Physics Lab Year 2  2007  Superconductivity  מוליכות על  scan0005
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Physics Lab Year 2  2007  Superconductivity  מוליכות על  scan0005
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18 Sepvemdaily 8
In impure materials and in alloys the coherence length €s shorter than
“This may be understood qualitatively in impure material the electron eigen
functions already have origees in them: we can construct a given localized
‘aration of current density with less energy from wavefunctions with wiggles
than fri smooth wavefunctions
“The coherence length first appeared la the LandauGinzburg, equations
these equation also fllow fim the BCS theory. They dseribe te stuctuce of
the transition ayer between normal and superconducting phsses in contact,
‘The eoherence length andthe staal penovation depth A depend on the mean
fece path of the electrons measuved inthe normal state; the relationships are
indicated in Fig. 14. When the superconductor is very impure, with a very
sinall£ then € = (y€)"2and A ~ Ay (08, so tha alg yf. The ratio Nis
tsually denoted by
BCS Theory of Superconducticity
“The hasis oa quantum theory of superconductivity was laid by the clase
1957 papers of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer. The accomplishment ofthe
BCS theory ineude
1. An attractive interaction between electrons can lead to aground state
separated from excited states by an energy sup. The critical field, the thermal
propertics, and most ofthe electromagnetic propertos are consequences ofthe
nergy gap. (in special eicumstances, superconductvity may oceur without an
actual energy ga.)
‘2 The electronatticeclecton interaction leads to an energy ga ofthe
observed magnitude. The indicect iteration proceeds when one electron in:
teraets withthe lattice and deforms i, second electron Sees the deformed
lattice and adjusts itself to take advantage ofthe deformation to lower its ex
cey. ‘Thus the second clectton interacts with the fst electron via the lntice
3 The penetration depth and the eoberence length emerge as natural
ceoasequences of the BES theory, The London equation is obtained for mas
netic fields that vary slowly in space. Thus the central phenomenon in super
tomductvity, the Meisner effect, 6 obtained in a matural way
4. The criterion for the transition temperature of an element o ally
volves the electron density of orbitals Dey) of one spin atthe Ferm level and
the electronatice interaction U, which can be estimated from the electric
resistivity beenuse the resistivity at zoom temperature is @ measure of the
tleetronphonon interaction. For UD) & the BCS theory predicts
T= 1.149 explWUD\e)) 9
1. Maden, N.C, aed) Sear, Ph Ray 106, 12157 108, 1175897
0  ——<“ :
ie
‘

,
sia he me fice ah ¢
EGS Mauton cnn th moral state A
ee core ed r= hy For hot ma ee ale he
sehere Bis the Debye temperature and U san attractive interaction. The vsult
edn feast qualitatively by the experimental data, There isan
Sstivity at room temperature
Fea et ana'des the more Hey Ht amet wil be # ssper
tendo when cold
Otome through a superconducting ing quntoe andthe
fects mt charge 2 vathar han The BCS ground sae involves paso
ofthe theory
BCS Ground State
The filed Ferm sea isthe ground state of a Fermi gas of noninteracting
clectrons, This stat allows arbitral sell excitations —we ean form as ex
‘ted state by taingan electron fom the Feral suface and raising just abo
the Ferm gorace. The BCS theory shows that with an appropriate attartivewith uve ofthe fact that the curl ofthe gradient of a salar is tential rra
The constant that multiples B agrees with (14a). We
cl that the Meissner
lect isa consequence ofthe London equation, which we have here derived
‘Quantization ofthe magnetie fn through a ring isa dramatic consequenes
of Bq, 21). Lets take a closed path C through the interior ofthe supercon.
ducting material, well vay from the surfiee (Fig. 16). The Meissner effect tlk
‘us that B and j are zero in the interior. Now 2) zero if
hevo~ ga @
We fren
fra no,
forth hangs fps 0 ing msde sg
‘The probability amplitude gs meastrable inthe classical approsination
0 that @ must be singlevalued and
~ Haan, eo
‘where 6 an integer: By the Stokes theorem,
where doris an element of area on a surface bounded by the curve C, and ie
the magnetic flux through C. From 23, (24), and (25) we have 2ates = g®, cr
las ey
‘Thus the flu through the ring is quantized in integral multiples of Ske
By experiment q = ~2eas appropiate for electeom pals, so thatthe qu
tum of fox in a soporeonductr i
2ntilde = 2.0678 x 107 gauss em ;
:
SEP
s) %
st a= Baldo
“This vnit of ax is called a Muaoid or fvon,
The fax chrough the ring s tho sum ofthe ux Pa from external sures
the flue @. from the superconducting cutrents which flow in the surfiee
ring: = a+ Dye The fue © is quantized, Theres normally no quant
zation condition onthe fx from externa sources, so tht By must aut ise!
appropriately inorder that & assume a quantized valve
Suppose a mnagnetic monopole of strength g is sitated just below the
center of a superconducting sing. The magnotic fax through the ring S
(wean) = 2, and by (27 this must equal an integral multiple of ck
Thus the minimus permissible valve of gin CGS is Rel, the famous Dies
result.
Duration of Persistent Gerrents
Consider a persistent current tha flows in aring oF a type {superconduc
tor of wire of length Land erossseetional area A. The persistent cum
tains a flu through the rng of some iategval mumber of fuxoids (27). fuxod
CGrmot Teak out ofthe ring and thereby reduce the persistent current woless by
thermal Ductuaton a minimum votime of the superconducting ring i mo:
mentary inthe normal state
The probability per unit time that «fuxoid will leak out isthe product
P= (attempt frequencyXsctvation bani fet) es
The activation barter fctor is exp(—AFIBgT}, where the free energy of the
barrier 5
‘AF ~ (minimam volume¥excess eo energy density of normal state)
‘he minimum vohume ofthe rng that must turn normal to allow a Buea to
‘scape is of the onder of RE, where £4 the coherence length of the super
Conductor and A the wire thickness. The excess free energy demsty ofthe
nomial state is Hi, whence the barier fee energy i
AP = RES 9)
Let the wite thickness be 10+ em, the coherence Iength = 10° ex, and
1, = 19° G; then AF 107 erg. As we approach the transition temperature
fGom below, AP wil decrease toward zero, but the value given isa far estimate
between absolute zero and 0.8 T.. Thus the activation barter factor is
exp AF yi} = exp 10") = 10°05
The characteristic frequency with whic the minimum volume ea atempt
to change its state must be of order of Ey. If = 10°! erg, the attempt
Frequency is = 10°10" = 10's. The leakage probabilty (28) heeomes
pe 10'1042000 gota gran gtThe seeiprocal of this isa measure of the te required for fazoid to lee
out, T= LP = 10°20,
The age ofthe universe is only 10! s, x0 tht Auoid wail never lek out
in the age of the universe, under our assumed conditions. Accordingly, the
‘curent is maintained.
There are two circumstances in which the activation energy is much lower
and a fusoid can be observed to leak out of ring—either very close to the
certcal temperature, where Hs very small, or when the material ofthe rng
A type Il superconductor and already ha ftids embedded in it. These special
situations are discisted in the literature under the subject of fluctuations in
superconductors
Type Ml Superconductors
There is no diference in the mechanism of supereonductivity in type Tend
type If superconductors. Both types have simlar thermal properties at the
superconductornormal transition in zero magnetic Feld. But the Meissner
cellct is entirely diflrent (Fig. 5)
‘A good typeI superconductor excludes a magnetic fed until superconduc
tivity is destroyed suddenly, and then the eld penetrates completely. A good
type IT superconductor excludes the field completely up toa field Ha. Above
HL, the field is patally excluded, but the specimen remains electrically pes
condueting. Ata much higher Geld, Ha, the flux penetrates completely and
superconductvity vanishes. (An outer surface layer of the specimen may
sain superconducting up ta stil higher fel Hf)
‘An impoctant difference ina type I and a type I superconductor isn the
mean free path ofthe conduction electrons in the normal state the eoherence
Tength € longer than the penetration depth A, the superconductor will be
type I Most pure metals are type I, with «<1 (ace Table 5 om p. 317,
Bur, when the mean fece path & short, the coherence length i short and
the poneteation depth s great (Fig. LM). Thi the situation when x = A/E> I,
and the superconductor will be type
‘We ean chang some metals from type to type It by a modest addition of
an alloying element. In Figure 5 the addition of 2 wt. percent of indiam
changes lea from type 1 to type Ul although the transition temperatire
scarcely changed at all. Nothing fundamental has been done tothe electronic
structure of lead by this amount of alloying, but the magnetic behavior a &
superconductor his changed drastically
The theory of type H superconductors was develojed by Ginsburg
Landau, Abrikowy, and Gorkov. Later Kundler and cowotkers observed that
NbsSi wees ean cary large supercurrents in elds approaching 100 KG; this
Jed to the commercial development of strong Geld superconducting magaets.
ate iw i de bn er doa
Consider the interface between a region i the superconducting state and
‘region in the normal stat, The intorface besa surice enenty that may be
postive oF nevitive and that deeases asthe applied magnetic field is in
Crotacd A superconductor i type Ifthe surface energy is always positive as
the magneti field is increased, and type LL if the surface energy becomes
negative asthe magnetic field i increased. The sign ofthe surface energy has
ho ingortance fr the transition temperatore
‘The free eneray ofa bulk supercond actor is increased when the magnetic
‘eld is expelled. However, « parallel el ean penetzate avery thin film neasly
uniformly (Fig. I), only apart ofthe ux is expelled, and the energy ofthe
Superconducting fin wal increase only slowly asthe extemal magnetic field is
increased. This causes large inexease fn the field intensity required for the
destruction of superconducivity, The Blin has the usual ergy gap and will be
resitanceless thin fl is nota type If superoondctor, bat the fil resuts
‘Show that under suitable conditions saperconduetvity can exist im high mag
netic Bld
Vortex State. The results for thin fins suggest the question: Are there
stable configumaions ofa superconductor in a magnetic field with regions (in
the form of thin rods or plates in the normal state, each normal region sur
rounded by a superconducting region? In such a mixed state, elle the vortex
fale, the external magnetic Held wil penetrate the thin normal regions ua
formly, and the field wil also penetrate somewhat into the surrounding super
conducting material, asin Fig. 18.
The term vortex state desirbes the elrculation of syperoonducting curr
rents in vorices throughout the balk specimen, as in Fg. 18 below. There is 0
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