Cracking the GRE Math

Cracking the

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/l.'je L::!.inceton



Subject Test 3rd Edition


Proven tgcb~iq.ues

from the test-prep experts

• Targeted subiect review on pre-calculus, calculus, and abstract algebra

• Full-length practice GRE Math Subiect Test

• Review questions at the end of every chapter


Preface xv


Functions 1

• Composition of Functions 2

• Inverse Functions 3

• Graphs in the x-y Plane 5

Analytic Geometry 7

• Lines 7

• Parabolas 7

• Circles 9

• Ellipses 10

• Hyperbolas 11 Polynomial Equations 13

• The Division Algorithm, Remainder Theorem, and Factor Theorem 13

• The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra and Roots of Polynomial Equations 14 The Root Location Theorem 14

The Rational Roots Theorem 14

The Conjugate Radical Roots Theorem 14 The Complex Conjugate Roots Theorem 15

• Sum and Product of the Roots 15 Logarithms 16

Trigonometry 18

• Trig Functions of Acute Angles 18

• Trig Functions of Arbitrary Angles 19

• Trig Functions of Real Numbers 19

• Trig Identities and Formulas ,20 Fundamentalldentities 20 Opposite-Angle Identities 21 Pythagoreon Identities 21

Addition and Subtraction Formulas 21 Double-Angle Formulas 21 Complementary-Angle (Reduction) Formulas 21 Half-Angle Formulas 21

• Periodicity of the Trig Functions 23

• Graphs of the Trig Functions 23 / . • The Inverse Trig Functions 24 V Chapter 1 Review Questions 26




Limits of Sequences 31 Limits of Functions 34

• Limits of Functions as x ~ ± 00 36

Continuous Functions 37

• Theorems Concerning Continuous Functions 40






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The Derivative 42

• linear Approximations Using Differentials 46

• Implicit Differentiation 47

• Higher-Order Derivatives 47 Curve Sketching 48

Properties of the First Derivative 48 Properties of the Second Derivative 48

Theorems Concerning DiHerentiable Functions 50 Max/Min Problems 51

Related Rates 53

Indefinite Integration (Antidifferentiation) 55

• Techniques of Integration 55 Integration by Substitution 55 Integration by Parts 57

Trig Substitutions 58

The Method of Partial Fractions 59

Definite Integration 60

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 62

• The Average Value of a Function 64

• Finding the Area Between Two Curves 65 Polar Coordinates 67

Volumes of Solids of Revolution 69 Arc Length 71

The Natural Exponential and Logarithm Functions 72 L'Hopital's Rule 75

Improper Integrals 77

Infinite Series 80

• Alternating Series 84

Power Series 84

• Functions Defined by Power Series 86

• Taylor Series 87

• Taylor Polynomials 89 Chapter 2 Review Questions 91


Analytic Geometry of R3 101

• The Dot Product 103

• The Cross Product 105

• The Triple Scalar Product 106

• Lines in 3-Space 108

• Planes in 3-Space 109

• Cylinders 111

• Surfaces of Revolution 113

• Level Curves and Level Surfaces 115

• Cylindrical Coordinates 117

• Spherical Coordinates 117 Partial Derivatives 118

• Geometric Interpretation of f and f 119

x y

• Higher-Order Partial Derivatives 120

• The Tangent Plane to a Surface 122

• linear Approximations 123

• The Chain Rule for Partial Derivatives 124 Directional Derivatives and the Gradient 128 MaxI Min Problems 131

• Max/Min Problems with a Constraint 133

• The Lagrange Multiplier Method 134

Line Integrals 135

• line Integrals with Respect to Arc Length 136

• The Line Integral of a Vector Field 139

• The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for line Integrals 143 Double Integrals 146

• Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates 150 Green's Theorem 152

• Path Independence and Gradient Fields 154 '\.../"'Chapter 3 Review Questions 157

V DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 165' Separable Equations 167 Homogeneous Equations 168

Exact Equations 168

Nonexact Equations and Integrating Factors 170 First-Order Linear Equations 171

igher-Order Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients hapter 4 Review Questions 176



Solutions of Linear Systems 181 Matrices and Matrix Algebra 183

• Matrix Operations 183

• Identity Matrices and Inverses 186 Gaussian Elimination 188

Solving Matrix Equations Using A-I 193 Vector Spaces 195

• The Nullspace 196

• Linear Combinations 196

• The Rank, Column Space, and Row Space of a Matrix 198

• Other Vector Spaces 200

Determinants 200

• Laplace Expansions 204

• The Adjugate Matrix 205

• Cramer's Rule 206

Linear Transformations 207

• Standard Matrix Representative 208

• The Rank Plus Nullity Theorem 208

• A Note on Inverses and Compositions 209




~TH 5,

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 209

• Eigenspaces 211

• The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem 213 Chapter 5 Review Questions 214


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Part A: Number Theory 220

Divisibility 220

• The Division Algorithm 221

• Primes 221

• The Greatest Common Divisor and the Least Common Multiple 221

• The Euclidean Algorithm 222

• The Diophantine Equation ax + by = c 223 Congruences 225

The Congruence Equation ax =: b (mod n) 226

Part B: Abstract Algebra 227

Binary Structures and the Definition of a Group 227

• Examples of Groups 228

• Cyclic Groups 231

Subgroups 232

• Cyclic Subgroups 233

• Generators and Relations 234

• Some Theorems Concerning Subgroups 234 The Concept of Isomorphism 235

The Classification of Finite Abelian Groups 237 Group Homomorphisms 241

Rings 245

• Ring Homomorphisms 248

• Integral Domains 252 . Fields 253

\1 Chapter 6 Review Questions 256



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V Set Theory 261

• Subsets and Complements 262

• Union and Intersection 262 Cartesian Products 263 Intervals of the Real line 263

• Venn Diagrams 265

• Cardinality 266 V Combinatorics 268

• Permutations and Combinations 269 With Repetitions Allowed 271

• The Pigeonhole Principle 272 Probability and Statistics 272

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• Probability Spaces 274

• Bernoulli Trials 277

• Random Variables 278

Expectation, Variance, and Standard Deviation 280 The Normal Distribution 281

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 283

Point-Set Topology 284

• The Subspace Topology 285

• The Interior, Exterior, Boundary, Limit Points, and Closure of a Set 285

• Basis for a Topology 287

• The Product Topology 288

• Connectedness 289

• Compactness 289

• Metric Spaces 290

• Continuous Functions 291

Open Maps and Homeomorphisms 293

Real Analysis 294

• The Completeness of the Real Numbers 294

• Lebesgue Measure 295

• Lebesgue Measurable Functions 296

• Lebesgue Integrable Functions 297 . /Complex Variables 299

V . The Polar Form 300

• The Exponential Form 301

• Complex Roots 301

• Complex Logarithms 303

• Complex Powers 303

• The Trigonometric Functions 304

• The Hyperbolic Functions 305

• The Derivative of a Function of a Complex Variable 306

• The Cauchy-Riemann Equations 307

• Analytic Functions 309

• Complex Line Integrals 310

• Thearems Concerning Analytic Functions 311

• Taylor Series for Functions of a Complex Variable 312

• Singularities, Poles, and Laurent Series 312

• The Residue Theorem 315




About the Author 439


I !






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The General and Subject Graduate Record Examinations (GRE®) are created and administered by the Educational Testing Service Inc., a private, for-profit corporation located in Princeton, New Jersey. ETS sounds like a scholarly organization but in truth it's a business that's devoted to churning out standardized tests that are inflicted on you from your high school years, onward (remember the SAT?). If you need to contact ETS:

Address: GRE-ETS

P.O. Box 6000

Princeton, NJ 08541-6000 609-771-7670




Monday-Friday 8:00 A.M.-7:45 P.M. EST (except for U.S. Holidays) 609-771-7906

use form provided at


The Princeton Review is a test-preparation company based in New York City. We analyze actual standardized tests and use them to develop techniques for test taking. We find the tests' weaknesses, quirks, and patterns, and pass this information on to you. So, after reading this book, you'll be far better prepared to tackle ETS's tests.






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The Graduate Record Examination (GRE®) Subject Test in Mathematics is taken by students who plying for admission (or a fellowship) to study mathematics at the graduate level. It's offered a year-in April, November, and December. Graduate school admissions committees consider Subject Test score in addition to your undergraduate record (GPA, institution, courses taken, recommendation, etc.) in making their decision about your application to graduate school.

The GRE Math Subject Test consists of about 66 multiple-choice questions that are intended the knowledge and skills you've developed as an undergraduate math major. The tic:;:;' m;:=,..e ==-;--.; 50 minutes (so you have about 2.5 minutes per question, but I didn't need to tell you that). Each

is followed by five choices~A through E-and your job, of course, is to choose the one right bubble it in on a separate answer sheet in #2 lead pencil. NOI~~~~~~~1Q!~~~!£!! are permitted. (All scratchwork is done directly in the exam booklet itself.) also prohibited, so be sure to leave these handy items at home.


The computer that scores your answer sheet ~wards you 1 point for each correct answer but 1/4 of a point for each wrong answer; the net result is called the raw score. (Since there is a wrong answer, there's little to be gained by randomly guessing on a question you know nnth'ft,w, but if you're able to eliminate one or more answer choices, then it's a good strategy to guess

remaining choices.) Your raw score is then converted to a scaled score, which is then to

ficially the score range is 200 to 990, but the very lowest scaled score given by the way) may be much higher than 200. The scaled score is meant to

that of other test takers over the revious three ears, so scores

test can be co The answer to the natural question, "How well do I need to do?" depends factors. But you can check with the admissions offices of the graduate schools to which you're

to apply to see if they release average scores of the students they accepted the previous year. scoring above an 850 puts you in the top quarter of test takers, and this would be considered a score. Finally, be aware that applying for a fellowship is more competitive than "just" applying ate admission, so you'll typically need a higher score to be granted a fellowship.


jThe content of the GRE Subject Test in Mathematics includes:

....J • Precalculus (algebra, trigonometry)

• Calculus I (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc., for functions of one variable)

• Calculus II (multivariable calculus)

• Differential equations

• Linear algebra


• Abstract algebra and number theory

• Additional topics such as:

• Set theory

• Probability and statistics

• Combinatorics

• Real analysis

• Topology

• Complex variables

About half of the questions on the test are in calculus and differential eguations; another roughly 25 percent are in precalculus, linear algebra, abstract al~ebra, and number theory' and the remaining questions cover the additional topic~:

Remember: You're being tested on what you learned as an undergraduate. The questions are not like those on a Ph.D. qualifying exam you might take as a graduate student. Also, because mathematics curricula vary from institution to institution, the questions are intended to cover material most undergraduates are likely to have studied. Therefore, specialized knowledge in, say, a new subfield of abstract algebra (no pun intended) isn't going to be on the test. Furthermore, you don't have to get every question right to get the maximum score. (In fact, if your raw score is 2/3 of the maximum raw score, your scaled score

will generally put you in the top 25 'percent.) .



Naturally, it's important to be familiar with the topics-to know definitions, statements of important theorems, and techniques for solving the most common problems. Then you must practice applying what you've learned to answering questions like those you'll see on the test, many of which can look rather unconventional. This book is designed to review virtually all of the content areas covered on the test. Each chapter (except the last) is followed by sample multiple-choice questions, and perhaps even more important, answers and explanations are provided for every example and question in this book. You'll learn as much-if not more-from actively reading the solutions as you will from reading the text and examples. Finally, a full-length practice test is provided, with a complete explanation for every question. The difficulty level of the examples and questions in this book is at or slightly above GRE level, so if you have the time and motivation to attack these questions and learn from the solutions, you should feel confident that you will do your very best on the real thing.

Here's an important strategy: Don't linger over anyone question. Go through the exam and answer the questions on the topics you mow well, leaving the tough ones for later when you make another pass. All the questions are worth the same amount, so you don't want to run out of time and not get to questions you could have answered because you spent too much time agonizing over a few difficult ones. No one is expected to answer all of them, so maximize the number you get right.

PREFACE • xvii




If I assigns to the elemen t x of A the element y of B, we say that Jmaps x to y,and write either


y = f(x) or x Hy

In this first chapter, we'llreview topics such as functions, gr<iEhe, polynomial eguations, logarithmsl and trigonometry, which are commonly tested on the GRE Math Subject test, We will assume that you're comfortable with the laws ofezponents andradica1s as well as with basic arithmetic opera hans. involving real numbersl. cOlnplex nurrtbersr and general algebraic expressions.


and call y the image of x. It is common. to refer to "the function I(x), " especially when there's a formula for j(x),. even though it's actually J that's the function; fix) is the image of x.


(a) First; t~~~~~pression in the-denomihator cannot equal 0," so x =--~ has to he excluded from the

,~<'1' \,' ,':o:,~:}~,~ :-, _ -.

;~ ,,;domp.ii).,Nex~tl).~fraction under the squar,e root sign must be;ponnegative. Since the denomi-

C;:' -:{,;.9,· .. , -". ,.·c,,; ,1t";Y',.-,,,E't.:"'".,...r ." -

nator is positive for all x"# ~ .we need.only ensure that the niIm~rator is nonnegative; thus, it

;"- 'v •• " --,,' , - 1 1

must be true that x ~ -1. Therefore, the domain of I is equal to (-1, 2') u_( 2,00).

(b) To~etermine the fixed poirtt~-~ff,weneed to.solve the equation f(X) = x; Because of the pres.. , ence of:;th~ ab~pl_lJte_",al¥e ~ign~j,this leads to the two equations,


__ - __ x2 or

2x_:1 -

x+1 2 -,--=X

1-2x .....

which are equivalent to the equations;

2i' - x2 - X ~ 1 = 0 or '2x3 -:_ x2 + X ~ 1 ::: 0


t, By the rational roots theorem (~ee the section on roots of polynomial equations on page 14), the only possible rational roots ~f these equations are ±1 or ± ~ . vye can dist~ga'rd x = ~, because it's not in the domain of.f, andsinjply chegls the remaining three possible rational roots. None of

'."",', '1' " ,

them satisfies the first equation, but x == -::- satisfies the second, Therefore, the function I has x =

1 ' ~ '," 2",. " " -

- '2 as a fixed point, as this caleularion sh?W§l_i


Functions can.~be·added, subtracted, multiplied, and-divided, but anotherway tocombine functions is to cQmp~~e them". For example, lel t and g be functions-such that th,e domain of g contains the range of f

"_- -.-.' •. -'1" " ... ii'· .. r-.~, .. ~ . ,.Jf -,!~.~' ;-1- .. \~ .. ". ~ ,~ -'

Then'we :c-owa' take some element, x, in the 'domain of f, substitute it into I, then take the result and sub-

stifute}tinto,g. This kind of substitution of one function into another is the basic idea of the composition ~ of £undioRs. For-example, iff A ~ Band g: B ~ C/then ,th~ composite function g 0 f (read "g of f 11 ot-"g· -, ~

circle f ") is defined as follows: ~ , - -;

, ; .-~ .


Be careful to distinguish g 0 I from log, which would be defined by the equation: if 0 g)(x) = l(g(x))

The compositions g 0 I and log are rarely the same. For example, if I(x) := XZ and g(l') = x + 7, then:

(g 0 f)(x) = g(x2) = )."2+ 7


lfo g)(x) = I(x + 7):= (x+ 7)2

It's also important to remember to work from right to left whenapplying the functions in a composition; the notation g 0 I tells you to apply I first, then g.

Consider functions f and g such that if 0 g)(x) := .J x2 + 1-1. II g(x) = Xl + 1, then what's the value 0£J(4)?


Since I(x? + 1} ::: .J x? + 1-1, we know that I(x) = Fx -1 . Therefore, J( 4) = Ii -1 = 1 .



Let f and g be real-valued functions defined on the entire real line urn that

f(x) = g(x2 -1) and gV) = r -1. Find all values of x such that:

if 0 g)(x) ::: (g 0 f)(x)

Solution: First, we'll simplify each side of the equation. Since

(f 0 g)(x) = l(g(x» = I(x -1) = g[(x _1)2 - 1] := g(x2 - 2x) = Xl - 2x - 1 and

(g 0 f)(x) = g(f(x») = I(x) -1 :: g(r - 1) - 1 := [(x2 - 1) - 1] - 1 = x2 - 3

we need to solve the equation x2 - 2x - 1 = Xl - 3. Canceling the x2 term from both sides leaves -2x - 1 = -3, so x = 1.


A function f A --7 B is said to be one-fo-one (or injective) if no two elements in A are mapped by f to the same element in B. That is, I is one-to-one if XI #:. x2 implies [(Xl) -:f. I(x,). For example, the function f: R --7 R, defined by fix) = X"~ is one-to-one, but the function g: R -+ R defined by g{x) =.r is not (because, for instance, both -2 and 2 are mapped by g to 4i but if the domain of g were Ie tricted to, ay, just the nonnegative reals, then g would be one-to-one). A function f: A ~ B is said to be onto (or surjective) if every element in B is the image of some element in A For example, the function f R ~ R defu1ed by fix) = x3 i onto, but the function g: R ~ R defined by, g(x) = ;t,.2 i not (becau e -4 is in the range of g, but -there's no element in R mapped by g to -4; but if the range of g were restricted to just the nonnegative

reals, then g would be onto). If f A --7 B is both one-to-one and onto, it is said to be bijective, and it's aranteed that for every element 1{ in BtheIe i one, and only one, element x :in A such that I(x} = y. So -e can define another function, I -I: B --7 A, a follows:

1-10J) = x if lex) = y


The function f -1 is called the inverse of f. It's important not to interpret the superscript -1 as an exponent;

. 1

in this context, it's not. The function f-1 is ~~~ally .very diff.erent from f' the reciprocal of f, which is

defined by the equation:

\ .

(7 }X)= ~. (as long as f(x) * 0)


By definition, then, both of the following equations will always hold for a bijective function f: A -t B

and its inverse, 1-1: B"~ k' . 'i;. ,;, .,

. t1(j(x)) = X for every x irt A


f(f-l(y)) = y for every y iaB

• .( . . )~ ,~ ''t,f~, '

. y =J(x), the way to determine a formula for f-1 is simply to

. fory.

Solution: Actually finding a formula for f-:(x) would be quite difficult here, but we don't need to. If a = tl(-2), then, by definition, f(a} = -2. So we simply need to find the value of a such that f(a) = -2:

f(a) = -2 :::$ a3 + a - 4 = -2 ::::} a3 + a = 2


By inspection, we can see that a = I, so t1(-:;2) = 1,.

Solution: Given the equation y = xl (1 - X2), we interchange the x and y and solve for y:

- y



xy2 +y-x= 0

':"1 ±-.Jl + 4x2 y=




There are two problems with the form of this result. The first problem is that it specifies two functions because of the ±. The second is that x = 0 is excluded from the domain of this function (because of the 2x in the denominator); but since 0 is in the range of f[because 1(0) = 0], it must be in the domain of tl. Let's start by solving the first problem. Notice that

Jl + 4x2 > N = 21xl ,so if we use the form of (*) with the minus sign, then

x>o -1-Jl+4x2 < -2x -1-Jl+4x2 <-1
=> =>
x<O -1-Jl+4x2 < 2x >1
=> =>
2x both of which contradict the fact that the range of i' must be the domain of I, A = (-1, 1). Therefore, we only consider the plus sign in ("), To solve the second problemthat is, to rewrite the equation for tl in a form that does not exclude x = O-we rationalize the numerator:

-1 +Jl+4x2 -l-Jl + 4x2

y= •

2x -1-Jl+4x2

1-(1 +4X2)

= __ --'----,=======-

-2x(1 + Jl + 4x2 )


If the domain and range of a function are subsets of the real numbers, then the function can be graphed in the xy-plane. The graph of I consists of all points (x, y) in the plane such that y = I(x). A graph is said to be symmetric with respect to the y-axis if, whenever (x, y) is on the graph, (-x, y) is also. A graph is said to be symmetric with respect to the origin if, whenever (x, y) is on the graph, (-x, -y) is also. The graph of y = I(x) and the graph of its inverse function y = f -lex) are symmetric with respect to the line y = x, since if (x, y) lies on one of the graphs, then (y,_ x) lies on the other.

Any equation that involves two variables can be sketched in the plane: The graph simply consists of all points (x, y) that satisfy the equation. In some cases, the resulting graph may not be the graph of a function. The vertical-line test says that a given graph is not the graph of a function if there are two (or more) points that lie on the same verticallinej this would be a violation of the definition of a function, which says that for every value of the independent variable (from the domain), a function assigns exactly one value to the dependent variable (from the range). A graph is said to be symmetric with respect to the x-axis if, whenever (x, y) is on the graph, (x, -y) is also. The x-coordinate -(abscissa) of a point at whiCh a graph crosses the x-axis is called an x-intercept, and the y-coordinate (ordinate) of a point at which a graph crosses the y-axis is called a y-intercept.


b Example 1.6 Sketch the graph of the function:



- lx-II

if -1 ~ x <0 ifx~O

Solution: The equation y = ~1- x2 (for ~1 ~ x < 0) describes the section of the unit circle that exists in the second quadrant, and the graph of the equation y = Ix -11 is the graph of y = Ixl moved 1 unit to the right:


Example 1.7 Sketch the graph of the function




if -2 S x S 1 ifx>1

where [xl is the greatest integer S x.

Solution: We can get the graph of the equation y = 2 - xl by inverting the graph of the basic parabola y = xl to get y = _X2, and then translating upward by 2 units, to get y;:: _x2 + 2. The graph of the greatest integer function, y = [x], has a break at each integer n, since for every x such that n -1 :5 x < n, the value of [x] is n - 1, but at x ;:: tI, the value of [x] jumps to n. This is an example of a step function.






Analytic geometry centers on the interplay between algebra and geometry. In this section, we'll review lines, parabolas, circles, ellipses, and hyperbolas in the xv-plane. AU of these curves fall tltlger a common heading: 1hev are conic sections and have as their universal equation the general second-degree equation in ;r and.1J;

AX2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0

The identity of the graph depends on the values of the coefficients. If the curve is not a straight line or cin:Ie, then its symmetry axis (or axes) will not be parallel to one of the coordinate axes if B :f:. 0, but the coordinate axes can be rotated to simplify the equation of the curve and place the axis of the conic parallel to <me of the coordinate axes.


The equation for a straight line in the x-V plane is


in which a and b are not both O. If the line is not vertical, then the equation of the line with.slope m Rass-

ing through the point (xv y,) can be written as: "

y - YI = m(x - Xl)

This is called the point-slope formula. Recall that if (Xl' YI) and (x2' Y2) are any two points on a nonvertical line, then the slope is defined as:


m = fly = Y 2 - Y I !lx X2 -Xl

We do not define the slope of a vertical line. If two nonverticallines have the same slope, then they're parallel, and if the product-of the slopes of two nonverticallines is equal to -1, then they're perpendicular.

~ -., - ~ ,


Let F be a given fixed point and D a given fixed line that doesn't contain F. By definition, ~ parabola is the

.. lane containin F and D that are e uidistant from the oint F the focus and the line

~The axis of a parabola iS,the line through the f(')cus and perp n icu ar to t e directrix. Yertex of a parabola is the turning point, the poirit on the parabola'S axis that's midway between the ~iJnd the directrix. The standard equations of the parabolas with vertex at the origin and axis either

the ;r- or araXis are: .

1 y=±_x2



1 2 X=±-Y . 4p

Tbe following diagrams summarize the basic characteristics of these standard parabolas. The axis of the parabolas in the top two pictures is the y-axis; and the bottom two parabolas have the x-axis as their axis.





r directrix: y = p

........................... ~d~~~~; Y ;:~p' 'ittA:


directrix: x = -p


: directrix: x = p :..J


,I ," ..1-' ' 1 : ,J

.Solutioru I_:" The equ.a,!i0n y ;= x2 fits the, form Y,'F {4- ' )X2 if P = '4' Therefore, the focus of .this '1?qraj>~l~

- - _' is the'pJint F:~'(O; pY~>(O/J;+'Now~le':t~'attd':lnJitfie ~ndp'0ints of the chofd~th~t pais~-

,_ ,~r '- .. J~"'4 ""~' ", ,~..:.:._.7;~. <'J' ('~.. . .j'

I, ,thrQugh'the focus and-is perpertdicular to-the. paFabbla's axis (which is the y-axiS in,~


case). Thecoordinates of A and B must be (-x, p)iand (x, p), respectively.


YI y=i'

F: (0, p) ,., •• , .• " ••••....•• : B: (x, p)

. .


........................... ~di;~~t~~: y;: ~p'


Since the (vertical) distance from B to the directrix is p - (-p) = 2p, the distance from B to F must also be 2p. The distance from A to F must also be 2p, so the length of the segment AB 1

must be 2p + 2p = 4p. Because p = '4 for this parabola, the length of the latus rectum-the

focal wid th-equals 1.


A circle is the set of points in the plane that are allat a constant, positive distance from a given fixed e9int. This constant distance is called the radius, and the. given fixed the center. The standard equation of the circle of radius a, centered at the origin is

or, equivalently,

If the center is at the point (h, k), then we can replace x by x - It and y by Y - k and write: (X_h)2 (y-kY

-'----:2,.-'- + 2 = 1

a a

I> EX~1.9

A circle has A: (-2, -3) and 8: (6,1) as the endpoints of a diameter. (a) Where does this circle cross the y-axis?

(b) Where does the line tangent to this circle at the point B cross the y-axis?



(a) The midpoint of the diameter AB is the center of the circle:

c=( -22+6, -32+1 )=(2, -1)

The radius a, of the circle is equal to the distance from C to either A or 8. Computing Be, we find that:

Therefore, the equation for this circle is:

(x - 2)2 + 6J + 1)2 = 20

To find the points where the circle crosses the y-axis, we set x equal to 0 and solve for y: (0 - 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 20 ~ 6J + 1)2 = 16 => Y = 3,-S

Thus, the circle crosses the y-axis at the points (0, 3) and (0, -5),


(b) Let L denote the tangent line for which we're looking. Then L must be perpendicular to the radius BC. Because the slope of BC is

1-(-1) 1

m - --

Be- 6-2 -2

the slope of L must be the negative reciprocal, -2. Since mL = -2 and L passes through the point B: (6, I), the equation of the line is

y - 1 = -2(x - 6)

which we can write as y = -2x + 13. When x = 0, the value of y is 13, so L crosses the y-axis at the point (0, 13).


By definition, an ellipse is the set of points in the plane such that the sl of the distances from every point on the ellipse to two given fixed points (the foci) is a given consta: (And to avoid a degenerate case, the constant sum must be greater than the distance between the foci.) The standard equation of an ellipse centered at the origin-with axes parallel to\the coordinate axes-is:


x2 y2 =1 ~11-~ ~~'tth)

2 + 2 ~'i~<1V''''''' ..,...'1(,...

The longer symmetry axis of the ellipse i~- :alle: the major axis (on which the foci are ld\ate~~n~\ the shorter one is the minor axis. The endpoints of the major axis are called the vertices. The e centricity

of an ellipse is a number (denoted_4.between 0 and 1 that measures its "flatness." The closer e is to zero,

the more the ellipse rese;i;.bles a perfect circle; as e increases to I, the ellipse flattens out.

By comparing the standard equations for the circle and the ellipse, we notice that the only difference

is that while the x2 and y2 terms always have identical positive coefficients for a circle, these terms have

different positive coefficients for an ellipse. Therefore, a circle can be transformed into an ellipse (or vice ·22

versa) by changing the scale on one of the axes. For example, we can turn the circle x 2 + Y 2 = 1 into the

2 2 a a

ellipse x2 + Y2 = 1 by replacing every point (x, y) on the circle by the point (x, by ).

a b a

The following diagrams summarize the basic characteristics of the ellipse, where the cases a > band

a < b are considered separately.

x2 l

-2 + -2 = 1, a > b a b

foci: (±c, 0), where c = J a2 - b2




(0, b)

.... q



vertices: (±a, 0)

major axis length = 2a minor axis length = 2b

c eccentricity: e = - a

(a, 0)

(-a, 0)


(-c, 0)

(0, -b)



(0, b)

x2 y2

-2 + -2 = I, a < b a b

foci: (0, ±c), where c = .. .Jb2 - a2 vertices: (0, ±b)

major axis length = 2b

minor axis length = 2a

. . c

eccentricity: e = - a

(0, -c)


Solution: Since the foci are on the x-axis and their midpoint (which is the center of the ellipse) is the

origin, the equation of the ellipse has the form

x2y2 -+-=1 a2 b2

where a > b. his case, the sum of the distances from every point on the ellipse to the foci is e ual f 2a. S' ce 2a = 8, we have a = 4. So the fact that c = 2 tells us that:

. b=.Ja2-c2 =.J42_22 =2J3

So the equation of the ellipse is:

x2 y2 -+-=1 16 12

Substituting Y = 3"we solve for x:

x2 32 -+-=1 16 12

- = - ::::)

x2 = 4 ::::) x = ± 2

16 4.

Since the question asks for the positive value of x, the answer is x = 2.


By definition, a hyperbola ~ the set of points in the plane such that the difference between the distances from every point on the hyperbola to two fixed points (the foci) is a givef'riconstant. (And to avoid a degenerate case, the constant difference must be smaller than the distance between the foci.) Unlike a parabola, circle, or ellipse, a hyperbola is not a single curve; instead, it consists of two separate Curves


'it mc~

called branches. A hyperbola is also different from these other curves in that it has as;~~tOte~hich are

lines that its branches approach but never touch, as the magnitudes of x and y increase. '-

The line that contains the foci is called the ~ axis; the midpoint of the segment joining the foci is the center of the hyperbola; and the poin~s at which the branches of the hyperbola intersect tne focal aXIS are called the vertices. The standard equations of the hyperbolas c~ntered at the origin with either the x- or the y-axis as their focal axis are:

The diagrams below summarize the basic characteristics of these standard hyperbolas. Notice that the hyperbolas of the first family do not intersect the y-axis, and those of the second family do not intersect the x-axis.


b y= --x

'. ) a

.•..•••.•••.• (-a, b) (a, b) •••••

.. "!:::: ········::·'r·

(-c,0) : (AA,';)·... .}···tix,oJ, (c,O)


#,# .........

## ....

... :::: ... _-- --------::~

...... (-a, -b) (a, -b)··· <:

..... /~ "ymptote'~·········



x2 y2

---=1 a2 b2

foci: (±C, 0), where c = .J a2 + b2 vertices: (±a, 0)

b asymptotes: y = ±- x

. . .

b ..

y=--x..J ...

a ..


. .
. c, ,
.. ,
. .
: .
, .
: .
, .
. . ----------+-~~----------__.x


l x2 ---=1

b2 a2

foci: (0, ±c), where c = .J a2 + b2 vertices: (0, ±b)

b asymptotes: y = ±-x a



(0, b)

r y2

-, + -2 = 1, a < b a- b

foci: (0, ±c), where c =,)b2 - a2 vertices: (0, ±b)

major axis length = 2b

miror axis length = 2a

c arentricity. e = - a

(0, -c) ,


Solution: Since the foci are on the x-axis and their midpoint (which is the center of the ellipse) is the

origin, the equation of the ellipse has the form

x2 y2

-+-=1 a2 b2

where a > b. is case, the sum of the distances from every point on the elli)2se to the foci

is e ual tr:2a. S' ce 2a = 8, we have a = 4. So the fact that c = 2 tells us that:

. b = -Ja2 _c2 = -J42 _22 = 2../3

So the equation of the ellipse is:

x2 v', -+-=1 16 12

Substituting Y = 3"we solve for x:

x2 32 -+-=1 16 12

-=- ~

x2 =4 ~ x=±2

16 4

Since the question asks for the positive value of x, the answer is x = 2.

HYPERBOLAS '5&ai'~ By definition, a hyperbola ~ the set of points in the plane such that the difference between the distances from every point on the hyperbola to two fixed points (the foci) is a giveftSconstant. (And to avoid a degenerate case, the constant difference must be smaller than the distance between the foci.) Unlike a parabola, circle, or ellipse, a hyperbola is not a single curve; instead, it consists of two separate curves

Example 1.11


Since the foci are on the x-axis and their midpoint (the center of the hyperbola) is the origin, the equation of the hyperbola has the form:

x2 y2 ---=1 a2 b2


The vertices of this hyperbola are (±a, 0). The difference between the distances from the vertex (a, 0) to the two foci, (-c, 0) and (c, 0), is [a':' (-c)j - (c - a) = 2a. Because we're told that this equals 2, we know that a = 1. Finally, since c == J a2 + b2, we can solve for b:

b =.Jc2 - a2 = .J32 _12= 2fi

Therefore, the equation of this hyperbola is:


A polynomial in the variable x is an expression in this form: anxn + an_1xn-1 + ... + a1x + ao where n is a nonnegative integer and the coefficients a, are' constants. If an *- 0, the integer n is called the degree of the polynomial and an is called the leading coefficient. (No degree is defined for 0, the zero polynomial.) A polynomial of degree 2 is called a quadratic polynomial, and the roots of the quadratic equation

ax' + bx + c = 0

are given by the well-known quadratic formula:

-b ± .Jb2 - 4ac



'... ~.~~~

• .,,: '<. I

• '. - ·1·

The quantity under the square root sign, ~ = b2 - 4ac, is called the discrim na t f the polynomial; it

determines-the nature of the roots. If ~ >.0, the equation has two distinct real roots; if 4 < 0, the roots are distinct complex conjugates; and if ~ = 0, the equation has exactly one (double) root. In this section, we'll also look at more general polynomial equations.


Let p(x) and d(x) be polynomials. If d(x) is not identically zero, the division algorithm guarantees that dividing p(x) by d(x) gives unique polynomials q(x) and r(x), such that

p(x) = q(x)d(x) + r(x)

where either r(x) is identically zero or the degree of r(x) is less than the degree of d(x). The polynomial q(x) is called the quotient, and r(x) is the remainder. In particular, assume that the degree of p(x) is at least I, and let d(x) = x - k, a polynomial of degree 1. If p(x) is divided by x - k, we get

p(x) = q(x) • (x - k) + r

where r is a constant. Substituting x = k into this equation gives us p(k) = r, which says that when p(x) is divided by x - k, the remainder is p(k). This is the remainder theorem. From this, we can conclude that x = k is a root of the polynomial equation p(x) = 0 if and only if x - k is a factor of p(x); this is the factor theorem.

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA AND ROOTS OF POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS Jh.e fundamental theorem of algebra states that every polynomial equation

a X'I + a X'l-1 + ... + a x + a = 0 (*)

II n-l 1 a

of degree n 2: 1 has at least one root (real or complex). By using the division algorithm repeatedly, every polynomial of degree n 2: 1 can be written as the product of unique, linear (degree 1) factors,

a x" + a xn-1 + ... + a x + a = a (x- k )(x- k) ... (x- k )

II 11-1 Ian 1 2 II

where each k, is a constant (real or complex). If the factor x - ki appears on the right-hand side exactly mi times, then x - ki is a factor of multiplicity mi, and the polynomial equation (*) has x = k; as a root of multiplicity mr So every degree n polynomial equation has exactly n roots, where a root of multiplicity m. is counted m. times.


Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree n 2: I, with real coefficients. There are several results that restrict the possibilities when searching for the roots of the polynomial equation p(x) = o.

The Root location Theorem

If p(x) is a real polynomial, and real numbers a and b can be found such that p(a) < 0 and p(b) > 0, then there must be at least one value of x between a and b such that p(x) = O. (This is a consequence of the intermediate value theorem, which you'll see in Chapter 2.)

The Rational Roots Theorem If the coefficients of

p(x) = a X'I + a xn-1 + ... + a x + a

n n-l 1 0

are integers, then the rational roots theorem says that if the equation p(x) = 0 has any rational roots, then, when expressed in lowest terms, they must be of the form x = ~, where s is a factor of the constant term t

(ao) and t is a factor of the leading coefficient (aJ

S\Qo) -bl t\~.

The Conjugate Radical Roots Theorem If the coefficients of

p(x) = a xn + a xn-1 + ... + a x + a

II 11-1 1 0


are....ratjo~ then the conjugate radical roots theorem states that if the equation p(x) = 0 has a root of the fO£nrxM= s + t.j";;_ (where u > 0 is not a perfect square, so .j";;_ is irrational), then the equation must also have the conjugate radical, x = s - tFu , as ~ root. That is, irrational roots of rati~al-coefficient polynomial equations must occur in conjugate radical pairs.

The Complex Conjugate Roots Theorem If the coefficients of

p(x) :;:: a xn + a xn-I + ... + a x + a

,n n-I 1 a

are real, then the complex conjugate roots th~orem states that if the equation p(x) = 0 has a complex root of the form x = s + ti, then the equation must also have the complex conjugate, ~ ::; S - ti, as a root. That

is, com lex roots of l-coefficie t 01 omial equations must occur in complex conjugate pairs.

SUM AND PRODUCT OF THE ROOTS For the polynomial equation

the sum and product of the n roots can be written in. terms of the coefficients, as follows:


, a


sum of the roots = --a

/ a

product of the roots = (-1)" _Q_ a

In particular, if the polynomial is I!.!onic (which means that the leading coefficient, an' is equal to I),

then the sum of the roots is -an_I' and the product of ~he roots is (-l)nao' .

Solution: Since p(x) is a real polynomial, the fact that 2 - i is a roof implies that the complex conjugate, 2 + i, is also a root. So both x - (2 - i) and x - (2 + i) are factors of p(x). And since 1 is a root, p(x) also has x -'I as a factor. Since p(x) is monic and has a degree of 3, it must be true that p(x) is the produ~t of these linear factors:

p(x) = [x - (2 - i)][x -,(2 + i)][x -1] = [(x - 2) + i][(x - 2) - i][x -1] = [(x2 - 4.x + 4) - (-l)][x -1]


= (X2"": 4x + 5)(x·-1)


Solution: First, notice that if r. and r2 are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 + bx + c = 0, then the sum of the roots is -b and the product of the roots is c, so the sum of the squares of the roots is:

r 2 + r 2 = (r + r )2 - 2r r = (_b)2 - 2c = b2 - 2c

1 2 1 2 1 2

So for this question, we have -b = 3 and b2 - 2c = 1. Since b = -3, the second equation becomes (_3)2 - 2c = I, which gives c = 4.


Solution: Since this polynomial has integer coefficients, we can apply the rational roots theorem to determine the set of possible rational roots. The factors of the constant term, ao = 2, are ±1 and ±2, and the factors of the leading coefficient, a4 = 3, are ±1 and ±3, which means that the rational roots are among the following:

. '

Since we're told that the equation has exactly two positive rational roots, we only need to consider the four possibilities I, .!, 2, and 3_. Substituting each of these into the polynomial, we find that x = .! and x '= ~ satisfy t:e equation. The larger of these roots is 2, and


that is our answer.


Logarithms are exponents. Given the equation bY = x, the exponent is y, which means that the logarithm is y. More precisely, we'd say that y is the logarithm base b of x, and write y = 10gbX. The laws of logarithms follow directly from the corresponding laws of exponents. In the equations below, b is ~tive number

that's not equal to 1. ' . .

• 10gb X =y means by = x

• The function y = 10gb X is the inverse of the exponential function y = ir, The domain of the '

function f(x) = logbx is x :> O,and the range is the set of all real numbers. If b > I, the function is increasing (see the diagram below); if 0 < b < I, the function is decreasing.


j -

• logb(x1X2)::: log~xl + 10gb x2 X

• 10gb _l = log, Xl -10gb X2


• 10gb (r) = a logbx

-,. I~ll=x ~

-~7::~~~l!1l}tl~ga~) '~'logbx (this,is th€'-change-~f~base formula, ~ith a;1; 1) . .'

~~Md~firt~~rt~nt'baseSJ0tlogarithm:$ are b'= 10-"[because.we use a base- 10 (decimal) number' - emiT and b = e, wftel'e e is an irrational constant, approximately equal to 2.718. The selection of this seemingly unusual number is based on considerations in calculus {which we'll review in the next chapter)

'~' r.. :~_:'~port~tl~~~,eJ~ctip}l £(x) == log,;\:,:isccdIed t~~~riat~~~l?ogarithm function.

I r,~ .. ..-,.-_~_ ,~: -, J..,J-" ~r;:::-~~'-'- ~ -~ -,' . '-T - . -_-_' _...,' :--. -y '-.'

-- _d' 'on tlle GRE.'MatjiSitbjectTest, the "e" is understood, so 10 x means log.x. It's important to

be aware of trus,$~cem many precalculus and calculus texts=-andon caleu ato s-log X denotes log11lx and the abbneviation for loge x is In x.

Solution: Since 4X,= (22)X =~2x '= (2xf, theequation is equivalentto (2Xf - 2x - 3 = 0, which is quadratic

~ 2X. The quad_l'a.tic formula gives: . 1 + J13

2x = -:--


Since(!x;eannef.,henegative, we have to disregard the negative value on the right-hand side

and conclil'rde' fRat:· . _

... _ ".' - 1 + .Jii .' - . " r:;;::. '.

ThereFore, X= 10g2 ...• = Jog2(1+-v13)-1.

. ,','---. . .,' 2" _. .

Ifr+y2= value of k.

Solution: Adding 2xy:to b?fh sides of the first equation gives (x + y)2= 16xy, which is equivalent to

1 ,~. , .

[ - (x + y)F = xy. Taking the log of both sides of this equation gives:

4 _'. .

210g[! (x + y)] = log x + log Y => log[l(x + y)] = lOogx + logy) 442

Therefore, k = L 4'

Since ~ logz_x, the second- factor, 1 + logxY,Js 'e9ualto~- -

. .--

logx x + log, y = logx xy


Applying the change-of-base formula, (log, b) (log, c) = loga c, we find that: [log, xY] [logXY (xY)] = log (xY) = y


Although trigonometry began as the study of triangles, the usefulness of the trigonometric functions now extends far beyond this simple geometric form. We'll begin our study by reviewing the definitions of the trig functions, first with acute angles in right triangles and then with arbitrary angles and real numbers.


The classical definitions of the six trig functions-sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangentuse the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. In the figure below, triangle ABC is a right triangle with its right angle at C. The lengths of the legs BC and AC are denoted a and b, respectively, and the length of the hypotenuse AB is denoted c.

sin A = °PP =!!_ hyp c

cos A = adj = £ hyp c

tan A = opp =!!_ adj b

esc A = hyp =!:_ ..J_,

0PP a - S~ fA.

secA= hyp =~ _.j_... adj b _- Co~{:\

cot A = adj = £:;_ J-, A ~.--------__'__' C

oppa~ b



Angles A and B are complementary (that is, the sum of their measures is 90°), and notice that sin A = CQS B. That is, the sine of B's complement (namely, A) is cos B, which is where the name "cosine" comes from (complement's sine). The same is true for the other pairs of cofunctions-tangent and cotangent, secant and cosecant. You'll also notice certain reciprocal relationships among the functions. Cosecant is the reciprocal of sine, secant is the reciprocal of cosine, and cotangent is the reciprocal of tangent. Finally, all of the trig functions can be written in terms of sine and cosine: The reciprocal relationships take care of secant and cosecant, and it's easy to see that tangent is the ratio of sine to cosine, and cotangent is the ratio of cosine to sine.

Two special right triangles allow us to determine the numerical values of the trig functions of the angles 30°, 45°, and 60°.




sin 45° = cos 45° = ~ - ~·S.in30° = cos 60° =.!_ csc30° = sec 60° = 2

,,2- 2. . 2 I

csc45° = sec 45° = J2 cos 30° = sin60° = J3 sec 30° = csc60° = ~

2 . ,,3

1 ,n

tan 45° = cot 45° = i: tan 30° = cot 60° = r;::.~ ~ tan 60° = cot 30° = J3 -

,,3 -..5


TIle definitions above work only for acute angles (that is, ones whose measures are between 0° and 90°), but they can be extended to any size angle. In the xy-plane, consider the ray along the positive x-axis whose initial point is the origin, O. This ray can be rotated in the plane either clockwise or counterclockwise any number of degrees to form an angle, 6, with the positive x-axis as its initial side. By convention, counterclockwise rotation results in a positive angle, and clockwise rotation gives a negative angle. Choose any point P: (r, y)---except the origin-on the terminal side of the angle and let r be the distance from 0 to P. Then the values of the six trig functions of 6 are as follows:


. 0 y r
SID =- cscO=-
r y
x r x
ca;0=- secO=- x
r X
tana=}L x
x y, If Ibe Ierminal side of 6 coincides with one of the coordinate axes, either x or y will be zero, and exadlytwooftbe trig functions tan, csc, sec, or cot will be undefined. For example, if 6 = 90°, then at every point P on the terminal side, the value ofxis zero, so ,tan 6 and sec 6 are undefined. Notice also that the trig fluldMIIlS of arbitrary angles can be positive, negative, or zero. Since r is always positive, the sign of eadl trig fuod:ion depends on the sign of x or y (or both). For example, if the terminal side of 6 lies in the SPOIOd qoadrant-as it does in the illustration above-then x is negative and y is positive. So sin 6 and pmitive, but the values of the other four trig functions ofFwill be negative.


aIIiIl!Dliide hut equivalent definition of the trig functions utilizes the unit circle in the xy-plane. This it radius of 1, is centered at the origin, and has the equation x2 + y2 = 1. Let 6 be any real measure the arc of length 161 alpng the circle, starting at the point A (1, 0). If 6 is positive, the circle in the counterclockwise direction; if 6 is negative, measure a length 161 Clockwise. If P: (r, y) ..... Us the endpoint of the arc, then the trig functions of 6 are defined as follows:

sine = y

1 csce=-


1 sece=x

x cotS=-


cosfl= x

tan B = K x


length of arc AP = e


A: (1,0)

.. 1 /

unit eire e

These definitions are the same as the preceding ones if we interpret e as the radian measure of the central angle. Recall that if the central angle in a circle of radius r subtends an arc of length s, then the radian measure of the angle is defined as ~. In particular, if the central angle measures 180°, it subtends half the circle, and its arc length is s = -21 &1tr) = 1tr; thus, the radian measure of this angle is e = ~ = 1tr = 1t.

r r

This gives the conversion between radian measure and degree measure: 1t radians = 180°

Using this equation, we have the following correspondences for some special small angles:

Memorizing these four makes it easier to determine the radian measure of larger special angles; for example, the radian measure of a 150° angle is 51t , since 150° = 5(30°). Throughout the remainder of this

6 '

section and in the review questions,' we'll use radian measure exclusively.


In this section, we'll give you a list of some of the most important trig identities and formulas; these am equations that involve trig functions that hqld true for any values of the argument(s) for which both sides .are defined. All of these identities can be proved easily using the definitions given above. Remember Ihat • for any number k except -1, the notation sink X denotes (sin x)\ the same is true for the other trig func-

tions. -

Fundamental Identities

tan O = sinS cos O


cos O cote=-sine

1 cscS=-sine

1 sece=-cos O


Opposite-Angle Identities

sinH)) = - sin e

cos(-e) = cos e

(These identities say that siTIe is an odd function and cosine is ,911 even function.)

Pythagorean Identities

sin2e + cos2e = 1

Addition and Subtraction Formulas

sin(a + (3)= sin a cos 13 + cos a sin 13

cos(a + (3) = cos a cos 13 - sin a sin 13


sin(a - (3) = sin <i C9S 13 - cos U sin 13

cos( a - (3) = cos'o cos 13 + sin a sin 13


'n( A). tan n-t tanjl

ta a + p = --------'_

1- tanrz tan ~

(A) tan a - tan~.'

tan a - p = --------'-


Double-Angle Formulas

sin 2e = 2 sin e cos e

Complementary-Angle (Reduction) Formulas

sin ( ~ - a ) = cos a '

cos ( ~ - a ) = sin a

Half-Angl~ Formulas

sin~ = ±J1-cosa

2 - 2

cos~ = ±~l+cosa

2 2

ILn~= sina r 2 l+cosa I



1t 1t 1t

Since 12 = "3 - "4 ' we can use the formula for tan( a - ~) to find that:

mnl~ =mn(~-~)= ltan~~tan~

+tm-tm- 3 4




J3-1 1-J3 = 1+J3 • 1-J3



Another way to get th. is ~result would be to notice that 2 = ~ (~), so the half-angle for-

mula for tangent gives: 12 2 6

. 1t

1t 1 (1t) Sffi-

tan 12 =tm"Z "6 = 1 61t

+ cos- 6

1 = 2

1+ J3 2


= 2+J3

1 2-J3

= 2+J3 • 2-J3

= 2.:J3

Solution: We first find the value of (OS 2e:

. (1)2 7

cos 2e = 1 - 2 sin2e =.1 - 2"3 = 9

Therefore, since secant is the reciprocal of cosine,

1 1 9

sec29=--=-=cos 29 7 7




A function f is said to be periodic if a constant k exists such that j(x + k) = f(x) for all x (such that both x and x + k are in the domain of j). It's clear from the definitions that ~ll of the trig functions are periodic with k = 2n, since 2n corresponds to one complete rotation, so the terminal side of e + 2n coincides with the terminal side of e. However, it turns out that k = n also works for the t~egt_and c~t functions. Therefore, these two functions are said to be periodic with their period-tfie smallest positive value of k such that fix + k) = fix) always holds-equal to n; the other four trig function~ 2n.


From the definitions, we can determine the domain and range of each of the six trig functions.

• The functions Jin x and cos x are defined for every real x, and the range of each of these functions is the set of y such that Iyl ~ 1; that is, the closed interval [-I, 1].

• The function csc :x is defined for all values of x for which sin x:;t; 0, that is, for all x except multiples of 1t; the range of this function consists of all y such that IYI ~ 1 .

• The function sec x is defined for all values of x for which cos ~ :;t; 0, that is, for all x except odd multiples of ! 1t; the range of this function consists of all y such that IYI ~-1 .

• The function Jan x is defined for all values of x for which cos x :;t; 0, that is, for all x except odd multiples of In; the range of this function consists of all real numbers y.

• The function cot x is defined for all values of x for which sin x :;t; 0, that is, for all x except multiples ofn; the range of this function also consists of, all reat y. '

sing this information, we can sketch the graphs of the six trig functions in the xy-plane:



y = cot x




Suppose we wanted to find all real numbers x such that sin x = .!.. We could immediately choose


x = ~. or x ~ 561t , but there are infinitely many values of x that satisfy this eq~ation (each equal to one of

the aforementioned values plus or minus any multiple of 2n). The function sin x is not one-to-one, because for every value of y in the range of sin x, there's more than one x such that sin x = y. So if we want to define an inverse function for sine, we must first restrict the domain of sin x, to obtain a one-to-one function. The

standard way to do this is to define a new function, denoted Sin x, that's identical to sin x except that its domain is restricted to the closed interval -: ~]. This ~tionis one-to-one (and onto), so it has a well- .

. . 2 2 .

defined inverse, which is denoted by sm IX or arcsin x. [Remember that sin+r is not the same as (sin x):',


The former is the notation for a number whose sine is x; the latter is the reciprocal of sin x.] Therefore,

arcsin x is the unique number (or angle) between -1t and ~ (inclusive), whose sine is x.

. . 2- 2

Similar methods are used to define the inverses of the other trig functions; for simplicity, we will simply

record all the results in a table: '"

,\-c..Co s: X z: ¥. -Q&-c~h-t>( arccot X == 1. -Q,.c~X:

arc:cscX= Jl . V


Function Domain Range
arcsin x I xl::; 1 [-~, ~]
arccos x I xl::; 1 [O,n]
arctan x all x (-~, ~)
arccscx Ixl~1 [-~, ~] except 0
arcsecx Ixl~1 [O,n] except ~
arccotx all x (0, n) Ira = arctan x, then, as the following diagram shows: ~I




cos a = -===

-JX2 + 1

. a x

sm = --===

-JX2 + 1





Therefore, sin(2 arctan x) = sin28 = 2sin8.cos8 -

x 1

=2· .-===

-J x2 + 1 -J x2 + 1



2 - 2

Let a = arccos r;: ; then cos a = r;: , and:

_ ... - ,,5 ,,5

sin n = .)1-=''''= ~I- (Js J = JI-~ = ~

3 3

Next, let p = arccos ~; then cos p = cz> and:

,,10 ,,10


In order to evaluate a + p, we will first determine sin(a + P):

sin(a + P) = sin a cos p + cos a sin p

1 3 2 1


J5 J10 J5 J10


.: J2

! .


. 2 3 l' 2 3

Smce both - and ~ are greater than r;: both a = arccos r;: and p = arccos ~

J5. ,,10 ,,2 . ,,5 ,,10

are less than ~ . This means that their sum-is less t.han.'2:. ,so the fact that sin(a + P)= J21

4 2 2

----- .. .,. ... ~~

tells us that a + P = arcsin ~ = 2:.. ,,2 4



A full fifty percent of the questions on the GRE Math Subject Test mvolve calculus, which includes differential equations. We'U review single-variable calculus in this chapter, multivariable calculus in Chapter 3, and differential equations in Chapter 4.


Let's begin our review of limits by looking at the limit of a sequence. Although a sequence is formally defined as a function that's defined on the set of positive integers, we usually think of a sequence as an

infinite, ordered list of terms: t'? 0 I "7 AJ ~ \ ~~ - L \ -c £.

Xl' Xl' xS' ...

For now, we'll restrict the values of the terms to real numbers. We say that a sequence, (xJ, approaches (or has) a limit, L, if, for every £ > 0, no matter how small, there's an integerN suCh that the clif£eXfnce between Xu and L is less than E for every It > N. If a value of L exists that satisfies this criterion, then we say the sequence is convergent, and that it converges to' Li this is written x" ...-7 L or lim x,, = L. If there's no real number L with this property, that is, if the limit does not exist, the sequence is said to be divergent


For example, let's consider the sequence (x n)' where x n = (2n -1) . The first few terms of this sequence are Xl = I, x2 = ~, X3 = ~, .... If we rewrite this equation f~r xn as xn = 2 - (;;), it's clear that as n increases, the quantity .!. decreases to zero, so the terms x should approach a limit of 2. We prove this

n n

conjecture as follows: Let e > 0 be given. Then, if N > ..!, every term x with n > N will be within e of 2;

£ n

thus, the limit of this sequence is indeed equal to 2.

There are two types of divergent sequences that are often described as though they had a limit:

1. If, for any choice of,M > 0 (no matter how large), we have x > M for every ri greater than some N (which will, in general, depend on M), then we say that the sequence diverges to hlfinity (00) and write xn ~ 00, or lim xn = 00, even though 00 doesn't denote a real number. For example, the sequence (xn) with xn = 2n -1 diverges to 00.

2. If, for any choice of M > 0 (no matter how large), we have x < -M for every n greater than some N (which will, in general, depend on M), then we say 'blat the sequence ~iyerges tominus infinity and write xn ~ -00 or lim xn = -00. As an example, the sequence (x) with

xn = 2n - n2 diverges to-oo,

Of course, there are divergent sequences that don't fall into either of these two latter categories. For example, the sequence (xn) with xn = (_l)n diverges; the terms simply oscillate between -1 and I, so the sequence doesn't approach a unique limiting value.

One more important definition: A sequence (xn) is said to be monotonic if it's increasing (xn ~ xn + 1 for every n from some point on) or decreasing (xn ~ xn + 1 for every n from some point on). The sequences (2 - .!.) and (2n -1) are increasing, (2n - n2) is decreasing, but ((-In is not monotonic since it oscillates. n

A_ Some of the most useful facts about convergent sequences are summarized below:

~ 1. Every convergent sequence is bounded; that is, there exists a positive number M such that the absolute value of every term of the sequence is no greater than M. [The converse of this stateJ?ent is not true; for example, the sequence (xJ with Xu = (-It is bounded.:-but not conver&~nt.]

2. If a sequence is monotonic and bounded, then it's convergent.

3. If k is a constant, and (a ) converges to A, then (lea ) ~ kA.

n n

4. If (an) converges to A and (b) converges to B, then

(a + b) ~ A + B,

n n

(a -b)~A-B

n n '

(a b ) ~ AB, and

n n

(::J -; ~ (assuming that B • 0)

5. (a) If k is a positive constant, then ( ~k) ~ O.

(b) If Ikl > I, then ( :n ) ~ O.


6. Assume that (a ) and (c ) are sequences that converge to the same limit, L. H(b) is a sequence

n " "

such that a :s; b :s; c for every 11 > N, then (b ) also converges to L. This is sometimes called the

~ "/I II· "

sandwich (or squeeze) theorem, since the terms of the sequence (b,) are sandwiched between

those of (a ) and (c ).

" II

7. If all = !(n), then the sequence (a,,) converges to L if j(x) converges to L as x ~ 00 (which may be decided using L'Hopital's rule).

Rule 7 is included in the list for completeness, but we'll postpone illustrating its use until we've reviewed L'Hopital's rule (later in this chapter).

(e) x" = (cos nll)e-n

Example 2.1 In each case, show that the sequence (XII) is convergent: 4n3 -n2+5n

(a) XII = 2n3+6n2 -11

(b) x = .In + k -.rn (k is a constant)


4) XII = 1·3·5···(2n -1) olec~s.~w ~

\./\\. 2 . 4 . 6 ... (2n) ,

~ XII = (-1)"(n\ )


(a) Dividing both the numerator and denominator of the expression for xn by tl3 and applying rules 4 and 5, we see that this sequence converges to 2:

1 5 4--+n n2

6 11 ~ 2+---

n n3

4-0+0 = 2 2+0-0

(b) Notice that if k is negati ve,then the sequence will start with, the first integer tl that's greater than or equal to -Ie (otherwise Vn + k would not be real). A sequence can start at any n, and neither its convergence nor its limit will be affected. We can rewrite the terms x as follows:


( rr=: I) .In+k +.[;; k

x" = 'Vo n + k - ...; n • .[;+k . ..r;; .. = .J,;+k .rn

n+k+ n n+k+ n

Now, for alln «.« wehaveVn + k +..In '?: ..r;:;,so x" == ~ Fn:::;; ~. Because the sequence

n+k+ n vn

(1) . 1 k rul

Fn converges to zero (rule Sa, with k = '2), the sequence .In converges to zero ( . e 3). Now

apply the sandwich theorem (rule 6), with the sequence (all) every term of which equals zero, and


the sequence (c ) with c = r : Since a ::;; x :s; c for every n '?: -k; we know that the sequence (x )

II Il...;n 1/ II II II

also converges to zero.


(c) The firstfew terms of this sequence are Xl =~, x1 = (&)(~) = %, X3 = (~)( ~)(~) = ~, ....

Since X'I + 1 = XII • [(2n + 1)/(2n + 2)] and [(2n + 1)/(2n + 2)] < 1, we see that Xu 1 < xn' so the sequence is decreasing; and because all the terms are positive, the sequence is bounded below by zero. Since the sequence is monotonic and bounded, rule 2 assures us that it converges.

(d) The sequence (c ), with e = ~,converges to zero (rule Sa, with k = 2), so the sequence (a ) wlth

n n, 11. n

a = -1 also converges to zero (rule 3). Since a S x ~ e for every n, the sandwich theorem

II n2 II /1 II

tells us that the sequence (xn) also converges to zero. This example shows us that an oscillating

sequence may converge.

(e) The sequence (cos n") diverges, but as we'll see, the sequence (xn) converges. The sequence (c ) withe = e-ll converges to zero (rule Sb, with k = e), so the sequence (a ) with a = -e-.l also

II n . II n

converges to zero (rule. 3). Since a $ x $ c for every 11. (because -1 ~ cos n'l S I), the sandwich

11 n !l

theorem tells us that the sequence (x) also converges to zero.


Let fbe a real-valued function whose domain is a subset of the real line. We need a way to talk about the behavior off near a point x = a, that mayor may not be in the domain off. Let (x,) be a sequence (whose terms are in the domain of f), that converges to a; if the sequence If(x)) converges to a limit, L, then we write either lim, ~ uf(x)= L or f(x) -+ L as x -+ a, and call L the limit of f(x) as x approaches a.

This is the general definition of the limit of the function f, but there are two other types of limits for functions that are very useful. If every term of the convergent sequence (xn) used above is less than a, then we say that x approaches a from below (or from the left), and write x -+ Q-. If, for every such sequence (Xl), the sequence If(xll)) approaches a limit I, then we calll the left-hand limit of J(x) as x approaches a,

and write lim {(x) = I.

1: ~._J'

On the other hand, if every term of the sequence (1) is greater than a, we say that X approaches a from above (or from the right), and write X ~ a+. If, for every such sequence (xn), the sequence If(x)) approaches a limit 'I then we call r the right-handlimit off(x) as x approaches a, and write limx-')Qj(x) = r.

!It order for [ to have a limit as x approaches (1., the left-hand limit and the right-hand limit must both exist and they must be identical. If this is the case, the common value of these limits is the limit of [(x) as x approaches a.

Let's look at an example. Consider the function g given by:

(x) = {x + 1 if x < 1

g x+2if x~l


Then, as its graph shows:

lim g(x) = 2 but lim g(x) = 3

x_1- x_1+

Since the left-hand limit at 1 is not equal to the right-hand limit- at I, the limit of g(x) as x approaches 1 does not exist.

An equivalent definition of the limit of a function does not involve sequences explicitly. To say that ~ f(x} = L means that, given any E > 0 (no matter how small), we can always find a positive number d su'c'h that: . ~ ..

o <Ix- al < S => I!(x)- LI < £

This is the (in)famous £-8 definition of a limit. It says that we can make f(x) as close as we like to L, as long as we take x dose enough to Q.

When working with limits of functions, the following rules are often used:

1. lim x = a, lim k = k (for any constant k), and lim r" = a.'l.

1"-+0 x ...... ~ J:-W

2. If lim f(x) = L1 and lim g(x) = L2, then

X~Q x_a

lim [((x) + g(-l)] = L] + L2


lim [((x) - g(x)J = L1 - L2


(J(xn)) converges to t. -

4. Assume that lim f(x) :::: L and lim h(x) = L. If there is a positive number B such that

x~n X~a

f(x) ~ g(x) ~ h(x) for all x satisfying 0 < Ix - al < {) ,then lim g(x) = L. This again is the

sandwich (or squeeze) theorem. HQ


Evaluate each of the following limits: (a) lim x-1 (b) lim x-1

x_I ..rx + 1 x .... l ..rx-1

lim x-1 (c) ~1-lx-11

(d) 1im[x-1]

x ... l-

[In (d), the symbol [x -1] denotes the greatest in



(a) Since lim (x -1) = limx - liml :: 1-1 = 0, and lim ( .rx + 1) =

x_I x ... l x-+1 1'-+1

lim.rx + lim 1= J1 + 1 = 2, we have lim ~- 1 = Q = 0 .

x-+1 x_1 ;r-+l V X + 1 2

(b) Since lim (x -1) = 0 and lim ( .rx -1) = Ji -1 = 0, we must first algebraically manipulate the

x-+l %-+1

given expression to find the limit:

lim x-I = Jim (£ +lxfx-l) = lim(£ +1) =.Ji +1=2

.r-+l ..r; -1 x-+1 .,J; -1 x-+1-


(c) Since we're approaching 1 from below, we notice that for every x < I, the value of x -1 is negative, so:

lim x-I = lim { X-I} = lim (-1) =-1

X"-'Jl-jX -11 x-->l- -(x -1) x-ol-

(d) For every value of x such that 0 ~ x < I, we have -1 ~ x-I < 0, so [x-I] :::: -1. Therefore:

llm[x-1] = lim(-I) =-1

., .... 1- x--+1-


We can also look at the behavior of a function f(x) as x increases (or decreases) without bound .. To mimic the E....() definition given above, we say that f(x) ~ M as x -4 00 if, for every E > 0 (no matter how small), we can End a positive number 0 such that x> 0 implies I/(x)- MI < E. On the other hand, we say that ~ x ~ m as x -4 -- if, for every E > 0 (no matter how small), we can find a negative number 0 such that x < 0 im lies (x)- m < E.

(d) tim.!


Example 2.3 Find the value of each of these limits (if they exist):


(a) Dividing the numerator and denominator by il gives us:

1 1

2 2--+-

lim 2x -x+l =lim x Xl 2-0+0 =2

.,-- x2 + 4 X-+OO 4 1 + 0



This tells us that the graph of y :::: (2:il- x + I)/(il + 4) would have y = 2 as a horizontal asymptote.

(b) Dividing the numerator and denominator by 0 gives us:

2 1 1

2 ---+-

lim2x -x+1 = lim x x2 x3 = 0-0+0 =0

x__ x3 + 4 X__ 4 1 + a



This tells us that the graph of y :::: (2;il- X + 1)1 (r + 4) would have y = 0 (the r-axis) as a horizontal asymptote.


-7t (c) We know, from the graph of y = arctan z, that lim (arctan x) = -:

r_ 2

Y n 2

Y= arctan x ---.,.._----+x

-Tt 2

(d) As the graph below shows, we can write lim (~) = --00 and lim (.!.) = 00; but

r .... O'- x x .... O+ X

lim (!) does not exist, not only because the left- and right-hand limits are not the same, but " .... 0 x

also because they're both infinite!



Intuitively, a real-valued function f is continuous if the graph of the equation y = f(x) contains no breaks. To make this more precise, we say that a function f is continuous at a if lim,r .... J(x) = f(a ).

Notice that this definition involves CheclGng three thingS. First, J must be diiliiled at x = a, so that f_(a) actually exists; second, th~ limit of f(x) as x approaches a must exist (and be finite); and third. this limit must be equal to the value of f at x = a. If f is continuous at every point in its domain, then we simply say that f is continuous.

Let's look at some examples. The functions whose graphs are shown below are continuous at all points except at X= I, but the reason that f fails to be continuous at x = 1 is different in each case.

y y y


3 2


y = f(;r.)


f(x) = x2 -1 x-I

) {X+1 ifx <1 (x =

g x+2 ifx~1

hex) = {3x + 1 ifx *1 iix=1


The function f is discontinuous at x = 1 because f is not defined at this point. The function g is discontinuous at x = 1 because, even though g is defined at x = I, lim: 41 g(x) does not exist (since the left-hand limit at 1 is not equal to the right-hand limit at I, as we saw above). Finally, the function h is discontinuous at x = 1 because, although h is defined at x = 1 and lim, -11 h(x) exists (it's equal to 2), the value of h at x = 1 is 3, so lim Ih(x) ¢ h.(l).


The list below summarizes some important properties of continuous functions .

..J The following functions are continuous everywhere:

• Every constant function, f(x) = k

• Every polynomial function, f(x) = aliT' + an_1x"-t + ". + alx + ao

• Every exponential function, [(x) = P (with k > 0)

2. The following functions are continuous everywhere they're defined:

• Every function of the form[(x) = x', where r is a rational number

• The logarithm function,[(x) = log x

• The trig functions

3. If the functions [ and g are both continuous at a, then each of the following functions is also continuous at a:

• [+g

• [-g

• [g

f (provided that g(a) ¢ 0) g

4. If f is continuous at a and g is continuous at [(a), then the composite function g 0 [is continuous at x = a.


I(x)= :-2

is continuous everywhere?

ifx~2 ifx:::;2

What value must we choose for k so that the function


Solution: Regardless of the value of k, this function is continuous for every x ~ 2 since, for all such x,f(x) is the quotient of two polynomials (which are everywhere continuous), where the polynomial in the denominator is never equal to zero. So the question is, What should k be for this function to be continuous at x = 2? By definition, 1 is continuous at 2 if limx -I 2/(x) =

1(2), which _gives us: .

lim x3 -8 = k

",...2 x-2

lim (x-2Xx2 +2x+4) = k

;H2 x-2

lim(x2 + 2x+ 4):::: k

% .... 2

22+2.2+4=k 12=k

Letfbethe function defined on the intervall = (0, 1) as follows:

{o if x is irrational

I(x) = 1 if x = m (m lowest terms, m and. n are inEgea;s with n > 0)

n n

Show that f is continuous at every irrational point in I and discontinuous at every rational point in 1.

Solution: Let a be an irrational number in I, and let E > 0 be given. We want to show that there exists a positive number 0 such that

Ix - a[ < S => f(X) < E

Choose a positive integer q such that ! is less than E. Then, in any open interval centered q

at a and contained within I, there are fewer than 1 + 2 + ... + (q - 1) = q(q -1)/2 positive

rational numbers less than 1 and of the form m, where m and n are positive integers and n

n is less than q. From this finite list of rational numbers, choose the one+call it r-that's

closest to a, and let 0 = IT - al. Then, within the open .interval (a - r, a +r), the value of l{x)


will be less than ! I so fix) will certainly be less than E.. This establishes that 1 is continuous q

at every irrational a in 1.

To show that f is discontinuous at every rational a in I, choose an arbitrary rational number Q = P_ in this interval, where p and q are positive integers and E. is in lowest

q q

terms. If we can find a sequence (xn) that converges to a such that the sequence (j(xn») does

not converge tof(a}, then we will have established thatfis not continuous at a. To do this, simply consider the sequence (x) where x" = a - n1. For every integer n greater than


1r.::-' the terms of the sequence are in (0, 1) and increase monotonically to a. Since every a,,2

term of this sequence is irrational, the value off(xn) is 0 for every n, which means that the


sequence (j(xn)) converges trivially to O. Since (j(x )) ~ 0 but f(a) = - ::f:. 0, we conclude

n q

that f is not continuous at a.


There are several important theorems of calculus in which continuity plays a central role. In each of these theorems~ontinu~!Y.' of a real-valued function on a closed interval of the real line is an essential hypothesis; that is, if the function is not continuous on a closed interval, then none of the statements below is necessarily true. Iff is defined on a closed interval [a, b], then continuity at the left-hand endpoint, a, means that lim, ~ a+ f(x) = f(a), and continuity of f at the right-hand endpoint, b, means that lim, ~ b-f(x) = f(b).

Th.e Extreme Value Theorem: Iffis a function that's continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then f attains an absolute minimum value, m, at some point C E [a, b], and an absolute maximum value, M, at some point d E [a, b]. That is, there exist points c and d in [a, b] such that

f(c) $,f(x) $,f(d) holds true for every x E [a, b].


--- m

Bolzano's Theorem: Iff is a function that's continuous on a closed interval [a, b] such that f(a) andf(b) have opposite signs, then there's a point c between a and b such thatf(c) = O.


y = j(x)


Bolzano's theorem is generalized in the following theorem:

The Intermediate Value Theorem: Let tbe a function that's continuous on a closed interval [Q,li]. Let m be the absolute minimum value of Ion [a, b], and let M be the absolute maximum value of Ion [a, b]. Then, for every number Y such that m ~ Y ~ M, there is at least one value of c E [a, b] such that/(c) = Y.


y = f(x)

X E [0, 11 then

Solution: The statement is true, and in fact it has a name: Brouwer's fixed-point theorem. If 1(0) = 0 or if /(1) = I, then the conclusion is immediate, so in what follows, we'll assume that o <j(O) $ 1 and 0 $/(1) < 1. H we define a new function g by the equation g(x) = I(x) - x, then g is continuous on [0, 1]. The value oig at 0 is equal to 1(0), which is positive, and the value of gat 1 is f(1) - I, which is negative. By Bolzano's theorem, there must be a point c E [a, b] such that g(c) = o. This last equation means that I(c) - C = 0 Of, equivalently,/(c) = c.



For a real-valued function f of a single real variable, the derivative off is the function r whose value at x is

f'(x) = lim f(x + h) - f(x)

h__"O h

if this limit exists. Geometrically, the difference quotient, [f(x + h) - f(x))/h, gives the slope of the secant line through the points (x, f(x)) and (x + h, f(x + h)). If the limit above exists, then, as h ---t 0, this secant line becomes the tangent line to the graph off at the point (x, f(x)):


secant line

y = f(x)

and let h ---t 0

The value of the derivative,f'(x), gives the slope of the tangent line, which is, by definition, the slope of the curve at x.

To illustrate this definition, consider the function f(x) = r. Its derivative is found in this way:

f'(x) = lim !(x + h) - f(x)

h__"O h

= lim (x + h)2 - x2

h__"O h

= lim h(2x + h)

h__"O h

= lim (2x+h)



This tells us, for example, that the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = r, at the point where x = I, is 1'(1) = 2 • 1 = 2, so the equation of this tangent line is y = 2x-1.


Not all functions have derivatives. For example! the absolute-value function, fix) = I xl, is not differentiable at x = 0, because the limit

does not exist (since the left-hand limit is -I, but the right-hand limit is +1). Loosely speaking, a continuous function will fail to have a derivative at a point where its ra h has a sha comer (like the absolute-

value ction) or a cusp; t at is, nctions with derivatives have smooth graphs.



--------_..~-------.x " derivative does not exist

atx =0

Other examples of functions that do not have derivatives can be given by exploiting the following important fact about differentiability: Iff is not continuous at a, then f is not differentiable at a. For example, the function f whose value at every rational point on the real line is 0 and whose value at every irrational point is I, is continuous nowhere, so it's differentiable nowhere. It's important to notice that the examples illustrated above show us that the converse of the fact given above about differentiability and continuity is not true: The functions y = Ixl and y = ~ are continuous at x = 0, but they're not differentiable there. S.o differentiability implies continuity, but continuity by itself doesn't guarantee differentiability. 6-

We've used a prime to denote the derivative of a function. Another very common notation for derivatives of functions is called Leibniz notation. The difference quotient used in the definition of the derivative is a change in f divided by a change in x; that is, we can write:

f'(x) = lim f(x+fh)- f(x) = lim ~ = df

dx~O fh dx~O fh dx

Therefore, the derivative of f with respect to x can be written either as f'(x) or, in Leibniz notation, as df / dx. We think of the symbol d / dx as the differentiation operator; that is, it says to differentiate whatever follows it; for example (d/ dx)(.x2) = 2x. The prime notation and the Leibniz notation for derivatives can be used interchangeably.

When we want to find the derivative of a function, we usually use a table of standard derivatives and rules that make the computation easy, rather than going back to the definition every time. Following is a list of rules, all of which can be proved directly from the definition of a derivative. These rules must be memorized for the GRE Math Subject Test.


1. Derivative of a sum

The derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives: (f+g)'(x) = f'{x) + g'{x)

2. Derivative of a constant times a function: (kj)'{x) = kf'{x)

3. Derivative of a product

The product rule says that: (fg)'(x) = f{x)g'{x) + f'{x)g{x)

4. Derivative of a quotient

The quotient rule says that: (fJ' (x) = g(x)!'(x) - f(x)g'(x)

g [g(X~2

5. Derivative of a composite function

The chain rule says that: (f 0 u)'(x) = f'{u{x)) • u'{x)

6. Derivative of an inverse function

The inverse-function rule says that if r1 is the inverse off, and fhas a nonzero derivative at xo'

1 .

thenj " has a derivative at Yo = f{xo)' and U-1),(yo) = --.


The chain rule is easy to remember when it's written using Leibniz notation. Iff is a function of u and u is a function of x, then the derivative of the composite function, f 0 u, with respect to x, is:

df df du


dx du dx

This equation makes it look like the du's cancel out of the fractions, even though the expressions in this equation aren't fractions. The rule for differentiating an inverse function is also easy to remember in Leibniz notation. If the derivative of y = f{x) is written dy / dx and the derivative of the inverse function, x = g(y), is written dx/ dy, then

dx 1


dy dy


which looks like a simple identity if we think of the derivatives as simple fractions.

Of all of these rules, the chain rule is arguably the most widely used, and we can write it in an alternative (and more compact) form. In Leibniz notation, the chain rule is

d df du

-[f(u(x»] = - • - dx du dx

which we can simplify, using the notation of differentials. To illustrate this, consider the function u{x) = :xl, whose derivative is du / dx = 2x. If we move the dx to the right-hand side of this equation-as if du/ dx were a fraction with numerator du and denominator dx-we get du = 2x dx. This says that du, the differential of u, is equal to 2x times dx, the differential of x. A principal use of differentials is in providing us with a simpler way of writing derivative formulas. For example, it's easy to show that the derivative of xk (where k is a constant) is equal to k;0-1. So, if u is a differentiable function of x, then the chain rule tells us that the derivative of Uk is kUk-1{du/ dx). Rather than writing d{uk)/ dx = (kUk-1){du/ dx), we can use differentials and write d{uk) = kUk-1du, which means the same thing.


In the list below, k is any constant, a is any positive constant, and u is any differentiable function.

d(k) == 0

d(uk) = lai-1du d(eU) == e" du

d(aU) == (loga)aUdu 1 dOogu)=-du


d(logQu)= ( 1. )du (a~t:l) uloga


d(sinu) = cosu du d(cosu)=-sinu du d(tanu) = sec2 u du d(cot u) == - csc2 U du d(sec u) == sec u tan u du ~(cscu) = -CSCltcotu du

d(arcsinu)= b


du d(arctanu) = --2 l+u


Find the derivative of each of the followi1lg: log(sin2x) (a) !(x}=re-z1 -x-3 (b) g(x)=-~__;.. oosx


(a) f'(x)==x3(-3x2e-?)+3x2e-.r"' -1=3x2e-?(1-x3)-1

( ) 2sinxcosx. . 2 )

OOSX • 2 (-smx)log(sm x 2cos2x+sin2xlog(.sin2x)

(b) g'(x) = sm x ==, .

coszx cos2 xsinx


(e) h'(x) == 2Tx = 1

1 + (J;.)2 2J;.(1+x)



Example ~ What's the equation of the normal line through the origin to the curve

V y=(x·-l)31og(x+l)?

Solution: First, well need to find the slope of the line tangent to the curve at the indicated point; the normal line's slope will then be the opposite reciprocal of the tangent line's slope. Since y' = (X4 _1)3 _1_ + 3(x4 _1)2. 4x3• log(x + 1) I the slope of the line tangent to the curve

x+l '

at the point where x= 0 is y'(0) = -1, which. tells us that the slope of the normal line is 1.

The equation of the line with slope 1 through the origin is y = x.


Let f be a continuous function such. that J'(a) :I- O. The line tangent to the curve y = f(x) at x = a provides a good approximation of the graph off near x = a.


/ Near x = a, the tangent line is L/ close to the graph of y == f(x.).


So, if we want to figure out the value of/at a point b close to a, we can instead find the value of y at b on the tangent line; this result will be a good approximation, and its accuracy will improve as b moves doser to a.

The equation of the line tangent to the graph of y = f(x) at the point x = a is y = /(0) + f'(aXx - a) , so f(b) will be approximately equal to Ra) + l'(aXb - a) .

The equation of the line tangent at x = a can be written as y - f(a)::: j'(aXx - a). If we think of y - /(0) as IJ.y, and x - a as Sx, then we have IJ.y = /,(a)!J.x as the equation of the tangent line. In the limit as x approaches a, this equation becomes ~ which contains the differentials dy and dx, and illustrates the Leibniz notation, dy/dx = ['.

Li> Example 2.9 ' .. 1'

'I Solution:

What's an approximate value for ifl?

If we let f(x) = tt, then we want the value of /(b), where b = 0.1. Since /(0), where a = 0, is easy to compute, and since b is close to a, we'll use the tangent line to the graph of y = f(x) at x = 0 to approximate the value of feb). Since /'(x) = e', we know that rea) = /,(0) = eD = I, so we have:

dy = f'(O)dx => dy ::: 1 • dx => dy = dx => Ily"" Ax

Because !J.x = b - a = 0.1 - 0 = OJ, this result tells us that IJ.y'" 0.1. Finally, since y at a = 0 is eO = I, we know that y at b is approximately 1 + IJ.y = 1.1. (By the way, a calculator would .tell you that eO.l "" 1.105, SO OUI approximation of 1.1 is pretty good.)



An equation of the form y = j(x) defines y as an explicit function of x, since the dependent variable, y, appears all by itself on one side of the equation, and the formula for computing it involves only the independent variable, x. But sometimes an equation that mixes the variables x and y can define a function. For example, the equation ry + y = 2 defines y as a function of x, since for every value of x, there is exactly one value of y that satisfies the equation. In this case, we could solve for y explicitly and get y = 2/(r + 1), and the derivative of this function can be determined as we've done before.

But the equation rys + y = 2 is a different story. This fifth-degree equation cannot be solved for y explicitly in terms of x. Nevertheless, if we plot every point (x, y) that satisfies the equation, we'd get a curve that's the graph of a function of x. Even though we can't solve for y in terms of x, we can still figure out the derivative of this function by using a technique called implicit differentiation. In implicit differentiation, we differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x, remembering that y is a function of x. This means that every time we differentiate an expression involving y, the chain rule reguire~_ that we multiply by t,_~~~ then solve for y'. For this equation, we'd find that:

X2y5 +y = 2

(x2• SlY' + 2xy5) + y' = 0 y'(SX2y4 + 1) = -2xy5

y' =_ 2xy5 SX2y4 +1

Using this formula for the derivative, we can find the slope of the curve at any point.

The implicit function theorem tells us precisely when an equation of the formj(x, y) = c (where c is a constant) actually defines y as a function of x, so that the formula we'd derive for y' using implicit differentiation gives a result that makes sense. This theorem involves partial derivatives (which we'll review in the next chapter), but for the sake of completeness, we'll state it here. The implicit function theorem states

that, if Po = (xo' Yo) satisfies the equati~~ j(x, y) = c a~d both partial derivatives f and jy are continuous ini a neighborhood of Po' then if the value of jy is not zero at Po, there exists a unique differentiable function,

y = g(x), that satisfies both the original equation,j(x, y) = c, and Yo = g(xo)' Furthermore, the derivative of

this function is given by the equation y' = t;



If we differentiate a function y = j(x), we generally get another function, y = f'(x). If we then differentiate this function-that is, find the derivative of the derivative-we'll get another function, y = j"(x), called the second derivative off The process can continue: The derivative of the second derivative gives j"', the third derivative off, and so on. These higher-order derivatives can be used to give important information about the graph of a function and to classify critical points (as we'll see in the next section), as well as to determine the Taylor polynomials and Taylor series of a function, topics we'll review in the last section of this chapter.

In Leibniz notation, the second derivative of y = y(x) is d2y/dx2, the third derivative is d3yldx3, and so




Solution: We begin by finding the first derivative, f' (x) = x = __ 1_ = (x log x fl , log x xlogx

then we differentiate again to get the second derivative:

J"(x) = -(xlogxf2[x.1 + log x] = _ 1 + log x

X (xlog r)"


The first and second derivatives of a function y == f(x) can provide us with valuable information about the shape of the graph, if we keep the following geometric facts in mind.


• At a point whe~e f'(x) > 0, the slope is positive, so the function is increasin_[_

• At a point where f'(x) < 0, the slope is negative, so the function is decreasing.

• At a point where f'(x) = 0, the ~lope is zero, so the function ha~ a horizon!al tangent line. This point is called a critical (or stationary) point of f and often signifies a turning point.

• At a point where f '(x) does not exist, the function could have a vertical tangent line, or it might not be differentiable at that point. This point is also called a critical point off and can sometimes signify a turning point for a function.



f(*'O{f(X») f(x) < 0 f(X)=)


f is decreasing for x < a fhas a critical point at x = a f is increasing for a < x < b fhas a critical point at x = b f is decreasing for x > b

• At a point where f"(x) > 0, the curve is concave up (or convex), which means that the curve lie~ above its tangent line.

• At a point where f"(x) < 0, the curve is concave down (or just concave), which means that the

curve lies below its tangent line. -

• An inflection point is a point on a curve where the second derivative changes sign; thus, the curve is concave up on one side of an inflection point and concave down on the other side. In order for the curve y = f(x) to have an inflection point at a point x in the domain offf"(x) must

eq.ual ° or f"(x) must be undefined. (This condition is not sufficient, however.) --



Y= f(x)

f is concave up for x < c

fhas an inflection point at x = c f is concave down for x > c


/"(x»O I ["(x) < 0 !"(x) =0

Solution: We'll begin by finding the first derivative, and then we'll determine where it's zero and where it's positive and negative. By the product rule, we have:

y' = x2• 2(x - 2) +(x - 2)2. 2x

= 2x(x - 2)[x + (x - 2)]


Setting this equal to zero, we see that critical points occur at x = 0, 1, and 2. For x < 0, the sign of y' is negative, so the curve is decreasing; for 0 < x < 1, the sign of y' is positive, so the curve is increasing; for 1 < x < 2, the sign of y' is negative, so the curve is decreasing; and for x > 2, the sign of y' is positive, so the curve is increasing.

Now, for the second derivative: Since y' = 4(x3 - 3.r + 2x), we find that:

y" = 4(3.r - 6x + 2)

Setting this equal to zero, the quadratic formula tells us that y" = 0 when:

-(-6)±~(-6)2-4. 3.2 1

X= 2.3 =1±J3

Since y" changes sign at each of these values of x, these are indeed inflection points. Finally, we figure out the y-coordinates of the critical points and the inflection points (and a couple of other arbitrary points if needed) and use the information about the signs of the first and second derivatives to make a sketch of the curve:

(0,0) (2,0)


The curve in this example illustrates what the second derivative can tell us about the nature of the critical points. If the second derivative is positive at a cr_i!ical point, then the critical point is a loc~l minimum. You can see this on the curve above, at the points where x = 0 and x = 2 (where this curve actually has absolute minima). On the other hand, if the second derivative is negative at a critical point, !:hen the critical point is a local maximum, which is what happens on the curve above at the point where x = 1. This is calIea the_ second-derivative test for classifying critical points, an important tool that we'll also use in the next section when we study max/min problems.

What if the second derivative is zero at a critical point? Then the second-derivative test tells usnothing conclusive; the critical point may be a maximum, a minimum, or neither. For example, consider the curves y = X4, Y = _X4, and y = _x3; for these curves, both the first and second derivatives equal zero at x = O. But the point (0, 0) is a minimum for the first curve, a maximum for the second curve, and neither a local minimum nor a local maximum for the third curve. So we need something more powerful than the second-derivative test, and here it is (let's call it the nth-derivative test): Assume that the function f(x) has

t; derivatives of all orders, and let x = x be a critical point of f that we want to classify. Find the smallest L> integer n such that pn)(xo) ¢. 0, where f~n) denotes the nth derivative off If n is even and pn)(xo) > 0, then f has a local minimum at xo; if n is even and pn)(xo) < 0, then fhas a local maximum at Xo (you can see that these two statements include the second-derivative test as a special case); if n is odd, then fhas neither a local minimum nor a local maximum at xo'


Earlier in this chapter, we stated several theorems that concern continuous functions. Here, we'll give two important theorems about differentiable functions.

Rolle's Theorem: Assume that f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], with f(a) = f(b), and that f is differentiable at every point in (a, b). If this is true, there's at least one pomI c m (at b) at which J'(c) = o.


y= f(x)

, ,

(a,f(a)) , -------------- --- ---:---, (b,f(b))

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

Therefore, there must be at least one point c between a and b at which the graph of y = f(x) has a horizontal tangent line. Rolle's theorem is a special case of the following theorem.


The Mean-Value Theorem (for Derivatives): Assume that f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b] and differentiable at every point in (a, b). Then there's at least one point c in (a, b) such that:

j'(c) = f(b)- f(a) b-a




The mean-value theorem guarantees that there's at least one point c between a and b at which the slope of the line tangent at c is egual to the slope of the secant line (or chord.) joinin~ the points (a, ((a)l and (b, f(b». This theorem can be used to prove several other important results, such as:

1. Iff is continuous on an interval I, and j'(x) = 0, then f(x) is constant on I.

2. If j'(x) is positive on an interval I, then f is increasing on this interval; similarly, if j'(x) is negative on I, then it's decreasing.


From our work with curve sketching, we know that the maximum or minimum values of a function may be found by determining its critical points. Let's clarify this. Assume that a real-valued function f is continuous on an interval I of the real line. If there's a point c in this interval such that f(c) ~ f(x) for all x in some subinterval of I that contains c, then we call f(c) a local minimum of f; if f(c) ~ f(x) for all x in I, then we call f(x) an absolute minimum of f on I. Likewise, if there's a point c in I such that f(c) ~ f(x) for all x in some subinterval of I containing c, then we call f(c) a local maximum off; if f(c) ~ f(x) for all x in I, then we call f(c) an absolute maximum off on 1. If J(c) is a local minimum or maximum for a function, we say that f(c) is an extremum. Of course the question is, How do we find a point c that makes f(c) an extremum? If f(c) is an extremum off, then j'(c) = 0 or j'(c) fails to exist. If we locate an extremum, we may be able to use the second-derivative test to classifY it as a local minimum or a local maximum; remember that:

j'(c) = 0 andf"(c) > 0 => j'(c) = 0 andf"(c) < 0 =>

f (c) is a local minimum

f (c) is a local maximum 7\

Furthermore, iff is defined on a closed interval, then the extreme value theorem guarantees that f will actually attain an absolute minimum and an absolute maximum on this interval. There are three possibilities for the location of the absolute extrema on a closed interval: ~ absolute extremum will occur at a point c such that f'(c) = 0, f'(c) fails to exist, or at an endpoint of the interval.


y =f(x)

on the interval [a, b)




---------------------- j(a)

/(c1) ---



b~ Example 2.12

The sum of two nonnegative numbers, x and y, is 12. What's the largest possible product of xl and y? What's the smallest?

Solution: Since x + y ::: 12, we know that y ::: 12 - Xi and because x and y are nonnegative, it must be true that 0 S x S 12. Therefore, we first want to maximize the function I(x) :; r(12 - x) ::: lU - ~ on the closed interval [0, 12]. To do this, we first set f' equal to zero to find the critical points;

I(x) == 12x2 - x3 ::::) I'(x) = 24x - 3x2 ': 0

3x(8-x)= a X= 0,8

Let's use the second-derivative test to classify these points. Since I"(x) = 24 - 6x, we have 1"(0) = 24 > O. This means that I has a minimum at x = 0; and 1"(8) = -24 < 0, so I has a maximum at x = 8. Because we're finding the extreme values of Ion a closed interval, we must check the endpoints; a t either x = ° or x ::: 12, the value of I is 0, so this is the absolute minimum, and 1(8) ::: 82 • 4 = 256 is the absolute maximum of Ion [0, 12].

1> Example 2.13

A rectangle in the fourth quadrant of the xy-plane has adjacent sides on the c0ordinate axes. H the vertex opposite the origin is on the curve y = log X, what's the maximum·area this rectangle can have?

Solution: On the interval (0, I), the value of log x is negative, so the area of the rectangle is A(x) ::: xC-log x) ::: -x log x.



Y= log x

To find the maximum value of the function A on this interval, we take its derivative, set it equal to zero, and solve:


A(x)=-xlogx => A'(x)=-(1+logx) =0

log x =-1

-1 1 x=e =-


(Notice that 0 < ! < 1.) The second-derivative test verifies that this critical point does e

indeed give a maximum:

A"(x) = -~ => A"( ~)= -e < 0

Therefore, the maximum area of the rectangle is A( ~) = -( ;}og(;) =.;.


The derivative of a function f(x) gives the rate of change of f with respect to x. So, if the variable t rep-

resents time, the derivative of a function f(t) tells us how f changes with time. For example, consider a spherical balloon that's being inflated. How fast does its volume change? Let's see .. The volume of a .~.Ehere of radius r is given by the formula V(r) = j 1tr'; ~ifferentiating this equation with respect to time, we find that, using Leibniz notation:

. dV = 41tr2 dr . \ dt dt I

So the rate at which V changes depends on the sphere's radius and how fast the radius is changing. This equation illustrates the concept of related rates: V depends on r, and the rate at which V changes is related to the rate at which r changes.


l::~ Example 2.14

A ladder ofJengtb. 5 m is Ieaningagainst a vertical wall. The base of the ladder is then pulled away from the wall at a rate of ~ tn]. s. At the moment at which the base of the ladder is 3 m from the wall, how last is the top of the ladder sliding

down the wall?

Solution: First, let's draw a picture of the situation:

x =:}

dx 1 -=-m/s dt 2

By the Pythagorean theorem, we know that r +!I = 52. Differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to time, we find that:

dx dy

2x dt +2YTt:: 0

dy xdx


dt y dt

This tells us how the rate at which the top of the ladder is sliding down the wall, dy / dt, is related to the rate at which the base of the ladder is being pulled away from the wall, dx/dt. Now, when. x = 3 m, we know that y = 4 m, so the equation above gives us:

dy :: _~ dx = _ 3 m .! m/ s :: _~ m/ s

dt y dt 4m 2 8

Since the distance y is decreasing with time (because the top of the ladder is sliding down the wall), we expect its rate of change to be negative, and the calculation above confirms this. So we can say that, at the moment at which the base of the ladder is 3 m from the wall, the top of the ladder is sliding down at a rate of ~ m/s.




y = log x

To find the maximum value of the function A on this interval, we take its derivative, set it equal to zero, and solve:


A(x) = -x log x => A'(x) = -(1 + log x) = 0

log x =-1

-1 1 x=e =-


(Notice that 0 < ! < 1.) The second-derivative test verifies that this critical point does e

indeed give a maximum:

A"(X)=-~ => A"(~)=-e<o

Therefore, the maximum area of the rectangle is A( ~) = -( ~ }og( ~) = ~.


The derivative of a function f(x) gives the rate of change of f with respect to x. So, if the variable t rep-

resents time, the derivative of a function f(t) tells us how f changes with time. For example, consider a spherical balloon that's being inflated. How fast does its volume change? Let's see. The volume of a .~here of radius r is given by the formula V(r) = i 1tr; differentiating this equation with respect to time, we find that, using Leibniz notation:

. dV = 41tr2 dr . , dt dt •

So the rate at which V changes depends on the sphere's radius and how fast the radius is changing. This equation illustrates the concept of related rates: V depends on r, and the rate at which V changes is related to the rate at which r changes.


.'L ~ Example 2.14

A ladder of lengthS m Is leaning against a vertical wall. The base of the ladder is 1

then pulled away from the wall at a rate of 2" m/ s. At the moment at which the

base of the ladder is 3 m from the wall, how fast is the top of the ladder sliding

down the wall?

Solution: First, let's draw a picture of the situation:

x ====>

dx 1

- = -m/s dl 2

By the Pythagorean theorem, we know that x2 + t/ = 52. Differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to time, we find that:

dx dy

2xdi + 2Ydi = a

dy x dx


dt y dt

This tells us how the rate at which the top of the ladder is sliding down the wall, dy I dt, is related to the rate at which the base of the ladder is being pulled away from the wall, dx] dt. Now, when x = 3 m, we know that y = 4 m, 50 the equation above gives us:

dy =_~dx=_3m.! m/s=-~ m/s

dt y di 4m 2 8

Since the distance y is decreasing with time (because the top of the ladder is sliding down the wall), we expect its rate of change to be negative, and the calculation above confirms this. So we can say that, at the moment at which the base of the ladder is 3 m from the wall, the top of the ladder is sliding down at a rate of ~. m/s.




An indefinite inte al of a function x) is a function F(x) whose derivative is f(x). For this reason, indefinite integration is also known as anti differentiation. For example, the etlan F(x) = Xl + 4 is an indefinite integral (or antiderivative-the terms are interchangeable) of f(x) = 3.x1. 1ndefinite integrals are not unique; because the derivative of a constant vanishes, any function of the form F(x) = ; + c, where cis a. constant, is an indefinite integral ofJ(x) :::: 3x2. (We call c the constant of integration.) In fact, we can conclude that if F(x) and G(x) are antiderivatives of a given function J(x), then F(x) and G(x) can only differ by a constant. The notation for an indefinite integral of J(x) is

J f(x)dx

where J ( .. ·)dx is regarded as a single object. The function being integrated,j(x), is called the integrand, and the dx, the differential of x, specifies the variable of integration; this means that J f(x) dx denotes an antiderivative ofJwithrespect to z, while J f(t)dt is an antiderivative ofJwith respect to t.

For example, since the derivative of z" is nx"-l and the derivative of log x is ..!. I we know that: x

{_LXII ... 1 + c ifn ;t-1 x"dx = 11+1

J loglxl +c un = -1

..... .Je2.1S

The function F(x) is the antiderivative of !(x) = 6[; + sin x -1 and satisfies

F(O) = 3. What's F(x)? .

Solution: Since the derivative of a sum is equal to the sum of the derivatives (from the derivative rules), it's also true that the integral of a sum is equal to the sum of the integrals. Therefore,

F(x) = J (6.J; + sinx-1)dx

= J 6Fx dx+ J sinxdx+ J (-l)dx

= 4x3/2 - cosx- X + c

Now we use the condition F(O) = 3 to figure out the constant of integration:

F(O)=3 ~ c=4 ~ F(x)=4x312 -cosx-x+4


Integration by Substitution

The most widely used differentiation formula is the chain rule, and the most widely used antidifferentiation technique is based on the reverse of this formula-integration by substitution. The differential dx, which is part of the symbol for an indefinite integral, is especially helpful for handling this technique. To illustrate differentials again, notice that if l'(X) = r + 4, then, using Leibniz notation, du/dx = 3x2. If we move the dx to the right-hand side (thinking of duf dx as if it were a fraction), we get the equation du = 3r dx, which says that the differential ofu is equal to 3x2 times the differential of x; this means the same as dui dx = 3r.


Lees see how integration by substitution works by figuring out J X2(X3 + 4)5 dx .

The technique is easy to describe: Let the variable u stand for some expression in the integral; if its differential, du, (or a scalar multiple of it) is left over in the integrand, we'll be done. In this case, we'll let u =: .0 + 4; since du =: 3.x2 dx, we can write

JX2(x3+4)5dx= JU5·tdu =tJu5du =t(iU6)+c

= fs(x3 +4)6 +c

The trick to integration by substitution is in choosing the right u in the integrand. Although it seems like a process of trial-and-error, with practice this choice gets easier.

Here's a list of integration formulas (that you should memorize for the exam). We've used u as the variable of integration, so, if u is a (differentiable) function of x, each entry can be used in an integrationby-substitution solution:


{_I Uk+l +c (ifk:;t: -1)

-a k+l

J u U = loglul+c (ifk = -1)

J sinu du = -cosu +c

J cosu du = sinu +c

J sec2u du = tanu + c

J csc2u du = -cotu + c

J secu tanu du = secu + c

J cscucotu du = -cscu + c

f du .

r::--; = arcsm u + c

,,1- u2

J du

--=arctanu+c 1+u2



Evaluate each of the following integrals:

(a) J tan x dx (b) J %. :2~ + 2 (c) J sm2x dx


(a) First, we write tan x as (sin X)/(C05 x). Now, if we let u = cos x, then du = -sin x dx, and:

f f sin x f -du I I I I

tanxdx= --dx= -=-log u +c=-log.cosx +c

cos x u

(b) The denominator of the integrand is equal to (r + Ii + 1. If we let u = Xl + I, then du = 2x dx,

and the given integral becomes:

f x dx f x dx f~dU 2

----,:-- = = ._2 __ = 1 arctan u + c = 1 arctan(x + 1) + c

X4 + 2X2 + 2 (x2 + 1)2 + 1 u2 + 1 2 2.

(c) The double-angle formula for the cosine function says cos 2x = 1- 2 sin2 x; solving this for 5m2 x gives sin2 x == 1(1 - cos 2x). Therefore,


J sin2x dx = t J (1- cos2x)dx= tf dx-tJ cos2x dx

In this last integral, let u == 2x, so du = 2 dx. This gives us:

J sin2x dx=tJ dx-tJ cos2x dx == tx-tI casu • tdu = tx- isinU + C

= 1. X - .1 sin 2x + c

2 4

Integration by Ports

This integration technique is simply the reverse of the product rule for differentiation. The differential of the product of the functions II and v is

d(uv) = II dv + v du which is equivalent to the equation 11 dv = d(uv) - v du. Therefore,

f u dv = uv - f v du

This is the formula for integration by parts. To illustrate, let's evaluate this integral:

J xlogxdx


Any attempt at integration by substitution will be in vain, but, if we let u = log x and dv = x dx, then we can write du = .!. dx and v = 1 r, and the integration by parts formula gives us:

x 2

J x log x dx = (logxXtx2)- J <tx2{'; )dX = f x2log x - t J x dx

= tx2logx - t<!X2) + c = (tx2)(logx- f) + c

The secret to integration by parts is in choosing which part of the integrand to call u and which part to call dv so that the resulting integral is easier to figure out than the original integral. For example, if we had chosen u = x and dv = log x dx for the integral above, finding v would have been just as difficult as evaluating the given integral.

Trig Substitutions

Integrals that contain the expressions .J a2 - u2 , .J a2 + u2 , or .Ju2 - a2 , where a is a positive constant, can be simplified by makii1g a change of variable that involves a trigonometric function. For example, if we're given an integral that contains the expression .J a2 - u2 , we can make the change of variable u = a sin 8, to get:

The square root sign disappears, and that's the point; each of the trig substitutions uses a Pythagorean identity to eliminate the square root. What substitution should we make in each of the three cases?

If the integrand contains Make this substitution

.Ja2 _u2

.Ja2 +u2

1-+ -~e:c· t;et'?e

- .Ju2 _a2


u = a sin 8 (and du = a cos 8 d8)

u = a tan 8 (and du = a sec28 d8)

u = a sec 8 (and du = a sec 8 tan 8 d8)

Let's try this out by evaluating the integral:

If we were to attempt a basic substitution, like letting u = r + I, we wouldn't have du = 2x dx left over in the integrand. Instead, we let x = tan 8, dx = se28 d8 and transform the integral into:


To evaluate this last integral, we let u = sin e, du = cos e de, which gives us:

f cos G f 1 1 1

--dS= -du=--+c=---+c=-cscS+c

sin" S u2 u sin B

Now, all that we have to do is rewrite this final result in terms of our original variable, x. In the right triangle below, tan e = x/I = x; this triangle is an illustration of our original substitution, x = tan e:


Since the triangle tells us that esc e = ~, we can now write:

_J..-. x

- 5:,,,& f 1 d ~

x2.J x2 + 1 x = - x + c


The Method of Partial Fractions

If the integrand is a rational function of x, that is, if it's equal to P(x) / Q(x), where P and Q are polynomials (with deg P < deg Q), we can often evaluate the integral by first expressing P(x)/Q(x) as a sum of simpler rational functions that are susceptible to quick integration. For example, let's figure out this integral:

f 41 2dx x -x

Our first step is to factor the denominator,




and then we express this as the sum


----:----- = - + - + -- +-x2(x+lXx-l) X x2 x+J x-I

which is called the partial-fraction decomposition. Notice that every term of the form (ax + W in the denominator on the lett is represented on the right, and if n is greater than 1, there'll be n corresponding partial fractions, with denominators (ax + b), (ax + W, ... , up to (ax + W.

If the original rational function includes an irreducible quadratic factor-for example, r + 1 in the denominator-then the partial-fraction decomposition will have a polynomial of degree one for the numerator of the term with the irreducible quadratic denominator:

1 = A :%:q~~.~~:.)

x(x2 +1) x x2 +1


Now, we need to figure out the values of the constants A, B, C, and D. One way, of course, is to multiply both sides by .r(.r -1), which will clear all the fractions. We would then simplify the right-hand side and equate coefficients of like terms. This process will always work, but the algebra can get unwieldy. Here's a better approach: If we multiply both sides of the equation by (x -1), we get:

1 A(x-l) B(x-l) C(x-l) D

---= + + +

x2(x+l) X x2 x+l

Since this is an identity, it must hold true for every value of x for which both sides are defined; in particular, it must be true for x = 1. Notice that substituting x = 1 into this equation immediately gives us D = .!.. Let's now multiply both sides of the partial-fraction decomposition by (x + 1):


1 = A(x+l) + B(x+l) +C+ D(x+l)

x2(x-l) x x2 x-I

Substituting x = -1 gives us C = -.!. . Next, multiplying both sides of the decomposition by .r gives 2

1 Cx2 Dx2

----=Ax+B+--+-(x+lXx-l) x+l x-I

so substituting x = 0 tells us that B = -1. At this point, we have:

1 A -1 _1. 1.

_____ =_+_+_2_+_2_

x2(x+lXx-l) X x2 x+l x-I

To find A, just substitute any value for x (except 0, 1, or -1); let's use x = 2 1 A -1 -1 1 -=-+-+-+- :::::} A=O

12 2 4 6 2

and finally we are able to write:

J 1 dx=f(-l + -i +_i__)dX

X4 - x2 x2 X + 1 x-I


= ~-tloglx + 11 +tloglx-11 +c

='!'+logJX-l +c

x x-i-I


The geometric motivation for the derivative is finding the slope of the line tangent to a curve. The motivation for the other principal idea of calculus! the integral, is finding the area under a curve. Following is a graph of the functionf(x) = 9 - x2, from x = 0 to x = 3. What's the area bounded by this curve and the x-axis?




Well, we know the formulas for finding the areas of shapes like rectangles and triangles, whose sides are straight lines. But what about regions that have curved boundaries? One way to determine their area is to approximate, using a collection of narrow rectangular strips:





Let's imagine that we have n rectangular strips, each of which has a base of width of - . We'll take the n

height of each rectangle to be the value ofj(x) at the right-hand endpoint of the rectangle's base. Since

the formula for the area of a rectangle is base x height, the sum of the areas of these rectangles is:

This sum, Su' which is called a Riemann sum, is close to, but slightly less than, the area under the curve. But if we increase n, the little triangular-shaped wedges that the rectangles don't account for will get smaller and smaller, and in the limit as n~ 00, the total area of these wedges decreases to zero. This means that the limit of the sum shown above will give us the exact area under the curve. Let's see what this limit is. Simplifying the expression above, we find that

27 2 2 2 2

= 27 ---[1 +2 + .. ·+(n-1) +n ]


= 27 _ 27 [n(n+ 1X2n+ 1)]

n3 6

= 27 _ 27[2n3 +3n2 +n]

6 n3


where we've used the formula

which may be proved by mathematical induction. We now take the limit: _ex_a_c_t._area_._un __ d_er_._CUlV __ e_ .. =___::.~..:.:. ~::..S_" ~ ~[ 27 - _2: en' + :;' + n ) 1 =27 __ 27 .2




The calculation we just finished was quite a chore. Fortunately, there's a much easier way to figure out the area under a curve. The method is based on the fundamental theorem of calculus, which links the apparently unrelated concepts of the slope of a curve and the area under it.

The area bounded by the x-axis and the curve y = f(x), from x = a to x = b, is denoted by

r f(x)dx

which is called the definite integral of f from a to b. The numbers a and b are called the limits of integration. The fundamental theorem of calculus tells us that the definite integral off can be computed by first determining an indefinite integral (antiderivative) off Let f(x) be a continuous function on the interval [a, b], and let F(x) be an antiderivative of f(x); then:

r f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)

The expression F(b) - F(a) is written more compactly as F(x) J:, so this equation becomes:

r f(x)dx = F(x) J:

Let's use this result to figure out the area we calculated above. Since f(x) = 9 - xl, we can easily determine an indefinite integral: F(x) = 9x - ! x3 . Therefore,


J3 (9-X2)dx=9x_lx3J3 a 3 a

= [9. 3-}. 33J-[9. o-}. 03J


just as we found before. Notice that we don't need to bother adding a constant of integration to F(x) when evaluating a definite integral, since it'll just cancel out when we perform the subtraction F(b) - F(a). The fundamental theorem of calculus is usually given in two parts; one is the result above, the other makes explicit that differentiation and integration are inverse oeerations. It says that if f(t) is a continuous function on [a, b], then for any x in this interval:

d IX

- f(t)dt = f(x)

dx a


The letter t in the expression on the left is known as a dummy varUzble, because any letter could be used in its place, and the meaning of the formula wouldn't change. It's considered bad form to have the same variable-in the integrand and in the limits of integration, so we simply changed the x in I{x) and ax to t, to avoid this.

The definite integral r f(x)dx gives the total algebraic area bounded by the curvey = I(x), the vertical lines x = a and x = bl and the x-axis; this means that areas above the z-axis are counted as positive and those below the x-axis are negative. If we want to calculate the actualeometric area, we need to add the

opposite of any negative algebraic area to the positive algebraic area. ~

The following rules are often used in dealing with definite integrals:

1. 1: f(x)dx=-I: f(x)dx

This says that reversing the limits of integration changes the sign of the integral. Notice that if a = b, then this rule implies:

1: f(x)dx= a

2. r f(x)dx= r f(x)dx+ f f(x)dx

This says that the integral from a to c is equal to the integral from a to b plus the integral from b to c.

3. I: kf(x)dx = k f f(x)dx (where k is a constant)

This says that the integral of kf is equal to k times the integral off, so a constant may be moved outside the integral sign.

4. f [f(x)±g(x)]dx= r f(x)dx± r g(x)dx

The integral of a sum (or difference) is equal to the sum (or difference) of the integrals.

S. If f(x) :<; g(x) for all x E [a, b], then r f(x)dx s r g(x)dx.



The area is equal to:

14 -hdx=14 x!/2dx=lX9}2]4 =1(43f2)=H o 0 3 (\ 3 3


Simplify the fullowin~

~fxZ_t_dt dx ~ logt

Solution: Let fit) = r/log t, and let F(t) be an antiderivative of f(t). Then:

JX2_.t_dt:::: F(t)]~ :::: F(X2)-F(x)

x logt x

So, by the chain rule:

d J~ t d

-. -dt :::: -[ F(x2) - F(x)]:::: F'(x2) • 2x - F'(x)

dx x logt dx

Now, since F(t) = f(t)/logt, we find that:

.!!_J~ _t_dt == F'(X2) • 2x - F'(x) dx x logt

= 2x • f(x2) - f(x)

=2x x2 x

log(x2) logx

Xl -x


log x

The method used to solve this example can be used to show that, in general,

d fliex)

-d f(t)dt = f(b(x» • b'(x) - !(a(x» • a'(x)

x a(x)


Letfbe a function that's continuous on a closed interval [a, b]. Then, according to the mean-value theorem for integrals, there's at least one point c between a and b such that

s: f(x)dx = !(cXb - a)


What this says geometrically is that there's a point c such that the area of the rectangle whose base is b - a and whose height is !(c) is equal tp the area under the curve from a to b.



i! j



area of a rectangle = J(c)(b - a)

The value f(c) is the average value of the function fix) on the inte.rval [a, b ].


What's the area, A, of the region bounded by the curves y = J? and y = ~ ? /

y V


It's easy to see that this area is equal to the area under the curve y = ~ minus the area under the curve y = ;il, from x = 0 to x = 1; that is:

A= f:(~)dx- f:(x2)dx= f;(..Ix-X2)dx

Another way to answer this question is to construct a typical rectangular strip of width ~ within this region; its height is ..Ix -;il, so its area is (..Ix - ;)~.




~~----------~I ------.x


When we add the areas of all these strips (calling the sum 5), and pass to the limit as the widths of the rectangles approach zero, we get

as before. Notice that the Riemann sum on the left becomes the definite integral on the right once we pass to the limit, where the widths of the rectangles approach zero. (In fact, the integral sign itself is simply an elongated 5, which is meant to symbolize that the limit of a sum is being computed.) We can abbreviate this method even further, if we start by letting dx denote the width of the rectangle, and add up-that is, integrate-the areas of the rectangles. To illustrate this approach in a slightly different way, im~ine constructing a horizontal rectangular strip of height dy and width JY - y2-and, thus, area of (..Jy - y2)dy-within the region:

Allowing this strip to sweep through the region, by integrating from y = 0 up to y = I, will give us the region's total area

which is the same as the integral given earlier in the variable x (since x and yare just dummy variables). The value of A is:



Find the area af the region in the first quadrant, bounded by the curves 11 ~ r and y=4x.

Solution: These curves intersect at x = -2, 0, and 2, so the area of the region in the first quadr between the curves is equal to:

A::: J2 (4x -x3)dx = 2X2 _.1X~J2 = 8-4= 4

o 4 0

We could also compute this area by integrating with respect to y, as follows:

A = J: (ty -ty)dy = h4/3 -il]: =~(84/3)_ 8::: 4


So far, we've been exclusively using rectangular (or cartesian) coordinates, x and y, to describe curves in the plane. But some curves are more easily described in terms of a different set of coordinates. The most common alternative is the pair of polar coordinates, ., and e. For a given point P in the plane, the coordinate r gives the distance between P and the origin (0), and the coordinate e gives the angle that the ray OP makes with the positive x-axis:


polar coordinates

rectangular coordinates

As usual, a positive value for e implies a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-axis, and a negative value of e indicates a clockwise rotation. While the value of r is usually taken to be positive, we can include negative values of r by agreeing that the coordinates (r, e) refer to the same point as the coordinates (-r, 9 + 1t).

For example, the point in the plane whose rectangular coordinates are (x, y) ::: (I, 1) can be expressed

in polar coordinates as (r, e) ::: ( , ~ ) or (- J2. I 51t). From the figure above, we can write down the

4 4

equations that relate cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates:

x=rcosS y = rsine


tane =}L (if x #= 0) x


In rectangular coordinates, the equation of the unit circle is Xl + 1/ = I, but in polar coordinates, the equation of the ll1}it circle is much simpler: it's.r = 1. Other circles also have simpler equations when they're expressed in polar coordinates:



r = 2a sin e (a < 0)

r = 2a sin e (a > 0)

r = 2a cos e (a < 0)


r = 2a cos e (a > 0)


circles centered at (a, 0) and tangent to the y-axis at the origin, with diameters of length 21al

circles centered at (0, a) and tangent to the x-axis at the origin, with diameters of length zlal

But not only circles can benefit from the use of polar coordinates. If we take a circle of radius a centered at the point (a, 0), and roll another circle of the same radius around the circumference of the first, a point on the rolling circle will trace out a curve known as a cardioid (because of its heart shape):



The equation for the cardioid in rectangular coordinates is a complicated, fourth-degree equation in both x and y, but in polar coordinates, the equation is much simpler:

r = 2a(1 + cos 0)

The area of a region bounded by a curve expressed in polar coordinates can also be found by integration. Instead of constructing thin rectangles in the region (as we do when we integrate with respect to x or y), we instead construct narrow circular sectors of angle dO and length r. The area of a sector like this is given by the formula t r dO, so if the region is described by the polar equation r = r(O) from 0 = a to o = ~, then the enclosed area is given by the equation:

A=Jf3 lr2d9

a 2


11nd the area enclosed by the cardIDid T = laC! + cos 8).

The complete cardioid is traced out as B incre_ases from 0 to 21t, so the area enclosed by the cardioid is equal to:

A = J:t rZ de = J:II t [2a(1 + cos 8)]2 de

= 2a2 J:" (1 +2cos8 + cos 2 e) de

= 2a2 fo2Jt[1 + 2cose+ t(l + c052e)] de = 2a2[B+ 2smB +ie + isin2e]~Jt =6n:a2


Imagine that we have a portion of a curve, Y = j(x) from x = a to x = b, in the x-y plane, and we revolve it around a straight line-the x-axis, for example:




The result is called a solid of revolution. In this section, we'll develop techniques for finding the volumes

of solids of revolution. . .

As we've done before, let's cQ.nstruct a narrow rectangle of base width dx and height I(x), sitting under the curve. When this rectangle is revolved around the x-axis, we get a disk whose radius is I(x) and whose height is dx. The volume of this disk is dV = n[j(x)J dx , so the total volume of the solid is:

V= s: dV = s: ~[j(x>Ydx

If the curve is revolved around a vertical line (such as the y-axis), then horizontal disks are used. If the curve can be solved for x in terms of y, x = g(y), the formula above becomes:


v = r 1t[g(y )]2 dy

These equations illustrate the disk method for finding the volume of a solid of revolution.


Sometimes the region between two curves is revolved around an axis, and a gap is created between the solid and the axis. A rectangle within the rotated region will become a disk with a hole in it=also known as a washer. If the rectangle is verticaI and extends from the curve y = g(x) up to the curve y = f(x), then when it's rotated around the r-axis, it will result in a washer with volume equal to

which gives us:

Similarly, if the region is revolved around a vertical axis, we'll get horizontal washers and the formula above will involve the variable y. This is the washe.r method for finding the volume of a solid of revolution.


(a) ]n this case,


we can use the disk method:

V= f1t[(X2)]2dx=1tfX4dx=1t[txS]: =¥'1t

(b) First, by setting -I + 3 equal to 4y, we can determine that the two curves intersect at the points (4,1) and (12,3). We'll use washers that are perpendicular to the y-axis to find the volume of the solid we'd get by revolving the region between the two curves around the y-axis.




The curve x = y2 + 3 is the "inside" curve and the line x = 4y is the "outside" curve (that is, for 1 ~ Y ~ 3, the curve x = y2 + 3 is closer to the y-axis than is the line x = 4y), so the washer method gives us:

v = r 1t{[f(y)f _[g(y)]2}dy = f: 1t[(4y)2 _(y2 +3)2]dy = 1t r [lOl- y4 - 9] dy

= 1t[ ~l-ty5 -9y J:

= 1t[(~ • 33 -t. 35 -9· 3)_(1~ .13 -t .15 -9 .1)J

= 3041t 15


The length of a smooth curve (also called an arc) can also be found by integration. To establish the formula we need, let's consider the portion of the curve y = f(x) from (a, c) to (b, d):


y = f(x) d .



We can construct a differential right triangle with sides of lengths dx and dy, and hypotenuse ds along the curve:


By adding up-that is, by integrating-the contributions ds, we get the following formula for s, the length of the curve:


r (dy)2 +1 dy

C J dx

Bx:, e 2.22 What's the length of the curve y = J;3 , from x = 0 to x = 287


Solution: Using the formula above, we find that:

s = 1: JI + (y')2 dx =: 1028 1 + (~X1/2 r dx =: Jo28 ~l+!X dx

=: t· t[(1+txt/2]~ =: fj{ 643/2 -1J

-.m. _ 27


Although we've already included the functions t! and log x in the tables of differentials and integrals, we also want to include some other important information about these functions and the choice of the base, e.

The function er arises from the attempt to find a nonzero function that equals its own derivative. The derivative of every exponential function of the form f(x) = tf (with a positive) is equal to a multiple of itself, as the following calculation shows:

I'(x) = lim I(x + h)- I(x) =: lim a"th - a·r =a%. (lim all-I)

/!-IO h 1, .... 0 h /,->0 h


If we can find the value of a that makes the expression in parentheses equal to 1, we will have satisfied the equation j'(x) = f(x). This value of a is denoted bye. To obtain a numerical value for e, we notice that, by definition,

so for small values of h, we can write:


If we replace h by - ,then n

and the approximation gets better as n gets larger. In fact, the number e is often defined as:

e = lim (1 + .!)n

n-t~ n

We can now approximate e as closely as we wish; to 15 decimal places/the value of e is:

e = 2.718281828459045 ...

This real number is not only irrational, but it's also transcendental, which means that no polynomial with integer coefficients has e as a zero. Although the number looks messy, it's specifically chosen to provide the equation j'(x) = f(x) with the simplest possible solution. Also notice that, of all the exponential functions if(x) = aX), only when a = e will the slope of this curve at x = 0 be equal to 1. For these reasons, the function f(x) =e is called the natural exponential function.

The natural logarithm function, f(x) = logl = log x, is the inverse of the natural exponential function.

The most important property of the natural logarithm function is that it provides an antiderivative of the function g(x) = .!. We can prove this easily. If y = log x, then x = eY; these two equations are equivalent. x

If we differentiate the equation x = eY implicitly with respect to x, we get:

It's also useful to know that, because of the fundamental theorem of calculus and the fact that 10g1 = 0, the expression log x can be written as:

Jx 1

log x = -dt 1 t

In fact, log x can be defined by this equation from the start, and all the properties of the logarithm, and of its inverse function, f(x) = e', can then be derived.


'1 > Exainple 2.23

What's the-value of this limit if Q > 01 lim aX -1 x~ :t

Solution: We notice that this looks like the definition of a derivative. If we let f(x) = rr, then the derivative off at x = 0 is

1'(0)= lim /(0+ h)- f(O) = lim a" -1

1 ..... 0 h 11 .... 0 h

which (except for the choice of the dummy variable) is exactly the same as the limit for which we're looking. Since/ex) = tt = e-1ogo, we know that

1'(0) = eXIcg"Q • log al = log a


and this is ow answer.

Let A denote the area of the region bounded by the curve y = .! I the x-axis, and x

the vertical lines x = 1 and x = Q (where Q > 1). In terms of A, what's the area of

the region bounded by the curve y = .!, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = ,; x

and ~ = a3?

Solution: The area we're ttyfug to find can be expressed as the definite- integral

Sa' !dx

01 x

which we can simplliy as follows:

S03 1 a'

I -dx = log x] 1= logal -loga2 = 31oga-21oga = log a

a X a

The information we're given about A allows us to write


A= -dx

1 x

so A = log a. Therefore, the area we're trying to find is also equal to A.

.... ~ Ie 2.2S What's the derivative of the function f(x} = ?


Solution: Ute differentiation formula

only works when the expression in the exponent is a constaht; Porthe function we're given, M however, the 'expression in theexponent is not a constant, so this differentiation formula ~ cannot be used. Instead we use thefact that u'D= ell log~ to rewrite f(x) as

and then apply the differentiation formula d(e") = e'du, to find that:

rex) = eJi~l • .!..+/X log x) dx

= e,f;bg% • (.rx . .!. + log X .! .)

x 2..Jx

_ x .. -Tx.x (. lOS. ~')

- t= 1+

-ex 2


The list of rules for dealing with limits (given in. the first section o£i:his chapter) mentioned L'H6pital'5 rule, and we'll now discuss it. L'Hopital's rule provides us with one-of the most useful techniques for evaluating limits.

Let's start by reconsidering Example 2 . .2(b) from page 35: x-I

Iim-· - __ - -'

X~l JX-l


lfwe attempt to substitute x = 1 into thisexpression, we get the meaningless fraction '0; this is called an

indeterminate form, since it has no unique value. L'Mapital's rule gives us an easy way to handle this situation; it says that if/ex) and g{x) are functions that are differentiable man open interval, 1, containing a (except possibly at a itself) such that g'(x) *' 0 for all x * 4 in I, andf(a) = g(a) = 0, then

lim f(x) = lim rex) (it) x-'lQ g(x) .x-+~ g'(x)

provided that the limit on the right exists. Applying this rule to the limit problem above, we'd differentiate the numerator and denominator (separately.!) and find

lim x-I = lim_!_= _!_= 2 .1:--11 ,JX -1 x~l 11; n

just as we did earlier .. The statement of L'H6pital's rule remains valid if fiX ~ .o,"is replaced by either the left:handlimit "X-70-./' or th.e right-hand limit <Ix ~ 0+." It also applies when "x ~'Q" is replaced by "x ~ <>0" or "x -7 -00." Furthermore, the rule can take care of the indeterminate form =» which arises when both f(x) andg(x) become infinite, as x -7 Q. And finally, the sJatementof (.) is stiIfrntd even when the right-hand side of (Of) is + <>0. L'Hopital's rule is truly powerfulI


2.26 Find each of the following limits:

(a) tint sin4x (b) lim .rx -1

%-00 X :1-+1 :rx-1


(e) Jim x %-oOl-C08x

(d) tim 1

%--t- 7t

x(- - an:tan x) 2

(e) lirnXl/(a-l-l)




This limit gives us the indeterminate form 0 I so we apply L 'Hopital's rule:

lim sin4x = lim 4cos4x = 4 cosO =!= 4

x-oO x x-tO 1 1 1

~ This problem also gives the indeterminate form ~ , and we find that:

Fx -1 x1/2 -1 lX-1/2 1.. rl/2 1. 3

lim--=lim . =lim_2 __ =2 =_!=~ x-ol ~ _ 1 x-+l Xl/3 -1 x-ol t x-213 t . r2/3 t 2


1d Once again, we have the indeterminate form 0 i applying L 'Hopital's rule gives us:

lim x2 = lim ~

%-+0 1- cos x 1'-+0 sin x


Butnoti:e that the limit on the right-hand side is also of the form '0,50 we simply apply L'Hopital's

rule agam: .


1'-tO sin x cos x 1

The expression in the denominator gives us co • 0, which is another indeterminate form, but we a

can easily turn this into a a indeterminate form, as follows


lim 1 =lim x

X-l- 1t 1'-1- 1t

x("2-arctanx) 2-arctanx

and then apply L'Hopital's rule:


- 2

lim _----"X::.....__ = lim __£_ = lim 1 + x

r_ -1 X-I" x2



X-l" 1t

--arctanx 2

Now at this point, we could apply L'Hepital's rule again, but it's easier to simply notice that: lim 1+x2 = lim(_!_+l)= 0+ 1= 1

x ..... x2 x ..... x2


This limit problem gives rise to the indeterminate form 1". When faced with a limit of an expression like [f(x)]K(r) that gives any of the indeterminate forms 1~, 00°, or 0°, the trick is first{g' to figure out the limit of log [J(x)]g(r)::: g(x) log f(t). In this case, we would let y ::: xI/(r-l), so

log y = (log x)j(x?- -1). The limit of log y as x --71+ gives us the familiar .Q indeterminate form,

and L'Hopital's rule tells us that: 0


lim logx = lim ~ =!

..... 1+ x2 -1 x ... 1+ 2x 2

Therefore, since log y approaches .!., y approaches e1/2 = ..fe .

. . 2

Example 2.27 What's the limit of the sequence (a,), where (logn)2

all = r: ? vn

Solution: Remember rule 7, given near the beginning of this chapter on page 33:

If Q" = f(n), then the sequence (a,) converges to L if and only if f(x) converges to L as x --7 00 (which may be decided using L'Hopital's rule).

Therefore, we determine the value of:

00 .

Since this limit is of the indeterminate form -, we apply L'Ho'pital's rule:


lim (log xli. = lim 2(1c;g;). X-I = lim 410g x

x ... -..r; ,,-- t X-1/2 x .... _ Xl/2

But the limit on the right is also of the form 00, so we apply L'Hopital' 5 rule again:


lim 410gx = lim 4x-1 = lim__!_ = 0

r...... X 1/2 r_... 1 x-1/2 ,t .... M X1/2



Up to now, the only definite integrals we've looked at have been integrals over a bounded interval, [aJ b). But we will now begin to work with improper integrals, one type of which are integrals over unbounded

intervals, of the form [a, 00), (--00, bL or (--00,00). The definition of such an integral is easy to give. For example,

I- f(x)dx = IimJb f(x)dx

Q • ..,_ "

provided that the limit on the right exists; if it does, then we say that the integral converges. Similarly, we define:

J: f(x)dx= ~J: f(x)dx


For an improper integral over the entire real line, (_,60), we agree that, if both

J: f(x)dx and L- f(x)dx

converge "for some number c, then J: f(x)dx converges, and J:f(x)dx= J:f(x)dx + r f(x)dx ..

For example, let's determine the value of:

J- 2


o 1+x2

By definition, we would write:

J.. 2 d limfb 2 d llin[2 Jb

_..-. -. X =:. i r - .. -. - .. oX;;. . . arctanx _

o l+x:1 ",-. 0 1+x2.1Hoo 0

= 2limlan::tm b]




As an example of a divergent improper integral, notice that:

J"'!dX= limJ_ b. ~.dx==lim[logxJ = lim[lqgbJ= 00

1 x !>-<-. 1 X IH- 1 lH-

This type of integral is called_!mproperbecause o~e or bothnofthe limits of integration are infinite; these are sometimes referred to as impraper integrals of the jirs.t kind. Another type of integral that's also called improper has finite limits of integration but the integrand becomes inf.inite at one or both of the limits of integration or at a point between them. (These are imp raper integrals a/the seamd kind.) For example,

n ._ - JI 1

. 0 JI_x2dx

is an improper integral (of the second kind) because the integrand, 1/ ~l- x2 ,goes to infinity as x --t 1, the upper li.m.i:t of integration. This kind of improper integral is also defined asa limit; in this case, we would write:

1. ~

f 1 d lim f 1 d Iim .[. . Jb lim [ . b-j 1t:

r:-? _ x == - _ r:-?_ . X= .! arcsmx 0 =. an::sm == - __

0 .. J1- X· 1>-01 0'11- Xl H! _ H1 2



(a) This integral is improper for two reasons; not only is one of the limits of integration infinite,

but the integrand itself becomes infinite at the lower limit of integration. (We might call this an improper integral of the third kind!) First, let's find an antiderivative of the integrand. By letting U =Fx so that du =dx/2Fx, we find that:


(b) By making the substitution u = log x, du = dx] x, we find that

f dx fdU

-- = - = log U = 10g(1og x)

x log x U

which gives us:

This improper integral diverges to infinity.

(c) The integrand goes to infinity at x = 1, a point within the domain of integration, [0, 3]. 'Therefore, we write the given integral as the sum

f3 X dx=fl X dx+f3 X dx

o (x2 _1)2/3 0 (x2 _1)2/3 _L (x2 _1)2/3

and attempt to evaluate each of the two integrals on the right, which are improper at a limit of integration. First, let's substitute U = r- -1, du = 2x dx to find:

f x dx = f tdu = lul/3 = 1(x2 _1)1/3

(x2 _1)2/3 u2/3 2 2


II 2 X 2/3 dx = lim [!(X2 _1)l/3Jb = t olim[W _1)1/3 - (-I)J = t[O + 1] = t

o (x -1) b-tl- 0 b-tl-



Since both of these integrals converge, we can conclude that the original improper integral converges, and:


If we're given a sequence (an) = aI' a2, a3, ••• , then


~ a =a +a +a + ...

£ 1 2 3


is called an infinite series. We know how to add a finite number of terms, but how do we find the sum of infinitely many? The answer is to form a sequence associated with the series, the sequence (sJ of its partial sums:

51 = a1

52 = a1 +a2

53 = a1 + a2 + a3

If the sequence of partial sums converges to a finite limit, S, then we say the infinite series converges to S; otherwise, the series is said to diverge.

Let's look at an example; consider the series:

The first few terms of its corresponding sequence of partial sums are

which seem to be tending to 1. We can prove this by using the formula

which holds for every x not equal to 1. (If x does equal 1, the sum on the left is just equal to n + 1.) In this case, then, the nth term of the sequence of the series' partial sums is:


Since 1/2" --70 as n --700, we see that s --7 1. Therefore,

- II

If r is a constant, then the series r<1.

rtl is called a geometric series, and it can be shown that this series e 0 owing ormula holds true for r -:i:- 0:

Notice that this series starts at" = O. Aseries can start at any value of the index ", with no effect on its convergence. However, the sum of a convergent series depends on which terms are includea.

The geometric series is one of the few series for which we can compute the value of its sum by a simple formula; this won't be the case for most series. Instead, we'll only be concerned with whether a series converges and, for this purpose, we need tests for convergence. The list below gives some of the most common and useful convergence tests for infinite series.

1. If the terms all of the series La" do not approach zero as n --700, then the cannot converge.

This does not imply that if the terms an do approach 0, then the series converges. This statement is not true, as the following important example illustrates. Let a = - . Then, although a ~ 0, the series

n n II

~ 1 1 1

L-=l+-+-+ ...

nD1 n 2 3

which is called the harmonic series, can be shown to diverge: L.! = 00 . n

2. If Lan converges, then L ka. converges to k ~>" for every constant k. If La. diverges, then L ka; diverges for every constant k -:t. O.

3. If La" and Lbn both converge, then the series L(,:ln +bn} converges, and:

L(an +bn} = La. + ~).

4. The series L _!_ (called the p-series) converges for every p > 1 and diverges for every p s 1. i'

nP D

5. The comparison test. Assume that,S ~ an ~ b. lor an n > N. Then: ~)n converges => ~:a. converges


6. The ratio test. Given a series L an of nonnegative terms, form the limit

lim au+1 =-L n__... a



L>1 ~

an diverge;

(Note: If L = 1, then this test is inconclusive.)

7. The root test. Given a series Lan of nonnegative terms, form the limit


L < 1 ~ Lan converges L >1 :::::} tan diverges (Note: If L ::: I, then this test is inconclusive.)

8. The integral test. If f(x) is a positive, monotonically decreasing function for x ;;:: I, such that /(n) ::: Q,. for every positive integer n, then:


L an converges ~ J)~ f (x) dx converges



Which of the following series converge, and which diverge?

.. sin: n .. 1 .. nml

(a) ~"a+n (b) ~Jn+3 (c) ~7I

to n~ ... logn

1)d) ~ (1og3)- tie) ~"7"


(a) Notice that, for every n ;;:: I, we have:

5m2n 1 1

--<--<n3 + n - n3 + n - n3

.. 1

Since the seriesL --;- converges (it's the p-series with p = 3), this series converges, by the

net n

comparison test.


(b) The following inequality is true for every n > 1:

1 1


.In +3 2.[;;

Since the series L lr diverges (it's a nonzero multiple of the p-series, with p = .!.), this series

2vn 2

diverges by the comparison test.

(c) Let's apply the ratio test:

lim an+1 = lim[(n + 1fooo • ~l = lim[(n + 1)2000 • _1_] = 1.0 = 0

n .... ce an H--+~ (n + 1)! n2000 n .... ee n n + 1

Since the value of this limit is less than 1, the ratio test tells us that the series converges. (d) Here, we apply the root test:

In order to figure out lim rr'", we first find limx3/x using L'H6pital's rule. Letting y = :x?/x, we have

logy = m logx,';; ~


lim (logy) = lim 3 log x = lim ~ =0 :::::} limy=eo =1 :::::} limx3/X =1

X~oo X~oo x X~ 1 X~ X~oo


lim -r: 1 lim 3/n 1 1 1 1

"an =--. n =--. =--<

n .... ee n log 3 n .... ~ log 3 log 3

so the series converges.

(e) We'll apply the integral test here; this means we must investigate the convergence of the improper integral:

f~ log x dx x2

1 ,

Let's use integration by parts, with u = log x, du = (~) dx, dv = dx/xl, and v = -~:


f~ log X dX=limfb log X dX=lim[ logX+l]b =lim[l_logb+l]

lX2 b-->~lX2 b-->~ X Ib--+~ b

But, by L'H6pital's rule,


lim 10gb + 1 = lim b =0

b .... ee b b~1

so the improper integral converges (to 1). The integral test now assures us that the series will converge, too.



Co~vergence tests 5 through 8 apply only to series whose terms are all nonnegati~: But what if some of the terms are negative? One important type of series, which contains infinitely many negative terms,

is the alternating series . .

in which each a is nonnegative. The series is called alternating since the terms alternate in sign. Loosely

n .

speaking, alternating series have a better chance of converging to a finite sum, since the negative sum-

mands help offset the positive ones. The convergence test for an alternating series is simple:

9. The alternating series test. The alternating series L.(-1r+1an (witha ~Oforalln)willcon-

n=l n ,."",-----

_verge provided that the terms an decrease monotonically, with a limit of zero.

Notice that the condition "an decrease monotonically to 0" is not sufficient to ensure that a general series Lan converges [remember rule 1 above], but it is sufficient to guarantee that an alternating series L(-1y+1an converges.

Given a series Lan' some or all of whose terms an may be negative, we can form the series Llanl, all of whose terms are clearly nonnegative. If this latter series converges, then we say the original series converges absolutely. If the original series converges but the latter does not, then we say the original series converges conditionally. Because convergence tests 5 through 8 apply only to series of nonnegative terms, the following rule is especially helpful for deciding the convergence of series that may contain infinitely many negative terms, but which aren't necessarily alternating:

10. Every absolutely convergent series is convergent.

Notice how helpful rule 10 is in the following example: If we let

{_!_ if n is not prime

a = n2

n 1

ifn is prime n2


then does the series Lan converge or diverge? Although this series contains infinitely many negative


terms (because there are infinitely many primes), it is not alternating, so the alternating series test can-

not be applied. However, since the series L ~ is convergent (it's the p-series with p = 2), our series is n

absolutely convergent, and so, by rule 10, it's convergent.


A power series in x is an infinite series whose terms are a x", where each a is a constant:

n n _


You can think of a power series as a polynomial of infinite degree, but since it's actually an infinite series, the definitions and convergence tests we've shJdied WID apply here. ~ power series is useful only if it converges, so we'll first determine the values of x for which the series is convergent. Since some of the terms may be negative, we'll find those values of x for which the series is absolutely convergent. According to the ratio test, the series will converge absolutely if:


lim a,,+lx = lxi- lima"+l < 1

If_ a x" 'rt ..... a

n ~

Let L = lim lall+1 / all I, where we'll allow L = 00. 1£ L = 0, then the power series converges absolutely for all


x; if L = "", then the power series converges only for x = Oi and if L is positive and finite, then the power series converges absolutely for Ixl < ~ and diverges for Ixl > ~. The set of all values of x for which the L

series converges is called the intelVaJ of convergence, and we now see that every power series in x falls into one of three categories:

1. The power series converges absolutely for all x in the interval (-R, R) and diverges for all x such that Ixl > R, for some positive number R called the radius of convergence. The value of R is equal to L ' where L is defined as above. (The power series may also converge at one or both endpoints of the mterval-that is, at x = ±R-but this must be checked on a c~by-case baSiS.)

2. The power series converges absolutely for all Xi the interval of convergence is (--00, 00), and we say that the radius of conveJ:gence is 00.

3. The power ~ies converges only for x = 0, so the radius of convergence is O.

!' •

Solu.tion: According to the ratio test, the series will converge absolutely if:

2" .. 1 X"+I n2 ( n)2 .

lim - -- =Ixlolim 2. -- =21xl <1 :::::} Ixl <1

II'_' {77+1)2 2" x" 11__ n+1 2

We'll now check convergence at the endpoints of the interval (- t, t). When x = t, the series becomes

which converges (it's the p-series,with p = 2). Therefore, the interval of convergence also includes the point x = t. Now, at X= -i , the series becomes

which also c2!lverges, (because it's an alternating series whose terms...are decreasing and approach zero). So we conclude that the interval of convergence of the power series is the

closed interval l- t, t]·



A function of x can be defined by a power series; in fact, this is where power series are most used. Let


La"x" be a power series in x, and define a functionfby:

~ -

f(x) = La"x7f

Notice that, in order for the function to be well defined, the domain of f must be a subset of the int~al of convergence of the power series, so that the series actually converges. We'll now list a few very important facts about functions defined by power series.

Within the interval of convergence of the power series,

1. The functi0I1/ is continuous, differentiable, and integrable.

2. The power series can be differentiated term by term, and the resulting power series gives the derivative off; that is:

3. The power series can be integrated term by term, and the resulting power series gives an integral of J; that is:

p1eUl We know that the geometric series

. .. 1

l+x+.r+···= I, x" =-n=O I-x

converges for Ixi < 1. Use this series to find a power series expansion for (a) g(x) = k>g(1- z),

(b) h(x) = x/(l- X)2, and (c) k(x) = arctan x.


(a) Once we realize that log(1 - x) is an integral of -1/ (1- x), we can write:

1 .. .. 1- 1

-_- = L(-I)x" => log(1- x) = 2, _:_ X"+1 = 2, =-x"

1-x n~ liDon+l ".1 n

(b) Now, for h(x), we know that 1/(1- X)2 is the derivative of 1/(1 - x), so:

1 N 1-

-= LX" => --2 = Lnx"-l

I-x ,,,,0 (I-x) ~1


Multiplying this series by x gives us the power series for x/(I- xf

1 = x =

--2 = L nxn-1 => --2 = L nx"

0-~ ~ 0-~ ~

(c) We want to use the fact that arctan x is an integral of 1/(1 + x2). So, first, we'll take the power series expansion of 1/(1- x) and replace x with -x; this gives us:

_1_= ixn => 1 = i(-xr => _1_= i(-lrXn

I-x n=O 1-(-x) n=O l+x n=O

Next, we replace x by x2

_1_= i(-lrxn

1 +x n=O

1 =

=> --2 = L(-I)"x2n

1 +x n=O

and then integrate term by term:

~= i(-I)"x2n

1 + x n=O

ee ( l)n

=> arctan x = L ---- X2n+1 n=O 2n + 1

Notice that in part (c), we found the power series for 1/(1 + x2) from the power series for 1/(1 + x) by replacing x with x2. In general, we can get the power series for f[g(x)] from the power series for f(x) by replacing x with g(x). Other operations that are permitted on power series include adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing two power series or multiplying a power series by a polynomial [as we did in part (b), when we multiplied the power series for 1/(1- X)2 by x to get the power series for x/(I- X)2].


We'll complete our study of power series by learning how to generate the power series for a given function. Let's assume that a function fhas a power series expansion of the form:


f(x) = Lanxn = ao +a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ...


Substituting x = 0, we immediately get an = f(O). But what are the values of the other coefficients: aI' a2, etc.? Well, differentiating the equation above gives us f'(x) = a1 + 2a2x + 3a3x2 + .... If we now substitute x = 0, we get al = 1'(0). Differentiating again gives us f"(x) = 2a2 + 2 • 3a3x + ... , so a2 = ! f"(O). Continuing like this, we can figure out that the following formula gives us every coefficient, an:


a =--

n n!

These numbers are called the .Taylor coefficients of (, the power series

f(x) = i pn)(o) x"

n=O n!

is called the Taylor series off and, if f(x) can be represented by a power series, then this is it.


Solution: If f(x) = e", then f (n)(x) = e for every n, so:

f(n)(o) eO 1

a =--=-=-

n n! n! n!

Therefore, the power series for e is:

cc 1 x2 x3

eX = I _xn =1+x+-+-+···

n;O n! 2! 3!

As for sin x, we have

f(X) = sin X => f(O) = 0 => ao = 0

f'(X) = cos x => 1'(0) = 1 => a1 = ;! = 1 f"(x) == - sin x => f"(O) = 0 => a2 = 0

f'''(x)=-cosx => f"'(O)=-l => a3=-;!

and the cycle repeats for the higher-order derivatives. Therefore, every an with an even n is equal to D,leaving only the coefficients an with an odd n; we conclude that:

cc (_I)n x3 XS

• '" 2n+1

sm x = ~(2n+l)!x = x-3T+5T-'"

The Taylor series we found in the preceding example belongs to a list that you should memorize for _the tes~; these are the Taylor series for some of the most common functions encountered in calculus:

1 1 2 3 ~ n

-= +x+x +x + ... = £..X

I-x n;O

valid for -1 < x < 1

1 1 2 3 ~( l)n n

--= -X+X -x + ... = £.. - x

l+x n;O

valid for -1 < x < 1

x2 X3 cc (_1)"+1 n

10g(1+x)=X--+-- ... = I--x

2 3 u=I n

valid for -1 < x s 1

valid for all x

3 5 ee (1)"

sinx=x-~+~- ... = I - X2n+1

,._." 3! 5! n;0(2n+l)!

valid for all x

x2 X4 ec (-1)" 2n

cosx=I--+-- .. ·= I--x

-" 2! 4! n;O (2n)!

valid for all x



If we truncate a Taylor series, we obtain a Taylor polynomial, which can be used to give us an approximation of the value of the Taylor series' function at some x in its interval of convergence. For example, let's use the Taylor series for ff to obtain an approximation of Fe. If we choose the first four terms of the series, we get the cubic polynomial:


(A calculator would tell you that, to three decimal places, Fe '" 1.649, so our approximation is pretty good.) The error we incur in approximating the value of f(x) by the nth-degree Taylor polynomial

P (x) = j(O) + 1'(0) x + j"(O) x2 + ... + j(nl(O) x"

n I! 2! n!

is exactly equal to

j(n+ll( )

j(x) - P (x) = C xn+1

n (n+1)!

where c is some number between 0 and x. This form of the remainder (as it's called) can be use~ to find an upper boun.?,_~~.!~.e..~:.:or. Also, if the expression above is positive, then we know the approximation is too low, and if the error is ne_gative, then the approximation is too high. Let's figure out a bound for the error in our estimation of ..J e . Since we approximated Fe with the Taylor polynomial of degree n = 3, the exact error is equal to

j<4l(C) X4 = £ (.!)4

4! 24 2

1 1

for some number c between 0 and -. Since e = 2.718 ... < 4, we know, for example, that for 0 < c < - , the

2 2

value of l certainly satisfies 1 < t < 2. Therefore, we can be assured that the error is less than:

2 (1)4 1

24 2" = 192 ~ 0.0052

Using the values given above (our approximation, Fe '" 1.646, and the exact value to three decimal places, Fe '" 1.649), we can see that our approximation is too low by about 0.003, which is indeed within the bound established in the calculation above.

One final note. The power series we've studied have been series in x; that is, the terms contain powers of x. However, we can also obtain a series expansion for a function in powers of ( x - a), that is, a series of the form:



In this case, we'd find the Taylor coefficients from the formula: j<n)(a)

a =--

n n!

When a = 0, we obtain the Taylor series in powers of x, which is sometimes referred to as the Maclauri series, although this oId-fashloned terminology is going out of style.

If we use a Taylor polynomial in powers oi~ _-_q1lo approximate the value of a function at a point within the interval of convergence of its Taylor series, then the error is


f(x) - P (x) = (x - at+1

. __ ,_~. __ ,~n + I)!


where c is some number between a and x.


Calculus II


In the previous chapter, we reviewed the calculus of functions of one independent variable. In this chapter, we'll study the calculus of functions of two or more independent variables. We'll begin by reviewing the analytic geometry of euclidean a-space (Ra), then move on to topics that involve the _differentiation of functions of several variables, and finish up by introducing topics that involve the integration of functions of several variables.


If we construct a third copy of the real line and place it perpendicular to the x-y plane so that all the origins coincide, we have the geometric representation of three-dimensional space, R3 ("R-three") .. This third line is called the z-axis, and any point P in this three-dimensional space is uniquely specified by its three coordinates, as an ordered triple.



Zo __


----I:!P= (xo, Yo,zo)

, ,

Yo r----!--~, --. y

, , , ,



Just as the x- and y-axes partition the plane into 22 = 4 quadrants, the x-, y-, and z-axes partition space (sometimes called xyz-spa(:e) into 23 = 8 octants. The octant in which all three coordinates are positive is called the first octant; there is no universal agreement on how the other seven octants are numbered. As in the figure above, the first octant is almost always the one that's presented face-on when we view xyz-space.

The unit vectors i and j which point in the +x and +y directions, respectively, are now joined by a third unit vector, k, which points in the +z direction. So in 3-space, we have

i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0), k = (0, 0, 1)

and any vector in 3-space can be written in terms of these three unit vectors: v=(x,y,z) <=> v=xi+yJ+zk

When a vector is written like this-that is, in terms of its components-the magnitude (or norm) of

the vector, which is its length, is given by: "_._., .



v,=xi+yj + zk







JC-~---+---,-', - Y

, , ,






The operations of vector addition, vector subtraction, and scalar multiplication are also easy to perform. If VI = (Xl' Yl, Zl) and v2 = (x2, Y2, z), then

VI +V2 = (Xl +X2' Yl +Y2' Zl +Z2)

Vl-V2 =vl +(-v2)= (Xl'Yl' Zl}+(-X2'-Y2,-Z2} = (Xl - X2' Yl - Y2' Zl - Z2)





where a is a scalar (that is, a number). The distance between two points, PI = (XII Yl, Zl) and P2 = (x2, Y2' Z2)' is the length of the vector, v = Pl2, that connects them:


~___","-----T-, r---. y -~:/'~-------.------~

, ,

, '

, "



~P2 = Ilvll = II(x2 - Xl' Y2 -Yl' Z2 - Zl}11

= ~(X2 - Xl}2 + (Y2 - Yl}2 + (Z2 - ZI}2



One way to multiply two vectors is to form their dot product. The dot product of two vectors, A and B, is defined as


where e is the angle between them. Particularly, notice that the dot product of two vectors is a scalar; for this reason, the dot product is also called the scalar eroduct. The dot product has a variety of uses. For example, consider the vector projection of B onto A, which is denoted projAB:

(AL(U LUS II • 103

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