Physics Lab Year 2  2007  Superconductivity  מוליכות על  scan0003
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Physics Lab Year 2  2007  Superconductivity  מוליכות על  scan0003
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3)
In the I system, the unit ofexpaciance ithe farad (abbreviated F), and ir equal to
roy
LP=10v
“Typical eapactor values range orn about 1 pcofasd (pF, 10° Grad
1000 miertarads (1000 a, 10? F
Aug the abe deat appli ony «prea congraion in
7 ted by a mall distance, any two
hich wo large, parallel plates are separated by .
‘conducting cleciodes separated by an ineulator will have capacitance. The
‘apacitanc cata be calculated exactly in only a few special cases such as the above
‘The capacitance always the ratio of the charge on ane of the ceciredes to the
lage applied between th electrode
£ a)
oe
[A circuit clement constructed in this way comttutes & capacitor, and from
equation 32, we se that the relationship ofthe erent through te capacitor othe
quation 32
solage actos is terminals given by
(3)
fora variety of
‘Although areal capacitor does wot preci bey the above equation,
seas we wil dee a eal cpr ene which qin 33 els ray
Note the snalaity to an ideal revit in which Oh’s law exactly sated. The
symbols for an ideal capacitor are shown in figure 34, The quantity © 4V/4 has


Fig 24 Sie fr eal aan
units of current and is called a displacement current, although it does not
orespond to 4 ow of charg. .
An ideal capacitor hs several curious property, Firs, note that i canton
AB transient circuits
Wa fran fre fora ar eo
sap elanar eee
33 Inductors
A circuit clement that behaves exactly opposite to the capacitor i the inducer,
often called a coi or choke. To undestand the operation olan inductor, imagine
tirelar cil of wire of area 4 with a constant numberof tures per unit long (M0)
snd length long compared with ts diameter. Such a ai shown in fyuee 3.
called solemeid, Ia current J fows through the eol, Ampercs law alles to
33 tmtctore 49Fig 38. A soleil inde
cealelate the magnetic fu
subere isthe permenbiity of the material on which the coils wound. For most
‘materials (lon is 2 welbknovn exception) the permeability is clove to the pe
reability of tree apace
y= 4m x 1077 NIA?
From Faraday's law, the voltage acros the terminals f the eile given by
yf _ BNA at
In the St system, the wnit of inductance scaled the hemey (abbreviated Ht) and is
‘equal 1 one weber (a uit of magnetic fun; see Appendix D) per empere:
Var wa
Typical inductor values range from about 1H (10° H) wo about 1H
Ae with capacitance, the above derivation apples only to. particular coil
enafiguraon, bat the conept of inductance is a very general one. All real
feomponents, including capacitors and resistors, havea certain inductance, Recall
that a wireswound tesistr is very similar tothe solenoid described above, The
inductance i always the ri of the magic fx linkage (7) to the eurvent
uate (2.10)
7
An ideal circuit component that contains ony inductance is called an inductor, ne
fiom equation 3.8 we see that Ube relationship of voltage across the terminals of an
inductor tothe curren through ii given by
vat
50 reamatant crews
Fig. 28. Syl fr el induct)
The symbol for an ideal induct ae shown in igre 3.6
ike the capacitor, an deal inductor has several curious properties. Ifa constant
‘current passes through te inductor, equation 8.11 says that the voltage it neo. In
dc circuit, an inductor behaves ikea short cect On the ther hand, i Fis to be
finite, the eurrene cannot change abruptly. For transients, the inductor thus behaves
lke a earent source. Like eapaite, an inductor cannot disiate energy, but ca
‘only store tin the magaetic Red. The energy sored in an inductor is
wa five
To conserve space, induct are often wound om a toroidal iron core Ion has
relative permeability, 1,00 theorer of 1000. Unortunately, am ductor with
an iron cores fa from ial. To begin with, ion isan clecrea conductor. and when
a ime varying current ows inthe winding, a event iuced in the ion, This
teddy current gives rset restive less ination to chowe othe wre use the
Winding. Edy eurtents can be reduced by laminating the ion and separating the
[amination with an insulating vanish or sella, Sil beter, the iron can be groun
into powder and mixed with an iolating binder. Some eis oon, nickel, and
cobalt, called ferrites, abo havea high telative permeability and low eectca
‘onda and thus have fond widespread we in compact toroidal imuctars
A second ificlty with rn that ie permeability not constant, but varie
with the strength ofthe magnetic eb! and hee wit the current in the windings. In
fact, a sulficenly high magnetic feds, the core wil saturate and its relative
pereatility will drop to a valve nea unity. No only that, but the magnetic ld
the iron depends nthe past history of the current inthe winding. This property of
remanence is ential in permanent magnet, bu in am inductor it gives sie
‘6dtinal lose, called hysteresis looses,
Variable inductors ate wally made in the form of a short solenoid with a
pondered iron or fest slg that ca be stemed into or out the form on which the
«cil wound. Sometimes the sug is made of a conducting material such ae br,
‘hich has a relative permeability ner unity, im which cate eddy currents oo onthe
33, inductors 51dutside of the slg and linia magnetic ux fom the center of the coil reducing ts
ceetive area
1 is possible forthe edly curren ant hysteresis oes to be 40 large thatthe
inductor behaves more like a resistor. Furthermue, theres aleay tome copucranee
betmeca the turns ofthe inductor, and under some cincummances am indetor may
et like» capacitor. Thisit a characterise a all real crit cumponcate Whethes &
siven component behaves mor lke a resistor, capacitor, or inductor depends on how
‘tis made and how fast the voltages and currents are changing i tine
Both th ideal capacitor and the ideal inductor ar, ike the ideal resistor linear
composenti, since doubling the voltage doubles the cuttent and vce vers, Neve hac
we have now accumulated quite an auortment of conjugate pas, as fisted don
sere/parallel
Ioopinode
epenfhont
charges linkage
The existence of uch pales is a direct sult of the symmetry of Maxwell’ equation,
which describe all electromagnetic phenomena
3.4 Inductors and Capacitors in Combination
Js a circitreduction techniques are extremely useful with de cireuits, itis fen
posible wo simplify citeuiw that contain more thin one inductor or’ capacion
‘Consider frst she case of ewo inductors in series, shown in figure 3)(e), See hs
Bip 87 Inds) andra
52 transient crete
secur fo oh oth inca th it lags op
Pat Ete, f att)
“ @
@
Two inductors in series are therefore cquvalent to a single inductor wich an
equivalent inductance given by
betytty 318)
Now consider thie cate of wo inductors in parallels shown in gure 3.7(0). Since the
same voltage F appears acros each, the total current
mE [ras nl(E+d) fr ae
Two inductors in parallel ae therefore equivalent to & single inductor with an
equivalent inductance given by
ou)
L=DL, — leries)
Loot
EL (panty
ane
Now oie the case of two eapacitors in parallel, as shown in fgute 38a)
Since the same voltage V appears sero each, te total current 2
Woe w
ot aig+e)
ate
o
Fig.a8
imc
34 Inductors and Capacitors 53.
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