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Published by: Chaudry Usman Ali Khan on Nov 07, 2010
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GEOL 101

Introductory Geology Chapter 6 Sediments and

Sedimentary Rocks

Sediments
Collective name for loose, solid particles originated from weathering and erosion, thus Unconsolidated. Classification of sediments based on sizes
Gravel > 2mm Sand between 1/16 and 2 mm Silt between 1/256 mm and 1/16 mm Clay < 1/256 mm

GEOL 101

Change from Sediments to Sed Rxs
Transportation

Roundness: round ± distance from source Sorting: well sorted - distance from source Deposition: settle of particles Preservation
GEOL 101

Change from Sediments to Sed Rxs
Lithification
Compaction ± reduction in pore space Cementation ± seal out the pores Crystallization ± growth of crystals from solution.

GEOL 101

Sedimentation Process GEOL 101 .

and manganese GEOL 101 . aluminum.What is Sedimentary Rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering Account for about 5 % (by volume) of Earth¶s upper crust Contain evidence of past environments ‡ Provide information about sediment transport ‡ Often contain fossils Economic importance ‡ Coal ‡ Petroleum and natural gas ‡ Sources of iron.

Sedimentary Rocks Rock types Classification Sedimentary Environments Fossils GEOL 101 .

Sedimentary Rock Classification Classified according to material type ‡ Clastic ‡ Chemical Two major textures are used in the classification of sedimentary rocks ‡ Clastic ± Discrete fragments and particles ± All detrital rocks have a clastic texture ‡ Nonclastic ± Pattern of interlocking crystals ± May resemble an igneous rock GEOL 101 .

Sedimentary Rocks Types Sediment originates from mechanical and/or chemical weathering Rock types are based on the source of the material ‡ Clastic rocks ± transported sediment as solid particles ‡ Chemical rocks ± sediment that was once in solution GEOL 101 .

Detrital Sedimentary Rocks The chief constituents of detrital rocks include: ‡ Clay minerals ‡ Quartz ‡ Feldspars ‡ Micas Particle size is used to distinguish among the various types of detrital rocks Particle shape and sorting give indication of transport distance (maturity) GEOL 101 .

Particle Size Classification GEOL 101 .

Sorting. Setting Sorting Sphericity Roundness Depositional Setting GEOL 101 . Shape.

and composition of the grains can be used to interpret the rock¶s history ± Quartz is the predominant mineral GEOL 101 .Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Common Clastic sedimentary rocks (in order of increasing particle size) ‡ Shale ± Mud-sized particles in thin layers that are commonly referred to as laminea ± Most common sedimentary rock ‡ Sandstone ± Composed of sand-sized particles ± Forms in a variety of environments ± Sorting. shape.

Detrital Sedimentary Rocks ‡ Conglomerate and breccia ± Both are composed of particles greater than 2mm in diameter ± Conglomerate consists largely of rounded gravels ± Breccia is composed mainly of large angular particles GEOL 101 .

Shale containing plant remains GEOL 101 .

Sandstone GEOL 101 .

Conglomerate GEOL 101 .

Breccia GEOL 101 .

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Consist of precipitated material that was once in solution Precipitation of material occurs in two ways ‡ Inorganic processes ‡ Organic processes (biochemical origin) Common chemical sedimentary rocks GEOL 101 .

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Common Types Limestone Dolostone Chert Evaporites Coal GEOL 101 .

Limestone ‡ Most abundant chemical rock ‡ Composed of calcite carbonate CaCO3 ‡ Marine biochemical limestones form as coral reefs. and chalk (microscopic organisms) ‡ Inorganic limestones include travertine and oolitic limestone GEOL 101 . coquina (broken shells).

Coquina GEOL 101 .

Fossiliferous Limestone GEOL 101 .

magnesium carbonate CaMgCO3 ± Typically formed secondarily from limestone ‡ Chert ± Made of microcrystalline quartz ± Varieties include flint .Chemical Sedimentary Rocks ‡ Dolostone ± Composed of calcite. jasper and agate (banded form) ‡ Evaporites ± Evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates ± Examples include rock salt and rock gypsum GEOL 101 .

Chert Agate ± Banded Chert GEOL 101 .

Coal Common chemical sedimentary rocks Different from other rocks because it is composed of organic material Stages in coal formation (in order) ‡ Plant material ‡ Peat ‡ Lignite ‡ Bituminous GEOL 101 .

Coal GEOL 101 .

Coal Formation Stages GEOL 101 .

and structures GEOL 101 . fossils. etc.Sedimentary Environments A geographic setting where sediment is accumulating Determines the nature of the sediments that accumulate (grain size. grain shape.) Identified by sedimentary facies.

Sedimentary Environments ‡ Continental ± Dominated by stream erosion and deposition ± Glacial ± Wind (eolian) ‡ Marine ± Shallow (< 200 meters) ± Deep (seaward of continental shelves) ‡ Transitional (shoreline) ± Tidal flats ± Lagoons ± Deltas GEOL 101 .

Depositional Environments GEOL 101 .

Depositional Environments Continental Marine GEOL 101 .

Turbidity Currents GEOL 101 .

Turbidity Currents Graded Bedding GEOL 101 .

Evaporite Formation GEOL 101 .

Sedimentary Facies Different sediments often accumulate adjacent to one another at the same time Facies: possesses a distinctive set of characteristics reflecting the conditions in a particular environment Merging of adjacent facies tends to be a gradual transition GEOL 101 .

Sedimentary Facies GEOL 101 .

Sedimentary Structures Useful for interpreting sedimentary environment ‡ Strata: or beds. layers of similar sediment (most characteristic of sedimentary rocks) ‡ Lamina: thin layers (< 1cm) ‡ Bedding planes separate strata ‡ Cross-bedding ‡ Graded beds ‡ Ripple marks ‡ Mud cracks GEOL 101 .

Bedding GEOL 101 .

Bedding Structures Lamina Graded bedding GEOL 101 .

Cross Beds GEOL 101 .

Ripple Marks unconsolidated sediment lithified rock GEOL 101 .

Mud Cracks GEOL 101 .

Grand Canyon o GEOL 101 .

Fossils: Evidence of past life By definition. fossils are the traces or remains of prehistoric life now preserved in rock Fossils are generally found in sediment or sedimentary rock (rarely in metamorphic and never in igneous rock) GEOL 101 .

Dinosaur footprint in limestone GEOL 101 .

Fossils: Evidence of past life Geologically fossils are important for several reasons ‡ Aid in interpretation of the geologic past ‡ Serve as important time indicators ‡ Allow for correlation of rocks from different places Studied in detail in Historical Geology (GEOL 102). offered in Spring 2004 GEOL 101 .

England Tiny planckon shells Deposited on sea floor Later uplifted GEOL 101 .Chalk Cliffs of Dover.

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