- view of Firstness as a blend of qualities of mind and nally in multicellular organisms. sality. this is one of the action in communication as well as in ethical so- most mysterious levels of reality we have encoun. Morris. miotics conceives it as a part of Firstness. useful for conscious purposeful action and inter- standing of it. But for Peirce. It is mainly ruled by efficient causation. Barbieri M (2001). Semiology ver- 2. the possibility of teleportation. ty to see something as a sign for something else. But they do not use a semiotic either. Niklas (1927–1998). 3. what Peirce describes as Secondness. and Thirdness. cial praxis (Phronesis). with systemic and cybernetic views including auto. which This something else has to be a habit of nature. Roland (1915–1980). it Bibliography is also the willpower of the mind. as is Abduction is crucial to signification. The third level of information is where the formal Brier S (1992). Finally on the fifth level with syntactic language poiesis and second-order cybernetics. dynamic organizational closure of living systems. ‘Cyber-semiotics: on autopoiesis. tered. and its implications and interaction with the observers’ consciousness have been discussed since the 1930s and were central in the disputes between See also: Barthes. I think we should distinguish between: with that rationality. nor did Ilya Prigogine. 5. The second level of efficient causation is clearly sus Semiotics. The organic codes: the birth of semantic tics does not accept a level of pure mechanical biology. such as in endo- matter containing qualia and living feeling and a semiotics. logical thinking. code- proto-semiotic. between Firstness. and now some researchers are (b. Tychism. It is the abili- usually the case in physicalistic physics. through evolution. com. Lis (1882–1961). 3–14. cybersemiotics develops a semiotic Varela do not want to use the information concept and informational theory accepting several levels of in their explanations of the dynamics of life and existence. On the fourth level. In Peircean chemistry. because physics has a complete under. Secondness. The first level of quantum vacuum fields entangled connected to abduction and conscious finality. of the mechanistic foundation of the concept of informa- rities and Thirdness becomes crucial for interac. with cognitive/semiotic and feeling abilities (Brier. human self-consciousness emerges and about reality. tions through stable patterns that are as yet only Brier S (1995). and Agapism. Biosemiotics 39 paninformational paradigm (Brier. Charles Sanders (1839–1914). Although mind or society. Some kind of regularity or stabili- physicists may be bothered by this new metaphys. such as a physical and a conscious social concept. This framework – based on biosemiotics – the self-organizing capabilities of nature and how points out that the informational concept may be what seems to be dead matter can. which here is formal causation. and creative inferences (intelligence). now placed in the broader cybersemiotics Final causation dominates here as in the next framework that combines Peirce’s triadic semiotics level where it emerges as purpose. ty in nature that the mind can recognize as some- ical understanding of this level of reality. When talking games.

‘The cybersemiotic explanation of the emer.) (1980). Universitat Bielefeld. 71–94. few people are aware that birdsong is K Riebel.’ Semiotica 127(1/4). Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication M Naguib.’ Semio. http://www. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Signs of meaning in the universe. Sebeok T A (1972). tica 134(1/4). Sebeok T A.ee – Jakob von Uexküll Centre. an aspect that has attracted considerable interdisciplinary scientific attention from biologists.’ Cybernetics & Human Knowing 5(1).’ Semiotica Emmeche C & Hoffmeyer J (1991). 134(1/4). 3–22. ‘From cybernetics to semiotics in biology.’ TrippleC 1(1). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.fi/ – Zoosemiotics home Nöth W (2002). International Universities Press. 5–51.’ In Anderson M & Merrell F (eds. of life. Geigges W & Herrmann J M (1993).uti.) (1999). The Netherlands one of the most elaborate acoustic communication ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Hoffmeyer J & Emmeche C (eds.’ Emmeche C (1998).40 Biosemiotics cybernetics of Heinz von Foerster. Brier S (1999). Bloomington: Indiana the semiotic web 1991. Kull K & Stjernfelt F (2002). Birdsong shows some basic and almost unique similarities to human speech. ior. 117–166. Tartu: Tartu University Press. Uexküll T von.) (2001). 90–102. http://triplec. prominent role in song development (Catchpole and tists alike. The development of a modern concept.) (1957) Instinctive behav- meyer. 1995). 779–814. signifi. University Press. Toronto Semiotic Circle. pdf. Leiden University. A picture book of invisible worlds. ‘Phytosemiotics. Kull K (ed. the semiotics of nature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Berlin: Semiotica 127(1/4). Toronto: semiotics. New York: Hoffmeyer J (1996). All rights reserved.) (1992).helsinki. http://www.edu – The international biosemiotics view from biology. Brier S (2003). ‘Cybersemiotics and Umweltslehre. 385–414. and linguists. naturalists. Thomas Sebeok and the signs 13(3). New York: University Press of America. ‘A stroll through the worlds of 84(1/2). ‘From language to 42(1). 25–82. Speaking of tion: an evolutionary view on the threshold between apes: a critical anthology of two-way communication semiosis and informational exchange.vt. Germany environments.’ Semiotica Uexküll J von (1934).’ Evolution and Cognition 4(1). Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. systems in the animal kingdom. Icon Books. Sources in Semiotics VIII. Semiotica 120(3/4). 33–42.’ Semiotica 36(3/4). in much . Sebeok T A (1990). Uexküll J von (1982). 403–419. Relevant Websites Kull K (1999). Krampen M (1981). animals and men. The forms of meaning: semiotics to create a non-Cartesian information science. Brier S (2001). with man. Bielefeld. Brier S (1998). Hague: Mouton. enon.zoosemiotics. 229–244. Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. Leiden. 5–80. Reconceptualizing the insights of ethology.’ Semiotica 96(1/2). Human Knowing 9(1). Basics of semiotics.zbi. ‘Code-duality and ‘Endosemiosis. 187–209. New York: Plenum Press.’ Semiotica. second order cybernetics and Peirce’s semiotics in bio. masters.at/articles/tripleC1(1)_Brier.dk – Gatherings in Biosemiotics.uti. Biosemiotics: Deely J (1990). ‘Defining life as a semiotic phenom. cation and communication in a non-Cartesian cognitive Sebeok T (1989). rethinking biology. page. ‘Biosemiotics in the twentieth century: a http://www. 1–42.’ modeling systems theory and semiotic analysis. 1–60. ‘Biosemiotics and the foundation of cyber. ‘Jakob von Uexküll: a paradigm for http://www. Introduction psychologists. The gence of cognition: the explanation of cognition.’ Emmeche C. Hoffmeyer J & Emmeche C (1991). http://triplec. Perspectives in Zoosemiotics. nature: the semiotic metaphor in biology. As in human speech The melodious beauty and complexity of birdsong acquisition. 169–198. biology and semiotics. ‘Semiotic Machine. ‘The cybersemiotic model of communica. and scien. vocal learning by songbirds plays a have long attracted amateurs. Biosemiotica.at – Brier’s article in TripleC. reprinted In Schiller C H (ed.) On semiotic modeling. The sign & its biology.’ Systems Research Petrilli S & Ponzio A (2001). special issue.ento. Despite the almost ubiquitous presence Slater.’ Cybernetics and page. There is a sensitive period in which the of birdsong in both natural and anthropogenous basic species-specific structure is acquired. Reading Hoff. ‘The theory of meaning. Sebeok T A & Danesi M (2000). Sharov A (1998). Mouton de Gruyter. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.nbi. Essays in zoosemiotics.

33–42. Toronto Semiotic Circle.at/articles/tripleC1(1)_Brier. http://triplec. As in human speech The melodious beauty and complexity of birdsong acquisition. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication M Naguib. http://triplec. Perspectives in Zoosemiotics.’ Cybernetics and page. Brier S (2001). Hoffmeyer J & Emmeche C (1991). Reading Hoff.uti. Sebeok T A & Danesi M (2000). Berlin: Semiotica 127(1/4). 5–80. The Netherlands one of the most elaborate acoustic communication ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd.vt. 71–94. 385–414. Thomas Sebeok and the signs 13(3). 187–209. and linguists.’ Systems Research Petrilli S & Ponzio A (2001). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Human Knowing 9(1). Reconceptualizing the insights of ethology. Hague: Mouton. Leiden. vocal learning by songbirds plays a have long attracted amateurs. New York: University Press of America. page. pdf.helsinki. ior. University Press. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ‘Phytosemiotics. 403–419. Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. reprinted In Schiller C H (ed. ‘The theory of meaning. ‘Semiotic Machine. Icon Books. Biosemiotica.at – Brier’s article in TripleC. Sharov A (1998). Introduction psychologists.) (1957) Instinctive behav- meyer. Leiden University.) (1999). Birdsong shows some basic and almost unique similarities to human speech.’ Semiotica 36(3/4).) (1980).) (2001). Hoffmeyer J & Emmeche C (eds. ‘Code-duality and ‘Endosemiosis. Krampen M (1981). 90–102.ee – Jakob von Uexküll Centre.’ Semiotica. tica 134(1/4). Tartu: Tartu University Press. Brier S (1999). 3–22.’ Semiotica Emmeche C & Hoffmeyer J (1991). Speaking of tion: an evolutionary view on the threshold between apes: a critical anthology of two-way communication semiosis and informational exchange.’ Semiotica Uexküll J von (1934). Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds.ento. Bloomington: Indiana the semiotic web 1991.zbi. Sebeok T A (1990).fi/ – Zoosemiotics home Nöth W (2002). The gence of cognition: the explanation of cognition. special issue. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. in much .’ Semio. 25–82. The sign & its biology.’ modeling systems theory and semiotic analysis. Uexküll T von. the semiotics of nature.’ Semiotica 96(1/2). The forms of meaning: semiotics to create a non-Cartesian information science. 169–198.uti. Relevant Websites Kull K (1999).’ Cybernetics & Human Knowing 5(1). ‘Cybersemiotics and Umweltslehre. 134(1/4). New York: Plenum Press. Brier S (2003). few people are aware that birdsong is K Riebel. Essays in zoosemiotics.’ Evolution and Cognition 4(1). biology and semiotics. 1995). prominent role in song development (Catchpole and tists alike. Sebeok T A (1972). Basics of semiotics. http://www. Germany environments. Signs of meaning in the universe. ‘From cybernetics to semiotics in biology. ‘From language to 42(1). Sebeok T A. Bielefeld. Despite the almost ubiquitous presence Slater.dk – Gatherings in Biosemiotics. rethinking biology.’ Emmeche C. 779–814. ‘Biosemiotics and the foundation of cyber.) On semiotic modeling. ‘Jakob von Uexküll: a paradigm for http://www. Semiotica 120(3/4). Mouton de Gruyter. There is a sensitive period in which the of birdsong in both natural and anthropogenous basic species-specific structure is acquired. systems in the animal kingdom. http://www.’ Semiotica 127(1/4). an aspect that has attracted considerable interdisciplinary scientific attention from biologists.nbi. Geigges W & Herrmann J M (1993). ‘The cybersemiotic explanation of the emer.) (1992). Toronto: semiotics. Uexküll J von (1982). cation and communication in a non-Cartesian cognitive Sebeok T (1989). The development of a modern concept. ‘Defining life as a semiotic phenom. nature: the semiotic metaphor in biology. ‘The cybersemiotic model of communica. 1–42. 229–244.40 Biosemiotics cybernetics of Heinz von Foerster. All rights reserved. animals and men. Kull K (ed.zoosemiotics. and scien. signifi. Kull K & Stjernfelt F (2002). Biosemiotics: Deely J (1990). 1–60. ‘A stroll through the worlds of 84(1/2).edu – The international biosemiotics view from biology. enon. Universitat Bielefeld. 117–166. of life. Sources in Semiotics VIII. International Universities Press.’ In Anderson M & Merrell F (eds.’ TrippleC 1(1). masters. A picture book of invisible worlds. ‘Biosemiotics in the twentieth century: a http://www. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.’ Emmeche C (1998). 5–51. New York: Hoffmeyer J (1996). with man. second order cybernetics and Peirce’s semiotics in bio. Brier S (1998). naturalists.

(Melospiza melodia). i. and marine mammals (Janik and because they can vary gradually with the urgency of Slater. however. even for an experienced song types (i. and the sub. 2004). For against other males and to attract and stimulate the purpose of comparative studies. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 41 the same way that humans have to acquire the pho. This way of highly coordinated duets (Hall. switch to a different song they are highly context specific. 1995). 1973. Most male Many of the sub-oscines are tropical birds and their songbirds. year round and often females also sing. mingbirds.e. a trait that has long study the complexity of animal behavior from both been viewed to be specific to human language. by vocal learning. nightingales. as these are much better (Thryothorus ludovicianus) males have a repertoire studied than tropical birds and are ideal to illustrate of about 40 distinctly different song types.e. hum. males hardly ever tural and functional criteria. In most Luscinia megarhynchos) in which each male sings songbirds that breed in the temperate zones. their songs function to defend a territory composed of many different elements (Figure 1). Calls are given by both repeat the same song type in immediate succession sexes.g. Calls have been defined based on both struc. with more studies addressing call learning. in how and when they sing: singing tends to occur all there are two discrete singing styles. In other species. and in many cases but instead. from Birdsong structure and versatility vary enormously. chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). 2004). mated pairs may combine their songs into switching to a song of a different type. the threat and even provide functionally referential Using birdsong as a model system allows us to information (see Alarm Calls). al- into two distinct groups: the oscines (over 4000 spe. tropics also differ from those in the temperate zones Among different species of discontinuous singers. a repertoire of 2 to 10 acoustically human listener. Campbell and Reece. acteristic of species that have larger song repertoires.. response to predators have received specific attention. 2004). mechanistic and functional perspectives. which ferred to as showing ‘immediate variety’ and is char- is normally delivered only in the breeding season.. 1995). but deliver general principles of songbird vocal communication. continuous singers (Hartshorne. though. each of which is males sing. 2001. 2001. Other than song. Even more males repeat the same song type several times before strikingly. blackbirds (Turdus merula). calling occurs all year. This singing style is ‘re- or alarm calls (Marler. are discontinuous singers. tits (Parus major). Continuous singers such as reed order of perching birds (passerines) can be subdivided warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) produce long. it has emerged that there is much more developmental The only other well-established examples of animal plasticity than previously thought. after each song. and great as calls. they are simple in structure. which are generally referred to citrinella). distinct songs/male). Calls have long been thought such as mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottus). so that each new sequence is species-typical song are learned (Kroodsma. In some species. song is often much simpler than is the highly complex they alternate songs (which are a specific combina- song common in oscine species. only the around 200 different song types. the alarm calls given in role in signal acquisition are found in parrots. development. Catchpole nology. Among the vari- communication in which learning plays such a central ous calls given by birds. slightly different from the previous ones. The speed and singing is most characteristic for species in which precision in coordination of timing of duets results in males have a small to medium repertoire of different a composite signal that. but there is an useful to categorize birds into continuous and dis- enormous variation in song structure and phenome.. Because it Singing Versatility is the best studied vertebrate communication system on almost all levels of scientific investigation. There are some exceptions vidual.. This article will mainly focus on song by males to this rule. . if at all. of vocal production). Locustella illustrating basic biological processes (Alcock. grasshopper warblers. which in general learn their song. bats. Birds following this repetitive mode are generally said to be singing Birdsong versus Bird Calls with ‘eventual variety. sounds like the song of a single indi. Songbirds in the tion of song elements) with silent intervals (Figure 1). The elements in the song re- oscines (about 1000 species). 2004). naevia) to highly complex songs (e.g. it has proved females (Catchpole and Slater. most continuous streams of elements (the basic units cies). Barnard. and delivery. nemes of their language in the first few years of life. 1997). such as begging calls type within their repertoire. for which there is limit. birdsong from structurally simple songs with only one repeat- development has become a textbook example for ed element (e. or nightingales.’ Examples are song sparrows Birdsong is distinguished from the remainder of song. pertoire of a continuous singer are usually recom- ed evidence that key structural components of the bined in various ways. The taxonomic and Slater. Carolina wren in temperate zone passerines. their repertoire with eventual variety. molecular biology to evolutionary ecology. European to be affected little. yellowhammers (Emberiza bird vocalizations. for example. However.

phonological learning might continue throughout life (‘open-ended syntax. Early singing consists of acquisition process is often limited to a sensitive quiet. Thryothorus ludovicianus. canaries (Serinus canaria) or starlings (Figures 3 and 4). The timing of these two processes precedes the motor learning phase. with (plastic song). cies. (B)–(D) show singers with eventual variety and (E) shows a species with immediate variety. in temperate zones but exhibit less clear circannual ing a sensitive phase without apparent external patterns in tropical nonseasonal species. often occurs rather rapidly. Song learning consists of a phase preferentially learned. e. from tight. The spring heard adult birds sing. the first auditory of acquisition (sensory phase: memorization of song memories are laid down during the first weeks of patterns) and a phase of production learning. (A) Grasshopper warbler. Generally.e. In seasonal spe- during development varies across species. a few days. and timing fully are those of adult song learners’. Locustella naevia. i. which are triggered by photoperiod Song acquisition learning seems to take place dur. Melospiza melodia. (C) song sparrow. Luscinia megarhynchos.. Whereas these first two phases may no additional learning after the first breeding take several weeks.g. phonology. Unlearned biases (varying in their specificity Songbirds have an exceptional faculty for vocal across species) guide what types of vocalizations are learning (Figure 2). In other species. amorphous warbling (subsong) that proceeds phase during the first year of life (which is the to more structured and phonologically varied song time to maturation in most songbird species). this might not occur until months after the off- ly overlapping to completely separate in time. within zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)).. to the fully season (‘closed-ended learners’. and the sensory learning phase motor pattern. (E) nightingale. (D) yellowhammer. chaffinches or crystallized song. Emberiza citrinella. life. Often this entails repertoire size song crystallization correlates with changes in steroid increasing with age.g. the last transition. After that. (B) Carolina wren. e. Where song . often around the time when the young birds the sensorimotor learning phase of the complex fledge from the nest..42 Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication Figure 1 Sound spectrograms of 25-s singing sequences by males of five different species of songbirds. The onset of motor practice and (Sturnus vulgaris)). hormone levels. Song Development reinforcement (‘channeled’ or ‘pre-programmed’ lear- ning).

As in human speech. Fringilla coelebs. a brief phase of still serves well as an appropriate description of the subsong is observed before the onset of the breeding basic pattern observed in many species. season even in adult birds. as a result. thus making the bird unable to hear its own song. This is in line with observations that song developed by young birds deprived of adult song tutors contains species-specific characteristics (a song-deprived nightingale sounds different from a song-deprived starling) but lacks the fine detail of normal adult song. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 43 Figure 2 Culturally transmitted song types in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). by learning and plays an important role in the devel- opment of full song in the subsequent sensori- motor phase. but both behav- individual (illustrated in Figure 4. will result in the development of song that is even more impoverished than the song of isolate-raised Figure 3 An example of changes in one song motif in the birds. The original model of song learning has been course of ontogeny in a chaffinch. Young males were housed with their respective tutors throughout the sensitive phase for song learning (days 35–65 posthatching). birds can the sensory learning phase. Columns show spectrograms of tutors’ songs in the top row (adult males w709 and o554. respectively) and their respective tutees. Consequences of vocal learning are increased In the sensorimotor model of song learning. The crystal- lized song type was also in the final song type repertoire of this updated and altered over the years. tutee song type 2). and this and testosterone titers are seasonal. songs of tutees resemble the song of their tutor and each other more than do those of full brothers. a crude interindividual and geographic variation arising early template sets the sensory predispositions that from imprecise song copying (see individual w83 in filter the types of acoustic stimuli that are laid down Figure 2 and differences between tutor’s and tutee’s as specific song memories (the ‘template’) during songs in Figure 4). Inter- rupting the auditory feedback by masking it with noise or by blocking the central nervous connections. With the onset of the motor learning phase. The template is adjusted have local dialects that are discretely different from . auditory feedback is crucial to adjust the song output until it matches the template. ioral and neurobiological findings seem to support the principle underlying ideas of a two-phase process (sensory and sensorimotor learning phases).

the sub. Ibis 141. The tonal character of many bird vocaliza- in songbirds seems to have evolved independently tions and the existence of a unique sound-producing several times and has also been reported for at least organ have triggered a wealth of hypotheses as to two other avian orders. Songbirds thus provide an important ences often seem to come about rather suddenly dur- study system for nonhuman gene-culture co-evolu.44 Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication Figure 4 Four song types were played on tape to young fledgling chaffinches (tape tutor). which undergoes filtering by the vocal tract. Popula. 1997). Even in bird species in which the sexes do lect boundaries (see Dialects in Birdsongs). Vocal learning has mechanisms between birds and mammals. of vocal folds. 680–683. Redrawn from Riebel K and Slater P J B (1999). source. although vocal learning now also has been bronchi join to form the trachea (see Vocal Production shown to occur in some sub-oscines. The final repertoire of one of the respective tutees in the subsequent spring is shown (for song development. ing sub-adult development and possibly coincide with tion studies and diachronic and geographic change steroid hormone-induced changes of the vocal tract such as dialect formation. their closest relatives. Recent been little investigated in other avian taxa and may findings suggest that the basic mechanism is the be even more widespread than reported (Kroodsma. parrots (Psittacidae) and possible fundamental differences in sound production hummingbirds (Trochilidae). the song even when deprived of adult song or auditory syrinx. The two halves of the syrinx are innervated . oscines. These differ- documented. An analogue to human ‘voice involved in birdsong production (Goller and Larsen. Birds have a larynx located at the top of their trachea. seem to be able to develop species-specific but vocalize with the aid of a specialized organ. not exhibit substantial morphological differences. tion changes in time and space have been relatively adult males and females often show consistent differ- well studied due to short avian generation times. Vocal learning in Birds). same: cyclic opening and closing of the gap between 2004). Developmental changes during maturation the vocal membranes lead to harmonic sound at the also occur in taxa not described as vocal learners. species. and ences in acoustic parameters such as fundamental cultural changes in song can be easily observed and frequencies and harmonic composition. there are two sets (one in each bron- toire or the characteristics of the vocal tract may chus) of each of the several pairs of membranes change during growth. (Ballintijn and ten Cate. For example. other dialects in the same species. specialized juvenile vocalizations (such However. Development of Vocalizations in Non-oscine Birds Song Production In contrast to the extensive vocal learning process in most songbirds. see Figure 3). located much lower down where the two feedback. whereas a larynx consists of only one pair as begging calls) may disappear from the vocal reper. breaking’ has been described in a number of bird 2002). with clear-cut dia.

caudal medial nidopallium. see Figure 5 for abbreviations) show neuronal activation synchronized with singing. The well-delineated sensitive phases of sensory revised nomenclature of Reiner et al. MAN. and lesions in either Area X or MAN in young birds disrupt song Figure 5 Song system. V. tongue. within certain limits. mesencephalic lateral dorsal nucleus (dashed lines indicate the nucleus is located more medially than the illustrated section). LaM. creating two potential sound sources that can. lateral ventricle. vocal learning and adult neuronal plasticity (seasonal MLd. the settings of the songbird vocal tract act as a vocal filter and movements of the neck. The brain areas involved are highly specialized and easy to distinguish from surrounding brain tissue using standard tissue staining techniques. . two cerebral regions (HVC and RA. such lesions do not affect singing in adult section of the songbird brain. neurogenesis). (A) Anterior and and functional change have greatly advanced our posterior pathway. medial experimental assessment of the quantity and quality part of the dorsolateral thalamus. and beak contribute to changes in resonance properties. The posterior (or motor) pathway descends from ce- rebral areas to control the syrinx via the hypoglossal nerve (XII). changes. 2000) provide interesting is exposed to conspecific song. Schematic drawings of a parasagittal acquisition. Avian song learning is thus a L2. HVC ! Area X ! DLM ! MAN ! RA. and this lateral dominance might even differ from syllable to syllable and even within a syllable. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 45 independently. lamina mesopallialis (former: lamina hyperstriatica. partis tracheosyringalis. The gray areas show neuronal activation when the bird (Tramontin and Brenowitz. and RA cup). sound production and learning. Abbreviations are based on the birds. HVC. magnocellular ential gene expression mediating neuroanatomical nucleus of the arcopallium. is involved in vocal learning. CMHV). Ov. DLM. In most songbirds. 4971–4977. HVC shelf. nucleus ovoidalis. one side of the syrinx seems dominant over the other. From the HVC shelf there is also a des- the pronounced seasonal changes in neuronal number cending pathway via the RA cup to the auditory regions of the and volume (up to threefold) and of the song nuclei midbrain. high vocal center. the posterior (motor) pathway is activated during singing and descends from the HVC (pallium): Sex Differences HVC ! RA ! nXIIts ! syrinx. CMM. Arrows connect nuclei of the conventional ‘song understanding of the subtle neuroanatomical changes system’ that consists of the posterior (motor) pathway and the anterior forebrain pathway. Journal of Comparative Neurology 473. nXIIth. Field of the sensory input. prime model to study the neurobiological basis of LH). A number of interconnected brain nuclei (the ‘song system’) are absent in non-vocal-learning bird species and are sexually dimorphic in those species in which producing song is a behavioral dimorphism. L. 2004). Neurobiological Correlates of Singing and Song Learning Songbird brains show special adaptations for the production and acquisition of song (Figure 5). Figure kindly provided by Terpstra insights into the role of steroid hormones in neuronal N and Brittijn M (2004). The anterior pathway plays an important role in song learning. The anterior pathway. As in mammal sound production. be operated indepen- dently. caudal medial mesopallium (for- learning in many songbird species allow controlled mer: caudal medial hypertriatum ventrale. Journal of Neurosciences 24. Insights from neurophysiolo- NCM. (2004). nucleus hypoglossalis gy and anatomy and from studies on effects of differ. Two main pathways are involved in involved in learning (Jarvis. including human speech. the thalamus) ! L (with primary and secondary auditory cells of the nounced sex difference related to song systems and pallium) ! tertiary auditory areas of the nidopallium (NCM. The pro. RA. Two main path- ways are involved in sound production (Figure 5A). magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium. 377–414: CMM. (B) The avian song system has provided examples of Auditory pathway: input from cochlea via auditory nerve (VIII) and the most extreme sex differences in functional brain brain stem nuclei (not shown) ! MLd (mesencephalon) ! OV (in anatomy in vertebrates documented so far.

When song is sexual. Audiograms show species-specific peaks and show clear sex differences in song usage.) Comparative hearing: sure changes and motions within the fluid excite the birds and reptiles. auditory information is prime model for the study of hormonal and genetic transmitted to tertiary auditory areas of the nidopal- effects in gender differentiation. Though birds might hear from roughly early learning greatly influences adult female song 0. 2000). . Owls (Strigi- the outer ear vibrating. or only in how much they sing. in general. ranging from species of discharge in the auditory nerve (the (nVIIIth)).. the sounds that birds produce map Hearing and Perception The Avian Ear and the Auditory Pathway For any communication system. dalis) to primary and secondary auditory cells of Shackleton and Ball. it is possible to differentiate production abilities. Though many species papilla. How. Sound waves set the membrane separating the inner from Figure 6 Avian and human audibility curves. in line with songbirds’ sensory learning ly dimorphic. They also provide a the pallium. Dooling R J.46 Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication development and differentiation. adaptations of the brain. and the thalamus (ovoi- ies in neuroethology (Brenowitz. there is a full ascending sensory pathway to and perception learning and to identify specialized higher forebrain regions. This motion is transmitted via formes) have a higher sensitivity compared to an average song- bird and to humans. New York: Springer Verlag. lium. leading to sound-specific patterns between closely related species. MacDougall. the hair cells (2004).5 to 10 kHz. despite the short basilar learning (Gahr et al. Evidence is quickly accumulating that (Figure 6). 1999). Thus. The pres. 2004). neuronal activities on sound playback) and behavior- ever. which is only about 2–3 mm long (compared to up to 9 mm in owls and 30 mm in humans). which is usually at around 2–3 kHz (Dooling. Bird ears are similar to mammal ears in many respects. in which females have never been observed to sing From nVIIIth. the basilar papilla is straight rather than coiled and shows a greater diversity of sensory hair cell types compared to mammal ears (Causey Whittow. but this is a rapidly growing field of research bility curves reveals no ultra. the mesencephalon.or infrasonic hearing (Riebel. Generally. they generally hear best between and its perception. Moreover. with absolute sensitivity approach- show whether females differ from males in when and ing 0–10 dB SPL at the most sensitive frequency. have been based on sex differences related to quantity Bird hearing is remarkably acute both in the low- and quality of adult song output and not to song and high-frequency ranges. Fay R R. Redrawn from Dooling R J et al. These dif- ferences might explain why the range of audible fre- quencies seems little curtailed despite the remarkably short basilar papilla. 1997. 1999). Future studies will thus have to 1 and 6 kHz. birds’ ears work like those of mammals. and its opening in the skull is covered by feathers and there is only a single middle ear bone (the columella). Inspection of avian audi- abilities. and Popper A N (eds. the study of physical properties of signals and their production needs to be paralleled by the study of the corresponding recep- tors. with specialists such as night-hunting owls been few studies investigating female vocal learning showing higher sensitivities. The outer ear lacks an external pinna. but differ in a number of key features. stem. the auditory pathway (Figure 5B) con- to those in which females sing as much as males. In a cross-species compari- son across 20 or so species. (2000). From there. there have troughs. 2003). tinues. what they learn. it is unclear whether this is due to sex differences al methods (training birds to indicate behaviorally in song output or to vocal learning. 1998). in the columella to the fluid of the inner ear. sex differences in the Hearing Range and Perception neuronal song system were found to be correlated The hearing ranges of birds have been determined with sex differences in song output and repertoire using both electrophysiological methods (recording size (MacDougall-Shackleton and Ball. Large differences act as transducers. Despite these differences. 308–359. and Dooling hair cells on the sensory epithelium. ascending via a number of nuclei in the brain provide excellent opportunities for comparative stud. Most studies so far whether they can discriminate between two sounds).

As a consequence. Two differ- So far we have dealt with the proximate causation of ent pressures build up on either side of the mem- song: its development. such as woodlands or fields. i. trills. Song humans. from its structure at its source. Rapid repetitions of elements with the own song. In ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). the bird localizes the sound. Instead of integrating the influenced by social learning processes (Riebel. phase. in contrast. and certain signal maternal call are greatly impaired in birds that are structures will be more effective than others in long- deprived of hearing their mother’s and their own calls range communication. birds do less species. who Unlike human speech. the tutor and. Development and in forests sing differently from those that live in open learning are of even greater impact when complex areas. even though song may be general background noise) and categorical perception addressed to both sexes. susceptible to being blurred by reverberation. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 47 well onto the frequency range of their most sensitive experiences in non-singing females. i. suggesting that the birds in closed habitats have been found to sing trills fine tuning of song perception also depends on early with slower repetition rates compared to birds in . birds demon- birds sing.. 1996). auditory neurons develop specific responsive. Unlike humans. acoustic signals inevitably attenuate and de- grade (Wiley and Richards. songbirds while still in the egg (Gottlieb.e. 1978). specific song during development.e. Indeed. but use different strategies for categorization than humans. information of directionality using differential arrival times of a sound at both ears. Masking effects of noise are frequency specific and mate attraction. songbirds also show cific variants of conspecific songs are also greatly good directional hearing. nemes). environmentally induced changes in a song depends perception is modulated by experiences during devel. evi- hearing. Birdsong as a Long-Range Signal tion of musical tunes). in the discrimina. the function of song may differ with time of well in detecting changes in intensity. first. by moving its head until the two pressures why do birds sing? And what kind of information are equalized. depending on which birds show categorical perception of human pho- sex is listening. later. exceeding that of they use them when interacting with each other. in bird species other advertisement signals in the animal kingdom. often over 100 or more range were more important in classification of complex meters. 2004) (Figure 7). the precise functions and strongest when overlapping with the actual signal of song can differ among species. Song discrimination abilities are impaired in same frequency structure. prefer. are particularly both males and females if they are deprived of species. control and perception. there is good experimental evidence for auditory Nevertheless. with tone and masking noise 90! tisement signal with a dual function: territory defense apart). 1982. compared to song production. females and males may attend to differ- stream analysis (filtering of auditory objects from ent aspects of song so that. which song patterns they sing and how strate fine temporal resolution. Birds also superficially show complex serial pattern recognition (for example. tested so far. Moreover. surfaces of the vegetation in forests are the main are concerned. ment. How. in common with focus on differences in relative pitch. the specific traits that are (both for avian and non-avian vocalizations. differences in the acoustic properties of a given habi- ences for and recognition of the species-specific tat are of evolutionary significance. on habitat structure and weather conditions. birds’ perception also shows encodes information about the singer and such infor- some interesting parallels with human abilities.e. songbirds’ ears are Evolution and Functions of Birdsong connected via the air cavities in the skull bones so that sound is incident on the inner surface of the Functions of Birdsong tympanic membrane at the opposite ear. The mag- do they signal and extract from a song that they nitude of spatial masking release is similar to that in hear? It is well documented that birdsong is an adver- humans (10–15 dB. Development of Hearing and Perception The de.. 2003). However. However. within (Klump. But branes.. the bird’s beration. During the sensorimotor learning cause of sound degradation (signal reverberation). During transmission through the environ- sounds. used to assess a singer may differ. Compared to humans. open habitats cause negligible rever- ness to elements of. The reflecting vocalizations. Thus the structure of a song at the velopment of hearing and perception has not been position at which a receiver makes a decision differs widely studied. dence is accumulating that female preferences for spe- Despite their small head size. birdsong. even in species not known as vocal learners. Moreover. and mation can be relevant for other males and females. such as the learned songs in songbirds. i. Slabbekoorn. but when dis- day or season and it may differ depending on how criminating between complex sounds. The nature of these ever. absolute pitch and absolute frequency is used as a long-range signal. The opment.

more high frequen- cies than do birds in closed habitats. males need only invest time and energy in repelling a rival that is nearby and therefore is a likely threat. Krebs and colleagues (Krebs. like humans. cast were occupied by new males earlier than when 1977) removed male great tits from their territories. This can be crucial for an effective defense of large territories against rival males (Naguib and Wiley. Degradation and attenuation with distance are to some extent predictable. Territories in which no song or against rival males. have been shown to use cues from degradation and attenuation as distance cues (Figure 8). 1297–1307. Moreover. In a classic study on the territorial the control song (a tune on a tin whistle) was broad- function of birdsong. Upper panel: song as recorded from a singing male within a distance of 10 m is undegraded. This and subse- installed loudspeakers then played recorded con. i. on average.. energy need Figure 8 Response scores of Carolina wrens to playback of not be wasted when the rival is far away and beyond undegraded (clear) song and song with added distance cues. Scores on the principal component (shown on the Y axis) indicate strength of response. 2001). Birds. However. Because vegetation also causes addi- tional attenuation of sound. the territorial boundary. so that birds.e. the environmental effects on song transmission not only mask information coded in the song but also provide additional relevant information. use reverberation and Territorial Function and Communication high-frequency attenuation as separate cues to distance. conspecific songs were broadcast. and specifically of the higher frequencies. Animal Behaviour 50. . open habitats. or no sound was that male song keeps out rival males. Because they can assess the distance to a singing rival. Song in most passerine birds is used as a territorial signal. Empirical findings show that birds in open habitats use. Here the oscillogram (top) and spectrogram (bottom) show temporal smearing of the sound. Lower panel: song as recorded at a distance of 40 m in a deciduous forest. Repro- among Males duced from Naguib M (1995). like humans. quent experiments provided convincing evidence specific song or a control sound.48 Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication Figure 7 Undegraded and degraded sound spectrograms and oscillograms of a chaffinch song. to advertise an area that will be defended broadcast (Figure 9). there should be strong selection to avoid higher frequencies for long-range communi- cation in forests.

2000). but also their songs during an interaction so that they overlap become more aggressive when they hear their neigh. The reduced response to a neighbor’s song the same song pattern the rival has just sung. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.e. Moreover. Males may time not only between neighbors and strangers. In (Figure 11). During territorial conflicts. song overlapping is used and perceived as an (Figure 10). 2005). Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 49 Figure 9 Schematic representation of a classic experiment on the territorial function of song in great tits. are rivals in competition for space and matings. Shaded areas on the right indicate re-occupation of the territory by other males after 8 or 10 hours. neighboring males the song can be correlated with levels of testosterone benefit by reduced aggression toward each other. information on familiarity with agonistic signal. ‘control sound’) in which no great tit songs were broadcast. The importance of song in territory system when a stranger starts singing somewhere defense also may vary with time of the season and . Neighbors types can likewise signal changing levels of arousal. Peake. 1996). and thus song may be used as a predictor addition. Males settle only in those areas (‘control silent’. but. Song when received from the ‘correct’ direction is termed rate and the rate of switching among different song the ‘dear enemy effect’ (Stoddard. Redrawn from Krebs J R and Davies N B (1992). or no stimulus was broadcast. an issue that has undisturbed singing in different contexts have shown received specific attention in studies using birdsong that males obtain important information from a riv. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica). the structure of once a relation is established. 2005. As in all social behavior. i. In almost all species studied bor’s song from the opposite side of their territory to date. There is variation within and information to distinguish between familiar and un. to reply with heard. as a model in investigating communication networks al’s song on which they base their decision on how to (Naguib. An introduction to behavioural ecology.. Males were removed from their territory and were replaced by loudspeakers either playing great tit songs (‘experimental’) or playing back a control stimulus. Thus. males can signal their vidual specific information is of central relevance readiness to escalate a contest by a range of different when repeated encounters occur. among species as to which strategy has which signal familiar individuals. males discriminate value (Todt and Naguib. songs of their opponent. respond to that rival. playback experiments in the field and observations of in the territorial neighborhood. neighbors also can act as an early warning of fighting vigor. Birds can use such singing strategies. indi. Another way of agonistically addres- song is linked to a location from which it is usually sing a rival is to match his song type.

Animal Behaviour 64. Sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) males become paired earlier when they have large vocal with time of the day. P K et al. In many bird species. Males with in singing activity after pairing. 2002) (Figure 12). songs than to simple ones (Figure 14) and have been shown to copulate only with those neighboring males that have a song repertoire larger than their social Function in Mate Attraction mate has (Figure 15). Modified from Amrhein et al. Bars ally occurs only at the boundary toward the territory of the neigh. suggesting that repertoire size marked peak of singing activity early in the morning is a trait used by females in mating decisions. 939–944. for instance. 1996). Many warblers show a marked decrease number of impulses per rattle in barn swallow songs. 211–215. males change their singing behavior after pairing.. Figure 12 Nocturnal singing activity of male nightingales. a repertoires (Figure 13). Neighbor/stranger discrimination usu. (2002). N ¼ 12. Great in many temperate-zone songbirds. Redrawn from Stoddard breeding season (bachelors. 687–700. no discrimination is observed. Males that remain unpaired that intrusions at these sites are assessed as equally threatening (‘bachelors’) continue nocturnal song throughout the entire regardless of the identity of the intruder. N ¼ 18). suggesting that song codes information on the physiolog. Field studies have shown that song traits are linked to mating success and to paternity. suggesting that the function of song differs between the period of mate attraction and the period Figure 11 Relation between levels of plasma testosterone and thereafter. has a specific reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) females ex- function in territory defense in some species (Staicer hibit more display behavior in response to complex et al. Females may choose a male partner on the basis of his song and. (1997). Animal Behaviour 53. The dawn chorus. mated males. Dusky warblers (Phylloscopus Song provides information on male motivation and fuscatus) that produce song elements at a higher rela- quality and there is now good evidence that females tive amplitude gain more extra-pair matings than do . in so-called extra-pair copulations. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 29. and laboratory studies have shown that females are more responsive to specific song traits. territory (Amrhein et al. song the day after a female has settled within their ical state of the singer.50 Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication Figure 10 Response strength of male territorial song sparrows to playback. use this information for pairing and mating decisions. suggesting when their females lay eggs. indicate the period of the breeding cycle when males sing at bor whose song is broadcast.. at different locations in their territory. (1991). At the center of a territory or at the night. There are two lines of evi- dence showing the function of song in female choice. Males cease nocturnal song after pairing but resume it opposite boundary. still mate additionally with other males with more attractive song. once paired. of song of neighbors and strangers. Redrawn from Galeotti P et al. and nocturnally more impulses in the rattles of their song had higher testosterone singing birds such as the nightingale cease nocturnal levels.

less complex song repertoires. in birds a sensory more. suggesting that males with larger song repertoires Figure 13 Pairing and song repertoire in sedge warblers. speech show lateralization. are more attractive. units. and with this speech and in birdsong. birds: elements perience leads to learned representations guiding or syllables) that are arranged by a species-specific vocal output via complex feedback mechanisms. acquisition of phonemes in humans. subsong. In human plays (a specific posture females use to elicit co. (1986). humans: babbling). this. areas solely dedicated to the acquisition and percep- tion of vocalizations and to the control of the com- plex motor patterns underlying song. whereby some sounds are more likely to be functionally much more equivalent to mammalian copied than others. suggesting Ethology 73. speech acquisition. central and peripheral control of both song and nal reward. production. Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication 51 Figure 14 Female copulation solicitation displays in response to playback of songs of different complexity in great reed war- blers. later slow down or stop further acquisition learning. As in the (prelinguistic) males that sing their elements ‘less well’. Female displays last longer in response to larger song repertoires. lar to the phonologies that are heard. lie vocal learning in birds and in humans. and song by birds takes place without obvious exter. and perception. These similarities of the acquisition of vocal units song (territorial and mate-attracting signal) and suggest that similar neural mechanisms might under- human speech (physical carrier of human language). In addition. females were allowed to peck a key to release play. Both types of communica. occurs at specific phases during develop. learning to produce the phonetic pulations) when hearing large song repertoires than units precedes the mapping of meaning onto these when hearing smaller. studies on functional morphology of the bird tion are acquired by a form of channeled social brain now suggest that avian forebrain areas are learning. Songbirds’ vocal learning technique it is possible to test female preference for ability is mirrored in highly specialized forebrain song in more detail (Riebel. 2003). Males with larger song repertoires pair earlier. In canaries. has been identified as a ‘sexy syllable’ to ment can perhaps best be seen as an analogue. a memories and in the first (prelinguistic) phase of substructure of the song. In- combinatorial system into larger units (humans: creasing experience and sub-adult hormonal changes words and sentences. In line with there are many parallels. Behaviour 74. Females show more copulation solicitation dis. Both song and Comparison to Human Speech speech acquisition have sensitive periods during Both human speech and birdsong consist of finite sets which learning is greatly enhanced and sensory ex- of smaller units (humans: phonemes. Redrawn from Catchpole C (1980). memory. Birdsong prolonged phase of motor learning (birds: phonology is often highly complex and can show . 149–166. and relies on auditory feedback and a of evolutionarily highly derived systems. like young birds. highly studies have used operant techniques in which specialized brain regions control vocal learning. More recent Next to similarities on the behavioral level. Moreover. Redrawn from Catchpole C et al. Despite the very different functions fulfilled by bird. their song output when their mate disappears or is Babbling babies. Learning of speech by humans forebrain areas than previously thought. 69–77. studies under phase of motor practice during which initial phono- controlled laboratory conditions have shown that logical (over)production moves toward producing females show strong preferences for specific song phonological units that become more and more simi- traits. both in human back of songs of different complexity. Further. which is a clear indication ment. that song repertoire is used in female choice. which females pay specific attention. undergo a long removed experimentally. studies have shown that males usually increase learning phase precedes the first production attempts. a complex syllable category motor learning that birdsong and speech develop- (a trill). It is thus in the acquisition of auditory as in great reed warblers (Figure 14). birds: phrases and songs).

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at ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. 131–181. ‘Vocal interactions in birds: music: the science of birdsong. territoriality and territorial ity in the adult brain. although only some of is spoken by the majority of the population as either the content of newspapers is published in Bislama. 47–62.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds. VIC. birdsong.’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds.’ Trends in Neurosciences 23. 356–376. in urban areas. ‘The Kroodsma D E (2004). 181–208. Tramontin A D & Brenowitz E A (2000). Cornell University Press. 108–131. evolution of acoustic communication in birds. ‘Vocal recognition of neighbors by tive studies of sex differences in the song-control system territorial passerines.’ tion and perception learning in female songbirds. ‘Compara. 432–436. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. San Diego: Elsevier the use of song as a model in communication. There are as many as 100 Parliamentary debates are conducted in the language. it is also one of the official munity services.3%. Stoddard P K (1996). New York: range communication. ‘The ‘‘mute’’ sex revisited: vocal produc- Klump G (1996). an English-lexifier pidgin-creole. ‘Communication networks. Bislama C Hyslop. San Diego: Elsevier evolution of acoustic communication in birds. it is fast tant lingua franca of Vanuatu.) Communication networks. Bislama is the Caledonia is Melanesian Pidgin not spoken. Along Bislama is used for many other government and com- with English and French. ‘Brains and birdsong.’ In Slabbekoorn H (eds. (eds.’ Advances Academic Press. Staicer C A. regional language that allows for communication According to the 1999 census.’ In Stonehouse B & Perrins C (eds.’ In Marler P & Peake T M (2005). 226–271. and as a result Bislama is vital as a lingua franca Solomon Islands. Australia in rural areas. 49–86. is the na. For example. the language is not just an impor- urban areas and even in some rural areas.) Ecology and Advances in the Study of Behavior 33. English and French are Bislama.’ In McGregor P K (ed.’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds.) a source of sound: mechanisms and adaptations for long. London: Macmillan. where among most peoples of Melanesia. 321–338.) Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication Marler P I E B (2004). Academic Press. ‘Singing in the wild: the ecology of New York: Cornell University Press. Thus. San Diego: Elsevier Aca- major. ‘Bird communication in the noisy world. London: Academic Press. 825–837. in birds. Bislama is a dialect of Melanesian Pidgin. However. main language used at home in 58% of households. settlement. ‘Estimating the distance to nal detection. Cam- of birdsong.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds. Only in New there is a great deal of intermarriage. 247–296. All rights reserved. Riebel K (2003). Slabbekoorn H (2004).) Nature’s music: the science McGregor P K (ed.) Evolutionary demic Press. tic communication in birds: sound transmission and sig- Naguib M & Wiley R H (2001).’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H of songbirds. 132–177. ‘Song and territory in the great tit Parus music: the science of birdsong. MacDougall-Shackleton S A & Ball G F (1999). intelligible with Solomons Pijin (Pijin).) Communication 251–258. this figure is considerably lower.) Nature’s Todt D & Naguib M (2000). ‘Seasonal plastic- plications for social relations. Acoustic communication in birds. Naguib M (2005). mutually 2001) for a population of only 186 678 (1999 cen. Cornell: University Press. Spector D A & Horn A G (1996). spoken languages according to Lynch and Crowley. ‘Singing interactions in song birds: im. the majority of radio languages of the country. Bundoora. a first or second language. Ithaca. La Trobe University. but also a common becoming the main language used in daily life. Bislama 53 Jarvis E D (2004). a republic in the south. Currently.’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds. in the Study of Behaviour 29. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press. and Tok Pisin. . ‘Bird calls: a cornucopia for commu. even in the most remote areas of the country only a minority of elderly people are not fluent in Bislama.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds.’ Animal Behaviour 62. 13. nication.) Ecology and music: the science of birdsong. networks. it broadcasts are in Bislama. In New Guinea. west Pacific within the region of Melanesia. the principal languages of education in Vanuatu tional language of Vanuatu.’ Trends in Neurosciences 22. ‘The diversity and plasticity of dawn chorus and other diel patterns in acoustic signal- birdsong. bridge: Cambridge University Press. spoken in sus).) Nature’s ing. distinct languages spoken in Vanuatu (81 actively as are local island court cases. However. As the national language. ecology. and Bislama is generally banned in schools. 2. Wiley R H & Richards D G (1982).) Nature’s Krebs J R (1977). spoken in Papua between speakers of different language groups. ‘Adaptations for acous- 300–319. vol.

’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds.3%. Australia in rural areas.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds. in the Study of Behaviour 29.’ In Marler P & Peake T M (2005). (eds. distinct languages spoken in Vanuatu (81 actively as are local island court cases. Only in New there is a great deal of intermarriage. Ithaca.’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds.’ In Marler P & Slabbekoorn H (eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ‘Singing in the wild: the ecology of New York: Cornell University Press. settlement. Riebel K (2003). Bislama 53 Jarvis E D (2004). San Diego: Elsevier the use of song as a model in communication. Thus. 13. Naguib M (2005). spoken in sus).) Nature’s Krebs J R (1977).) Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication Marler P I E B (2004). . the majority of radio languages of the country. Currently. Tramontin A D & Brenowitz E A (2000). evolution of acoustic communication in birds.’ Trends in Neurosciences 22. 2. 108–131. main language used at home in 58% of households. ‘Seasonal plastic- plications for social relations. In New Guinea. English and French are Bislama.) a source of sound: mechanisms and adaptations for long. London: Academic Press. Spector D A & Horn A G (1996). at ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Cornell University Press. territoriality and territorial ity in the adult brain. However. ‘Bird communication in the noisy world. west Pacific within the region of Melanesia. it is fast tant lingua franca of Vanuatu. even in the most remote areas of the country only a minority of elderly people are not fluent in Bislama. Academic Press. Cam- of birdsong. ‘The diversity and plasticity of dawn chorus and other diel patterns in acoustic signal- birdsong. 247–296. Bislama is a dialect of Melanesian Pidgin. mutually 2001) for a population of only 186 678 (1999 cen. in urban areas.’ In Stonehouse B & Perrins C (eds.) Communication networks. it broadcasts are in Bislama. spoken languages according to Lynch and Crowley.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds.) Communication 251–258. ‘Compara.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H of songbirds. VIC. although only some of is spoken by the majority of the population as either the content of newspapers is published in Bislama. ‘Adaptations for acous- 300–319. birdsong. where among most peoples of Melanesia. ‘Vocal recognition of neighbors by tive studies of sex differences in the song-control system territorial passerines. networks. ecology. in birds. an English-lexifier pidgin-creole. Stoddard P K (1996). Slabbekoorn H (2004).) Ecology and Advances in the Study of Behavior 33. vol. Cornell: University Press. As the national language. MacDougall-Shackleton S A & Ball G F (1999). ‘Communication networks. and Bislama is generally banned in schools.’ Trends in Neurosciences 23. but also a common becoming the main language used in daily life. Wiley R H & Richards D G (1982). the language is not just an impor- urban areas and even in some rural areas. 321–338. spoken in Papua between speakers of different language groups. a first or second language.) Evolutionary demic Press.’ In Kroodsma D E & Miller E H (eds. ‘The Kroodsma D E (2004). the principal languages of education in Vanuatu tional language of Vanuatu. bridge: Cambridge University Press. intelligible with Solomons Pijin (Pijin). and as a result Bislama is vital as a lingua franca Solomon Islands. La Trobe University.’ In McGregor P K (ed. ‘Singing interactions in song birds: im. Staicer C A. and Tok Pisin. Acoustic communication in birds. San Diego: Elsevier evolution of acoustic communication in birds.) Nature’s music: the science McGregor P K (ed. nication. All rights reserved. Bislama is the Caledonia is Melanesian Pidgin not spoken. this figure is considerably lower. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.’ Animal Behaviour 62. is the na. 356–376. tic communication in birds: sound transmission and sig- Naguib M & Wiley R H (2001). ‘The ‘‘mute’’ sex revisited: vocal produc- Klump G (1996).’ In Slabbekoorn H (eds. 181–208. 49–86. it is also one of the official munity services. New York: range communication. ‘Song and territory in the great tit Parus music: the science of birdsong. Bislama C Hyslop.) Nature’s ing. Along Bislama is used for many other government and com- with English and French. There are as many as 100 Parliamentary debates are conducted in the language. However. ‘Vocal interactions in birds: music: the science of birdsong. 132–177. ‘Estimating the distance to nal detection. For example. London: Macmillan. 226–271. 825–837. 131–181. ‘Brains and birdsong.) Nature’s Todt D & Naguib M (2000). ‘Bird calls: a cornucopia for commu. 432–436. San Diego: Elsevier Aca- major. Bundoora. 47–62.’ tion and perception learning in female songbirds. a republic in the south.’ Advances Academic Press.) Ecology and music: the science of birdsong. regional language that allows for communication According to the 1999 census.

Australia: Pacific Linguistics. facts and concepts and endemic floral and faunal species that have no common names in English. approximately text. took place within marked by prepositions.’ Dual and Crowley T (1990b). Pacific pidgins Like English and many Vanuatu languages. in Crowley T (1990a). to the extent that today verb. article or noun marker in many Vanuatu languages. and it also Linguistics. During the early decades of the olsem ‘like’ (similitive). Trends in Bislama is characterized by AVO/SV word order. manner of action. it marks the locative. or random. a productive process in Bislama. habitual. yufala ‘you (pl. particularly in semantic roles are wetem ‘with’ (instrumental and the sugarcane plantations of Queensland and Fiji comitative). Pidgins and Creoles: Overview. or future tense. The preverbal The status of and need for Bislama as a lingua franca markers bin and bae mark the past and future tense. number of functions. A pidgin ablative. Crowley T (2004). a part-whole relationship.54 Bislama The formation and development of Bislama. mas ‘must’. reciprocal. Beach-la-mar to Bislama: the the pronominal system there is an inclusive-exclusive emergence of a national language in Vanuatu.’ navele ‘Barringtonia ea: Language Situation. because of’ (reason). In verbs. Peripheral arguments are Melanesian Pidgin generally. the form of an Language Situation. with increasing numbers of Ni-Vanuatu being possessive construction.’ Note that Solomon Islands: Language Situation. present. pectual or modal functions. A number of auxiliaries also occur. the language stabilized. the majority describe cultural arti. there is little structure today is very close to what it was then.75% of the vocabulary originates from the vernac. such that its As is true of most pidgin languages. and mood.’ Verb serialization is 3. The preposition long has Vanuatu and other regions of Melanesia and also in a wide general use. such See also: Central Solomon Languages. survey and bibliography. Only approximately ‘be able’. yumi ‘we (inclusive)’ is Studies in Language Contact. reduplication can mark an action as being continu- Tryon D T (1987). the grammar of Bislama is greatly influ. and dative. Berlin: Mouton and this is the only means of recognizing the subject de Gruyter. and creoles: origins. Honolulu: its from the substratum languages is reduplication.’ and South Pacific. The preposition blong also has a ment took place in the second half of the 19th centu. Languages of Vanuatu: a new and adjectives. University of Hawai’i Press. Of those words that derive from relationship. Pacific Languages Unit. and wantem ‘want. aspect. marks plurality in adjectives. marking of tense. with as- 84–90%.’ Another feature that Bislama inher. However. but it is rarer for nouns. 20th century. or local languages. It can mark tional language of Vanuatu. Australia and other countries of the Pacific. a continuous or habitual action. Although the majority of the lexicon is derived from English. fined functions. such as stap.’ yutrifala ‘you (three). Tok Pisin. distinguished from mifala ‘we (exclusive). preceded only by its subject. An illustrated Bislama-English and trial number is also distinguished from the plural. is derived from English. within the country increased in the period leading respectively. or direction. Papua New Guin- as nasara ‘ceremonial ground. 2004). edulis. It can also mark the object of first started to emerge in Vanuatu (known as the New comparison in a comparative construction. linguistics studies and monographs 132. For example. Canberra. and colonists. Vanuatu: many of these words start with na-. position. depending on the con- The majority of the Bislama lexicon. and a number of other less easily de- the sandalwood and sea slug trade. past. Oxford distinction in the first person. Port Vila: University of the yutufala ‘you (two). . as English-Bislama dictionary.’ and nambilak ‘buff-banded rail. Bislama: an introduction to the na- ous. from ‘for.). reflecting its histo. Australia: Pacific intensity in both verbs and adjectives. 1990a). and of and object of the clause. to indicate either it has become the unifying language of the nation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and (Crowley. Further develop. recruited to work on plantations both inside Vanuatu and a purposive role. Bibliography enced by the vernacular languages. Tryon D T & Charpentier J-M (2004). Canberra. encoding various ular languages and 6–12% derives from French meanings and functions such as a cause-effect (Crowley. Bislama reference grammar. marking ry of development alongside English-speaking traders. growth and development. a causative. Prepositions marking other and in other areas of the Pacific. marking the possessor in a ry. the in- Hebrides at the time) in the mid-1800s as a result of strumental. it is possible for an unmarked up to independence in 1980. Reduplication is a productive process for both verbs Lynch J & Crowley T (2001). save plantation owners. allative.

Black Islam 55

Black Islam
R Turner, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA who was enslaved in Mississippi; Omar Ibn Said
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (1770–1864), a Fuble Muslim scholar who was a
slave in North Carolina and pretended a conversion
to Christianity; and numerous others.
The involvement of black Americans with Islam By the eve of the Civil War, the black Islam of the
reaches back to the earliest days of the African pres- West African Muslim slaves was, for all practical
ence in North America. The history of black Islam purposes defunct, because these Muslims were not
in the United States includes successive and varied able to develop community institutions to perpetuate
presentations of the religion that document black their religion. When they died, their presentation of
Americans’ struggles to define themselves indepen- Islam, which was West African, private, with main-
dently in the context of global Islam. This article is stream practices, disappeared. But they were impor-
a historical sketch of black Islam that focuses on tant nonetheless, because they brought black Islam
the following topics: Islam and transatlantic slavery, to America.
early 20th-century mainstream communities, early
20th-century racial separatist communities, and
Early 20th-Century Mainstream
mainstream Islam in contemporary black America.
Communities
In the late 19th century, the Pan-Africanist ideas of
Islam and Transatlantic Slavery
a Presbyterian minister in Liberia, Edward Wilmot
Muslim slaves – involuntary immigrants who had Blyden (1832–1912), which critiqued Christianity
been the urban-ruling elite in West Africa, constituted for its racism and suggested Islam as a viable religious
at least 15% of the slave population in the United alternative for black Americans, provided the politi-
States in the 18th and 19th centuries. Their religious cal framework for Islam’s appeal to black Americans
and ethnic roots could be traced to ancient black in the early 20th century. Moreover, the internation-
kingdoms in Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. Some of alist perspective of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro
these West African Muslim slaves brought the first Improvement Association and the Great Migration
mainstream Islamic beliefs and practices to America of more than one million black southerners to north-
by keeping Islamic names, writing in Arabic, fasting ern and midwestern cities during the World War
during the month of Ramadan, praying five times I era provided the social and political environment
a day, wearing Muslim clothing, and writing and for the rise of black American mainstream commu-
reciting the Qur’an. nities from the 1920s to the 1940s. The Ahmadiyya
The fascinating portrait of a West African Muslim Movement in Islam, a heterodox missionary commu-
slave in the United States who retained mainstream nity from India, laid the groundwork for mainstream
Islamic practices was that of a Georgia Sea Island Islam in black America by providing black Americans
slave, Bilali. He was one of at least 20 black Muslims with their first Qur’ans, important Islamic literature
who are reported to have lived and practiced their and education, and linkages to the world of Islam.
religion in Sapelo and St. Simon’s Islands during the Mufti Muhammad Sadiq, the first Ahmadiyya mis-
antebellum period. This area provided fertile ground sionary to the United States, established the American
for mainstream Islamic continuities because of its headquarters of the community in Chicago in 1920.
relative isolation from Euro-American influences. He recruited many of his earliest black American
Bilali was noted for his religious devotion: for wear- converts from the ranks of Marcus Garvey’s Universal
ing Islamic clothing, for his Muslim name, and for Negro Improvement Association. By the mid-1920s,
his ability to write and speak Arabic. Islamic tradi- Sadiq and black American converts, such as Brother
tions in his family were retained for at least three Ahmad Din and Sister Noor, had established The
generations. Muslim Sunrise, the first Islamic newspaper in the
Fascinating portraits of outstanding African Muslim United States, and thriving multiracial communities
slaves in the United States, which exist in the his- in Detroit, Michigan; Gary, Indiana; and St. Louis,
torical literature, also include Job Ben Solomon Missouri.
(1700–1773), a Maryland slave of Fuble Muslim ori- There were several dynamic early 20th-century
gins; Georgetown, Virginia, slave Yarrow Mamout, communities to which black American Sunni Mus-
who was close to 100 years old when his portrait lims can trace their roots. These communities – the
was painted by Charles Wilson Peale; Abd al-Rahman Islamic Mission to America, Jabul Arabiyya, and the
Ibrahima (1762–1825), a Muslim prince in Futa Jallon, First Cleveland Mosque – were influenced by Muslim

56 Black Islam

immigrants and their own constructed presentations Muslim communities economically and socially self-
of mainstream Islam in black communities. sufficient.
Four things influenced the Islamic Mission to In 1943, Wali Akram conducted the first session
America in New York City: the local Muslim immi- of the Uniting Islamic Society of America in Phila-
grant community; Muslim sailors from Yemen, delphia. This national group was established to
Somalia, and Madagascar; the Ahmadi translation unify disparate black American mainstream organi-
of the Qur’an; and the black American community. zations against the agenda of foreign Muslims. The
Shiek Daoud was born in Morocco and came to Uniting Islamic Society of America met several times
the United States from Trinidad. Daoud’s wife, from 1943 to 1947 to develop a united platform on
‘Mother’ Sayeda Kadija, who had Pakistani Muslim doctrine, politics, women’s issues, leadership, and
and Barbadian roots, became president of the relations with the immigrant community. Ultimately,
Muslim Ladies Cultural Society. The Islamic Mission this organization failed because of personality con-
to America published its own literature about main- flicts and different visions of the black American
stream Islam. Sheik Daoud believed that black mainstream Islamic community.
American Muslims should change themselves not The grassroots work of these mainstream groups
only spiritually, but also in ‘‘language, dress, and with their emphasis on study of the Arabic language
customs’’ to connect them to Islamic civilization and the Qur’an, the transformation of domestic
and revivalism in Asia and Africa. Daoud immersed space and community life, adoption of Islamic dress
himself in the complex experiences of, and bound- and customs, and cosmopolitan travels to Egypt,
aries between, Muslim immigrants and black con- Morocco, Trinidad, India, Barbados, Jamaica, and
verts to Islam in New York City and Brooklyn from New York City are key to understanding the Muslim
the 1920s to the 1960s. lifestyles of these early Sunni black American con-
Muhammad Ezaldeen, an English teacher and prin- verts as expressions of global Islam. These early black
cipal, was a Moorish Science Temple member in American Sunni communities were overshadowed
Newark, New Jersey, in the 1920s. After several by the successful missionary work of the heterodox
years of Arabic and Islamic studies in Egypt, he Ahmadiyya movement and later by the ascendancy of
returned to the United States to promote the Islamic the Nation of Islam in the 1950s. Mainstream Islam
connections between Arab and black American cul- did not become a popular option for black American
ture in the Adenu Allahe Universal Arabic Associa- Muslims until the 1960s.
tion. In 1938, he and his followers established
Jabul Arabiyya, a Sunni Muslim community ruled Early 20th-Century Racial Separatist
by Islamic law in rural West Valley, New York.
Communities
Communities of this association were founded in
New Jersey (Ezaldeen Village); Jacksonville, Florida; Noble Drew Ali (1886–1929) was the founder of
Rochester, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Moorish Science Temple of America in Newark,
and Detroit, Michigan. These communities empha- New Jersey, in 1913. This was the first mass religious
sized the hijra – the movement of early Arabian community in the history of black American Islam
Muslims from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. – as the and the black nationalist model for the Nation of
centerpiece of their spiritual philosophy. Islam. In the late 1920s, the Moorish American com-
Tensions between black American and immigrant munity in the United States grew to approximately
leaders in the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam resulted 30 000 members and was the largest Islamic commu-
in the establishment of the Sunni First Cleveland nity in the United States before the ascendancy of the
Mosque by Imam Wali Akram in 1936 and the First Nation of Islam in the 1950s.
Muslim Mosque in Pittsburgh by Nasir Ahmad and The Moorish Americans, who established branches
Saeed Akmal in the same period. Wali Akram was of their community in several northern cities and
one of the first black American Muslim converts to made their headquarters in Chicago in the 1920s,
sever all ties with the immigrant community in order claimed to be descendants of Moroccan Muslims
to establish mainstream Islam in a black American and constructed a nationalist identity by changing
community. The imam and his wife, Kareema, learned their names, nationality, religion, diet, and dress.
Arabic and taught the language and the recitation Their esoteric spiritual philosophy was constructed
of the Qur’an to black converts. One of Akram’s from Islam, Christianity, and black Freemasonry. In
unique contributions to the black American commu- 1927, Ali wrote their sacred text, the Holy Koran of
nity was the Muslim Ten Year Plan, which utilized the Moorish Science Temple, also called the Circle
the faith and discipline of Sunni Islam to get black Seven Koran, to teach his followers their preslavery
people off welfare and to make black American religion, nationality, and genealogy. To support his

Black Islam 57

case for a Moorish American identity, he emphasized Elijah Muhammad’s institutional quest for economic
two important points: first, black Americans were power made the Nation of Islam into the wealthiest
really ‘Asiatics’ – the descendants of Jesus, and sec- black organization in American history. In this era,
ond, the destiny of western civilization was linked the Nation of Islam provided a community model
to the rise of the ‘Asiatic’ nation – Asians, Africans, and political inspiration for the black power move-
Native Americans, and black Americans. ment. Malcolm X’s phenomenal organizing efforts
In the Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple, among young lower-class black men and women in
Noble Drew Ali also argued that truth, peace, free- the northern cities created powerful constituencies
dom, justice, and love were the Islamic ideals that for the Nation of Islam across the United States,
his followers should emulate. The Moorish Science and the Muhammad Speaks newspaper, which was
Temple survived in factions after Noble Drew Ali’s edited by a leftward-leaning staff, provided exem-
mysterious death in 1929 and received official recog- plary coverage of international news and anticolonial
nition for its Islamic linkages to Morocco from struggles in Asia and Africa. Malcolm X provided a
the Moroccan ambassador to the United States in powerful message of racial separatism, self-discipline,
1986. Major communities exist today in Baltimore, and black community development in the midst of the
Pittsburgh, and Los Angeles. integrationist strategies and nonviolent demonstra-
The Nation of Islam began in Detroit, Michigan, in tions of the civil rights movement. However, as the
1930 as the Allah Temple of Islam – a small black political tactics and strategies of the civil rights and
nationalist Islamic movement founded by W. D. Fard, the black power movements became more sophisti-
an immigrant Muslim missionary, who preached a cated Elijah Muhammad’s economic agenda for his
philosophy of political self-determination and racial community resulted in a conservative vision regard-
separatism to the newly arrived black southerners ing political activism; this was one of the primary
of the Great Migration. Fard believed that Western factors that led to Malcolm X’s departure from the
civilization would soon end in a race war, and he Nation of Islam.
established an institutional framework – the Fruit of In the wake of President Kennedy’s assassina-
Islam, The Muslim Girls Training Corps, and the tion in 1963, a public controversy between Elijah
University of Islam to separate black Muslims from Muhammad and Malcolm X evolved into a perma-
white Christian America. Although his ethnic and nent separation. Establishing a new spiritual and
Islamic identity remains undocumented, Fard might political identity, Malcolm abandoned the heterodox,
have been a Druze, a sectarian branch of the Ismaili racial-separatist philosophy of the Nation of Islam
Shii Muslims, who have a long documented tradition and converted to multiracial Sunni Islam during the
of human divinity and esoteric interpretations of the last year of his life.
Qur’an. In March, 1964, he founded the Sunni Muslim
A victim of police brutality, he disappeared mys- Mosque, Inc. in Harlem as the base for a spiritual
teriously in 1934, after he assigned leadership of program to eliminate economic and social oppression
his community to Elijah Muhammad (1897–1975), against black Americans. Then, Malcolm made the
who led the Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975 hajj, the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia,
from its Chicago headquarters and was an impor- in April 1964. There, he changed his name from
tant figure in the development of black nationalism Malcolm X to El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, which
and Islam among black Americans in the 20th cen- signified the adoption of a new identity that was
tury. The members of the Nation of Islam believed linked to mainstream Islam. Malcolm’s Sunni Islamic
that their descendants were the Asiatics, who were identity became a significant model for many black
the original Muslims and the first inhabitants of the Americans who have converted to mainstream Islam
earth, and they claimed a divine identity for their since the 1960s.
founder, W. D. Fard, and prophetic status for Elijah After Mecca, Malcolm traveled extensively
Muhammad. through North and West Africa establishing impor-
During World War II, the Nation of Islam’s mem- tant religious and political linkages with Third World
bership decreased dramatically as Elijah Muhammad nations. These profound international experiences
and his son, Herbert, became involved politically with deepened his Pan-African political perspective. When
Satokata Takahashi, a Japanese national organizer Malcolm returned to the United States, he founded
among black Americans, and they were prisoners the Organization of Afro-American Unity in New
in the federal penitentiary in Milan, Michigan, from York City on June 29, 1964, to promote his political
1943 to 1946. In the 1950s and 1960s, as black perspective, which linked the black American strug-
Americans and Africans cracked the political power gle for social justice to global human rights issues
of white supremacy in the United States and abroad, in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.

58 Black Islam

During the final weeks of Malcolm’s life in 1965, death in 1975. During the first years of his leadership,
he began to talk about the black American freedom he mandated sweeping changes, which he called
struggle as an aspect of ‘‘a worldwide revolution’’ the ‘‘Second Resurrection’’ of black Americans, in or-
against racism, corporate racism, classism, and sex- der to align his community with mainstream Islam.
ism. Because of his potential (if he had lived) to unite He refuted the Nation of Islam’s racial-separatist
many black Muslims and black Christians in America teachings and praised his father for achieving the
and abroad in a global liberation struggle that could ‘‘First Resurrection’’ of black Americans by introdu-
have involved the United Nations, there is no ques- cing them to Islam. But now the community’s mission
tion that the American intelligence community had was directed not only at black Americans, but also at
the incentive to be involved in Malcolm X’s murder. the entire American environment. The new leader
Since 1978, Louis Farrakhan has led the revived renamed the Nation of Islam the ‘‘World Community
Nation of Islam and published the Final Call news- of Al-Islam in the West’’ in 1976; the American
paper. Farrakhan speaks fluent Arabic and travels Muslim Mission in 1980; and the ‘‘American Society
frequently to the Middle East and West Africa to of Muslims’’ in the 1990s. Ministers of Islam were
promote the issues of black American Muslims. His renamed ‘imams’, and temples were renamed ‘mos-
greatest achievement as leader of the Nation of Islam ques’ and ‘masjids’. The community’s lucrative finan-
was the Million Man March in 1995, which brought cial holdings were liquidated, and mainstream rituals
the healing spirit of Islam to more than one million and customs were adopted. Although Warith Deen
black men who gathered in Washington, D.C. This Mohammed’s positive relationships with immigrant
was the largest political gathering of black Americans Muslims, the world of Islam, and the American gov-
in American history. On Saviours’ Day in Chicago ernment are important developments in the history of
in February 2000, Farrakhan announced changes in mainstream Islam in the United States, his group has
the Nation of Islam’s theology and ritual practices diminished in members since the 1980s, and he
that will bring his community closer to the center of resigned as the leader of the American Society of
mainstream Islam in North America. Muslims in 2003. In the wake of Mohammed’s depar-
Major factions of the Nation of Islam are led ture, Mustafa El-Amin, a black American imam in
by John Muhammad in Highland Park, Michigan; Newark, New Jersey, has attempted to revive this
Silis Muhammad in Atlanta, Georgia; and Emmanuel black mainstream Islamic community.
Muhammad in Baltimore, Maryland. The Five Darul Islam, founded in Brooklyn, New York, in
Percenters, also called the Nation of Gods and Earths, 1962 and having branches in many major American
are popular among rap musicians and the hip-hop cities, is probably the largest and most influential
community; they were founded by Clarence 13X in community of black American Sunni Muslims. Pres-
New York City in 1964. tige and leadership are based on knowledge of the
Qur’an, the hadith, and the Arabic language. Darul
Mainstream Islam in Contemporary Islam is a private decentralized community, which
did not allow immigrants in its midst until the
Black America
mid–1970s. The Hanafi Madh-hab Center, founded
Large numbers of black Americans have turned to by Hammas Abdul Khalis in the 1960s, is a black
mainstream Islamic practices and communities since American Sunni group that made headlines in the
Malcolm X’s conversion to Sunni Islam in 1964. Like 1970s because of its conversion of the basketball
Malcolm X, black American Sunni Muslims see star Kareem Abdul Jabbar and the assassination
themselves as part of the mainstream Muslim com- of Khalis’s family in their Washington, D.C., head-
munity in the world of Islam and study Arabic, fast quarters. Siraj Wahhaj leads an important black
during the month of Ramadan, pray five times a day, Sunni community in Bedford Stuyvesant in Brooklyn,
make the hajj to Mecca, practice charity and social New York.
justice, and believe in one God and Muhammad as his Although black American Muslims populate multi-
last prophet. The dramatic growth of mainstream ethnic Sunni masjids and organizations across the
Islam in black America is also related to the arrival United States, reportedly there are subtle racial and
of more than three million Muslims in the United ethnic tensions between black American and immi-
States after the American immigration laws were grant Muslims. Immigrant Muslims talk about ‘a
reformed in 1965. color- and race-blind Islam’ and the American
Elijah Muhammad’s son, Warith Deen Mohammed, dream, whereas black American Muslims continue
has played an important role within mainstream to place Islam at the forefront of the struggles for
Islam in the United States. He became the Supreme social justice, as the United States has entered a new
Minister of the Nation of Islam after his father’s century of frightening racial profiling and violence

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics 59

in a post–September 11 world. Certainly, black See also: Islam in Africa; Islam in East Asia; Islam in
American and immigrant Muslims have a lot to Southeast Asia; Islam in the Near East; New Religious
learn from each other and need to present a united Movements; Religion: Overview.
front on social justice issues, as mainstream Islam’s
appeal and ascendancy in the United States in this
century may depend on American Muslims’ ability
Bibliography
to claim a moral and political high ground on social
justice and racial issues that have historically divided Austin A D (1997). African Muslims in antebellum America:
the American Christian population. In the wake of transatlantic stories and spiritual journeys. New York:
post–September 11 legislation, such as U.S. Patriot Routledge.
Act that has enabled the detention of Muslim immi- Clegg C A III (1997). An original man: the life and times of
grants and Muslim Americans, black American Mus- Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin’s.
Dannin R (2002). Black pilgrimage to Islam. New York:
lims are probably in the strongest position to refute
Oxford University Press.
arguments that claim there is a clash of civilizations Diouf S A (1998). Servants of Allah: African Muslims
between Islam and the West because of the ethnic enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York Univer-
group’s history of contributions to the American sity Press.
experience. Essieu-Udom E U (1962). Black nationalism: a search for
Although there are no conclusive statistics, some identity in America. Chicago: University of Chicago
observers estimate that there are six to seven Press.
million Muslims in the United States and that black Haddad Y Y (ed.) (1991). The Muslims of America. New
American Muslims comprise 42% of the total popu- York: Oxford University Press.
lation. Finally, the future of American Muslim com- Haley A (1965). The autobiography of Malcolm X. New
munities in the 21st century may be determined York: Ballantine Books.
Lincoln C E (1994). The black Muslims in America (3rd
significantly by the conversion experiences and so-
edn.). Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
cial-political perspectives of young black Americans. McCloud A B (1995). African-American Islam. New York:
According to A report from the Mosque Study Routledge.
Project 2000, published by the Council on American– Nimer M (2002). The North American Muslim resource
Islamic Relations, black Americans constitute the guide: life in the United States and Canada. New York:
largest percentile of the yearly converts to main- Routledge.
stream Islam, and many of these converts are young Turner R B (2003). Islam in the African-American experi-
black men and women who reside in urban locations. ence (2nd edn.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics
R Wodak, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, and denying can be related to psychological and psychiat-
Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK ric syndromes, wherein certain patterns are viewed as
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. compulsive and out of control, and to political debates
and persuasive discourses, in which blaming and de-
nying, by serving to promote one group and to debase
or attack the opposition, are carefully and strategi-
Definition of Terms cally planned and serve positive self-presentation and
Blaming and denying, frequent and constitutive fea- negative other-presentation. Thus, the linguistic anal-
tures of conflict talk, are expressed in many different ysis of those verbal practices that construct a dynamic
direct or indirect linguistic modes, depending on the of ‘justification discourses’ requires methodologies
specific broad and narrow contexts of the conversa- that are adequate for the specific genre and context
tions, on the functions of the utterances, and on the (speech act theory, conversation analysis, discourse
formality of the interactions. Moreover, the usages analysis, text linguistics, argumentation analysis,
and functions of blaming and denying are dealt with rhetoric, and so forth) (for overviews of some impor-
in many disciplines (psychoanalysis, sociopsychology, tant features of conflict talk in specific domains from
political sciences, sociology, anthropology, psychia- varying perspectives, see Austin, 1956/1957; Gruber,
try, linguistics, argumentation studies, history, and 1996; Kopperschmidt, 2000) (see also Discourse Mar-
so forth). For example, the specifics of blaming and kers; Psychoanalysis and Language).

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics 59

in a post–September 11 world. Certainly, black See also: Islam in Africa; Islam in East Asia; Islam in
American and immigrant Muslims have a lot to Southeast Asia; Islam in the Near East; New Religious
learn from each other and need to present a united Movements; Religion: Overview.
front on social justice issues, as mainstream Islam’s
appeal and ascendancy in the United States in this
century may depend on American Muslims’ ability
Bibliography
to claim a moral and political high ground on social
justice and racial issues that have historically divided Austin A D (1997). African Muslims in antebellum America:
the American Christian population. In the wake of transatlantic stories and spiritual journeys. New York:
post–September 11 legislation, such as U.S. Patriot Routledge.
Act that has enabled the detention of Muslim immi- Clegg C A III (1997). An original man: the life and times of
grants and Muslim Americans, black American Mus- Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin’s.
Dannin R (2002). Black pilgrimage to Islam. New York:
lims are probably in the strongest position to refute
Oxford University Press.
arguments that claim there is a clash of civilizations Diouf S A (1998). Servants of Allah: African Muslims
between Islam and the West because of the ethnic enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York Univer-
group’s history of contributions to the American sity Press.
experience. Essieu-Udom E U (1962). Black nationalism: a search for
Although there are no conclusive statistics, some identity in America. Chicago: University of Chicago
observers estimate that there are six to seven Press.
million Muslims in the United States and that black Haddad Y Y (ed.) (1991). The Muslims of America. New
American Muslims comprise 42% of the total popu- York: Oxford University Press.
lation. Finally, the future of American Muslim com- Haley A (1965). The autobiography of Malcolm X. New
munities in the 21st century may be determined York: Ballantine Books.
Lincoln C E (1994). The black Muslims in America (3rd
significantly by the conversion experiences and so-
edn.). Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
cial-political perspectives of young black Americans. McCloud A B (1995). African-American Islam. New York:
According to A report from the Mosque Study Routledge.
Project 2000, published by the Council on American– Nimer M (2002). The North American Muslim resource
Islamic Relations, black Americans constitute the guide: life in the United States and Canada. New York:
largest percentile of the yearly converts to main- Routledge.
stream Islam, and many of these converts are young Turner R B (2003). Islam in the African-American experi-
black men and women who reside in urban locations. ence (2nd edn.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics
R Wodak, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, and denying can be related to psychological and psychiat-
Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK ric syndromes, wherein certain patterns are viewed as
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. compulsive and out of control, and to political debates
and persuasive discourses, in which blaming and de-
nying, by serving to promote one group and to debase
or attack the opposition, are carefully and strategi-
Definition of Terms cally planned and serve positive self-presentation and
Blaming and denying, frequent and constitutive fea- negative other-presentation. Thus, the linguistic anal-
tures of conflict talk, are expressed in many different ysis of those verbal practices that construct a dynamic
direct or indirect linguistic modes, depending on the of ‘justification discourses’ requires methodologies
specific broad and narrow contexts of the conversa- that are adequate for the specific genre and context
tions, on the functions of the utterances, and on the (speech act theory, conversation analysis, discourse
formality of the interactions. Moreover, the usages analysis, text linguistics, argumentation analysis,
and functions of blaming and denying are dealt with rhetoric, and so forth) (for overviews of some impor-
in many disciplines (psychoanalysis, sociopsychology, tant features of conflict talk in specific domains from
political sciences, sociology, anthropology, psychia- varying perspectives, see Austin, 1956/1957; Gruber,
try, linguistics, argumentation studies, history, and 1996; Kopperschmidt, 2000) (see also Discourse Mar-
so forth). For example, the specifics of blaming and kers; Psychoanalysis and Language).

60 Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics

The Use of Blaming and Denying: The Linguistic/Pragmatic Analysis of
Domains and Genres Blaming and Denying
Blaming and denying occur both in private, intimate Depending on the genre, different linguistic and/or
conversations and in the domains of politics, the law, pragmatic approaches are used in analysis. Most ob-
and the media. Linguistic manifestations depend on viously, speech act theory allows for the categoriza-
the choice of genre and on the formality/informality tion of direct and indirect forms of blaming and
of the settings. For example, studies on racist or anti- denying in conversations or debates (s e e Speech
Semitic discourses show that the more informal the Acts). In conversation analytic terms, blaming con-
setting (anonymous conversations, conversations sists of two parts: on the one hand, a specific action is
with friends, or e-mail postings), the more likely the presented; on the other hand, there is the negative
use of abusive language, derogatory terms, and dis- evaluation of this action, often an accusation. Gruber
criminatory language. If the setting is more formal (1996) listed several important forms of these so-
(for example, a televised debate or political speech), called ‘adjacency pairs’ (s e e Conversation Analysis).
the wording of ‘blaming’ is mitigated, more indirect, Accusations can either relate to situational factors or
and often introduced by disclaimers (S ome of my be s t to factors that are outside of the specific setting.
frie nds are J e wis h/Turks , but ; I love all pe ople , Either way, perceived violations of rules and norms
but ; and so forth), after which, the ‘other’ is may trigger the speech act of blaming. Moreover, accu-
attacked, often by a projection of guilt or by a turning sations can be formulated either directly or indirectly,
of the tables (van Dijk, 1993; Wodak, 2004) (s e e depending on the knowledge that the participants in
Mitigation). the debate or conflict are supposed to possess.
Justification discourses have been analyzed in studies Reacting to aggressive behavior, a defendant can
dealing with court trials (Scott and Lyman, 1976; either apologize and try to legitimize her/his actions
Alexy, 1996), relationships between parents and chil- through accounts, anecdotes, various kinds of evi-
dren (Wodak and Schulz, 1986), intimate relationships dence, and so forth (Scott and Lyman, 1968/1976),
(Jacobson and Kettelhack, 1995; Dejudicibus and or the accusation can be rejected. Conversation ana-
McCabe, 2001), media debates (Lamb and Keon, lysts propose that rejection is the preferred mode of
1995; Dickerson, 1998), and the speeches, print reaction (Pomerantz, 1978). Silence can also occur;
media, slogans, and debates of election campaigns this is usually interpreted as the accused acknowled-
(Chilton, 2004); they have also been focused on in the ging the legitimacy of the accusation. Sometimes, a
police environment and other bureaucratic settings counteraccusation may follow, or the accusation may
(Ehlich and Rehbein, 1986) and during proceedings in be partially or completely denied. These patterns of
which official bodies have attempted to come to terms speech acting can create a conversational dynamic
with traumatic past events (Ensink and Sauer, 2003; that it is very difficult to overcome.
Martin and Wodak, 2003). One of the most significant Argumentation analysis focuses on typical modes
manifestations of denial is ‘Holocaust denial,’ in which of arguments that are used in conflict talk. Certain
speakers and writers suggest evidence or arguments for topoi characterize blaming as well as denying; both
their claim that the Holocaust never happened, being – the topoi and the fallacies are difficult to deconstruct,
in their opinion – invented by a (supposedly Jewish) such that a rational debate becomes almost impossi-
conspiracy (Lipstadt, 1993). There is no doubt that ble. Many argumentative moves can be made while
such a denial serves many functions, probably pri- blaming an opponent, ranging from attacking the
marily to reject (individual and/or collective) guilt by opponent personally (argume ntum ad homine m) or
counterattacking an imaginary opponent. threatening the opponent and his/her freedom of ex-
Justification discourses are not restricted to oral, pression (argume ntum ad baculum), to undermining
spontaneous texts; the same types of blaming and the credibility of the opponent by showing that he/she
denying are also manifest in many written genres, does not adhere to the point of view that he/she
reflecting the intentions and aims of the authors of publicly defends (tu quoque, a variant of the ad homi-
newspaper articles, letters, party programs, election ne m argument) (for typical fallacies in conflict talk,
materials, or legal documents. The visual genres, es- see van Eemeren and Grootendorst, 1992; Reisigl and
pecially caricature, lend themselves to justification Wodak, 2001) (s e e als oArgument Structure).
discourses through the presentation of, and debate What holds for argumentation is also true of
about, visual evidence (e.g., photos representing war denials. Denials can occur as disclaimers (I am not a
crimes; see later). racis t, s e xis t, e tc., but ) or as direct rejections of

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics 61

certain accusations; they can be formulated as coun- often criticized, both in the press and in other fora
terattacks (identification with the aggressor), or as of discussion): viz., that during World War II, the
‘straw man’ fallacies (when a fictitious standpoint is Wehrmacht was extensively involved, as an institu-
attributed to the opponent, or the opponent’s actual tion, in planning and implementing an unprecedented
standpoint is being distorted). Some of these fallacies war of annihilation. However, the second exhibition
have already been described in classical rhetoric (as in had shifted to a focus on texts, whereas the first exhi-
Aristotle’s De sophisticis elenchis), wherein fallacies bition had presented mainly photographs. The
are defined as incorrect moves adopted in dispute to exhibitions demonstrated the at times passive, at
refute a thesis (see van Eemeren and Grootendorst, times active, role of the Wehrmacht in German war
2004) (see also Rhetoric, Classical). crimes. From November, 2001, through March,
Discourse analysis focuses on the strategies em- 2004, this second exhibition was displayed in 11
ployed in blaming and denying. These strategies are German cities, as well as in Vienna and in Luxemburg,
realized linguistically in various, predictable ways, attracting more than 420000 visitors (the Hamburg
depending on the context. Moreover, mitigation Institute’s first exhibition on the same subject had
and intensification markers are of obvious interest, attracted about 800000 visitors). Both exhibitions
because they serve to open or close options for debate triggered a discussion throughout the Federal Repub-
and argument. Discursive strategies such as scape- lic of Germany and Austria about the crimes com-
goating, blaming the victim, blaming the messenger, mitted during the war waged by the National
victim–perpetrator reversal, the straw man fallacy, Socialist regime and about how postwar German so-
turning the tables, and so forth have been studied ciety dealt with this part of its past. Never before had
extensively; they all belong to the category of ‘dis- the West German and Austrian publics discussed their
courses of justification’ (Wodak et al., 1990; Van past with such intensity and for such a long period.
Leeuwen and Wodak, 1999). ‘Strategy’ is defined as In the debates surrounding the two exhibitions
a more or less detailed and directed plan of practices (1995 and 2001) on war crimes committed by the
(including discursive practices), adopted to achieve a German Wehrmacht in World War II, typical discur-
particular social, political, psychological, or linguistic sive strategies of blaming and denying become appar-
aim. As far as discursive strategies, i.e., systematic ent. Interviews with visitors to the exhibition
ways of using language, are concerned, they are lo- emphasized, on the one hand, the fact of ‘‘not having
cated at different levels of linguistic organization seen, known, or heard anything’’ about the deporta-
and complexity. Strategies, realized as macroconver- tion and extermination of prisoners of war as well of
sational patterns or moves, are often used to structure racial and ethnic groups such as Jews, Roma, and
public debates, such as on AIDS, poverty, econo- other civilians. On the other hand, the blame was
mic problems, the welfare state, racism, xenophobia, projected onto ‘a few soldiers,’ who were labeled as
and anti-Semitism; as well as on sexism and the rep- ‘exceptions’; in this way, any explicit involvement of
resentation of rape (Carlson, 1996; Maynard, 1998; the Wehrmacht as an institution was denied (Heer
Anderson et al., 2001). et al., 2003). The same patterns are found in the
reports on hearings of the South African Truth and
Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and in the debates
An Example: The War-Crimes Debate
about the pictures of tortured Iraqi prisoners that first
Between 1995 and 2004, the Hamburg Institute for appeared in 2004, during the Iraq war.
Social Research created and presented to the public Figure 1 summarizes the most important strategies
two itinerant exhibitions, under the common denomi- of denial (i.e., discursive reactions to blaming). The
nation Crimes of the German Wehrmacht (see Heer main distinction shown in the diagram is between
et al. (2003); for an extensive analysis of the debates people orienting themselves toward the context,
surrounding the exhibitions, as well as an analysis of i.e., acknowledging the fact that they are watching
the historical narratives in Germany and Austria an exhibition about the German army’s war crimes,
around the discursively constructed images of the and taking a stance toward that fact (the left side of the
German Wehrmacht, see also Wodak (2005)). The diagram), and people who do not orient themselves
first exhibition was shown from March, 1995, toward the context (the right side of the diagram).
through the end of 1999, at a total of 33 venues in The first three strategies negate the very context, at
the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria. The least at the explicit level:
second exhibition was shown to the public for the
first time in Berlin in November, 2001; the new exhi- 1. People do not position themselves with respect to
bition upheld the main statement of the former their belief in the existence of war crimes. This
exhibition (which had been hotly debated and may be done by (a) refusing to deal with the issue

62 Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics

Figure 1 Array of discursive strategies (see Benke and Wodak, 2003: 124). Abbreviations: NS, Nazi state; SS, Schutzstaffel (Hitler’s
‘protection guard’ unit; SD, Sicherheitsdienst (security police). From Benke G & Wodak R (2003). ‘The discursive construction of individual
memories: how Austrian ‘‘German Wehrmacht’’ soldiers remember WW II.’ In Wodak R & Martin J R (eds.) Re/reading the past.
Amsterdam: Benjamins. 115–138. With kind permission by John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia.

at all, (b) claiming ignorance, combined with a re- any relation to war crimes); the interviewees de-
fusal to take a stance (people using this strategy clare themselves to have acted responsibly, in such
claim that they do not/did not know anything a way that they are morally without blame.
about what happened), or (c) claiming victimhood
The following strategies acknowledge the fact of
(people adopting this strategy may offer elabo-
the exhibition at some level, either by acceptance or
rate stories about all sorts of terrible things that
refutation:
happened to them during and after the war; in
this way, they are able to avoid having to 1. In a strategy of acceptance, some people try to
deal with the issue of war crimes committed by understand what happened.
the Wehrmacht). 2. For the most part, however, people try not to deal
2. People lift the discussion up to a more general with the past; instead, they use several strategies to
level. Using the strategy of scientific rationaliza- justify, and/or deny, the existence of the war
tion, some people launch into extensive analyses crimes, either by (a) relativizing the facts (people
of the Nazi state, aiming to explain how National using this strategy will start to enumerate crimes
Socialism came to be successful, why people were of other nations, or use clichés, such as ‘‘every war
in favor of the Nazis, and so on. (This strategy was is horrible’’) or by (b) adopting two further strate-
found among all of the visitors to the exhibitions, gies seeking to provide a (pseudo-) rational causal
both in Germany and in Austria.) explanation for the war crimes. The first is char-
3. People engage in ‘positive-self’ presentation: the acterized by the interviewees’ continuing the un-
interviewee tells stories that portray him/her as mitigated and undisguised use of Nazi ideology
having performed good and praiseworthy deeds. and Nazi propaganda of the kind that was
War crimes are acknowledged, yet the actor claims promoted during that time to justify the war: ‘‘If
to have had no part in them (or fails to mention we hadn’t fought them, the Russians would be at

Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics 63

the Atlantic Ocean today.’’ The second of these Benke G & Wodak R (2003). ‘The discursive construction
strategies similarly stems from the Nazi period, of individual memories: how Austrian ‘‘German
but at least it acknowledges, however implicitly, Wehrmacht’’ soldiers remember WW II.’ In Wodak R &
that the war’s moral status is questionable: Martin J R (eds.) Re/reading the past. Amsterdam:
Benjamins. 115–138.
‘‘Others forced us.’’
Billig M, Condor S, Edwards D, Gane M, Middleton D &
3. Another strategy acknowledges that crimes indeed
Radley A (1988). Ideological dilemmas. A social psychol-
did happen, and that the army should perhaps be ogy of everyday thinking. London: Sage.
held responsible, yet it attributes the responsibility Carlson R G (1996). ‘The political-economy of AIDS among
to someone higher up, possibly within the army: drug-users in the United-States: beyond blaming the victim
‘‘I only did my duty.’’ or powerful others.’ American Anthropologist 98(2), 266.
4. Yet another strategy is the ‘‘Not ‘we,’ but ‘them’ ’’ Chilton P A (2004). Analyzing political discourse. London:
strategy, which attributes the crimes to units of the Routledge.
army other than the one in which the interviewee Dejudicibus M & McCabe M P (2001). ‘Blaming the tar-
served. A variant is: ‘‘Not ‘this,’ but ‘that’’’ (e.g., get of sexual harrassment: impact of gender-role, sexist
‘‘We didn’t bomb Copenhagen, only Rotterdam’’). attitudes, and work role.’ Sex Roles 44(7–8), 401–417.
Dickerson P (1998). ‘‘‘I did it for the nation’’: repertoires of
5. Finally, there is a strategy that simply denies the
intent in televised political discourse.’ British Journal of
fact that war crimes happened at all. In this strate- Social Psychology 37/4, 477–494.
gy, people often turn the focus of their memory on Ehlich K & Rehbein J (1986). ‘Begründen.’ In Ehlich K &
their particular Wehrmacht unit, in which horrors Rehbein J (eds.) Muster und Institution. Untersuchungen zur
of the kind shown in the exhibitions simply were schulischen Kommunikation. Tübingen: Narr. 88–132.
said to be unthinkable. Ensink T & Sauer C (eds.) (2003). The art of commemora-
tion. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
These discursive strategies are all strategies of
Gruber H (1996). Streitgespräche. Zur Pragmatik einer
responding to an interview situation following the in- Diskursform. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
terviewees’ presence at an exhibition where thou- Heer H, Manoschek W, Pollak A & Wodak R (eds.) (2003).
sands of photos of war crimes are shown. Though Wie Geschichte gemacht wird. Erinnerungen an Wehr-
people employ a number of strategies throughout an macht und Zweiten Weltkrieg. Vienna: Czernin.
interview, their answers can usually be grouped into Jacobson B & Kettelhack G (1995). If only you would
subsets, each of which serves primarily one of the listen. How to stop blaming his or her gender and start
strategic functions mentioned herein. Some of the communicating with the one you love. New York: St.
strategies are mutually exclusive, i.e., people who Martin’s Press.
completely deny the existence of war crimes would Kopperschmidt J (2000). Argumentationstheorie zur
Einführung. Hamburg: Junius.
not try to relativize them. This appears to be a logical
Lamb S & Keon S (1995). ‘Blaming the perpetrator: lan-
necessity, but as Billig et al. (1988) pointed out, logic
guage that distorts reality in newspaper articles on men
or logical consistency is not necessarily prevalent in battering women.’ Psychology of Women Quarterly
official texts; neither is it in everyday conversation, 19(2), 209–220.
and even less so in emotionally charged debates or Lipstadt D E (1993). Denying the Holocaust. The growing
conflicts. assault on truth and memory. New York: Plume.
Martin J & Wodak R (eds.) (2003). Re/reading the past.
See also: Argument Structure; Conversation Analysis; Dis-
Amsterdam: Benjamins.
course Markers; Mitigation; Psychoanalysis and Lan- Maynard D W (1998). ‘Praising versus blaming the messen-
guage; Rhetoric, Classical; Speech Acts. ger: moral issues in deliveries of good and bad news.’
Research on Language and Social Interaction 31(3–4),
359–395.
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Alexy R (1996). Theorie der juristischen Argumentation. Reisigl M & Wodak R (2001). Discourse and discri-
Die Theorie des rationalen Diskurses als Theorie der mination. Rhetoric of racism and antisemitism. London:
juristischen Begründung. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Routledge.
Anderson I, Beattie G & Spencer C (2001). ‘Can blaming Scott M B & Lyman S (1968). ‘Accounts.’ American Socio-
victims of rape be logical? Attribution theory and dis- logical Review 33.
course – analytic perspectives.’ Human Relations 54/4, Van Dijk T A (1993). ‘Denying racism: elite discourse and
445–467. racism.’ In Solomos J & Wrench J (eds.) Racism and
Aristotle (1928). Sophistical refutations. Ross W D (ed.). migration in Western Europe. Oxford: Berg. 179–193.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, [350 B.C.]. Van Eemeren F H & Grootendorst R (1992). Argumenta-
Austin J L (1956/1957). ‘A plea for excuses.’ In Proceedings tion, communication, and fallacies. A pragma-dialectical
of the Aristotelian Society. perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

64 Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics

Van Eemeren F H & Grootendorst R (2004). A systematic language of displacement. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
theory of argumentation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- 179–210.
sity Press. Wodak R & Schulz M (1986). The language of love and
Van Leeuwen T & Wodak R (1999). ‘Legitimizing immi- guilt. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
gration control.’ Discourse Studies 1/1, 83–118. Wodak R, Nowak P, Pelikan J, Gruber H, de Cillia R &
Wodak R (2004). ‘Discourse of silence: anti-semitic Mitten R (1990). ‘Wir sind alle unschuldige Täter’. Dis-
discourse in post-war Austria.’ In Thiesmeyer L (ed.) kurshistorische Studien zum Nachkriegsantisemitismus.
Discourse and silencing. Representation and the Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), and Family
E Hültenschmidt, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, because of fever. In the salon of the Prussian ambassa-
Germany dor in London, C. C. J. von Bunsen, who was an aris-
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. tocratic historian, a friend of Bleek’s family, a promoter
of Sanskrit and Oriental Studies, and a correspondent
of Alexander von Humboldt, Bleek got to know Sir
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek was born March 8, George Grey, governor of the Cape province (a British
1827, in Berlin, in what was then Prussia; he died in colony at this time) and J. W. Colenso, bishop of Natal.
Cape Town, in the Cape Colony in South Africa, Colenso engaged Bleek formally to accompany him to
on August 17, 1875. He was the son of the famous compile a Zulu grammar, and Bleek arrived in 1855 in
theologian and specialist in New Testament exegesis Natal. He had great plans for doing extended field
Friedrich Bleek, professor of theology at the University work and thus becoming a sort of Livingstone of lin-
of Bonn. His mother was Augusta Charlotte Marianne guistics, but the only concrete result was a stay at
Henriette, née Sethe, originating from a prominent the court of the famous Zulu king Mpanda. All other
family of Prussian civil servants. In 1862 in Cape plans had to be abandoned due to financial and health
Town, Wilhelm H. I. Bleek married Jemima C. Lloyd, problems.
daughter of an archdeacon. They had four children. The only institutions in the world where scientific
Bleek is recognized as the founder of German research was professionalized and thus constantly
African Studies. He attended the Gymnasium in remunerated at this time were the Prussian universi-
Bonn and then studied classics and theology at the ties; but Bleek was never a member of the staff of a
University of Bonn from 1845 to 1848 and from 1849 Prussian university. What helped him to survive and
to 1851. He chose as his main subject Old Testament to carry on his work, on a more limited scale, was
studies. Like all researchers in the Textwissenschaft of the patronage of Sir George. In 1856, Bleek became
the Old Testament, he compared several Semitic lan- the curator and bibliographer of Sir George’s enor-
guages to clarify some linguistic points; in this way, he mous collection of documents concerning the lan-
extended his interest to North African (Hamitic) lan- guages and the ethnology of southern Africa, and
guages. As a consequence, he studied in Berlin in 1848 he constantly extended this collection, which was
and 1849 with the famous specialist in Egyptological intended to become the most complete collection of
research, Richard Carl Lepsius. Here Bleek had to material on aboriginal languages from all over the
transcribe manuscripts of southern African languages, world. So Bleek spent the rest of his life in Cape
sent mostly by missionaries, into Lepsius’s phonetic Town; but here, at least, he had the opportunity in
alphabet. In 1851, Bleek submitted his doctoral thesis 1858 to meet Livingstone on his way to Mozambique.
at the University of Bonn. From this time on, he pro- In 1859, when Sir George was appointed governor of
pagated the hypothesis that the ‘Hottentot’ (Khoekhoe) New Zealand, he donated his collection to the South
language was typologically and genetically linked to the African Public Library at Cape Town, with Bleek as
North African (Hamitic) languages: like the Hamitic its curator (1862). In 1870, through the influence of
languages, it was a gender language, differing from Sir George, Bleek’s name was placed on Gladstone’s
the Bantu languages without nominal gender. Later, it Civil List, ensuring him a royal pension like other
was Bleek who created the classificatory term ‘Bantu- persons such as Charles Darwin or Charles Lyell.
languages.’ Only then, for the first time in his life, did he enjoy
From 1855 on, Bleek worked as an explorer- linguist financial independence. As a bibliographer, Bleek’s
in southern Africa, though he had to break off his main work was The library of H. E. Sir George
first attempt to explore Africa from the Guinea coast Grey, K. C. B. (1857–1867), but his main scientific

64 Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics

Van Eemeren F H & Grootendorst R (2004). A systematic language of displacement. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
theory of argumentation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- 179–210.
sity Press. Wodak R & Schulz M (1986). The language of love and
Van Leeuwen T & Wodak R (1999). ‘Legitimizing immi- guilt. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
gration control.’ Discourse Studies 1/1, 83–118. Wodak R, Nowak P, Pelikan J, Gruber H, de Cillia R &
Wodak R (2004). ‘Discourse of silence: anti-semitic Mitten R (1990). ‘Wir sind alle unschuldige Täter’. Dis-
discourse in post-war Austria.’ In Thiesmeyer L (ed.) kurshistorische Studien zum Nachkriegsantisemitismus.
Discourse and silencing. Representation and the Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), and Family
E Hültenschmidt, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, because of fever. In the salon of the Prussian ambassa-
Germany dor in London, C. C. J. von Bunsen, who was an aris-
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. tocratic historian, a friend of Bleek’s family, a promoter
of Sanskrit and Oriental Studies, and a correspondent
of Alexander von Humboldt, Bleek got to know Sir
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek was born March 8, George Grey, governor of the Cape province (a British
1827, in Berlin, in what was then Prussia; he died in colony at this time) and J. W. Colenso, bishop of Natal.
Cape Town, in the Cape Colony in South Africa, Colenso engaged Bleek formally to accompany him to
on August 17, 1875. He was the son of the famous compile a Zulu grammar, and Bleek arrived in 1855 in
theologian and specialist in New Testament exegesis Natal. He had great plans for doing extended field
Friedrich Bleek, professor of theology at the University work and thus becoming a sort of Livingstone of lin-
of Bonn. His mother was Augusta Charlotte Marianne guistics, but the only concrete result was a stay at
Henriette, née Sethe, originating from a prominent the court of the famous Zulu king Mpanda. All other
family of Prussian civil servants. In 1862 in Cape plans had to be abandoned due to financial and health
Town, Wilhelm H. I. Bleek married Jemima C. Lloyd, problems.
daughter of an archdeacon. They had four children. The only institutions in the world where scientific
Bleek is recognized as the founder of German research was professionalized and thus constantly
African Studies. He attended the Gymnasium in remunerated at this time were the Prussian universi-
Bonn and then studied classics and theology at the ties; but Bleek was never a member of the staff of a
University of Bonn from 1845 to 1848 and from 1849 Prussian university. What helped him to survive and
to 1851. He chose as his main subject Old Testament to carry on his work, on a more limited scale, was
studies. Like all researchers in the Textwissenschaft of the patronage of Sir George. In 1856, Bleek became
the Old Testament, he compared several Semitic lan- the curator and bibliographer of Sir George’s enor-
guages to clarify some linguistic points; in this way, he mous collection of documents concerning the lan-
extended his interest to North African (Hamitic) lan- guages and the ethnology of southern Africa, and
guages. As a consequence, he studied in Berlin in 1848 he constantly extended this collection, which was
and 1849 with the famous specialist in Egyptological intended to become the most complete collection of
research, Richard Carl Lepsius. Here Bleek had to material on aboriginal languages from all over the
transcribe manuscripts of southern African languages, world. So Bleek spent the rest of his life in Cape
sent mostly by missionaries, into Lepsius’s phonetic Town; but here, at least, he had the opportunity in
alphabet. In 1851, Bleek submitted his doctoral thesis 1858 to meet Livingstone on his way to Mozambique.
at the University of Bonn. From this time on, he pro- In 1859, when Sir George was appointed governor of
pagated the hypothesis that the ‘Hottentot’ (Khoekhoe) New Zealand, he donated his collection to the South
language was typologically and genetically linked to the African Public Library at Cape Town, with Bleek as
North African (Hamitic) languages: like the Hamitic its curator (1862). In 1870, through the influence of
languages, it was a gender language, differing from Sir George, Bleek’s name was placed on Gladstone’s
the Bantu languages without nominal gender. Later, it Civil List, ensuring him a royal pension like other
was Bleek who created the classificatory term ‘Bantu- persons such as Charles Darwin or Charles Lyell.
languages.’ Only then, for the first time in his life, did he enjoy
From 1855 on, Bleek worked as an explorer- linguist financial independence. As a bibliographer, Bleek’s
in southern Africa, though he had to break off his main work was The library of H. E. Sir George
first attempt to explore Africa from the Guinea coast Grey, K. C. B. (1857–1867), but his main scientific

Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), and Family 65

work was A comparative grammar of South African 1911 by his sister-in-law, Lucy C. Lloyd. Here, as in his
languages (1862–1869). other works, the languages of the ‘negroes’ are legiti-
In his Comparative grammar, Bleek wanted not mate subjects of scientific research, not inferior to the
only to prove, by the means of the ‘science of lan- classical languages: each ‘race’ has a place in the history
guage,’ the kinship between the Hottentot and the of the evolution of man and is equally interesting. The
north African languages, but also to make a definitive more primitive ‘races’ may even be more interesting.
contribution to a question already posed in Sanskrit The Bushman dictionary constitutes an enormous
and Oriental linguistics: what are the very first, the compendium of information about languages that
primitive forms of human language (after the full have become in the meantime extinct.
natural evolution of man and language), and can Bleek’s main hypothesis concerning the kinship of
they be found in the Hottentot and ‘Kafir’ (Zulu) the Hottentot and the North African languages sur-
languages. An adherent of evolutionism, he was con- vived up to the work of the Hamburg Africanist Carl
vinced that in southern Africa the most primitive state Meinhof; when he tried to prove this kinship defini-
of mankind was preserved. tively by means of comparative philology, Meinhof
This was the immediate goal of his research, but he found that it did not exist. Comparative philology, or
also pursued another, more distant goal: to understand the science of language, was and is a modern research
the causes of the specific cultural difference between science capable of revising its own hypotheses. Bleek’s
populations adhering to a primitive or natural religion belief in the existence of a causal relation between
and those adhering to a transcendental religion. For language and mind in the sense of the structures
this son of a Protestant theologian, culture, mind, and of religious systems is no longer accepted. Compara-
religion were the same ‘thing.’ In this he refers to Max tive research into civilizations understands the differ-
Müller, whom he probably met in Bunsen’s house in ence between primitive or natural and transcendent
London, but without agreeing with him on every point. religions in a different way.
Bleek seeks the cause of religious or mental differences Dorothea Frances Bleek, born March 26, 1873,
in linguistic differences concerning the ‘forms’ and ‘ele- in Mowbray, Cape Colony, died June 27, 1948, in
ments’ of language, which he compares by analogy to Plumstead, South Africa. The youngest daughter of
certain nonmathematical and nonlogical sciences: W. H. I. Bleek, she was an eminent researcher in
to organic chemistry (phonology as the science of the the Hottentot (Khoekhoe) and Bushman (Khoisan)
‘elements’ of language) and to comparative anatomy languages. In 1904, she was a student of African
(the ‘forms’ as the skeleton of language). So in his main languages in Berlin, Germany; after 1908, she concen-
work as elsewhere, Bleek works not only as a compar- trated on research in the Bushman languages and
ative linguist, but as a linguistic researcher who has his cultures. She was introduced to these studies by her
intellectual background in Spinoza’s philosophy, as father’s sister-in-law, Lucy C. Lloyd. Miss Lloyd
transmitted among certain Lutheran theologians and continued and edited the work of W. H. I. Bleek,
elsewhere in German intellectual culture. encountering many difficulties, since she was ‘only’ a
Bleek’s debt to Spinoza’s philosophy is manifest woman in Victorian times.
mainly in his explicitly speculative work The origin of Dorothea F. Bleek continued and edited the work of
language, submitted in 1853 for the Volney Prize both W. H. I. Bleek and Lucy C. Lloyd. From 1910 to
(which he did not win), prefaced for publication 1930 she did extensive fieldwork among Bushman
in 1867 by himself and by his uncle, Ernst Haeckel, a populations. The results are documented in a series
researcher on human evolution and a Darwinist. This of publications, the most important of which is the
work advanced the thesis that there is no opposition, no Bushman dictionary, begun by her father about 1870,
essential difference between sciences and humanities, continued by Lucy C. Lloyd, but mainly established
between natural sciences and the sciences of the mind by Dorothea F. Bleek and published by the American
(Geisteswissenschaften). Spinoza’s philosophy implies Oriental Society in 1956. She was also active in other
epistemological naturalism, a continuity between man domains, such as Bushman anthropology, for the
and nature. To this naturalistic conception of history Africa Museum in Cape Town, and the study of Bush-
were opposed the post-Kantian and Hegelian idealistic man rock paintings. While Dorothea Bleek’s father was
German historicism and ‘Geisteswissenschaft.’ the inventor of the term ‘Bantu-languages,’ the daugh-
Bleek’s last great scientific enterprise was his Bush- ter established the distinction of three main regional
man dictionary, begun in about 1870 and completed by groups of the Khoisan languages: southern, northern,
his daughter Dorothea Frances Bleek in the 1940s, and central Khoisan, with the Hottentot (Khoekhoe)
published in the American Oriental Society series in language being a part of the central Khoisan group. Her
1956. His many works on Bushman tales, studied be- father’s hypothesis of a typological-genetic link be-
cause they give access to the religion, were published in tween the Hottentot and the Hamitic languages is no

66 Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), and Family

longer accepted, but the main classificatory result of Bleek D F (1956). A Bushman dictionary. New Haven, CT:
the daughter’s work still holds. From 1923 to 1948, American Oriental Society.
Dorothea Bleek was Honorary Reader in the Bushman Bleek W H I (1851). De nominum linguarum Africae Aus-
Languages at the University of Cape Town. But she tralis, Copticae, Semiticarum aliarumque sexualium.
Bonn: A. Marcus.
refused the title of an Honorary Doctor, regarding
Bleek W H I (1858–1867). The library of H. E. Sir George
herself simply as her father’s humble disciple.
Grey, K. C. B. Philology (8 vols). London: Trübner.
Bleek W H I (1862 and 1869). A comparative grammar of
See also: Africa as a Linguistic Area; Bantu Languages; South African languages (2 vols). London: Trübner.
Lepsius, Carl Richard (1810–1884); Meinhof, Carl Frie- Bleek W H I (1868). Über den Ursprung der Sprache,
drich Michael (1857–1944); Müller, Friedrich Max (1823– als erstes Kapitel einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der
1900); South Africa: Language Situation. Menschheit. Weimar: Böhlau.
Engelbrecht J A (1956). ‘Introduction.’ In Bleek D F (ed.)
Bibliography A Bushman dictionary. New Haven, CT: American
Oriental Society.
Bleek D F (1927). ‘The distribution of Bushman languages Lloyd L C (ed.) (1911). Specimens of Bushman folklore.
in South Africa.’ In Festschrift Meinhof. Hamburg: London: Allen & Co.
Augustin. 55–64. Spohr O H (1962). Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek: a
Bleek D F (1929). Comparative vocabularies of Bushman bio-bibliographical sketch. Cape Town: University of
languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cape Town Libraries.
Bleek D F (1953). Cave artists of South Africa. Cape Town: Velten C (1903). ‘Bleek.’ In Allgemeine Deutsche Biogra-
Balkema. phie 47. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. 15–17.

Blend
O Bat-El, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel A blend is one word that delivers the concept of its
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. two base words and its meaning is thus contingent on
the semantic relation between the two base words. In
skinoe (ski þ canoe), the word canoe functions as the
semantic head, since skinoe is a type of canoe. In
Introduction snazzy, however, neither snappy nor jazzy functions
The word Oxbridge is composed of a string of seg- as a head and the meaning of the blend is thus a
ments corresponding to segments at the left edge hybrid of the meaning of the two (sometimes near-
of Oxford and the right edge of Cambridge. This is a synonymous) base words.
blend, and so are vodkatini (vodka þ martini), jazz- The most intriguing question with respect to blends
ercise (jazz þ exercise), and maridelic (marijuana þ is whether their phonological structure, i.e., their size,
psychedelic). Blends (also called portmanteau words) syllable structure, and segmental makeup, is predict-
exhibit some sort of structural fusion, in which a able on the basis of the base words (Bauer, 1983).
single word is formed from two words (and in a hand- For example, why do we get beefalo from beef and
ful of cases from three). The byproduct of this fusion is buffalo, rather than *beelo or *beebuffalo? And since
the truncation of segmental material from the inner the order of the base words affects the phonological
edges of the two words or only one of them (i.e., the shape of the blend, we may also ask why the order is
material not underlined in the examples above). Note not buffalo þ beef, which would result in *buffabeef
that blends refer only to cases where the inner edges or *bubeef?
are truncated. Forms in which the right edges of In most cases, two base words provide only one
the two (or more) words are truncated, such as possible blend (there is a handful of cases where both
sitcom (situation þ comedy), modem (modulator þ orders are available, e.g., tigon (tiger þ lion) versus
demodulator), and fortran (formula þ translation), liger (lion þ tiger), absotively (absolutely þ positively)
are called clipped compounds. Blends in which only versus posilutely (positively þ absolutely), and
the first word undergoes truncation could also be moorth (moon þ earth) versus earthoon (earth þ
considered a clipped compound (mocamp from moon)). Therefore, we may suspect that the forma-
motor þ camp), especially when each word contri- tion of blends is not accidental, but rather governed
butes only one syllable to the surface form, which is by some general principles. The principles reflect two
a characteristic of clipped compounds. competing tendencies: (i) to truncate segments from

66 Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), and Family

longer accepted, but the main classificatory result of Bleek D F (1956). A Bushman dictionary. New Haven, CT:
the daughter’s work still holds. From 1923 to 1948, American Oriental Society.
Dorothea Bleek was Honorary Reader in the Bushman Bleek W H I (1851). De nominum linguarum Africae Aus-
Languages at the University of Cape Town. But she tralis, Copticae, Semiticarum aliarumque sexualium.
Bonn: A. Marcus.
refused the title of an Honorary Doctor, regarding
Bleek W H I (1858–1867). The library of H. E. Sir George
herself simply as her father’s humble disciple.
Grey, K. C. B. Philology (8 vols). London: Trübner.
Bleek W H I (1862 and 1869). A comparative grammar of
See also: Africa as a Linguistic Area; Bantu Languages; South African languages (2 vols). London: Trübner.
Lepsius, Carl Richard (1810–1884); Meinhof, Carl Frie- Bleek W H I (1868). Über den Ursprung der Sprache,
drich Michael (1857–1944); Müller, Friedrich Max (1823– als erstes Kapitel einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der
1900); South Africa: Language Situation. Menschheit. Weimar: Böhlau.
Engelbrecht J A (1956). ‘Introduction.’ In Bleek D F (ed.)
Bibliography A Bushman dictionary. New Haven, CT: American
Oriental Society.
Bleek D F (1927). ‘The distribution of Bushman languages Lloyd L C (ed.) (1911). Specimens of Bushman folklore.
in South Africa.’ In Festschrift Meinhof. Hamburg: London: Allen & Co.
Augustin. 55–64. Spohr O H (1962). Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek: a
Bleek D F (1929). Comparative vocabularies of Bushman bio-bibliographical sketch. Cape Town: University of
languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cape Town Libraries.
Bleek D F (1953). Cave artists of South Africa. Cape Town: Velten C (1903). ‘Bleek.’ In Allgemeine Deutsche Biogra-
Balkema. phie 47. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. 15–17.

Blend
O Bat-El, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel A blend is one word that delivers the concept of its
! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. two base words and its meaning is thus contingent on
the semantic relation between the two base words. In
skinoe (ski þ canoe), the word canoe functions as the
semantic head, since skinoe is a type of canoe. In
Introduction snazzy, however, neither snappy nor jazzy functions
The word Oxbridge is composed of a string of seg- as a head and the meaning of the blend is thus a
ments corresponding to segments at the left edge hybrid of the meaning of the two (sometimes near-
of Oxford and the right edge of Cambridge. This is a synonymous) base words.
blend, and so are vodkatini (vodka þ martini), jazz- The most intriguing question with respect to blends
ercise (jazz þ exercise), and maridelic (marijuana þ is whether their phonological structure, i.e., their size,
psychedelic). Blends (also called portmanteau words) syllable structure, and segmental makeup, is predict-
exhibit some sort of structural fusion, in which a able on the basis of the base words (Bauer, 1983).
single word is formed from two words (and in a hand- For example, why do we get beefalo from beef and
ful of cases from three). The byproduct of this fusion is buffalo, rather than *beelo or *beebuffalo? And since
the truncation of segmental material from the inner the order of the base words affects the phonological
edges of the two words or only one of them (i.e., the shape of the blend, we may also ask why the order is
material not underlined in the examples above). Note not buffalo þ beef, which would result in *buffabeef
that blends refer only to cases where the inner edges or *bubeef?
are truncated. Forms in which the right edges of In most cases, two base words provide only one
the two (or more) words are truncated, such as possible blend (there is a handful of cases where both
sitcom (situation þ comedy), modem (modulator þ orders are available, e.g., tigon (tiger þ lion) versus
demodulator), and fortran (formula þ translation), liger (lion þ tiger), absotively (absolutely þ positively)
are called clipped compounds. Blends in which only versus posilutely (positively þ absolutely), and
the first word undergoes truncation could also be moorth (moon þ earth) versus earthoon (earth þ
considered a clipped compound (mocamp from moon)). Therefore, we may suspect that the forma-
motor þ camp), especially when each word contri- tion of blends is not accidental, but rather governed
butes only one syllable to the surface form, which is by some general principles. The principles reflect two
a characteristic of clipped compounds. competing tendencies: (i) to truncate segments from

Blend 67

Table 1 Types of semantic relations between the base words Table 2 The number of syllables in a blend equals the number
of syllables in Its longer base word
Base words Blend
Blend Base words
(a) Endocentric relation: one of the words functions as a
semantic head (in bold below) and the other as a alphameric (4) alphabetic (4) þ numeric (3)
modifier econocrat (4) economist (4) þ bureaucrat (3)
klan þ koran kloran pinkermint (3) pink (1) þ peppermint (3)
‘a bible used by plastinaut (3) plastic (2) þ astronaut (3)
the members of portalight (3) portable (3) þ light (1)
KKK’ smothercate (3) smother (2) þ suffocate (3)
education þ entertainment edutainment tangemon (3) tangerine (3) þ lemon (2)
‘educational Texaco (3) Texas (2) þ (New) Mexico (3)
entertainment’ zebrule (2) zebra (2) þ mule (1)
key þ container keytainer
‘a container for
keys’ pollution’ (endocentric). The same is true for brunch
(b) Exocentric relation: both words have the same semantic (breakfast þ lunch), which means either ‘lunch with
status, and thus none of them serves as a head
alphabetic þ numeric alphameric
some characteristics of breakfast’ (endocentric) or ‘a
‘consisting of both mixture of breakfast and lunch’ (exocentric).
letters and These two types of relations also appear in com-
numbers’ pounds (Bauer, 1988; Spencer, 1991), but blends are
escalator þ lift escalift much more permissive in this respect. Blends allow
‘a hybrid device
with the advantage
any possible combination of lexical categories, in-
of both an cluding some that do not appear in compounds
escalator and a lift’ (e.g., verb–verb, as in baffound, from baffle þ con-
tangerine þ lemon tangemon found). In addition, blends do not show preference
‘a hybrid of for endo- or exocentric relation, whereas compounds
tangerine and
lemon’
are mostly endocentric. Finally, in endocentric com-
pounds the order of the head and the modifier is
fixed and this is also true for most endocentric blends
the base in order to allow the blend to have the length in English (Kubozono, 1990), which are right-
a single word, preferably one of the base words, and headed, like compounds. In Hebrew, however, whose
(ii) to preserve as many segments from the base words compounds are left-headed, blends can be either
as possible and thus maximize the semantic transpar- right- or left-headed (Bat-El, 1996).
ency of the blend.
The principles proposed in the following sections
The Size of the Blend
take English blends as the empirical basis (the data
are drawn mostly from Adams (1973) and Bryant The formation of a blend aims toward two competing
(1974)). However, these principles should be appli- goals. On the one hand, it must have the structure of a
cable to blends from other languages, though some single word, unlike compounds, in which the two
parameter settings might be required (see Kubazuno base words are accessible. For this purpose, the
(1990) for English and Japanese; Bat-El (1996) for blend often adopts the number of syllables in one of
Hebrew; Fradin (2000) for French; and Piñeros its base words, thus truncating some segmental mate-
(2004) for Spanish). rial. On the other hand, a blend must preserve as
much of the structure from its base words as possible.
The Semantic Relation between the To accommodate the first goal and maximize the
fulfillment of the second, the number of syllables
Base Words
in a blend is often identical to the number of sylla-
The meaning of a blend is composed of the meaning bles in the longer base word (number of syllables in
of its base words, which exhibit two types of semantic parentheses) (see Table 2).
relation, endocentric and exocentric (Table 1) (see By adopting the number of syllables from the
Adams (1973) and Algeo (1977) for other types of longer rather than the shorter base word, the blend
relation). obtains the structure of one word and maximizes its
In some cases, it is not clear whether the seman- size. Maximization facilitates the semantic recover-
tic relation is endo- or exocentric. The blend smog ability of the base words, since the more segmental
(smoke þ fog), for example, has two meanings, ‘a mix- material from the base words there is, the easier it is
ture of fog and smoke’ (exocentric) and ‘an airborne to identify them.

68 Blend

Table 3 Segmental maximization also determines the order of
the base words in exocentric blends

A þ B – Maximizing order B þ A – Nonmaximizing order

blurt blow þ spurt *spow spurt þ blow Figure 1 Segmental overlap.
glaze glare þ gaze *gare gaze þ glare
smash smack þ mash *mack mash þ smack
snazzy snappy þ jazzy *jappy jazzy þ snappy
swacket sweater þ jacket *jater jacket þ sweater The Switch Point at Segmental Overlap
camcorder camera þ *recmera recorder þ
recorder camera Contrary to the principle given above, there are blends
citrange citrus þ orange *ortrus orange þ citrus consisting of more, and sometimes fewer, syllables
than the longer base word. In many cases, this is due
to the presence of one or more segments (shown in
There are, however, some exceptions, for example, boldface below) shared by the two base words. In such
plumcot (2) from plum (1) þ apricot (3); brunch (1) cases, the position of the shared segments determines
from breakfast (2) þ lunch (1); goon (1) from gorilla the ‘switch point’ of the blend, i.e., where the first
(3) þ baboon (2); and bionic (3) from biology (4) and base word ends and the second begins (see Table 4).
electronic (4). It should be noted that Kubozono The selection of the position of the shared seg-
(1990) claims that the number of syllables in a blend ment(s) as the switch point contributes to segmental
is identical to the number of syllables in the rightmost maximization. The shared segments overlap and thus
word, but some of the exceptions above (bionic, correspond to segments in both base words, allowing
plumcot, goon) do not obey this generalization either. more segments from each word to be preserved in the
When the two base words have an identical number blend. For example, diabesity preserves diabe from
of syllables, the number of segments often plays a diabetes and besity from obesity. Notice that in Chi-
role. Here again, in order to facilitate recoverability, cagorilla all segments of the base words appear in the
blends tend to preserve as many base segments as blend. Of course, the more segments of the base
possible, given the restriction on the number of sylla- words in the blend there are, the more transparent
bles noted above. This tendency affects the order of the base words are (see Figure 1).
the base words in exocentric blends, in which the Segmental overlap by the shared segments may also
order is not determined by a head–modifier relation. determine the order of the base words in exocentric
For example, a word with a complex onset will be blends (in which the order of the base words is not
first and a word with a complex coda second. That is, determined by the head–modifier relation) (see
the order of the base words is determined by the Table 5). There are cases where only one order of
principle requiring the maximization of the number the two words allows a segmental overlap of the
of segments (see Table 3). shared segments.
In some cases, segmental maximization is blocked The requirement to have the switch point at the
by the phonotactics of the language. For example, segmental overlap usually overrides the requirement
from bang þ smash we obtain bash, rather than to maintain the same number of syllables in the blend
the segmentally richer form *smang (smash þ bang), as in the longer base word (see Table 4). In a few
since English does not allow monomorphemic sCVC cases, such as Bisquick ‘quick biscuit.’ it also over-
words where the two Cs are nasal (Davis, 1988). The rides the order imposed by the head–modifier relation
fact that blends are subject to stem phonotactics (Algeo, 1977). However, there are plenty of blends
supports the claim that blends are monomorphemic that meet all the requirements (see Table 6).
despite their polymorphemic base.

Table 4 The switch point at the overlap of the identical segments shared by the base words

Blend Base words Expected number of syllables

Chicagorilla (5) Chicago (3) þ gorilla (3) *Chicalla (3)
cinemagpie (4) cinema (3) þ magpie (2) *cinegpie (3)
croissandwich (3) croissant (2) þ sandwich (2) *croiwich (2)
diabesity (5) diabetes (4) þ obesity (4) *diasity (4)
escalift (3) escalator (4) þ lift (1) *escalalift (4)
lumist (2) luminous (3) þ mist (1) *lumimist (3)
optronic (3) optic (2) þ electronic (4) *optictronic (4)
transistena (4) transistor (3) þ antenna (3) *transisna (3)

Blend 69

Table 5 The switch point at the shared segments determines Table 7 The switch point in monosyllabic blends
the order of the base words
Base words C!VC CV!C
A þ B – Overlap of shared B þ A – No overlap of shared W1 word onset – W1 onset þ nucleus –
segment(s) segment(s) W2 nucleus þ coda W2 word coda

beef þ buffalo beefalo buffalo þ beef *buffabeef blank þ beep bleep *blap
clam þ tomato clamato tomato þ clam *tomaclam blow þ spurt blurt *blort
window þ wall windowall wall þ window *wallindow smoke þ haze smaze *smoze
polo þ lacrosse polocrosse lacrosse þ polo *lacrolo Swiss þ watch swatch *switch
oval þ elliptic ovalliptic elliptic þ oval *elliptal bump þ conk bonk *bunk
spiced þ ham spam *spim
snazzy þ ritzy snitzy *snatzy
Table 6 Blends that meet all the requirements

Blend Base words

advertainment (4) advertisement (4) þ entertainment (4)
the coda to be more sonorous than the adjacent onset.
dynetic (3) dynamic (3) þ magnetic (4) When this requirement is not met, or when the dis-
narcoma (3) narcotic (3) þ coma (2) tance in sonority between the coda and the onset is
shamateur (3) shame (1) þ amateur (3) insufficient, the switch point is at the onset–nucleus
snoblem (2) snob (1) þ problem (2) boundary of the second word (as in monosyl-
velocitone (4) velocity (4) þ tone (1)
westralia (4) west (1) þ Australia (4)
labic blends). Thus, rocket þ balloon does not yield
*rock!lloon, due to the offending kl contact and
therefore the surface form is rock!oon.

The Switch Point at Syllable
Constituency Conclusion
When the two base words do not have a shared The discussion above suggests that the formation of
segment, the syllable structure plays a role in deter- blends is governed by several principles that together
mining the switch point. In monosyllabic blends, determine the order of the base words, the size of the
derived from two monosyllabic base words, the blend, and the switch point.
switch point (marked with !) must be at the onset– The order of the base words is determined by the
nucleus boundary (see Table 7). The question is: head–modifier relation, requiring the head to follow
which word contributes its nucleus, the first (CV!C) its modifier (see Table 1a). In the absence of such a
or the second (C!VC)? It appears that there is a relation, i.e., in an exocentric relation, the phonology
preference for the latter option; that is, the first plays a role. When the two base words have one or
word contributes only its onset and the second more shared segments, the order of the base words is
contributes its nucleus and coda, i.e., its entire such that these segments overlap (Table 6). In the
rhyme (Kubozono, 1990). absence of shared segments, segmental maximization
Since the onset and the nucleus are perceptually determines the order (Table 3).
more salient than the coda, this division allows the The number of syllables in the blend is also deter-
blend to preserve one perceptually salient element mined by the overlap of the shared segments, which
from each base word, i.e., the onset from the first demarcate the switch point (Table 4). In the absence
word and the nucleus from the second. There of a shared segment, the number of syllables in the
are, however, several exceptions, some of which are blend is identical to that in the longer base word
due to lexical blocking, for example, slosh (*slush – (Table 2). If the two base words have an identical
lexical blocking) from slop þ slush; boost (*boist) number of syllables, then segmental maximization
from boom þ hoist; and moorth (*mearth – lexical plays a role (Table 3).
blocking) from moon þ earth. The switch point is determined by the shared seg-
In polysyllabic blends, there is a preference for the ments, which overlap in the blend (Tables 4 and 5). In
switch point to be at the syllable boundary in the the absence of a shared segment, the switch point is
blend, which allows maximization of the segmental determined by syllabic constituency. In monosyllabic
material (see Table 8). That is, camera þ recorder blends, the switch point is at the onset–nucleus
yields cam!corder rather than *cam!order. However, boundary, such that the blend preserves the onset of
there is a restriction on the type of coda–onset contact the first word and the nucleus plus the coda of the
at the switch point. This restriction, known as the second (Table 7). In polysyllabic blends, the switch
Syllable Contact Law (Vennemann, 1988), requires point is at the syllable boundary, in cases where the

70 Blend

Table 8 The switch point in polysyllabic blends

Base words Switch point at syllable boundary Switch point at onset–nucleus boundary

camera þ recorder cam"corder *cam"order
color þ asbestos color"bestos *color"estos
proletariat þ cult prolet"cult *prolet"ult
smother þ suffocate smother"cate *smother"ate
sun þ reflector sun"flector *sun"ector
rudder þ elevator rudder"vator *radder"ator
brush þ terrific *brush"riffic brush"erific
cattle þ buffalo *cat"ffalo catt"alo
earth þ moon *earth"moon earth"oon
hurricane þ balloon *hurric"lloon hurric"oon
molecule þ organism *molec"nism molec"ism
pink þ peppermint *pink"permint pink"ermint
rocket þ balloon *rock"lloon rock"oon
slanting þ perpendicular *slant"pendicular slant"endicular
zebra þ mule *zeb"mule zebr"ule

coda–onset contact respects the Syllable Contact Algeo J (1977). ‘Blends, a structural and systemic view.’
Law; otherwise, it is at the onset–nucleus boundary American Speech 52, 47–64.
(Table 8). Bat-El O (1996). ‘Selecting the best of the worst: The
The principles governing the formation of blends grammar of Hebrew blends.’ Phonology 13, 283–328.
Bauer L (1983). English word formation. Cambridge:
are not always obeyed. The few exceptions found
Cambridge University Press.
reflect a natural state of affairs in derivational mor- Bauer L (1988). Introducing linguistic morphology.
phology, where exceptions are often due to some Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
extragrammatical factors. There is, however, inter- Bryant M M (1974). ‘Blends are increasing.’ American
grammatical (nonexceptional) violation of principles, Speech 49, 163–184.
in cases of conflict (e.g., switch point at syllable Fradin B (2000). ‘Combining forms, blends and related
constituency and the Syllable Contact Law (Table 8). phenomena.’ In Doleschal U & Thornton A M (eds.)
In such cases, one principle has a (language-specific) Extragrammatical and marginal morphology. Munich:
priority over the other, allowing a deterministic Lincom Europa. 11–59.
selection of the surface form. A model of conflicting Kubozono H (1990). ‘Phonological constraints on blending
principles and violation under conflict is provided in English as a case for phonology–morphology inter-
face.’ Yearbook of Morphology 3, 1–20.
by Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky, 1993).
Piñeros C E (2004). ‘The creation of portmanteaus in the
extragrammatical morphology of Spanish.’ Probus 16,
See also: Complex Segments; Compound; Head/Depen- 201–238.
dent Marking; Neoclassical Compounding; Pragmatics: Prince A & Smolensky P (1993). Optimality theory: Con-
Optimality Theory; Syllable: Phonology. straint interaction in generative grammar. Technical re-
port RuCCSTR-2. Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science.
Spencer A (1991). Morphological theory. Oxford:
Bibliography Blackwell.
Vennemann T (1988). Preference laws for syllable struc-
Adams V (1973). An introduction to Modern English word- ture. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
formation. London: Longman.

in that the utterance of the are marked by the use of a special language.g. language. or social prosperity.’ then a marriage has been socially on the other.. Similarly. blessings function as Linguistically. dominant language (e. expression of praise or adoration of God. distinguishes those bles- such. Only certain individuals may pronounce a Muslim thought. blessings represent an example of the belief in the sings exchanged between lay persons.g. represents a social and religious act accomplished particularly in religious ritual. gious institution) with differentiated social roles and sings from other types of speech and contribute to statuses for the blessor and blessee(s) is a necessary their formal and formulaic character. ! 1994. linguistic features such as repetition.. and social context and function. ciated with a number of meanings. Classical Arabic) or a differ. and in a very also used by nonspecialists to solemnize. is not ent code entirely (e.’ A per- and the use of special objects (e. is central to the study of the role of established. and of the act. The existence of an extra- special form (e.g. ‘I promise. In the Bible.. the sign of the cross) Blessings often function as ‘performatives. Concern with such some state of affairs in the world. As Catholicism. benediction. the dominant linguistic feature is the Each instance – praise.. the Hebrew root brk ‘blessing’ is asso- This article is reproduced from the previous edition. Blessings. family.g. if a minister states. wed.. tures (e. descent group. for example. If someone says. liturgical blessings). A blessing may be an volume 1. is couple man and wife and create a legally binding concerned with the bestowal of divine favor or bene. both contexts. material. a crucifix) or formative is a speech act that. you man and wife. a grace after a meal) public blessing that transfers to the son the power of and specific occasions or rites (e.. and consecration – use of formal and/or formulaic language. the spiritual magical power of words. from liturgical blessings. parallel couplets).’ then a prom- language in social life. Similarly. efits that are obtainable through Christ.g. and yet others by a those present marks the end of the event. All rights reserved. blessings are force of the ecclesiastical institution.g. laying on of hands.. which requisite expression precipitates a change in spiritual may be either a highly formal or archaic variety of the state. which carry the As an aspect of religious behavior. Madagascar the tsodrano is a ritual blessing in which tional Judaism. funerals).g. blessings (and their opposite.g. Common to all is a fixity of form and reproduction of the descent group. their juniors. sacralize. among the Merina of and/or mark the boundaries of social events. may also be accompa. however. Under the appro- patterned relationships between linguistic form. oil). the blessor. in rituals where a general blessing of op. Blessings are member of a religious order. chant). 370–371. the ancestors in a ritual stressing the continuity and dings. diction through the utterance of prescribed words. Passover. other manifestations of which value of which depends on the personal sanctity of include the use of spells. for example. A father bestows variety of situations as well as longer texts associated fertility and wealth on his son through a ceremonial with domestic ceremonies (e. ise has been made. (and other performatives). In the institution of the church (e. or an Blessings are utterances associated primarily with the act of consecration that renders objects holy. through the use of a highly conventionalized form of nied by specific nonlinguistic features including ges. Latin).g. but they also appear with eulogia of the New Testament stresses the spiritual ben- varying frequency in the politeness formulas and par.. Some may be gious specialists in situations of communal worship performed by the pontiff alone. so too is the private ritual activity. The same is true of blessings. reli- (e. pp. alters substances (e. seniors act as intermediaries between ancestors and clude short formulaic expressions used in a wide those being blessed. right to confer particular blessings.. . different ethnographic context. the gospels. As the institu- associated with essential components of public and tion itself is hierarchically organized. ‘I pronounce on the one hand. and enthetical expressions of everyday conversation. Elsevier Ltd. a divine be- stowal of spiritual. brokhe ‘blessings’ in.g.. In addition to their sufficient for the successful realization of blessings specific content. special prosody linguistic institution (e. some only by a bish- as. Blessings 71 Blessings B G Szuchewycz the strict association of specific texts to specific ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. and curses. priate conditions. others by a parish priest. marriage. In tradi. and fixity of pattern distinguish bles. incantations. precondition to an authentic and valid performance The concept of blessing in Jewish. The Greek sphere of religious activity. curses) religious performatives. water. occasions. as in many other traditions. They are performed by reli. Christian. Mastery of the linguistic formulas.. for example.g. when uttered.

blessings are University Press. CA. He completed application of the principles of linguistic description. in English and linguistics. blessings are evident in the politeness formulas and parenthetical expressions of Bibliography everyday conversation: for example.D. moving to Yale’s linguistics department in 1943. their primary communicative function is as highly PA: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. Philadelphia. sustaining an the second editor of its journal. Although he was Bloomfield’s junior colleague at 1928. In nonreligious contexts. hopes and fears: may literally express a wish for supernatural benefits. Blessings. arship. In both their religious and secular uses. 1950). continued as editor until his death. In tion and to legitimate and maintain their force. blessings operate proper. the use of a blessing (or curse) serves Much of human face-to-face interaction is ritualistic to communicate directly the emotional state or atti- in nature. M. Cambridge: Cambridge in greetings. When embedded parenthetically within larger sen- ly only within a context of social and cultural norms tences or longer texts. Bernard (1907–1965) J G Fought. 1987). 1979). blessings thus function as expressions of solidarity. USA many papers each year. 1948). Leopold in 1931. and leave-takings. and his extraordinary writing and editorial Bloch was an extraordinary teacher. PA: Fortress Press. his Ph. at Brown in 1935. His insistence on He would sometimes read a few sentences from clarifying each point in a manuscript made it no idle some unidentified publication. delivering skills soon made Bloch an influential presence within beautifully composed informal lectures as lightly as the Linguistic Society of America. exchanged between interlocutors and. extracts chosen for jest when he later remarked that he had published their comic value in illustrating various rhetorical or . which are necessary for their realiza. Philadelphia. In 1933 published as a basic course.B. all meant to illustrate the exacting editorial work on the Atlas. ‘Blessing. The austere mod- Northwestern University. and later in a series of he followed Kurath and the Atlas project to Brown descriptive publications capped by the article on University. Bloomfield’s influence on where his father Albert taught art. ple. Bloch’s writing is much friend- he was chosen as a field worker on the Linguistic Atlas lier to readers. for just such a (Brown and Levinson. 1929) at the University of Kansas. 1947) is an ex- teaching English and modern languages there until emplar of distributionalist structural morphology. he took a course in linguis. conventionalized markers of social and/or interac. for exam- interpersonal rituals of politeness. curses. and it has been argued that the use of for. make extensive use of a large set of fixed expres- and ritual behavior in the sacred sphere. ernist intellectual architecture of their work is very tics with Werner F. pseudonyms. providing a malized and prepatterned linguistic and nonlinguistic means of internal evaluation and signaling speaker behavior in everyday life is evidence of a link between involvement in the text. of religion.’ In Eliade M (ed. many of which are blessings. and easy exchange of statements. Psychoostensive expressions in Yiddish. His ‘English verb inflection’ (Bloch. tude of the speaker toward the topic. compactly presenting a remarkably complete solution His character. In 1940 he became one might carry on a conversation. Blessings are an example purpose (Matisoff. and good will. Westermann C (1978). similar (Bloch. New York: Macmillan. Politeness: Some universals in Language usage. Bernard Bloch studied English and German (A.A. and answers. thanks. although they Matisoff J A (1979). on the other sions. Blessing: In the Bible and the life of approval. Yiddish speakers. Bernard (and his wife Julia) did much phonemics (Bloch. the church. oral narratives. That same year. Continuing at him was profound (Bloch. his intelligent and disciplined schol. All rights reserved. directed by Hans Kurath. blessings may also function as and institutions.72 Blessings Like other performatives.) The encyclopedia tional status. 1949). Similarly. Diamond Bar. Ries J (1987). questions. together with its rationale. Brown P & Levinson S C (1987). semantically and interactionally significant units. His wartime work on Japanese was of New England. Bloch. of a specific linguistic routine common to both. the English ‘Bless you!’ as a conventional response to a sneeze. Bloch and Leonard Bloomfield shared intensely demanding applied linguistic work during the war. on the one hand. Language. Yale for only a few years. most of them under famous ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd.

and answers. 1950). Language. M. 1949). Westermann C (1978). blessings are University Press. In 1940 he became one might carry on a conversation. The austere mod- Northwestern University. of religion. His wartime work on Japanese was of New England. Although he was Bloomfield’s junior colleague at 1928. When embedded parenthetically within larger sen- ly only within a context of social and cultural norms tences or longer texts. extracts chosen for jest when he later remarked that he had published their comic value in illustrating various rhetorical or . similar (Bloch. Ries J (1987). for just such a (Brown and Levinson. semantically and interactionally significant units. questions. Bernard (1907–1965) J G Fought. 1979). New York: Macmillan. for exam- interpersonal rituals of politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge in greetings. USA many papers each year. on the one hand. hopes and fears: may literally express a wish for supernatural benefits. on the other sions. Bernard Bloch studied English and German (A. Continuing at him was profound (Bloch. 1947) is an ex- teaching English and modern languages there until emplar of distributionalist structural morphology. All rights reserved.’ In Eliade M (ed. delivering skills soon made Bloch an influential presence within beautifully composed informal lectures as lightly as the Linguistic Society of America. Blessing: In the Bible and the life of approval. and his extraordinary writing and editorial Bloch was an extraordinary teacher. blessings operate proper. directed by Hans Kurath. of a specific linguistic routine common to both. Bloomfield’s influence on where his father Albert taught art. tude of the speaker toward the topic. thanks. the church. Brown P & Levinson S C (1987). most of them under famous ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. the use of a blessing (or curse) serves Much of human face-to-face interaction is ritualistic to communicate directly the emotional state or atti- in nature. Similarly. Leopold in 1931.B. 1987). continued as editor until his death. which are necessary for their realiza. In tion and to legitimate and maintain their force. moving to Yale’s linguistics department in 1943. compactly presenting a remarkably complete solution His character. and easy exchange of statements. ‘Blessing. conventionalized markers of social and/or interac. and leave-takings. Yale for only a few years. ple. he took a course in linguis.72 Blessings Like other performatives. at Brown in 1935. His ‘English verb inflection’ (Bloch. Blessings are an example purpose (Matisoff.D. PA: Fortress Press. and it has been argued that the use of for. together with its rationale. and good will. 1929) at the University of Kansas. sustaining an the second editor of its journal. curses. That same year. blessings are evident in the politeness formulas and parenthetical expressions of Bibliography everyday conversation: for example. ernist intellectual architecture of their work is very tics with Werner F. blessings may also function as and institutions. His insistence on He would sometimes read a few sentences from clarifying each point in a manuscript made it no idle some unidentified publication. providing a malized and prepatterned linguistic and nonlinguistic means of internal evaluation and signaling speaker behavior in everyday life is evidence of a link between involvement in the text. Politeness: Some universals in Language usage. pseudonyms. 1948). Yiddish speakers. CA. Bloch. the English ‘Bless you!’ as a conventional response to a sneeze. In nonreligious contexts. Diamond Bar. their primary communicative function is as highly PA: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. Bloch’s writing is much friend- he was chosen as a field worker on the Linguistic Atlas lier to readers.A. his Ph. many of which are blessings. and later in a series of he followed Kurath and the Atlas project to Brown descriptive publications capped by the article on University. Philadelphia. Bernard (and his wife Julia) did much phonemics (Bloch. He completed application of the principles of linguistic description. make extensive use of a large set of fixed expres- and ritual behavior in the sacred sphere. exchanged between interlocutors and. arship. In both their religious and secular uses. Psychoostensive expressions in Yiddish. although they Matisoff J A (1979). blessings thus function as expressions of solidarity. In 1933 published as a basic course. oral narratives. Blessings.) The encyclopedia tional status. Philadelphia. all meant to illustrate the exacting editorial work on the Atlas. in English and linguistics. Bloch and Leonard Bloomfield shared intensely demanding applied linguistic work during the war. his intelligent and disciplined schol.

ancient and modern. sergeant to lieutenant and was awarded the Croix de DC. and helped edit an abridged version of the translated text. Washington. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. La formation de la langue marathe. edited with the Language 24. a Dravidian language spoken by more than specialist in Indo-European linguistics at the École des 50 000 000 people in India. a prestigious linguistic prize awarded Tsiganes (1953). ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Canon bouddhique Pāli (1949). Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück.’ Language 25. Bloch also began a project to translate the Pali where he served on the faculty of the École Française Buddhist Canon. Bloch returned to the École des Hautes Études in 1919. Leonard (1887–1949). for this he received the scholarly studies of the Romany-speaking people.’ Language 43. All rights reserved. and ment in 1951. and a number of them sub- other researchers were given the task of translating sequently distinguished themselves in the field of large portions of the monumental three-volume Kurze Indo-European linguistic studies. Kurath. is an Indo-European language research was soon interrupted by infantry service for with origins in India and grammatical affinities with four years in World War I. Japanese. Jules (1880–1953) 73 factual blunders. Georgetown University. with his inaugural volume of the d’Extrême Orient in Hanoi.’ These were returned at the next class. but this work was In 1914. and the Sorbonne. ‘Studies in colloquial Japanese: IV. Jules (1880–1953) M McCaskey. ‘Leonard Bloomfield. He also served as Professor of Sanskrit at Jules Bloch was born in Paris on May 1. He and two Indian students in Paris. His 2 000 000 people. Many of us kept those papers as treasures. unfortunately not continued by others. same fierce devotion to clarity and professionalism Bloch B (1949). They came back folded lengthwise with Bloch B (1950). other leading linguists in Europe and India through- In 1905. Bloch B (1948). Bloch then including Sanskrit. spoken by an estimated annually by the Institut de France since 1822. Phone- his unsparing comments typed in a narrow column on mics. Bloch completed and submitted his doc. an Indo-European language spoken by Abrégé de grammaire comparée des langues indo. Joos M (1967). and was made Director of Studies there in 1920. He completed his Licence ès Lettres. It transpired that all of these exam. Hautes Études. Hans (1891–1992). out his career. Structuralism. Les Prix Volney. the back. Bloch also served as the secretary of the subsequently became a graduate student in Sanskrit Société Linguistique in France for close to a quarter of and ancient literature and culture in the École des a century (1920–1944). research in the field in India. Pali. See also: Bloomfield.’ Language 23. dents in his introductory course wrote a two-page 399–418. USA Guerre for bravery. Bibliography ples were drawn from his own published work.’ Language 26. La phrase nominale en sanscrit. Hindi. essay each week on a topic relevant to the readings. where he remained until his retire- student. vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Bloch developed proficiency in and did research on Sprachen (1902–1904) by the Indo-European linguists a number of languages of India. His Structure gram- In 1906. Bloch published one of the first modern diachronic study of Marathi. In the last year toral thesis. Bloch was one of the first Indo-European . Stu- Bloch B (1947). he undertook his first major academic proj. He performed family of languages. Malaysia. Phoneme. 86–125. a of his life. that he brought to all papers sent to the editor of 87–98. Vedic language. ‘English verb inflection. Bloch published his own diploma thesis on maticale des langues dravidiennes (1946) was one of Sanskrit. during which he rose from Sanskrit. Bloch. He also guided and assisted many ect toward the end of his graduate training. ‘Bernard Bloch. keeping in close touch with Hautes Études at the University of Paris. supervised by Antoine Meillet. and in 1937 became a professor at the attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand as a scholarship Collège de France. Language. later moving to Vietnam. Sri Lanka. 3–46. over 65 000 000 people. and went on the first modern linguistic studies of the Dravidian to pursue the study of Hindi and Tamil. Bloch. 1880. Bloch also did research on européennes (1905). ‘A set of postulates for phonemic analysis. a Tamil. 3–19. Romany. Marathi.

Bloch then including Sanskrit. and helped edit an abridged version of the translated text. supervised by Antoine Meillet. Sri Lanka. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.’ Language 43. other leading linguists in Europe and India through- In 1905. essay each week on a topic relevant to the readings. with his inaugural volume of the d’Extrême Orient in Hanoi. ancient and modern. Bloch B (1948). Japanese. Bloch also served as the secretary of the subsequently became a graduate student in Sanskrit Société Linguistique in France for close to a quarter of and ancient literature and culture in the École des a century (1920–1944). Canon bouddhique Pāli (1949). ‘A set of postulates for phonemic analysis. Leonard (1887–1949). Bloch also did research on européennes (1905). that he brought to all papers sent to the editor of 87–98. and in 1937 became a professor at the attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand as a scholarship Collège de France. 3–46. Jules (1880–1953) M McCaskey. Georgetown University. Bloch returned to the École des Hautes Études in 1919. and ment in 1951. a prestigious linguistic prize awarded Tsiganes (1953). Bloch completed and submitted his doc. he undertook his first major academic proj. Language. Bibliography ples were drawn from his own published work. La formation de la langue marathe. 86–125. He and two Indian students in Paris. Bloch also began a project to translate the Pali where he served on the faculty of the École Française Buddhist Canon. Bloch. Bloch published his own diploma thesis on maticale des langues dravidiennes (1946) was one of Sanskrit. and the Sorbonne. keeping in close touch with Hautes Études at the University of Paris. later moving to Vietnam. Hindi. He also guided and assisted many ect toward the end of his graduate training. Jules (1880–1953) 73 factual blunders. Hautes Études. and a number of them sub- other researchers were given the task of translating sequently distinguished themselves in the field of large portions of the monumental three-volume Kurze Indo-European linguistic studies. See also: Bloomfield. All rights reserved. 3–19. is an Indo-European language research was soon interrupted by infantry service for with origins in India and grammatical affinities with four years in World War I. sergeant to lieutenant and was awarded the Croix de DC. out his career. ‘Leonard Bloomfield. during which he rose from Sanskrit. but this work was In 1914. Bloch was one of the first Indo-European . dents in his introductory course wrote a two-page 399–418. a Tamil.’ Language 26. Structuralism. Vedic language. where he remained until his retire- student. In the last year toral thesis. ‘Studies in colloquial Japanese: IV. ‘Bernard Bloch. Pali. Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. He performed family of languages. Marathi. They came back folded lengthwise with Bloch B (1950). Joos M (1967). Malaysia. over 65 000 000 people. ‘English verb inflection. He completed his Licence ès Lettres. He also served as Professor of Sanskrit at Jules Bloch was born in Paris on May 1.’ Language 25. edited with the Language 24. same fierce devotion to clarity and professionalism Bloch B (1949). a Dravidian language spoken by more than specialist in Indo-European linguistics at the École des 50 000 000 people in India. unfortunately not continued by others. Romany. It transpired that all of these exam. spoken by an estimated annually by the Institut de France since 1822. Phone- his unsparing comments typed in a narrow column on mics. an Indo-European language spoken by Abrégé de grammaire comparée des langues indo. Washington. and went on the first modern linguistic studies of the Dravidian to pursue the study of Hindi and Tamil. His Structure gram- In 1906. Hans (1891–1992). a of his life. Bloch published one of the first modern diachronic study of Marathi. Bloch. vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Bloch developed proficiency in and did research on Sprachen (1902–1904) by the Indo-European linguists a number of languages of India. Phoneme. 1880. and was made Director of Studies there in 1920.’ Language 23.’ These were returned at the next class. La phrase nominale en sanscrit. USA Guerre for bravery. research in the field in India. His 2 000 000 people. Les Prix Volney. Kurath. the back. Stu- Bloch B (1947). for this he received the scholarly studies of the Romany-speaking people. Many of us kept those papers as treasures.

74 Bloch. translated by Dev Raj Chanana. Indo–Aryan Lan. described his his rank until 1921. Bloch J (1920). where he and an assistantship in German at the University of Edward Sapir (1884–1939) were briefly colleagues. derstood by any bright high-school student. indo-européennes. though its role in his work has been greatly ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. in 1946. 1906– Bloch J (1906). vol. later took an active role in war-related work on practical moving to the University of Illinois. 1930. Esper Leonard Bloomfield was born in Chicago. 1962. par J. Bernard to Illinois. Delbrück. Paris: C. For an extended example. In 1940 he went to Yale. The formation of the Marāthı̄ language. language and culture. with George Melville Bolling (1871–1963). . his family (1968) was an invaluable eyewitness report on this moved to rural Wisconsin when he was nine. only then becoming an assistant professor. very probably influenced by his friend Franz Boas 1944. Bibliothèque (1842–1922). who knew and admired him. It was through his publications. Bloch J (1985). who introduced him been the most pleasant and productive of his working to linguistics. exaggerated. the manic philology at the University of Chicago in 1909. he and the behavioral psychol. Gauthiot. colleagues. professor. When he sought returned to the University of Chicago. Louis Renou. and stu- (1917). writing and editing a studied with the Neogrammarians Karl Brugmann. Leonard (1887–1949) J G Fought. Jean Filliozat. he moved to Ohio State University as a full formidable book. Tagalog texts with grammatical analysis sarcasm in dealing with critics. It is not. This re- some of which was edited and published posthumously mark has often been cited as evidence of Bloomfield’s (1957. Meillet et dass. Indo–European Languages. Bloomfield led the linguistics program and at the University of Cincinnati as an instructor. Jules (1880–1953) linguists to undertake the systematic study of Romany Bloch J (1934). Paris: Presses universitaires de Bloch J (1905). in founding the Linguistic Society of America in 1925. Antoine Bloch J (1949). Abrégé de grammaire comparée des langues France. Karl (1849–1919). Klincksieck. he met the Germanist His years at the University of Chicago seem to have Eduard Prokosch (1876–1938). While there. Paris: É. Berthold diennes. Institut de Civilisation Indienne. L’indo-aryen du Veda aux temps modernes. successor of Prokosch and to some degree also of He taught German (German. sous la direction de A. Paris: A. He supervised only a handful of dissertations. Delbrück. Anecdotes show his readiness to use highly refined guage. During his stay at Illinois he also personality as ‘‘not strongly magnetic’’ (1949: 91). 1934. Champion. he claimed that his (1858–1942). Delhi: Motilal Banarsi- A. Standard) for one year Sapir. He period in Bloomfield’s career. Bloch. and ogist Albert Paul Weiss (1879–1931) became friends. t. Structure grammaticale des langues dravi- See also: Brugmann. see Bloomfield. 27–96. In 1913–1914 he language-learning materials. in a more typical instance. Maisonneuve. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Diamond Bar. Paris: Col- de la Société de Linguistique de Paris.’ Mémoires 1955: textes rassemblés par Colette Caillat. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve. A stroke ended his working life August Leskien. 1975). lege de France. Canon bouddhique Pāli (Tripitaka) Texte et (Paul Jules) (1866–1936). 1946). published his first work on a non-Indo-European lan. Bloch J (1946). d’après le Précis de grammaire com- Bloch J (1970). Ernout. In 1919. Tr. There Bloomfield also took part. Bloomfield. he began his work on the introductory textbook Language (1933) could be un- Algonquian languages (1928. Bloomfield took his doctorate in Ger. life. 56. All rights reserved. traduction par Jules Bloch. Publications du Musée Guimet. CA. he died in 1949. parée de K. Bloomfield graduated from Harvard in 1906. Bloch J (1950). In 1927. Bloch J (1953). La formation de la langue marathe. whose conception and organization were dents alike. Brugmann et B. Recueil d’articles de Jules Bloch. number of manuals. guages. Dravidian Languages. he sometimes tried to discourage students from spe- and Bloomfield adopted some of the idiom of that cializing in linguistics. R. Wisconsin that summer. as Sterling Professor. versities of Leipzig and Göttingen and then returned His family life was darkened by tragedies. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve. ‘La phrase nominale en sanscrit. Cuny et A. Les Tsiganes. XIV. d’études. Bloch. Les inscriptions d’Asoka. traduites et com- Bibliography mentées par Jules Bloch. and Hermann Oldenberg at the Uni. Meillit. innocence by scholars who have struggled with this In 1921. USA approach.

writing and editing a studied with the Neogrammarians Karl Brugmann. Klincksieck. Tr. versities of Leipzig and Göttingen and then returned His family life was darkened by tragedies. Jean Filliozat. Delbrück. Brugmann et B. 1962. he died in 1949. as Sterling Professor. in a more typical instance. later took an active role in war-related work on practical moving to the University of Illinois. very probably influenced by his friend Franz Boas 1944. see Bloomfield. Indo–Aryan Lan. 1946). par J. L’indo-aryen du Veda aux temps modernes. Bloch. traduites et com- Bibliography mentées par Jules Bloch. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve. Bloomfield. Anecdotes show his readiness to use highly refined guage. Bloomfield graduated from Harvard in 1906. who introduced him been the most pleasant and productive of his working to linguistics. CA. his family (1968) was an invaluable eyewitness report on this moved to rural Wisconsin when he was nine. . All rights reserved. innocence by scholars who have struggled with this In 1921. whose conception and organization were dents alike. and ogist Albert Paul Weiss (1879–1931) became friends. Gauthiot. This re- some of which was edited and published posthumously mark has often been cited as evidence of Bloomfield’s (1957. Bloch J (1953). he sometimes tried to discourage students from spe- and Bloomfield adopted some of the idiom of that cializing in linguistics. described his his rank until 1921. with George Melville Bolling (1871–1963). he and the behavioral psychol. professor. During his stay at Illinois he also personality as ‘‘not strongly magnetic’’ (1949: 91). Tagalog texts with grammatical analysis sarcasm in dealing with critics. In 1919. t. derstood by any bright high-school student. d’études. Bloch J (1950). lege de France. and stu- (1917). number of manuals.74 Bloch. Institut de Civilisation Indienne. Cuny et A. colleagues. successor of Prokosch and to some degree also of He taught German (German. Bernard to Illinois. Leonard (1887–1949) J G Fought. Ernout. He supervised only a handful of dissertations. In 1940 he went to Yale. There Bloomfield also took part. and Hermann Oldenberg at the Uni. USA approach. Publications du Musée Guimet. published his first work on a non-Indo-European lan. Champion. Karl (1849–1919). Bloch J (1946). Les Tsiganes. In 1927. 1975). A stroke ended his working life August Leskien. 1930. Bibliothèque (1842–1922). Paris: C. Antoine Bloch J (1949). the manic philology at the University of Chicago in 1909. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve. It was through his publications. Meillet et dass. traduction par Jules Bloch. Louis Renou. in 1946. guages. life.’ Mémoires 1955: textes rassemblés par Colette Caillat. Standard) for one year Sapir. ‘La phrase nominale en sanscrit. While there. 1906– Bloch J (1906). Bloomfield took his doctorate in Ger. Delhi: Motilal Banarsi- A. 1934. Meillit. Paris: Col- de la Société de Linguistique de Paris. Paris: É. he began his work on the introductory textbook Language (1933) could be un- Algonquian languages (1928. Bloch J (1985). Abrégé de grammaire comparée des langues France. vol. Berthold diennes. where he and an assistantship in German at the University of Edward Sapir (1884–1939) were briefly colleagues. indo-européennes. Canon bouddhique Pāli (Tripitaka) Texte et (Paul Jules) (1866–1936). he met the Germanist His years at the University of Chicago seem to have Eduard Prokosch (1876–1938). When he sought returned to the University of Chicago. In 1913–1914 he language-learning materials. Jules (1880–1953) linguists to undertake the systematic study of Romany Bloch J (1934). Recueil d’articles de Jules Bloch. though its role in his work has been greatly ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Structure grammaticale des langues dravi- See also: Brugmann. who knew and admired him. The formation of the Marāthı̄ language. Diamond Bar. sous la direction de A. Bloch. XIV. d’après le Précis de grammaire com- Bloch J (1970). in founding the Linguistic Society of America in 1925. 56. only then becoming an assistant professor. he claimed that his (1858–1942). R. He period in Bloomfield’s career. Wisconsin that summer. La formation de la langue marathe. Paris: Presses universitaires de Bloch J (1905). Esper Leonard Bloomfield was born in Chicago. Bloch J (1920). he moved to Ohio State University as a full formidable book. language and culture. exaggerated. Maisonneuve. For an extended example. Delbrück. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. parée de K. 27–96. Indo–European Languages. Les inscriptions d’Asoka. Bloomfield led the linguistics program and at the University of Cincinnati as an instructor. translated by Dev Raj Chanana. It is not. Paris: A. Dravidian Languages.

vol. ‘Leonard Bloomfield. New York: linguistic forms through the construction of textual G. Stechert. Leskien. Esper E A (1968). New York: Holt. Bloomfield’s Outline guide for the practical Bloomfield L (1934). Outline guide for the practical study on the notion of the linguistic sign. that he shaped American de. alist period. agents. on his life and work. August (1840–1916). tics. Illinois Press. then Linguistic structures of native America (Viking Fund 32. Ber. however. The contrastive comparison of the American Ethnological Society. different. Tagalog texts with grammatical 39–60. Sapir. then analyze morphology and syntax by putting to. ‘Algonquian. 45–55. agents. Eastern Ojibwa: Grammatical sketch.) Leonard Bloomfield: Essays 94. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. on his life and work. In Hall R A (ed. the sources of Leonard Bloomfield’s psychology of lan- Karl (1849–1919). Urbana: University of scriptive linguistics as a discipline during its structur. Bulletin No. Bloomfield. provided the foundation for his austere approach to Bloomfield L (1928). 12). New York: one sentence: ‘‘No preconceptions. University of Illinois Studies in Language and . Ottawa: cal comparative method.) Leonard Bloomfield: Essays by Goddard (1987). Bloomfield selected among variants in his data to Bloomfield L ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. New York: American Elsevier. WI: Milwaukee Public Museum Such a norm was implicit in his account of usage Press. and word list.) Truman Michelson written in 1919. the Hockett C F (1987). analysis. Menomini build and then describe a community norm of usage. ‘Literate and illiterate speech. 39–60. Bloomfield L (1942). had already condensed his method of analysis into publications in anthropology. concordances.’ These disciplines. Bloomfield L (1933). Leonard Bloomfield: essays on his life and work. Hockett C F (ed. by Charles F Hockett (1975).’ Language 25. Bloomfield L (1962). (eds. In Hall R A (ed. Bibliography Hockett C F (1987).’ In Hall R A (ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.’ In Hoijer H et al. Lin. Edward (1884–1939). Goddard I (1987). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Germanic Languages. A Leonard Bloomfield anthology. Franz (1858–1942). Press. 152–164. Bloomfield L (1917). Milwaukee. Acland. His method was based G. Bloomfield began as a Germanist and Bloomfield L (1926). The Menomini language. Struc. Francis (1916–2000). Nos. comparative studies of Algonquian. E. Sacred stories of the Sweet Grass Cree other analytical techniques and concepts of the classi. Tagalog. lexicon. A. Bloomfield L (1927). 179–217. 6. ‘A set of postulates for the science of Indo-Europeanist in the Neogrammarian tradition.’ Language 2.’ Language 20. Stechert. American Speech 2. Literature (vol. all became basic tools of F. and then looking for other examples of each Bloomfield L (1944). and his rigorous cast of mind. Bloch. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of paring linguistic forms that are partly alike and partly America. they are different in form and function. sound variations are distinctive (as to meaning) and Bloomfield L (1957). Letters from Bloomfield to Michelson Bloch B (1949). it called for com- of foreign languages. the logic of textual variants. Bloomfield. New Haven When compiling a descriptive grammar. 87– and Spair. Language. 432–439. find out which Wenner-Gren Foundation. & London: Yale University Press. vol. ‘Leonard Bloomfield’s descriptive and guistics as a Science. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan gether everything that is alike’’ (Hockett. See also: Algonquian and Ritwan Languages. E. 1987: 41). Hockett. language. Leonard (1887–1949) 75 especially Language. texts. Charles guage. Mentalism and objectivism in linguistics: nard (1907–1965). Brugmann. New York: toolkit and explained its use. 6). Letters from Bloomfield to Michelson details of its construction were brilliantly illuminated and Spair.) turalism. 3. Plains Cree texts (Publications of study of foreign languages (1942) described this the American Ethnological Society.) (1970). 2–4). and many Bloomfield L (1930). descriptive and pedagogical applications of linguis. differences among Menomini speakers (1927). ‘Secondary and tertiary responses to part so as to understand how they are alike and how language. In a letter to Bloomfield L (1946). Menomini texts (Publications of language description. (National Museum of Canada. 16). Boas. 85–129).

his writings on symbolic inter- president of the Society for the Study of Social action have served to define this perspective within Problems. contemporary U. and his acute memory and Herbert Mead (see Mead. Blumer was secretary–treasurer models of research for other scholars. Ernest Burgess. Many of the ideas he put received his Ph. USA change: a critical analysis. of structure as process is central to Blumer’s argu- cles. delinquency. and The world es of persistence and change’’ (Morrione. Hauser. to enter the doctoral program of the department of naturalistic approach to human experience. economic. Human beings act toward things on the basis of 1952. All rights reserved. fashion. 1987. I.D. to the phenomenon under investigation. he went as chair to the Department of Sociol. George Herbert (1863– critical mind. problems have become sociological classics and From 1930 to 1935. where group. when he left psychology. 2004: xvi). forces.S. He became an instructor forth early in his career have since. IL. and are modified in. The proper study of society is at the inter- ogy at the University of California at Berkeley. become generally accepted. three obituaries (Louis Wirth. Herbert (1900–1987) N Denzin. at least three review Social reality is situated in these sites of interaction. where he theory.’ The foremost student of George understanding listener. papers on Industrialization as an agent of social Urbana. of youthful drug use (1967)]. papers of Herbert Blumer: George Herbert Mead and human conduct and Selected works of Herbert Blumer: a public philosophy for mass society. as Shibutani in sociology at Chicago in 1925. and four books [Movies and that assumed an obdurate natural social world that conduct (1933). Critiques of research in reproduced. He was a powerful and effective teacher 1931)). society. and made sense of through the careful the social sciences. dozens of book reviews (in the American Journal ment. He sought a ica (1939). Herbert Blumer is the founding father of the unique Blumer is remembered for his athletic prowess. racism and from 1947 to 1952. his capacity as a sympathetic and interactionism. social sociology at the University of Chicago. he was editor of the American Journal of Soci. 1933). From 1941 to tions. Sociological Association and as vice president of the Blumer’s sociology involved the following assump- International Sociological Association. the industrialization process.S. processual. He taught patterns of collective activity. complex networks of at the University of Chicago from 1925 to 1952. was an associate noted. In institutional relations. the process of social officer between the Office of War Information and interaction. sociology has been sub- Blumer received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees stantial. collective behavior. ism in sociology. in 1928. In 1954. and social Blumer took over his social psychology course. M. as well as The collected ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. and crime could be studied scientifically – that is. 1970: viii). kinship. These joint actions describe recurrent panel chairman of the War Labor Board. The notion Blumer was the author of approximately 60 arti. His studies of professor from 1931 to 1947. When Mead died in 1931. he was elected Mead’s thought.76 Blumer. and was a professor the movies. prejudice. two monographs [The rationale of units ‘‘caught up in the interplay of opposing process- labor–management relations (1958). University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. sociology. Blumer put in motion a methodological project and Joseph Lohman). essays. As the chief of the American Sociological Association and was systematizer of the sociological implications of elected president in 1955. (with D. and interaction that has come to be selves and their careers while sitting in his classes’’ known as the ‘symbolic interactionist perspective’ in (Shibutani. Meanings arise ology. and social research. Movies. Society is a framework for he remained as a faculty member until his death in the operation of social. Blumer’s impact on U. positiv- from the University of Missouri in 1921 and 1922. symbolic. and historical processes and 1952. He taught there until 1925. Herbert (1900–1987) Blumer. he long championed the interpretive. political. his social psychological perspective called ‘symbolic warmth as a person. he served as liaison out of. interpretive social science that would Posthumous publications include a collection of his utilize sensitizing concepts grounded in subjective . interactional level. and Symbolic interactionism (1969)]. He also served as president of the Pacific the international sociological community. An appraisal of Thomas and work of the naturalistic researcher who gets close Znaniecki’s The Polish Peasant in Europe and Amer. religious. and behavioral and cognitive respectively. A loyal opponent of functionalism. he translated Mead’s philosophy into a theory of several generations of students who ‘‘found them- of self. Society consists of the joint interactions the Bureau of Economic Warfare and as a public of individuals. the meanings things have for them. Social structures are composed of interacting of Sociology). and legal interactions. During World War II. mapped.

). shaped around the previously mentioned kinds of Lyman S M & Vidich A J (1988).D. Interpretive theory would confront Blumer H (2004). Symbolic interactionism: perspective and (1900–87). and forged. George Herbert (1863–1931). Wiseman J P (1987). Social order and the materials. almost single-handed. From his secure academic position. As the developer and impresario of modern Ameri- CA. University.). conduct. Blumer was an immediate Arkansas Press. and other Northwest Coast languages and American languages. Germany to a family linguist in his own right. Cliffs. CA: AltaMira. and Leonard Bloomfield. Pomona College. Englewood See also: Mead. Fayetteville: University of action formed in 1974. tic Anthropology. change: a critical analysis. Canada: Lan- core discipline. for the personal contributions of Edward Sapir. Sapir. given to the outstanding graduate student paper best Morrione T J (2004). with its annual Herbert Blumer Award. He was a master of administration and fund statement (1943: 198): ‘‘Boas amassed a tremendous raising. the sionalization of American anthropology would tools of phonetic and structural description.) (1970). Symbolic Interaction 11(1) (1988. and permit the test. supporter. NJ: Prentice-Hall. reliable. His focus of his interests began to shift from geography background in perceptual psychology led him to pub- to anthropology. as a Franz Boas was born in Minden. His first field work was conducted in guistic field work than in re-inventing historical and Baffin Land in 1883. apparently this is when the comparative linguistics as a tool of culture history. All rights reserved. his friend. Leonard (1887–1949). New York: DeGruyter. Shibutani S (ed. Franz (1858–1942) 77 human experience. He Kiel (Ph. Franz (1858–1942) J G Fought. In Maines D R & Morrone ing of hypotheses and the formulation of theoretical T J (eds.) (2000). the obdurate features of human group life and be CA: AltaMira. . Boas was self-taught in linguistics. Linguis- away from racism. He came to the United States in lish (1889) an insight into naı̈ve impressions of foreign 1886. specializing in psychophysics and was more successful in establishing standards for lin- geography. Herbert Blumer: George Herbert Mead and human conduct. he made an immensely significant contribution to American linguistics. 1881). 243–249. ‘Preface. shifting its focus from museums of artifacts to academic and field research. Primitive Languages. He strove always to reorient the field guage Situation. and managing anthropology exhibits at expression of what became the phonemic principle. he soon body of observation.’ In Morrone T J (ed. Further. Boas.) representing the tradition associated with Blumer’s Herbert Blumer: George Herbert Mead and human scholarship. including language sounds that is a very early and independent teaching. Englewood Cliffs. In Morrone T J (ed. work of Herbert Blumer. Walnut Creek. Relativism. recorded text. Walnut Creek. In these The magnitude of his overall contribution to the de- years he also began his long examination of Kwakiutl. even after making allowances cultures. an affiliation he retained for the rest of his is only slightly exaggerated in Bloomfield’s memorial life. Industrialization as an agent of social science would be valid. his In 1899 he secured an appointment at Columbia brilliant student. ing figures. including much carefully made Columbia the source from which the profes. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Entire issue on Bibliography Herbert Blumer’s legacy. His impact on symbolic interactionism Lyman S M & Vidich A J (eds.’’ spread.. whether overt or tacit. ix–xviii. USA can anthropology and the mentor of many of its lead- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. with linguistics as a See also: Bloomfield. method. Selected works of has been permanently recognized by the society Herbert Blumer: a public philosophy for mass society. which is Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Spring). the Chicago World’s Fair (1892–1895). In memoriam: Herbert Blumer Blumer H (1969). Human nature and collective be- havior: papers in honor of Herbert Blumer. his contribution was highly of merchants. Cultural Evolution of Language. public philosophy: an analysis and interpretation of the When the Society for the Study of Symbolic Inter. working for a time at assorted jobs. Claremont. He graduated from the University of respectable. The empirical materials of this Blumer H (1990). generalizations. Boas. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 16. velopment of field linguistics and the study of Native Tsimshian.

shaped around the previously mentioned kinds of Lyman S M & Vidich A J (1988). given to the outstanding graduate student paper best Morrione T J (2004). as a Franz Boas was born in Minden. In Morrone T J (ed. . Herbert Blumer: George Herbert Mead and human conduct. method. 1881). CA: AltaMira. Spring).’’ spread. change: a critical analysis. Fayetteville: University of action formed in 1974. and other Northwest Coast languages and American languages. his In 1899 he secured an appointment at Columbia brilliant student. Human nature and collective be- havior: papers in honor of Herbert Blumer. Claremont. Canada: Lan- core discipline. All rights reserved.) (2000). Franz (1858–1942) 77 human experience. Franz (1858–1942) J G Fought. specializing in psychophysics and was more successful in establishing standards for lin- geography. His impact on symbolic interactionism Lyman S M & Vidich A J (eds. He strove always to reorient the field guage Situation. In Maines D R & Morrone ing of hypotheses and the formulation of theoretical T J (eds. and permit the test. He Kiel (Ph. George Herbert (1863–1931). the Chicago World’s Fair (1892–1895). Englewood See also: Mead.) representing the tradition associated with Blumer’s Herbert Blumer: George Herbert Mead and human scholarship. including much carefully made Columbia the source from which the profes. an affiliation he retained for the rest of his is only slightly exaggerated in Bloomfield’s memorial life. NJ: Prentice-Hall. the sionalization of American anthropology would tools of phonetic and structural description. with its annual Herbert Blumer Award. Industrialization as an agent of social science would be valid. Germany to a family linguist in his own right. his contribution was highly of merchants. Entire issue on Bibliography Herbert Blumer’s legacy.D. generalizations. he made an immensely significant contribution to American linguistics. Further. shifting its focus from museums of artifacts to academic and field research. work of Herbert Blumer. Sapir. His first field work was conducted in guistic field work than in re-inventing historical and Baffin Land in 1883. including language sounds that is a very early and independent teaching. Social order and the materials. the obdurate features of human group life and be CA: AltaMira. His focus of his interests began to shift from geography background in perceptual psychology led him to pub- to anthropology. recorded text. whether overt or tacit. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 16. 243–249. The empirical materials of this Blumer H (1990). As the developer and impresario of modern Ameri- CA. From his secure academic position.. supporter. NJ: Prentice-Hall. ix–xviii. Englewood Cliffs. tic Anthropology. Relativism. Cultural Evolution of Language. In memoriam: Herbert Blumer Blumer H (1969). Interpretive theory would confront Blumer H (2004). USA can anthropology and the mentor of many of its lead- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. his friend. reliable. Symbolic Interaction 11(1) (1988. Cliffs. working for a time at assorted jobs. Symbolic interactionism: perspective and (1900–87). ‘Preface.). and Leonard Bloomfield. and managing anthropology exhibits at expression of what became the phonemic principle. Blumer was an immediate Arkansas Press. Pomona College. He graduated from the University of respectable. and forged. Boas. velopment of field linguistics and the study of Native Tsimshian. he soon body of observation. Walnut Creek. ing figures. Walnut Creek. He was a master of administration and fund statement (1943: 198): ‘‘Boas amassed a tremendous raising. He came to the United States in lish (1889) an insight into naı̈ve impressions of foreign 1886.). with linguistics as a See also: Bloomfield. Linguis- away from racism. apparently this is when the comparative linguistics as a tool of culture history. Wiseman J P (1987). public philosophy: an analysis and interpretation of the When the Society for the Study of Symbolic Inter. Leonard (1887–1949). In these The magnitude of his overall contribution to the de- years he also began his long examination of Kwakiutl. which is Urbana: University of Illinois Press. even after making allowances cultures. for the personal contributions of Edward Sapir. New York: DeGruyter. almost single-handed. Boas. Primitive Languages. Shibutani S (ed.) (1970). Boas was self-taught in linguistics. conduct. University. Selected works of has been permanently recognized by the society Herbert Blumer: a public philosophy for mass society.’ In Morrone T J (ed.

depending on the kind of sign vehicle (1946/1971a: 130) seems important: that intervenes. be language – as here defined – is unique to man. as a living If language is considered as synonymous with being not only able to use signs (capable of semiosis) ‘communication.e.g. language is not ver. which is not necessarily limited But even if these conditions were met [i.’ animals no doubt also possess lan- but also able to reflect on signs through signs (capable guage. not have language. Macmillan (reprinted 1966. they do speech but speech is a specification of language. semiotics is specific to human semiosis (i. although they do communicate. For though the definition of language: animal signs may be interconnected.. common to members of the inter. Bulletin 40. term for the former. Stocking G W (1974).. which produce them according to limitations of combi- mon to a number of interpretants: this is linguistic nations necessary for the signs to form a language system. language. traces left on a posemiotics). ‘On alternating sounds. and distinguishes be. Handbook of American Indian lan. 331–351. and interconnected in such a way that animals may be said to infer.e. not occur together.. of course.’ American Anthro. the object of anthroposemiotics (see Anthro. the term ‘language’ in today’s material medium. . Papers. The signs in a language must constitute a system of it identifies semiosis and life). then animals certainly do and nonverbal human signs. DC: Bureau of Ameri. Washington. producible by the members of the interpreter-family. gestures) or the products semiosis. no evidence that these signs are combined by animals 2. Such considerations strongly favor the hypothesis that preter-family. behavior with general reference to the organism (i. Boas F (ed. ogy. New York: Free Press).e.’ reserving the term language as a special complex sign-processes. signs with a relative constan- Following Charles Morris’s and Thomas Sebeok’s cy of signification in every situation in which a terminological specifications. New York: ica: Language Situation. Franz (1858–1942) Edward (1884–1939). Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. preters. linguistic categories as a window to the human mind. there is 1. tional signs – that is. Comsigns are either activities Body language belongs to the sphere of anthropo. 1858–1906. Boas F (1940). In a language each sign has a signification com. Mackert M (1993). In fact. Structuralism. Franz Boas: The early years. guage is acoustic language as much as the gestural or On this subject. of the organisms (e. etc. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. the fifth requirement is a harder hurdle. Lan.) (1911). if all the other to the verbal in a strict sense. 3. on the contrary. Language is composed of a plurality of signs. and not in others in order to form a variety of man animals. but such differences are not then regarded as linguistic. Race. and culture. Bibliography Cole D (1999). Bloomfield L (1943). In this view – that is. Body Language A Ponzio. 5.’ Language 19.. The signs that constitute a language are plurisitua- sign behavior). If. interconnected signs combinable in some ways tween ‘signs in human animals’ and ‘signs in nonhu. All rights reserved.g. In this acceptation. from communication and determined by the five cri- bal language alone: Language refers to both verbal teria mentioned previously. Italy differences of signification for individual inter- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. human 4. language is spe- cific to man as a semiotic animal – that is. language is distinguished of semiotics).. Historiographia Linguistica 20. signification. the following statement by Morris the tactile. Boas F (1860–1942). Bari. sounds. of such activities (e. 47–53. or constructed objects). United States of Amer. Books. In others words.’ pologist 2. Università di Bari. The signs constituting a language must be ‘com- Body Language as Human Semiosis signs’ – that is. semiotics describes sign sign of the sign-family in question appears. New York: Basic can Ethnology.. Even if some of the conditions that enable us to speak taining to linguistics) – language is not reduced to of language would seem to occur in animals. whereas there may. ‘Franz Boas. The shaping of American anthropol- guages.78 Boas. 198. Following Morris requirements were met in nonhuman animal communica- (1946/1971a: 112–114). 1883–1911: A Franz Boas reader. ‘The roots of Franz Boas’ view of Boas F (1889). there are five criteria for tion]. from a semiotic and not a linguistic perspective (per.

semiotics describes sign sign of the sign-family in question appears. In this acceptation. Bari. Even if some of the conditions that enable us to speak taining to linguistics) – language is not reduced to of language would seem to occur in animals. if all the other to the verbal in a strict sense. of course. 1858–1906. behavior with general reference to the organism (i. DC: Bureau of Ameri. language.. In fact. New York: Basic can Ethnology. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. ‘Franz Boas. The signs that constitute a language are plurisitua- sign behavior). Bulletin 40. guage is acoustic language as much as the gestural or On this subject. Boas F (1940). tional signs – that is. the fifth requirement is a harder hurdle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. signs with a relative constan- Following Charles Morris’s and Thomas Sebeok’s cy of signification in every situation in which a terminological specifications. and interconnected in such a way that animals may be said to infer. the term ‘language’ in today’s material medium.g. language is distinguished of semiotics). Structuralism. Lan. no evidence that these signs are combined by animals 2. and distinguishes be. Following Morris requirements were met in nonhuman animal communica- (1946/1971a: 112–114). traces left on a posemiotics). although they do communicate. In a language each sign has a signification com.. Boas F (1860–1942).. on the contrary. Washington. Body Language A Ponzio. common to members of the inter...g. signification. 5. Comsigns are either activities Body language belongs to the sphere of anthropo. of such activities (e. gestures) or the products semiosis. from a semiotic and not a linguistic perspective (per. 198.’ American Anthro. ‘The roots of Franz Boas’ view of Boas F (1889). the object of anthroposemiotics (see Anthro. Language is composed of a plurality of signs. language is spe- cific to man as a semiotic animal – that is. Books. from communication and determined by the five cri- bal language alone: Language refers to both verbal teria mentioned previously. All rights reserved. Papers. New York: Free Press). sounds. Such considerations strongly favor the hypothesis that preter-family.78 Boas. human 4. depending on the kind of sign vehicle (1946/1971a: 130) seems important: that intervenes. they do speech but speech is a specification of language. ‘On alternating sounds. not have language. Franz Boas: The early years. United States of Amer. Università di Bari. linguistic categories as a window to the human mind. Bloomfield L (1943). term for the former. . For though the definition of language: animal signs may be interconnected. which is not necessarily limited But even if these conditions were met [i.) (1911). The signs in a language must constitute a system of it identifies semiosis and life). the following statement by Morris the tactile.e. as a living If language is considered as synonymous with being not only able to use signs (capable of semiosis) ‘communication. The shaping of American anthropol- guages. The signs constituting a language must be ‘com- Body Language as Human Semiosis signs’ – that is. 47–53. Bibliography Cole D (1999). Macmillan (reprinted 1966.’ Language 19. 331–351. Franz (1858–1942) Edward (1884–1939). semiotics is specific to human semiosis (i. Stocking G W (1974). not occur together. producible by the members of the interpreter-family. and not in others in order to form a variety of man animals. Handbook of American Indian lan. of the organisms (e. 1883–1911: A Franz Boas reader. be language – as here defined – is unique to man. and culture.’ pologist 2. Boas F (ed. there is 1. Italy differences of signification for individual inter- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd.’ reserving the term language as a special complex sign-processes. or constructed objects).e. Mackert M (1993). then animals certainly do and nonverbal human signs. etc. If. In others words. ogy.’ animals no doubt also possess lan- but also able to reflect on signs through signs (capable guage. Historiographia Linguistica 20.e. but such differences are not then regarded as linguistic.. preters. Race. interconnected signs combinable in some ways tween ‘signs in human animals’ and ‘signs in nonhu. whereas there may. which produce them according to limitations of combi- mon to a number of interpretants: this is linguistic nations necessary for the signs to form a language system. language is not ver. In this view – that is. New York: ica: Language Situation. 3. there are five criteria for tion].

However. to reflect on sign materials. in all planetary semiosis). because the entire sign process takes place in a All animal species have models to construct their biological. yond the sign-behavior of animals. This explains the evolution of hominids into sponse before being interpreted as a sign by an inter- Homo sapiens sapiens. and reconstruction too the interpreted is already an interpretant re- with a finite number of elements that may be com- sponse before being interpreted as a sign by the inter- posed and recomposed in an infinitely great variety of pretant. such may be (1) an inorganic body. 1991: 27–28). but medium is also the world in . and the similarity of human and animal sign-behavior as Common to these sign systems is their foundation in genuine as the difference. Sebeok. As Morris (1946/1971b: 13) concludes his dis- human language is characterized by the fact that its cussion of the distinction between nonhuman animal signs can be combined to form compound signs. and lan- by ‘syntax’ – that is. On guage. the metabolic inorganic object or manufactured inorganic object. therefore. code. The continuity is as real as the discontinuity. it must have a ‘channel. the possibility of using a finite guage signs rest upon. In body signs of symp- development. Body Language 79 This means that by comparison with animal signs. and never completely take the number of signs to produce an infinite number of place of [italics added]. This conception is very close to Sebeok’s ject. of life (i. in terms the contrary. However. they are that is. and traces) eling device able to produce an infinite number of the interpreted sign is already an interpretant re- worlds. the distinctive feature of language a channel of access to the object interpreted. than one channel. ‘semiotics. sapiens or speechless creatures (‘se- All species communicate in a world peculiar to miosis of symptomatization. channels may be acoustic (air. presuppose. Semiosis may engage with body language and human semiosis. such as a natural as the genetic code. functions in terms of syntax – that is. to the end When an organism or a machine takes an object as a sign of another object. chemical. the simpler signs which they combinations through recourse to given rules. or (2) an organic primary modeling system can produce an indefinite number of models and worlds. in semiosis of communication where of construction. and the neural code) is syntax. clues. on that which has already been modeled). Body language includes different sign systems. Consequently. the human preter (‘semiosis of information’). and models (i. language intended as a specific human modeling All sign processes include the body in some sense device (Sebeok. water. or thermal.. or lan- come to life for the purpose of being interpreted.’ a of using such materials in new modeling processes. or technical medium. However. Chan- nels and media are different and consequently have with respect to other zoosemiotic systems (although different ways to connect sign and body. as is frequently the case in human tween signs and bodies that is found in all the universe communication.’ Body languages are semiotical. We are referring to the human ability interpreted as a sign. deconstruction.’ in which the sign is that species alone ensuing from the type of modeling unintentional. In the early stages of its which the sign is intentional). 1991. tactile. chemical and physical with regard to energy. magnetic. On this sub- ment.’ in characteristic of that species. It signs and human signs. signs. 2001b). the hominid was endowed with a mod- tomatization semiosis (symptoms. the following observation is similar to Sebeok’s when he states that language (he too distinguishing conception of human signs: it from the communicative function) is characterized But language-behavior is still sign-behavior. human language (and the would seem. means. the immune code.e.e. that in the last analysis. This implies ‘Medium’ can be used as a synonym of channel continuity from nonhuman animal signs to human (Sebeok. several channels and also a simultaneous use of more body language belongs to the general connection be. the interpreted may be a sign only the same construction pieces may be assembled in an because it receives an interpretation from the inter- infinite number of ways. and ‘semiosis of communication. through which and in this case. Body Language and the Sign–Body and solids) or optical (reflected daylight or biolu- General Connection minescence.. and language is the model belonging to human beings. that is. substance or a living being (organism or components) belonging to H. passageway to access it. and solids with regard to matter. Possible channels are gases. this postlanguage symbols it makes possible) goes far be- ‘capacity for combination’ is the most distinctive ele. social. 1991: 27). This is what is intended by specific human semiosis – liquids. this response is not oriented to being interpreted as a sign. The reason why it is possible for such animals to produce a limitless number of pretant. The source this feature is present in endosemiotic systems. it must have world. it does not worlds is that the human modeling device. The previous discussion demonstrated the connection electric. this interpretant response is intended to be different forms. Concern- ing the latter.

However. Iconic gested. olfactory. sounds. materiality at more or less high levels of complexity. material.e. simulation.. Materiality of the signans (Petrilli. we may consciousness. or course of being ‘burdened’ with matter. we may say that the body is in the sign be transformed into a sign while still belonging to the (i. objectivity independent from con- In contemporary general semiotics. It is ideological materiality. as well as signifying other- holistic expression is Sebeok’s ‘global semiotics. It is this kind of materiality that interests us when the sphere of anthroposemiosis it is also ‘semiotic a body is taken into consideration and studied as a materiality.’ to use or ‘semiotic animal. and culture..80 Body Language which semiosis takes place. material things. 1845/1968: 42).. physical materiality As a body. The iconic mode of representation The following distinction is proposed: The expres.. is first and foremost the ‘icon. Sebeok showed the variety of As Marx (Marx and Engels.e. 1929/1973: 10): inextricable nexus among sign. gustatory. Sebeok’s conception of the semiosic character of liv- Signs are bodies. and . various life-forms. the physical bond that links together body. as Sebeok beings where sign processes are languageless. Rossi-Landi. Peirce’s item of nature. .e. In any type of semiosis there is alone it exists for me personally as well’’ (Marx and a connection between signs and bodies. their nonsign uses and functions. and/or articulation (elaboration materi- ality). ‘‘From the start the ‘spirit’ is afflicted with the signs can thus be vocal. and instru. and for that reason and social institutions. a signs stands in some direct simulative relation to their human world).. . have become signs in a world modeled by living Iconicity is the default form of semiosis. Using other signata than the signatum of any specific inter- the formula employed by Marcel Danesi to sum up pretive route) (Ponzio. and it reflects and refracts another reality sively that in anthroposemiosis there exists an from itself (Voloshinov.’ the ness materiality (i.’’ Here. or consumption can become typology of signs). sounds’’: This is about as the primordial representational strategy in the its physical materiality. language exist in an independent realm from life’’ 1990: 365–401.e. In this double sense that as human primary modeling.e. iconicity is a basic signifying strategy in reality. the physical object may ing beings. In his works. body is a sign because of its historicosocial materiali- ity of the signans is ‘semiosic materiality. A sign does not simply modeling device. It may be a biological. . Like Peirce. life: This is about the semiotic materiality of language social. 1990: 15–61.’ Semiotic materiality is historicosocial human sign (i. i. manifestations of iconicity in different species. as sign. . nor the and materiality. extraintentional The Body in the Sign materiality (i. . of which the most sciousness and volition). Sebeok viewed iconicity is ‘‘agitated layers of air.. 1992: 271–299) is not (Marx and Engels. 1994: 42–45). and as mental materiality (nonsign bodily residues of non. Neither the thought.’ In exist as a part of reality – it reflects and refracts another other words. any The type of sign (according to Charles S. language ential domains.e. Language is ‘‘the immediate signantia. elaboration. . or resemblance. Danesi (1998: 10) considers iconicity human consciousness and the organization of human as an aspect of utmost relevance in the study of signs. a Rossi-Landi. mind. media/channels and significata. 1845/1968: 42).e. in short. life is defined by semiosis). it is material in a semi- verbal signs. the possibility of engendering criterion of life (i. the sign is material in a physical sense. which here tactile in their form. However. 1985: 65–82).’ and in ty. In the human animal. of living body) is semiosis. signata and Engels. imitation. is the relation of the sign with its referent through sion ‘semiosic corporeality’ is used for bodies that replication. human historicosocial matter. referents. language is also human species.’ this means that semiosis is the Rossi-Landi’s terminology. In human worlds modeled by language. and demonstrated by documenting that in vastly different semiotic corporeality is used where bodies that are species the manifestation of the capacity to produce signs presuppose a world modeled by language (i. in which the body lives and orga- a sign acquiring in the process a meaning that goes nizes its world on the basis of its species-specific beyond its given particularity. ‘‘Language is as old as connects medium to model and modeling. technology. 1845/1968: 503–504). of language. world of physical matter due to ‘sign work. in a semiotic framework). 1998: 16). it defers to something external to terns of semiosis in nature and culture show persua- itself. limited to extrasign materiality. Signs also are particular. semiosis actuality of thought. or technical medium. body. More than this. sug.. otic sense. language is practical consciousness refer to semiosis in the world of technical instruments that exists also for other men. Studies on the manifestation pat- something else. it is material in a semiosic sense. visual. As a sign. It may be that in humans too all makes its appearance in the form of agitated layers of signs start out as a simulative relation to their refer- air. and culture body acquires meaning engendered in the relation to (Danesi. (the body of the signans and its channel).

ment and unemployment. as an autonomous sphere of private interests. mind. in disseminated at a worldwide level. transfer of the workforce.. the global market. in the form functional edge) takes place through the body and human pri. – production. On this subject. another argument is added to those proposed Danesi (1998: 18–20) refers to the conception that by Danesi in order to consider the implications of the iconic mode of representation is the primary the formula ‘the body in the sign’ for education. which expresses the denied request of the forms of modeling that children learn in the cul. This inextricable The Body in the Languages of nexus manifests itself in the form of iconical rep- Globalization and ‘Grotesque Realism’ resentational behavior. communicative exchange. characteristic of emigration mary modeling system and proceeds from iconicity to and migration. ‘‘Iconicity is. in effect. semiosic stage – rather than the subject matter to be The planetary perspective of global semiotics learned – should therefore be the focus of education. and in the form of exposition to war tural context. 1998: 17). otic approach to education. in the form employ- semiosic process in which children acquire knowl. To recognize that the body is. states Danesi. Life over the whole planet is now of the learner and the determination of his or her involved (even compromised and put at risk). ‘the body in modeling system. and the pervasiveness of communication eling system possessed by different species. called language by Sebeok. evidence of this nexus’’ (Danesi. incorporation of the body in the lan- opment in the body–sign–culture relation implies. lives. what the Russian psychologist Vygotsky (1934/ isolated biological entity. which suggests that semiosis la has implications for an adequate consciousness is grounded in the experiential realm of sense. chapters of his 1986 book – in the bond that links semiosis. he or she neity itself. allows for the necessary distance and indeclinable The main implication of the formula ‘the body in the responsibility (a responsibility without alibis) for an sign’ and modeling theory for education is of a method. as guages of globalized communication is not limited to Danesi (1998: 61) states. in case of the human species on the ontogenetic and the form of normality and deviation. the key to successful learning. This and comprehensive interpretation of communica- principle has a philosophical antecedent in John tion under present-day semiosis conditions (i. arguably. ment (well-being and consumerism) as well as in the The living body is initially an iconic sign – that is. hospitality. in the form phylogenetic levels. This is valid too in the of survival). infinite. If the teacher is familiar with the forms main imprisoned within the confines of contempora- of the semiosic process in human learning. ior. languages of globalized communication incorporate otic animal. Natural learning flow (i. as belonging to the indi- 1962) called the ‘proximal zone’ of learning. the semi. vidual. approach to contemporaneousness that does not re- ological nature. that the semiosic capacities human life alone. and planned as the sign with reference to human ontogenetic devel. sation first and reflection later – but it is connected In the current age. in form of underdevelopment (poverty and impossibility a world iconically modeled. 1998: 37). a through the whole production cycle (communication species perceives according to its own particular ana. Due to its species-specific modeling the sign’ highlights that globalization and therefore system. the integration and emargination. and culture. con- body is modeled differently through the innate mod. in determining at what point the learning of the individual as a separate and self-sufficient enti- phase is ready to be overtaken by the following – that ty.e.. In fact.’ Included as goals in education are the capacity for Consequently. means of bodily semiosis as the ‘iconicity hypothesis. the phase named ‘globalization’). would be in a better position to help the learner acquire The controlled insertion of bodies into languages of knowledge and skill more effectively and efficiently. another principle of global semiotics criticism. sumerism. Again. The semi. goes hand in hand with the spread of the concept lies. the production apparatus of global communication In fact. characterized by the auto- with modeling theory: what is acquired through the mated industrial revolution. The body is understood and experienced as an is. as the psychologist and Such an attitude has led to the almost total extinction semiotician Vygotsky claimed. the previously mentioned formu- esis’ (Danesi. not only is a sophisticated modeler of the human life in all its manifestations. is indispensable for an of cultural practices and worldviews based on . ‘Life in all its world but also has a remarkable ability to re-create manifestations’ refers to life in the form of develop- his world in an infinite number of forms. Body Language 81 He emphasizes the important role of iconicity – appropriate foresight of the ‘zones of proximal develop- documented by Sebeok especially in the final three ment’ of each particular learner. body. in the form of health and of disease. in Locke – according to which all ideas came from sen. and responsible behav- or semiotics of life is the ‘sense-implication hypoth. and con- tomical structure and to its own particular kind of sumption of goods that are messages). social conscience. Homo.e. Here.

as borne out by ‘poetic’ capacity to model different possible worlds at Einstein’s testimonial or by what we know about the basis of communication among members of the Mozart’s and Picasso’s abilities to model intricate early hominid species. had language but also manifested it in the form of vate. from the world. Consequently. Following Sebeok. auditory or visual compositions in their heads in . in relations of transfor. borrowed from the cognitive sciences) can persist and less language) described by Giambattista Vico in La become very sophisticated indeed in the adult life of scienza nuova. Speech symbiosis with other bodies. the human The interdisciplinary focus of global semiotics and nonverbal system had body languages as communica- attention on the signs of the interconnection between tive devices implicating. similarly to future speech. hominids to H. human and nonhuman. in which communication is exploited evidence from rule-governed behavior. not only for profit. Think of tion. language not reducible to a communicative device: positions of an education that is free from stereotyped. erectus (‘upright We refer to verbal and nonverbal languages of the man. anthroposemiosis was not to transmit messages and nication under present-day conditions. tions that must fit ‘reality’ sufficiently to tend to Language as a modeling system seems to have secure survival in one’s Umwelt. in the manner discussed by Bakhtin (1965) in the forms of carnival of all other primates.0 million years ago. sapiens as a communi- body’ (Bakhtin. the mind.’ ‘The body is in the sign’ – that is. where the body and corporeal latter. mately 300 000 years ago). This in turn is functional to the cation system and developed slowly in H. connected speech.’ indeed. always been an exclusive property of the species Such ‘top-down’ modeling (to use a current jargon Homo. secondary modeling system. had language. with the rise of the bourgeoisie. the sign systems of nonhuman Phylogenesis animals are merely body sign systems. previously mentioned. as indicated by Globalization. human animals live by. However. differently from the and grotesque realism. we may say that language cation and another possible meaning of the proposi.’ whereas speech is ‘ear and tion chosen by Danesi to sum up what Sebeok said: mouth work. whereas sign It appears virtually certain that early hominid forms systems of the human animal (semiotic animal) in- that evolved to Homo erectus had language as an cluding hominids and today’s normal infants are body interior modeling device. semiosis is the bond The relatively simple. and static conception of the body. According to Sebeok’s (2001a: 17–30) reconstruc- exposition and opening of the living body. in body as something that is not defined once and for an articulate and organized world on the basis of all..82 Body Language intercorporeality (i. speech. 2. verbal language or sities of the ‘recent new cannon of the individualized speech appeared solely in H.e. mary modeling device. reciprocal interdependency). that hominids used to com- municate. did not appear until our own immediate archaic mation and renewal that far exceed the limits of sapiens (‘wise man’) ancestors appeared (approxi- individual life. sapiens controlled insertion of bodies into the languages of sapiens also as a cognitive system.5 million years ago) with a brain grotesque body that we may find in all cultures on the volume of 800–1200 cm3 and a far more elaborate planet and in the literary carnivalized genres of all tool kit (including fire).5 or 3. although language as a specific human pri- reinforces it. is essentially ‘mind work. and culture. as a type of primary modeling. and which consists in the inventive. with each other by nonverbal means. Homo habilis (‘handy man. that is not confined to itself. The specific function of language in the evolution of limited.’ more than 1. national literatures. However. Grotesque realism presents the and communicated with mute body languages (i. erectus (included) communicated the ways the body is perceived in popular culture.. on the contrary Thus. living bodies. 1965). namely as a the reproduction cycle of today’s production system.0 million years ago) and H. although not speech. but not speech.e. who. 2.4–2. and distorted ideas and practices of commu. As languages. exceptionally gifted individuals. a modeling system is a tool all these models are more or less pliable representa- with which an organism analyzes its surroundings. worlds. It is an original lingua mutola (a mute. but. This is another give information but to model species-specific human implication of the semiotic global approach for edu. does not weaken the individualistic. are the presup. nonverbal models that non- that links the body. but as flourishing in syntax inherent to human primary modeling). its body signs were already body languages life generally are conceived neither individualistically because they were founded on a specific human pri- nor separately from the rest of terrestrial life and. Division and separatism among the mary modeling system emerged on the scene perhaps sciences are functional to the ideological–social neces. and that normal human infants (in-fans) Body Language and Speech in Human likewise employ are indeed kinds of primary model- ing. However. pri.

we have al- the condition of intercorporeity is the grotesque ready discussed such human signs as gesture. speech) on both the phylogenetic and the relation to the world and to the body of others. dialogue consists of the fact that Western culture.. between bodily characteristics. to frame an indef. 1965) in popular culture. This is espe- external verbal discourse is implied dialogically in cially evident in the double character of verbal and otherness. and languages. to the word of the view of the complex and intricate life of bodies. The concept of the body as an we may now consider some exemplars of body individual. face body (Bakhtin. between body and temperament is The open self Bakhtin maintained that the organism forms a mon. for Bakhtin. vocal songs. On this notes on an animated conversation formed of a single basis. In his works of (‘endomorphy. and similarly to Dostoevsky. of the semiotic animal. and psychic characters of the human individu- living body and environment and opposing the dual. Kanaev. In makes it possible for hominids not only to represent Bakhtin’s view. just as the ‘grotesque body’ (Bakhtin. in mechanistic materialism (e. Both word and self are ty. the sole animal gifted with the eal expression of the involvement of one’s body with primary modeling device called language by Sebeok). and ambiguity of sense in verbal language (the dialogic in the sense that they are passively involved expression of centrifugal forces in linguistic life) are with the word and self of the other. illusion.’ of vulgar ex- 1965) is implied in the body of the other. the reflexologists. sapiens.e. the mechanistic view of both a phylogenetic and an ontogenetic sense. 1991: 57–58). rather. he criticized both subjective individualism and vulgar bodily word used with different meanings. Bakhtin criticized both the vitalists and proposed by psychologist William H. an important work on the bond ism of life force and physical–chemical processes. As signs. Dialogue is not an initiative taken by self..’ and ‘ectomorphy’) the 1920s. in spite of oneself. and autonomous body is only an language. Bakhtin formulated the category of ‘carnivalesque’ in his study on Rabelais. gestural ‘language of the public place. nomics – the discipline that studies the relations who subsequently declared that Bakhtin was the au. objective abstraction. Syntax the relation between base and superstructure). The image that most adequately expresses As the expression of body language.. Most interesting on this subject is Bakhtin’s Bakhtin’s dialogism cannot be understood separately reference (in Voloshinov. biological and philosophical subject titled ‘Contem. dialogue and body are closely interconnected. Body language includes signs studied by physiog- porary vitalism’ (signed by the biologist I. dialogue in the Dostoevsky. ontogenetic level. The carnivalesque participates in one’s own word alludes always and in spite of itself. I.g. dialogue is the embodied. especially facial fea- thor). ‘great experience. who used the typology istic unit with the surrounding world. dialogue is not only cognitive and func. and bodily movements used language of the public place. On the basis of the discussion of an issue that is tional to abstract truth. and in the masks of to communicate in phases antecedent to verbal lan- carnival. Sheldon in . separate. 1929/1973) to Dostoevsky’s from his biosemiotic conception of sign. As Bakhtin shows in the 1963 clearly emerges from Bakhtin’s analysis of novels by edition of his book on Dostoevsky.’ ‘mesomorphy. In his description of the interaction between tures. intercorpor. ductili- but. al. These are nonverbal signs used by In 1926. semiosphere. which he extended to culture Dialogism of Body Language at a world level insofar as it is human and not just In Bakhtin’s view. Such inite number of possible worlds in the sense of Leibniz approaches either dematerialize the living body or (Sebeok. In semiotics. This is the body in its vital and indissoluble guage (i. but it is also a life need essentially methodological and that also concerns grounded in the inevitable interconnection of the body language (which coincides with the human self’s body with the body of other.e. uniquely among animals. other. Internal and also connected with the grotesque body. Body Language 83 anticipation of transcribing this onto paper or canvas. Plurivocality. sive. the special semioses characteristic For Bakhtin. physicalize it in terms of mechanistic relations. Bakhtin published an article on the infants and hominids before the advent of H. In pression that is simultaneously laudatory and offen- fact. Un- Foremost Expressions of Body Language like platonic dialogue. the body of the other. each of these different trends is immediate ‘reality’ (in the sense discussed previously) vitiated by false scientific claims that underestimate but also.’ understood as offering a global whether it knows it or not. the dialogic relation between body and world. According to Bakhtin. as well as both Freudianism and This kind of nonverbal modeling is indeed primary. there cannot be dialogism among disembodied minds. by Charles Morris (1948). the human person does not enter into polyphonic novel has its roots in the carnivalesque dialogue with the other out of respect for the other language of the grotesque body. in vulgar expression. i.

in gesture. Body language involves modifications of the cultur. ics: Theory. dynamic relationship with the outside the distinctive pheromonal function of the human world and social environment. an individual takes up an both the novel Das perfume by Patrick Süskind. New York: Prentice Hall. Danesi M (1998). Chronotop 4. stated (Sebeok.) (Sebeok. chemical signature now studied by semiochemistry By using intonation and gesticulation. In this bond also reside the also has an iconic aspect (i.’ In Morris tween verbal language and body language largely C (ed. Moreover. can be grafted onto the human primary 1845.).) device. Signif- phrenology. ‘Sovremennyj vitalizm.e. it also signifies on the aesthetic–creative forces of body language that create basis of similarity): In the passage cited by Sebeok. Gestures: Pragmatic Aspects. Sebeok Sebeok. 1979). especially ritual dances. 99–115. On this subject. The body in the sign: Thomas A. Morris C (1971a). Morris C (1948). based active social position with regard to certain values. latter is further proof of the fact that man as a semi. Verbal intonation and gesture participate of odors as signs. palmistry. gesticulation of the face. and piercing to maquillage. Sebeok cited Bakhtin (1926/1983). ‘Discourse in life and discourse in poetry. monastic signs (Sebeok and Umiker.) (1968). Oxford: RPT. The and semiotics.’ a ‘component of a complex body also includes dance. but this body language lating sign–mind–culture. (New edn. 73–398. 33–42. Human odors are classified by sense. Selected works in one volume. Petrilli S otic animal is not the speaking animal but the animal (trans. Also.’ In Shukman A (ed. Peirce’s comment is the following: ‘‘Surely there must be some subtle resemblance between the odor and the See also: Anthroposemiotics. such as Marx K & Engels F (1968). and grapholo. Rabelais and his world. val. this position is conditioned by social istry. gy or practices such as handwriting authentication Structuralism. Fano G (1992). tattoos. and a passage from Peirce concerning the study instances. The open self. anthropometry. (Original work published 1946. and identification by fingerprinting or by individual unique sequences of DNA molecules. In this favorite perfumes. Performance in Culture. It is not true that dogs only lack speech. which belong to some complex sign system important phenomenon of language creativity called or merely to the binary presence/absence system. 9–23. Toronto: Legas. Karna- the deaf-mute only lacks speech. Origins and nature of language. (Original that is endowed with language. Cambridge: space. Sign Language: Overview. Kinesics. with special reference to women’s in the creative modeling of human language. Gesture: impression I get of this or that woman’s nature’’ Sociocultural Analysis. Social Semiotics.. Instead. body Bibliography language is studied by the branch of semiotics called proxemics – that is.’ understanding gesture broadly to include which any small body movement can have a precise facial expression.) .’ In fact.).) modeling device. including the use gesticulation. understood as human primary modeling. (Sebeok.) This means that other nonverbal systems. in ‘intonational metaphor. London: Lawrence & Wishart. Silence: Cultural Aspects.’ Bakhtin (1926/1983) ob- a wide range of cultural alterations operated on served that an intimate kinship binds the intonational the body from brands. Body language a ‘linguistic gesture. and gesture belong to body language. Signs of body language are also signs that relate to Semiotic Anthropology. Moscow: Progress Publishers. Intonation meaning. 2001b: 313). and specifically the al body. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. entirely on the indexical facets of human semiochem.84 Body Language The varieties of human physique and Varieties of depends on their common participation in language temperament from a semiotic perspective. oda 1. the word itself was originally of belladonna to dilate the pupils. systems as the ‘sign language’ of the American Indians (Original work published 1926.) animal. Hall in the MIT Press. Dogs Kanaev I I (1926). (Original work and creative mental functions as any other human published 1845–1846. as a pathology.) Bakthin school papers. Biosemiotics. and they ex- We have also mentioned cultural modifications in press a living. the stripping of the metaphor in real-life speech with the ‘metaphor of flesh. 1987). (1993) in Dialog. 2001b: 96). Bakhtin M M (1983). It must be emphasized that the connection be. due to these sign systems the Marx K & Rayzankaya S (eds. (Original work published the gestural. context of cultural anthropology. The German ideol- deaf-mute is able to accomplish the same inventive ogy. originally developed by Edward T. body language includes such human sign Russian Poetics in Translation No.’ Chelovek i prir- and other nonhuman animals lack language. Finally. the semiotics of interpersonal Bakhtin M M (1965). they belong to the anthroposemiotic bond re- Sebeok as indexical signs. Concerning verbal intonation. and organize artistic forms. Indexicality: Theory. the primary modeling work published 1972. and the language of deaf-mutes. ‘Signs language and behavior. 10. Of course.

Philologie in 1809.) (1997–2004). Calefato P & Petrilli S (1994).). Bloomington: Graphis. Indiana University Press. (Original work published 1946. Italy: Sebeok T A (1981). J. WI: Atwood.). (Original work published Toronto: Toronto University Press. Gruyter. Percorsi della semiotica. W. (2nd edn. Boeckh went to Berlin to attend where he earned high praise in the organization of the ‘Seminar für gelehrte Schulen. then headmaster of the Gymnasium sity. with whom he founded the Berliner Grie- August Boeckh (Figure 1) was born in Karlsruhe on chische Gesellschaft.) Boeckh. graduating as Can. Fol.’ In Petrilli S (ed. Berlin: de Gruyter. Berlin: Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2000). Sebeok T A (2001a). globale. Contributions to the doctrine of signs.’ As a member of the seminar. After November 24. Semiotics unbounded. Robering K & Sebeok T A (eds. In 1812. Essays on the philosophy of Sebeok T A (2001b). Petrilli S (ed. 365–401. Collected papers (8 vols). Rome: Meltemi. I segni fra funzionalità ed eccedenza.). Signs. Austin: Univer- Petrilli S (ed. Sebeok and the signs of life. A handbook on the sign-theoretic MIT Press. the philological seminar. Bari. Petrilli S (2005c). Monastic sign Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2001). More contributions studies in global communication. Man as a sign. Logica. Boeckh.) Posner R. A sign is just a sign. The Netherlands: Mouton. Bari. 1785. Rome: Laterza.’ In Ponzio A.). Between signs and non-signs. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Cambridge. Ponzio A (1990). Modelling systems theory and semiotic analysis. Italy ‘Zum Grauen Kloster. language. Communication and its semiotic bases: Sebeok T A (1986). Lanham: Univer- Petrilli S (1998). Bloomington: cal. in the seminar founded by pervision of mathematician and physicist Johannes Friedrich Creuzer (1771–1858). languages. The Hague. An introduction to semiotics. Linguaggi. Petrilli S & Calefato P (2003). French. Global semiotics. Indiana University Press. and history. Cambridge: Semiotik/Semiotics. Cambridge. University of Sassari. He immediately passed his Ha- lowing the advice of his mother. Sebeok T A (1976). his studies in 1806. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd.) (1987). Petrilli Press. Madison. sity Press of America. Inter. ‘On the materiality of signs. He soon developed a friendship with Professors Buttmann and Heindorf. signs and values in global com. All rights reserved. Boeckh introduced and Friedrich August Wolf (1759–1824) led Boeckh in detail Schleiermacher’s Plato translations in the to break off his theological studies in 1805 and devote Heidelbergische Jahrbücher. Voloshinov V N (1973). The forms of meanings. Italy: Laterza. to the doctrine of signs. The sign & its masters.) (2003). Completing Humboldt offered him a professorship in Berlin. Petrilli S (trans. August (1785–1867) S Fornaro. which was raised to an Ordinariat für Klassische where he received a special education under the su. pretive routes through the open network of signs. Metodica filosofica e scienza dei Peirce C S (1931–1958). Writings on the general theory of signs. Boeckh taught Latin.) Rossi-Landi F (1985). MA: Harvard University Press. Fondamenti di Sebeok T A & Danesi M (2000). Il sentire nella comunicazione de Gruyter. developed . Ponzio A. Petrilli S (2005a). Milan: Mimesis. I think I am a verb. Petrilli S (1990). S (ed. Bloomington: munication. ‘Bodies. von himself to the study of Greek antiquity. filosofia del linguaggio. The influence of Schleiermacher Achim von Arnim (1781–1831). Vygotsky L S (1962). segni. (Original work published 1934. August (1785–1867) 85 Morris C (1971b). Bari. Berlin: de Sebeok T A (ed. he attended the bilitation. relations with Clemens Brentano (1778–1842) and didatus theologicus. he notary Georg Matthäus Boeckh (1735–1790). Toronto: Toronto University Press. The play of musement. dialogica.’ directed by J. Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. Thought and language. Sebeok T A (1991). ideologi. Berlin: de Gruyter. foundations of nature and culture (3 vols). well-known ‘Gymnasium illustre’ in Karlsruhe.) Italy: Graphis. Marxism and the philosophy of Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2005). thereby obtaining an Extraordinariat. New York: Plenum. London: Icon Books. also known as Graeca. Milan: Bompiani. Two years later. language. Sebeok T A (1979).) (2005b). Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press. as the son of court secretary and finishing his dissertation at Halle University. sity of Texas Press.). moved to Heidelberg. teaching and research at the newly founded univer- Bellermann. Through cordial Lorenz Böckmann (1741–1802). Teoria dei segni e del linguaggio. 1929. Matejka L & Titunik I R (trans. MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Rossi-Landi F (1992). Indiana University Press. & ed.

Ponzio A (1990). S (ed. Bloomington: cal. filosofia del linguaggio.). and history. pretive routes through the open network of signs. with whom he founded the Berliner Grie- August Boeckh (Figure 1) was born in Karlsruhe on chische Gesellschaft. After November 24. Toronto: Toronto University Press. Austin: Univer- Petrilli S (ed.) (1997–2004). he notary Georg Matthäus Boeckh (1735–1790).). Contributions to the doctrine of signs. signs and values in global com.’ In Ponzio A. Cambridge. Berlin: Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2000). Writings on the general theory of signs. thereby obtaining an Extraordinariat. also known as Graeca. then headmaster of the Gymnasium sity. Monastic sign Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2001). sity Press of America. Petrilli S (1990). August (1785–1867) 85 Morris C (1971b). the philological seminar. his studies in 1806. Metodica filosofica e scienza dei Peirce C S (1931–1958). Completing Humboldt offered him a professorship in Berlin. Gruyter. (2nd edn. Sebeok and the signs of life.) (2003). French.) (2005b). (Original work published 1946. Il sentire nella comunicazione de Gruyter. Petrilli Press.) (1987). Robering K & Sebeok T A (eds. Logica. Italy: Sebeok T A (1981). MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Rossi-Landi F (1992). Berlin: de Gruyter. teaching and research at the newly founded univer- Bellermann. Modelling systems theory and semiotic analysis. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Petrilli S (2005c). Petrilli S (trans. Boeckh went to Berlin to attend where he earned high praise in the organization of the ‘Seminar für gelehrte Schulen. In 1812. Berlin: de Gruyter. Sebeok T A (2001a). Communication and its semiotic bases: Sebeok T A (1986).) Boeckh. Bari. Cambridge: Semiotik/Semiotics. foundations of nature and culture (3 vols). WI: Atwood. Two years later. graduating as Can. von himself to the study of Greek antiquity. Rome: Laterza. ideologi. The influence of Schleiermacher Achim von Arnim (1781–1831). Voloshinov V N (1973).’ directed by J. Essays on the philosophy of Sebeok T A (2001b). Lanham: Univer- Petrilli S (1998). as the son of court secretary and finishing his dissertation at Halle University. globale. 1785. Indiana University Press. languages. well-known ‘Gymnasium illustre’ in Karlsruhe. Indiana University Press. sity of Texas Press. (Original work published 1934. to the doctrine of signs. Boeckh.). He soon developed a friendship with Professors Buttmann and Heindorf.) Posner R. language. Vygotsky L S (1962). Sebeok T A & Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. Italy ‘Zum Grauen Kloster. I segni fra funzionalità ed eccedenza. Petrilli S & Calefato P (2003). relations with Clemens Brentano (1778–1842) and didatus theologicus. Sebeok T A (1979). Boeckh introduced and Friedrich August Wolf (1759–1824) led Boeckh in detail Schleiermacher’s Plato translations in the to break off his theological studies in 1805 and devote Heidelbergische Jahrbücher.’ In Petrilli S (ed. J. Sebeok T A (1976). Marxism and the philosophy of Ponzio A & Petrilli S (2005). Calefato P & Petrilli S (1994). Boeckh taught Latin. Milan: Bompiani. which was raised to an Ordinariat für Klassische where he received a special education under the su. Cambridge. He immediately passed his Ha- lowing the advice of his mother. Linguaggi. dialogica. Milan: Mimesis. Signs. Petrilli S (ed. Percorsi della semiotica. I think I am a verb. moved to Heidelberg. in the seminar founded by pervision of mathematician and physicist Johannes Friedrich Creuzer (1771–1858). August (1785–1867) S Fornaro. The sign & its masters.) Rossi-Landi F (1985).). A handbook on the sign-theoretic MIT Press. Teoria dei segni e del linguaggio. he attended the bilitation. (Original work published Toronto: Toronto University Press. Between signs and non-signs. The forms of meanings. W. Man as a sign. Indiana University Press. Rome: Meltemi. language. A sign is just a sign. Madison. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press. More contributions studies in global communication. developed . Petrilli S (2005a). University of Sassari. An introduction to semiotics. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Through cordial Lorenz Böckmann (1741–1802). Global semiotics. Fol. The play of musement. Philologie in 1809. 365–401. Bloomington: Graphis. New York: Plenum.) Italy: Graphis. Thought and language. All rights reserved. Ponzio A. London: Icon Books. & ed. Italy: Laterza. segni. Collected papers (8 vols).’ As a member of the seminar. ‘Bodies. Bari. Bari. The Netherlands: Mouton. The Hague. Sebeok T A (1991). Fondamenti di Sebeok T A & Danesi M (2000).). Bloomington: munication. 1929. Semiotics unbounded. MA: Harvard University Press. Inter. Berlin: de Sebeok T A (ed. Matejka L & Titunik I R (trans. ‘On the materiality of signs.

Boeckh was secretary of Dorothea Wagermann. August (1785–1867) education program and becomes even clearer by his dedication to German unification and academic freedom. made him an important con- tact person for both court and state. Niebuhr’s ing and his academy work. Boeckh’s high offices at the university and the Academy. G. By accepting the philology chair. Not only did he remain interested throughout all areas of life and all of its cultural expressions. to preserve his independence. he articulates his wish that science first time in 1814/1815. His numerous versity statutes that were introduced at the Alma speeches. tung der Athener. never joined a commission charged with evaluating the uni. and the anato. August 3. who called himself a mist Carl Asmund Rudolphi (1771–1832). In 1817. however. On four-volume Corpus Inscriptionum Graecum (CIG). transcending the university and the academy. he initiated on behalf of the Academy the death. Harnack. using his initiated the monumental academy projects suc. he also participated actively The over-enthusiastic plan of his youth to create a on a regular basis. and Diels. a task he conscientiously fulfilled until shortly before his death. was raised to university level. In ing and extending the university. In 1832.. torical-antiquarian matters. dent general Gottfried Wagermann. This is illustrated. when Berlin Boeckh did theoretically design and practically imple- University celebrated its 50th birthday. The ambitious 82 as a result of lung disease. Boeckh had become Professor eloquentiae et poeseos. Boeckh married Anna Taube in 1830. to which he was admitted in 1814. e. Boeckh exerted considerable influence over the intellectual life of his time. followed by his refusal to become Kultusminister in 1848. the daughter of superinten- the humanities section for 27 years (1834–1861). profess a liberal point of view and a pugna- A large part of Boeckh’s scientific lifework emerged cious humanism. Wilamowitz. it also involved being the uni- Fotografie: Christel Lehmann).’ – intended commitment to the reform of the Prussian teacher to present an overall picture of Greek life in all of .g. and was elected Rektor first should expand from a one-sided linguistic approach in 1825. Academic freedom found in him within the context of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Even without a political office. com- Boeckh’s commitment reached far beyond the uni. Savigny. enterprise of collecting all antique inscriptions led to Boeckh began with studies on Plato (especially Boeckh’s reputation as the father of epigraphy and ‘Timaios’) and the Pythagorean Philolaos. university documents. by his cultural-historical oeuvre entitled ‘Hellen. After her early In 1815. due to B. He was careful. which focused on the concept of academic mater Berolinensis in 1817. his life in political issues.86 Boeckh. ment an extensive science of classical antiquity. In 1809 he married his friend Schleiermacher. Boeckh’s personal correspondence provides evidence and directed by Boeckh. 1867. He was dean for the the foreword. he took on increasingly influence. As successor of Boeckh was married twice. In Berlin. freedom. Through Greek mu- cessfully implemented by his successors Mommsen. he ostentatiously declined working for the cen- sorship agency. that limitations on freedom of speech made this by no Along with Schleiermacher. to an all-comprehensive exploration of Greek life. last in 1860 at the age of nearly 75. merely accepting the title of Geheimer Regierungsrat. Stadtmuseum Berlin. deviated from his personal opinion. He held this office five times consecutively. Besides lectur. Yet Boeckh. means easy for him. This position in- cluded not only formulating a foreword for the lec- ture timetable each semester and composing all Latin Figure 1 August Boeckh 1857 (Berlin. August Boeckh died at the age of published between 1825 and 1859. sical studies he discovered the field of Greek metrics. he published Die Staatshaushal- administrative tasks within the framework of build. prising as equal components of a complex whole versity. combined with his indisputable intellectual authority as a scholar. Boeckh developed a special interest in rhe- Boeckh was no armchair philologist. thorough mathematical education. the first Attic economic history. one of its most eloquent and persistent defenders. Boeckh ‘Protestant’ in the actual sense of the word. versity’s main speaker on festive occasions.

and a philosopher- language based on the then-recently rediscovered phi. Leipzig: Teubner. cultural-study-based approach Leipzig: Teubner. University of Georgia. Jahrhunderts: Ausstellung zum 200. Augustus Boeckhius. (‘Because. Romania. Berlin. Staatsbibliothek 1835).) 1848). Wilhelm von (1767– vember 1985–18. methodological basis for every research that casts Karlsruhe: Badenia Verlag. Münzfüße sis. Bernd Schneider. therefore. 1275) 87 its political. Lipsiae: Weisel. 1275) E Bell Canon. 2nd edn. grammarian so as to derive the modes of signifying losophies of the ancient Greeks.). as well as his association . also known as Boethius the Dane science: and Boethius of Sweden. 1886.) They developed the notion of ‘speculative grammar. Geburtstag. Hermann and his supporters argued that Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. particularly Aristotle. 1817. Boethius joined the Dominican Order and intertwined: probably served in Dacia. August (1759–1824). begun with a review by Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener. that characterizes a people be comprehended and Boeckhius. ficandi sive Quaestiones Super Priscianum Maiorem (1980). Athens.’’ The dispute. 2. an interdisciplinary. GA. composition.’ The consider modes of signifying. Berlin: Realschulbuch- Hermann of the first issue of CIG journal. As a grammarian. continued handlung. he broke with the linguistic philosophy of Priscian by establishing grammar as a Boethius of Dacia. so as to Modistae produced written works on the nature of consider the properties of objects. Boethius was part of a group One ought to be grammarian. (Repr.) him in such a modern light. Berlin: Reimer. 1980. He was associated with the University of hensibilia ab intellectu et habent causas per se. it is especially Boeckh’s insistence on a solid und Maße des Altertums. August Boeckh. 22. a philosopher. Augustus (ed. (Ausstellung und Katalog. he advanced to Boeckh. vol. Gesammelte Kleine Schriften. Auctoritate et impen- only through language could ‘‘everything else sis Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae. His famous lecture on Pindari carmina quae supersunt cum deperditorum frag- Encyklopädie und Methodologie der Wissenschaften. mentis selectis. 1838. for too many sections of his envisioned trica ratione concinnatis. All rights reserved. from the properties of objects. Encyclopädie und Methodologie heading the realistic philological school in opposition der Philologischen Wissenschaften. Wolf. Greek and Latin. Altertumsforscher. (Translation from McDermott. 1966. Editio secunda given regularly between 1809 and 1865. 1810. de quibus est grammatica.) again in 1277 by the Bishop of Paris. USA of grammar. In this work. Metrologische Untersuchungen über Gewichte. sunt compre- century. Bd. to classical antiquity. No- See also: Greek. Rec. those his theory of language and grammar was based in the things with which grammar is concerned are comprehen- Averroist tradition of Aristotelian philosophy.’ or the function of language as a mirror of what is real His belief that the human soul was not immortal. August. and intellectual Bibliography facets – remained beyond his reach. 1978.’ Boethius found many that grammar is a science. Schneider B. corporis mundani fabrica conflati ex elementis geome- or none at all. for several years. 1–7. Instead. 1828–1843. Boethius of Dacia (fl. Humboldt. August.) Boethius of Dacia (fl. in order that he might of like-minded thinkers called the ‘Modistae. Boethius wrote on the nature and origin that the world was eternal. understood. religious. and grammatica est scientia. Bratuscheck E & to the linguistic-text-critical school or so-called Klussmann R (eds. Berlin: Veit. required reading for every philologist even today. should be correctior. 1980. including parts of speech in Modi Signi- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. ‘Wortphilologie.’) (Quote and translation from of his philosophical writings condemned in 1270 and McDermott.’ of Gottfried Hermann (1772– Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Ancient. economic. Also sible by the intellect and have causes per se. (Repr. Universi- tätslehrer und Wissenschaftsorganisator im Berlin des 19. it follows called a ‘radical Aristotelian. Besides his interdisciplinary empha. It is possible that Boethius believed that philosophy and grammar were later in life. ideo Paris as a teacher of philosophy and grammar. Paleography. He never discarded his central idea of Boeckh. 1825.) Berolini ex Oficina Acade- mica. was born in the early 13th Quia ergo ea. Friedrich Preussischer Kulturbesitz. Heidelbergae. Januar 1986. in the world. 1858–1874. mainly due to Augustii Borckhii Commentatio Academica de Platonica the existence of only insufficient preparatory work.

August. required reading for every philologist even today. Boethius was part of a group One ought to be grammarian. 1275) E Bell Canon. those his theory of language and grammar was based in the things with which grammar is concerned are comprehen- Averroist tradition of Aristotelian philosophy. particularly Aristotle. he advanced to Boeckh. from the properties of objects.) again in 1277 by the Bishop of Paris. (Repr. Wilhelm von (1767– vember 1985–18. 1828–1843. GA. mentis selectis. therefore. in the world. August (1759–1824). Berlin. Universi- tätslehrer und Wissenschaftsorganisator im Berlin des 19. He was associated with the University of hensibilia ab intellectu et habent causas per se. mainly due to Augustii Borckhii Commentatio Academica de Platonica the existence of only insufficient preparatory work. Boethius joined the Dominican Order and intertwined: probably served in Dacia. cultural-study-based approach Leipzig: Teubner. 22. Lipsiae: Weisel.’ or the function of language as a mirror of what is real His belief that the human soul was not immortal. ideo Paris as a teacher of philosophy and grammar. methodological basis for every research that casts Karlsruhe: Badenia Verlag. ficandi sive Quaestiones Super Priscianum Maiorem (1980). All rights reserved. 1966. Wolf. Berlin: Realschulbuch- Hermann of the first issue of CIG journal. Greek and Latin. corporis mundani fabrica conflati ex elementis geome- or none at all. 1858–1874. 1825. 1886. University of Georgia. 1978. in order that he might of like-minded thinkers called the ‘Modistae. Gesammelte Kleine Schriften. should be correctior. for several years. ‘Wortphilologie. 2.). continued handlung. Friedrich Preussischer Kulturbesitz. August. Augustus (ed. Metrologische Untersuchungen über Gewichte. including parts of speech in Modi Signi- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. so as to Modistae produced written works on the nature of consider the properties of objects. Romania. Bernd Schneider. Bd. economic. His famous lecture on Pindari carmina quae supersunt cum deperditorum frag- Encyklopädie und Methodologie der Wissenschaften. Ancient. Leipzig: Teubner. and grammatica est scientia. Altertumsforscher. grammarian so as to derive the modes of signifying losophies of the ancient Greeks. begun with a review by Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener. sunt compre- century. 1810. Berlin: Reimer. Berlin: Veit. August Boeckh. Instead. Geburtstag.) They developed the notion of ‘speculative grammar. (Repr. Humboldt. for too many sections of his envisioned trica ratione concinnatis. and intellectual Bibliography facets – remained beyond his reach. was born in the early 13th Quia ergo ea. Münzfüße sis. also known as Boethius the Dane science: and Boethius of Sweden. Bratuscheck E & to the linguistic-text-critical school or so-called Klussmann R (eds. Paleography. Also sible by the intellect and have causes per se. Heidelbergae. Hermann and his supporters argued that Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 1275) 87 its political. composition. Boethius wrote on the nature and origin that the world was eternal. Editio secunda given regularly between 1809 and 1865. As a grammarian. No- See also: Greek. Athens. as well as his association .’ of Gottfried Hermann (1772– Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Boethius of Dacia (fl.’) (Quote and translation from of his philosophical writings condemned in 1270 and McDermott.) Boethius of Dacia (fl. it is especially Boeckh’s insistence on a solid und Maße des Altertums. Encyclopädie und Methodologie heading the realistic philological school in opposition der Philologischen Wissenschaften. Auctoritate et impen- only through language could ‘‘everything else sis Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae. religious. understood. Jahrhunderts: Ausstellung zum 200. an interdisciplinary. it follows called a ‘radical Aristotelian. It is possible that Boethius believed that philosophy and grammar were later in life. vol. 1–7. In this work. 1980. Rec. 1838.’ Boethius found many that grammar is a science.) him in such a modern light. 2nd edn. he broke with the linguistic philosophy of Priscian by establishing grammar as a Boethius of Dacia. Schneider B. Januar 1986. He never discarded his central idea of Boeckh. 1817. (‘Because.) Berolini ex Oficina Acade- mica. a philosopher. Staatsbibliothek 1835).’ The consider modes of signifying.) 1848). (Ausstellung und Katalog. USA of grammar. 1980. to classical antiquity. Besides his interdisciplinary empha. (Translation from McDermott. Augustus Boeckhius. de quibus est grammatica. and a philosopher- language based on the then-recently rediscovered phi. that characterizes a people be comprehended and Boeckhius.’’ The dispute.

88 Boethius of Dacia (fl. of Linguistic Science 3) (Vol. . It was the first European San- his interest in Sanskrit could be satisfied. Analyzing the received of Pānini’s grammar (Boehtlingk. Turkic vocabulary of Yakut from Mongolian and other borrowings. Boehtlingk provided a descriptive the half of the book consists of indices. but almost St Petersburg. Bibliography mately resulted in the condemnation of his writings by Bursill-Hall G L (1971). development of Sanskrit from the Vedic hymns skrit grammar of Pānini with Indian scholia and his through the late stages of the language. ‘Boethius of Dacia. and De somniis (‘On 19 vols. this (Boehtlingk. but the announced plan of his Sanskrit dictionary (Boehtlingk. 1839–1840). Moscow. and other useful classic in the field of Altaic studies. It was also a historical dictionary. His three best-known works are De summo Maurer A (1967). Russia.) (1980).’ In The Catholic bono (‘On the supreme good’). An offspring of Boehtlingk’s Yakut data that had been collected by A. 1863–1865). also St Petersburg. 530). 1275) with other Averroists such as Siger of Brabant. All rights reserved. Priscianus Caesariensis (d. After a short skrit dictionary based not on Indian lexicographic time in Berlin. also an integral Sanskrit grammar never came into being. Imperial Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg as a where copious Sanskrit resources were available. ca. Steinthal) for the practical analysis of an aggluti. The so-called ‘shorter version’ of on Sanskrit grammar. New York: McGraw-Hill. his philosophical theories kept him at odds Significandi Sive Quaestiones Super Priscianum with the church for the remainder of his life. The Hague: Mouton. (‘On the eternity of the world’). 1851). von Humboldt. During his life Boehtlingk unwritten peripheral Turkic language from Eastern published a number of Indian texts. Otto Nikolaus (1815–1904) S A Romashko. 22). Yakut. Russia and historical philology to distinguish the inherited ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B. In Bonn he published his first work. F. V. The Maiorem. adapted the ideas of early European typological theo- ry (from W. the doctrine of Partes Orationis of the Modistae 1277. The main work of Boehtlingk was the Sanskrit Born into a family of a German merchant in dictionary (Boehtlingk and Roth. a pupil of August Wilhelm von Schlegel and Chr. in 1270 and again in dle ages. Boehtlingk moved to Germany in In 1842 Boehtlingk returned to Russia to enter the 1868. ulti. and H. (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History exact date and place of his death are unknown.) New Catholic Encyclopedia. Godfrey of a Christian and may have joined the Dominican Fontaine’s Abridgement of Boethius of Dacia’s Modi Order. Aristotle and the Stoics on Language. Turkic Languages. Boehtlingk supplements. grammatical commentaries. Otto von Boehtlingk studied known as the St Petersburg dictionary. word and work (Boehtlingk. bishop of Paris. Sanskrit. 1887) contains not data and working with an informant he found in only the text and a German translation. See also: Aristotle and Linguistics. 1879–1889. compiled with assistance of Rudolf von Roth and but in 1835 he moved to Germany. his dictionary. To complete own commentary (Boehtlingk. for a time he interrupted his work on San. which is still considered a root lists. however. representing the Lassen. De aeternitate mundi University of America (ed. At that time. Böhtlingk. Schlegel. 1855–1875). He research fellow (he became a full member of the stayed in Germany until the end of his life. Many of his writings are either lost or remain (Approaches to Semiotics 11). pioneering task. he finished his studies in Bonn as works. in fact includes an enlarged number of entries versus skrit and approached a new. unedited. Although he professed his faith in Christ as McDermott A & Senape C (eds. where he felt that other sanskritologists. A. with the permission of Russian authorities. his second edition Siberia was hardly known. von lexicographical work was a collection of Indian sayings Middendorff’s Siberian expedition. prepared with assistance of many sanskritologists) Instead. most of the examples were Academy commissioned him to systematize the omitted from this version. Pott. the San. the his earlier work. Th. dreams’). first in Jena Academy in 1852). August Wilhelm von nating language and used the methods of comparative (1767–1845). which was Oriental Languages at the university of his native city. See also: Panini. He published a series of articles and later in Leipzig. but on the thorough study of primary texts. Speculative grammars of the mid- Etienne Tempier.

A. with the permission of Russian authorities. It was the first European San- his interest in Sanskrit could be satisfied. Speculative grammars of the mid- Etienne Tempier. Godfrey of a Christian and may have joined the Dominican Fontaine’s Abridgement of Boethius of Dacia’s Modi Order. also St Petersburg. grammatical commentaries. The Maiorem. Although he professed his faith in Christ as McDermott A & Senape C (eds. but almost St Petersburg. but the announced plan of his Sanskrit dictionary (Boehtlingk. Boehtlingk provided a descriptive the half of the book consists of indices. for a time he interrupted his work on San. Böhtlingk. in fact includes an enlarged number of entries versus skrit and approached a new. which is still considered a root lists. See also: Panini. Sanskrit. which was Oriental Languages at the university of his native city. his philosophical theories kept him at odds Significandi Sive Quaestiones Super Priscianum with the church for the remainder of his life. New York: McGraw-Hill. this (Boehtlingk. word and work (Boehtlingk. Schlegel. Analyzing the received of Pānini’s grammar (Boehtlingk. but on the thorough study of primary texts. See also: Aristotle and Linguistics. At that time. Aristotle and the Stoics on Language. After a short skrit dictionary based not on Indian lexicographic time in Berlin. 1879–1889. and De somniis (‘On 19 vols. the San.) New Catholic Encyclopedia. To complete own commentary (Boehtlingk. Bibliography mately resulted in the condemnation of his writings by Bursill-Hall G L (1971). Imperial Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg as a where copious Sanskrit resources were available. He published a series of articles and later in Leipzig. The main work of Boehtlingk was the Sanskrit Born into a family of a German merchant in dictionary (Boehtlingk and Roth. It was also a historical dictionary. the his earlier work. bishop of Paris. his dictionary. first in Jena Academy in 1852). Otto von Boehtlingk studied known as the St Petersburg dictionary. unedited. (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History exact date and place of his death are unknown. 22). 1863–1865). An offspring of Boehtlingk’s Yakut data that had been collected by A. 1851). In Bonn he published his first work.’ In The Catholic bono (‘On the supreme good’). Russia and historical philology to distinguish the inherited ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. also an integral Sanskrit grammar never came into being. Otto Nikolaus (1815–1904) S A Romashko. prepared with assistance of many sanskritologists) Instead. V. The so-called ‘shorter version’ of on Sanskrit grammar. Yakut. Priscianus Caesariensis (d. pioneering task. 1275) with other Averroists such as Siger of Brabant. 1855–1875). ca. in 1270 and again in dle ages. development of Sanskrit from the Vedic hymns skrit grammar of Pānini with Indian scholia and his through the late stages of the language. De aeternitate mundi University of America (ed. the doctrine of Partes Orationis of the Modistae 1277.88 Boethius of Dacia (fl. von Humboldt. however. Turkic Languages. He research fellow (he became a full member of the stayed in Germany until the end of his life. dreams’). Th. and H. 530). ‘Boethius of Dacia. Moscow. Russia. All rights reserved. most of the examples were Academy commissioned him to systematize the omitted from this version. . 1839–1840). compiled with assistance of Rudolf von Roth and but in 1835 he moved to Germany. and other useful classic in the field of Altaic studies. August Wilhelm von nating language and used the methods of comparative (1767–1845). Turkic vocabulary of Yakut from Mongolian and other borrowings. ulti.) (1980). he finished his studies in Bonn as works. of Linguistic Science 3) (Vol. Boehtlingk supplements. His three best-known works are De summo Maurer A (1967). 1887) contains not data and working with an informant he found in only the text and a German translation. a pupil of August Wilhelm von Schlegel and Chr. Many of his writings are either lost or remain (Approaches to Semiotics 11). During his life Boehtlingk unwritten peripheral Turkic language from Eastern published a number of Indian texts. F. his second edition Siberia was hardly known. The Hague: Mouton. adapted the ideas of early European typological theo- ry (from W. von lexicographical work was a collection of Indian sayings Middendorff’s Siberian expedition. (‘On the eternity of the world’). representing the Lassen. Boehtlingk moved to Germany in In 1842 Boehtlingk returned to Russia to enter the 1868. Pott. where he felt that other sanskritologists. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B. Steinthal) for the practical analysis of an aggluti.

Bonn: König. Pânini’s acht Bücher mie der Wissenschaften. The best represented of the Amerindian stocks. which blends Quechua languages representing four distinct Amerindian morphosyntax with roots from Puquina. 1877. ‘Boehtlingk’s Boehtlingk O N (1863–1865). USA of better economic opportunities. Plautdietsch (Low a few herb doctors today. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akade- Boehtlingk O N (1839–1840). Über die Sprache der Jakuten.’ Mélange Asiatique 10. 1991. [Reprints: Hildesheim: Olms. Otto Nikolaus von. Leco. ‘Pamjati O. Sanskrit-Chrestomatie. 247–256. Two European languages are also guage used by Incan herb doctors. Indische Sprüche (3 vols). is Andean: belong to the Chiquitano family. Berlin: Duncker & Wissenschaften. Druckschriften. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. These languages are spoken primarily in Macro-Ge. N. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. .] Akademii nauk 9. Ethnologue). Kirfel W (1955). In Dı́ez Astete and Murillo (1998: 75–76) indicated recent years. Geschichte der Sanskrit-Philologie [2nd edn. 396–397..’ In buch (7 vols). Windisch E (1920). reprint of the 2nd edn. Figures 2 and 3). [Reprint: Osnabrück: Zeller/ grammatischer Regeln (2 vols). Otdelenija russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj [Reprinted: The Hague: Mouton. Bolivia is home to approximately 40 indigenous Callahuaya (Callawalla). TX. A final group of three varieties – Besiro. 187–200. Bolivia: Language Situation 89 Bibliography Boehtlingk O N (1879–1889). Sanskrit-Wörter. 1966. 1966. This is probably an oversimplification: the mountainous southwestern third of Bolivia.] Salemann K & Oldenburg S von (1892). 1870–1873. 1964. Bulich S K (1904). 1966. an extinct stocks. and is still used by spoken: in addition to Spanish. Harrassowitz. Betlinga.] Boehtlingk O N (1845). Bolivia: Language Situation M Crowhurst. the presence of Quechua and Aymara that Chiquitano is an artificial family constituted of in urban centers further to the east has increased more than 40 languages spoken by ethnolinguistic dramatically as speakers have migrated in search groups who were forcibly relocated in Jesuit missions Figure 1 Macro-linguistic affiliation of Bolivian languages (References: Ruhlen. Pânini’s Grammatik. according to data from Bolivia’s Rural Indigenous Census of 1994 (the source for all numerical figures in this article). Austin.] Boehtlingk O N (1851). Boehtlingk O N & Roth R (1855–1875). 2). is nearly extinct.: und indischen Altertumskunde (vol.] Trübner. [Reprint: Osnabrück: Zeller/Wiesbaden: Humblot. Finally.’ Izvestija St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1964/Delhi: edn. as well as the now extinct Moncoca and Churapa – in terms of number of living speakers. University of Texas. ‘Boehtlingk. All rights reserved. an impressive degree of linguistic diversity language of Peru. language. German) is spoken in eastern Bolivia by Mennonites The great majority of Bolivia’s languages spring from who emigrated from Canada (possibly via Mexico) to the Equatorial-Tucanoan and Macro-Panoan stocks (see avoid conscription during World War I. f. St Peters. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kür- zerer Fassung (7 vols). 2. Boehtlingk O N (1887). was a specialized (nonnative) lan- (see Figure 1). 1998. vol.] Motilal Banarsidass. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Neue Deutsche Biographie. A third Andean ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Strassburg: Osnabrück: Zeller/Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Aymara and Quechua are spoken natively by millions (Note: the Ethnologue classifies Chiquitano as of Bolivians. a linguistic isolate. [2nd Haessel. Leipzig: burg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Indische Sprüche (3 vols). 396–397. 1991. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 247–256. as well as the now extinct Moncoca and Churapa – in terms of number of living speakers. 187–200. This is probably an oversimplification: the mountainous southwestern third of Bolivia. St Peters. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akade- Boehtlingk O N (1839–1840). [2nd Haessel. an extinct stocks. Sanskrit-Chrestomatie. is nearly extinct. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.’ Izvestija St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. ‘Boehtlingk’s Boehtlingk O N (1863–1865).] Motilal Banarsidass. Pânini’s acht Bücher mie der Wissenschaften. Aymara and Quechua are spoken natively by millions (Note: the Ethnologue classifies Chiquitano as of Bolivians. according to data from Bolivia’s Rural Indigenous Census of 1994 (the source for all numerical figures in this article). 2. Sanskrit-Wörter.] Boehtlingk O N (1851).: und indischen Altertumskunde (vol. ‘Boehtlingk.] Akademii nauk 9.’ Mélange Asiatique 10. Strassburg: Osnabrück: Zeller/Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Boehtlingk O N (1887). which blends Quechua languages representing four distinct Amerindian morphosyntax with roots from Puquina. Bulich S K (1904). ‘Pamjati O. 1877.. f. . 1964/Delhi: edn.] Boehtlingk O N (1845). Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kür- zerer Fassung (7 vols). TX. German) is spoken in eastern Bolivia by Mennonites The great majority of Bolivia’s languages spring from who emigrated from Canada (possibly via Mexico) to the Equatorial-Tucanoan and Macro-Panoan stocks (see avoid conscription during World War I. 1870–1873. Leipzig: burg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. [Reprint: Osnabrück: Zeller/ grammatischer Regeln (2 vols). Plautdietsch (Low a few herb doctors today. and is still used by spoken: in addition to Spanish. Geschichte der Sanskrit-Philologie [2nd edn. Bolivia: Language Situation M Crowhurst. These languages are spoken primarily in Macro-Ge. Bolivia: Language Situation 89 Bibliography Boehtlingk O N (1879–1889). 1966. the presence of Quechua and Aymara that Chiquitano is an artificial family constituted of in urban centers further to the east has increased more than 40 languages spoken by ethnolinguistic dramatically as speakers have migrated in search groups who were forcibly relocated in Jesuit missions Figure 1 Macro-linguistic affiliation of Bolivian languages (References: Ruhlen. A third Andean ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Figures 2 and 3). Harrassowitz. Boehtlingk O N & Roth R (1855–1875). University of Texas.] Salemann K & Oldenburg S von (1892). Druckschriften. Berlin: Duncker & Wissenschaften. reprint of the 2nd edn. Austin. The best represented of the Amerindian stocks. Windisch E (1920). Pânini’s Grammatik. [Reprints: Hildesheim: Olms. Otto Nikolaus von. [Reprint: Osnabrück: Zeller/Wiesbaden: Humblot. All rights reserved. 1964. N. Betlinga. Bolivia is home to approximately 40 indigenous Callahuaya (Callawalla). is Andean: belong to the Chiquitano family. was a specialized (nonnative) lan- (see Figure 1). Bonn: König. In Dı́ez Astete and Murillo (1998: 75–76) indicated recent years. vol. 2). Finally. Ethnologue). USA of better economic opportunities. Otdelenija russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj [Reprinted: The Hague: Mouton. Leco. an impressive degree of linguistic diversity language of Peru. Über die Sprache der Jakuten. Two European languages are also guage used by Incan herb doctors. 1998. 1966.] Trübner. A final group of three varieties – Besiro. St Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Neue Deutsche Biographie.’ In buch (7 vols). a linguistic isolate. language. Kirfel W (1955). 1966.

are (or were) spoken in the Tierras Bajas. All of the lowland languages are members are too few to guarantee sustainability (for . Ethnologue). or Lowlands. elderly speakers have eral languages in this group. are relatively stable. Bolivia’s Equatorial-Tucanoan. and the Ethnologue). and Guaranı́ and the Moxo varieties. represent two general situations. in the Chiquitos region beginning in 1550. will become is thought to have resulted from contact among sev. extinct once the few remaining. at greater risk of extinction. Some lowland languages. Many. but the futures of Oriente. and the Chaco (south. 1999. Some are robust in the zones known as Amazonı́a (in the north).) passed away. Still other languages. Besiro ing Canichana.90 Bolivia: Language Situation Figure 2 Equatorial-Tucanoan languages spoken in Bolivia (More detailed information concerning classification can be found in Ruhlen. adjacent to Paraguay the groups themselves are uncertain because their and Argentina). 1991. along with Itonama (Paezan). within their heritage communities. Cayubaba. and Reyesano. includ- tionships among these languages is not known. The rela. 1991. Chiquitano languages. Figure 3 Macro-Panoan Languages Spoken in Bolivia (References: Ruhlen. for example. Jensen. endangered to a greater or lesser extent. Macro-Panoan.

(Source: the Rural Indigenous Census of 1994.78 Ese Ejja 584 444 4. Saraveca.1 100 Guarayu 7235 5509 6.5 22.0 0.2 66. 1998). guistic status of Bolivia’s lowland languages is Hoeller A P (1932a). which is being passed on at a rate of only one Coordinacion.44 Yuracare 3333 2457 1. language of the Chaco. the ethnolinguistic group itself faces no risk of immi- nent collapse but is undergoing a process of language shift in which the heritage language is gradually Bibliography replaced by a regionally dominant language in all Albo X (1976).9 0. El idioma Chiriguano: gramatica. De.58 Reyesano 4118 3169 0.0 95. Hall provided in Table 1.3 1.8 Yuqui (Bı̈ä-Yë) 138 109 7.7 80. was displaced by northwardly Dı́ez Astete A & Murrillo D (1998).0 100 Chiquitano Besiro 47 086 36 255 0. one of three Hardman M. Aymara: main dialects of Bolivian Guaranı́ (see Figure 2).4 2. tos.2 89. Cuadernos de Investigación has not always been the case: Chané (Arawakan). and Sirionó).4 46. Paz: Gramma Impresión.7 32. Jorá.1 31.6 0.6 78.8 64.23 Tapieté 74 55 2 (abs)b 41 (abs) 84. Vásquez J & Yapita J D (1988). Madrid: Ediciones Cultural Hispanica.86 Guaranı́ 36 917 28 823 4.2 10.5 7. Callahuaya is not included because it is not spoken as a first language.0 1 (abs) 0 Chacobo 767 568 17.6 74.3 91.53 Moseten Chimané 5907 4221 42.4 23. but this y educadores.8 76. Contact between Guaranı́ and Chané produced Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana. im Tirol: Verlag der Missionsprokura der Franziskaner.9 95.8 37. Ayoreo.0 3.7 58. Dı́ez Astete and Murillo.5 86. Bolivia: Language Situation 91 Table 1 Population and language statistics for the indigenous groups of Bolivia’s Lowland Region Linguistic Heritage Total population of Population % pop.16 (Weenhayek) Tacanan Araona 90 71 41 (abs) 23 (abs) 95.5 0.08 Canichana 583 480 0.08 Cavineño 1736 1339 1. Examples are Guarayu.0 Moseten 1177 869 2.0 Mataco Chorote 2081 1637 7. Dietrich W (1986). . Pueblos indı́genas de migrating Guaranı́ who conquered and enslaved the Tierras Bajas: caracterı́sticas principales. In other cases. a 44. Lengua y sociedad en Bolivia. not percentage.4 0 Moxo 20 805 15 793 1. the antecedent of what is now Izoceño. compendio de estructura fonológica y gramatical. Toromona. b Figures accompanies by the abbreviation ‘‘abs’’ represent absolute numbers. La Paz: spheres of life.5 0 Equatorial Cayubaba 794 609 0.2 82. % pop.45 Panoan Yaminawa 161 117 0.1 55. Grammatik der Guarayo Sprache. The displacing Albo X (1995). La Paz: Talleres Chané people before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Gráficos. child learner per eight adult speakers.7 83. vocabulario.2 2. Language Maps (Appendix 1): Map 50. Ministerio de Planeamiento y Besiro.0 a Churapa. La Paz: Imprenta Publicidad Papiro.28 Paezan Itonama 5090 3911 0.9 92. Araona.0 Tacana 5058 3863 0.6 77.86 Chapacura More (Itenez) 108 93 1.) example.5 Pacahuara 18 17 0.8 81.79 Quechuan Leco 9 7 0. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica.0 1 (abs) 0 Tucanoan Movima 6528 4934 0. vols 1 and 2. & olds who are (all ages) yrs language and Spanish bilingual Arawak Baure 631 504 0.3 7.6 4. 1989. and especially Republica de Bolivia. and Pauserna are not included in Table 1 because no data is available for these languages (which are extinct or nearly extinct).21 Zamucoan Ayoreo 856 629 9.8 85.22 Tupı́an Sirionó 419 311 1.9 85.51 Machinere 155 105 0. Paunaca. aged 6þ yrs.3 36.0 22.5 79. reported in Dı́ez Astete & Murillo 1998. La tailed demographic information concerning the lin.3 13.9 88.3 89. Bolivia plurilingüe: guı́a para planificadores language in Bolivia has generally been Spanish. tex- 16th century (Pifarré. % 6–14-year- family languagea ethnolinguistic group aged 6þ monolingual in heritage bilingual in heritage lang. aged 6þ yrs. Moncoca.

1989). So partial order relations are quite formulation of ‘‘those operations of the mind by familiar from elementary mathematics. The that is. NY. (xRy and yRx implies x ¼ y). Boole and Algebraic Semantics E L Keenan. Such a property p looks temperate does not mean If all men are wise then all at each entity x in E and says ‘True’ or ‘False’ depend- men are temperate. 0 " 0 and 1 " 1. then A # C. similarly. additional conditions (Szabolcsi. Gramaticas estruc- Melià B (1989). p(x) " q(x). a largely self-educated British transitive. Landman. Here 0 " 1.’ Bureau of American Ethnology. 1}. ‘The native tribes of eastern Bolivia and La Paz: Libreria Editorial Juventud. and we define century. ‘Tupi-Guarani. Thus we think of sentences the study of natural language semantics. Los Guaranı́-Chiriguano 2: historia de un Aikhenvald A Y (eds. pointing out. 1} inherit this order. which is reflexive (for all x in D. q as functions from E into {0. Guarayo-Deutsches Wörterbuch. n " p. then n ¼ m. Institute of Linguistics. pueblo. Riberalta. p " q if and only if (iff) for all x in E. tran. and antisymmetric etc. to a lesser ex. Here we is True if and only if TV(P) " TV(Q). but 1 is not " 0. Bolivia: tribus de la selva. etnolingüı́stico de Bolivia. Instituto Nacional de Estudios Lingüı́sticos (1984). Ibarra Grasso D E (1982). La Paz: AIP FIDA-CAF. Guia etnografica linguistica de Antropologı́a. Pueblos indı́genas de la Amazonı́a Classification. such as is even or lives in Brooklyn. USA any natural number n. though Boole (1952: 59) anticipated some of of expressions in other categories defined in terms of the linguistic observations. western Matto Grosso. 1997. A guide to the world’s languages. New York. then ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. La Paz: Librerı́a Editorial Popular. called a partial order guists concerns the denotations of count NPs relation.’ In Dixon R M W & Pifarré F (1989).) The Amazonian languages. 1}. mathematics (Koppelberg. im Tirol: Verlag der Missionsprokura der Franziskaner. And finally. Los Guaranı́-Chiriguano 1: Ñande Reko: turales de lenguas bolivianas.92 Bolivia: Language Situation Hoeller A P (1932b). ". We begin with the basic notion of a partially which just means if p is True of x. Bolivia: Summer nuestro modo de ser. 125–164. 134. xRx). Jensen C (1999).. Since A case of interest to us is the arithmetical " restricted then. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in a set with a natural partial order (often denoted A poset consists of a domain D of objects on which with a symbol like ‘"’). So we represent proper- covered such truths in the latter third of the 20th ties p. Los Angeles. Boliviana. Similarly. For example. mathematician. most poets. 1965: 1). 1}) is provably a partial order. The denotations century. University of California. Generative grammarians redis. 1985). Métraux A (1942). Smithsonian Institution. 1} on applications postdate Boole’s work by more than a which is defined a partial order. in which he presented an algebraic same members. such as some poets. if n " m and m " p. All rights reserved. then E of objects under discussion. Paris: Maisonneuve frères. Other expressions similarly find their denotations 1991). A crucial example for lin- is defined a binary relation R. Migrations historiques des Tupı́-Guaranı́. be presented as properties of the elements of the set mals are irrational. if wise. ing on whether x has p or not. CA: Stanford University Press. A Szabolcsi. vol. {0. etc. the subset relation # is reflexive: any set A is a subset of itself. Stanford. and if n " m and m " n. Ruhlen M (1991). (Noun Phrases). And if A # B and B # C. sitive (xRy and yRz implies xRz). which reasoning is performed’’ (Bell. as they occur in sentences (Ss) like Some poets . so # is In 1854 George Boole. Men are. we can say that a conditional sentence ‘if P then Q’ tent. Las lenguas indigenas en Bolivia. New York University. 1: Lema A M (1998). CA. Hall Métraux A (1927). then A ¼ B. with extensive Representing the truth value ‘False’ as 0 and ‘True’ as applications in computer science and. linguistics (Keenan and Faltz. Summer Institute of Linguistics (1965). A and B are the same set. then so is q. boolean algebra has become a rich subbranch of to {0. For example. 1. for example. if A # B and B # A. where TV(P) is illustrate the core boolean notions currently used in the truth value of P. Most such of the True/False sort as denoting in a set {0. Atlas bulletin no. La Paz: Instituto Nacional de Montaño Aragon M (1987). La Paz: Editorial Don Bosco. La Paz: Librerı́a Editorial Popular. can mean the same as Either animals are rational or ani. the ordi- USA nary arithmetical " relation is a partial order: n " n. one-place pre- that Animals are either rational or irrational does not dicates (P1s). since they have the laws of thought. ordered set (poset) and characterize richer structures The " relation just defined on functions (from E into with linguistic applications as posets satisfying {0. published a remarkable book.

Institute of Linguistics. (Noun Phrases). Other expressions similarly find their denotations 1991). though Boole (1952: 59) anticipated some of of expressions in other categories defined in terms of the linguistic observations. Los Angeles. Ibarra Grasso D E (1982). Most such of the True/False sort as denoting in a set {0. University of California. La Paz: Editorial Don Bosco. 1}) is provably a partial order. Generative grammarians redis. Los Guaranı́-Chiriguano 2: historia de un Aikhenvald A Y (eds. since they have the laws of thought. Métraux A (1942). And if A # B and B # C. we can say that a conditional sentence ‘if P then Q’ tent. xRx). but 1 is not " 0. 1997. New York. La Paz: Librerı́a Editorial Popular. boolean algebra has become a rich subbranch of to {0. in a set with a natural partial order (often denoted A poset consists of a domain D of objects on which with a symbol like ‘"’). published a remarkable book. Guarayo-Deutsches Wörterbuch. 1965: 1). Pueblos indı́genas de la Amazonı́a Classification. Thus we think of sentences the study of natural language semantics.. 1.’ In Dixon R M W & Pifarré F (1989). then E of objects under discussion. such as some poets. Landman. USA any natural number n. 1}. CA. So we represent proper- covered such truths in the latter third of the 20th ties p. (xRy and yRx implies x ¼ y). La Paz: AIP FIDA-CAF. 1985). a largely self-educated British transitive.92 Bolivia: Language Situation Hoeller A P (1932b). The that is. Here we is True if and only if TV(P) " TV(Q). n " p. tran. with extensive Representing the truth value ‘False’ as 0 and ‘True’ as applications in computer science and. Guia etnografica linguistica de Antropologı́a. Las lenguas indigenas en Bolivia. etnolingüı́stico de Bolivia. And finally. be presented as properties of the elements of the set mals are irrational. and antisymmetric etc. linguistics (Keenan and Faltz. then ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. can mean the same as Either animals are rational or ani. if n " m and m " p. Smithsonian Institution. then A # C. then n ¼ m. Los Guaranı́-Chiriguano 1: Ñande Reko: turales de lenguas bolivianas. if A # B and B # A. in which he presented an algebraic same members. p(x) " q(x). A Szabolcsi. New York University. Gramaticas estruc- Melià B (1989). so # is In 1854 George Boole. western Matto Grosso. Bolivia: tribus de la selva. ing on whether x has p or not. Men are. ordered set (poset) and characterize richer structures The " relation just defined on functions (from E into with linguistic applications as posets satisfying {0. which reasoning is performed’’ (Bell. We begin with the basic notion of a partially which just means if p is True of x. if wise. im Tirol: Verlag der Missionsprokura der Franziskaner. pointing out. the ordi- USA nary arithmetical " relation is a partial order: n " n. Ruhlen M (1991). Bolivia: Summer nuestro modo de ser. Boliviana. called a partial order guists concerns the denotations of count NPs relation. 134. 1} inherit this order. A and B are the same set. which is reflexive (for all x in D. additional conditions (Szabolcsi. Jensen C (1999). Atlas bulletin no. 0 " 0 and 1 " 1. {0. A guide to the world’s languages. for example. ". similarly. mathematics (Koppelberg. to a lesser ex. 1} on applications postdate Boole’s work by more than a which is defined a partial order. La Paz: Librerı́a Editorial Popular. most poets. A crucial example for lin- is defined a binary relation R. Similarly. Here 0 " 1. then so is q. pueblo. La Paz: Instituto Nacional de Montaño Aragon M (1987). ‘The native tribes of eastern Bolivia and La Paz: Libreria Editorial Juventud. such as is even or lives in Brooklyn. NY. 1}. mathematician. one-place pre- that Animals are either rational or irrational does not dicates (P1s). etc. Stanford. 125–164. Hall Métraux A (1927). Boole and Algebraic Semantics E L Keenan. Such a property p looks temperate does not mean If all men are wise then all at each entity x in E and says ‘True’ or ‘False’ depend- men are temperate.) The Amazonian languages. Migrations historiques des Tupı́-Guaranı́. q as functions from E into {0. vol. p " q if and only if (iff) for all x in E. All rights reserved. where TV(P) is illustrate the core boolean notions currently used in the truth value of P. Since A case of interest to us is the arithmetical " restricted then. The denotations century. and if n " m and m " n. ‘Tupi-Guarani.’ Bureau of American Ethnology. as they occur in sentences (Ss) like Some poets . For example. Paris: Maisonneuve frères. then A ¼ B. So partial order relations are quite formulation of ‘‘those operations of the mind by familiar from elementary mathematics. Riberalta. and we define century. For example. Summer Institute of Linguistics (1965). CA: Stanford University Press. sitive (xRy and yRz implies xRz). 1: Lema A M (1998). Instituto Nacional de Estudios Lingüı́sticos (1984). the subset relation # is reflexive: any set A is a subset of itself. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989).

but True other- ‘daydreams’ property d map to 1. then :y " :x. And. then doctor. in the truth value lattice {0. That is. it is noted :x and called the complement example.’ An upper bound (ub) for a subset K of a poset is an negation licenses negative-polarity items in the predi- element z that every element of K is " to. In our lattices of functions. the set of poets that quite generally the case. NPs.. Similarly. it makes sense to ask whether and DOCTOR (x) ¼ 1.1}. Dually a lower natural. that y. entity x that both the ‘poet’ property p and the a disjunction of two false Ss is False. So. We expect. Formally. is laughing loudly " is laughing expression we are combining. And this is p(x) ¼ 1 and d(x) ¼ 0. If for each x there is exactly by functions f from properties to properties. That is. We interpret this S as True iff there is an 1 _ 1 ¼ 1. but in each cate- sentence is True. the lattice of properties. with P1s in Most of the students drink but don’t smoke. etc. is that function F. in the same conditions. So here the denotation p(x) and d(x) ¼ 1 outnumbers the set such that of or is given by _. An ub z for cate. and 0 _ 0 ¼ 0. : is a function (lub) noted (x _ y) and read as ‘x join y. f ^ g maps each x to f(x) ^ g(x). And here is an unexpected any one of these categories. y} has a least upper bound Given uniqueness of complements. g}. In distributive lattices (ones satisfying overwhelmingly when f is an adjective function and x ^ (y _ z) ¼ (x ^ y) _ (x ^ z) and x _ (y ^ z) ¼ (x _ y)^ p a property. For one such y. :0 ¼ 1 and :1 ¼ 0. :f is that function mapping being a student to that of being a tall student. and False otherwise.. one that reverses the order: if lower bound (glb). in F(p) " G(p). And each x to :(f(x)). For gation has in common with NPs such as no poet. which just means. 1 _ 0 ¼ 1. a lattice is said to be bounded if its modifying adjectives combine with property-denoting domain has a glb (noted 0) and a lub (noted 1). student. at most six poets. Boole and Algebraic Semantics 93 daydream. negation of an expression d in general denotes the A lattice is a poset in which for all elements x. Adject- laughing. In contrast. (x _ z)). glbs are given by the truth table for poets daydream is True iff there is no such x. the glb of {POET.’ and a greatest from the lattice to itself. And for for example. for example. . No wise. (1b) *Some student here has ever been to Pinsk. regardless of the category of since. the set {x. in general. All tall students are students. is what ordinary ne- such a w is a glb for K iff every lb for K is " w. a linguistic generalization: the mere partial order: they are (boolean) lattices. the domain. tion and a disjunction. *He has ever been to Pinsk is not. quantifiers). interpreted by glbs and lubs of the conjuncts and No poet is laughing implies No poet is laughing loud. then the second is. is supported. lubs are neither John nor Bill. that is. A lattice In fact. example. So. and that for and by ^. And conjunction: a conjunction of Ss is True iff each con- Most poets daydream is True iff the set of x such that junct is. etc. recall. x is both a poet and a a given function F preserves the order (if p " q. P1s. Such expressions (nouns) to form property-denoting a lattice is complemented if for every x there is a y such expressions and can be represented semantically that x ^ y ¼ 0 and x _ y ¼ 1. etc. and it does: He hasn’t ever been to Pinsk is K is a lub for K iff z " every ub for K. Similarly. with Adjectives in a bright but not very diligent student. which as we saw earlier given by the standard truth table for disjunction: also license negative-polarity items. for example. reverses it (if p " q. tall combines with student to form tall of x. DOCTOR} As NP denotations map one poset (properties) to is that property which an entity x has iff POET (x) ¼ 1 another (truth values). that if the first ives. we see that the lattice structure F(p) " F(q)). This relation is again a partial order. Observe that as a second linguistic application. Some/all/most poets preserve the order. no gory conjunctions and disjunctions are generally poet reverses the order. since. etc. 1}. The reader can verify that fewer than five poets. So Boole’s original intuition that these ly. again. complement. daydream is larger than the set that don’t. each x has a unique complement. correctly then. and neither John nor look at things – rather than properties specific to Bill are all order reversing. and semantically it maps the property of In our function lattices. 0 _ 1 ¼ 1. We might emphasize and Some poet is laughing loudly " Some poet is that the kinds of objects denoted by Ss. linguistic correlation: reversing order correlates well And we are not done: boolean lattices present an with those subject NPs that license negative-polarity additional operation. the denotation sets for the expressions we is called boolean if it is a complemented distribu- have discussed possess a structure much richer than a tive lattice.G possible NP denotations (called generalized mapping each argument x to f(x) _ g(x). y of complement of the denotation of d. Note that negation does combine with expressions in a variety of categories: (1a) No student here has ever been to Pinsk. or provides denotations for the operations of conjunc- does neither. for example. disjuncts. noted (x ^ y) and read as ‘x meet x " y. we define F " G iff for all properties p. operations represent properties of mind – how we neither poet. f _g. f(p) " p. such as ever: denotation for negation. which provides a items. the lub of {f. Similarly. In {0. the order on denotations. then F(q) " F(p)). Reversing bound (lb) for K is an element w " every element of K. then. are quite different.

. 1998. We note that the other 92). No students laughed. 2001). This contrasts with predicates in (5). can select these new that limits the class of questions (relative clauses. has a glb and a lub. John? cost? (6a) Water and alcohol don’t mix. we find there John is part of the denotation of John and Mary in are just four individuals but 65 536 NP denotations. Both (Krifka. a set in (2) are natural. for example. but that is not correct. 1985: 56). are not: nonempty subset has a lub (see Link. different (5b) Russell and Whitehead wrote Principia categories have some distinctive properties – which. space limitations prevent us from (5c) The students gathered in the courtyard/ reviewing (see also Keenan. etc. lattice of count NP denotations. the domain of a model is we can grammatically form. 1991). (2) How tall is John? How much did the car Landman.). This means that any function from properties to respects each other (*He is a nice couple. This semantic each other would hold of at least one of the disjuncts. So mass term denotations are in A more accurate statement is that negation blocks some way ontologically uniform. complete. an unexpected grammatical sensitivity to boolean where respect each other. y}. . we find parts – the coffee I poured and the coffee that remains are both coffee. do not make sense even when applied to the Much ongoing work in algebraic semantics focuses proper parts of their arguments. But it does not make sense to say *John poet). . *Either John N and the P1 properties. The group itself is a new type of unexpected syntactic way. This between them. as with definitional properties of a whole also apply to their the distribution of negative-polarity items. structure. main E of entities with a partial order relation called tions is that of the power set of the power set of E. called individuals (deno. but those in (3). . or . meaning that each subset. Respecting each other (being a nice couple. 1983. The predicates in the Ss in further common properties. – do not admit of a reinterpretation computable if we know which individuals have the in the way that and does (Winter. with the result that questioning from domains that lack individuals (free generators). mathematica together. for P1 noncollective. Thus. so we truth values is in fact a boolean function (meet. And this implies that the truth value of an S of the boolean connectives – such as either . students in (5c). . as well as that in my cup. mass on NPs (and their predicates) that are not boolean . such as amounts and degrees. such as John. etc.94 Boole and Algebraic Semantics The boolean lattices we have so far invoked have compounds of individuals. And new types (1993) observed that negation determines a context of predicates. . and form [[Det N] þ P1]. The truth of Ss like Most of or Mary respect each other is nonsense: the disjunctive the students laughed. etc. They are also atomic couple. . etc.. such as those in (5). the questions no longer a mere set E but is a join semi-lattice. 1991) questions in (4) are acceptable: Mass term denotations have a natural part-of rela- (4) How many of the books on the list did/didn’t tion: if I pour a cup of coffee from a full pot. 1983). (Keenan and Faltz. ject NPs in (5) involve enriching the understood do- ments in E. not just ones of (5a) John and Mary respect each other/are a nice the form {x. etc. gather in the courtyard. They are. join. this them obtain. needed for expressions (5d) Six teaching assistants graded 120 papers such as most poets and five of John’s students. (5) force us to interpret their subjects as groups. in which the equipped with a part-of partial order in which each predicates are negated. in First attempts to provide denotations for the sub- that the number of individuals is the number of ele. one that is the lub of its parts. etc. Szabolcsi and Zwarts object. of a group of individuals if certain conditions among table by definite singular NPs. whereas the number of possible NP denota. the you read? coffee that remains. Mary. 1985: operator discussed earlier. In addition. is booleanly neither . So part-of. (5a) or some individual student is part of the group of These freely generated algebras show up in another. must interpret and somewhat differently from the glb complement) of individuals (Keenan and Faltz. . out of negative contexts. The exception is the surrounded the building. reduction to individuals is a major simplification. to capture the sense in which the individual speaking of an E with just four elements.. nor . subject still forces a lub interpretation in which respect termined once that information is given. Thus. lattice has the property of having a set of complete.) holds independent (free) generators. is de. with one exception.) objects as arguments. is part of the original coffee. In general. It is tempting to say simply that we cannot question (6b) 4000 ships passed through the lock last year. cost? Yet other new types of arguments are mass terms (3) *How tall isn’t *How much didn’t the car (6a) and event nominals (6b). So.

1998). to a lady’s maid and a shoemaker who could Despite his non-standard education. ‘A logical analysis of plurals and mass ly complex. If. and Dean of Science. on which there are 4000 ships each of which of direct interpretation. Chicago: CSLI Publi- cations. Pelletier F J & Schubert L K (1989). and literature. Schein.) are not them. each ship in our book of boolean algebras. Bell E (1937). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Boulder. 335–371. Negation: Semantic Aspects. thing of the ontological uniformity of mass terms. Finances did not allow him an elite education. Queen’s College. Boole. University of Colorado.) Handbook of phi- Polarity Items. tics.) Meaning. ‘A unified analysis of the English bare (see Pelletier and Schubert. Monk J D & Bonnet R (eds. Cambridge. Link. In 1831 he began teaching school. passed through the lock (at least once) last year. means that there were 4000 events of ships passing Koppelberg S (1989). Cambridge. Dordrecht: D. Link G (1983). 1. 302–323. on November later he published his first professional paper. ‘Mass expressions. 327–407. USA but through local schools. distinction to pure mass terms. Reidel. At Cork he published the works for which he is best . use and interpretation in language. Last. tutoring. NY: Simon Szabolcsi A & Zwarts F (1993). Four years a shoemaker. guistics and Philosophy 13. George (1815–1864) E Shay. losophical logic. Men of mathematics. CO.’ In Bäuerle R et al. Events in the semantics of English: a study See also: Formal Semantics. La Salle.’ In Sag I A & (throwing lines to the tugboats. Plurals and events. and Landman.’ In Operators in Semantics and Typed Logics. etc. UK. Agent and Patient participants. The younger Boole. But Krifka M (1992). Gabbay D & Guenthner F (eds. and at least some events Kluwer. George (1815–1864) 95 terms are much less well understood than count terms Carlson G (1977). vol. So events present a part-of partial Landman F (1991). 1993. and self-study ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. observe that (6b) is ambiguous. 2000). Schein B (1993).. Chicago University Press. 235–284.) Lexical matters. Winter Y (2001). resulting in a (eds. IV. passings but only 2000 ships that passed. Krifka M (1991). 2.’ Linguistics and Philosophy 6. North-Holland: fleet of 2000 did so twice.’ Linguistics and Philosophy 1. Generalized Quantifiers.’ Natural Language Boole G (1854). The laws of thought. etc. Link G (1998). Szabolcsi A (ed. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. 2 in George Boole’s collected logical works. MA: MIT Press.’ Lin- events as parts. plural. Parsons T (1990). of interest here. partly on the strength of tes- liant father John. algebraic semantics for scope taking. was born in Lincoln. considerable enrichment of our naı̈ve ontology (see Berlin: de Gruyter. Cork. 1815.) Hand- through the lock. New York. so such complex events exhibit some. Dordrecht: Bibliography Kluwer. ‘Four thousand ships passed through the Now. Events and plurality. Monotonicity and in subatomic semantics. The subevents of a single passing inal reference and temporal constitution. But in Landman F (2000). Ways of scope taking. then there were 4000 Amsterdam. All rights reserved. studied Latin with a tutor and by timonials from his hometown. Reprinted (1952) as Semantics 1. But it Keenan E L & Faltz L M (1985).) (1997). In 1851 he was elected his late teens had taught himself Greek. ‘Thematic relations as links between nom- there are limits. German. Quantifiers: Semantics. ‘Facing the truth: some advantages reading. 1989. who received a professorship in mathematics at the new acquired an early love of mathematics from his bril. the event in (6b) has the individual passing lock: object-induced measure functions on events. French. a mathematician who might have been pendent study of applied mathematics. It has a count Keenan E L (1983). requiring time and place coordinates. on which it natural language. Stanford: CSLI. Boolean semantics for also has an event reading. vol. vol. can be represented as the lubs of their parts. Algebraic semantics in language and phi- losophy. terms: a lattice-theoretic approach. Boole in 1849 have been a mathematician. events are ontological. Boole. MA: MIT Press. Szabolcsi A (eds. he grew well versed in mathematics. Reidel. ‘Weak islands and an and Schuster. opening his own boarding school in 1835 while pursuing inde- George Boole. 487–520. Dordrecht: D. languages. 413–456. for example. 29–53. selves passings. Flexibility principles in boolean seman- IL: Open Court. the position he held until his death. Plurality. Dordrecht: order with limited uniformity. 1990. Parsons. Structures for semantics.

passings but only 2000 ships that passed. Reidel. Finances did not allow him an elite education. partly on the strength of tes- liant father John. who received a professorship in mathematics at the new acquired an early love of mathematics from his bril. events are ontological. CO. New York.’ Linguistics and Philosophy 1. algebraic semantics for scope taking. Generalized Quantifiers. 335–371. Queen’s College. French. It has a count Keenan E L (1983). Cambridge. Link G (1983). 2000). Dordrecht: D. Bell E (1937). 1. Stanford: CSLI. Cambridge. Dordrecht: order with limited uniformity. Pelletier F J & Schubert L K (1989). selves passings. considerable enrichment of our naı̈ve ontology (see Berlin: de Gruyter. German. All rights reserved. resulting in a (eds. losophical logic. terms: a lattice-theoretic approach. Monk J D & Bonnet R (eds. USA but through local schools. Boolean semantics for also has an event reading. Four years a shoemaker. each ship in our book of boolean algebras. ‘Mass expressions. 2. But in Landman F (2000). Structures for semantics. and Dean of Science. 235–284. The subevents of a single passing inal reference and temporal constitution. The laws of thought. tics. George (1815–1864) E Shay. Quantifiers: Semantics. etc. Algebraic semantics in language and phi- losophy. Chicago University Press.) Meaning. 29–53. the position he held until his death. ‘A logical analysis of plurals and mass ly complex. University of Colorado. The younger Boole. use and interpretation in language. tutoring. Plurality. to a lady’s maid and a shoemaker who could Despite his non-standard education. Winter Y (2001). Gabbay D & Guenthner F (eds. MA: MIT Press. vol. studied Latin with a tutor and by timonials from his hometown. and Landman. vol. Reprinted (1952) as Semantics 1.) are not them. on which there are 4000 ships each of which of direct interpretation. 1993. opening his own boarding school in 1835 while pursuing inde- George Boole. If. Link G (1998). Szabolcsi A (ed. requiring time and place coordinates. Szabolcsi A (eds. ‘Thematic relations as links between nom- there are limits. Ways of scope taking. on which it natural language. Link. 413–456. George (1815–1864) 95 terms are much less well understood than count terms Carlson G (1977). At Cork he published the works for which he is best . IV. But Krifka M (1992). 487–520.’ In Sag I A & (throwing lines to the tugboats.’ Lin- events as parts. Boulder. NY: Simon Szabolcsi A & Zwarts F (1993). Boole. So events present a part-of partial Landman F (1991). ‘A unified analysis of the English bare (see Pelletier and Schubert. La Salle. Parsons. MA: MIT Press.. Chicago: CSLI Publi- cations. Boole in 1849 have been a mathematician.) Hand- through the lock. the event in (6b) has the individual passing lock: object-induced measure functions on events. a mathematician who might have been pendent study of applied mathematics. he grew well versed in mathematics. Plurals and events. ‘Four thousand ships passed through the Now. Dordrecht: D. can be represented as the lubs of their parts. In 1851 he was elected his late teens had taught himself Greek. languages. and at least some events Kluwer.) (1997). Parsons T (1990). But it Keenan E L & Faltz L M (1985). vol. Flexibility principles in boolean seman- IL: Open Court. Reidel. Events and plurality. Cork. North-Holland: fleet of 2000 did so twice. In 1831 he began teaching school. Schein B (1993).’ In Operators in Semantics and Typed Logics. Agent and Patient participants. Monotonicity and in subatomic semantics.’ Linguistics and Philosophy 6. Men of mathematics. Krifka M (1991). observe that (6b) is ambiguous. for example. etc. UK. on November later he published his first professional paper. Last. was born in Lincoln. passed through the lock (at least once) last year. 327–407. Negation: Semantic Aspects.) Lexical matters. ‘Facing the truth: some advantages reading. Dordrecht: Kluwer. plural. and self-study ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. 1815. then there were 4000 Amsterdam. of interest here. Dordrecht: Bibliography Kluwer.’ Natural Language Boole G (1854). MA: MIT Press.) Handbook of phi- Polarity Items. 302–323. 1989. guistics and Philosophy 13. Boole. and literature. distinction to pure mass terms. means that there were 4000 events of ships passing Koppelberg S (1989). Cambridge. 1990. ‘Weak islands and an and Schuster. 2 in George Boole’s collected logical works. Events in the semantics of English: a study See also: Formal Semantics.’ In Bäuerle R et al. so such complex events exhibit some. thing of the ontological uniformity of mass terms. 1998). Schein.

he went to Paris.’ the truth of a proposition may be evaluated in the same way as the truth of an algebraic See also: Chomsky. Boole proposition can be examined without reference to the published roughly 50 papers on mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer. and operators. artificial intelligence. Bopp spent two more years in Paris until In 1825 he was made a full professor and a member of a grant from the Munich Academy of Sciences the Prussian Academy. The binary nature of Boolean logic is funda. Wilhelm von with the encouragement of his mentor Karl Joseph (1767–1835)). terms. Gottlob (1848–1925). both ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. and died on October 23. New meaning is crucial to formal semantics. In sets. Boolean logic is based on earned the Medal of the Royal Society in 1844 Boolean algebra. Paris. to the ‘pre. are replaced by connectives such as ‘and. Zentrum für Allgemeine distinguished scholars in the field. In order to round off his studies to prepare with the Orientalist Antoine Léonard de Chézy. inspired by Friedrich helm von (1767–1845)) to the study of the classical Schlegel’s (see Schlegel. He meaning of its components. mental to neuroscience. he tutored Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (1808). Bavarian Academy for permission to enroll at the Arabic. All rights reserved. to translations from Sanskrit literature). in London. 1928). Bopp. who at the time was Prussian ambas- Windischmann. This culminated in the book whose publica. linguistics. in whose Proceedings he pub- allowed him to move to London to add to his knowl. or ‘if . Baron Antoine-Isaac there granted him a doctorate honoris causa in recog- (1758–1838)). and if operators explorer. niece of the famous tion are replaced by propositions. soft. 1855 he married Mary Everest. Henry Thomas Sprachwissenschaft. Boolean semantics for ky’s attempts to analyze grammar in mathematical natural language. including An investigation into the laws of ware design. 1867 in Berlin. and Persian with Antoine Isaac Silvestre de University of Göttingen. During his stay in Britain. George (1815–1864) known. his life and work. Instead. lished a large number of his comparative linguistic edge of Sanskrit through contacts with the most works. 1791 jugationssystem (1820) (the remainder was devoted in Mainz. dicate calculus’ of Frege and others. and through contacts established sador. Noam (b. Formal Semantics. then. Dublin: Boole Press. He died of pneumonia on December 18. Keenan E L & Faltz L M (1985). August Wilhelm (see Schlegel. Wilhelm von Humboldt (see Humboldt. Bopp asked the There he studied Sanskrit (largely on his own). Franz (1791–1867) E F K Koerner. Boolean logic emerges in several subdisciplines Bibliography of linguistics. Berlin. the intervention of Wilhelm von Humboldt and his tion date – 1816 – is generally regarded as marking brother Alexander) was appointed extraordinary pro- the beginning of comparative Indo–European fessor of Oriental languages and general linguistics. he received a grant from nition for work already done. Friedrich von (1772–1829)) Indic language and literature. Bopp produced a revised English version of the linguistic portion of his Con- Bopp (Figure 1) was born on September 14. and to Choms. In 1814. York: Dover).’ ‘not. statement. MacHale D (1985). While in After one year studying classical as well as mod. of whom had published grammars of the language. If variables in an equa. George Boole. in the the King of Bavaria that allowed him to continue his summer of 1821. the authorities Sacy (see Silvestre de Sacy. variables.’ ‘or. An investigation into the laws of thought. The notion that the truth of a proposi. he arrived in Berlin and (through research. August Wil- Aschaffenburg. and most notably to all digital and thought (1854). tion may be understood without reference to its London: Walton and Maberley (reprinted 1973. From 1824 onward he published his own . The results of such an evaluation are Frege.’ 1864. . himself for an academic career. Germany Colebrooke and especially Charles Wilkins. Boole G (1854). binary: a proposition is held to be either true or not true. which is founded on the notions of and was named a Fellow of the Society in 1857. Soon afterwards. . Bopp had introduced Friedrich Schlegel’s elder ern languages at the newly created University of brother.96 Boole. expressed in algebraic terms and that the truth of a In addition to his seminal work on logic. The fundamental assumption of this electronic devices that rely on binary switching work is that human language and reasoning can be circuits.

York: Dover). Boolean semantics for ky’s attempts to analyze grammar in mathematical natural language. George (1815–1864) known. Paris. . soft. Boole G (1854). Wilhelm von Humboldt (see Humboldt. Instead. Bavarian Academy for permission to enroll at the Arabic. Bopp had introduced Friedrich Schlegel’s elder ern languages at the newly created University of brother. Boolean logic is based on earned the Medal of the Royal Society in 1844 Boolean algebra. Berlin. binary: a proposition is held to be either true or not true. The binary nature of Boolean logic is funda. 1928). mental to neuroscience. Gottlob (1848–1925). and if operators explorer. Franz (1791–1867) E F K Koerner. inspired by Friedrich helm von (1767–1845)) to the study of the classical Schlegel’s (see Schlegel. Boole proposition can be examined without reference to the published roughly 50 papers on mathematics. Soon afterwards. terms. linguistics. which is founded on the notions of and was named a Fellow of the Society in 1857. August Wilhelm (see Schlegel. and through contacts established sador. Formal Semantics. expressed in algebraic terms and that the truth of a In addition to his seminal work on logic. he arrived in Berlin and (through research. both ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Baron Antoine-Isaac there granted him a doctorate honoris causa in recog- (1758–1838)). In order to round off his studies to prepare with the Orientalist Antoine Léonard de Chézy. Bopp spent two more years in Paris until In 1825 he was made a full professor and a member of a grant from the Munich Academy of Sciences the Prussian Academy. All rights reserved. himself for an academic career. then. He died of pneumonia on December 18. he went to Paris. in the the King of Bavaria that allowed him to continue his summer of 1821. Henry Thomas Sprachwissenschaft. the intervention of Wilhelm von Humboldt and his tion date – 1816 – is generally regarded as marking brother Alexander) was appointed extraordinary pro- the beginning of comparative Indo–European fessor of Oriental languages and general linguistics. dicate calculus’ of Frege and others.96 Boole. Bopp. artificial intelligence. and most notably to all digital and thought (1854). August Wil- Aschaffenburg. lished a large number of his comparative linguistic edge of Sanskrit through contacts with the most works. The notion that the truth of a proposi. Bopp produced a revised English version of the linguistic portion of his Con- Bopp (Figure 1) was born on September 14.’ 1864. statement. . During his stay in Britain. He meaning of its components. he received a grant from nition for work already done. Noam (b.’ ‘not. and to Choms. to translations from Sanskrit literature). and died on October 23. are replaced by connectives such as ‘and. in whose Proceedings he pub- allowed him to move to London to add to his knowl. Bopp asked the There he studied Sanskrit (largely on his own). in London. MacHale D (1985). Dordrecht: Kluwer. niece of the famous tion are replaced by propositions. Dublin: Boole Press. Keenan E L & Faltz L M (1985).’ the truth of a proposition may be evaluated in the same way as the truth of an algebraic See also: Chomsky. or ‘if . 1867 in Berlin. In 1814. An investigation into the laws of thought. The fundamental assumption of this electronic devices that rely on binary switching work is that human language and reasoning can be circuits. the authorities Sacy (see Silvestre de Sacy.’ ‘or. Germany Colebrooke and especially Charles Wilkins. to the ‘pre. 1855 he married Mary Everest. George Boole. including An investigation into the laws of ware design. and operators. of whom had published grammars of the language. This culminated in the book whose publica. his life and work. While in After one year studying classical as well as mod. who at the time was Prussian ambas- Windischmann. In sets. New meaning is crucial to formal semantics. and Persian with Antoine Isaac Silvestre de University of Göttingen. tion may be understood without reference to its London: Walton and Maberley (reprinted 1973. Boolean logic emerges in several subdisciplines Bibliography of linguistics. variables. If variables in an equa. The results of such an evaluation are Frege. Wilhelm von with the encouragement of his mentor Karl Joseph (1767–1835)). From 1824 onward he published his own . he tutored Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (1808). Zentrum für Allgemeine distinguished scholars in the field. 1791 jugationssystem (1820) (the remainder was devoted in Mainz. Friedrich von (1772–1829)) Indic language and literature.

1974 Benjamins. Frankfurt: Andreäische of the major Indo-European languages appeared be.) (1820). Wissenschaft. 3 vols. 275–284. for his success was that he did not slavishly follow the Lefmann S (1891–1895). tween 1833 and 1852. F. Timpanaro S (1973). [Altslawischen]. Berlin. 6 Abtheilungen. Repr. Kleine Schriften zur vergleichenden Sprach- wissenschaft: Gesammelte Berliner Abhandlungen 1824– 54. Gothischen und Deutschen. Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der DDR. Although he had a number of Bopp F & Koerner E F K (eds. Philos. Griechischen. Friedrich von (1772– Paustian P R (1978). ‘Il contrasto tra i fratelli Schlegel e Franz Bopp sulla struitura e la genesi delle lingue Bibliography indoeuropee. and his comparative grammar germanischen Sprache. Über das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in Vergleichung mit jenem der griechischen. ‘Analytical distinguished students. persischen und grammars of Sanskrit. 1–64. Mit einer Ein- Persian. Michel Jules Alfred (1832–1915). in Abhandlung: Von den Wurzeln und Pronomen erster Sebeok T A (ed.’ In Practicing linguistic ual branches of the Indo-European language family. 1975.’ Annals of Oriental Literature William Dwight (1827–1894)). Bonn. 1971. Amsterdam. Whitney. August Pennsylvania Press. However. Old. Berlin: Georg Reimer. nische Forschungen 82. as Bréal (1991) pointed out. in Bopp 1972. Bréal. Lefmann S (1897). Wilhelm von (1767–1835).’ Nachtrag. Bopp F (1833–1852). Michel Jules Alfred (1832–1915)). Baron Antoine-Isaac (1758– distrust of the Indian grammatical tradition. ‘Franz Bopp’s use of typology.’ In Wolf G (ed. historiography. Koerner. Persian. Z Phon 44(3).) field of comparative philology was largely produced The beginnings of semantics. Latin. 1989 with detailed biography of Bopp. Bopp F (1827). 1857–1861. which provided the framework for several Lehmann W P (1991). Stanford. 2nd edn. Bopp F (1825). disciplinary perspective. Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der Sanskrita- Sprache (2nd edn. Latin. CA: Stanford – apart from his voluminous comparative grammar – University Press. Sanskrit. ‘Franz Bopp. Biological metaphor and cladistic classification: An inter- Humboldt. lateinischen.). identity. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Bloomington. Selected essays by K. Mit dem Bildnis Franz Bopps und einem skrit but introduced his own perspective to the analy. .) See also: Arabic. Bopp. und zweiter Person. Repr. Send [Armenischen]. Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit. Vergleichende Zergliederung der Sanskrita. Morpurgo Davies A (1987). Philadelphia. F. ‘Introduction to the French translation enormous impact on Sanskrit studies and on the of Bopp’s Comparative Grammar. vol. grammatrical structure. sein Leben und seine Indic grammatical tradition in his treatment of San. Repr. ‘Franz Bopp. another reason Amsterdam: Benjamins. repr. PA: University of August Friedrich (1802–1887).) 1966 Portraits of Linguists. and Teu- Pott (see Pott. Dümmler. 39–49. and other Indo-European languages. Franz (1791–1867) 97 Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Bopp’s Bréal M (1991). William Dwight Whitney (see Whitney. Figure 1 Franz Bopp. Koerner K (1989).-historische Klasse 1825: 117–148.) (1816). Latei- nischen. I. 438–468. Schlegel. Berlin: F. Bopp F & Windischmann K J (eds. Thus he leitung und einem vollständigen Register. Georg Olms. tonic languages. ‘‘‘Organic’’ and ‘‘Organism’’ in ‘‘Franz Bopp. Berlin: Georg developed a method of showing their basic structural Reimer. Erste conceptions of Bopp.’ Critica Storica 10. Bréal. Adal. Litthauischen. including August Friedrich comparison of the Sanskrit. Pott.’ generations of comparative-historical linguists. 2nd edn. ‘The background to the linguistic Sprache und der mit ihm verwandten Sprachen. Hildesheim. August Friedrich (1802–1887)). Dümmler.’’’ In Hoenigswald H M & Wiener L F (eds. William Dwight (1827–1894). Buchhandlung. Bopp F (1972). ‘Bopp and the nineteenth-century 1829). Wilhelm von (1767–1845).’ Lingua 2. IN: Indiana University Press. and Michel Bréal (see 1.’ Indogerma- 1838). Silvestre de Sacy. showing the original identity of their bert Kuhn. Verburg P A (1950). sis of this language in conjunction with Greek. by the vast number of his empirical studies of individ. Schlegel. Dümmler. Greek. Franz Bopp. Anhang: Aus Briefen und anderen Schriften (Parts I–II). 1–38.

NTS Suppl. his penetrating and constructive way of Borgstrøm also studied comparative Indo-European analyzing linguistic data. Innføring i sprogvidenskap. Borgstrøm C Hj (1938). 250–273. only a few articles in this field that were mainly over. professor Carl Marstrander. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scot- he produced some discerning structural studies on land.3%). Other languages spoken are German. Oslo: However. Schriftsprache (nach der ostnorwegischen Aussprache). Serbian (37. and Bosnian Bosniacs (formerly referred to as Bosnian Muslims). and his scholarly and philology and from 1932 to 1935 was Lecturer in human generosity. Norway. and shire. Borgstrøm. Borgstrom thus had an Borgstrøm was born in Kristiania (Oslo). Turkish. He stimu- Borgstrøm’s later studies of dialects on the Hebrides lated. ‘Zur Phonologie der norwegischen In 1947 he was appointed Professor of Compara. NTS Suppl. During the war Borgstrøm went Bibliography to Sweden and in 1945 he was a lecturer of linguistics in Lund. A whole generation of Norwegian the foundation of subsequent investigations of Gaelic linguists was influenced by his broad theoretical ori- dialects. bind 2. Oslo: American and European structuralism interspersed Kunnskapsforlaget. his most important publication was his Universitetsforlaget. Norway with Borgstrom’s own ideas on language analysis. (1883–1965). Carl Hjalmar (1909–1986) E Hovdhaugen. 421–422. and Croatian (14. Norwegian phonology (e. University of Oslo. During his stay in Turkey he learned Turkish and consequently offered courses in Turkish at the University of Oslo. S. vol.g. introductory textbook on general linguistics. teacher. census). 1941) were pioneer works and laid challenging way. and Croatian – are dialects of the and the Republika Srpska. bind 1.’ NTS 9. spoken by 48% of the population (2000 both Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. encouraged him Borgstrøm was a shy and formal person. first Simonsen H G (1999). Oslo: Aschehoug. but as a to choose Scottish Gaelic dialects as his speciality. during his entire career he published A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. teacher and supervisor he was unique. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Language Situation Editorial Team The term ‘Bosnian’ refers to the languages spoken ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. 2. Serbian. formerly and Herzegovina is about 4 007 608 (estimated. It was a successful symbiosis of Arntzen J G (ed. Carl Hjalmar (1909–1986) Borgstrøm. All rights reserved. ‘Carl Hjalmar Borgstrøm. . See also: Serbian–Croatian–Bosnian Linguistic Complex.’ In published in 1958. Carl J. Italian. and Albanian. Ankara. Comparative Philology at Trinity College in Dublin. Vlax Romani.) Norsk biografisk leksikon 1.. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. The population of Bosnia standard version of Central-South Slavic. and still frequently called Serbo-Croatian. Oslo. In 1936–1937 he was Visiting Professor of Sanskrit in See also: Marstrander. Borgstrøm C Hj (1958). Bosnian July 2004). However. The dialects of Skye and Ross- (besides Celtic studies) was general linguistics. Herzegovina call their language Croatian and and the following war in 1992–1995. All rights reserved. encouraged.98 Borgstrøm. Oslo: Aschehoug. Macedo-Romanian. Oslo. and supported his students in a (Borgstrøm.1%). There are three official languages: and Croatian use a Latin alphabet. vol. his linguistics in the Nordic countries. entation. 1. respectively. by Bosnian Serbs. important influence on the emergence of structural When he began his studies of Celtic languages. For almost two decades it was the basic textbook in linguistics in Norway and also to some extent in the other Nordic countries. The dialects of the Outer Hebrides. looked or negatively received. tive Indo-European Philology at the University of Borgstrøm C Hj (1940). 1938). Bosnian is used to refer to the Herzegovina was administratively divided into two language of the Bosniac group. Serbian uses Bosnian. although the Croats and the Serbs in Bosnia and After the break-up of the Republic of Yugoslavia. 1940. His main interest Borgstrøm C Hj (1941). Bosnian Croats. All three languages – entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian. Bosnia and Serbian.

Italian. Norwegian phonology (e. during his entire career he published A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. Bosnia and Serbian. his linguistics in the Nordic countries. He stimu- Borgstrøm’s later studies of dialects on the Hebrides lated. Bosnian is used to refer to the Herzegovina was administratively divided into two language of the Bosniac group. and Croatian (14. teacher. ‘Zur Phonologie der norwegischen In 1947 he was appointed Professor of Compara. and Albanian. and still frequently called Serbo-Croatian. All three languages – entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian. Borgstrom thus had an Borgstrøm was born in Kristiania (Oslo). Serbian (37. Norway. Schriftsprache (nach der ostnorwegischen Aussprache). Bosnian Croats. and Croatian – are dialects of the and the Republika Srpska. 1941) were pioneer works and laid challenging way. introductory textbook on general linguistics. 1938). Borgstrøm C Hj (1958). Oslo: However. A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scot- he produced some discerning structural studies on land. Serbian. For almost two decades it was the basic textbook in linguistics in Norway and also to some extent in the other Nordic countries. encouraged. In 1936–1937 he was Visiting Professor of Sanskrit in See also: Marstrander. looked or negatively received. formerly and Herzegovina is about 4 007 608 (estimated. NTS Suppl. During his stay in Turkey he learned Turkish and consequently offered courses in Turkish at the University of Oslo. However. vol. 421–422. his penetrating and constructive way of Borgstrøm also studied comparative Indo-European analyzing linguistic data.) Norsk biografisk leksikon 1. Borgstrøm. Oslo: Aschehoug. although the Croats and the Serbs in Bosnia and After the break-up of the Republic of Yugoslavia. All rights reserved. The dialects of the Outer Hebrides. first Simonsen H G (1999). Norway with Borgstrom’s own ideas on language analysis. professor Carl Marstrander. NTS Suppl. Borgstrøm C Hj (1938). During the war Borgstrøm went Bibliography to Sweden and in 1945 he was a lecturer of linguistics in Lund. Ankara. Herzegovina call their language Croatian and and the following war in 1992–1995. Carl Hjalmar (1909–1986) E Hovdhaugen.g. by Bosnian Serbs. Oslo.. S. Carl Hjalmar (1909–1986) Borgstrøm. See also: Serbian–Croatian–Bosnian Linguistic Complex. 2. There are three official languages: and Croatian use a Latin alphabet. University of Oslo. respectively. bind 2. Serbian uses Bosnian. teacher and supervisor he was unique. ‘Carl Hjalmar Borgstrøm. Other languages spoken are German. Vlax Romani. 1. but as a to choose Scottish Gaelic dialects as his speciality. (1883–1965).98 Borgstrøm. Innføring i sprogvidenskap. vol. entation.’ In published in 1958. . The population of Bosnia standard version of Central-South Slavic. census). Macedo-Romanian. only a few articles in this field that were mainly over. and Bosnian Bosniacs (formerly referred to as Bosnian Muslims). Turkish. important influence on the emergence of structural When he began his studies of Celtic languages. and his scholarly and philology and from 1932 to 1935 was Lecturer in human generosity. and supported his students in a (Borgstrøm. and shire. A whole generation of Norwegian the foundation of subsequent investigations of Gaelic linguists was influenced by his broad theoretical ori- dialects. encouraged him Borgstrøm was a shy and formal person. The dialects of Skye and Ross- (besides Celtic studies) was general linguistics. Bosnian July 2004). All rights reserved. 250–273. Oslo. Comparative Philology at Trinity College in Dublin. tive Indo-European Philology at the University of Borgstrøm C Hj (1940). 1940.1%). Oslo: American and European structuralism interspersed Kunnskapsforlaget. bind 1. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Oslo: Aschehoug. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Language Situation Editorial Team The term ‘Bosnian’ refers to the languages spoken ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. It was a successful symbiosis of Arntzen J G (ed.’ NTS 9. His main interest Borgstrøm C Hj (1941). his most important publication was his Universitetsforlaget.3%). Carl J. spoken by 48% of the population (2000 both Latin and Cyrillic alphabets.

surrounded desert of the central. as settled areas are or hunters. It is completely landlocked. Zimbabwe to its east. and Zambia and Namibia to its people. The Khoe Okavango Delta. drainage is internal. country is home to numerous groups of San and Khoe Namibia to its west. University of Botswana. On the other hand.. as well as the surrounding area as far east as by the Bantu groups more than 2000 years later. the Chobe Basin. is misleadingly extensive. In fact. having lived there for at least to the Okavango Swamp in the northwest. Botswana: Language Situation H M Batibo. The country has a population of over 1. giving ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. who live in the areas as farmers. which has resulted from this inland arrived in the area about 4000 years ago. fishermen. the San were the first and Chobe rivers. the Kalahari ern Africa. north. . Gaborone. west. 1963). language maps such as Greenberg’s (see Greenberg. Figure 1 The distribution of the 28 Botswana languages (after Batibo et al. herders. However. commonly known as Khoesan or Bushman. and largely inhabitants of the area. Botswana: Language Situation 99 Bosnian See: Serbian–Croatian–Bosnian Linguistic Complex. Apart from the Limpopo than 30 people each. often attributed to Khoesan in flora and has attracted many different communities. The 20 000 years as hunters and foragers. is a rich habitat of both fauna and The territory. a density of about 3 people per square kilometer. 2003). and southwest area of the by South Africa to its south. the population is concentrated on the east- ern and northern fringes of the country where the Botswana is a medium-sized country located in south. All rights reserved.7 million Botswana people (according to the 2001 census report). followed drainage. land is more fertile. It is largely composed of the Kalahari Basin of who traditionally live in scattered bands of no more the southern Africa Plateau.

belong. Khwedam 4500 0. and the main lingua franca of the country. ||Gana. Kua 2500 0. and Hua (formerly thought to belong to Southern Khoesan). Tlhaping. |Gwi. The only The figures presented in Table 1 are mere estimates. 2. 2003). Nubian. Tawana. Ngwato.41% Shona branch of Southeastern Bantu: Ikalanga. spoken in southern areas by the known as Southern Khoesan. spoken by about 7500 people. and Arab-speaking the speakers of the various languages. Tlokwa and Lete South Africa. The other members of Southern the Kwena groups. Rugciriku (Rumanyo) 2300 0. The only language 20. It is spoken by 78.83% 3.67% Sotho branch of Southern Bantu: Setswana (Tswana). has only one member Ngwaketse. 26. Shua 6000 0. Sindebele 22.006% 28. other widely used language is Ikalanga (Kalanga). |Gwi 1000 0. mainly Afrikaner set. There 8. and part of the Kwena groups. Thimbukushu (Mbukushu). and various Kxoe dialects). spoken in the northern areas by the the Christian New Testament in 1839.006% hosa (Xhosa) in South Africa.14% ern borders of the country. The last group. Setswapong 6000 0. groups. Naro 10 000 0. Lastly.44% Silozi (Lozi). formerly spoken mainly in what is now in the eastern areas by the Kgatla.73% Germanic (a subbranch of Indo-European). Ethiopic. Nama 1000 0. 2000).35% Zezuru. Tshwa. (Khoekhoegowab) There are 12 Khoesan languages which belong 27. Tshwa 5000 0.06% ing to three main language families: Bantu (a sub- 6. Khoesan (Khoisan). !Xóõ 5000 0. and is understood and used by over 90 Kgalagadi districts (Grimes.02% that belongs to Western Bantu is Otjiherero (Herero) 21. together with IsiZulu (Zulu) and IsiX. Tlharo and part of in Botswana. as many people communities. Setswapong (Tswapong). southern dialect. of which five belong to the 9. Thimbukushu 30 000 1. Kx’au||’ein. with the publication by Robert Moffat of northern dialect. have largely become extinct. place in Botswana since independence in 1966.88% branch of Niger–Congo). 14. Sekgoa (English) 3000 0. Setswana is the most dominant language both There are two Germanic languages: Afrikaans. ||Gana 1300 0. Three languages belong to the Sala– 13.70% are 14 Bantu languages.59% 11. language known to develop an orthography and a Setswana is found in three main dialects: the literature. It is the national language which is mainly spoken as a second language. Vai. The southern branch 15.29% 17. Ju|’hoan 4500 0. In fact the languages Khoesan groups. Ikalanga 150 000 8. 16. with Total 1 703 300 99. Kua (Hietshware).015% 23. Nambya (Najwa) 15 000 0. and 19. Hua 200 0.008% of languages. whose population is about 39 000 Language Estimated number Percentage of in Botswana. demographically and in terms of status and prestige. as no census involving language or ethnicity has taken which is spoken by over 150 000 people. the |Anda.53% Shekgalagari. Shekgalagari 48 000 2. 10. are fast vanishing due to integration into of speakers speakers the more dominant and socioeconomically prestigious 1. Sebirwa 12 500 0. It is Leaving aside the very early literacy traditions of difficult to come up with accurate figures regarding the Coptic.002% (classified by Guthrie in Zone R). Zezuru (Shona) 12 000 0. Otjiherero 11 500 0. and 7. Afrikaans 7500 0.100 Botswana: Language Situation better considered to be Bantu.29% Shiyeyi (Yeyi) (erroneously classified by Guthrie 18. Sindebele 9000 0.27% [1948] in Zone R).76% 5. and the eastern dialect. and Nambya (Najwa). !Xóõ.6% Bantu communities. Kx’au||’ein 2500 0.82% (including Linguistic Relationships Shengologa) The country has 28 languages (see Figure 1).6 percent of the population as first tlers in farms and ranches in the Ghanzi and language. ||Anikhwe. Shua. and English. the Setlhaping variety of Setswana in tend to equate language with ethnicity or may want to Botswana has the distinction of being the first African identify themselves with the majority languages.53% three languages: Ju|’hoan.27% Rugciriku (Rumanyo) [Diriku]. which is extensively spoken along the east- 24.015% (Ndebele). Shiyeyi 18 000 1. . Central Khoesan. who constitute more Table 1 The estimated number of speakers of the Botswana than 96% of the Botswana population. 4. Silozi (Serotsi) 3000 0.001% to three distinct groups: Northern Khoesan.. Chikuhane (Sesubiya) 7000 0. Sebirwa. with eight languages: Nama. belongs to the Nguni group 25. and Khwedam (the last comprising Bugakhwe. Setswana 1 335 000 78. percent of the population. Rolong. and 12. Naro. (After Batibo et al. spoken Khoesan.035% of Central Bantu includes Chikuhane (Sesubiya).

267–284.) (2000). Language Policy in Multi. Languages of Wider resource or a problem? Gaborone: Pula Press.) (2002). Khoesaan Languages. perspectives from Botswana. Birth of a national language: the history of Setswana. of the small Botswana languages. larly in the oral mode. while Setswana Botswana. Bouvet Island: Language Situation 101 Language Policy. Gaborone: Longman Botswana. Gaborone: Light Books Indo–European Languages. Janson T & Tsonope J (1991). Revised national policy on the smaller languages have very few speakers. the island is who discovered it in 1739. ‘The fate of the minority languages of in the formal business of government. Lingua Francas as Second Languages. Africa south of the Sahara (20th edn. but in 1928 the claim was waived ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. ‘The fate of the Khoesan languages of primary education and English in upper primary Botswana. The classification of the Bantu both linguists and the general public. the administration and mass media. South Vosssen R (1988). All rights reserved.). guage Maintenance and Shift. Nyati-Ramahobo L (1999). Frankfurt: Peter Lang. through language and linguistics. the University. Gaborone: Associated Printers. since 1977. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Botswana is one of the countries in Africa where Government of Botswana (1994). Most education (white paper). Language pluralism in Botswana: hope or Minorities and Language. in Africa. proportionate to its population. people.) (2000). of language shift and death are a great concern to Guthrie M (1948). other hand. Hence. Bayreuth African studies 13: patterns of Africa: Language Situation. most of whom are bilingual in the major Grimes B (2000). over 2000 students per year enroll in Batibo H M. Ethnologue (14th edn. . are spoken by fewer than 10 000 ton: Indiana University Press. so named after the French naval officer on the island. is a volcanic island considered a territory of Norway and is administered situated in the southern section of the Atlantic by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice Ocean. Zimbabwe: Language Situation. Use. Setswana is used in lower Batibo H M (1998). guage. particularly Setswana. London: Europa Publications. The languages of Setswana is the national language. The enrollment for secondary Batibo H M & Tsonope J (eds. Gaborone: Government Printers. Zambia: Language language knowledge and use in Ngamiland in Botswana. especially those of Greenberg J H (1963). On the Khoesan languages in Botswana. Bayreuth: Bayreuth University. southwest of South Africa’s Cape of Good and Police in Oslo. particu. Gaborone: Heinemann Botswana. English is used Batibo H M (1997). The national language: a lingual Educational Contexts. The state of level schooling is reported to be 21 percent. Europa Publications (1991). Dallas: languages. Botswana: the future percent. Norway has run an automated meteorological station Bouvet Island. Xhosa. Lan.’ In Smieja B & Tasch M (eds. Situation. Mathangwane J T & Tsonope J (2003). is more than present on Bouvet Island are subject to Norwegian 1600 km away. Zulu. Mazonde I N (ed. giving Botswana the highest rate of A study of the third language teaching in Botswana university admission. in favor of the Norwegian Crown. and Literacy Bibliography English is the official language of Botswana.) Endangered languages and all the subsequent levels of education. London: International African Institute. With no native population. while Anderson G & Janson T (1997). Publishers for the University of Botswana. Namibia: Language Situation. It is the most isolated island on Earth – the gian and the few researchers who on occasion are nearest land. the process S K Publications. although independent estimates of literacy in of the minority languages. Bouvet Island was declared a natural reserve in 1971 and. Bouvet Island: Language Situation Editorial Team the British in 1825. Koeln: Ruediger Koeppe. Smieja B (2003). 243–252. in Africa. Blooming- Khoesan origin. Proto-Bantu. Both are used in Botswana. Minorities in the millennium: See also: Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Communication. the Antarctic Continent.). The first territorial claim came from law. (preliminary report). Multiculturalism and Lan. languages. The official literacy rate is estimated at about 60 Batibo H M & Smieja B (eds. Gaborone: Tasalls. The languages of Africa.) Human contact is generally used in semiofficial interactions. Setswana are lower. The official language is Norwe- Hope.’ In Brenzinger M (ed. hurdle? Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Gaborone: Associated Printers. Birth of a national language: the history of Setswana. especially those of Greenberg J H (1963). other hand. proportionate to its population. Communication. Blooming- Khoesan origin. of language shift and death are a great concern to Guthrie M (1948). Janson T & Tsonope J (1991). Ethnologue (14th edn. The enrollment for secondary Batibo H M & Tsonope J (eds. the administration and mass media. Bouvet Island: Language Situation 101 Language Policy. Zulu. languages. Gaborone: Longman Botswana. and Literacy Bibliography English is the official language of Botswana.) Human contact is generally used in semiofficial interactions. Bayreuth: Bayreuth University.’ In Smieja B & Tasch M (eds. 243–252. perspectives from Botswana. Multiculturalism and Lan. in favor of the Norwegian Crown. particu. hurdle? Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Revised national policy on the smaller languages have very few speakers.). (preliminary report). Khoesaan Languages. London: Europa Publications. The classification of the Bantu both linguists and the general public. in Africa. Minorities in the millennium: See also: Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. people. the process S K Publications. The state of level schooling is reported to be 21 percent. but in 1928 the claim was waived ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Proto-Bantu. Norway has run an automated meteorological station Bouvet Island. Dallas: languages. Smieja B (2003). the Antarctic Continent. ‘The fate of the minority languages of in the formal business of government. in Africa. Xhosa. All rights reserved. Most education (white paper). The official literacy rate is estimated at about 60 Batibo H M & Smieja B (eds. particularly Setswana. since 1977. Nyati-Ramahobo L (1999). while Setswana Botswana. Lingua Francas as Second Languages. The national language: a lingual Educational Contexts. guage Maintenance and Shift. Language Policy in Multi. of the small Botswana languages. The languages of Setswana is the national language. Setswana is used in lower Batibo H M (1998). most of whom are bilingual in the major Grimes B (2000). Europa Publications (1991). the island is who discovered it in 1739. The official language is Norwe- Hope. Use.’ In Brenzinger M (ed. Zambia: Language language knowledge and use in Ngamiland in Botswana. Bayreuth African studies 13: patterns of Africa: Language Situation. guage. Gaborone: Heinemann Botswana. southwest of South Africa’s Cape of Good and Police in Oslo. is a volcanic island considered a territory of Norway and is administered situated in the southern section of the Atlantic by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice Ocean. Namibia: Language Situation. Both are used in Botswana.) (2000).) (2000). Gaborone: Tasalls. Gaborone: Light Books Indo–European Languages. The languages of Africa. Situation. Botswana is one of the countries in Africa where Government of Botswana (1994). ‘The fate of the Khoesan languages of primary education and English in upper primary Botswana. Zimbabwe: Language Situation.). although independent estimates of literacy in of the minority languages. Gaborone: Government Printers. Lan. larly in the oral mode. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. the University. The first territorial claim came from law. Bouvet Island was declared a natural reserve in 1971 and. English is used Batibo H M (1997). is more than present on Bouvet Island are subject to Norwegian 1600 km away. South Vosssen R (1988). . so named after the French naval officer on the island. Africa south of the Sahara (20th edn.) Endangered languages and all the subsequent levels of education. Koeln: Ruediger Koeppe. 267–284. Botswana: the future percent. Setswana are lower. giving Botswana the highest rate of A study of the third language teaching in Botswana university admission. London: International African Institute. while Anderson G & Janson T (1997). On the Khoesan languages in Botswana. are spoken by fewer than 10 000 ton: Indiana University Press. through language and linguistics. Publishers for the University of Botswana. Mathangwane J T & Tsonope J (2003). Languages of Wider resource or a problem? Gaborone: Pula Press.) (2002). With no native population. Language pluralism in Botswana: hope or Minorities and Language. It is the most isolated island on Earth – the gian and the few researchers who on occasion are nearest land. over 2000 students per year enroll in Batibo H M. Bouvet Island: Language Situation Editorial Team the British in 1825. Hence. Mazonde I N (ed.

‘Science et nationalisme linguistique except his poetry (published in 1529) and a manual of ou la bataille pour l’étymologie au XVIe siècle. Sur les langues Bovelles’s main linguistic work is his study of dia- vulgaires (. Paris: Champion. quae item ab origine Latina manarint.). combining these with a scholarly Bibliography career. arithmetic. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Bovelles. Victor J M (1978). As a typical Renais. his work constitutes 1479. according to some sources in 1475). and Demaizière: Sur les langues vulgaires et la variété de la metaphysics. ‘La grammaire française des XVIe less useful onomasticon. Lettres et poèmes de Charles de sententieux avec l’interpretation d’iceux). Une source importante pour l’histoire lect differences in northern France (1533).] by Ramon Llull. Bovelles gave much weight to substratal and and started writing his first philosophical works there. Like many humanists. Charles an important source for French diachronic lexi- de Bovelles (Bouvelles/Bouelles. In his explanation of the diversification of studied in Paris (1495–1503) with J. languages as that between a regularized. Belgium characterized by irregularity and incapable of being P Swiggers. Marsilio Ficino. and rhetoric) are Magnard P (1997). ed. & Gallici sermonis varietate. All rights reserved. . Geneva: keen interest in language matters. . ‘Charles de Bovelles. 129–156. He explains language ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. ethics. Upon his return See also: Renaissance Linguistics: French Tradition. He received instruction in astronomy while in Rome in 1507. 139–165. La grammaire française au XVIe siècle. Leuven.’ Travaux de saw the relationship between Latin and the Romance Linguistique et de Littérature 15(1). The emer- French). Lefèvre d’Étaples Latin. took a In Centuriae Latinae. De hallucinatione dence) cover various domains such as theology. Bovelles et geometry (1511. Droz. sance scholar he wrote almost all his works in Latin. by Colette Nativel. In his analysis of dialect differences he shows himself as a keen observ- Born in Saint-Quentin in Picardy (before March 28. Latinized: Bovillus) cology. he devoted himself to his ecclesi- astic functions as a canon in Saint-Quentin and a priest in Noyon.102 Bovelles. Quae voces of his death). ‘Bovelles (Charles de) (1475–1556). apud Gallos sint factitiae & arbitrariae vel barbarae: His writings (and extensive scholarly correspon. Paris: R. Gallicanorum nominum. Charles de (1479–1567) Bovelles. de reproduction des thèses. Margolin J-C (1985). by C Dumont- marily involved biblical studies.’ Travaux de Linguistique et de includes a valuable etymological dictionary (in Littérature 14(1). dialectic. 169–174. superstratal influences. Charles de Bovelles en son cinquième centenaire 1479– Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. the Low Countries. Bovelles. fixed lan. and neo-Platonism 1979 (1982). Germany. His philosophical work was inspired langue française. Nicolas of Cusa. Liber de differentia vulgarium 24. Charles de (1479–1567) N Lioce. which also du vocabulaire français. but they pri. He also showed interest in popular sayings gence of linguistic national consciousness in Renaissance and proverbs. which was highly popular in 16th century Noyon. and Spain.) (2002). 1567 (some sources give 1553 or 1556 as date linguarum. the latter An intellectual biography. 215–225. evolution as due to astral determinism and human intervention (arbitrium hominum). Lille: Atelier national (in his Metaphysicum introductorium. In his classification of the sciences Demaizière C (1983). Schmitt C (1976). he et XVIIe siècles et les langues régionales. the liberal arts (grammar. Estienne. metaphysics. .’ classified on the lower level. Les grammairiens picards. He died in Ham (Vermandois) on February Bovelles C de (1533). Paris: Klincksieck. Geneva: Droz. Actes du colloque international tenu à in general. IVO Sint-Andries. the first geometry handbook in sa postérité critique. to Picardy in 1508.’ In The fairest flower. laid down into rules (he denied the possibility of Belgium writing a grammar of French). however. with French translation and notes. He then traveled through Switzerland. and a Schmitt C (1977). [Reedition. 1973. 1479–1553. guage and various vernacular offshoots. Charles de Bovelles. Firenze: Accademia della Crusca. theology. his collection of Latin sentences was Europe. er of lexical and phonetic data. humanist circles. 1503–1504). Paris: Trédaniel. translated into French in 1557 (Proverbes et dicts Margolin J-C (ed. and geometry. which Bovelles also used Late Latin sources).

between Greek hudor times awkwardly assimilated to ‘Scythian’ in declam- ‘sweat’. All rights reserved. Marcus Zuerius (1602/12–1653) 103 Boxhorn. ‘‘understood something true and important. 17–35.’ In Dutz K D (ed. His rudimentary Metcalf G J (1974). See also: Leibniz. ‘Early stages of language comparison But. Nirmutanus. Correspondences joining Persian and the Ger. Épistémologie. Boxhorn. Bloomington. ‘Ideas on the kinship of the Euro- whose name he interpreted as a ‘Scythian root. of the mind of Leibniz’’ (see Leibniz. he already betrayed his own quest tradition pushed him to look for the key of such a for a real prototype. includ. extended the comparison With C. and his Originum gallicarum ‘harmony’ in his national language. remarkably. Bonfante G (1953/54). Black Sea and the Dutch-Cimbrians (see Swiggers. as can be seen from 1612. he vigorously from Sassetti to Sir William Jones (1786). he submitted the anomalies. into morphology: declension of Latin unus and Kirchmayer ’s school in Wittenberg (see Metcalf. Scaliger. but died before Franciscus Junius’s edition of the Gospels in Anglo-Saxon and Gothic (1664–1665). he wrote to Huygens 1984).’ being confident that he had Justus Lipsius. likeness of the infinitive endings in 1974). Droixhe D (1989). volume 1. He drew profit from the Joseph Justus (1540–1609). origin of Greek. until his un. 1–31. broke with the theory of Hebrew mother tongue. contrary to most of these authors.’’ to his famous colleague Claude Saumaise linguistic By laying the stress on his native language. linked Welsh with Hebrew. focusing on the ‘basic vocab. So. ‘‘It is obvious that those nations have learned Born in Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands) in 1602 or their tongue from one mother. that he nevertheless maintained his ideas with manic languages had also been recently popularized by ‘pride’ and ‘joy. ‘Adrianus Schrieckius: de la langue des by Joseph Juste Scaliger (see Scaliger. Boxhorn’s work represents one of the most Greek and Dutch. Gottfried Wil- p. comparatives. on the Saumaise – who arrived at the same historical con- basis of a relation between the Cimmerians of the clusions (!) – Boxhorn was considered a monomaniac. helm (1646–1716)). Besold. his Originum gallicarum Langage 6. and others. Latin sudor.’ Histoire. Marcus Zuerius (1602/12–1653) D Droixhe liber (1654) thrashed John Davies (1632) for having ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd.) Studies in the history of linguistics. became professor of rhetoric and history. (1540–1609)) or Grotius. Despised by been set among the oldest mother-tongues. discovery of Anglo-Saxon. some- comparisons.’’ Boxhorn undertook a systematic exploration of the analogies that united the European languages. Hayne.’ nutives. 395. One year before he died. German ein. 679–699. in its mation of present participles.) Speculum histor- ous lexical analogies. IN: Indiana University Press. according to the secularization propagated in Leiden Swiggers P (1984).. Boxhorn. Saumaise’s De hellenistica (1643) and G. etc. the conjugations. A strong Flemish atory statements. ‘Boxhorn’s bad reputation. Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716). and ‘Celtic’ sud. His ideas were expounded in a Dutch Antwoord of 1647. ing the Celtic and Slavic ones. K. or dimi- search for a European prototype called ‘Scythian. Cruciger. similitudes with Latin in the for- accomplished efforts in pre-comparativism. ulary’ (esp. Muller J C (1986). He was also said to have ‘‘planted the seed of Celtic philology in the fertile soil This article is reproduced from the previous edition. ! 1994. iographiae linguisticae. Münster: Nodus Publikationen.’ Kratylos 31. and Dutch. Traditions and the universal equivalences previously established by paradigms.’ That pean languages from 1200 to 1800. in academic linguistics. concerning the sensational Bibliography discovery of stone images of the goddess Nehalennia. Elsevier Ltd. ‘The Indo–European hypothesis in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. where he their ordinary manner of varying words and names. As a young teacher. The latter had liber finally fostered the Celtic fever.’ In Hymes D search for phonetic rules must be compared to (ed. Latin. A chapter In a rather traditional way he puts forward vari. Marcus Boxhorn studied at Leiden. in the declensions. and even in timely death in 1653.’ Cahiers d’histoire 100-page essay was led to demonstrate the common mondiale 1. names for body parts). . Joseph Justus Scythes à l’Europe linguistique. for example.

adverbs (including expressives). Brahuis lived where they are now located from verbs. monat.. respectively: hust. The basic known). Brahui is the conventional spelling for One major dialectal division in Brahui involves the the phonetically more correct Brāhōı̄/Brāhūı̄. and interjections. and k may optionally be and -as to the nominal base. A definite adjective that is monosyl- phōk/phōkh ‘wasted’). area). both of these also show the reflex l in some ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. pagga ‘tomorrow’). and (3) manner (e.’ its speakers. It An indefinite adjective can function also as a noun: ball-ō Table 1 Vowels of Brahui big-INDEF ‘big (one)’ Front Central Back Short Long Short Long Short Long An adverb occurs before the verb. which is far away from the main The following word classes may be recognized for Dravidian area. . words. . ux and is lost before a consonant or in final position. more in the northern dialects but is replaced in the south by specifically. sahi affat. however.’ Brahui tribesmen. of whom only about 300 000 speak the language. It is estimated that there are about 700 000 šahd. the other holds that they migrated particles.g. and Malto. India flex) *l. as illustrated in the pre- accompanied by aspiration in all positions (pōk/ ceding examples. (2) Mid ē ōō place (e. There are two views current among the scholars to explain the Word Classes location of Brahui. dāsā ‘now. pō ‘intelligence. The contrast between L and l The word ‘Brahui’ designates both a language and is illustrated in pāL ‘milk’ and pāl ‘omen. *e developed into i/a and *o Nouns and adjectives characteristically distinguish developed into u/a/ō (the exact conditionings are not between definite and indefinite forms. The Brahuis live mainly in the Baluchistan the following examples illustrate the variation in the and Sind provinces of Pakistan. Low a ā dawn ‘thus’). the enclitic pronouns .g. sa ı̄ affat. ux and to the postnominal position for the sake of emphasis: Malto. The lan. The ē and ō have shorter (and somewhat forms are definite and the corresponding indefinite lower) allophones before a consonant cluster.. voiceless glottal fricative h.104 Brahui Brahui P S Subrahmanyam. The voiceless deserted village lateral L is the most characteristic sound of Brahui ‘deserted village’ since it does not occur either in Proto-Dravidian (PDr) or in the neighboring languages of Brahui. horse-INDEF good-INDEF Proto-Dravidian short *e and short *o have been ‘good horse’ removed from the Brahui vowel system under the influence of Balochi.g. All rights reserved.’ darō High i ı̄ u ū ‘yesterday’. Even those who speak Brahui Syntax are bilinguals in either Balochi or Siraki. For particles. ‘I don’t know’. also in Afghanistan (Šōrāwāk desert) and Iran (Sistan ust ‘heart’. jwān-ō hullı̄-as good-INDEF horse-INDEF Phonology ‘good horse’ The Brahui phonological system contains eight hullı̄-as jwān-ō vowels and 28 consonants (see Tables 1 and 2). aynō ‘today’. Annamalai University. it appears in all positions guage is a member of the Dravidian family. aspirated stops in labic is often strengthened by the addition of -ā/-angā: Indo-Aryan loans sometimes lose their aspiration in sun-angā šahr the south (dhōbı̄/dōbı̄ ‘washerman’). ı̄ ‘forward’). adjectives. and pōh. the conditioning being unclear because of the paucity of the data (pāL ‘milk’ < PDr *pāl. An adjective normally to the current locations from that part of the main occurs before the noun it qualifies but may be shifted area that is occupied by the speakers of Kur.. PDr (alveolar) *l and (retro- Bangalore. but some are found northern and southern dialects. of which the other two members are Kur. comes from two sources. Adverbs may be divided into those of (1) time (e. tēL ‘scorpion’ < PDr *tēl. the earliest times. Whereas one view maintains that the Brahui: nouns (including pronouns and numerals). ). the glottal stop in initial and intervocalic positions. ones are derived by adding -ō to the adjective base The voiceless stops p. it belongs to the North Dravidian sub. group. t. šad ‘honey’.

they carry the sense of a pronoun in the genitive case. c j k g Nasal m n n. rect object. are very commonly used in Brahui. Brahui. Te. adi ‘she. d.’ Case Suffixes and Postpositions Sentences Without the Copular Verb The nominative is unmarked. as in the South Dravidian languages.1SG ‘two sons’ ‘I must do this work. by’ (Table 4 shows all of cially the southern ones). like Toda of South Dravidian. Whereas those for person are retained to refer to all categories: ō(d) ‘he/ the third person are used in dialects throughout the she/it’ (cf. and locative II means ‘on. 2SG þ nē ‘your. Brahui 105 Table 2 Consonants of Brahuia Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal (VL) VL VD VL VD VL VD VL VD VL VD VL VD Stop p b t d t. 3PL þ tā ‘their’ (there are Noun Morphology no plurals in the first and second persons): A nominal base is followed by the plural suffix when maL-ē þ ka plurality has to be expressed and then by a case suffix. voiceless. however. but number (singular versus plural) is distinguished (see later. The forms are: 1SG þ ka ‘my’. VL.)/to my son’ form of a noun. such as bē(d) ‘with- out. xalkus þ ka. They are Agreement suffixed to nouns or verbs. The following example without the copula in certain contexts: shows postpositions: numā šahr-at.’ The plural suffix is -k (variant -āk) in the nomina- tive but -tē. The original All of the pronouns are of Dravidian origin. Plural Suffix strike-PAST-2SG þ 1ENCL ‘You struck me. it’) and Brahui area. A finite verb shows agreement with the subject when added to a verb. avi ‘they (NEUT)’). Ta. they signal the direct or indi. use of the plural suffix is optional when plurality is The favored word order in Brahui is subject-object- understood from the context: verb: irā mār/mā-k (<*mār-k) ı̄ dā kārēmē kar-ōı̄ ut. ı̄ at. pronoun for person and number (see Table 3). are more common in the Jahlawān dialect. When added to a noun. urā/ō ka-nā nēmaGāı̄ your village-LOC how many house my towards ‘How many houses are there in your ‘towards me’ village?’ There are also a few prepositions. two son/son-PL I this work do-NOM be. son-ACC/DAT þ 1ENCL a postposition is normally attached to the genitive ‘my son (accus. locative I means ‘in’ Like most of the other Dravidian languages (espe. Fricative f x G h Sibilant s z š ž Lateral L l Trill r Flap r. voiced.before a nonnominative case suffix (see Word Order Table 4). has no gender Pronouns distinction. Te(legu). neuter forms (both singular and plural) of the third Brahui developed postclitic forms of personal . Ta(mil).’ of Perso-Arabic origin that have entered Brahui Gender and Number through Balochi. Semivowel w y a Abbreviations: VD. Brahui contains sentences the case forms of xal ‘stone’). Plural Suffixes). av(ay). those for the first and the second persons ōfk ‘they’ (cf.’ 3SG þ ta ‘his/her/its’. atu ‘it’.

t ı̄ 3. is formed by adding to 3.’ ‘you(singular)’ and num ‘you (plural). ). Nonpast negative: verb base þ pa þ personal Only the cardinal numbers for one. tix-ā þ sas tix-ā þ sur by the addition of the transitive-causative suffix Perfect -if (conditioned variant: -f ). which 2.’ ka . ‘2’ is ira(t. tix-pa-r ‘I will not put’ tix-pa-n tions involving the ‘be’ verb. and all of them are periphrastic construc- 1. tix-ā-n þ ut.. all others are borrowed There are some other syntactic constructions from Balochi. tix-ā tix-ā þ r Comitative xal-tō xal-tē-tō Imperfect Ablative xal-ān xal-tē-ān 1. therefore. xal-t-at. -is-. following structures (these and the previously men- tion: proximal dā(d) ‘(one) who is here’ (plural dāfk). tioned tenses are illustrated in Table 3 with the verb medial ē(d) ‘(one) who is at some distance’ (plural ēfk). 1. ‘I have put’ tix-ā-n þ un an intransitive into a transitive and an underived tran- 2. -ss-). tix-ā-n þ us tix-ā-n þ ure sitive into the corresponding causative. tix-ā þ sus tix-ā þ sure 3. The negative are morphological constructions with the third-person forms show a threefold deictic distinc. bin- Present indefinite 1. two.‘to be. and the nonpast ative pronouns are dēr ‘who?’ and ant ‘what?’. One noteworthy feature of Brahui is the strategy of suffixing -a to form one type of finite verb from another.t ı̄ xal-tē-. tix-ā þ s tix-ā þ re Instrumental xal-at.’ The first-person personal pronouns are ı̄ ‘I’ and nan 2. the future.‘to cause to hear. tix-o-s tix-o-re There are four kinds of past tense (past. 2. The interrog.’ There is only 4. Numerals 3. tix-p tix-pa-s the base -b. 3. tix-p-ēs tix-p-ēre is the basis for all of these. tix-e tix-i-r Future Finite Verbs 1.t -a ‘I was putting’ tix-ā þ n-a Genitive xal-nā xal-tā 2. Present indefinite: verb base þ i þ personal suffix.g. e.’ bin-if. The past stem. Verb Bases respectively. ).t ‘I put’ tix-ā þ n Accusative-dative xal-ē xal-tē 2. and three are suffix.’ the singular reflexive pronoun. A verb base in Brahui may be simple or complex. The imperative suffixes are 2SG -ø. 2PL -bo The complex base is formed from the simple one (conditioned variant: -ibo): .’ and kas-f-if. The present indefinite. tix-ā þ s-a tix-ā þ re Locative I xal-(a). tix-āk-a tix-ā þ r-a Locative II xal-ā(ı̄ ) xal-tē-ā(ı̄ ) Pluperfect 1. -g-. tix-ā þ . base tix. The following formulas give the structures of these tenses: and demonstrative pronouns under the influence of Balochi (see preceding discussion.‘to be.106 Brahui Table 3 Finite tenses of tix. tix-ā-n þ e tix-ā-n þ a possible to use the suffix twice in a sequence. tix-o-e tix-o-r pluperfect.‘to die. and involving ann. The number ‘1’ is asi(t. tix-o-. tix-i-s tix-i-re ‘to kill.‘to be. 3. The imperfect present-future and Verb Morphology the negative present-future are thus formed from the past present-indefinite and the nonpast negative. tix-ā þ .’ kas-f- 2. tēn ‘self’. Word Classes).‘to be’ that need not be mentioned ‘3’ is musi(t. tix-ā þ sut ‘I had put’ tix-ā þ sun. ‘we’. -s-. here.t of these function as adjectives). it is. Perfect: past stem þ (u)n þ present of ann.‘to put’ Table 4 Case forms of xal ‘stone’ Tense Singular Plural Case Singular Plural Past Nominative xal xal-k 1. Future: verb base þ o þ personal suffix. and perfect).t ‘I will put’ tix-o-n 2. ). Imperfect: past þ a.’ 3. Past: past stem þ present of ann. -k-. This suffix converts 1.(conditioned variants: -ē-. 1. Pluperfect: past stem þ past of ann. imperfect. each with different shades of Nonpast negative meaning. of Dravidian origin (the forms without the final . 3. tix-i-v ‘I may put’ tix-i-n ‘to hear.‘to put’): and distal ō(d) ‘(one) who is far off’ (plural ōfk).‘to cause (someone) to kill. 2. the second-person personal pronouns are nı̄ 3.

) Dravidian phonological put-NEG-2SG systems. guage Situation.’ Transactions of the Philological Society. bin-ing Emeneau M B (1991). ‘Brahui phonology. . 981–983. Calcutta [Reprinted put-2PL in 1972 in Quetta]. 103–132. Dravidian Grierson G (1906). Quetta. 10: Eranian family. 649–657. Emeneau M B (1937). 191–209. ‘Notes on the Balochi-Brahui commens- ality. Krishnamurti). Munda and Dravidian languages. Linguistic survey of India. Naples. ‘Some rules of Brahui conjugation. Quetta. bin-ok Emeneau M B (1962a).]. Linguistic survey of India. ‘A periplus of the Brahui problem.’ Studia Iranica 16. base and the imperative suffix: Bray D (1939). DeArmond R (1975). Storia delle letterature d’Oriente II. ‘Put (plural)!’ Bray D (1913). vol.’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 8(4). ‘Phonetic observations on the Brahui The present adjective has the suffix -ok: language. London. Winona Lake. Bibliography I–III). Tate G P (1909). background. Iran: Language Situation.’ ‘Put!’ In Rossi A & Tosi M (eds. tix-bo Bray D (1909).) Newsletter of Baluchistan studies I.(conditioned variant: -fa-) between the problem. Nonfinite Verbs Elfenbein J (1997). Brahui and Dravidian comparative hear-PRES ADJ grammar. The infinitive-cum-action noun is formed by adding Emeneau M B (1962b). bis-isa Elfenbein J (1998). Hyderabad: Osmania University. 215–233. Mayer T J L (1906–1907). Life-history of a Brahui. vol. 430–442. Rome. IN: The present adverb has the suffix -isa: Eisenbrauns.’ In Steever S B (ed. The Brahui language I.) ‘to hear.’ In tix-pa Schiffman H & Eastman C (eds. Grierson G (1921). ‘Brahui personal pronouns. Elfenbein J (1983). ‘The Brahui problem again. ‘La letteratura Brahui.’ Indo-Iranian put-NEG-2PL Journal 25.’ Acta Orientalia 17. hearing’ Studies in Dravidian and general linguistics (a Festschrift for Bh.’ In Kaye A (ed. London. first hear-INF/VN singular and reflexive. Berkeley: University of California Publications ‘that hear(s)’ in Linguistics. 242–298. ‘Brahui. ‘History. tix-pa-bo. London and New York: Routledge. Bray D (1934). Pakistan. The Brahui language II: The Brahui tive suffix -pa. ‘Don’t put (singular)!’ Elfenbein J (1982). Brahui 107 tix Brahui A R (1983). Pakistan: Lan. 797–811.) Brahui Academy. Seattle: University of Washington. objectives and put-2SG achievements of the Brahui Academy. The corresponding negative imperative has the nega.) Phonologies of Asia and Africa.’ Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106. ‘Bilingualism and structural bor- -ing (conditioned variant: -ēng) to the verb base: rowing. 77–98.’ In Botto O (ed. Ludhiana [Reprinted in one volume in 1983 by the Bausani A (1969). A Brahui reading book (vols. The frontiers of Baluchistan. 1–12. See also: Afghanistan: Language Situation. 65–98.) The bake-PRES ADV Dravidian languages. ‘Brahui tales. ‘baking’ 388–414. Calcutta.’ In Bai B L & Reddy B R (eds. 4: the Languages. Delhi [Reprinted in 1978 in Quetta]. Calcutta. ‘Don’t put (plural)!’ Elfenbein J (1987).

UK. Louis (1809–1852) A Bowers Louis Braille was born in 1809 at Coupvray (Seine- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. complications resulted that led to total pp. but this could only serve as a blind to read and write by means of raised dots that are beginning. et-Marne). Here. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Royal National Institute for the Blind. Elsevier Ltd. shorthand. instrument. Louis (1809–1852) Braille. the teaching of reading seems to have been only ematical and scientific characters. 396–397. At 10. London. which had been founded five to facilitate the notation of many other written forms. he injured one eye with a sharp This article is reproduced from the previous edition. volume 1. The original system has been adapted des Jeunes Aveugles). math.108 Braille. ! 1994. the son of a saddler. in Paris (the Institution the fingertips. playing in his father’s workshop. years earlier by Professor Valentin Haüy. including non-European languages. At age 3. All rights reserved. In time his father attempted to teach him to read the Roman letter shapes from wooden blocks Louis Braille’s system is used worldwide to enable the studded with nails. in 1819. Braille was sent to an impressed from the reverse side of a page and read with institution for blind children.) . blindness. slightly more advanced than that which the boy had Figure 1 Standard English Braille. and music.

Brands and Logos 109 experienced at home: again it relied on raised Roman The Braille system revolutionized the speed of stu- letter shapes. Braille.) The life and work of Louis Braille together with some of the wide range of contractions. ics. The modern history of brands and ‘persuasion’ adver- come a primary marketing strategy since the turn of tising overlap considerably (see Marketing and Semi- the 20th century. from tubercu- The code for each symbol or word was embossed losis. Introduction The technique of promoting products by identifying Brands and Advertising them with the name of the manufacturer or with some invented name. and the speed many as 63 letters. It now constitutes a branch of semiot- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. edn. values. In 1824. Canada 1980) in 1957. Peterborough: Royal National Figure 1 is an example of the Standard English Institute for the Blind. and would have opened the way to embossing them on paper for his students. 2000. toria: South African National Council for the Blind. adoption. and is valuable spaced than in present-day Braille. Its origin can be Roland Barthes (1957) coined the term ‘neomania’ to traced to the general study of popular culture as a characterize this type of groupthink (see Mythologies ‘mythological sign system’ by Roland Barthes (1915– in Pop Culture). Toronto. Braille dots representing letters and letter groups. Henri P (1987). large-scale embossed printing of books if the support At this time a former military officer. beliefs. insatiable appetite for brand creation as a central strategy of consumerist new objects of consumption in general ‘groupthink. and several dec- students. . In had researched a method for night-communication in fact throughout his life Braille faced stubborn resis- battle by a code of dots embossed on cardboard. however. Brands and Logos M Danesi. persuasion. All rights reserved. has be. and mathematical signs. Beasley and Danesi. which was perfected in symbols to multiply their possibilities.’ cultures has become widespread. 1809–1852: inventor of the alphabet for the blind. abbreviations. perforated ruler. leading to a widespread. he also adapted his system to Bibliography enable musical notation to be embossed. Brand names imbue products with iden- nificant trends and values that the name evokes sub. (transl. the semiotic study of of life. Danesi. 2002). It was in the transforms it into a sign – something that stands for 20th century that advertising evolved into a science something other than itself – that taps into social of persuasion intended to influence people to perceive meaning systems that govern lifestyle. Primer (rev. An accomplished musician. called the to advertise ‘nameless’ products with any degree of ‘brand. Wolfe. and arranged in a ‘cell’ or domino The only viable alternative that does not use formation offering six possible dots. The inventor for users who have lost their sight late in life. published this revolutionary system in 1829. and numbers could with which it could be used would finally ensure its be embossed. It was (and continues to be) based otics: From Transaction to Relation). were set about 3 mm apart. generally called marketing semiotics (e. compactness.). Berger.’ increases if it can be linked to socially sig. with extra guide encoded print is Moon Type. requiring only a 6-dot code. a printer from Brighton.g. It is impossible on the premise that the appeal of a product. though Professor Haüy is credited with dents’ reading. of the authorities and funding had been available. Turning a product into a brand thus beings give them a distinct identity. known as the brand name. objects of consumption as ‘necessary’ accouterments and the like. Its simplicity. before his system was in common use even in his from the back of the page using an awl and a native France. 1989. Braille ades passed before his system was adopted widely in adapted the existing ideas into a system whereby as Europe. slightly more widely Moon Type uses Roman capital letters. 2002. Braille died at 43. UK. University of Toronto. The columns 1845 by William Moon. by which time he was a teacher at the Institution. at the age of 15. Umiker-Sebeok. Charles Barbier.. however. tities in the same way that names given to human consciously. Pre- punctuation. For this reason. 1987. tance from sighted teachers who insisted that the which he maintained would also benefit blind Roman letter shapes must be used.

2002. It now constitutes a branch of semiot- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. beliefs. Danesi. however. The columns 1845 by William Moon. tance from sighted teachers who insisted that the which he maintained would also benefit blind Roman letter shapes must be used. Introduction The technique of promoting products by identifying Brands and Advertising them with the name of the manufacturer or with some invented name. leading to a widespread.’ cultures has become widespread. insatiable appetite for brand creation as a central strategy of consumerist new objects of consumption in general ‘groupthink. Canada 1980) in 1957. Umiker-Sebeok. (transl. UK. at the age of 15. values. a printer from Brighton. tities in the same way that names given to human consciously. abbreviations. slightly more widely Moon Type uses Roman capital letters.’ increases if it can be linked to socially sig. with extra guide encoded print is Moon Type. All rights reserved. Braille ades passed before his system was adopted widely in adapted the existing ideas into a system whereby as Europe. objects of consumption as ‘necessary’ accouterments and the like. 2000. and mathematical signs. Charles Barbier. Turning a product into a brand thus beings give them a distinct identity. Its origin can be Roland Barthes (1957) coined the term ‘neomania’ to traced to the general study of popular culture as a characterize this type of groupthink (see Mythologies ‘mythological sign system’ by Roland Barthes (1915– in Pop Culture). requiring only a 6-dot code. and is valuable spaced than in present-day Braille. however. called the to advertise ‘nameless’ products with any degree of ‘brand. persuasion. Its simplicity. For this reason. The modern history of brands and ‘persuasion’ adver- come a primary marketing strategy since the turn of tising overlap considerably (see Marketing and Semi- the 20th century. adoption. known as the brand name.) The life and work of Louis Braille together with some of the wide range of contractions. ics. large-scale embossed printing of books if the support At this time a former military officer. Braille dots representing letters and letter groups. . which was perfected in symbols to multiply their possibilities.). generally called marketing semiotics (e. toria: South African National Council for the Blind. before his system was in common use even in his from the back of the page using an awl and a native France. and the speed many as 63 letters. Primer (rev. Peterborough: Royal National Figure 1 is an example of the Standard English Institute for the Blind. and numbers could with which it could be used would finally ensure its be embossed. An accomplished musician. It was (and continues to be) based otics: From Transaction to Relation). has be. Pre- punctuation. In 1824. edn. perforated ruler. published this revolutionary system in 1829. compactness. Brands and Logos 109 experienced at home: again it relied on raised Roman The Braille system revolutionized the speed of stu- letter shapes. Brand names imbue products with iden- nificant trends and values that the name evokes sub. were set about 3 mm apart. of the authorities and funding had been available. and several dec- students. 2002). Henri P (1987). It was in the transforms it into a sign – something that stands for 20th century that advertising evolved into a science something other than itself – that taps into social of persuasion intended to influence people to perceive meaning systems that govern lifestyle. Wolfe. from tubercu- The code for each symbol or word was embossed losis. 1987. Braille died at 43. the semiotic study of of life. he also adapted his system to Bibliography enable musical notation to be embossed. Berger. Beasley and Danesi. Toronto. The inventor for users who have lost their sight late in life. It is impossible on the premise that the appeal of a product. by which time he was a teacher at the Institution. 1809–1852: inventor of the alphabet for the blind. Braille.. though Professor Haüy is credited with dents’ reading. Brands and Logos M Danesi. and arranged in a ‘cell’ or domino The only viable alternative that does not use formation offering six possible dots. and would have opened the way to embossing them on paper for his students. 1989. University of Toronto. In had researched a method for night-communication in fact throughout his life Braille faced stubborn resis- battle by a code of dots embossed on cardboard.g.

and so ‘authoritative’ social discourse (such as religious dis. logo.110 Brands and Logos The dawn of advertising as a science of persuasion it. This is achieved. brand identity are called ‘positioning. typically. the modern advertiser stresses not the brand’s qualities as a product or service. The image is a and psychology had clearly joined forces. that feature ads for are. . of the consumer. Advertising language has become one of cosmetic and beauty products. As Twitchell (2000: 1) aptly puts it. to get people to Brand identity is often also created by the tech- assimilate and react to advertising discourse unwit.’’ The ob.com. and creates is fashioned to appeal to specific consumer expectations. sophisticated type. etc. price. forms) – the brand name.’ Positioning is the Brand Names placing or targeting of a brand for the right market segment. attractive people with a deified. content of everyday life – a perception reinforced The one who drinks beer is portrayed in ads as a today through Internet advertising. The register of the language of ‘advertising agencies’ at the end of the 19th centu. landscape. for ry. and scious bridge between a product and the consumer by overall presentation of the product. not to everyone. nique of mythologization.’ ‘image- creation. broadening sign constructed with an amalgam of signifiers (actual the attempts of their predecessors to build an uncon. There are now even for such products. by giving The language of the ad. in fact. instance. The characters in the relevant ads websites. so that audiences can view them for quality about them. but Creating Brand Identity rather the personality image that can be associated The main techniques that go into the creation of with it. This is because of its omnipresence in the social to speak directly to particular types of individuals. image-creation. advertising became people drink beer? And what kinds drink aperitifs? In itself a mass communication strategy. first and foremost. on. the overall ‘look’ of the personages in then be easily differentiated from other products. of it. can be positioned for specific market populations. Its language has become the language portrayed instead as a smooth. such as AdCritic. and so on are tailored to reflect class and appurte- was signaled by the establishment and rapid growth nant lifestyle distinctions. such as the groups have responded in the past to other kinds of quest for eternal beauty. They are not unlike the statues their rhetorical and aesthetically pleasing qualities of ancient Greek gods like Apollo and Aphrodite. With the entrenchment of electronic types – hence the term personality (as mentioned). so that these individuals can see their guage about products and services has pretty much own personalities mirrored in the lifestyle images replaced language about all other subjects. For example.. What kinds of as mass communication outlets. the lifestyle characteristics it a ‘brand name. These started composing newspaper ads. The eternal beauty the most ubiquitous and persuasive forms of social myth can be seen in the images that advertisers create discourse of the modern era. clearly. alone. answers to these questions groupthink the perception that objects of consump. but in relation to specific Creating an ‘image’ for a brand inheres in fash- social and lifestyle trends. ties that a potential consumer of the brand uncon- ence the ‘typical consumer’ of the product. the one who drinks an aperitif is unmistakable. would typically include remarks about the education- tion were necessarily intertwined with the style and al level. fears.’ and ‘mythologization. like a person. the conquest of death. ads for the Mercedes Benz Creating an identity for a product is tantamount to automobile are aimed typically at socially upscale creating a ‘signification system’ for it – a system of car buyers. can displayed in it. used by the characters in Mercedes Benz ads. In effect. The of virtually everyone – even of those who are critical idea behind creating an image for the brand is. By the 1920s. ‘‘Lan. created by the appurtenant advertising. continuously turning to psychologists to help them Personality in this case refers to the traits and quali- develop techniques and methods designed to influ. class. imprinting in current American culture. social attitudes. This is an especially widespread in the case of course). and mythologization.’ The product. This is the strategy of im- tingly and in ways that parallel how individuals and buing a brand with some mythic meaning. mythic their own sake. media (radio and television) in the 1940s and 1950s Take alcohol brands as an example. design. such agencies ioning a recognizable ‘personality’ for it so that it had become themselves large business enterprises. Business sciously possesses or aspires to have. viduals. through positioning. down-to-earth character who simply wants to ‘hang The influence of brand advertising on society is out’ with friends. This amalgam playing on his or her emotional needs. whereas ads for Dodge vans are designed meanings that are relevant to specific kinds of indi- to appeal (make sense) to middle-class individuals. posters. jective of brand advertising is. product not in themselves. is sociolinguistically higher than that used and billboards for clients that related the qualities of a by characters in Dodge van ads.

announced a new model with the monogram public identifies them with a certain manufacturer as name CTS in 2001 and STS in 2005. Examples include ‘aspi. RSX. . but also the manufacturer’s reputation and ‘culture-wide signs’ recognized by virtually anyone good will. especially ‘marks of the trade’ or ‘trademarks. Pears’. Such signs became. living in a modern consumerist society. In early 2000. such as Premier. Hyundai’s owner and quality of the product or service. unless the stance. RL. and Colgate. At a practical informational level. Armani. the has no recognizable meaning.’ Most that propelled corporate identity and product recog- brand names appear on the product. were Ivory. were first used towards the end of the 19th well beyond this simple identifier function (see Deno- century. These provide. nam- Among the best-known trademarks surviving from ing a product has. On the other side of the naming equation. Strong name constitutes ‘‘the very fabric of their companies. and sleekness in an on the flesh of animals with a hot iron so as to identify analogy with similar abbreviating tendencies in sci- ownership and qualities of the animals. a denotative function. communication and representation. brand names are and use. so too do names such as Ferrari. for products. for Internetese. and differentiated for their qualities. that era are the striped pole of the barbershop and that is.’ It is observes. The first of these shoes. Brands and Logos 111 The legal term for brand name is ‘trademark. In the world of fashion.g. As Klein A so-called ‘strong brand’ is a product name that (2000: 16) goes on to remark. becoming general terms for the product obvious that branding was not just a simple strategy type in common discourse. Names such what they like about it so that they can purchase it as Nike. it became currency. TL.’ on the other hand. Previously. or jewelry. The ancient ence at large – e. a recognizable mark made images of accuracy. Levi’s. Around 1880. brands must other companies who might play on the name in keep in step with the times. everyday household products tation versus Connotation). Body Shop. they desire to purchase (or not). to devised intentionally to create a signification system ascertain their origin and determine their quality.g.’ a telegraphic members posted characteristic visual ‘marks’ outside form of language that spawns monogrammatic and their shops for the same basic reasons – to identify the alphanumeric signifiers on a daily basis. designer names such as Gucci. an easy way to determine who makes a had little counter-effects on the power that branding certain product.’ Shops selling for older customers who have not yet tapped into medieval swords and ancient Chinese pottery. the market was starting to be flooded by little wonder that trademarks are so fiercely protected uniform mass-produced and. it allows consumers to identify what product the three-ball sign of the pawnbroker shop. indistinguishable by corporations and manufacturers. designed to cut down the cost of purchase.C. But at a connotative Names for common products. A brand represents not only a certain social Coke. Acura also a result of extensive advertising and long. for instance.’ ‘cellophane. sounds perfect for Inter- signs were used because most people were not literate net times.’ and ‘escalator. tradespeople and guild also consistent with ‘Internet style. have in effect. instance. So powerful are products: ‘‘Competitive branding became a necessity they as identifiers that some have gained widespread of the machine age. at the time. nizability. such as Kodak. such as household level. some car- order to cause confusion among consumers.E. rapidly because. Calvin Klein.’’ By the early 1950s. soap manufacturers started and Calvin Klein evoke connotations of the clothes as naming their products so that they could be identified objets d’art rather than images of mere clothing items. containers. Pepsi. as Naomi Klein (2000: 6) aptly extends the meaning of the product considerably. The concept Lamborghini. In by s(timulated) e(mission of) r(adiation). for such brands. however. for in- Wet ‘n Wash). continuous transformed its line of models with names such as use. and in advertisements for the product. ‘Weak makers. on its container.’ ‘scotch tape. spreading mobiles. originally.. some of tion of customers accustomed to an Internet style of which refer to a characteristic of the product (e. thus. These receive less protection. Sapolio. Even the advent of no-name products. started looking at naming brands. The manufacturer’s name. and Maserati in the domain of auto- of the brand name thus came into being. are product names creat.’ They are the late medieval period. MDX. again. helping consumers easily identify has had on the consciousness of people. technology. a little later. when put on the products themselves. in such cases. the product’s name generates images that go ones. were sold in neighborhood stores from large bulk for instance. Such ‘alphabetic names’ evoke A brand was. ‘laser’ for ‘l(ight) a(mplification) Egyptians branded livestock as early as 2000 B. trends that were designed to appeal to a new genera- ed with common words. the such abbreviations are hard to remember. Apple. for product differentiation but the very semiotic fuel rin. bore visual signs that buyers could identify As the above examples show. Visual XG300 model.. for instance. Cadillac.’’ brands receive broad protection from being used by To continue to be effective. of course. have become meaning. among many others.

Rainflower. assigns sonority to the product that is Bell simulative of sounds that crackers make as they are Benetton being eaten. because nature’s beauty resources. A name such as Ritz Crackers. 1. makes it not only easier Southern Bell to remember but also suggestive of specific qualities. for ‘black’). or Skin Dew Sonata cosmetics they feel that they are acquiring some of Brand names are clearly powerful signs.’ Forbidden things take place under the Kraft cloak of the night. love potion. reinforcing the idea that something desirous actual name (e. The sepulchral name Drakkar Noir is 2.g.g. chosen by Guy Laroche for a Folger’s cologne product.’ and ‘beauty’: highly memorable. American Bell dious quality of such a word. the perceived qua. Japanese words and.’ and. Serenia Natural Wonder. was likely designed Ken (the doll) to be imitative of both Italian and Japanese words. Carmakers product or of a company suggest stability and have used the same strategy of creating car names tradition: ending in the vowel -a which. Brand names that are the names of the actual ble or assign some sensory property or social meaning manufacturers imply ‘tradition. Another example of an iconic brand Calvin Klein name is Drakkar Noir. because it renders the products ‘artistry. by extension. Together with the dark bottle. when they buy Eterna 27. given the inbuilt melo. Clinique. and so on. overt or implicit suggestion. hence the name noir (French etc. Wendy’s evokes the image a in the ‘dark’ will happen by splashing on the co. Names identifying the geographical location of a lities of the respective cultures at once. or Equalia beauty products they either explicitly or implicitly. McDonald’s Italian feminine nouns end in -a and certain Japanese Mr..g. effective strategy. The Wendy’s brand name is thus linked iconically to Italian and etc. Endocil.112 Brands and Logos When people buy an Armani or a Gucci product. Western Union Here are a few examples: etc. when they buy Poison.’ ‘reliability. Names designed to refer to some aspect of nature Achieva bestow upon the product the meanings that the Altima particular aspect evokes: Asuna Aqua Velva Aurora Cascade Corsica Mountain Dew Elantra Surf Festiva Tide Integra etc. Lumina . friendly young girl). 4. 3.’ and Gucci the ‘unknown. Here are examples of sense that they are getting products made with scien- some of the strategies that are used to bring about tific precision. The word Drakkar is obviously suggestive of the name itself is designed to emphasize (e. they are suggestive of various qualities or attributes.. Sunsilk. to give another Barbie (the doll) example of the use of iconicity.. or else suggest qualities that logne. Samara they sense instead that they are buying a dangerous. they Maxima feel that they are buying a work of art to be displayed Precidia on the body.’ the ‘forbidden. when they buy Moondrops. Brand names referring to real or fictitious people clearly iconic with the bottle’s design at a connotative elicit images built culturally into the bearers of the level. Clean words end in the suffix -ura (e. the Gillette name conveys images of ‘fear. Another common brand naming strategy involves iconicity – the strategy of creating names that resem. the deadly vampire who came out at night Clean): to mesmerize his sexual prey with a mere glance. Dracula. Aunt Jemima The name of the Acura automobile. Sentra but alluring. to a product (see Iconicity: Theory). tempura). Iconicity is an in the case of lifestyle products such as clothes.’ ‘sophistication. Armani for example. Mr. by Christian Dior.

allows it to have meaning indicating the geographical location of the company over and above itself.’ Hyundai Santa Fe Proof Positive. ‘uncomplicated. ‘blue-blooded. etc. above all else. ‘trustworthy. Brands and Logos 113 5. Viewer’s ‘advantageous. keeps it distinct from other as identifying the manufacturer (Bell. (Southern Bell. Ford Explorer Biogenical.’ ‘accurate.). Brand names designed to indicate what can be if it had a distinctive character or quality – ‘I don’t accomplished with the product are also suggestive trust Colgate products. Naming a product makes it possible to refer to it as 9. etc. Such sugges- tion systems.’ and so on. Future ‘big picture. It is Air Fresh meaningless to say something like ‘I don’t trust the Bug Off toothpaste that has blue stripes in it’.’ UltraLite ‘secure. A word Even in relaying straightforward information.’ ‘basic.). General ‘all-encompassing’ 6. it suits me perfectly’.’ etc. for instance.’ More- No Sweat over. Joy.’ ‘nobility.’ etc. etc. Light N’ Easy.’ ‘powerful. Quick Flow.’ SuperFresh ‘smiling.’ Ford Escape Choice. Quantum Health ‘strong. a product with a name has the capacity.’ ‘reliant. It is this system Yogourt (¼ Yogurt þ Gourmet) that is used and reused for various advertising etc. purposes. etc. Bon Ami of ‘a good friend. by its etc. Multicorp. Kraft. Names created as combinations of words describe a product in a ‘poetic’ way: Frogurt (¼ Frozen þ Yogurt) entails an unconscious signification system – a set of Fruitopia (¼ Fruit þ Utopia) connotations – of one kind or other. . as a consequence. Vagisil.). Names designed to indicate what the product can evokes.’ so on. General Electric. ‘reliable. Resources. ‘conquering.’ Dodge Durango Plus. etc. and Baking Powder of something ‘regal’ and ‘splendid.’ etc. 7. Names indicating the kinds of things that can be Table 1 Brand names and the signification systems they evoke done with the product.’ etc. describing what evokes an image of something ‘ultrawhite.’ ‘city Now. Monarch’s ‘majesty. ‘scientific. Easy ‘user-friendly.’ Jeep Wrangler Flour.’ etc. MaxiLight Cheer. etc. or the Brand names Signification systems kinds of places that can be visited with it. etc. etc. and. 2002). uct ‘superiority’ and ‘excellence’: General Foods. Morning Glory.’ ‘bright. One Wipe Table 1 shows just a few examples of how signifi- Quick Flow cation systems are generated by brand names. for example.’ ‘simple.’ ‘back-to-nature living. the more powerful it is and. In effect. etc. American Bell. as it has been called (Beasley and Danesi. Anusol. brand names nevertheless create significa.’ Royal the product can do (Easy On.’ ‘regal. the more connotations a name 8.’ ‘methodical. etc. ‘happy.’ Ford Expedition ‘friendly.’ etc. Mills.’ etc.’ Clean. etc. Okay Plus. ‘fool-proof.’ Jeep Renegade Burger King. etc. evokes tive images stick in the mind in the same way that the meanings of ‘tradition’ and ‘reliance’ that familiarity meanings of words do. etc.’ ‘wild-west lifestyle. etc. such classifies something.’ etc. egalitarian. They become an unconscious with the name kindles.’ Superpower. Indeed. General Dynamics. things. every brand name part of our semantic memory system. life. Technics. Jeep Grand Cherokee Coronation. very nature. Mercury Mountaineer Wash ‘N Wear. Lestoil the greater its market appeal.’ ‘forward-looking. Drip-Dry. The name Ivory. Pledge. Timex. PowerAde.’ ‘popular. etc. or ‘I will buy Close-Up Toothpaste only the cereal that has an oat-like taste to it. evoke connotations of lifestyle such as ‘country living. to tap into the brain’s capacity to store meaningful categories in the form of language. such as a vehicle.’ ‘common. ‘I will only of ‘user-friendliness’ and ‘goal-achievement’: buy Quaker Oats. Advantage ‘free-spirited. do set off images of ‘user-friendliness’: the more possibilities it offers to the advertiser for Easy On creating truly effective ads and commercials. Promise.’ and so on: People’s Choice. ‘widespread. Names constructed as hyperboles emphasize prod. The Easy Wipe higher the ‘connotative index’ of a signification sys- Kleenex tem. The name Bell.’ Panasonic. they’re useless’.’ ‘friendly.

but also to the company itself. An ancient statue of Nike shows a winged through the visual channel. The combination of these two signifying levels creates Logos a perception of the logo. One of the most widely bolic association because it shows an apple that has known ones is the peace sign. an extract of African kola nuts. level. Pemberton from South American cocoa ¼ etc. As a visual sign suggesting speed. providing them nobility.’’ In 1891. Atlanta pharmacist daily life. Its ambiguous design opens meanings that drinking Coke entails. and to the ‘personality structure’ that confused with a tomato. and Nike’s ‘swoosh’ symbol. It was created by local pharma- 2. are now shown prominently on That image was created at first by imprinting the clothing items. the social bunny wearing a bow tie. logos on clothes. to 2000’s cal. Coca-Cola has coopted socially significant ‘blue-blooded’ fashionableness. Thus. Consider the apple logo female figure alighting on the prow of a ship. al iconic sign suffused with latent religious symbol. mention but three. shrub leaves. we start experiencing the sign holistically promoted with such slogans as ‘‘Wonderful nerve and. it taps into the idea of speed as symbolic of power and conquest (such as in the Olympic races). to the logo to the Genesis story. Coca-Cola now refers not only to the actual soft As another example. 1886 at Jacob’s tive’ ¼ ‘promiscuous’ ¼ etc. The creator of the logo. evoking images of heraldry and. it strongly suggests the story of Adam and Eve in her body. as an artistic text or mysterious pictograph. from the iconic to the mythi- real thing’’ campaign shortly thereafter. The logo reinforces this sym. From to put on view in order to convey an aura of high class then.114 Brands and Logos It is little wonder that the term ‘brand’ is no longer man named Rob Janoff of Regis McKenna Advertis- used today just to refer just to a specific product line. were concealed discretely inside a collar or on changing its image from a ‘tonic’ to that of a popular a pocket. at the mythic athletes. which is found on early 1970s with its ‘‘I’d like to teach the world to sing the shoe brand. At the iconic level. presum- adopted by the Apple Computer Company. themes. for in- Asa G. Until the 1970s. they can be seen conspicuously on all 5¢ soft drink that could be drunk together with fami. it implies the activity of run- campaigns showing Coke as the drink of Olympic ning at top speed with the Nike shoe. whip about ism. having a connection to both reality and narrative rial counterparts of brand names. to diners and other eateries that featured ‘pop’ and 2000: 69) that legions of people are seemingly eager foods meant to be eaten quickly and cheaply. wet with spray and blown by her flight. and is the basis of Coca-Cola’s continued commercial Lacoste’s alligator. and thus the product. thus. ing. They constitute symbols of ‘cool’ (Klein. it in perfect harmony’’ campaign. thus. consider the Playboy logo of a drink. Nike was the goddess of victory in Greek to reinforce the signification system for a product mythology. The drink was subsequently the logo is. has consistently denied any intent to connect the but also to the company that manufactures it. and brain tonic and remarkable therapeutic agent’’ Logos have now become part of a culture-wide and ‘‘Its beneficial effects upon diseases of the vocal visual symbolism that interconnects products with chords are wonderful. from the brotherly love and peace espoused To see why logos are so powerful psychologically.’ Ralph Lauren’s polo horseman. as Logos (an abbreviation of ‘logogriphs’) are the picto. a and necklaces. indicating that society has become ly and friends – an image that has persisted to this day ‘logo conscious. to success. Whatever the truth. during the counterculture era of the late 1960s and consider briefly the Nike symbol. bow tie ¼ ‘elegance’ ¼ ‘night club scene’ ¼ ‘finesse’ cist John S. the product ‘Coca-Cola’ and who suggested writing arguably. Coca-Cola went on sale as a headache 1. Today. prises and organizations. Candler acquired ownership of Coca-Cola. and so on and up at least two interpretive chains: so forth. the name in the logo evokes the Genesis story nonetheless. it is little wonder of forbidden fruit (probably the apple) that contained that logos are used as well by noncommercial enter- forbidden knowledge. As a visu. and fruit syrup. kinds of products. to the ‘‘Coke is the works on several levels. ably to crown the ship’s commander. Her garments. which revolves around the eating Given their psychological power. the Western Bible. often worn on chains had a bite taken from it. Coca-Cola name on drinking glasses. They are designed history. claiming instead that he put image that the company wishes to impart of itself and the bite there in order to ensure that the figure not be of its products. Derived from an ancient runic symbol . Pharmacy in Atlanta. By its name with the familiar flowing script that virtually not being able to pin down what the actual meaning of everyone recognizes. rabbit ¼ ‘female’ ¼ ‘highly fertile’ ¼ ‘sexually ac- and hangover remedy on May 8. to this inbuilt dual signification system. stance. It was Pemberton’s bookkeeper who named The appeal and staying power of this logo is due. the bite is perceived in users of the product.

videos. modern mind. Roland: Theory of the Sign. . Knopf. ration. Sign wars: the cluttered other image-makers of contemporary pop culture landscape of advertising. hieroglyph. a logo is a pictograph – a and image – and by association all Disney products picture used to express ideas. Its particular design – a cross symbol London: Routledge. The letter X has become a kind of ‘macrologo’ signs and sign systems. for ex. London: controlled by those in power. that has been rotated 45 degrees – reverberates with Goffman E (1979). etc.’ Jhally S (1987). In ing to its adoption by the counterculture youth of 1955. Danna S R (1992). X-treme sports. I’m X-rated and X-citing. brands and logos are now created Key W B (1976).) and even specific characters that Key W B (1989). Advertising and popular culture: studies The only way to explain why we extract so much in variety and versatility. or beyond decency and righteousness. Understanding media semiotics. Marketing and Se- miotics: From Transaction to Relation. The idea is to get logo for everything from movies to sports names: the brand to become intertwined with cultural spec- e. ‘X’ has always constituted See also: Barthes. How to use advertising to build Conclusion strong brands. ultimately. Mickey Mouse. boxes of dynamite. it became the logo for philoso. fads. Henry Holt. in a phrase. Bibliography ually charged culture. Media: Semiotics. manufacturers. a corporation. Brands and Logos 115 of despair and grief. Paris: Seuil. etc. New York: Signet. characterizing it in a compact Berger A A (2000). Mythologies. Persuasive signs: the semi- one of the most provocative symbols of contempo. Nissan’s X-Terra model. and as a symbol marking a secret treasure on a pirate’s map. in some way. Harper and Row. ample. be. the Disney Corporation cartoon character Klein N (2000). toys.’ ‘X’ is. No wonder that adver. Take. It is a modern-day Arnold. to see it as a Dyer G (1982).) (1999). as a Fantasyland world. advertising’s impact on American character and society. and consumer culture: yet accurate way. rary logo culture. TV programs. meaning from a simple letter is. become part of the modern perception of childhood ture used by those who cannot write. London: Sage. and excite. London: product of an unconscious pattern of pictorial sym. (IBM.) and thus indistin- movie action hero ‘Triple X. me. New York: contradiction and opposition. the tacles (movies. as a blasphe. Denotation a pictography of various meanings that predate versus Connotation. childhood ment. danger. New York: Signet. Because of the Disney Corpo- that is synonymous with youth. New York: Signet. Mythologies in Pop Culture. X is powerful because it conjures up images of things that are just beyond the realm of information. Ford. Jones J P (ed. New York: Guilford. The inbuilt emotional – into the cultural mainstream. and all the Goldman R & Papson R (1996). The Mickey Mouse Club premiered on US the era. New York: represent. In 1929. Mouse to be reproduced on school slates. effectively pher Bertrand Russell’s (1872–1970) ‘Campaign for transforming the character into a logo. children’s TV programming. name and image were licensed with huge success.g. Pictorial metaphor in advertising. Routledge. In today’s sex. ‘X’ on a product means ‘Buy Barthes R (1957). X-treme sports and X-File TV programs. lead. Hollywood moguls. A year later Nuclear Disarmament’ in the 1950s. network television. Media sexploitation. Beasley R & Danesi M (2002). New York: St Martin’s Press. As mentioned. but entire corporations Key W B (1980). and so guishable as a sign from other culturally meaningful on. theme parks. OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. to name not just products. even though it has been around for centuries as films. Gender advertisements. Bowling Green. The age of manipulation. No logo: taking aim at the brand bullies. reaches back to the origin of pictography as a craft Danesi M (2002).’ XXX movies. have adopted it as a symbol of ‘cool. and the like have the mathematical variable par excellence.. as a signa. Iconicity: Theory. Disney allowed Mickey Toronto: Alfred A. appeal of pictography is likely the reason why the Analogous ‘branding events’ have repeated them- alphabet character X has become a kind of ersatz selves throughout modern society. Key W B (1972). tisers. bolism that continues to have emotional hold on the Forceville C (1996). cause it reverberates with mythical symbolism that Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Advertising as communication. otics of advertising. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. The clam-plate orgy. The logo’s first Mickey Mouse dolls went into production and widespread exposure came when it surfaced in the throughout the 1930s the Mickey Mouse brand 1962 sci-fi film The Day the Earth Caught Fire. The codes of advertising. This is why children now mous letter assigned to cartoon bottles of alcohol and experience their childhood through such products. in fact. And the reason is. Ads. further entrenching the brand In a fundamental sense. Subliminal seduction. DVDs.

A great deal of Braune’s Helm. August (1840–1916). Sievers. of Heidelberg in 1888. Wilhelm (1850–1926) E Einhauser. Friedrich Zarncke.’ Marketing Signs 3. and even Eduard (1850–1932). See also: Brugmann. Braune’s university career was quite unspectacular. of the Neogrammarians (the common abbreviation Braune W (1994). Heidermanns. That he was still open to new scientific trends Romanische Monatshefte 2. I–VI.’ Beiträge zur as a Germanist. Ebbinghaus. ‘Wilhelm Braune [Nachruf]. 158–164.’ Zeitschrift the Beiträge. Ein Problem deutschen Lautverschiebung (1874) and a volumi- für die Sprachwissenschaftsgeschichtsschreibung. Furthermore. He studied Wilhelm Braune belonged to the so-called ‘Neogram.). The Althochdeutsche Hermann (1847–1909). ‘Wilhelm Braune. 361– 445. a philologist who is not interested in Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 5. Bearbeitet von Frank titled Zur Kenntnis des Fränkischen und zur hoch. Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (17th edn. 1880. 3–10. But whereas other Neogrammarians such as Brugmann and hence became part of the new devel- Hermann Paul and Karl Brugmann became rather opment in linguistics. where he was mostly influenced by his marians. 81–91. branding strategies. ‘Wilhelm Braune [Nachruf]. The newest (20th) edition of the Gotische Grammatik only recently has been re. in his later years can be seen in his essay Althoch- Germany deutsch und Angelsächsisch (1918). works were published here. in which he took ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. too. ‘Sociosemiology and cross-cultural McKay.’ founded together with Hermann Paul in 1874 and Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und which quickly became one of the central periodicals Literatur 43. vised by Frank Heidermanns and so today is still of German. Berlin: Mouton. Wilhelm Braune more or less took on the Neogrammarian. Grammatik.).) Einhauser E (1989). Packard V (1957). who already his conscientious working attitude. a great part of Braune’s working en- ergy was absorbed by the Beiträge zur Geschichte der Bibliography deutschen Sprache und Literatur.. Twitchell J B (2000). Osthoff. are representative of Braune’s scientific für deutsche Philologie 52.) (1987). and finally he was and of his successor Friedrich Panzer (1927) give offered a chair at Gießen in 1880. among others an impor. Marketing signs: new in advertising. Beitrag von Karl and Braune’s Beiträge). tik should be mentioned. value as a reliable working tool. has seen many editions. Old English. Mainly due to evidence of his calm and peaceable character and of the influence of Hermann Osthoff. Cologne. Die Junggrammatiker. University of Cologne.116 Brands and Logos Leymore V (1975). and Karl century. English. taught there. worked as an assistant at the library at the University The obituaries of his friend Eduard Sievers (1927) of Leipzig. Gotische Grammatik. Mit Lesestücken tant essay on the history of the German language und Wörterverzeichnis (20th edn. directions in the study of signs for sale. Friedrich (1825–1891). Zarncke. PBB refers to the initials of the co-founders: Paul Bearbeitet von Ernst A. Hidden myth: structure and symbolism Umiker-Sebeok J (ed. as well as Panzer F (1927). Hermann Osthoff.’ Germanisch- 159). the Althochdeutsche Lesebuch is still in print. 1927: Wunderlich H (1910). Tübingen: Niemeyer. ‘Althochdeutsch und Angelsächsisch. New York: Crown. in 1926. Tübingen: Niemeyer.’ a group of linguists with quite a strong teachers August Leskien. After his graduation Braune first role of the decent working linguist in the background. in Leipzig. a journal he Braune W (1918). position: he saw himself not only as a linguist but also Sievers E (1927). Karl (1849–1919). Paul. which quite soon was named famous. Trier: nous analysis of the Handschriftenverhältnisse des Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Braune. New York: Wolfe O (1989). he was offered a chair at the University As the most famous results of his diligence. London: Heinemann. In Leipzig he also met Hermann the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th Paul. Eduard Sievers. Hermann (1846–1921). (1st edn. fitting for his role as a decent worker. into account geographical and cultural aspects. The hidden persuaders. Leskien. Twenty ads that shook the world. Gothic. and influence on linguistic research in the last third of Rudolf Hildebrandt. . linguistic questions alone (see also Panzer. All rights reserved. then he gave lectures. Nibelungenliedes (1900). Braune W (2004). These two titles. where he lived until he died Braune’s Gotische and his Althochdeutsche Gramma.

Ein Problem deutschen Lautverschiebung (1874) and a volumi- für die Sprachwissenschaftsgeschichtsschreibung. Nibelungenliedes (1900).’ a group of linguists with quite a strong teachers August Leskien. tik should be mentioned. Twitchell J B (2000). Beitrag von Karl and Braune’s Beiträge). ‘Wilhelm Braune [Nachruf]. New York: Crown. Tübingen: Niemeyer.’ Beiträge zur as a Germanist. PBB refers to the initials of the co-founders: Paul Bearbeitet von Ernst A. of the Neogrammarians (the common abbreviation Braune W (1994). These two titles. vised by Frank Heidermanns and so today is still of German. which quite soon was named famous. Braune W (2004). I–VI. of Heidelberg in 1888. . Leskien. Die Junggrammatiker. Gotische Grammatik.’ Germanisch- 159). where he was mostly influenced by his marians. A great deal of Braune’s Helm. Karl (1849–1919). into account geographical and cultural aspects. Berlin: Mouton. ‘Sociosemiology and cross-cultural McKay. ‘Althochdeutsch und Angelsächsisch. worked as an assistant at the library at the University The obituaries of his friend Eduard Sievers (1927) of Leipzig. a journal he Braune W (1918). University of Cologne. works were published here.’ Marketing Signs 3. Wilhelm Braune more or less took on the Neogrammarian. In Leipzig he also met Hermann the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th Paul. Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (17th edn. Marketing signs: new in advertising. value as a reliable working tool. in his later years can be seen in his essay Althoch- Germany deutsch und Angelsächsisch (1918). But whereas other Neogrammarians such as Brugmann and hence became part of the new devel- Hermann Paul and Karl Brugmann became rather opment in linguistics. Friedrich (1825–1891). Osthoff.) Einhauser E (1989). taught there. fitting for his role as a decent worker. 81–91. ‘Wilhelm Braune [Nachruf]. Furthermore. has seen many editions. and influence on linguistic research in the last third of Rudolf Hildebrandt. and even Eduard (1850–1932). Ebbinghaus. New York: Wolfe O (1989).. Hidden myth: structure and symbolism Umiker-Sebeok J (ed. 1880. Heidermanns. 158–164.’ Zeitschrift the Beiträge. August (1840–1916). are representative of Braune’s scientific für deutsche Philologie 52.). He studied Wilhelm Braune belonged to the so-called ‘Neogram. among others an impor. Trier: nous analysis of the Handschriftenverhältnisse des Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. ‘Wilhelm Braune. Braune’s university career was quite unspectacular. in which he took ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. as well as Panzer F (1927). too. a philologist who is not interested in Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 5. Paul.116 Brands and Logos Leymore V (1975). directions in the study of signs for sale. 1927: Wunderlich H (1910). a great part of Braune’s working en- ergy was absorbed by the Beiträge zur Geschichte der Bibliography deutschen Sprache und Literatur. and Karl century. London: Heinemann. Wilhelm (1850–1926) E Einhauser. Twenty ads that shook the world. then he gave lectures. See also: Brugmann.’ founded together with Hermann Paul in 1874 and Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und which quickly became one of the central periodicals Literatur 43. Hermann Osthoff. Bearbeitet von Frank titled Zur Kenntnis des Fränkischen und zur hoch. in Leipzig. Mit Lesestücken tant essay on the history of the German language und Wörterverzeichnis (20th edn. Sievers. linguistic questions alone (see also Panzer. The newest (20th) edition of the Gotische Grammatik only recently has been re. Zarncke. he was offered a chair at the University As the most famous results of his diligence. 3–10. That he was still open to new scientific trends Romanische Monatshefte 2. The Althochdeutsche Hermann (1847–1909). Cologne. and finally he was and of his successor Friedrich Panzer (1927) give offered a chair at Gießen in 1880. Hermann (1846–1921). Grammatik. English. in 1926. position: he saw himself not only as a linguist but also Sievers E (1927). Eduard Sievers. Tübingen: Niemeyer. where he lived until he died Braune’s Gotische and his Althochdeutsche Gramma. who already his conscientious working attitude. Packard V (1957). Gothic. the Althochdeutsche Lesebuch is still in print.). Old English. The hidden persuaders. 361– 445. After his graduation Braune first role of the decent working linguist in the background.) (1987). Mainly due to evidence of his calm and peaceable character and of the influence of Hermann Osthoff. Friedrich Zarncke. branding strategies. Braune. (1st edn. All rights reserved.

These include. Museu Goeldi. on whose flood plains The Study of Native Brazilian Languages dense populations. in recent theory and methodology. and upon the completion of native political organizations exist in Brazil (for ex. European immigration was relatively Koch-Grünberg. where the population was already declining Brası́lia (UnB). European men fre. Emilie Snethlage. search on indigenous languages was mainly done at ings from Portuguese. which is a federal longest have the fewest indigenous societies and lan. notably. the semi-arid northeast. where few indigenous The anthropologist Darcy Ribeiro established a groups still speak their language. the Technological Development (CNPq). Jesuits in Brazil. This agreement was terminated in 1981. for example. oldest pottery in the New World (6000–8000 years) is found in Brazilian Amazonia. ingly by professional and numerous Brazilian scien- since the diseases responsible for this loss of life and tific linguists. He encountered some Tupinambá on the eastern den Steinen. Mattoso Câmara process. however. in the second half Jesuits in the mid-18th century. especially in Amazonia. for example. and all Background researchers must obtain authorization from that gov- The indigenous population in what is now Brazil was ernmental entity to enter indigenous areas. the Coordenação de Organizações Indı́genas pacity in scientific linguistics. Pernambuco (UFPE). research institute in Belém. indigenous languages as their place is being taken to tacted groups still commonly lose two-thirds of their a certain extent by Brazilian missionaries and increas- population to Western diseases – an unnecessary loss. There are still native groups living aries have become less influential in the study of out of contact with the outside world. and there are ly in remote areas. and a class of mestizos studies of native Brazilian languages only began in was produced. which was important in the colonizing the second half of the 20th century. accomplished a certain amount of lin- of the Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral in guistic description. aside from the University of São The regions of Brazil that have been occupied the Paulo (USP) and the Museu Goeldi. Other regions of Brazil. A number of abroad in recent years. languages of the New World were conducted by and the more temperate southern region. Brazilian re- that was modified by substratum effects and borrow. Theodor coast of Brazil. Meira and Franchetto. Curt Nimuendaú. Modern scientific quently took indigenous wives. Goiás (UFG). Lı́ngua Geral. as well as much higher in the past. became extinct. lived at the time of European contact. and the Federação linguistics (see. Karl von 1500. though he was not a Tupı́-Guaranı́ language originally spoken on the coast fieldworker. of the 1980s the study of native languages spread to trol over the communities of resettled native peoples other centers. from occidental disease. were like. Foreign mission- and less intensive. a indigenous languages (1965). especially eastern Brazil. with a multiplicity of societies approval from the National Council for Scientific and and languages. During a number of years. their studies. With the expulsion of the Campinas (UNICAMP). divided into chiefdoms. A number of these latter have studied language are preventable or treatable. especially members of scientific European contact began with the arrival of the ships expeditions. and João Capistrano de Abreu. or Nheengatu (Nhengatu). According to Roosevelt (1994). especially the Federal Universities of (reduções). Indigenous affairs are under the control of the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI). the interests of the communities that they repre- sent. Belém. ber of nonspecialists. Several dialects of Nheengatu the Museu Nacional and at the State University of still persist in Amazonia. especially in diachronic da Amazônia Brasileira – COIAB. slight for the first two centuries. In the 19th which were destroyed or absorbed. guages. General Couto de Magalhães. Anchieta (1595). The surviving native groups are most. Newly con. Brazil: Language Situation 117 Brazil: Language Situation D Moore. However. during which large numbers of native people established the Setor de Lingüı́stica at the Museu were relocated and obliged to learn the language of the Nacional in 1961 and also authored a book about mestizo. the state assumed con. Some of the earliest descriptive studies of the native such as the central highlands. a num- modern Brazilian gene pool is of indigenous origin. and Pará (UFPA). most of tradition did not take hold. they are strengthening the national ca- ample. and . Brazil and are active in debating policy and defending ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. This wise home to sizeable indigenous populations. All rights reserved. Over 40% of the century and the first half of the 20th century. Rodrigues (1993) cooperation agreement between the Summer Institute estimates that 75% of the indigenous languages of Linguistics (SIL) and the Museu Nacional in 1956. where now no formal ties between Brazilian academic cen- contact with national society has been more recent ters and missionary organizations. de Organizações Indı́genas do Rio Negro – FOIRN) forthcoming).

which is based on a number of van de Kerke (2000) and by Crevels. What are considered to be different lan- Dixon and Aikhenvald (1999). guages sometimes turn out to be dialects of the same clude languages outside of what is. mates are from various sources. for example. it is important to note that all the many NGOs working with indigenous groups. (2000).T. endangered languages in lowland South America by for example. Colombia or Venezuela. Rodrigues (1993). and Japanese. It must be emphasized that the informa- area in linguistics with the publication of the Hand. Where no real information is available.118 Brazil: Language Situation in overall descriptions of individual languages. Amazonia. tive languages appeared in a general work on South especially German. about as different from the Portuguese dialects in guists studying Brazilian indigenous languages has Portugal as American English is from the English increased considerably in recent years. Population fig- Boletim do Museu Paraense Emı́lio Goeldi contains ures are normally from this same website. In recent years. guages spoken by immigrant communities in Brazil. (1999). linguists actively studying indigenous languages in which results in underestimating the degree of endan. Portuguese is the official language of efforts. Brazilian linguists. including Queixalós and Renault-Lescure Meira. These typically in. Ethnologue’s family names and categorization some- genas Americanas (LIAMES). the languages of the central Much of the information is a revised version of infor- highlands of Brazil. germent. Wetzels adapted from those of the Instituto Sócio Ambiental (1995) presents a collection of phonological studies.E. The is a valuable source of information and also publica- first complete grammar of a native language in dec. the estimates are specific to Brazil and excluding speakers largest and most concerned with documentation is of those groups living in. Of national boundaries. One Brazilian periodical dedicated if different. van de Kerke. and the space is left blank. which are a 1997 adaptation of information A recent collection of articles is that by Cabral and from Rodrigues (1986). Articles from other sources are put in brackets. Internet. a number of recent Languages modern documentation projects with international funding have improved the level of documentation Of course. tion presented below is approximate. The times differ from the one used here). Even when population pendium edited by Payne (1990). Universidade Federal general descriptions have been undertaken by young de Goiás. volumes of the mation presented in an overview article about ILLA series have included many Brazilian languages. the second is separated by placing it in (D. Rodrigues (1993) Indı́gena (1987). say. However. when more than one tação de Estudos em Lingüı́stica Teórica e Aplicada source is used. appear in parentheses after (note that exclusively to indigenous languages is Lı́nguas Indı́. There is also a website and a listserv run scription of Kamayurá by Seki (2000). and personal communications from many the number of speakers and the population size.A. These are very popular with native groups. the estimate of the amount of study refers to . the de São Paulo. language. strictly speaking. Seki (1999) and Franchetto (2000) describe Language names and the genetic classification are the study of indigenous languages in Brazil. edited by of systematic data gathering about the situation of the Derbyshire and Pullum (1986–1998) and the com. Italian. Names used by Ethnologue. tions (including maps) that can be purchased via the ades authored by a Brazilian linguist was the de. sources. Dixon and Aikhenvald In Portuguese. whose website Likewise. focus attention here on the situation of the native Amazonia became identified as a distinct research languages. native languages of Brazil. the volumes edited by van der Voort and Moore (forthcoming). the author’s own knowledge of several native languages. There are many other lan- Some modern information about Brazilian na. numbers linguistics articles in its Anthropology issues.) of the Pontı́fica Universidade Católica brackets. of UNICAMP. no nation- al program for identifying and describing endangered The Situation of the Native Brazilian languages in Brazil. Later useful general size is known. Impressionistically. but suffers from confusion between regions. the website of the Instituto Sócio presents information on the situation of Brazilian Ambiental. unfortunately. There is.L. various geographical areas. Since many tribal groups span Cadernos de Estudos Lingüı́sticos of UNICAMP. a general treatment of Brazilian lan. and van der Voort (2002). often reflecting ethnic or political divisions. the Boletim da ABRALIN. Brazilian Portuguese is The small number of foreign nonmissionary lin. More such by the Museu Antropológico. We will American languages edited by Klein and Stark (1985). Rodrigues (2002). the map of the Centro de Documentação guages is that by Rodrigues (1986). due to the lack book of Amazonian languages series. Brazil. the Instituto Sócio Ambiental (ISA). website. dialects in Great Britain. the number of effective speakers and works with the same regional focus are those edited the degree of transmission is often not known with by Queixalós and Renault-Lescure (2000) and by certainty. Speaker esti- likewise appear in the journals Revista de Documen.

of the putative Central apparently living for a long time in an Amazonian branch. Mato Grosso do Sul. morpheme-intrinsic nasality. Sources are contradictory as to of the states of Pará and Maranhão south to Santa whether Amawáka is spoken in Brazil (Table 4). The the east and northeast of Brazil are extinct. Rikbaktsa has been held to be the exception. many of the Macro-Jê languages in and complex obligatory coding of evidentiality. Tacana family of Bolivia. following alphabetical order languages on or near the Upper Xingu are quite differ- within the grouping. Hypothetical Linguistic Stock Macro-Jê Various authors have. It is not certain whether or not However. of languages. The last speaker of Tiquié. Eastern. each environment in northern Mato Grosso. and is usually considered to be related to the or disconfirm each of the proposed genetic affilia. they occur in northern Pará state. entiated internally. and that search may be abandoned if America. them refer to themselves as Yebá-masã (Yepá-masã). Bolivia. also occurs there. all Xingu River. In Brazil. The Carib ings are considered first. The Arawak languages are here for genetic groupings. is focused on the except for the Kaxararı́ in Randônia. Because of their early contact tone or pitch accent. . or both factors. without some documentation. ‘family’ means a group of amazingly widespread. has no linguistic basis. it is Brazil. but is plete descriptions are rated 3. in its can change quickly with the publication of new work. thesis or genetic links to other linguistic groups are more several articles are rated 1. Recent re. Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. indicating a wider and older presence in is spoken in Brazil. The Jê family guages occur in the states of Acre and Amazonas. along families whose relation is not so obvious. as was speculated by some study. The Carib languages of northern Brazil are they are not listed. The other families of this hypothesized stock generally occur outside of Tucano Of the divisions of the Tucano family. though proposed description are rated 0. and along the Upper and the precarious conditions in which they live. proposed groupings of languages often con. The relatively numerous Terêna live in might be considered to be in danger of extinction. Languages are not considered rather similar.A. Because of the Purus River in the west. and those with reasonably com- work of Noble (1965) influenced archeology. the largest of the stock. and (for some authors) Central. These estimates are very rough and Arawak The languages of the Arawak family. though Waimiri-Atroari (Atruahı́) is urgently endangered if there are a reasonable number of speakers of at least one dialect or a reasonable more distant. and Bra- sidered today as Macro-Jê. but are listed anyway because a careful search sometimes finds remaining speakers Carib The Carib family is centered on northern South somewhere. Brazil: Language Situation 119 studies carried out among speakers in Brazil. those with an M. Some languages listed may and nominal classification (Table 2). on the is reasonably obvious. ei- in the region of the Upper Rio Negro. imminent danger of disappearing. The guage are rated 2. These languages are noted for Amazonia as well. restricted sense. west. for example. It occurs in Peru. indicates that the Jabutı́ languages Colombia. some of which are not obvious. More recent sources doubt that Yuruti (Juriti) authors. low trans- languages are polysynthetic and often have gender mission. from the Caribbean to Boli- related but different languages whose genetic relation via. with Europeans. Larger group- Kali’na (or Carib in Surinam and Guyana). where they have generally received more are probably Macro-Jê. and have received savanna regions of Brazil from the southern parts relatively little study. ent from the northern languages and also do not con- stitute a single consistent subgroup (Table 3). of the Tucano languages of Brazil is also spoken in search. The Arawak ther because of a low number of speakers. where it is called number of speakers in another country. already be extinct. also designated Maipurean. not in Major Language Families other countries. The language called Galibi do Oiapoque is intrusive from French Guiana. have Languages with little or no significant scientific long been recognized as related. It is important to confirm zil. but with some in central Brazil and farther mainly the Eastern branch which occurs in Brazil. those with a good overall doubtful. with or languages are spoken in the region of the Vaupés. The Brazilian Pano lan- tions. The speakers of several of Umotı́na died recently (Table 1). on the tributaries of the the small size of the surviving speech communities Juruena River in Mato Grasso. and ‘stock’ refers to a group of tributaries of the Rio Negro in the northwest. In the terminology used dubious in its conclusions. mainly in eastern and northeastern ern. Except for Arapaso. however. though Kubewa (Cubeo). it is more useful to distinguish those that there are still speakers of Mandawáka (Mandahuaca) are in serious. West- Amazonia. on one basis or Pano The Pano linguistic family is not highly differ- another. and Papurı́ Rivers. The supposed link with the Arawá lan- sketch or doctoral thesis on some aspects of the lan- guages.

of Population Transmission Studies Endangered speakers Boróro Family Boróro (Borôro) 1024 2 Guató Family Guató 5 [40] 372 low 2 urgent Jê Family Akwén Xakriab́á 0? 6000 none urgent Xavánte most 9602 high? 1 Xerénte all? 1814 1 Apinayé 1262 high? 2 Kaingáng Kaingáng do 25 000 2 total Paraná total Kaingáng Kaingáng Kaingán Central Kaingáng do Sudoeste Kaingáng do Sudeste Kayapó Gorotire 7096 total high 1 total Kayapò Kayapó Kararaô Kokraimoro Kubenkrankegn Menkrangnoti Mentuktı́re (Txukahamãe) Xikrin Panará (Kreen-akore.120 Brazil: Language Situation Table 1 Macro-Jê (Macro-Ge) stock Linguistic unit Dialects. 338 low 2 Gavião. groups No. Pará) Gavião do 250 Maranhão (Pukobiyé) Krahô 1900 high 1 Krikatı́ (Krinkatı́. Fulniô. all 202 high 2 Krenakarore) Suyá Suyá all 334 high 1–2 Tapayúna (Beiço-de-Pau) 58 Timbı́ra Canela Apaniekra 458 high 2 Canela 1337 high Ramkokamekra Gavião do Pará (Parkateyé. Carnijó) most? 2930 med? 1 . 620 Krikati-Timbira) Xokléng (Xokleng) 757 low 1 Karajá Family Karajá Javaé most 919 good 2 Karajá 1860 2500 high 1 Xambioá 10 185 none 0 Krenák Family Krenák (Krenak) 10? 150 low 1 urgent Maxakalı́ Family Maxakalı́ most? 802 1 Ofayé Family Ofayé (Opayé. 909 med? 1 Rikbaktsa) Yathé Family Yathê. 25 56 low 1 urgent Ofayé-Xavante) Rikbaktsá Family Rikbaktsá (Erikpaksá.

Mandahuaca) ? [3?] urgent [Mawayána] <10 <10 none? 0 urgent Mehináku close to Waurá all 199 high 1 Palikúr 918 1 Paresı́ (Aritı́. [5000] Curripaco) Baré 0? 2790 none 1 Kampa (Axı́ninka. Kakwa) language (not to of Rondônia. but with more fascination Katukina The Katukina family of languages (not for the Tupı́-Guaranı́ dialects on the coast studied by to be confused with Katukina do Acre. Maipure) family Linguistic unit Dialects. (Table 8). it is actually rather atypical. the Vaupés. by hunter-gatherer groups mainly in the region of tions are not obvious and are still being worked out. which contributed many loanwords to language) are spoken by groups on the Javaı́. Their study is urgent family. one middle Purus and Juruá rivers. extensions into Argentina. Kuripako. . where the word ‘Tupı́’ is sometimes Adelaar (2000) presented evidence that the Peruvian used to refer to these dialects. with the Máku language of Roraima) are spoken uborá branches form a subgroup also. Paraguay. Haliti. a Pano the Jesuits. is rather recent. but have Medium-sized Language Families received little study in Brazil (Table 5). (Table 9). with generally good (Table 7). Though Tupı́-Guaranı́ family Harakmbut is genetically related to the is often thought to be somehow more central in the Katukina family of languages. though the Nadëb live lower on the Rio Research on the Tupi families in the western state Negro. Bolivia. Portuguese and which achieved an almost classical and Jutuı́ rivers in southern Amazonas. Recently. spreads over a vast area. Arawá The Arawá languages are spoken in a rela- tively circumscribed region centered on the upper and Tupı́ The Tupı́ family consists of 10 branches. Awetı́ is appar. 1293 1 Pareás) Pı́ro Manitenéri (Machinere) [530] 0 Maxinéri 459 [345] 0 (Machinere) Salumã (Enawenê-Nawê) 320 high 1 Tariana (Tariano) Yurupari-Tapúya 100 1914 very 3 urgent (Iyemi) low Terena (Tereno. and it is not clear how many live in Brazil are urgently endangered (Table 6). Brazil: Language Situation 121 Table 2 Arawak (Aruák. and French Guiana. Peru. Terêna) 15795 1 Wapixána (Aruma) 6500 variable 1 Warekéna (Guarequena) 491 2 Waurá Close to all 321 high 1 Mehinaku Yawalapitı́ 8 208 none 1 urgent Many of these languages are quite robust. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Apurinã (Ipurinã) 2779 med 2 Banı́wa do Içana 3189 high 3 (Kurripako. and these two together with Mawé form a Makú The Makú languages (not to be confused subgroup within the family. 813 0 Ashéninca) Mandawáka (Mawaca. The Bará (Kakua. the other rela. often considered the original location be confused with the Bará (Barasana) language of of the Tupi peoples. Their maintenance is of which. ently the branch most closely related to Tupı́-Guara- nı́. status in Brazil. groups No. The Ramarama and Pur. Languages of this branch have been studied for centuries. Tupı́-Guaranı́. Juruá. A number of the Tucano family) is spoken on the border with languages important for comparative Tupi studies Colombia.

Yamináwa. Akwaio. Kuikúru. Shanenawá. 675 good 1 Patamona) Kalapálo (Kuikúro-kalapálo) Kalapálo.122 Brazil: Language Situation Table 3 Carib (Karib) family Linguistic unit Dialects. of Population Transmission Studies Endangered speakers Aparaı́ (Apalaı́) most 415 high 2 [150?] Arara do Pará (Ukarãgmã. Maquiritari) Nahukwá (Matipuhy) most 105 good 1 Taulipáng (Pemóng. Matipú. groups No. Trió) all 735 [900] high 3 Ikpeng (Txikão) all 310 high 2 Waimirı́ (Waimirı́-Atroarı́ all 931 high 2 Atruahı́) Wai-Wai (Waiwai) all? 2020 high 2 Wayána (Wayana) most? 450 med? 1 [150?] Table 4 Pano (Panoan) family Linguistic unit Dialects. all? 195 high? 1 Arára. of Population Transmission Studies Endangered speakers Amawáka (Amahuaca) [220]? 0 Arara (Shawanauá. Panoan) Kaxararı́ 269 0 Kaxinawá (Hãtx Kuin. most 417 good 1 Nahukwá are dialects of one language Kaxuyána (Warikyána. Shikuyana is dialect most 69 [145] low 1 Kaxuiâna) Kuikúru (Kuikúro-Kalapálo) most 450 [500] good 2 Makuxı́ (Macushi) most 16 500 high? 3 Matipú (Matipuhy) few 119 low 0 Mayongong (Makiritáre. 3964 variable 2 Cashinahua) Korúbo (Korubo) 250 0 Marúbo 1043 high 2? Matis (Matı́s) all 239 high 2 Matsés (Mayoruna) 829 [250] high 2 Nukini (Nukuini) any? 458 none? 0 urgent Poyanáwa 2 403 [180] none 1 urgent Shanenawá (Xipináwa) 178 [160] 1 Yamináwa (Jaminawa. 28 low? 0 Carib) Hixkaryána most? [550] high 3 Ingarikó (Kapóng. Arara. 9? 200 1 Sheuanahua) Yawanawá are perhaps dialects of one language Katukina do Acre 318 1 (Katukı́na Pano. Pará) Bakairı́ most 950 good 2 Galibı́ do Oiapoque (Kali’na. groups No. Pemon) most 532 high? 1 Tiriyó (Tirió. most? 426 high? 0 Yekuána. Trio. 618 0 Yaminahua) Yawanáwa (Yawanowa) 450 [220] low . Katukı́na.

extending into Columbia and Peru. Brazil. Kanoê years. in the state of Amazonas. In Brazil these languages occur only one Máku speaker. in the northern state of Roraima. Pirahã appear to have been quite close. country (Table 15). There savanna. Chapakura (Txapakúra) The extant Chapakura languages are spoken in the state of Rondônia (and Isolated Languages in Bolivia). groups No. (Kanoé). . Seven languages are not known to be genetically affil- scribed by recent visitors as already extinct for many iated with others. and Tikuna have Bora Some speakers of the Miranha dialect of Bora received intensive modern study in recent years reportedly live along the Solimões River in Brazil. (Table 14). Mynky. Aikanã (Tubarão). often they in a region that includes both tropical forest and are grouped under one name (Múra-Pirahã). Torá. There is said to be acculturated groups. Recent ethnographers state that Urupá is ex. close to Wanano 1004 0 Piratapuyo) Siriáno (Siriano) 17 [10] 0 Tucano (Tukano) 4604 3 Tuyúka (Tuyuca) 593 0 Wanano (Guanano) 447 2 Nambikwara The Nambikwara languages occur Mura The language of the Mura and that of the in western Mato Grosso and southeastern Rondônia. Smaller Language Families Kanoê. is de. near the Venezuelan The Tikuna (Ticuna) are numerous. Cubeo) 287 0 Makúna (Yebá-masã. and the Juruena rivers (Table 10). in the state of Roraima. Upper Xingu regional system. of these isolated languages. and Kwazá are in the same region in south- tinct also. Guaikurú Kadiwéu. The Moré live in Bolivia. It is a sign of progress that. Of these. The heavily influenced by the French-based creole of that languages are found in southern Rondônia. 168 0 Macuna) Pira-Tapuya (Waı́kana. though the Mura generally speak Portuguese or a dialect of Nheengatu (Table 13). Trumai. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Arapaso 328 0 Bará (Waimajã) 39 0 Barasána. centered on tributaries of the Guaporé are occasional reports of elderly Mura speakers. Brazil: Language Situation 123 Table 5 Tucano (Tucanoan) family Linguistic unit Dialects. in Mato Grosso. The Trumái are Yanomami The languages of the Yanomami family thought to have been relative latecomers to the are spoken in Brazil and in Venezuela. one of the Guaikurú languages Creole Languages (which tend to occur in the Chaco region of Paraguay and Argentina) is spoken in Mato Grosso do Sul in There are two groups in the northern state of Amapá. by rather un. living along the border (Table 12). Solimões River. The language of the Iranxe (Irântxe) be a few in Brazil (Table 11). one of its component languages. both of whom lived Jabutı́ The name of this family is a corruption of for some time in French Guiana and speak creoles Djeoromitxi. and Mynky is spoken near the headwaters of the Juruena River. the Galibi-Marworno (Carib) and the Karipuna do Norte (Karipúna Creole French). though there may ern Rondônia. (Barasana) 61 0 Desána (Desano) close to Siriáno 1531 1 [Yuruti (Juritı́)] close to Tuyúka [50?] Karapanã (Carapana) 42 0 Kubewa (Kubeo. Kwazá.

Cinta Larga. groups No. of Population Transmission Studies Endangered speakers Arikém Branch Karitiána all 206 high 2 Awetı́ Branch Awetı́ all 138 high 1 Juruna Branch Juruna (Yuruna. most 800 high 2 Urubu-Kaapor) Kamayurá most 355 high 3 Kayabı́ most? 1000 high? 1 Continued . total Mbyá) Nhandéva (Chiripá) Kaapór (Urubu-Kaapór.124 Brazil: Language Situation Table 6 Tupı́ family Linguistic unit Dialects. Arára) most 184 good 2 Tuparı́ Branch Ajuru (Wayoró) 8? 77 low 0 urgent Makuráp 267 med? 2 Sakurabiat (Mekém 25 66 [70] low 2 urgent Mekens) Tuparı́ most? 338 med-low 1 Akuntsu 7 7 high 0 urgent Tupı́-Guaranı́ Branch Akwáwa Parakanã most 800 high? 0 Suruı́ do Tocantins (Suruı́ do Pará) most 185 high? 1 Asurini do Tocantins most 303 high? 2 (Asurinı́) Amanayé any? 192 none? 0 urgent Anambé 6 132 none? 1 urgent Apiaká (Apiacá) 0? 192 ? 0 urgent Araweté most 278 high 0 Asurinı́ do Xingu most 106 high? 1 (Asurinı́. 2? 595? none 2 urgent Kuruáya) Mawé Branch Mawé (Sateré-Mawé) most? 7134 good 2 Mondê Branch Aruá 12? 58 low 0 Cinta-Larga Aruá. Yudjá. Xingú) Avá-Canoeiro most? 14 0 urgent Guajá all 280 high 1 Guaranı́ Kaiowá (Kaiwá) 34 000 2 total Mbyá (Guaranı́. and Gavião all 1300 high 1 (Cinta Larga) are dialects of one language Gavião (Gavião do all 338 high 2 Jiparaná) Salamãy (Mondé) 2 semi 10? none 0 urgent Suruı́ (Paitér) all 920 high 1 Zoró all 414 high 0 Puruborá Branch Puruborá 2 semi [50?] none 0 urgent Mundurukú Branch Kuruáya 3? 115 none? 0 urgent Mundurukú most 7500 high 3 Ramarama Branch Karo (Arara. Zoró. all 278 high 2 Jurúna) Xipaia (Shipaya.

Kanamantı́) 800 high 1 Suruahá (Zuruahá) 143 high 1 Table 8 Katukina (Katukinan) family Linguistic unit Dialects. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Kanamarı́ most? 1327 1 Katawixı́ 10? 250 0 urgent Katukina do Rio Biá (Pedá Djapá. Poturu) all 152 high 1 Table 7 Arawá (Anian) family Linguistic unit Dialects. most? 525 high? 2 Oiampi. groups No. >6000? med 1 (Nheengatu. of Population Transmission Studies Endangered speakers Kawahı́b Parintintin 156 2 total Diahkói 30 Juma (Júma) 7 Karipúna 21 Tenharin 585 med Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau all 87 high (Uru-eu-uau-uau) Kokáma Kokáma 5 622 low? 2 urgent (Cocama-Cocamilla) Omágua few? 156 [240] low? 0 urgent (Kambeba. groups No. Tshom. Guarani altered by contact Nhengatu) Tapirapé 438 1 Tenetehára Guajajara 13100 2 Tembé 820 variable 2 Wayampı́ (Waiãpi. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Banawá-Yafı́ (Banawá) 215 high 1 Deni (Denı́) 738 high 1 Jarawára (Jaruára) 160 high 3 Kulı́na (Culina) 2318 high 1 Paumarı́ 870 low 3 Jamamadı́ (Yamamadı́. Omagua) Lı́ngua Geral Amazônica ¼ coastal Tupi. groups No. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Bará (Kakua. Brazil: Language Situation 125 Table 6 Continued Linguistic unit Dialects. 30? 100 0 urgent Djapa) Table 9 Makú (Maku) family Linguistic unit Dialects. Amapari) Xetá 3 8 urgent Zo’é (Puturú. Katukı́na) few? 289 0 urgent Txunhaã-Djapá (Tsohom-Djapá. Cacua) [220] in Brazil ? Dâw (Kamã) 83 2 Húpda (Hupdë) close to Yuhúp 1800 [1800] high 2 Nadëb (Guariba) 400 1 Yuhúp (Yuhup) 400 1 . groups No. Wayampi.

Southern) all [721] good 2 Sabanê (Sabanês) 7 active [30] none 2 urgent Table 11 Chapakura (Txapakúra. Chapacura-Wanham) family Linguistic unit Dialects. groups No. of Population Transmission Studies Endangered groups speakers Nambikwára do Norte 323 [346] med 2 (Mamaindê. Latundê. Nambiquára.126 Brazil: Language Situation Table 10 Nambikwára (Nambiquaran) family Linguistic unit Dialects. No. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Ninam (Yanam) 466 11 700 high 2 Sanumá 462 total high 2 Yanomám (Yanomae. groups No. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered [Bora Family] [Miranha] dialect of Bora few? 613 0 Guaikurú (Guaicuruan) Family Kadiwéu most 1592 high 2 [900] Jabutı́ Family Djeoromitxı́ (Jabutı́) 30? 123 low 1 urgent Arikapú 2 19 none 1 urgent Mura Family Mura (Múra-Pirahã) any ? 5540 none 0 urgent Pirahã (Múra-Pirahã) all 360 high 3 . Pakaásnovos) 1930 good 3 Table 12 Yanomami (Yanomam) family Linguistic unit Dialects. groups No. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Kujubim (Kuyubi) very close to Moré? 2? 27[50] none 0 urgent Oro Win 5? 50 urgent Torá 0? 51 [250] 0 urgent Urupá ?0 [150] 0 urgent any? Warı́ (Pakaanova. Nagarotê. Yanomam̈o) 4000 high 2 Yanomami (Yanomámi) 6000 high 3 Table 13 Small families Linguistic unit Dialects. Northern) Nambikwára do Sul (Nambikuára.

Roosevelt A C (1994). 1–29. Proto-Arawakan and its descendents.) (1999). atas Texas Press. Lı́nguas lowland South American languages. Tupian Klein H E & Stark L R (eds. Austin: University of Texas Press. As Lı́nguas Indı́genas da ANPOLL I and II. Evo. Indian languages: retrospect and prospect. Amazonian linguistics: studies in Cabral A S A C & Rodrigues A D (eds. ‘The Southern Cariban languages and the Cariban family. São Paulo: CEDI. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Galibi Marwono (Carib) 1764 0 [860] Karipuna do Norte (Karipúna Creole French) 1708 1 [672] See also: Arawak Languages. .’ In Brenzinger M (ed. Benveniste. The Ama. Guarani. Folklore. and Linguistics.) (2000).’ In Miranda L (ed. Coimbra: Antônio Mariz. Meira S & Franchetto B (2005). Renault-Lescure O (eds. Endangered Languages. ‘Endangered languages in Brazil. Tubarão) 264 med? 2 Iránxe (Irântxe) Mynky (dialect) 326 2 Kanoê (Kanoé) 5 95 low 2 urgent Kwazà (Koaiá) 25 25 [40] low 3 urgent Máku 1 [1] none 1 urgent Trumái (Trumaı́) 51 120 low 2 urgent Tikúna (Ticuna) 32 613 3 Table 15 Creole languages Linguistic unit Dialects. guas indı́genas da Amazônia no Brasil. Arte e grammatica da lingua mais Anthropology.’ In Amazonian Indians book of Amazonian languages. ‘Amazonian anthropology: Derbyshire C D & Pullum G K (eds. 2000.) (1985). Leiden: Research School of Universiteit.). endangered languages of South America.’ Revista zonian languages. of Arizona Press. 4 vols. Austin: University of indı́genas brasileiras: fonologia. Dixon R M W & Aikhenvald A Y (eds. Ambiental. Cambridge: Cambridge University de Documentação de Estudos em Lingüı́stica Teórica Press. Berlin: Mouton de from prehistory to the present. do I Encontro Internacional do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Queixalós F & Renault-Lescure O (eds. Asian. hecimento das lı́nguas indı́genas. ‘Endangered languages of lowland entre dos grupos lingüı́sticos indı́genas de la Amazonia tropical South America. Polysemy and Homonymy. Belém: Editora lı́nguas Amazônicas hoje.) (1990). and Amerindian Studies. usada na costa do Brasil. Lı́nguas brasileiras: para o con- genas do Brasil. Rodrigues A D (1986). tury Theories. Hand. van de Kerke S. Actas I Congresso de lenguas indı́genas de Sudamérica II. Centro de Documentação. São Paulo: Edições Crevels M.’ In Queixalós F & lution of Semantics. Mattoso Câmara J Jr (1965). strategy for a new synthesis. Povos indı́. Selected papers from the 50th International Rodrigues A D (1993).) Language occidental: harakmbut y katukina. Kasupá. Emile (1902– Franchetto B (2000). ‘A lingüı́stica indı́gena no Brasil. Bloomington: Indiana University Research Center in Anchieta J de (1595). South American Languages. Tucson: The University Gruyter. Meira S & van der Voort H Loyola. groups No. Seki L (1999). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.) (2002). e Aplicada 15.’ Congress of Americanists in Warsaw and the Spinoza unpublished manuscript from the Symposium on Workshop on Amerindian Languages in Leiden. Noble G K (1965).) (2002). (Map). gramática e história. groups No. 219–236. Leiden: Rijks CNWS Publications. genas brasileiras. Peru: Lima. Brazil: Language Situation 127 Table 14 Isolated languages Linguistic unit Dialects. 257–290.) (1986–1998). Meaning: Pre-20th Cen. Cariban Languages. Introdução às lı́nguas indı́- Language Maps (Appendix 1): Map 51. 114.’ International Journal Bibliography of American Linguistics 71(2).) diversity endangered. Adelaar W (2000). ‘O conhecimento cientı́fico das lı́n- 1976). 127–190. São Paulo: Instituto Sócio Universitária UFPA. African. (1987). (eds. 165–182. of speakers Population Transmission Studies Endangered Aikaná (Masaká. Payne D L (ed. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Acadêmica. Indı́gena. ‘Propuesta de un nuevo vı́nculo genético Moore D (forthcoming).

vol. it is historical and cultural (Bréal. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ. From the work of Émile Benveniste. Changes in language are not natural. Therefore. See also: Bopp. Language represents an accumulation of Delesalle S (1980). Histoire et théories. studied Sanskrit in Berlin with that represent the accumulation of the intellectual Bopp and Albrecht Weber. ples of these forms. a collective will. takes on more than one meaning. Brazil synthesizes the principal points of his production ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. the change of the signification of words (Delesalle. Étude Another important aspect. (Aarsleff. but occur by man’s willful action and intel.’ In La Linguistique concept in semantics studies – that of polysemy – génétique.’ intellectual work. Textes de Michel Bréal publiés will of many. ment de sémantique. 1897). which is not conscious. 17. Durand. ruled by inevi. Michel Jules Alfred (1832–1915) E Guimarães. His work was dedicated to three domains: the study of ancient inscriptions and myths. 1879 to 1888.socioambiental. 90–108. In Desmet P & Swiggers P (eds. ed himself in the historical perspective of the 19th Bréal M (1863). la Sémantique et Saussure. Aarsleff H (1981). van der Voort H & van de Kerke S (eds. He himself named his work in linguistics semantics. Leiden: Research School of Asian. Bibliography having been the first to use this word in a linguistic discipline (Bréal. ‘De la forme et de la fonction des mots.’ His- toire. and this aspect can be found in the work that São Paulo Campinas. ‘L’analogie: d’un arbitraire à l’autre. and reflection on questions related to teaching. and indigenous languages in Brazil. Paris: A. He who speaks is marked in what he spoke. where he became director and was. 1. African. 1883). (ISA). Institute of Language Studies–Unicamp. Bréal M (1866). Willful action. mark In 1868.’ 1988). Paris: Hachette. Estudos fonológicos das lı́nguas indı́- genas brasileiras. Paris: Peeters. Gramática do Kamaiurá. Delesalle. Indigenous http://www. Intelligence is a faculty entre 1864 et 1898. Willful action and intelligence change the signification of a word that. 1980). 1863. is what he called the subjective ele- ecrivains grecs. Bréal. defending the thesis Hércules et Cacus.128 Brazil: Language Situation Seki L (2000). Éssai de sémantique. guages of Latin America. is l’Encouragement des Études Grecques em France. Bréal established a fundamental ‘transformisme. Epistémologie. He differed from the comparativists of his time Revue des cours littéraires de la France et de l’étranger. Wetzels L (1995). Albrecht Frie- the study of historical and compared linguistics. when used. science. In 1864. CNWS publications http://www. he became a professor of ment. . not losing its previous signification. Langage III 2. he joined the group that founded the École this presence. Weber. he was Inspector General of French Public Instruction. Franz (1791–1867).’ à la diachronie. ‘Les lois intellectuelles du langage. Poly- Bréal. French linguist and one of the founders of semy is the result of history and is one of the places semantic linguistics. ‘Bréal. Hercule et Cacus. in work of the language. Frag- table laws. In these studies. 1866. Ferdinand de Saussure’s professor.D. of the sign. He received his Ph. also present in the Éssai de mithologie comparée and Des noms perses dans les de sémantique. Personal pronouns are one of the exam- des Hautes Études.geocities. Bréal M (1883).) (1995) De la grammaire comparée à la study must necessarily include the meaning (Bréal.) (1995) De la grammaire constituted by the slow and groping agreement of the comparée à la sémantique. All rights reserved. languages there are the forms that. (1897). Bréal includ. language is not a natural Langue Française 46. 115–134. Paris: PUF.) (2000). Paris: Peeters. as he considered fascicle dated December 29.’ Annuaire de l’Association pour ligence. Textes de Michel Bréal publiés entre 1864 et 1866). Campinas: Editora Relevant Websites da UNICAMP.org – Instituto Sócio Ambiental languages of lowland South America. Indigenous lan. étude de mythologie century and considered that semantics deals with comparée.com/linguasindigenas/ – Listserv about 90. of knowledge and has its origin in the functioning Bréal M (1897). 1981. In Desmet P & that language does not reduce to forms and that its Swiggers P (eds. Amerindian Studies. sémantique. which would later be crucial in for a time. du In this domain. ‘L’Éssai de Sémantique de Bréal. In compared grammar at the Collège de France. 1898. Delesalle S (1988). drich (1825–1901).

com/linguasindigenas/ – Listserv about 90.) (1995) De la grammaire comparée à la study must necessarily include the meaning (Bréal. where he became director and was. Indigenous lan. Amerindian Studies. Paris: PUF. (1897). Paris: A. Bibliography having been the first to use this word in a linguistic discipline (Bréal. Estudos fonológicos das lı́nguas indı́- genas brasileiras. ruled by inevi. Albrecht Frie- the study of historical and compared linguistics.socioambiental. of knowledge and has its origin in the functioning Bréal M (1897).org – Instituto Sócio Ambiental languages of lowland South America. is what he called the subjective ele- ecrivains grecs. 1898. Delesalle. ed himself in the historical perspective of the 19th Bréal M (1863). which would later be crucial in for a time. . and reflection on questions related to teaching. He himself named his work in linguistics semantics.’ Annuaire de l’Association pour ligence. Bréal M (1866). In Desmet P & that language does not reduce to forms and that its Swiggers P (eds. he became a professor of ment. (Aarsleff. Textes de Michel Bréal publiés will of many. when used. ‘L’Éssai de Sémantique de Bréal. ‘Bréal. 1879 to 1888. See also: Bopp. also present in the Éssai de mithologie comparée and Des noms perses dans les de sémantique. Institute of Language Studies–Unicamp. Gramática do Kamaiurá. Histoire et théories. Leiden: Research School of Asian. it is historical and cultural (Bréal. ples of these forms. Wetzels L (1995). Paris: Peeters. in work of the language. Durand. and indigenous languages in Brazil. 1897). Bréal established a fundamental ‘transformisme.128 Brazil: Language Situation Seki L (2000). Textes de Michel Bréal publiés entre 1864 et 1866). Ferdinand de Saussure’s professor. Éssai de sémantique. He differed from the comparativists of his time Revue des cours littéraires de la France et de l’étranger.’ à la diachronie. He received his Ph. French linguist and one of the founders of semy is the result of history and is one of the places semantic linguistics. Langage III 2. ‘Les lois intellectuelles du langage. Willful action. languages there are the forms that. he joined the group that founded the École this presence. studied Sanskrit in Berlin with that represent the accumulation of the intellectual Bopp and Albrecht Weber. as he considered fascicle dated December 29. ment de sémantique. 1981. du In this domain. but occur by man’s willful action and intel. 115–134. Franz (1791–1867). Frag- table laws. African. vol. Bréal includ. Michel Jules Alfred (1832–1915) E Guimarães. drich (1825–1901). defending the thesis Hércules et Cacus. In 1864. Paris: Hachette. CNWS publications http://www. 1883). From the work of Émile Benveniste. Poly- Bréal. a collective will. His work was dedicated to three domains: the study of ancient inscriptions and myths. which is not conscious. All rights reserved. Campinas: Editora Relevant Websites da UNICAMP. In Desmet P & Swiggers P (eds. Intelligence is a faculty entre 1864 et 1898. ‘L’analogie: d’un arbitraire à l’autre. of the sign.) (2000). guages of Latin America. 90–108. 1. the change of the signification of words (Delesalle. Bréal M (1883). mark In 1868. 1866. Paris: Peeters. étude de mythologie century and considered that semantics deals with comparée. Étude Another important aspect.geocities. Delesalle S (1988). Changes in language are not natural. science. ‘De la forme et de la fonction des mots.’ 1988). Brazil synthesizes the principal points of his production ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Willful action and intelligence change the signification of a word that. takes on more than one meaning. Epistémologie. la Sémantique et Saussure. Therefore.) (1995) De la grammaire constituted by the slow and groping agreement of the comparée à la sémantique.’ His- toire.D. Weber.’ In La Linguistique concept in semantics studies – that of polysemy – génétique. Hercule et Cacus. is l’Encouragement des Études Grecques em France.’ intellectual work. sémantique. van der Voort H & van de Kerke S (eds. 1980). Aarsleff H (1981). Bréal. he was Inspector General of French Public Instruction. Indigenous http://www. Personal pronouns are one of the exam- des Hautes Études. 17. In these studies. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ. 1863. He who speaks is marked in what he spoke. language is not a natural Langue Française 46. Language represents an accumulation of Delesalle S (1980). (ISA). In compared grammar at the Collège de France. not losing its previous signification. and this aspect can be found in the work that São Paulo Campinas.

) (1933). Bredsdorff met Rask. 1–41. Copenha- Thomsen in 1886. Being at least 40 years ahead of its tion with commentary and an essay on J. All rights reserved. He owes his special place in the Rasmus Kristian (1787–1832). which he applied to doctoral degree in natural sciences in 1817. if not before. Linguistic studies in the 19th century ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. in Copenhagen. linguistic writings. Bredsdorff gave the first more-or-less Cedergreen Bech S (ed. School in 1807. In the long-standing Scandinavian tradition of Sandfeld K (1979). his language teacher was Being well aware of the gap between the rough S. The sources of Bredsdorff’s linguistic insights have with whom he was friends until the latter’s death in not yet been investigated. Breton 129 Bredsdorff. which provides a genuine theory of language change. His data-oriented analysis of the relation- the first scientific runologists and historical linguists. preliminary information 1832. Jakob Hornemann. paper On the causes of linguistic change (published in Danish in 1821). studies confirmed the view that Breton was a late most limit of the withdrawal of Celtic before Roman offshoot of British Celtic.). famous Golden Horn of Gallehus (1839).’ In runology. which Breton J Le Dû. It was rediscovered and republished by Vilhelm linger inden for sprogvidenskab og runologi. geology and botany at the prestigious private school Sorø Academy. Bredsdorff entered Nykøbing Cathedral languages together. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. Roskilde Cathedral School. where he Bredsdorff tried to develop an alphabet to represent received a first degree in Divinity in 1814 and a pronunciation more accurately. In 1809 Bredsdorff sophisticated differentiations in pronunciation. Vilhelm history of linguistics most of all to his highly original Ludvig Peter (1824–1927). Ludvig Wimmer. France of Gaulish. Here. where he died on June 16. He spent most of his career as a reader in can be found in Andersen (1982). 2. Ghent University. Jakob Horne. 497–498. the paper passed unno. vol. enrolled at the University of Copenhagen.) Dansk biografisk leksikon (3rd correct interpretation of the runic inscription on the edn. with the speaker as the central locus Bibliography of change. . Early on both standard and colloquial Danish in 1817. and its linguistic border is the western. Ghent. Modern Celtic Brittany. Belgium ultimately led to today’s standard transliteration by ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Some historians argued that Breton had Breton (brezoneg. J. tion from Britain began before the Saxon invasions. Thomsen. Université de Bretagne Occidentale. a renowned philologist and pedagogue classification of sounds in orthography and the more who also taught Rasmus Rask. ‘On the causes of linguistic change of Rask. English transla- natural history. H. It is spoken in Lower a thoroughly romanized Armorica. Runes. who treated language history in terms of (1821) by Jakob Hornemann Bredsdorff. Bloch. brezhoneg) belongs to the Brythonic been imported whole by immigrants from Britain into branch of the Celtic languages. Breton has long been considered the continuation Brest. All rights reserved. Bredsdorffs udvalgte afhand- ticed. arguing that Gothic (on the island of Fyn. Glahder J (ed. ‘Bredsdorff. smothered all purported genetic connection between Breton and French and also any close relationship to Gaulish. Rask. H. and not the ancestor of High German or all Germanic tion at home. though he Though trained as a natural scientist. After thorough prepara. Jakob Hornemann (1790–1841) J van Pottelberge. 1841. Bredsdorff. gen: Levin & Munksgaard. He was also the first to realize that the 24-character runic alphabet was older than the more common 16-character alphabet. Denmark) into a line of highly should be considered a separate branch of Germanic educated Lutheran priests. Bredsdorff left a small but remarkable body of See also: Gothic. in Vester Skerninge shadowed modern views.’ time and published in an examination program of Historiographia Linguistica 9. Phonetic Transcription: History. 1790. We now know that emigra- expansion. derived both erroneously from Ulfilas Gothic mann Bredsdorff is remembered most of all as one of alphabet. It differs fundamentally from the ideas Andersen H (1982). J. N. ships between the Germanic languages also fore- He was born on April 3.

which Breton J Le Dû. J. paper On the causes of linguistic change (published in Danish in 1821). N. brezhoneg) belongs to the Brythonic been imported whole by immigrants from Britain into branch of the Celtic languages. ‘Bredsdorff. It was rediscovered and republished by Vilhelm linger inden for sprogvidenskab og runologi. Being at least 40 years ahead of its tion with commentary and an essay on J. the paper passed unno. derived both erroneously from Ulfilas Gothic mann Bredsdorff is remembered most of all as one of alphabet. The sources of Bredsdorff’s linguistic insights have with whom he was friends until the latter’s death in not yet been investigated. 1790. gen: Levin & Munksgaard. Rask. preliminary information 1832. geology and botany at the prestigious private school Sorø Academy. famous Golden Horn of Gallehus (1839). He spent most of his career as a reader in can be found in Andersen (1982). 1841. with the speaker as the central locus Bibliography of change. and not the ancestor of High German or all Germanic tion at home. Copenha- Thomsen in 1886.’ time and published in an examination program of Historiographia Linguistica 9. After thorough prepara. It is spoken in Lower a thoroughly romanized Armorica. English transla- natural history. Breton 129 Bredsdorff. Here. In the long-standing Scandinavian tradition of Sandfeld K (1979). We now know that emigra- expansion. He was also the first to realize that the 24-character runic alphabet was older than the more common 16-character alphabet. Jakob Horne. H.) Dansk biografisk leksikon (3rd correct interpretation of the runic inscription on the edn. Early on both standard and colloquial Danish in 1817. His data-oriented analysis of the relation- the first scientific runologists and historical linguists. Université de Bretagne Occidentale. Ghent. Some historians argued that Breton had Breton (brezoneg. J. Roskilde Cathedral School. in Copenhagen. linguistic writings. ships between the Germanic languages also fore- He was born on April 3.’ In runology. tion from Britain began before the Saxon invasions. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. though he Though trained as a natural scientist. Bredsdorff left a small but remarkable body of See also: Gothic. Thomsen. Runes. studies confirmed the view that Breton was a late most limit of the withdrawal of Celtic before Roman offshoot of British Celtic. Bredsdorff met Rask. Ghent University. Breton has long been considered the continuation Brest. if not before. which he applied to doctoral degree in natural sciences in 1817. 1–41. arguing that Gothic (on the island of Fyn. ‘On the causes of linguistic change of Rask. where he died on June 16. He owes his special place in the Rasmus Kristian (1787–1832). Bredsdorff entered Nykøbing Cathedral languages together. Vilhelm history of linguistics most of all to his highly original Ludvig Peter (1824–1927). All rights reserved. Ludvig Wimmer. In 1809 Bredsdorff sophisticated differentiations in pronunciation. in Vester Skerninge shadowed modern views. All rights reserved. 497–498. Denmark) into a line of highly should be considered a separate branch of Germanic educated Lutheran priests. Bredsdorffs udvalgte afhand- ticed. Linguistic studies in the 19th century ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Belgium ultimately led to today’s standard transliteration by ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Glahder J (ed.). Bredsdorff gave the first more-or-less Cedergreen Bech S (ed. Bredsdorff. which provides a genuine theory of language change. who treated language history in terms of (1821) by Jakob Hornemann Bredsdorff. his language teacher was Being well aware of the gap between the rough S. School in 1807. H. smothered all purported genetic connection between Breton and French and also any close relationship to Gaulish. vol. where he Bredsdorff tried to develop an alphabet to represent received a first degree in Divinity in 1814 and a pronunciation more accurately. enrolled at the University of Copenhagen. Jakob Hornemann (1790–1841) J van Pottelberge. a renowned philologist and pedagogue classification of sounds in orthography and the more who also taught Rasmus Rask. Phonetic Transcription: History. 2. France of Gaulish. Jakob Hornemann. Bloch. .) (1933). and its linguistic border is the western. It differs fundamentally from the ideas Andersen H (1982). Modern Celtic Brittany.

z from *tt as in Léon. for example.’ Ellé. and Breton is partially Another sandhi phenomenon caused the so-called used on local state-owned (France-Bleu Breiz Izel) provective mutation: a final -h in hoh ‘your’ devoices and private radio (like Radio Kerne) and television a following voiced initial consonant. French has become Voiceless consonants and /m/ are fortes. den ‘person’. especially raphy was established.’ Degrees in Breton.’ the article – originally ending in a vowel – and also was created in the 1970s to take into account all the following adjective: mamm ‘mother. was created in 1954. Both the French State and the Breton Regional less fortes became voiceless spirants. Ma zad Rennes and Brest. Léon. ar vamm vad ‘the good mother. it is estimated that about 250 000 mate in the northwest. but a devoiced -d when been recruited since 1982 to teach in the secondary final. either. and most pitch stress affects the last syllable. the latter keeping closer to Armorican. Native Breton speakers are teach mostly through Breton. each vowels. there existed two written forms.130 Breton so that most scholars acknowledge that Breton is readily recognizable in French when they pronounce rooted in Armorican Gaulish. All voiceless consonants are voiced before a Catholic schools.’ which was closer into a grammatical device called ‘lenition. lenes when stressed. whole week. the voice being restored when the utterance schools. ‘Cat. Breton is taught to about 5000 children at the is followed by a vowel as in ma zad eo ‘(he) is my primary level in a few bilingual classes in public and father’. in fact. weak [l]) and zall ‘salted’ (short [a]. of them are over 60 years old.’ The geminate voice. etrerannyezhel ‘interdialectal. and r. initial consonants of feminine words are lenited after a third orthography. dropping z from *d as in vannetais. dominant because of the unprecedented social and ants are lenes.’ kaz in KLT and kah in between vowels.’ spered < spiritus ‘mind. two major dialect groups: dwrn. There can be up to eight phonemic nasal of Quimper and Vannes in the 17th century. ture. m. ulation. voiced spir.’ regional differences. dictionaries.’ language in the last 30 years.’ he fenn ‘her head. but keeping ‘sweepings’) and French (lenn-abl ‘read-able’). for example. In 2004. These changes survived the loss of vannetais. The primitive twofold partition Polls carried out in 1991 and 1997 show that from could reflect the difference between Osismii and 1950 to 1990. as in hañv ‘summer’. For centuries. and constituting language. n. both use a compulsory peri- into four dialects. and the private Diwan schools vowel or l. hand’. One can thus oppose ar zal ‘the called at the time ‘breton vannetais’ and ‘bas-breton. English and Breton grammars show striking tence of a unified old Breton. less than . turning a simple phonetic mechanism called ‘orthographe universitaire. Finally.’ so that the to the spoken language. but form had its own grammars. at all levels. would be spelled kazh. skourje ‘whip’ from *d. whereas in the Southeast a persons are able to speak the language. 1981) has reported the existence kistin < castanea ‘chestnut’). taken vannetais de and deùeh. English scourge. breur n’ema ket o kana ‘my brother is not singing. ma for the diocese of Léon.’ A traditional view of the language purports the exis. ‘child. Welsh dyn. Vowels are short before fortes and long before Before 1941. are delivered in Final consonants are devoiced before pausa. The most im- (Welsh dydd and dyddwaith) are far removed from portant borrowings are the numerous affixes. and voiced stops and /l/. Some words a bridge between remote linguistic forms. as in bugel stations (France 3). which are not borrowings from French. There are. Trégor and duine).’ Cornouaillais for Cornouaille. and litera- archaic features. About 500 common words are Latin borrow- (2) Vannetais. écourgée. giving rise to the Assembly have encouraged publishing in the Breton spirant mutation: penn ‘head. Gaelic dorn. which had been developed in the two Jesuit colleges strong [l]). the of romance and French words has enriched the meeting point of all the major roads. /n/ and /r/ can be agricultural revolution occurring in Brittany. and Vannetais for The lexis is basically Celtic (dorn ‘fist. very much like in English. absorbing different toud’ la z’maine for toute la semaine ‘during the varieties of British Celtic. Gaelic (1) KLT – Cornouaille (Kerne).’ room’ (long [a:]. Welsh Vannes. not unlike French. like the have been kept in both languages while disappearing reflexes of the dental spirants from old Celtic *tt and from French.’ ho(h) pugel ‘your child. a flow of an intermediate dialect centered on Carhaix. decreased from about roughly 70 to 20% of the pop- An intensity stress generally falls on the penulti. Trégorrois for Tréguier. supposed to have split similarities. the western border of which is the river ings (taol <tabula ‘table. the percentage of Breton speakers has Venetes Gaulish. In 1941 the peurunvan ‘totally unified’ orthog- Primitive consonants were weakened. Breton language teachers have ‘my father’ keeps a long [a:]. A new spelling final syllables. However.’ mad ‘good. Falc’hun (1962. named after the dioceses as they phrastic progressive in opposition to a simple present: existed before the 1789 French Revolution: Léonais Ma breur ne gan ket ‘my brother does not sing’ vs. Léon deiz ‘day’ and dervez ‘duration of a day’ escourgée. The central forms are de and both from Latin (-adur < -atura as in skub-adur devez.

Brest: CRBC.) Le nom des langues I: les enjeux See also: Celtic. Paris: Perrin.) Langues et cultures Balcou J & Le Gallo Y (eds. Fleuriot L (1980). à nos jours. midway between Africa and Indonesia. The largest of these islands is ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Rennes and Paris. south of India. Oslo: Universitet- of Breton. During the overseas territory of the United Kingdom. There The territory was established in 1965. which houses a joint U. Humphreys L l H (1995). Paris: L’Harmattan. Les origines de la Bretagne. Peeters. village. Paris-Genève: Champion. It is the only island that is inhabited. naval support facility. Dublin: The Dublin Institute for Advanced forlaget. ‘Le qui pro quo des langues Bibliography régionales: sauver la langue ou éduquer l’enfant?’ In Clairis C. forme moderne du gaulois. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe du Ternes E (1970). All rights reserved. Paris: SELAF. enseignement. were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles. ‘Nommer le breton. Diego Garcia. Paris: populaires de la Bretagne. de Groix. Brest: Emgleo Breiz-Brud Nevez. Costaouec D & Coyos J-B (eds. education. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. The horse of pride – life in a Breton parler de Berrien. Thus. the of more than 2000 islands in the Indian Ocean to the local population of Ilois. . British Indian Ocean Territory: Language Situation Editorial Team Chagos Archipelago. Welsh. Nouvel atlas linguistique de la Basse- Broudic F (1995). A historical morphology and syntax phonétique et morphologie (2ème éd. Sommerfelt A (1978). de la.K. by approximately 1500 (U. et culturelle de la Bretagne. official (and only) language of the British Indian prise the six main island groups that make up the Ocean Territories is English. Guiomar J-Y (1987). Rennes: PUR. La pratique du breton de l’ancien régime Bretagne. Le Roux P (1924–1963). the Currently the British Indian Ocean Territories com.K.) (1987). British Indian Ocean Territory: Language Situation 131 1% of Breton children benefit from this bilingual Jackson K (1967). McKenna M (1988). au XIX! siècle. Perspectives nouvelles sur l’histoire de la Vème au VIIème siècles de notre ère. A historical phonology of Breton.). special military status of Diego Garcia. Ploneis J-M (1983). Tanguy B (1977). London/New Haven: Yale University Press. langue bretonne. nomination des langues. UGE. Rennes. Atlas linguistique de la Basse- Falc’hun F (1962). A handbook of modern spoken Breton. Slatkine. when it was is a legal campaign to gain the right of return. Le breton parlé à Saint-Pol-de-Léon: Hemon R (1975). Tübingen: Niemeyer.S.’ In Tabouret-Keller (ed. ‘Le Breton. Bretagne. Aux origines du nationalisme breton-le Hersart de La Villemarqué T (1867). Société d’Histoire et d’archéologie de Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Le Bretonisme: les historiens bretons Piette J F R (1973). and U. Paris. but so slightly larger than today. Le Berre Y & Le Dû J (1997). Bretagne. mainly agricultural workers. Louvain-La-Neuve: BCILL. Studies.) military per- The British Indian Ocean Territories comprise an sonnel and 2000 civilian contractors. French loanwords in Middle Breton. Au carrefour des dialectes breton: le Hélias P-J (1979). Paris: Payot. It consists establishment of the naval base (1967–1973).–U. L’immigration bretonne en Armorique du Falc’hun F (1981). politiques. in 1976 a number of islands far this has been unsuccessful. Barzaz Breiz – chants renouveau des études bretonnes au XIXème siècle. Loth J (1883). Paris: UGE. Le Dû J (2001). largely due to the became part of the newly independent Seychelles. Histoire littéraire régionales de France – Etat des lieux. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Le Berre Y & Le Dû J (1999). Grammaire structurale du breton de l’ı̂le parler breton de Bothoa en Saint-Nicolas-du-Pelem. France: Language Situation.S.’ Annales de Bretagne 64(4).

Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Peeters. à nos jours.) Le nom des langues I: les enjeux See also: Celtic.K. in 1976 a number of islands far this has been unsuccessful. Atlas linguistique de la Basse- Falc’hun F (1962).). village. Le breton parlé à Saint-Pol-de-Léon: Hemon R (1975). La pratique du breton de l’ancien régime Bretagne. de la. Loth J (1883). politiques.’ In Tabouret-Keller (ed. Paris: L’Harmattan. France: Language Situation. It is the only island that is inhabited. Studies. naval support facility.’ Annales de Bretagne 64(4). Paris: populaires de la Bretagne. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe du Ternes E (1970). Humphreys L l H (1995). Paris: Payot.–U. British Indian Ocean Territory: Language Situation Editorial Team Chagos Archipelago. south of India. Thus. Welsh. official (and only) language of the British Indian prise the six main island groups that make up the Ocean Territories is English. Bretagne. Diego Garcia. Louvain-La-Neuve: BCILL. special military status of Diego Garcia. It consists establishment of the naval base (1967–1973).S. L’immigration bretonne en Armorique du Falc’hun F (1981). Rennes and Paris. UGE. Rennes: PUR. largely due to the became part of the newly independent Seychelles. nomination des langues. and U. which houses a joint U. Aux origines du nationalisme breton-le Hersart de La Villemarqué T (1867). were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles. education. Histoire littéraire régionales de France – Etat des lieux. Le Bretonisme: les historiens bretons Piette J F R (1973). McKenna M (1988). British Indian Ocean Territory: Language Situation 131 1% of Breton children benefit from this bilingual Jackson K (1967). Tübingen: Niemeyer. Fleuriot L (1980). the of more than 2000 islands in the Indian Ocean to the local population of Ilois. when it was is a legal campaign to gain the right of return. During the overseas territory of the United Kingdom.) (1987). Le Berre Y & Le Dû J (1997). the Currently the British Indian Ocean Territories com. Paris: SELAF. Barzaz Breiz – chants renouveau des études bretonnes au XIXème siècle. London/New Haven: Yale University Press. Les origines de la Bretagne. Le Dû J (2001). The horse of pride – life in a Breton parler de Berrien. Paris.K. Costaouec D & Coyos J-B (eds.) military per- The British Indian Ocean Territories comprise an sonnel and 2000 civilian contractors.S. forme moderne du gaulois. au XIX! siècle. Bretagne. Perspectives nouvelles sur l’histoire de la Vème au VIIème siècles de notre ère. A historical phonology of Breton. Paris: Perrin. midway between Africa and Indonesia. Brest: Emgleo Breiz-Brud Nevez. Brest: CRBC. A historical morphology and syntax phonétique et morphologie (2ème éd. . Le Roux P (1924–1963). et culturelle de la Bretagne. French loanwords in Middle Breton.) Langues et cultures Balcou J & Le Gallo Y (eds. Rennes. de Groix. Le Berre Y & Le Dû J (1999). Guiomar J-Y (1987). ‘Nommer le breton. Grammaire structurale du breton de l’ı̂le parler breton de Bothoa en Saint-Nicolas-du-Pelem. enseignement. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. A handbook of modern spoken Breton. There The territory was established in 1965. langue bretonne. The largest of these islands is ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Au carrefour des dialectes breton: le Hélias P-J (1979). Slatkine. but so slightly larger than today. Paris: UGE. ‘Le qui pro quo des langues Bibliography régionales: sauver la langue ou éduquer l’enfant?’ In Clairis C. Ploneis J-M (1983). mainly agricultural workers. Société d’Histoire et d’archéologie de Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Nouvel atlas linguistique de la Basse- Broudic F (1995). by approximately 1500 (U. Sommerfelt A (1978). Oslo: Universitet- of Breton. Dublin: The Dublin Institute for Advanced forlaget. ‘Le Breton. Paris-Genève: Champion. Tanguy B (1977).

Travaux du Cercle Linguistique lar. In particu. All rights reserved. he was a major force in its Brandt P A (ed. He changed his name the Romance philologist Knud Togeby. a characteristic of a language – and through this – cal of Brøndal’s later work. and Cph. ry of the prepositions (1940). Bech (ed. relation between morphology and syntax in his 1932 Larsen S E (ed. C. Brøndal uses his categories to analyze the Odense Universitets forlag. born Rasmus Viggo Hansen on Danish linguists.) (1987). Brøndal deeply influenced his imme- October 13. 22. In 1917 in that it seeks to capture everything linguistic with he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy rather few but very abstract concepts and strives by the University of Copenhagen for a dissertation on to treat all linguistic levels from phonology through loans and substratum influences in Romance and word classes (morphology) to syntax and semantics Germanic languages. its start (1937).) the Aristotelian categories. [Original Danish ed. the Nordic philologist Paul Diderichsen. he and Louis Hjelmslev together edited the Acta de Copenhague. ‘A semiotician in disguise: semiotic aspects of the work of Viggo Brøndal.) (1989). until his theo. Linguistique et sémiotique: endeavors to further structural linguistics. 1942. Essais de linguistique générale. ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Vol.. which was Institutul de linguistica româna. Sprogets geometri (vols 1–2). collected in the posthumously published Copenhagen. guist and Romance philologist. Viggo Brøndal was a fascinating orator. book on the subject and later wrote a number of Paris: Larousse.] he functioned as the secretary general of the 1936 Brøndal V (1948). Linguistica (later Acta Linguistica Hafniensia) from Brøndal V (1943). Rasmus Viggo (1887–1942) 133 Brøndal. papers. Umiker-Sebeok J (eds. Actualité de Brøndal.): Dansk biografisk leksikon. the outlines remain the same: The four generic con.’ In Sebeok T & cepts of descriptum (D). 1. Reitzel: Cph. 1928. University of Copenhagen. Cedergreen classes (1928). Viggio Brøndal. 1917. but Gyldendal: Cph. Otto Jespersen. From 1917 to 1925 he a culture. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Munksgaard: idealist transcendent type. Substrat et emprunt. strictly speaking. seen as the possible linguistic categories in any specif. Munksgaard: Cph. such as Roman Jakobson.. As a postgraduate. Théorie des prépositions. Larsen S E (1987). based on his reception of Cph. Fischer-Jørgensen as a great intellectual achievement ied with Bédier and Meillet in Paris for a year. Rasmus Viggo (1887–1942) F Gregersen. The book is heavily influenced using only these same concepts to arrive finally at by the sociological Meillet school and thereby atypi. Brøndal stud. Scandinavia: History of Philology at the University of Copenhagen./ Copenhagen Congress of Linguists. An inter- and relator (r) may be combined to form what are national yearbook. In 1928 he was appointed Professor of Romance See also: Copenhagen School. Viggo Brøndal was among the founding members Bibliography of the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen (1931). Munksgaard: other structuralists. and the debates between him and Hjelmslev were both fierce and singularly gratifying for a whole generation of Viggo Brøndal. until his premature death. . 1887. a position Linguistics. and. arguably his best book. (Original Danish ed. But unlike Hjelmslev’s theory.A. The theory is justly characterized by Eli Philology in 1912.. was a Danish lin. 1940. diate pupils. Denmark Essais de linguistique générale (1943). Odense: ic system.] Brøndal’s particular kind of structuralism is of an Brøndal V (1950). [Original Danish ed. Munksgaard: Cph.) The semiotic web ’86. Brøndal studied ary historian Hans Sørensen. impressive structure has remained outside the and then returned to Paris for a three-year period mainstream of linguistics. that he held until his death on December 14. but none of them are with Sandfeld and Nyrop at the University of Copen. in their hagen and graduated as magister artium in Romance later works. relatum (R). and the liter- from Hansen to Brøndal in 1912. presided over by his former teacher. Brøndal formed strong bonds with Brøndal V (1948). Les Parties du discours. seen to adhere to his theory. in Copenhagen. From his work on word Fischer-Jørgensen E (1979). Larsen S E (1986). Vol. descriptor (d). where he was a reader of Danish at the Sorbonne. Brøndal’s worked as an assistant to the Place-Name Committee. the vision is refined. Brøndal. Langages 86: Actualité de Brøndal.

only returning in the early 1950s. guages. Armenian. These years in Breslau saw in one of the most-used works in any Arabic library. 1868. He remain an abiding interest. While in Constantinople he made the ac. It is said to be due to his efforts Rostock on September 17. and a period of extreme diffi- pp. 1956). 1907–1913). His years of retirement were overshadowed 27–28. on entering scholarly energies remained undimmed. is best remembered however. Carl (1868–1956) Brockelmann. that this library was not shipped to the Soviet Union his imagination was fired by the great geographical as war reparations. band of Orientalists whose name has become a house- quaintance of Jahn. Syntax at his death (May 6. to whose chair in Königsberg he hold work in the field. by Arabists at least. 1–65. became worthless. At this time he Semitic and Turkish studies (see Fück. and he showed an early tinued to teach a number of languages. Obituary in Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Semitischen Sprachen (Berlin. Theodor (1836–1930). for bourg (then in Germany) in order to study under his Geschichte der arabischen Literatur. wrote indispensable. 1958). to some extent it tian. Brockelmann produced a mass shortly to Breslau (now Wroclaw) where he studied of articles and studies covering an enormous range of Semitic and Indo–European philology. and Ancient Egyp. Halle/Saale. Carl (1868–1956) M V McDonald by World War II and its ensuing miseries.132 Brockelmann. the Bibliography Grundriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik der Fück J (1958). Theodor. syntax. Elsevier Ltd. culty was finally alleviated when in 1947 he was made librarian to the Deutsche Morgenländische The German Orientalist Brockelmann was born in Gesellschaft in Halle. In 1888 he went to Stras. center- also taught himself Turkish. Here he occupied sion of which appeared in Leiden (1943–1949). However. 1898–1902). the final ver- Nöldeke (see Nöldeke. bischen Litteratur (Weimar/Berlin. particular the preparation of his edition of Ibn Qutay- ba’s ‘Uyūn al-Akhbār (Berlin/Strasbourg. All rights reserved. and his interest in exotic languages. He is one of the select to Turkey. Sprachw. 1900– See also: Nöldeke. which became his home. even though it is occasionally impossi- his Lexicon Syriacum. He retired Rostock University in 1886 he began with the study again in 1953 and was still working on his Hebräische of classics as offering more secure career prospects. Ges. 415–416. ! 1994. but it is still completed his Habilitation (on Ibn al-Jawzi). The award of a scholarship allowed him to move During his lifetime. 7. His son ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. he accepted a chair in Halle. In 1923 he went back to Sellheim R (1981). His savings This article is reproduced from the previous edition.’ Oriens 1935. While still at school. In 1903 he was appointed to a chair in Königsberg. town for the rest of his life. In 1910 der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle–Wittenberg. and a copy of ‘Brockelmann’ is was later to succeed. from which he finally retired to Halle in und Erinnerungen von Carl Brockelmann. Semitic Lan- 1908) and the first edition of his Geschichte der Ara. ‘Autobiographische Aufzeichnungen Breslau. was taken prisoner at Stalingrad. and traveled for the first time ble to identify his references. volume 1. and lexicography. and his wife died in 1945. is an invaluable but unwieldy work. By 1892 he was once again in Breslau where he has been superseded by later works. where he completed his own best-loved work.. he con- discoveries then being made. This himself with Sanskrit. a language which was to ing mainly on grammar. Even during these years. 4. .

He developed a phonetic theory which 1777. . University of Potsdam. His life with a translation of Sallust. dur. Paris: plied mathematics which tried to explain movement Payot. Language is for him primarily an organic phenomenon. de Brosses’s emphasis on etymology (1707–1788) at Godrans Collège in Dijon. De finally first president (1775). author from efficiently executing his official duties In 1760 de Brosses published a dissertation. later becoming a conseiller (1741) and this respect.134 Brosses. inde- friend Buffon solicited him to undertake the compo. on tion of languages towards arbitrariness does not elim- February 7. Boivin et Cie. he wrote his letters that the forms of unknown languages would fit easily on Italy which were published posthumously. He also followed his Brosses thought that we would be able to compare inclination towards literature and science. He stressed the word in itself. from carrying on a constant and extensive correspon- serted into the Encyclopédie méthodique. ‘Mechani- Bibliography cal’ was not a neutral term. d’après les correspondances inédites échangés cal was not invented by de Brosses. Le Traité de la formation méchanique des guage Debate. de Brosses was rejected developed the hypothesis that all divinities had a due to the opposition of Voltaire (1694–1778) on physical origin and that they were initially material personal grounds. France. Potsdam. Bézard Y ([1937] 1939). Traité de la formation méchanique adopting materialist connotations of the mechanical des langues et des principes physiques de l’étymologie. De Brosses aimed at giving a naturalistic interpretation to symbolic functioning. the Traité was more likely a failure. Du as first president of the parliament of Burgundy. d’épistémologie historique des sciences du langage. but was taken from the works of Jean Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert Auroux S (1979). should be natural and necessary and can be found in Brosses C de ([1756] 1967). 1709. with his thesis of a universal family of languages this trales (1756). 1751). nor culte des dieux fétiches. ic links between the first sounds and the objects they represent. In États (1730). The gradual evolu- Charles de Brosses was born in Dijon. In this dence with the most distinguished literary figures of work. which was afterwards in. Their elements Paris: Saillant. Charles de (1709–1777) Brosses. January–March 1937. De Brosses goes further in his explanation. The linguistic use of the term mechani. who used it Charles Bonnet. These literary occupations did not prevent the elected to the Académie des Inscriptions in 1758. Le Président de Brosses et ses amis de Genève. which were De Brosses was occupied throughout most of his afterwards adopted by succeeding geographers. who used it to designate a part of ap. He was work. inate this link. La sémiotique des encyclopédistes: essai (1717–1783). Bénigne Legouz de Gerland. Amsterdam: Nico Israel. description of the first languages. objects adored for their own sake. from Noël Antoine Pluche (1688–1761). Annales in a work on the acquisition of languages by children de Bourgogne. Pierre Pictet. he was and the study of regularities of sound change does appointed judge at the Burgundian Parlement des not make him a forerunner of historical linguistics. His aim was to observe the operation terres australes. he Académie Française in 1770. langues. Jean Jallabert. He was a French magistrate and scholar. In 1765 appeared his work on the origin of lan- See also: 18th Century Linguistic Thought. De rates his theory from the comparative grammar of the Brosses was the first to lay down the geographical 19th century. and. Librarie Furne. Charles de (1709–1777) G Haßler. Paris: Ancienne (La Méchanique des langues et l’art de les enseigner. secretly smuggled into France after having his time. A classmate of Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon Nevertheless. who allowed him to link words of different languages with came from a family of judges and studied in his home their organic root. town. His into this scheme. pendent of its relation to specific languages. but he took it up entre Charles de Brosses. attempting to works on the history and origins of language earned supply the lost chapters of that celebrated historian’s him a reputation as a theorist in this field. Origin of Lan- guage. Histoire des navigations aux any language. Nature is the author of the germination of sound and the first true words. and died in Paris. Germany of the expressive movement of the body and the icon- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. This work included many word lists emphasis produces an unbridgeable gap which sepa- and was translated into English and German. Together sition of his Histoire des navigations aux terres aus. Brosses C de (1765). and its forces. divisions of Australasia and Polynesia. All rights reserved. all languages on the basis of their organic roots and ing a visit to Italy in 1739–1740. on May 7. Presenting himself as a candidate for the been rejected by the Académie des Inscriptions.

already taught in Ghana (1962–1964) before becom- ing an assistant lecturer in Phonetics and Linguistics See also: Assimilation. While the research projects continued.) (1981). Brown G. Anderson A.. such as the University Grants Com- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. with a Cambridge M. Cohesion and at Edinburgh University in 1965. 1995). Brown. Gill received a CBE in 1992. and Interpretation: Philosophical Aspects. . ‘Syllables and redundancy rules in gener- structure to create a book that helped define the ative phonology. Harlow: Longman. Brown G (1998). After fieldwork in Coherence: Linguistic Approaches. Gillian G Yule. of Applied Linguistics at the University of Essex Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gill has focused on the ways in which context standing. Gill published an early paper in generative derstanding. Cognitive Pragmatics. Brussels: Editions Siècle de l’Université de Dijon. (1994). Sautebin H ([1899] 1971). guistics at Cambridge University (1988–2004). and in public service. (1983–1988). Phonetic Processes in Dis- phonology led to her widely acclaimed book on lis. Gill’s Discourse. graduate study in many areas at the intersection of Brown G. Overview. Human Reasoning and Lumasaaba in 1971. In the 1970s. Second Language Listening. par l’Académie des Sciences.) Context is created in discourse understanding (Brown. and the study of discourse Brown G (1970).) time.’ In Malmkjaer K & Williams J (eds. Further research projects resulted the phonology of Lumasaaba. 1977/1990). 1984). ‘Context creation in discourse under- search. Geneva: Slatkine. 1998). 1970). from Edinburgh (1965–1983) to become Professor Brown G & Yule G (1983a).’ Journal of Linguistics 6. Phonetic Transcription: Analysis. developed innovative methods of eliciting and analyzing spoken data Bibliography (Brown et al. Gill then combined linguistics. Charles de Brosses 1777–1977: siècle. Listening to spoken English (2nd spoken language (Brown and Yule. 1983b and edn. In recognition of her outstanding Gillian (Gill) Brown. Elicitation Techniques for Spoken Edinburgh doctoral dissertation on the phonology of Discourse. few women professors in these institutions at the Brown G. ing (Brown et al. Oxford: Oxford tion. Kaaawa. Malmkjaer K. course. Language and understanding. Later. HI. Generative Phonology.A. of the Research Centre for English and Applied Lin. Shillcock R & Yule G (1984). Speakers. Gill moved Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Intonation. Teaching the spoken language. Un linguiste français du XVIIIe Garreta J-C (ed. as a member of the Kingman Inquiry into English language teaching in British schools. Currie K & Kenworthy J (1980). 1983a). Phonology: tening to spoken English (Brown. pour le deuxième centenaire de la mort du président de Geneva: Slatkine. 1–17.. Gill was increasingly involved in administra.. All rights reserved. London: Croom Helm. one on language understand- Brown G (1995). 1972). 1994) and another on referential Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown G (1977/1990).. communication (Brown. Phonological rules and dialect variation: and Yule. le président de Brosses: étude historique et analy- actes du colloque organisé à Dijon du 3 au 7 mai 1977 tique du Traité de la formation méchanique des langues. 1980). funded by the Types. Discourse analysis. Language Education: Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. mittee.. Pollitt A & Williams J (eds. had work. Communication. two on the teaching and testing of University Press. Nar- work on the practical applications of phonetics and rative: Cognitive Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge in more books. then to serve as the founding Director Brown G & Yule G (1983b). field of discourse analysis for many linguists (Brown Brown G (1972). Arts et Belles Let- Brown. Brown et al. Questions of linguistics and cognitive psychology. serving as Dean of Social Sciences at Essex. first of many research grants. Un- Uganda. Complexe. and the basis of a scholarly Language Interpretation. listeners and communication. As one of the intonation. in language learning and language understanding. Information Structure in Spoken monograph (Brown. Gillian 135 Brosses C de (1995). where Teaching talk: strategies for production and assessment. Lettres familières d’Italie: lettres tres de Dijon et le Centre de Recherche sur le XVIIIe écrites d’Italie en 1739 et 1740.). USA committee work. in University Press. Spoken Discourse: Gill’s intonation project (1975–1979). Brosses. In subsequent re. cognitive psychology. she created a stimulating intellectual environment for Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. which became part of her course Processing. Dis- phonology (Brown.

then to serve as the founding Director Brown G & Yule G (1983b). Teaching the spoken language. (1983–1988). All rights reserved. few women professors in these institutions at the Brown G.’ Journal of Linguistics 6. ‘Syllables and redundancy rules in gener- structure to create a book that helped define the ative phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge in more books.) time. Anderson A. already taught in Ghana (1962–1964) before becom- ing an assistant lecturer in Phonetics and Linguistics See also: Assimilation. Gill received a CBE in 1992. Gill was increasingly involved in administra. graduate study in many areas at the intersection of Brown G. Arts et Belles Let- Brown. 1977/1990). Gill has focused on the ways in which context standing. mittee. 1998). Brown G (1977/1990). In subsequent re. Complexe. Oxford: Oxford tion. cognitive psychology. Nar- work on the practical applications of phonetics and rative: Cognitive Approaches. Information Structure in Spoken monograph (Brown. Phonetic Transcription: Analysis. Brown et al.) Context is created in discourse understanding (Brown.. Communication. Gill published an early paper in generative derstanding.). Brussels: Editions Siècle de l’Université de Dijon. Language Education: Grammar. Malmkjaer K. 1–17. and the basis of a scholarly Language Interpretation.’ In Malmkjaer K & Williams J (eds. from Edinburgh (1965–1983) to become Professor Brown G & Yule G (1983a). Currie K & Kenworthy J (1980). After fieldwork in Coherence: Linguistic Approaches. and Interpretation: Philosophical Aspects. Charles de Brosses 1777–1977: siècle. 1980). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983a). guistics at Cambridge University (1988–2004). listeners and communication. as a member of the Kingman Inquiry into English language teaching in British schools.. Phonological rules and dialect variation: and Yule. 1994) and another on referential Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. such as the University Grants Com- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Lettres familières d’Italie: lettres tres de Dijon et le Centre de Recherche sur le XVIIIe écrites d’Italie en 1739 et 1740. Brosses. which became part of her course Processing. ing (Brown et al.. first of many research grants. Questions of linguistics and cognitive psychology. pour le deuxième centenaire de la mort du président de Geneva: Slatkine. serving as Dean of Social Sciences at Essex. Phonology: tening to spoken English (Brown. Gill moved Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gill’s Discourse. 1995). HI.A. Later. 1983b and edn. one on language understand- Brown G (1995). Brown G (1998). Speakers. 1970). Gillian G Yule. Sautebin H ([1899] 1971). As one of the intonation. communication (Brown. While the research projects continued. and in public service. in University Press. Listening to spoken English (2nd spoken language (Brown and Yule. ‘Context creation in discourse under- search. (1994). Dis- phonology (Brown. developed innovative methods of eliciting and analyzing spoken data Bibliography (Brown et al. funded by the Types. Further research projects resulted the phonology of Lumasaaba. USA committee work. two on the teaching and testing of University Press. Cognitive Pragmatics. of Applied Linguistics at the University of Essex Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. she created a stimulating intellectual environment for Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Human Reasoning and Lumasaaba in 1971. 1972). Un linguiste français du XVIIIe Garreta J-C (ed. field of discourse analysis for many linguists (Brown Brown G (1972). with a Cambridge M. Brown G. In the 1970s. Second Language Listening. Brown. Shillcock R & Yule G (1984). Un- Uganda. course. in language learning and language understanding. In recognition of her outstanding Gillian (Gill) Brown. Language and understanding. . had work. of the Research Centre for English and Applied Lin.) (1981). and the study of discourse Brown G (1970). London: Croom Helm. Intonation. par l’Académie des Sciences. Harlow: Longman. Gill then combined linguistics. Phonetic Processes in Dis- phonology led to her widely acclaimed book on lis. 1984). Overview. Generative Phonology. Pollitt A & Williams J (eds. Gillian 135 Brosses C de (1995). Geneva: Slatkine. Spoken Discourse: Gill’s intonation project (1975–1979). where Teaching talk: strategies for production and assessment. Cohesion and at Edinburgh University in 1965. Kaaawa. Elicitation Techniques for Spoken Edinburgh doctoral dissertation on the phonology of Discourse. Discourse analysis. le président de Brosses: étude historique et analy- actes du colloque organisé à Dijon du 3 au 7 mai 1977 tique du Traité de la formation méchanique des langues..

) teacher. and in their gradual building up of grammatical and morphologi. IL: The Free cal complexity. minimally mathematical’’ with ‘‘an almost http://childes. Press. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Capitalizing on the recent invention of work on linguistic relativity. Not all of Brown’s students inherited his distinctive work- Relevant Websites ing style (self-described as ‘‘phenomenon-centered. Brown R (1965).psy. Glencoe. Brown modeled open-mindedness. Brown R (1958). duction’’ [1989: 49–50]). Against my better judgment: an intimate Berko Gleason. and Kessel F S (1988). made at least three substantial contributions to late Brown’s work on Adam. Eleanor Rosch. 1997) that meditates on the afflicted person- two hours a month of spontaneous speech. Hillsdale. . for five years. 1965). he left behind diverse schoolers. including Jean Brown R (1997). Kessel’s (1988) festschrift provides a guage researchers: essays in honor of Roger Brown. Brown was extraordinarily effective as a Brown R (1989). MA.136 Brown. All rights reserved. New York: The Free later deposited in the CHILDES online database. memoir of an eminent gay psychologist. Length of Utterance. Kenji Hakuta. and an unfailing sense of won- teaching at Harvard University and. MIT. A first language: the early stages. of child language acquisition. involving . Eve. Steven Pinker. but it set a particular tone to the emerging discipline of psycholinguistics. Chestnut Hill. The recordings were then transcribed and meticulously analyzed. 34–60. Second.’’ ‘‘low-tech. he der that attracted many to the study of language. However. Michael Maratsos. measured in morphemes. Data were al life of a man celebrated as much for his geniality as collected from Eve for eleven months. Psy- oped the technique of calculating a child’s Mean cholinguistics: Overview. MA: Harvard University Press.’ In Lindzey G (ed. Melissa Bowerman.cmu. Ursula Bellugi. such prominence that it is surprising to learn that he First. USA nothing but the free exercise of the principles of in- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Brown or his graduate of-the-tongue phenomena. Using MLU as a basis for calibrating the three children’s emerging grammars. fuller list of Brown’s students and showcases their writings. Brown’s transcripts and tapes were Press. A third contribution Brown made is related. Howard Gardner. linguistics and psycholinguistics. More- over. briefly. Stanford. and Sarah. . NY: Haworth Press. Social psychology. in- University of Michigan. tip- the portable tape recorder. He trained a cohort of students who have A history of psychology in autobiography. and the sociolinguistics of students visited the homes of ‘Adam. Roger William (1925–1997) Brown. Courtney Cazden. had distinguished careers in diverse subfields of CA: Stanford University.edu – CHILDES online database. ‘Roger Brown. The development of language and lan- Dan Slobin. Binghamton. During a 40-year-long career tellectual playfulness. music and language. Roger William (1925–1997) M Thomas. Cambridge. Brown devel- See also: Language Acquisition Research Methods.’ and politeness. Talmudic taste for poring over data . Boston College. from Adam for his professional success. He also left behind a painful memoir ‘Sarah’ weekly or every other week to record at least (Brown. and Sarah achieved twentieth-century American linguistics. in person and in his best-selling textbooks Roger Brown was a social psychologist trained at the (1958. Words and things. point of his career. he found commonalities in Bibliography how they expressed semantic relations. Brown is probably best known for his 1973 published nothing on child language after the mid- study of the acquisition of English by three pre.’ ‘Eve. where they have had lasting influence on the study Brown R (1973).

Klasse. 181–208. studied medicine. Franc (1813–1891). including Miklosich Brugmann. edn. USA (see Miklošič. so he essentially developed a natural system Jankowsky K (1999). Karl (1849–1919) K R Jankowsky. In the 7 to contemporary linguistics. All rights reserved. entitled De Graecae lin- Karl Friedrich Christian Brugmann (see Figure 1) was guae productione suppletoria. although he had 140 publications in all. Henry Johannes Müller. Bibliography chungen über die Lautbildung und das natürliche Brücke E W (1849). He graduated his Habilitationsschrift. provided the physiological description linguists had Brücke was classically educated. d. -jas. Ernst Theodor Brücke. where he selected as his major subject com- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Eduard (1850–1932)). Then he tion. not to be confused with his grandson Although Brücke’s Grundzüge was superseded and biographer. Georgetown University. Franc (1813–1891)) for Slavic and ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. (1819–1892) and Johann N Czermak (1828–1873): Landmarks in the history of phonetics. (1856). was followed in 1877 by born on March 16. and also on Sigmund Freud. Amsterdam: Benjamins. ‘The works of Ernst Wilhelm Brücke of speech sounds with no help from predecessors. by Sievers’s Grundzüge der Lautphysiologie in 1876 ogist who taught for 46 years. Gerold & Sohn (2nd rev.. Vienna: C. history.) History of linguistics 1996. Zur Geschichte der Nominal- from high school in his home town in 1867.und -vas. NY. Alexander John (né Sharpe) (1814–1890). with Georg Curtius (see Curtius. and Henry (1845–1912). Freud. except for some observations by Kempelen (see (eds. who encouraged him to apply his (1845–1912)) are among those who used and praised physiological expertise to developing a natural system his work. Wolfgang von (1734–1804)). Untersu. Wolfgang von cially Grundzüge der Physiologie und Systematik der (1734–1804). Brücke’s work of Physiology at the University of Vienna (1849–1890). then decided to move on Washington. Ernst (1819–1891) P C Sutcliffe. 1892). years between Untersuchungen and Grundzüge. Brücke deepened his observation of languages with help from colleagues in Vienna. Scherer. Ellis’s Essentials of phonetics (1848) as he wrote 1876). Sweet. primarily in Berlin with physiologist Wilhelm (1841–1886)) and Sweet (see Sweet. Colgate University. He also realized a further practical application for his now ‘fine- tuned’ system: as a tool for teachers of the hearing- Ernst Wilhelm Ritter von Brücke (b. was a physiol. He thorough foundation in Greek and Latin and a broad was extremely influential on Sievers and his genera- humanistic interest in languages and learning. impaired (Jankowsky. 1819. Grundzüge der Physiologie und Sys- criteria. parative philology. Ernst Brücke. philology for one year in Jena. Brugmann. vol. Scherer (see Scherer. ‘Untersuchungen über die Lautbildung System der Sprachlaute (1849). for which he is remembered in linguistic. and arranging them in a system according to genetic Brücke E W (1856). introducing terms such as alveolar and dental tematik der Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstum- still in use today.’ Sitzungsber- dation for Grundzüge. His doctoral thesis of 1871. Alexander John (né Sharpe) (1814– Brücke E T (1928). painstakingly describing vari. It is See also: Ellis. Sigmund (1856–1939). Miklošič. 41 of them as Professor (see Sievers. which gave him a lacked and laid the foundation for this later work. his groundbreaking works in this field.(published in Zeitschrift für . January 7. Anton Hassan for Arabic languages. 1849 in Wiesbaden. 241–255. Math. Kempelen. All rights reserved.’ In Cram D et al. of speech sounds with which all the world’s languages could be described (Jankowsky. DC. II: From classical Kempelen. Apparently. ichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften ous pronunciations of all the vowels and consonants Wien. Vienna: Julius Springer. studied suffixe -as-. most espe. Sievers. USA to Leipzig. Georg (1820–1885)) becoming his principal teacher. Hamilton. 2. 1890)). June 6. 1999: 247). Brücke was unaware of menlehrer. Karl (1849–1919) 137 Brücke. 1999: 246).-Naturwiss. In his first work on speech physiology. Wil- Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstummenlehrer helm (1841–1886). Eduard (1850–1932). Brücke laid the foun- and das Natürliche System der Sprachlaute. it (see Ellis. particularly phonetic.

II: From classical Kempelen. studied suffixe -as-. Zur Geschichte der Nominal- from high school in his home town in 1867. Ernst Brücke. In his first work on speech physiology.’ In Cram D et al. where he selected as his major subject com- ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Wil- Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstummenlehrer helm (1841–1886). 1892). 1890)). with Georg Curtius (see Curtius. which gave him a lacked and laid the foundation for this later work. Bibliography chungen über die Lautbildung und das natürliche Brücke E W (1849). Brücke’s work of Physiology at the University of Vienna (1849–1890). particularly phonetic. He graduated his Habilitationsschrift.’ Sitzungsber- dation for Grundzüge. 1999: 247). USA (see Miklošič. Colgate University. Brücke was unaware of menlehrer. Georg (1820–1885)) becoming his principal teacher. entitled De Graecae lin- Karl Friedrich Christian Brugmann (see Figure 1) was guae productione suppletoria. for which he is remembered in linguistic. All rights reserved. was a physiol. 1819. then decided to move on Washington. June 6. primarily in Berlin with physiologist Wilhelm (1841–1886)) and Sweet (see Sweet. 1849 in Wiesbaden. and arranging them in a system according to genetic Brücke E W (1856). edn. his groundbreaking works in this field. USA to Leipzig. NY. although he had 140 publications in all. (1819–1892) and Johann N Czermak (1828–1873): Landmarks in the history of phonetics. and Henry (1845–1912). history. Vienna: Julius Springer. Hamilton. Brücke laid the foun- and das Natürliche System der Sprachlaute.(published in Zeitschrift für . Franc (1813–1891). including Miklosich Brugmann. Grundzüge der Physiologie und Sys- criteria. 41 of them as Professor (see Sievers. Sigmund (1856–1939). Ellis’s Essentials of phonetics (1848) as he wrote 1876). Amsterdam: Benjamins. provided the physiological description linguists had Brücke was classically educated. Anton Hassan for Arabic languages. Vienna: C. by Sievers’s Grundzüge der Lautphysiologie in 1876 ogist who taught for 46 years. He thorough foundation in Greek and Latin and a broad was extremely influential on Sievers and his genera- humanistic interest in languages and learning. (1856). impaired (Jankowsky. Karl (1849–1919) 137 Brücke. years between Untersuchungen and Grundzüge. Klasse. Gerold & Sohn (2nd rev. Henry Johannes Müller. Scherer (see Scherer. 181–208. Freud. Brugmann. Georgetown University. Math. Karl (1849–1919) K R Jankowsky. was followed in 1877 by born on March 16. ‘The works of Ernst Wilhelm Brücke of speech sounds with no help from predecessors. studied medicine. -jas. In the 7 to contemporary linguistics. d. ‘Untersuchungen über die Lautbildung System der Sprachlaute (1849). 241–255. Ernst Theodor Brücke. painstakingly describing vari.) History of linguistics 1996.und -vas. Apparently. except for some observations by Kempelen (see (eds. philology for one year in Jena. Miklošič. All rights reserved. introducing terms such as alveolar and dental tematik der Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstum- still in use today. 2. parative philology. ichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften ous pronunciations of all the vowels and consonants Wien. not to be confused with his grandson Although Brücke’s Grundzüge was superseded and biographer. 1999: 246). It is See also: Ellis. Alexander John (né Sharpe) (1814–1890). Scherer. vol. so he essentially developed a natural system Jankowsky K (1999). Kempelen. Wolfgang von (1734–1804)).-Naturwiss. who encouraged him to apply his (1845–1912)) are among those who used and praised physiological expertise to developing a natural system his work. it (see Ellis. Alexander John (né Sharpe) (1814– Brücke E T (1928).. Wolfgang von cially Grundzüge der Physiologie und Systematik der (1734–1804). DC. Sweet. He also realized a further practical application for his now ‘fine- tuned’ system: as a tool for teachers of the hearing- Ernst Wilhelm Ritter von Brücke (b. Brücke deepened his observation of languages with help from colleagues in Vienna. of speech sounds with which all the world’s languages could be described (Jankowsky. Untersu. His doctoral thesis of 1871. Then he tion. Eduard (1850–1932). January 7. Eduard (1850–1932)). most espe. Ernst (1819–1891) P C Sutcliffe. Franc (1813–1891)) for Slavic and ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. and also on Sigmund Freud. Sievers.

Brugmann was the most productive of the Neo- grammarians and undoubtedly also the one who com- manded the greatest influence on language students See also: Bopp. teaching profession. prominence. Franz (1791–1867). (1918). Two years later he went to and securing as many relevant linguistic facts as he Freiburg as full professor (Ordinarius) and stayed there possibly could. Brugmann managed to establish Brugmann K (1885). Georg (1820– who streamed to Leipzig from all over the world. Jahrbuch IV gust Schleicher (see Schleicher. Within a short time after he entered the Hirzel. . When he sat in judgment. he broke with Bibliography his mentor Curtius. Franz (1791–1867)) and Au- Figure 1 Photograph of Karl Brugmann from ldg. 361–406. formulation of the basic principles that govern those 1919. documentation of what comparative linguistics had accomplished at his particular time. where he was appointed associate professor ars.uni-frankfurt. went far beyond the mere amassing of 1887 to occupy the newly established chair for Indo. his unparalleled success was to a large extent also due to his unique personal style and courage. Delbrück. then at the Nicolai-Schule in Delbrück. facts in that he successfully attempted to arrive at the European philology. as did most of his Neogram- for three years. his Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen (vols. To achieve this vergleichende Sprachforschung 24: 1–99). his first two major studies. Karl (1849–1919) solid linguistic achievement and what would have to be discarded as insignificant. a model treatment of all components of gram- mar from a comparative point of view. Leipzig: S. August (1821–1868)). 1. stance of his writings. leaving it to Berthold Delbrück (see one year in Wiesbaden. two above all others were instru- mental in solidifying his reputation as the unchal- lenged leader in the field. But he. Following Franz Bopp (see Bopp. Of the approximately 400 titles in his list of publications. lecturing on Sanskrit and comparative philology in As was characteristic of all Neogrammarian schol- Leipzig. Apart from the enormous impact through the sub. the second. 6). 2.138 Brugmann. The first is the Griechische Grammatik of 1885. Zur Geschichte der stammabstu- frontation. only to return to Leipzig for good in marian friends. 285–338. Neogrammarians. He died in Leipzig on June 29. facts and place them within a coherent system.) Studien zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik 9. Even before Brugmann had started teaching at the university level. embarked on a course of quiet but determined con- Brugmann K (1876). Retrieved from http://titus. written in 1876. brought him recognition and fame that continued to grow rapidly with every work he pro- duced. In Curtius G (ed. August (1821–1868). Berthold (1842–1922). Berthold (1842–1922)) to deal with syntax Leipzig. Leipzig: S. qualifying monumental task. This frame of mind was the basis for the fenden Deklinationen. who could not approve of Brugmann’s impatient zest for exploring even less Brugmann K (1876). the advancement of his science.de/personal/ he was the third scholar to attempt a comprehensive galeria/brugmann. Brugmann was truly fascinated by discovering (Extra-Ordinarius) in 1882. In 1877 he started his university career. Zum heutigen Stand der Sprachwis- himself as an arbiter of what should be acceptable as senschaft. Curtius. And from then on he Hirzel. 1885).htm. his criteria were derived from solid research that he and his Neogrammarian comrades-in-arms kept supplying in abundance. first (vols 3–5). he had to restrict himself to phonol- him as a university teacher. for pean languages. Before that he had obtained ogy and morphology of the eight principal Indo-Euro- his Staatsexamen in 1872 and taught high school. Schleicher. As a young man of 27. Nasalis sonans in der indogerma- conventional avenues if he thought that it furthered nischen Grundsprache. In Curtius G (ed.) Studien zur second feature that aided his climb to unprecedented griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik 9. and even today those works remain achievements that need to be con- sulted. Strasbourg: Triibner.

Grundriss der vergleichenden Förster M (1919). 1909– Strasbourg: Trübner. Paris 7. vol. the speakers. Auf Grund des fünf. the former being part of learned from Edmont and Gilliéron for the Atlas language science. Jules (1854–1926). Sprach. ‘Karl Brugmanns Schriften. instead of comparing the words or phrases he solicitated from them.’ Indogermanisches Jahrbuch [für 1918] 6. 1–126. Brugmann K (1886–1893). Parts 1–3. 2. Sommer F (1955). ‘Karl Brugmann. 1919. vols 3–5: Jankowsky K R (1972). and giving a phonetical transcription Ferdinand Brunot.’ Ecole des Hautes Etudes. Leo (1887–1960). .) bändigen Grundrisses der vergleichenden Grammatik der Portraits of linguists. He received a position at marking the geographical particularities of the sam- the University of Nancy in 1913 and at the Sorbonne ples. ‘Karl Friedrich Christian Brugmann’. 667. vol. Berlin: Duncker and der Totalität in den indogermanischen Sprachen. Indogerma- Flexionslehre und Syntax). Bruneau contributed to French Ardennes. and stylistics applied to litera- Bruneau first used the method of questionnaires ture (or authors’ stylistics). their 500 kilograms of recording equipment was even Around 1952 Bruneau. Brunot and Charles Bruneau graduated from the Sorbonne and Bruneau finally gathered 166 recordings that they then followed Gilliéron’s classes on dialectology at filed following the Viennese ‘Phonogrammarchiv. guage and remained there until 1954. mann. In 1934 he succeeded his former professor.und Altertumskunde. Die Ausdrücke für den Begriff Neue Deutsche Biographie. (Repr. In 1912 he was que romantique’ (covering the period 1815 to 1852) called by Ferdinand Brunot to participate in the and ‘L’Epoque réaliste’ (covering the period 1852 to ‘Archives de la parole. 1871– Edelmann.) (1891–). Brugmann K & Streitberg W (eds. The Neogrammarians: a re-evalua- (1893–1900). Charles (1883–1969) 139 Brugmann K (1885). vii–x. This was based on using a Pathé phonograph of literary language through stylistic monographies. In Brugmann K (1894). Bruneau. in: In Sebeok T A (ed. linguistique de la France. 425–440.und Auto.) Handbuch nische Forschungen. Strasbourg: Trübner. Strasbourg: Trübner. semasiologisch-etymologische Untersuchung. of the records. Archives du département de l’audiovisuel from the France Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris) he then changed ! 2006 Elsevier Ltd. This gave a large amount of speech facts. Bruneau focused his thesis on the Ferdinand Brunot’s monumental Histoire de la langue local dialects in 93 villages of this region (Etude française des origines à nos jours by writing ‘L’Epo- phonétique des patois d’Ardenne). (or scientific) stylistics. verfasst von Karl Brugmann (3 vols). Spitzer.’ Indogermanisches tik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Morphologische Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen (6 vols). All rights reserved. Leipzig: S.’ Indogermanische Forschungen 26. to collect phonograms. Berthold Delbrück. An automobile to transport different from the rest of Ferdinand Brunot’s work. As he explained in See also: Brunot. Sach. made a distinction between pure time. Charles (1883–1969) D Candel. eine Humblot. Kurze vergleichende Gramma. Leipzig: Streitberg W (1919). quite an innovation at that listic criticism. Born in the After he settled in Paris. Streitberg W (1919). 1909. Bruneau. Streitberg W (1919). 6. Vergleichende Syntax der indogermanischen tion of their place in the development of linguistic sci- Sprachen. Brugmann K (1902–1904). renindex). vol. Bloomington. Jahrbuch 7. In Müller I (ed. asking for translations of words and sentences into the local dialect. vol. 1. ence. Hirzel. as chair of History of French Lan. his method. arguing against Spitzer’s sty- made available to them. The Hague: Mouton. 1: Ein. These two volumes mostly describe the history survey. preferring to analyze his speakers’ free speech and accents. Ferdinand (1860–1938). 143–148. leitung und Lautlehre. 148–152. Zeitschrift far indogermanische der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 2. 2: Wortbildungslehre. ‘Worte der Erinnerung an Karl Brug- Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Dialect Atlases. Indices (Wort-.’ the first institutional oral 1886). IN: Indiana indogermanischen Sprachen von Karl Brugmann und University Press). Griechische Grammatik (Lautlehre. ‘Karl Brugmanns Schriften. several letters written to Brunot (available at the Gilliéron.’ Indogermanisches Jahrbuch 7. Brugmann K & Osthoff H (1878–1910). CNRS and University of Paris. as well as some biographical data describing in 1933.

Brugmann K & Osthoff H (1878–1910). Dialect Atlases. Streitberg W (1919). vols 3–5: Jankowsky K R (1972). 1909– Strasbourg: Trübner. 148–152.’ Ecole des Hautes Etudes. in: In Sebeok T A (ed. several letters written to Brunot (available at the Gilliéron. 2: Wortbildungslehre.) bändigen Grundrisses der vergleichenden Grammatik der Portraits of linguists. Auf Grund des fünf. ‘Karl Brugmann.’ Indogermanisches Jahrbuch 7. Brugmann K (1902–1904).’ Indogermanisches tik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Berthold Delbrück. Bruneau. made a distinction between pure time. In 1934 he succeeded his former professor.) (1891–). ‘Karl Friedrich Christian Brugmann’. ence. as well as some biographical data describing in 1933. instead of comparing the words or phrases he solicitated from them. Streitberg W (1919). Die Ausdrücke für den Begriff Neue Deutsche Biographie. Jules (1854–1926). Kurze vergleichende Gramma.’ Indogermanische Forschungen 26. (Repr. leitung und Lautlehre. An automobile to transport different from the rest of Ferdinand Brunot’s work.und Altertumskunde. vii–x. Bruneau. as chair of History of French Lan. ‘Karl Brugmanns Schriften. 2. In Brugmann K (1894). All rights reserved. Hirzel. Leipzig: S. arguing against Spitzer’s sty- made available to them. He received a position at marking the geographical particularities of the sam- the University of Nancy in 1913 and at the Sorbonne ples. Bloomington. 1–126. 425–440. and stylistics applied to litera- Bruneau first used the method of questionnaires ture (or authors’ stylistics). Charles (1883–1969) 139 Brugmann K (1885). to collect phonograms. asking for translations of words and sentences into the local dialect. ‘Karl Brugmanns Schriften. Bruneau contributed to French Ardennes.