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216 IvreRe ERENCE (omar. If point P coincides with point 0, then @ is zero and the phase difference @ is zero. ‘The waves therefore reach O in phase, their amplitudes ada, and there is a bright line at the center of the interference pattern. AS P moves farther and farther out from the eenter, the angle@ and the phase difference ¢ both increase, When 6 = radians, or when » sind = the waves are exactly out of phase and there isa dark line on the screen. When § = 2 radians, or . ey there is another bright lino, and s0 on when svidently bright lines are observed and dark lines when, Hence by measuring the angle @ for a dark o bright line in the inter- forence pattern, and the distance d between the slits, the wave length of the light can be computed. 8-8 Interference—many slits. An oxtzemely useful optical device Known 98 a grating consists, im one of ita forms, ofa large number of equi distant narrow slits side by side. Light waves spreading out from the slits interfere with one another in the same way as the waves from the ‘wo slits in Young’s experiment. ‘The first gratings were constructed by Joseph Fraunhofer in 1821, and consisted of a number of fine wires stretched across a frame, with spaces of a few hundredths or tenths of a millimeter between the wire. Gratings are now made by ruling equi- distant lines with a diamond cutting tool on a glass or metal surface, the latter type being used in reflection rather than transmission. ‘The spacing of the lines is of the order of a fow ten-thousandths of an inch, and there may be as many’ as 50,000 lines in a grating. The theory and applications of the grating are diseussed more fully in thenext chapter. At this point we shal give only an elementary analysis, using the same method as thut in the preceding section. In Fig. 8-12, 2 slit 1 is illuminated from the left by monochromatic light. Since we wish to have wavelets start out in phase from all of the slits in the geating, a #5) INTERPERENCR—MANY SLITS 27 All| 4 \\\j \\\\ Colimatng ene Grating 612 otarfrence betwoun gt waver passing though lage numberof site Buea ae collimating lone ia inserted between alt. and grating, with the slit i its first focal plane, "The wave fronts emerging from the lens are then planes at right angles to the axis of the aystem, One might place a screen at the right of the grating in Fig. 8-12 and observe an interference pattorn asin Fig. In practice, however, the erating is almost always followed by a seeand lens as in Fig. 8-12, with a sereen or photographie film in its gecond focal plane. Since a lens brings parallel rays to a focus in its second fool plane, the Jens forms on the sereen a reduced image of the pattern that would appesr on a screen at intnity ‘The wavelets diverging from the slits in the grating start out ia phase, but travel along different paths in reaching the point P. Let us eansider ‘those portions of the wavelets that leave the grating in an arbitrary diree- tion making an angle @ with the axis of the system. Construct the line fof ot right. angles to this dizection. We have shown in Sec, 3-1 that the number of waves is the same in all rays from a plane through af to the image point P. Hence the relative phases of the wavelets remain un- changed after they pass through this plane, and it suffices to consider only their relative phases ata, j,h,g, and f, where the rays from the slits inter sect the line af. Ibis evident from the diagram that the distance &j equals sin 8, ch equals 2d sin, and so on. Ifthe angle has such a value that 27 equals just one wave length, then ch equals two vave lengths, and 80 fon. At this particular angle the phase differences between the wavelets reaching P are 2, Ar, etc, 40 Uhat the amplitudes al add and the server is bright along a line through P, parallel to the slits. That is, P ies on bright ine if an a as INTERFERENCE (Cuan. Notice that these angles are exactly the same as thooe at which bright lines appear in the interference pattern of two slits. In what way, then, ‘does the interference pattern of a large number of slits dilfer from that of ‘vo slits? The difference les not in the positions of the maxima, but the distribution of light om the sereen between the maxima. The simple ‘theory given above does not enable one to calculate this distribution, but ve shall show in See. 9.3 that as the number of slits is ineeased the max- Jima become much brighter and much narrwer. With only two sits, the Drightness decreases gradually from thet at « maximum to aero at a tnini= mum, while with many slits it falls practically to zero at an extremely small angle sway from a maximum and remains very nearly gro until th next maximurn is reached. ‘The increased sharpness of the lite enables the angle 9 to be determined with much greater prevision and henee makes possible a more accurate measurement of wave length. ‘The aature of the interference pattorns of two, three, four, and five slits is shown in Fig, 0-2. PRoBLEMS 219 Problems—Chapter 8 (A) (a) Find the thickness of» soup fn (= 1.88) fora strong first-order re fection of yllow Tight, X= 600 my in vacuum), Asbume nortal incidence (b) What is the wave lengt of the light in the Ela? (2) Willan exceedingly thin air film between two glass plates spear bright oF ask by rllected light? Why? (@) A glass plate 0.40 mieron thick siluminated by a beam of whit lit nor smal tothe pate. ‘The index of refraction of the lat 1.0, "What wave lengths within the ints ofthe visble spectmum (A ~ 40% 10-¥em to X= 70% 10-* et) ‘ill be inteosified inthe selected bea? (4) A.continvous spectrum is projected normally on glass plate coated with a ‘uniform film of laequer. As seen by relleaion, the spectrum appears to have dar Dands centered at 600 me and 4286 my. The inden of refraction of the lass fs 11600 and that of the lacquers 00, "Find the thicknss of the logue i, (6) Two roxtangular pices of plane glas are lid one upon the oberon a table A thin step of paper is plaeod between them at one edge vo that very hin wedge of airis formed, ‘The plates are lumizated by a btn of soda light at normal Incidence. Bright and dav interferevpe bands ae formed, there being ten ofeach per nntimeter length of wedge messed normal to the edges in contac Find the Angle ofthe wodes. (@) Monochromatic light is incident normally on a thin wedge-shaped film of ‘ansparont plats of refractive index Il. ‘The ange ofthe wedge b 10 radian, Tntererence fringes are observed, with separation of 0.25 em between adjasent bright Fringes Compute tne wave length (inst) of the incdeat light (A wedgeshaped vertical soup flm (index 4/3), 275 em X 2.75 em, is Stluminated normally by ced light of wave lengt 600 mg (in vacuum). ‘The upper tego the fim is observed to be buck when Viewed by rafected ight. Six hore ontal bright bands appear to tevers tho ln, the sentr of she six bright band foinciding with tho botiom ofthe fila. Find the angle of the weds. (@) The radius of curvature of the convex surioe of « plano-conve lens ie 20 ‘om. The lens i placed eonvex side down on a plane glass plat, and illuminated from above with red light of wave length 650 mq. Find the diametar of the third Dright ring inthe intrferenco pattern, (@) Newton's rings are observed when a plano-convex lens is plaed convex fide down on a plane glass surface and the system is lluminated from above Dy ‘monochromatic Hight. ‘The radius of the frst bright ring is Iam. (a) It the Fadius of the convex surface i 4, what is the wave length of te light used? (@) If the space between te lens und the fat gle wurce a fed with water, ‘what ie the radius of the rst right ring? (10) (@) Measure the sings in Fig. 84 and determine the radius of eurrature of th convex surface. “Aneure a ware length of 600 ny. (b) Ifthe space be foun tho surface in Fig. 8-6 wore fill with water, what mould be the diameter lof the fist dar ring? (6) Assuming the aufaos ofthe tlescope objective and the {est las to be in contact at the dare spot at the center of ig, #7, by how many wave length are they separated atthe lft edge of the lens?