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18 Sepvemdaily 8 In impure materials and in alloys the coherence length €s shorter than “This may be understood qualitatively in impure material the electron eigen functions already have origees in them: we can construct a given localized ‘aration of current density with less energy from wavefunctions with wiggles than fri smooth wavefunctions “The coherence length first appeared la the Landau-Ginzburg, equations these equation also fllow fim the BCS theory. They dseribe te stuctuce of the transition ayer between normal and superconducting phsses in contact, ‘The eoherence length andthe staal penovation depth A depend on the mean fece path of the electrons measuved inthe normal state; the relationships are indicated in Fig. 14. When the superconductor is very impure, with a very sinall£ then € = (y€)"2and A ~ Ay (08, so tha alg yf. The ratio Nis tsually denoted by BCS Theory of Superconducticity “The hasis oa quantum theory of superconductivity was laid by the clase 1957 papers of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer. The accomplishment ofthe BCS theory ineude 1. An attractive interaction between electrons can lead to aground state separated from excited states by an energy sup. The critical field, the thermal propertics, and most ofthe electromagnetic propertos are consequences ofthe nergy gap. (in special eicumstances, superconductvity may oceur without an actual energy ga.) ‘2 The electron-attice-clecton interaction leads to an energy ga ofthe observed magnitude. The indicect iteration proceeds when one electron in: teraets withthe lattice and deforms i, second electron Sees the deformed lattice and adjusts itself to take advantage ofthe deformation to lower its ex cey. ‘Thus the second clectton interacts with the fst electron via the lntice 3 The penetration depth and the eoberence length emerge as natural ceoasequences of the BES theory, The London equation is obtained for mas netic fields that vary slowly in space. Thus the central phenomenon in super tomductvity, the Meisner effect, 6 obtained in a matural way 4. The criterion for the transition temperature of an element o ally volves the electron density of orbitals Dey) of one spin atthe Ferm level and the electronatice interaction U, which can be estimated from the electric resistivity beenuse the resistivity at zoom temperature is @ measure of the tleetron-phonon interaction. For UD) & the BCS theory predicts T= 1.149 expl-WUD\e)) 9 1. Maden, N.C, aed) Sear, Ph Ray 106, 12157 108, 1175897 0 | ——<“ : ie ‘ | , sia he me fice ah ¢ EGS Mauton cnn th moral state A ee core ed r= hy For hot ma ee ale he sehere Bis the Debye temperature and U san attractive interaction. The vsult edn feast qualitatively by the experimental data, There isan Sstivity at room temperature Fea et ana'des the more Hey Ht amet wil be # ssper tendo when cold Otome through a superconducting ing quntoe andthe fects mt charge 2 vathar han The BCS ground sae involves paso ofthe theory BCS Ground State The filed Ferm sea isthe ground state of a Fermi gas of noninteracting clectrons, This stat allows arbitral sell excitations —we ean form as ex ‘ted state by taingan electron fom the Feral suface and raising just abo the Ferm gorace. The BCS theory shows that with an appropriate attartive with uve ofthe fact that the curl ofthe gradient of a salar is tential rra The constant that multiples B agrees with (14a). We cl that the Meissner lect isa consequence ofthe London equation, which we have here derived ‘Quantization ofthe magnetie fn through a ring isa dramatic consequenes of Bq, 21). Lets take a closed path C through the interior ofthe supercon. ducting material, well vay from the surfiee (Fig. 16). The Meissner effect tlk ‘us that B and j are zero in the interior. Now 2) zero if hevo~ ga @ We fren fra n-o, forth hangs fps 0 ing msde sg ‘The probability amplitude gs meastrable inthe classical approsination 0 that @ must be single-valued and ~ Haan, eo ‘where 6 an integer: By the Stokes theorem, where doris an element of area on a surface bounded by the curve C, and ie the magnetic flux through C. From 23, (24), and (25) we have 2ates = g®, cr las ey ‘Thus the flu through the ring is quantized in integral multiples of Ske By experiment q = ~2eas appropiate for electeom pals, so thatthe qu tum of fox in a soporeonductr i 2ntilde = 2.0678 x 10-7 gauss em ; : SEP s) % st a= Baldo “This vnit of ax is called a Muaoid or fvon, The fax chrough the ring s tho sum ofthe ux Pa from external sures the flue @. from the superconducting cutrents which flow in the surfiee ring: = a+ Dye The fue © is quantized, Theres normally no quant zation condition onthe fx from externa sources, so tht By must aut ise! appropriately inorder that & assume a quantized valve Suppose a mnagnetic monopole of strength g is sitated just below the center of a superconducting sing. The magnotic fax through the ring S| (wean) = 2, and by (27 this must equal an integral multiple of ck Thus the minimus permissible valve of gin CGS is Rel, the famous Dies result. Duration of Persistent Gerrents Consider a persistent current tha flows in aring oF a type {superconduc tor of wire of length Land eross-seetional area A. The persistent cum tains a flu through the rng of some iategval mumber of fuxoids (27). fuxod CGrmot Teak out ofthe ring and thereby reduce the persistent current woless by thermal Ductuaton a minimum votime of the superconducting ring i mo: mentary inthe normal state The probability per unit time that «fuxoid will leak out isthe product P= (attempt frequencyXsctvation bani fet) es The activation barter fctor is exp(—AFIBgT}, where the free energy of the barrier 5 ‘AF ~ (minimam volume¥excess eo energy density of normal state) ‘he minimum vohume ofthe rng that must turn normal to allow a Buea to ‘scape is of the onder of RE, where £4 the coherence length of the super Conductor and A the wire thickness. The excess free energy demsty ofthe nomial state is Hi, whence the barier fee energy i AP = RES 9) Let the wite thickness be 10+ em, the coherence Iength = 10° ex, and 1, = 19° G; then AF 10-7 erg. As we approach the transition temperature fGom below, AP wil decrease toward zero, but the value given isa far estimate between absolute zero and 0.8 T.. Thus the activation barter factor is exp| AF yi} = exp 10") = 10°05 The characteristic frequency with whic the minimum volume ea atempt to change its state must be of order of Ey. If = 10°! erg, the attempt Frequency is = 10°10" = 10's. The leakage probabilty (28) heeomes pe 10'10-42000 gota gran gt The seeiprocal of this isa measure of the te required for fazoid to lee out, T= LP = 10°20, The age ofthe universe is only 10! s, x0 tht Auoid wail never lek out in the age of the universe, under our assumed conditions. Accordingly, the ‘curent is maintained. There are two circumstances in which the activation energy is much lower and a fusoid can be observed to leak out of ring—either very close to the certcal temperature, where Hs very small, or when the material ofthe rng A type Il superconductor and already ha ftids embedded in it. These special situations are discisted in the literature under the subject of fluctuations in superconductors Type Ml Superconductors There is no diference in the mechanism of supereonductivity in type Tend type If superconductors. Both types have simlar thermal properties at the superconductor-normal transition in zero magnetic Feld. But the Meissner cellct is entirely diflrent (Fig. 5) ‘A good typeI superconductor excludes a magnetic fed until superconduc tivity is destroyed suddenly, and then the eld penetrates completely. A good type IT superconductor excludes the field completely up toa field Ha. Above HL, the field is patally excluded, but the specimen remains electrically pes condueting. Ata much higher Geld, Ha, the flux penetrates completely and superconductvity vanishes. (An outer surface layer of the specimen may sain superconducting up ta stil higher fel Hf) ‘An impoctant difference ina type I and a type I superconductor isn the mean free path ofthe conduction electrons in the normal state the eoherence Tength € longer than the penetration depth A, the superconductor will be type I Most pure metals are type I, with «<1 (ace Table 5 om p. 317, Bur, when the mean fece path & short, the coherence length i short and the poneteation depth s great (Fig. LM). Thi the situation when x = A/E> I, and the superconductor will be type ‘We ean chang some metals from type to type It by a modest addition of an alloying element. In Figure 5 the addition of 2 wt. percent of indiam changes lea from type 1 to type Ul although the transition temperatire scarcely changed at all. Nothing fundamental has been done tothe electronic structure of lead by this amount of alloying, but the magnetic behavior a & superconductor his changed drastically The theory of type H superconductors was develojed by Ginsburg Landau, Abrikowy, and Gorkov. Later Kundler and co-wotkers observed that NbsSi wees ean cary large supercurrents in elds approaching 100 KG; this Jed to the commercial development of strong Geld superconducting magaets. ate iw i de bn er doa Consider the interface between a region i the superconducting state and ‘region in the normal stat, The intorface besa surice enenty that may be postive oF nevitive and that deeases asthe applied magnetic field is in Crotacd A superconductor i type Ifthe surface energy is always positive as the magneti field is increased, and type LL if the surface energy becomes negative asthe magnetic field i increased. The sign ofthe surface energy has ho ingortance fr the transition temperatore ‘The free eneray ofa bulk supercond actor is increased when the magnetic ‘eld is expelled. However, « parallel el ean penetzate avery thin film neasly uniformly (Fig. I), only apart ofthe ux is expelled, and the energy ofthe Superconducting fin wal increase only slowly asthe extemal magnetic field is increased. This causes large inexease fn the field intensity required for the destruction of superconducivity, The Blin has the usual ergy gap and will be resitanceless thin fl is nota type If superoondctor, bat the fil resuts ‘Show that under suitable conditions saperconduetvity can exist im high mag netic Bld Vortex State. The results for thin fins suggest the question: Are there stable configumaions ofa superconductor in a magnetic field with regions (in the form of thin rods or plates in the normal state, each normal region sur rounded by a superconducting region? In such a mixed state, elle the vortex fale, the external magnetic Held wil penetrate the thin normal regions ua formly, and the field wil also penetrate somewhat into the surrounding super conducting material, asin Fig. 18. The term vortex state desirbes the elrculation of syperoonducting curr rents in vorices throughout the balk specimen, as in Fg. 18 below. There is 0