ASSIGNMENT ON POLLUTION

TOPIC: WATER AND LAND POLLUTION ITS CAUSES AND EFFECTS.

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WHAT IS POLLUTION
Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air land and water that harmfully affecting the human life and the desirable species, or that may waste or deteriorate our raw material resources.

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WHAT IS POLLUTANT?
As per the environment protection act 1986 of India. Environmental pollutants means any solid liquid gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be, or tend to be injurious to environment and environmental pollutants means the presence in the environment of any environmental pollution.

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TYPES OF POLLUTANTS.
BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS There are materials such as sewage that rapidly decomposes by natural processes. NON BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS Non biodegradable pollutants are the materials that either do not decompose or decompose slowly in the natural environment.
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It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents.WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes. oceans. rivers. 5 . and groundwater.

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Groundwater pollution. 7 .TYPES OF WATER POLLUTION Surface water pollution.

SURFACE WATER POLLUTION CATEGORIES Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. Point source pollution Non-point source pollution 8 .

or a city storm drain directly into a river. a factory. 9 .Point source pollution ´Point sourceµ-occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into the body of water. Examples :-discharges from a sewage treatment plant.

POINT SOURCE EXAMPLE 10 .

e.Non-point source pollution Non-point source . Example:-when fertilizers is carried into stream by rain(i.delivers pollutants indirectly through transport. run-off) 11 . pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source.

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Groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contamination from different sources. Groundwater pollution is the pollution of water below the earth surface.GROUNDWATER POLLUTION. 13 .

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Industrial sewage.CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Domestic sewage. Agricultural waste Other sources 15 .

hair dye. 16 . window cleaning. river etc. Various chemical compounds in the sewage discharged from drainage system our residence regularly find its way to flow into different water bodies like ponds lakes . And thus polluting water . shampoo. conditioner .DOMESTIC SEWAGE. Discharge of sewage from washing off clothes . dust spray. stain remover. bleaching powder. finally directly or indirectly mix up with water bodies & thus increasing harmful chemical substances making water contaminated. etc flow into the drainage system.utensils & discharge of waste water after usage of different household & cleaning products like laundry detergents.

garbage's ) in to water bodies causing water pollution. 17 . wrappers.Dumping of the solid waste of household items(cold drink cans & plastic bottles. food wastes. packets. paper.

Industry sewage All major industries release pollutants which ultimately mix with water bodies .  PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES.  STEEL INDUSTRIES  CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES  DETERGENTS INDUSTRIES  PAPER INDUSTRIES  FOOD INDUSTRIES  PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES. DISCHARGING POLLUTANTS IN DIFFERENT FORMS OF CHEMICAL & THEIR COMPOSITIONS 18 .  MINING INDUSTRIES. For Example.

MINING WASTES (SLURRY) ARE CARRIED AWAY BY RAIN WATER WHICH FINALLY FLOW INTO WATER BODIES CAUSING POLLUTION.SOME MAJOR CONSTITUENTS OF INDUSTRIAL SEWAGES SULPHUR DIOXIDE FROM POWER PLANTS ARE DISCHARGED AS POLLUTANTS INCREASING THE ACIDITY LEVEL IN WATER AND THUS POLLUTING WATER BODIES AMMONIA FROM FOOD PROCESSING WASTES HEAVY METALS(MERCURY. 19 .LEAD ETC) & SULPHUR COMPOUNDS ARE SOMETIMES DISCHARGED THROUGH MINING PROCESS .

Eventually these are washed away by rain water into local streams & rivers or drain down into the ground water and thus ultimately finding their ways to big water bodies endangering the life of aquatic organism and contaminating water 20 .AGRICULTURAL SEWAGE Pesticides and weedicides : pesticides and weedicid es are applied to farm fields to kill unwanted pests and weeds causing harm to both plants and crops .

21 . Fertilisers containing nitrates and phosphates is carried away by rain water and finding their ways into water bodies and contaminating water.FERTILISERS: Farmers provides fertilisers to make soil more fertile for growth of the plants.

slash and b urn particles or land clearing sites & thus contaminate the water bodies. Plastics & plastic like substances(nylons) in the sewage endangers the life of aquatic organisms.OTHER SOURCES Silts (sediment) is run off from constuction sites logging. Oils leaked or spilled from oil tankers and offshore oil rigs float over water and thereby causing demage marine eco-system 22 .

23 . discharging oily wastes & oil-contaminated water are significant sources of marine pollution.Shipping is one of causes of water pollution .diesel. Drilling and extraction operation for oil &gas contaminating coastal water and ground water. Petroleum hydrocarbons including fuels(gasoline.jet fuels) & lubricants(motor oil).

The consumption of highly contaminated water can be harmful for heart and kidneys Few chemicals are entering to the food chain e. 24 .lead.g.arsenic Underground water pollution causing threat to drinking water in some parts of northern India.EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections or diarrhea.

which can harm fish or plant life in lakes and rivers.Chemicals kills the flora and fauna Thermal pollution of water also affects the biotic life in water. Polluted water is not suitable for industrial use also. 25 . Oil spills and chemical spills are causing great danger to marine ecosystem Acid rain contains sulfate particles.

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION 26 .

ammonia Bleaching substances. Dyes . power plants. steel plant and thermal power plants. sewages. tanneries and leather industry. Suspended solids.chemical. Bleaching substances.POLLUTED RIVERS IN INDIA Rivers Highly Industries causing pollution polluting city Kanpur Delhi Kolkata Bokaro Jute. Bleaching substances.lead etc. Industrial sewage . chemical industries and sewages. Gomti Lucknow Godavari Cauvery Aurangabad Mysore tanneries. Paper mills. cadmium etc. Paper mills 27 . Iron cyanide. mercury. various acids etc.metal industry. Chemicals Ganga Yamuna Hoogly Damodar Sulphates. Jute mills. Fertilizers industry.

EVENING AARTI OF MOTHER GANGA IN BANARAS 28 .

29 .GANGA IN RISHIKESH.

GANGA NEAR BAG BAZAR GHAT ± KOLKATA. 30 .

GANGA 31 .

Patna are situated at the bank of Ganga. half burnt bodies. dead animals. Allahabad. A report says the water of Ganga is so polluted that its not safe to have a bath also. 32 .POSITION OF GANGA. Major cities like Rishikesh. Ganga is regarded as most polluted river. Varanasi. It is also polluted by ashes of dead bodies. Haridwar. Nearly 2000 million liters of domestic sewage escapes to Ganga every day. Kanpur.

33 . It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. exploitation of minerals.LAND POLLUTION Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. Haphazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes. and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors.

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CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION Increased urbanization. Herbicides Mining Burial Wastes of hospitals. 35 .

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IMPACTS OF LAND POLLUTION Below is a list of some impacts of land pollution. Increased human health risks. from syringes. Permeability of soil is decreasing. broken glass and cans. Decreases the fertility of soils. Land pollution also leads to pollution in groundwater. 38 .

vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed 39 .acid rain kills trees and other plants.

Abuse of water must be checked. lakes and sea should be strictly prohibited.PREVENTIVE MEASURES Proper disposal of sewage. recycling of the affluents released by the industries. Oil spills should be prevented. Discharge of effluents into rivers. 40 .

Other wastes might be chemically treated to change the toxic substances they contain into nontoxic substances 41 . industries can reuse the wastes.Regular monitoring of water qualities. The best solution is to produce less hazardous waste. In some cases.

One should realise one·s own responsibilty at an individual level regarding environmental conservation and protection then only we will be in a position to understand his/her own responsibility as a manager on behalf of organisation.CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY    Every corporate organisation is run by human being like us. Adopt environmental management system(EMS) Assuring the compliance of rules and regulation in the ¶ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONAL ACT 1986· 42 .

New technologies can reduce pollution by creating cleaner and more efficient ways of obtaining and using energy resources. Oil-eating bacteria have also been developed. Technology can also help develop alternatives to fossil fuels. Water treatment plants should be prepared by the factories. New methods have been used to drill for oil under the ocean floor in order to reduce underwater leaks. Factory wastes should be properly dumped. Several new methods have been developed for cleaning up oil spills with vacuum systems. 43 . Afforestation.

WATER TREATMENT PLANT 44 .

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