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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Introduction to CFD Analysis

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

What is CFD?
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving mathematical equations that represent physical laws, using a numerical process.
Conservation of mass, momentum, energy, species, ...

The result of CFD analyses is relevant engineering data:
conceptual studies of new designs detailed product development troubleshooting redesign

CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation.
Reduces the total effort required in the laboratory.

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

How does CFD work?
FLUENT solvers are based on the

finite volume method.
Domain is discretized into a control volume finite set of control volumes or cells. General conservation (transport) equation for mass, momentum, energy, etc.,
∂ ∫ ρφdV + ∫ ρφV ⋅ dA = ∫ Γ∇φ ⋅ dA + V Sφ dV ∫ ∂t V A A
unsteady convection diffusion generation

Fluid region of pipe flow discretized into finite set of control volumes (mesh).

are discretized into algebraic equations. All equations are solved to render flow field.
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Eqn. continuity x-mom. y-mom. energy

φ
1 u v h

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

CFD Modeling Overview
Solver Pre-Processing Solid Modeler Mesh Generator Equations solved on mesh Transport Equations
mass
species mass fraction phasic volume fraction

Physical Models
Turbulence Combustion Radiation Multiphase Phase Change Moving Zones Moving Mesh

momentum energy

Solver Settings

Equation of State Supporting Physical Models

Post-Processing

Material Properties Boundary Conditions Initial Conditions

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

CFD Analysis: Basic Steps
Problem Identification and Pre-Processing 1. Define your modeling goals. 2. Identify the domain you will model. 3. Design and create the grid. Solver Execution 4. Set up the numerical model. 5. Compute and monitor the solution. Post-Processing 6. Examine the results. 7. Consider revisions to the model.

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Define Your Modeling Goals
Problem Identification and Pre-Processing 1. Define your modeling goals. 2. Identify the domain you will model. 3. Design and create the grid.

What results are you looking for, and how will they be used?
What are your modeling options?
What physical models will need to be included in your analysis? What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? What simplifying assumptions can you make? Do you require a unique modeling capability?
User-defined functions (written in C) in FLUENT 6 User-defined subroutines (written in FORTRAN) in FLUENT 4.5

What degree of accuracy is required? How quickly do you need the results?
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fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 3. 2. 12/26/2001 . Identify the domain you will model. Define your modeling goals. Can you benefit from Mixsim. 3. or Airpak? Can you use a quad/hex grid or should you use a tri/tet grid or hybrid grid? How complex is the geometry and flow? Will you need a non-conformal interface? triangle quadrilateral What degree of grid resolution is required in each region of the domain? Is the resolution sufficient for the geometry? Can you predict regions with high gradients? Will you use adaption to add resolution? tetrahedron hexahedron Do you have sufficient computer memory? How many cells are required? How many models will be used? pyramid prism/wedge 2-8 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Identify the Domain You Will Model Problem Identification and Pre-Processing 1.0 Jan 2002 Design and Create the Grid Problem Identification and Pre-Processing 1.fluentusers. Design and create the grid Gas Cyclone Riser How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? Where will the computational domain begin and end? Do you have boundary condition information at these boundaries? Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists? L-valve Gas Example: Cyclone Separator Can the problem be simplified to 2D? 2-7 © Fluent Inc. 2. 12/26/2001 Fluent User Services Center www. Identify the domain you will model. Define your modeling goals.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Icepak.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Design and create the grid.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. and you can save meshing effort by using a tri/tet mesh. quad/hex meshes show no numerical advantage. tet mesh hex mesh wedge mesh Hybrid mesh for an IC engine valve port 2-10 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Tri/Tet vs. 2-9 © Fluent Inc. 12/26/2001 Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. Tools for hybrid mesh generation are available in Gambit and TGrid.Fluent User Services Center www. Quad/Hex Meshes For simple geometries.0 Jan 2002 Hybrid Mesh Example Valve port grid Specific regions can be meshed with different cell types.fluentusers. quad/hex meshes can provide high-quality solutions with fewer cells than a comparable tri/tet mesh. Align the gridlines with the flow.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 12/26/2001 . For complex geometries. Both efficiency and accuracy are enhanced relative to a hexahedral or tetrahedral mesh alone.

combustion. Useful for ‘parts-swapping’ for design study. Define material properties. multiphase. Duct is meshed with hexahedral cells.0 Jan 2002 Set Up the Numerical Model Solver Execution 4.0 Jan 2002 Non-Conformal Mesh Example Nonconformal mesh: mesh in which grid nodes do not match up along an interface. For a given problem. Set up the numerical model. Provide an initial solution. Set up solver controls. Compute and monitor the solution. Turbulence. Example: 3D Film Cooling Problem Coolant is injected into a duct from a plenum Plenum is meshed with tetrahedral cells.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. etc. 5.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 2-12 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. Set up convergence monitors. Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones. Helpful for meshing complex geometries. Prescribe operating conditions. etc. Plenum part can be replaced with new geometry with reduced meshing effort. you will need to: Select appropriate physical models. 12/26/2001 Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. Fluid Solid Mixture Solving initially in 2D will provide valuable experience with the models and solver settings for your problem in a short amount of time. 12/26/2001 . 2-11 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.

High residuals may be attributable to only a few cells of poor quality. Set up the numerical model.0 Jan 2002 Compute the Solution Solver Execution 4. 12/26/2001 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively. 12/26/2001 Fluent User Services Center www. 5. A converged and gridindependent solution on a well-posed problem will provide useful engineering results! Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend.0 Jan 2002 Examine the Results Post-Processing 6. A number of iterations are usually required to reach a converged solution. Overall property conservation is achieved. Consider revisions to the model. form? Are key flow features being resolved? Examine results to ensure property conservation and correct physical behavior. etc. shear layers. Compute and monitor the solution. Numerical Reporting Tools can be used to calculate quantitative results: Forces and Moments Average heat transfer coefficients Surface and Volume integrated quantities Flux Balances 2-14 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. Grid resolution and independence Problem setup 2-13 © Fluent Inc. 7. Examine the results. The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon: Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models. Convergence is reached when: Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. Examine the results to review solution and extract useful data. Visualization Tools can be used to answer such questions as: What is the overall flow pattern? Is there separation? Where do shocks.

Are physical models appropriate? Is flow turbulent? Is flow unsteady? Are there compressibility effects? Are there 3D effects? Are boundary conditions correct? Is the computational domain large enough? Are boundary conditions appropriate? Are boundary values reasonable? Is grid adequate? Can grid be adapted to improve results? Does solution change significantly with adaption.0 Jan 2002 Consider Revisions to the Model Post-Processing 6. 7.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www. or is the solution grid independent? Does boundary resolution need to be improved? 2-15 © Fluent Inc. Consider revisions to the model.fluentusers. Examine the results.0 Jan 2002 FLUENT DEMO Startup Gambit (Pre-processing) load database define boundary zones export mesh Startup Fluent (Solver Execution) GUI Problem Setup Solve Post-Processing Online Documentation 2-16 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers. 12/26/2001 . 12/26/2001 Fluent User Services Center www.

1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Solver Basics 3-1 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

n Prescribe operating conditions.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. n Set solver controls. n Compute and monitor solution.0 Jan 2002 Solver Execution u Solver Execution: l l Menu is laid out such that order of operation is generally left to right. Post-Processing n Feedback into Solver n Engineering Analysis 3-2 © Fluent Inc. n Select physical models. 1/29/02 . n Prescribe boundary conditions. n Define material properties.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers . n Provide an initial solution. n Import and scale mesh file. n Set up convergence monitors.

.0 Jan 2002 Mouse Functionality u Mouse button functionality depends on solver and can be configured in the solver.. 3-4 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 1/29/02 . Display → Mouse Buttons. u Default Settings: l l 2D Solver n Left button translates (dolly) n Middle button zooms n Right button selects/probes 3D Solver n Left button rotates about 2-axes n Middle button zooms s n Middle click on point in screen centers point in window Right button selects/probes u Retrieve detailed flow field information at point with Probe enabled.fluentusers .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. l Right click on grid display.

fluentusers . and/or cells n Boundary data assigned to face zones. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Reading Mesh: Mesh Components u Components are defined in preprocessor l cell center node l l l l Cell = control volume into which domain is broken up n computational domain is defined by mesh that represents the fluid and solid regions of interest. faces.Fluent User Services Center www. n Material data and source terms assigned to cell zones.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Face = boundary of a cell Edge = boundary of a face Node = grid point Zone = grouping of nodes. 3-5 face cell Simple 2D mesh node edge face cell Simple 3D mesh © Fluent Inc.

l Scale grid accordingly.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Scaling Mesh and Units u All physical dimensions initially assumed to be in meters. l Fluent defaults to SI units. 1/29/02 . u Other quantities can also be scaled independent of other units used.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers . 3-7 © Fluent Inc.

k-ω. 1/29/02 . Partially premixed Turbulent Finite Rate Chemistry n EDC. Non-Premixed. and RSM. and Energy Equations Radiation Models RANS based models including k-ε. Continuity.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Models in Fluent 6 (1) u Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer l l Momentum.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. © Fluent Inc. LES Pressure contours in near ground flight u Turbulence l l u Species Transport l l l l Arrhenius Rate Chemistry Turbulent Fast Chemistry n Eddy Dissipation. Premixed.fluentusers . laminar flamelet Surface Reactions 3-8 Temperature contours for kiln burner retrofitting.

Fluent User Services Center www. 1/29/02 .5 only) Liquid/Solid and Cavitation Phase Change Models Moving zones n Rotating/Multiple Reference Frame n Mixing Plane n Sliding Mesh Model Deforming Mesh (limited capability) n Special license needed.0 Jan 2002 Models in Fluent 6 (2) Inlet u Gas outlet Multiple Phase Flows l l l l l Discrete Phase Model VOF modeling of immiscible fluids Mixture Model Contours of oil volume fraction Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerianin three phase separator.fluentusers . © Fluent Inc. Granular (heat transfer in Fluent 4. exception: Fluent 4.5 Water outlet Oil outlet u Flows involving Moving Parts l l u User-Defined Scalar Transport 3-9 Pressure contours for squirrel cage blower.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

n PDF Mixture Material concept s s l Multiple Phase Flows (Single Species) n Define properties for all fluids and solids. Material properties defined in Materials Panel.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. PDF lookup table used for mixture properties. Constituent properties extracted from database. Constituent properties must be defined.fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Material Types and Property Definition u u Physical models may require inclusion of additional materials and dictates which properties need to be defined. l Single-Phase.Fluent User Services Center www. 3-10 © Fluent Inc. – Transport properties for mixture defined separately. Single Species Flows n Define fluid/solid properties n Real gas model (NIST’s REFPROP) l Multiple Species (Single Phase) Flows n Mixture Material concept employed s s Mixture properties (composition dependent) defined separately from constituent’s properties. 1/29/02 .

0 Jan 2002 Fluid Density u For ρ = constant .fluentusers . set poperating close to mean pressure in problem to avoid round-off errors.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. polynomial or piecewise-polynomial boussinesq model discussed in heat transfer lecture. u For incompressible flow: l u For compressible flow use ideal-gas : l u Density can also be defined as a function of Temperature l l u Density can also be defined using UDF.not to be function of pressure! 3-11 © Fluent Inc. gradual changes in absolute pressure (seg. 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www. ρ = pabsolute /RT n For low Mach number flows.. only). incompressible flow: l Select constant in Define → Materials. n Use Floating Operating Pressure for unsteady flows with large. ρ = poperating/RT n Use incompressible-ideal-gas n Set poperating close to mean pressure in problem..

Fluent User Services Center www. 3-13 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Solver Execution: Other Lectures.. u Physical models discussed on Day 2.fluentusers .. 1/29/02 .

3-14 © Fluent Inc. u Example: an Iso-Surface of constant grid coordinate can be created for viewing data within a plane.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. l l Surfaces are automatically created from zones. Post-Processing functions typically operate on surfaces.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Post-Processing u u Many post-processing tools are available. Additional surfaces can be created. 1/29/02 .

fluentusers . u Enable Node Values to interpolate field data to nodes. defined explicitly (when available) with boundary condition data. 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www. u u Node values on surfaces are interpolated from grid node data. or. data files store: l l data at cell centers node value data for primitive variables at boundary nodes. Node values of the grid are either: l l calculated as the average of neighboring cell data.0 Jan 2002 Post-Processing: Node Values u u Fluent calculates field variable data at cell centers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-15 © Fluent Inc.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www. 1/29/02 .fluentusers . Total Heat Transfer Rate includes radiation. slightly less accurate on user-generated surfaces due to interpolation error.0 Jan 2002 Reports u Flux Reports l l Net flux is calculated. u Surface Integrals l u Volume Integrals Examples: 3-16 © Fluent Inc.

l l Registers can be defined based on: n Gradients of flow or user-defined variables n Iso-values of flow or user-defined variables n All cells on a boundary n All cells in a region n Cell volumes or volume changes + n y in cells adjacent to walls To assist adaption process. Fluent adapts on cells listed in register.fluentusers . 1/29/02 . you can: n Combine adaption registers n Draw contours of adaption function n Display cells marked for adaption n Limit adaption based on cell size and number of cells: 3-17 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Solver Enhancements: Grid Adaption u u Grid adaption adds more cells where needed to resolve the flow field without pre-processor.Fluent User Services Center www.

contours of pressure initial grid 3-18 © Fluent Inc.initial grid 2D planar shell .0 Jan 2002 Adaption Example: 2D Planar Shell u Adapt grid in regions of high pressure gradient to better resolve pressure jump across the shock.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 2D planar shell .Fluent User Services Center www. 1/29/02 .fluentusers .

contours of pressure final grid 3-19 © Fluent Inc. 1/29/02 .fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Adaption Example: Final Grid and Solution 2D planar shell .final grid 2D planar shell .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.

0 Jan 2002 Boundary Conditions 4-1 © Fluent Inc. 1/29/02 .fluentusers .Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

. l Poorly defined boundary conditions can have a significant impact on your solution.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Defining Boundary Conditions u To define a problem that results in a unique solution. inlets. energy. You must be aware of the information that is required of the boundary condition and locate the boundaries where the information on the flow variables are known or can be reasonably approximated. 4-2 © Fluent Inc. momentum. 1/29/02 . symmetry) supplying information at the boundaries u Defining boundary conditions involves: l l u u The data required at a boundary depends upon the boundary condition type and the physical models employed.fluentusers . l Specifying fluxes of mass. you must specify information on the dependent (flow) variables at the domain boundaries. walls.g. etc. into domain. identifying the location of the boundaries (e.Fluent User Services Center www.

fluentusers .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Nozzle outlet plane n Premixed reaction model n Requires accurate profile Nozzle Manifold box Fuel 4-3 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. Nozzle inlet plane n Non-premixed reaction models n Requires accurate profile data 1 3. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Locating Boundaries: Example u Three possible approaches in locating inlet boundaries: l Air 1 2 3 Combustor Wall l l 1. Upstream of manifold n Can use uniform profile n Properly accounts for mixing n Non-premixed reaction models n Requires more cells 2.

0 Jan 2002 General Guidelines u General guidelines: l Upper pressure boundary modified to ensure that flow always enters domain. l l If possible. select boundary location and shape such that flow either goes in or out. 1/29/02 . but will typically observe better convergence. 1 2 4-4 © Fluent Inc. Should not observe large gradients in direction normal to boundary. n Indicates incorrect set-up. n Not necessary.fluentusers .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. n Introduces error early in calculation.Fluent User Services Center www. Minimize grid skewness near boundary.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Available Boundary Condition Types u Boundary Condition Types of External Faces l l l l l General: Pressure inlet.Fluent User Services Center www. intake fan.fluentusers . Radiator. exhaust fan Other: Wall. Axis interior outlet inlet wall u Boundary Condition Types of Cell ‘Boundaries’ l Fluid and Solid Orifice_plate and orifice_plateshadow u Boundary Condition Types of Double-Sided Face ‘Boundaries’ l Fan. Pressure far-field Special: Inlet vent. Interior. Outflow Compressible flows: Mass flow inlet. Pressure outlet Incompressible: Velocity inlet. Symmetry. outlet vent. Walls 4-5 © Fluent Inc. Porous Jump. Periodic.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. n Can also select boundary zone using right mouse button in Display Grid window. To change zone type for a particular zone: Define → Boundary Conditions..fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Changing Boundary Condition Types u u Zones and zone types are initially defined in pre-processor.Fluent User Services Center www. Select new zone type in Type list. 1/29/02 .. 4-6 © Fluent Inc. l l Choose the zone in Zone list.

. 1/29/02 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. n Click Set . l l To set boundary conditions for particular zone: n Choose the zone in Zone list.0 Jan 2002 Setting Boundary Condition Data u Explicitly assign data in BC panels. 4-7 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. l file → write-bc and file → read-bc u u Boundary conditions can also be defined by UDFs and Profiles.fluentusers .. button Boundary condition data can be copied from one zone to another. u Boundary condition data can be stored and retrieved from file. Profiles can be generated by: l l Writing a profile from another CFD simulation Creating an appropriately formatted text file with boundary condition data.

l l l Static pressure adjusts to accommodate prescribed velocity distribution.0 Jan 2002 Velocity Inlet u Specify Velocity by: l l l Magnitude. u Can be used as an outlet by specifying negative velocity.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www. Normal to Boundary Components Magnitude and Direction u u Velocity profile is uniform by default Intended for incompressible flows. Using in compressible flows can lead to non-physical results.fluentusers . l 4-8 © Fluent Inc. You must ensure that mass conservation is satisfied if multiple inlets are used. Total (stagnation) properties of flow also varies.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. s Direction of back flow determined from interior solution. Total Temperature n Used as static temperature for incompressible flow. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Pressure Inlet (1) u Specify: l Total Gauge Pressure n Defines energy to drive flow. abs (1 + Ttotal = Tstatic (1 + k −1 2 M ) 2 k − 1 2 k /(k −1) M ) 2 Incompressible flows: ptotal = pstatic + 1 2 ρv 2 © Fluent Inc. abs = pstatic . n Doubles as back pressure (static gauge) for cases where back flow occurs.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers . ignored if subsonic n Will be used if flow field is initialized from this boundary. Inlet Flow Direction 4-9 Compressible flows: ptotal . l l l Static Gauge Pressure n Static pressure where flow is locally supersonic.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers . l l l u Can be used as a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.0 Jan 2002 Pressure Inlet (2) u Note: Gauge pressure inputs are required. 1/29/02 . Fluent calculates static pressure and velocity at inlet Mass flux through boundary varies depending on interior solution and specified flow direction. 4-10 © Fluent Inc. u Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows. l l p absolute = p gauge + p operating Operating pressure input is set under: Define → Operating Conditions Pressure inlet boundary is treated as loss-free transition from stagnation to inlet conditions.

. 4-12 © Fluent Inc. Pressure is ignored if flow is locally supersonic. Backflow direction is assumed to be normal to the boundary. 1/29/02 u Backflow l l l l u Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows l u Can be used as a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Backflow boundary data must be set for all transport variables. Can occur at pressure outlet during iterations or as part of final solution. Doubles as inlet pressure (total gauge) for cases where backflow occurs. Convergence difficulties minimized by realistic values for backflow quantities.fluentusers . Radial equilibrium pressure distribution option available.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Pressure Outlet u Specify static gauge pressure l l l Interpreted as static pressure of environment into which flow exhausts.

Cannot be used with a Pressure Inlet.0 Jan 2002 Outflow u No pressure or velocity information is required.Fluent User Services Center www. Cannot be used if back flow is expected in final solution. must use velocity inlet. Mass balance correction is applied at boundary.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. l Appropriate where exit flow is close to fully developed condition. u Intended for incompressible flows. n Combination does not uniquely set pressure gradient over whole domain. u Flow exiting Outflow boundary exhibits zero normal diffusive flux for all flow variables. l l u Poor rate of convergence when back flow occurs during iteration. l 4-13 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers . l l Data at exit plane is extrapolated from interior. 1/29/02 . Cannot be used for unsteady flows with variable density.

l Pressure Outlets velocity-inlet (v.T0) or pressure-inlet (p0. s FRW set to 1 by default FRW1 implying equal flow rates velocity n static pressure varies among inlet exits to accommodate flow FRW2 distribution.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers . 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Modeling Multiple Exits u Flows with multiple exits can be modeled using Pressure Outlet or Outflow boundaries. 4-14 © Fluent Inc.T0) pressure-outlet (ps)1 pressure-outlet (ps)2 l Outflow: n Mass flow rate fraction determined from Flow Rate Weighting by: s mi=FRW i/ΣFRW i where 0 < FRW < 1.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www. l u Translational or rotational velocity can be assigned to wall. 1/29/02 . Normal velocity component = 0 Shear stress can also be specified. Wall shear stress and heat transfer based on local flow field. several types available Wall material and thickness can be defined for 1-D or shell conduction heat transfer calculations. 4-16 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers . u Thermal boundary conditions: l l u Wall roughness can be defined for turbulent flows. no-slip condition enforced at walls: l l l Tangential fluid velocity equal to wall velocity.0 Jan 2002 Wall Boundaries u u Used to bound fluid and solid regions. In viscous flows.

fluentusers . Define axis of rotation for rotationally periodic flows. 1/29/02 . momentum. etc. Fluid material input required. phase. 4-19 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Cell Zones: Fluid u u Fluid zone = group of cells for which all active equations are solved. energy. Can define zone as porous media. Can define motion for fluid zone. l Single species.Fluent User Services Center www. u u u u Define fluid zone as laminar flow region if modeling transitional flow. u Optional inputs allow setting of source terms: l mass.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

0 Jan 2002 Cell Zones: Solid u “Solid” zone = group of cells for which only heat conduction problem solved.fluentusers . l l No flow equations solved Material being treated as solid may actually be fluid. but it is assumed that no convection takes place. Need to specify rotation axis if rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to solid zone.Fluent User Services Center www. Can define motion for solid zone 4-21 © Fluent Inc. u Only required input is material type l u u u Optional inputs allow you to set volumetric heat generation rate (heat source). So appropriate material properties used. 1/29/02 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

Fans Radiators Porous jump n Preferable over porous media.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Internal Face Boundaries u Defined on cell faces l l Do not have finite thickness Provide means of introducing step change in flow properties. 1/29/02 . Interior wall u Used to implement physical models representing: l l l l 4-22 © Fluent Inc.exhibits better convergence behavior.

0 Jan 2002 Summary u u u u u u Zones are used to assign boundary conditions. 1/29/02 . Repeating boundaries used to reduce computational effort.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Internal cell zones used to specify fluid. Wide range of boundary conditions permit flow to enter and exit solution domain. and porous regions. Wall boundary conditions used to bound fluid and solid regions. 4-23 © Fluent Inc. solid. Internal face boundaries provide way to introduce step change in flow properties.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .

fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Solver Settings 5-1 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 1/29/02 .

1/29/02 u Appendix: Background l l l l .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers . Coupled Transient Solutions 5-2 © Fluent Inc. Implicit Segregated vs.0 Jan 2002 Outline u Using the Solver l l l Setting Solver Parameters Convergence n Definition n Monitoring n Stability n Accelerating Convergence Accuracy n Grid Independence n Adaption Finite Volume Method Explicit vs.

1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .0 Jan 2002 Solution Procedure Overview u Solution Parameters l l Set the solution parameters Choosing the Solver Discretization Schemes Initialize the solution u u Initialization Convergence l l Enable the solution monitors of interest l Monitoring Convergence Stability n Setting Under-relaxation n Setting Courant number Accelerating Convergence Grid Independence Adaption Calculate a solution Modify solution parameters or grid Check for convergence Yes Check for accuracy Yes Stop No No u Accuracy l l 5-3 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

g. and/or species. momentum. or Segregated (Implicit) The Coupled solvers are recommended if a strong inter-dependence exists between density.fluentusers . high speed compressible flow or finite-rate reaction modeled flows. energy.Fluent User Services Center www. l l Lower memory requirements than coupled-implicit solver. Coupled-Explicit. Memory required: Implicit solver requires roughly twice as much memory as coupledexplicit or segregated-implicit solvers! l The Coupled-Explicit solver should only be used for unsteady flows when the characteristic time scale of problem is on same order as that of the acoustics. l l e. 5-4 © Fluent Inc..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.g.0 Jan 2002 Choosing a Solver u u Choices are Coupled-Implicit.. n n Time required: Implicit solver runs roughly twice as fast. tracking transient shock wave u The Segregated (implicit) solver is preferred in all other cases. In general. 1/29/02 . n e. the Coupled-Implicit solver is recommended over the coupled-explicit solver. Segregated approach provides flexibility in solution procedure.

Solve → Initialize → Patch. correct initial guess is required: n Example: high temperature region to initiate chemical reaction. l l Free jet flows (patch high velocity for jet) Combustion problems (patch high temperature for ignition) 5-8 © Fluent Inc. 1/29/02 ..0 Jan 2002 Initialization u Iterative procedure requires that all solution variables be initialized before calculating a solution..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.. u “Patch” values for individual variables in certain regions.. In some cases. l l Realistic ‘guesses’ improves solution stability and accelerates convergence.fluentusers . Solve → Initialize → Initialize.Fluent User Services Center www.

etc. Ensure that property conservation is satisfied. 5-10 © Fluent Inc. Solution no longer changes with more iterations. Scaled energy residual must decrease to 10-6 for segregated solver.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Convergence u At convergence: l l l All discrete conservation equations (momentum. Scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10-5 to achieve species balance.) are obeyed in all cells to a specified tolerance. Generally. momentum. Overall mass. 1/29/02 u Monitoring convergence with residuals: l l l u Monitoring quantitative convergence: l l .fluentusers . Monitor other variables for changes. energy. and scalar balances are obtained.Fluent User Services Center www. n Major flow features established. energy. a decrease in residuals by 3 orders of magnitude indicates at least qualitative convergence.

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Convergence Monitors: Residuals
u

Residual plots show when the residual values have reached the specified tolerance. Solve → Monitors → Residual...

All equations converged.

10-3 10-6

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© Fluent Inc. 1/29/02

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .com

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Convergence Monitors: Forces/Surfaces
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In addition to residuals, you can also monitor:
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l

Lift, drag, or moment Solve → Monitors → Force... Variables or functions (e.g., surface integrals) at a boundary or any defined surface: Solve → Monitors → Surface...

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© Fluent Inc. 1/29/02

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .com

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Checking for Property Conservation
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In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories, you should also check for overall heat and mass balances.
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At a minimum, the net imbalance should be less than 1% of smallest flux through domain boundary. Report → Fluxes...

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com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 5-14 © Fluent Inc. but the solution is still changing or has a large mass/heat imbalance: l l Reduce Convergence Criterion or disable Check Convergence. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Decreasing the Convergence Tolerance u If your monitors indicate that the solution is converged. Then calculate until solution converges to the new tolerance.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .

Reduce Courant number (coupled). Diverging residuals imply increasing imbalance in conservation equations. Compute an initial solution with a first-order discretization scheme.fluentusers . poor quality mesh. Decrease under-relaxation for equations having convergence trouble (segregated).0 Jan 2002 Convergence Difficulties u Numerical instabilities can arise with an ill-posed problem. and/or inappropriate solver settings. Re-mesh or refine grid with high aspect ratio or highly skewed cells. Unconverged results can be misleading! Ensure problem is well posed. l l l Exhibited as increasing (diverging) or “stuck” residuals. l l l © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 5-15 u Troubleshooting: l l Continuity equation convergence trouble affects convergence of all equations.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 1/29/02 .

old + α∆φ p u Decreasing under-relaxation for momentum often aids convergence.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Modifying Under-relaxation Factors u u Under-relaxation factor.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 5-16 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers . 1/29/02 . φ p = φ p . Solve → Controls → Solution. under-relaxation factors for equations outside coupled set are modified as in segregated solver. u For coupled solvers. Use default under-relaxation factors to start a calculation. l l Default settings are aggressive but suitable for wide range of problems.. α.. is included to stabilize the iterative process for the segregated solver. ‘Appropriate’ settings best learned from experience.

n Cannot be greater than 2. s n u For coupled-explicit solver: l Default value is 1.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 5-17 © Fluent Inc. n Default is set to 5.0 Jan 2002 Modifying the Courant Number u Courant number defines a ‘time step’ size for steady-state problems.Fluent User Services Center www. Reduce Courant number when having difficulty converging. u For coupled-implicit solver: l ∆t = (CFL )∆x u Courant number is not limited by stability constraints. Stability constraints impose a maximum limit on Courant number. 1/29/02 .fluentusers . l A transient term is included in the coupled solver even for steady state problems.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Controlling multigrid solver settings. Increasing under-relaxation factors or Courant number n Excessively high values can lead to instabilities. 5-18 © Fluent Inc. n Recommend saving case and data files before continuing iterations. 1/29/02 .fluentusers . n Default settings define robust Multigrid solver and typically do not need to be changed.0 Jan 2002 Accelerating Convergence u Convergence can be accelerated by: l l l Supplying good initial conditions n Starting from a previous solution.Fluent User Services Center www.

0 Jan 2002 Accuracy u A converged solution is not necessarily an accurate one. Ensure that solution is grid-independent.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www. l l Solve using 2nd order discretization.fluentusers . Examine grid and re-mesh. 1/29/02 . u If flow features do not seem reasonable: l l 5-21 © Fluent Inc. Reconsider physical models and boundary conditions. n Use adaption to modify grid.

Attempt to align grid with flow. Optimal quad/hex cells have bounded angles of 90 degrees Optimal tri/tet cells are equilateral.l. s n Interpolation errors decrease with decreasing cell size. These errors can be contained: l l l Use higher order discretization schemes. avoid aspect ratios higher than 5:1 (higher ratios allowed in b. Fluent provides capability to adapt mesh based on cell size variation.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.). 5-22 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Mesh Quality and Solution Accuracy u u Numerical errors are associated with calculation of cell gradients and cell face interpolations.Fluent User Services Center www. s s n Minimize cell skewness and aspect ratio. In general. Truncation error is minimized in a uniform mesh. n Sufficient mesh density is necessary to resolve salient features of flow. 1/29/02 Minimize variations in cell size.fluentusers . s s s . Refine the mesh.

. Procedure: l Obtain new grid: n Adapt s s Save original mesh before adapting. Compare results obtained w/different grids. e. – Data from original grid is automatically interpolated to finer grid. 1/29/02 . boundary layer. concentrate the original grid in that region. l l l Continue calculation to convergence. n n file → write-bc and file → read-bc facilitates set up of new problem file → reread-grid and File → Interpolate.Fluent User Services Center www.. Repeat procedure if necessary.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. – If you know where large gradients are expected.g.fluentusers ..0 Jan 2002 Determining Grid Independence u u When solution no longer changes with further grid refinement. Adapt grid. you have a “grid-independent” solution. 5-23 © Fluent Inc.

PISO may aid in accelerating convergence for each time step. 1/29/02 u For segregated solver: l l l l . use ‘0’ time steps. n N*∆t = total simulated time. is input in Iterate panel. n May need to start solution with small ∆t.0 Jan 2002 Unsteady Flow Problems u Transient solutions are possible with both segregated and coupled solvers. ∆t. n ∆t must be small enough to resolve time dependent features and to ensure convergence within 20 iterations. Solution Initialization defines initial condition and must be realistic. N.fluentusers . is also required.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Time step size. Number of time steps. 5-24 © Fluent Inc. l l Solver iterates to convergence at each time level. then advances automatically. To iterate without advancing time step.Fluent User Services Center www.

All solvers provide tools for checking and improving accuracy. Solution accuracy will depend on the appropriateness of the physical models that you choose and the boundary conditions that you specify. 1/29/02 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Obtain second-order solution (recommended). u u u All solvers provide tools for judging and improving convergence and ensuring stability.Fluent User Services Center www. Refine grid and recalculate until grid-independent solution is obtained.fluentusers . 5-26 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Summary u Solution procedure for the segregated and coupled solvers is the same: l l l Calculate until you get a converged solution.

fluentusers .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Modeling Turbulent Flows 6-1 © Fluent Inc. 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www.

Fluent User Services Center www. momentum. turbulence related transport mechanisms. energy. etc. This characteristic allows for Turbulence Modeling. scalar species) fluctuate in time and space l l Identifiable swirling patterns characterizes turbulent eddies. n derive energy from mean flow u Fluid properties exhibit random variations l l u Wide range in size of turbulent eddies (scales spectrum). Enhanced mixing (matter.0 Jan 2002 What is Turbulence? u Unsteady. irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities (mass. momentum. 1/29/02 .) results Statistical averaging results in accountable.fluentusers .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Size/velocity of large eddies on order of mean flow. l 6-2 © Fluent Inc.

etc.000 ReL ≡ along a surface around an obstacle ρUL µ L = x. and disturbances may cause earlier transition to turbulent flow.Fluent User Services Center www.300 Natural Convection Ra ≥ 108 − 1010 where 3 gβ∆TL ρ Ra ≡ µα 6-3 © Fluent Inc. D. Dh. Other factors such as free-stream turbulence.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers . Internal Flows ReDh ≥ 2. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Is the Flow Turbulent? External Flows where Rex ≥ 5×10 5 ReD ≥ 20. surface conditions.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Choices to be Made Flow Physics Computational Resources Turbulence Model & Near-Wall Treatment Computational Grid Accuracy Required Turnaround Time Constraints 6-4 © Fluent Inc. 1/29/02 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers .

Fluent User Services Center www. universally reliable engineering turbulence model for wide class of flows. l l . u The need to resolve the full spectrum of scales is not necessary for most engineering applications. 6-5 © Fluent Inc. swirl. There is no single.fluentusers . Certain models contain more physics that may be better capable of predicting more complex flows including separation. l l Mean flow properties are generally sufficient. Most turbulence models resolve the mean flow. yet sufficiently large to encompass complete model.0 Jan 2002 Modeling Turbulence u Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is the solution of the timedependent Navier-Stokes equations without recourse to modeling. DNS is only practical for simple low-Re flows.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Solution is inherently unsteady to capture convecting eddies. l l l Mesh must be fine enough to resolve smallest eddies. etc. 1/29/02 u Many different turbulence models are available and used.

fluentusers . n Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved. (2) Governing equations are spatially averaged (LES).com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. n If mean flow is unsteady. u Both approaches requires modeling of the scales that are averaged out. n Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales. ∆t is set by global unsteadiness.Fluent User Services Center www. n Inherently unsteady. ∆t set by small eddies. n Resulting models requires more CPU time/memory and is not practical for the majority of engineering applications. n All scales of turbulence are modeled. 1/29/02 .0 Jan 2002 Modeling Approaches u u ‘Mean’ flow can be determined by solving a set of modified equations. 6-6 © Fluent Inc. Two modeling approaches: l l (1) Governing equations are ensemble or time averaged (RANS-based models). models smaller ones.’ n Resolves larger eddies.

Ensemble Averaging u Imagine how velocity. 1/29/02 . u r 1 U i ( x . t ) = U i ( x .0 Jan 2002 RANS Modeling . temperature. t ) + ui′( x . etc. might vary in a turbulent flow field downstream of a valve that has been slightly perturbed: U n identifies the ‘sample’ ID u Ensemble averaging may be used to extract the mean flow properties from the instantaneous properties.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. t ) = lim N →∞ N ∑u n =1 N (n ) i r (x . t ) 6-7 Ui t ui © Fluent Inc. pressure.fluentusers . t ) u'i r r r ui (x .

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Turbulence Models in Fluent Zero-Equation Models One-Equation Models Spalart-Allmaras RANS-based models Two-Equation Models Standard k-ε RNG k-ε Realizable k-ε Standard k-ω SST k-ω Available in FLUENT 6 Increase Computational Cost Per Iteration Reynolds-Stress Model Large-Eddy Simulation Direct Numerical Simulation 6-13 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers . 1/29/02 .

i. less flow-dependent.0 Jan 2002 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) u Motivation: l l Large eddies: n Mainly responsible for transport of momentum.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. and flow parameters. Small eddies tend to be more isotropic. and hence more amenable to modeling. and other scalars. strongly dependent on flow configuration. 1/29/02 u Approach: l l u Large computational effort l l . subjected to history effects.e. energy.. and flow-dependent. n Anisotropic. directly affecting the mean fields.Fluent User Services Center www. LES resolves large eddies and models only small eddies. Equations are similar in form to RANS equations n Dependent variables are now spatially averaged instead of time averaged. Number of grid points. boundary conditions.fluentusers . N LES ∝ Re2τ u Unsteady calculation 6-16 © Fluent Inc.

or SST if needed.0 Jan 2002 Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines u Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgement of: l l l l Flow physics Computer resources available Project requirements n Accuracy n Turnaround time Turbulence models & near-wall treatments that are available Calculate characteristic Re and determine if Turbulence needs modeling.fluentusers . Begin with SKE (standard k-ε) and change to RNG. Use RSM for highly swirling flows.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Estimate wall-adjacent cell centroid y+ first before generating mesh. SKO. 6-29 © Fluent Inc. Use wall functions unless low-Re flow and/or complex near-wall physics are present. RKE. 1/29/02 u Modeling Procedure l l l l l .Fluent User Services Center www.