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Formal Groups

Formal Groups

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Published by: Arivian Mangilaya on Nov 07, 2010
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Chapter Twelve: Formal and Informal Groups

´Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean.µ ocean.µ -Ryunosuke Satoro

The major purpose of formal groups is to perform specific tasks and achieve specific objectives defined by the organization ´Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.µ - Henry Ford

Lack of trust A negative mindset: ´meetings aren·t real workµ Missing or incomplete information Meetings are poorly run Viewed as the end result. not the means to an end .

Committees and group activities continued to flourish in spite of: Widespread condemnation Widespread dislike have ´Meetings are necessaryµ .

The members has the authority to handle the problem at hand. Equal committee roles Can create special human problems .

Size Composition Agendas Surface Agendas Hidden Agendas Agendas should: Specify date. time. allotted time. Room for new items Priority over items Date. time and place of next meeting . and place Indicate the primary purpose of the meeting Presenters. time available for discussion Help focus on decisions not on discussions.

supports each other to maintain group relationships Commonsense Practices: Who Site Technology Credit Open and directed Balance Summarizing and Assignments . task and social.Leadership Roles Task leader Social leader Accomplishment of objectives and stay on target The two roles.

admit errors Facilitate participation Evaluation Deal with team Stress .Task Roles Define a problem or goal Request facts. O Provide structure Summarization Determine if agreement has been reached Check for consensus Test ethicality Social Roles Support and recognition Sensing of the mood Reduce tension and reconciliation Modify position. I. ideas or opinions Provide F.

Open discussions There are methods that work for specific objectives and provide greater control over the process All alternatives has one thing in common: they start in finding a problem and its solution There are four important alternative structures: Brainstorming Nominal Groups Delphi Decision Making Dialectic Inquiry .

extend. Be creative. or combine earlier ideas Withhold criticism of others· ideas The success depends on Listening Electronic Brainstorming Two main principles Deferred judgment Quantity breeds quality . freewheeling and imaginative Build upon (piggyback).Four Basic Guidelines: Generate as many ideas as possible.

Steps: Individuals are brought together with a problem Develop solution independently. writing it on cards Ideas are shared in a structure format Brief time allotment for clarification Designation of preferences for the best alternatives by secret ballot Announcement of group decision Advantages: Equal participation Tight control of time Disadvantages: Rigidity No feelings of cohesiveness No cross-fertilization of ideas .

Members (respondents) chosen are all experts Questionnaire or Survey form Gathered responses are summarized and fed back to the members for their review Success depends on: Adequate time. participant expertise. and member·s motivation. communication skill. The merits of this process include: Elimination of interpersonal problems Efficient use of experts· time Adequate time for reflection and analysis Diversity and quantity of ideas generated Accuracy of predictions and forecasts made .

Traces are rooted from Plato and Aristotle Tends to overcome the problems of face-to-face decision-making groupings Key step: Explicit or implicit assumptions Merits: Better understanding of proposals. its premises. and its pros and cons Disadvantages: Forging of compromise Focus on better debaters .

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Uses technological advances One example is electronic bedroom The quality of information is substantial .

Systems View of Effective Committees Feedback .

µ has greater weight Quality of Decisions effective problem solving tools Individual Development Fairly even participation among members Social facilitation (role modeling) Person·s general level of arousal and awareness Raises level of performance Stimulates the person close to the gap .Support for Decisions ´people who participate in making a decision feel more strongly motivated to accept it and carry out.

A necessary prerequisite? Requirement or implicit expectation Shared level of understanding Ideas to reach consensus: Conducting a straw poll Super majority vote (90%) Ask members to withdraw Creation of subgroup and empower it Pinpoint patterns of the problem Expedite closing of discussion .

´act of assisting or making easier the progress or improvement of somethingµ Separate idea-getting from idea-evaluation Generate multiple solutions Balanced contribution Processing of own success .

groupthink. divided responsibility . escalating commitment. polarization.´you go to the meeting and I·ll tend the storeµ Some meetings are unproductive Criticism ´how to make the best use of themµ Weaknesses of a committee that must be known before using them: slowness and expensiveness.

. an individual approach is more effective. delay is desirable If a quick and decisive action is necessary.´Committees keep minutes and waste hoursµ On occasion.

Meetings often lead to conformity and compromise Bringing individual thinking in line with group·s thinking (leveling effect) Dominant members Groupthink Detection: Self censorship Rationalization that what they are doing is acceptable to others Illusion of invulnerability Self appointed mind-guards Illusion of unanimity Stereotyping others outside the group Illusion of morality Pressure on dissidents .

failure to engage in reality testing.Present to groups that act as though it is above the law Consequences: deterioration in a group·s judgment. lowered quality of decision making To prevent groupthink. designation of Devil·s Advocate is needed Questions the ideas of others Guardians of clear and moral thinking .

Individuals bring to the group their strong predispositions. either positive or negative. toward the topic ´some groups tend to make a risky shift in their thinking .

´group members may persevere in advocating a course of action despite rational evidence that it will result in failureµ Reasons why this happens: Selective perception Competence motive Fear of losing face .

´Several bodies responsibility are nobody·s responsibilityµ ´Why should I bother with this problem? I didn't support it in the meetingµ .

Proper group structure must be selected Group size Leadership roles played .

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