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80 4 ms 9 2710 be cut in ode for the plate to be lest thin and fragt, (6) Calculate the egies thickness for this section A quartervave plate sto be made of quarts, Using the refractive ins forty light, 4 = 4340 A, given in Table 264, ealeulate the required thickness Ans. 001149 ta Sodium light, = 699A, is pass through a Polaroid and then through a con Gum plate (ng = 1.768, ng = 1.760) oriented with its ans at 35° in a countercon, wise direction fom he electric vector of the incident liht. Find (a) the magnons of the O and E vibrations. I the pate is 0.160 mm thick, id (5) the phase dieses between the O and £ components in passing through the plate, and (c) make vane simila othe one in Fg. 27E showing the form of vibration ofthe transmitted lpg raw the vibration to scale and show its direction Tato a polriscope with crossed Polaroids ate inserted side by side two hall-vave plates with thee axes making a small angle ‘The felis are of equal intensity whee {he direction of the incident vibrations bisects the angle a. Find the rato of de intensities when the analyzer i tumed through I if «has the values (a 30°, (8) 108 OS, and @ 2%, ‘The wedge angles of a Babinet compensator made of quartz are 2.75". Find the distance apart of sodiumight fringes when this device is placed between crosed nicols ofa polaiscope (so Fig, 27G), Ans. 0.5% nim ‘When a tight beam of unknown polarization is viewed through @ nieol prism: te intensity vaties upon rotation of the latter but does not go to zero in aty postion ‘A quartersvave plate is inserted in front of the analyzer when set for'a maim intensity, and the fast axis is tuned parallel to the plane of transmission of the analyzer. A clockwise rotation of the analyzer by 60° wll then completely extinguish, the light. (2) What isthe type of polarization? (0) Desctibe quantitatively the mode of vibration. ‘Ans. (@)eliptcally polarized light, (6) clockwise elliptical vibration With major to minor axis ratio of 1.732 Is desired to determine the direction of rotation in a beam of circularly polarized light. ‘When a quarter-wave plate is placed in Front of the analyzer and the latter set for extinction, the fest ans of the quarter-wave plate lis in such & positon that it ‘must be turned 45° clockwise in order to bring that axis inline withthe dtection of transmission ofthe analyzer. (e) Make a diagram, (6) Does the light have right or left circular polarization? ‘Devise an arrangement that could be used to produce a beam of liptically polarized light for which the major axis ofthe ellipse is horizontal, the ratio of the tajor to ‘minor axis is 3:2, and the direction of rotation i clockwise. Make a scale drawing, Carefully specity each part ofthe apparatus and its orientation. 28 OPTICAL ACTIVITY AND MODERN WAVE OPTICS. In the preceding chapers onthe behavior of polarized light i estas we ave seen that when the light travels along the optic ais there is no double refraction, In this particular direction one expects that any Kind of light willbe propegsted without Change. As ea as 1811, however, Arago discovered exception this simple le He found that cerain substances, notably crystalline quart, wil rere the ‘when placed between erossed nicols even though the optic axis is parallel to the diree- tion ofthe light. An example ofthis eflect was shown in Fig. 27M(6), 28.1 ROTATION OF THE PLANE OF POLARIZATION aap rtennnerrenpeeon tren Sheet cmmn tie enone 582. runowanrats or oFnice FIGURE 264, Rotation ofthe plane of vibration in an optically active substance, tt 15 eR i A ans, hort, tnpenting, ugar ens, suai solstion and srychnie ulate, Bre. urs rr edivpu etic rome nfo 9 Pte tiahtandanwn othe Subsane wich rue to th ightarcaled aor (oF right-handed, and those which rotate to the left are called lecorottory ot lf fen hn on oh sn sai oe pant of vbr rtf In a locke eaten’ Leanna ran rotate the light counterclockwise.* rest Cae eae) 282 ROTARY DISPERSION A srking feature of optical sty is that deen colors are rotated by very die: nt amounts. The fist accurate measurement ofthis eet were made y Bit who found thatthe rotation is very nearly proportional to the invere square ofthe wate Teng. Tn othe words, thor va rotatory apron, vil ight being rotated ea mes ax mocha red light. This eft i lotated diagrammatically for quae in Fig. 28B(0) Let pane-polaized white ght be incident normaly on & quart late, and et the ection oft wbaton be nite by. Upon passing through T mm thisknes ofthe etl the viet ight is oated abou 50% the ed abou andthe other colors by termediate amounts, More exact rales for 13 wavelengths throughout the vble and strevilet spectrum are gen in Table 28A | “This roation fora 1mm plate, plotted in Fig 2860) is called the specie tan Carl sree om gre a te aha wl soy hat jt'sinversesquarefaw bony approximately re. Infact, oytial activity lose enough connected with ortinaydtprsion tery forth epla dispersion format For refizctive index to be applic! to rotation, ‘Cauchy equation (See, 233), at example, can be used to represent the specific rotation far quartz in the visible re example, can specific rotation for quartz in the visible region B pn-4+5 ay ‘where 4 and B are constants to be determined. lormcaL AcriTY 190 HoERN wave ores 58D @ FIGURE 268 {@) Rotation for diferent colors by a plate of quate 1 mm thick (8) spec Experimentally, the phenomenon of rotatory dispersion can be illustrated by inserting a quartz plate between crossed analyzer and polasizer as shown in Fig. 28C. With a monochromatic source at S, some light will get through the analyzer to the ‘ereen MM, since in passing through the quartz along the optic exis the plane of vibra~ tion has been rotated. Thisis showy diagrammatically in Fig. 28D(a). After the vibra- tion is zotated from the plane AP to the plane 4,P, a certain component EP = A.P fin) gets through the analyzer N,. If now the analyzer is made parallel to 4,P, all the light willbe transmitted, whereas if tis normal to 4 P, none will be transmitted. ‘Suppose that white light is used in place of monochromatic light, s0 that upon passage through the crystal the diferent colors are rotated by different amounts as Shown in Fig. 28D(6). The new planes of vibration are RP for the red and VP for the violet. On arriving at N the (wo horizontal components Ex? to EyP will get through. Since more violet light i transmitted than red, the image on the sereen will be colored. What has happened is that more of the red light has been eliminated inthe second nicol. This can be seen by the following modification of the experiment. Let the analyzer in Fig, 28C be replaced by a calcite crystal. ‘This will transmit in one beam the E vibrations given by the analyzer alone and, in a separate beam, ‘Tale 284 SPECIFIC ROTATION p OF PLANE-POLARIZED LIGHT IN QUARTZ, ‘Wavelenets, Wavelenein, Waveeon K Dayan) A Peele] A Desi neo 2019 «| ase aw saz 2B sm 189 |) dersts at | one iso foate ‘gsr || strss = 7a} sroras 16535 Buses teas || Sousa = 207m Pe Tas 3908 fos dans] sn assis || 7st 584, runpasmrats or orrics ly ay a Ns le Powter ‘nayer a FIGURE 25 [Experimental arrangement for studying the rotation produced by an optically ative plate C, the O vibrations. The £ beam will eontain the components EP to Ey (see Fig, 285) ‘and the O beam the components O,P to OyP. In other words, what the E beam docs not contain, the O beam does, The two images on the screen MM are therefore the ‘complementary colors, and if made partly to overlap, the regions of overlapping will bbe white. This is an excellent method for demonstrating a series of complimentary colors, for ifthe calcite is turned slowly, varying amounts of the different colors can bbe tarown into the O or £ beams. Another very striking demonstration of optical activity and rotatory dispersion is achieved by passing plane-polarized light vertically into a clear solution of cane sugar contained in a large glass tube. On observing the tube from the side with a nico prism, a very fine spiral arrangement of colors, somewhat like a barber-pole, will be 28,3 FRESNEL'S EXPLANATION OF ROTATION Fresnel proposed an explanation for rotation in erystals ike quartz which is based ‘upon the assumption that circularly polarized light is propagated along the optic axis without change. This explanation, while not a theoty inthe sease of giving the URES f + ia 0 ™ FIGURE 25D Rotation of white Hit, showing the various colors tansmited hy a crossed analyze. lrmteat ACTIVITY AND MODERN AMR OPTICS 58S FIGURE 25 Quire plate between a polarizer Nand sealeteceytal Fas analyze. basic cause of the phenomenon, nevertheless gives an admirable account of the facts. It is based upon the elementary principle in mechanics that any simple harmonic ‘motion along 2 straight line ean be described asthe resultant of two opposite circular motions 5 ‘Frestl’s frst assumption is that plane-polarized light entering a erystal along the optic axis is decomposed into two circularly polarized vibrations rotating in opposite directions with the same frequency. 1n a crystal like calcite, which is not optically active, thee two circular motions R and I. travel with the same speed as shown in Fig. 28F(@. Since both vibrations arrive simultaneously at any gives point along their path, their resultant will be a simple harmonic motion in the plane of the original vibcation ss indicated in (8). Thus, in cakite, a plane-polarized wave along the axis, is propegated with its vibrations always in the same plane. In an optically active exystal, the two circular vibrations move forward with very slightly different velocities. In right-handed quartz, the right-handed or clock wise motion (looking against the light) travels faster, and in lef-handed quartz the letthanded or counterclockwise motion travels faster. ‘Consider now some point Q, ina right-handed crystal, along the path of a plane- polarized incident beam as shown in Fig. 28F(c). Let the amplitude and plane of the incideat visation be represented by AP in Fig. 28F(d), Tue right citeular component R of this vibration arrives at Q fist, and as the wave travels on, the displacement turns through an angle @ before the left-handed component L arrives. At this instant, the two c#cular motions are in opposite senses with the same frequency, the one starting at R and the other at L. The result is that the point B” vibrates along the fixed line B with the same amplitude and frequency as the original vibration 4P and this eprescats the vibration form of the light at Q. Thus in traveling from the crystal face at P to the point Q, the plane of vibration has been rotated through an angle 6/2. Itis clear, therefore, that the plane of vibration would under these assump tions rotate continuously as the light penetrates deeper and deeper into the crystal ‘and that the angle of rotation would be proportional to the thickness