t bill!

I h oF b ilt inthc South Bend ' I t- h~' h

au tornorn es were nerng .I_:U!, '. In .ne ',ou . 1 =,en., plants wr .rcr we're

still, at this time, devoted to the manufacture of horsedrawn

eq"':- ~ .. ',:,.·1 . "en" t . -··t···· .111 k- .. d·-: .', fa ',' '.'"', - : .. --: .. -,,":-'.:- ',.,,, .. d' . h·, . " ' .. "' .'.: .' ..... , ,.'

, .... uipmei 1.>-0'1: an . In:·, ,s, arm wa,gons, am arnesses.

The decision was made in 1916 to build a completely new ' .. ' 't'· ... . b '''I' .'., .. I· .' ti!l - !S': ... .- th-"< B~' '.-. d ,._. f· .. · ... ' t . '.' - . t' ,-' rh' ',' ' .. '.", .' . '" :' "'1 '.- ,,," I tn t-· "f: au torno '·1 .e prant I~ n,IOU,1 i tsenr I; a racrory ,0 1_: ave a year y O"UI,',PU '::.0

""". t'··: 150'-' '0·'0····'·0··· ,., ton .obiles P,·'I;'~"':"[" ':"I'~ ··d· f .. ··:c I" the '. r, rstr ction ":f",-,

up"o ;';1"/ aU'10.m'IO'" .. ues. ans cauec .or :"i e cons ruction 01

b ildi .~ Ii! 'iii d f' 'I' d d

UI :' ~ngs 'In units over a perron or s"e'v'era, years, ani grouno 'was

b ., .. -,' k"·-, , D" ..... ,.,., .. rnh .,: -12·' '1' ·9·':·1····6·~,' f .. t·h, '~'. Ii -:,,""- eat ,.[. ',;" .. :." .. _ I,. A·'-'·,,' th .". fi: .'; t .,ro:_<,;e'n, 'ieee·m: ,er ' .: I ' :::, or [ , Ie g,·,re"a" ex,pansl,on ~ " ,5. !e _ .Irs

th .'.',". -. iits -."·'"'·"i· ',:;- .. :.: : ["':: [""1, ted th '," U nite d ." S-:t .. rt ',_.." _"-' .. te .. ' .. ' d the ""'1'- ~ '.

Iree uruts were cornp ,e. enr.tr e, rn ,.'e, , :""a ,'e's ~n_ere,.":, e war In,

E- ',. """,':':"" . nd .,.,-" -':,.-," .... ',';",:, -j .', ·,'tlt' t-"h" .. ':-:. 1-'" ,'''. ,':.' b ildit ,._",. '.,' ."" ..... :.,-[ "Ii :~; .. -:- ·--·,d·,·· f" ~

urope, ano consequen ~y'_1 e new ".UI,., , Jngs:, equ ppe~, lor

machine shop .• ·• 'work and' fo,rg,- ing,--, were immediately converted to'

I . -' . .,' _ ~ ". l, _ . -. . . _ .} _ 'I~ .. _ . . .: . I - ," '" ,_. ' [ ."" ~ . .' . .... ..... --

work' on 0' rrd ers from t",h', 'e Or: d nanc :'e:' Depa rt rnent of t he,' U" S."·, AL rrnv

, : ......".. ',': ,.',."..:..;".... __ . _ . , ~, ' __ '. . . I .,.", , .,". _,., , " II -, '.' "II, ~

Furtherconstruction work on, Plant 2" asit was called, would 'have to

.. r .. ' .. ,":'. lt t h .,: . (-, . ':. :' .. ' "~' t ~ .. '_- ' . ·f· 'h"",' ',_, .-:t· ·1' It' ,'II'. ': .. ,-

await e cessation 0 05,1111 I,es.,

. . ..

The decision by Studebaker to relocate a major part of Its

"'''''1 -', t·,,'· en ".~"""'""' 'f",,: cilitles ."'. '5·' ,,-. rth B'-" snd ('F'""'-- '1" 2:' 1: ) .. "" "',.-',-" -, .... , .- d to

manurac ur,lng aCI.IJe's In, :"'iOIUI.,:',en"_,,-~g~ .,:,:Mi::1 'as' opposen to

expansion 0" f; ·It··S·' Motor ·C··, .. ity - factori ... "., '".:"": b sed """-:-. t"h:e'''' better

'.',7\. .. ' [,'j ' .. ; ~,,': ·,~" ..• ,r - 1,,: a,~["rle;s, was"a.s1e,,_ on i_ .·'-".,!e .. 'r

m,-,·: nufact ring cond itior ",' 1·," ""e'" labor costs '. nd bett , ... - rall trans a U acturu ,,:' , .. ",'1 ·,_I.~lon,s,'! _,ow,--,~r a".,or 'C:OS"=,S,, an,:",_-,e.,e·r 1,,-,'1.,1 ra :s ...

port 'in South Bend Moreover South B-· end had always been the

.... , " . ,., .", . '. , __ '.' c,.', """.' , ., .... " .. ,., 1 ." ": . _, , , ,," , ," _I , ',-. '"._, ,''; '",.: r "" . '.' ". ',,_ .. _, " [ ..

Th-:"""e": "'. L'.· .... ight S"}·,X,,:"·' l' ·g ••• ··.,2.·············0':-I·:', 9',·12··,··,4···,"",···'_··.-

'-, ,_ ",._. ". ',::' . , ,_' , .. ".,.' .. .,. c-·· " _. ""

A:'·, early .,' 1':':9,-·";1"5 s,-"t- .debak -:' : -','; ';_', _.--,.".:" ent ':"":'III't"':',""'d'" that th ,'. sa .•• as., .~ua,er m~nagemen realllze, a I 'e

Detroit automobile plants, were Inadequate to meet the pro-

jected demands for the production of Studebaker automobiles. Even by working .. the plants to full capacity and buving many parts

. , "'.' , - ':__:__.:' "" , ',' . , .. '. ,. , ." _, '_. . "I,.: _ _. ~ ,I I, [ " [ , .. , . " '

from outside suppliers, only about 60-70,000 cars could be built annually in the Detroit factories. However, Erskine was thinking in

t ',-, 'm'" .' f '.- ' ... ' <Ii - .• t .. d . . .... d - - - .ti '. . "f- '2" "0''-'''0'' 0;"0"0'" "" .. -,' '11- N'" , ..

er . :-5· 0: a proJec e, pro,u,c'Jo.'n 0,_:,,1, t '.' '. ca,rs annua Y'" , 0

Fig. 12-1 .. Plant-i, the comp.Jetely integrated plant in South Bend where the ligbt

S·-'/~:X·: was b:~,'U"":I:'1t The ,S',:'p', "eciaJ

.. . ',,, ' - ~ " '-'

Six end Big Six cars continued to ,be menutsctured in 5":: t u d eb -.a> ker's Detr 0·· .. ,·:t

. .' .:__..' . '. I:' ",' _~ , . . ". ,_. --=-- .' _ '.. "'. ' .

P /'a" n" t's' ,r

1"1 [.'.... :' '.: ~

86"

.,',_-.

home of Studebaker, and management felt strong ties to the

H .~ t to.

oosrer state.

, "".' , . XC'" " .

By October, 1918, it was apparent that the, war in Europe was

earlyover and the plans for th .. S uth B'" td tom hile ~II . t

n 'anv ove ,._-;:l u, '1< ," .,'; .", . __ r t .. re new orurrn nenc autornoone P'l ani"

were taken out of mothballs. Building-costs WEHoe, almost certain to skyrocket In the postwar period, and with accounts of over $8 million still uncollectedfrom the US and British governments , Studebaker fou nd Itself in need of capital to finance the proposed exp .anslo n Acco irdl ngly t:11h"" e dl rec .. tors we :'r' e'·" ·"s·_" s .. .ked ,. t!iO·'··· a>' uth ,0.' irize

'1', ,'. ,.,' . 1 '. " .".: '"." '. >" .. 1" ,". ~I E" '"'. , ,>., , ".,:" ' .. ,"" .\,::.;'" .~ ': ": "'., " ' ... _ I .,',

rais.ing of $15 million by the sale of ten-year! 7 percent gold notes. Proceeds were received by January 1, 1'919, and ground was broken once again on March 19 to resume construction of Plantz. Less than a year rater, the stockholders authorized the increase of capital

Fig. 12~2. The 1920.,21 Model E1 LightSixtouring car.

S."t'O·:'·C·':""k·:' from _'.' $"1"3""'10:" m"!~I'II~" , .... , t"QC"" 't";1'5···-'~'I·~':Ii," .. ", f· nrn .. ied .. atelv $""'1"'5" ,:·····11'·, .. ,""' .' f"

:,".;:"," ,""".1, '.;.',,' .I "._on, . ~",' ml..I,lon. Im·,:-:::.,a:-,~y, :.," :1 ml __ I,on o_

the common stock wa S sold at ~$''''~:1' 0."5:, per sh a··.' re. the procee ds were .'.

.~, 'o"_' 0··.·. '_ .. I _ I'", .=.' .:::" _ . ,.1,._:_: _ .. '..:_ .. __ ..:._ .," "_,:_",,,-; .. :,:, '.-. I • _ •. ' •... ~ _, _'" . i_ -._ .. ' .. - '_ .. ~ _, _", . '_ ~ ',_

• 1 ~

used ro reti Ire; th e gold notes and the fu nded debt requ i' red for the

. _ ~ ... I:. _ ~ ', __ • '.' ',_, 1 .• -, , • ! .. : ', __ .~ _ ... , _,- ", '_ ' ... _', I .. , ' '.. .' -. '.". I , 1:.:" ._~.' ._ __ ". _~ .... _ I ~ - _' , ". . ": . .. ;.;_ ,". . "_ '-:..... - _I .' _ .' •

plant expansion was thus capitalized within oneyear.

THE IFA,M()US P".:LA,NT:2

In 1919 Studebaker acted to terminate production of its complete line' of buggies, carriages, harnesses, and all other h 0 rs e -dra .. iwn equ iprn .,,' ent with th e ", ex C,' ep .. rtlon of fa r·-" m w················~I'D';O' ins A .. ···'·:·, y"',e·"'·a·'r:

" • ,. ,. "c' __ " ." '." .' ... "",.,' • ": '. '! - _ , ." ;' ' II _ ;. " . ,.' ,'" ",,;,," : : ,. -<. ' "- ". , " . '~'. 1- '- ", ."' " ,g 0, ',_ . ,r·· iii , ',. ." ' ....• '.' .'

later', farm wagon production 'was also halted. In business for 68 continuous years, the largest and most renowned manufacturer of horsedrawn vehicles had at lastfou nd this partof the, !b,IUS,i ness to be

J .

unprofitable. Although some machinery had to be sold or scrap-

ped, much of the woodworking machinery was ideally suited for th . e rn a:' n urfactur e of c'-'I' osed car b 10" ·.,d' lie,· "5'·': - an d IM-t was retained for use in

. I,~ " ',,1_,_' _.~ .. .:_ ·:_· e, I" .. ': __ '_:'. __ ",' •. :.~. '_.": ','. , .. , .'" .... , .. _I ...•• ,:" , .. '_. .' , .... n I"

the bu ~ " Most 'f~ the ,,',, kinz to .",' ld b···· .. ·, utilized .".-"

me ousmess .. ,'··~·'OS.~ 0_ [~I' ei wor:./lng orcc C.OUI:· oe unuzei .. or

, .... d lth 'l'I .... :f. ff f- oduct '"' :

retrat n e·.' W'Jt_·· Htt!e ettort or car pro, .. 2 uction,

Th- f '. ·t· . 'b '"'I ld ,. '- .. ' '. ._. '1' !Ii k , ' ..... ~ .' .. : ,'," I ,t·t',·- b '~... f'~ '., '.'.".:. '. d - , .'

I' e 1 aCi'o,ry ,~·'UI .... Ings we,re, I:·ewise SU,I a '1II,e .. or c·a·r pro .. :' u,c~

,'Ii! the transiti f h d 1411 hicl

t on, ~'O ·t .. 'e transition '~"ro!m norsenrawn to gaso me verne es was

effected with relatively little expense, Therefore, old Plant 1 the vehicle plant was converted to the production of automobile parts and bodies, whi ch were supplied to the Detroit plants and to South" Bend Plant 2. AI most immediately the savings from Plant 1 production exceeded the profits from the sale of horsedrawn

hi I ,0

ve rc es.

Although production of. light Six cars was originally scheduled

beei . '1 ,,-, II! J' " ,,~,'-, C' Ii! • ,". bid I d dlf ff I '.

to, ,. egl n -at ,P ant ,2 In' an U ary, 1920;. In evitab .e,--, e ays anc ~,I:' leu Itl. es

It; btaini I ' ,i ' hei d ~ " - '"' d han d

I-In':· ,0',": btai n,l! n~'g·.· 5:· U p:p' I e-··s':·· '~n' t .' e,' f m·"· 1m' ':'e: :,- nate ". p- '·0· .'S· rtw ···'a:· r· p .. c:,"e,· r'IIO •. ' 1 "am" "p: Ie·' ',' r~e-:'i

... ) .' '... .. I, :-". _.. . . I , __ ', . - II ~,:. IJ I .. .. _ III . , .". ';.., " . '_ _.,,', I " '. _ II.· ... : . _ .' _ _ .. ' "' _

_ ' . '__ I !

'construction, and the first Model EJ Light Six (Fig. 12-2) was not

turned .out until April 30, 1920. Production was very limited at first because of .shortages of materials, and only about 7,000 EJ light Sixes were bui It in the' balance of 1920.,

The new Plant 2, devoted exclusively to Light Six production, was a marvel of efficiency in its day. A description o.f the facility; comprising ten buildings in all, is of some historical importance as it represents one. of the few completely integrated plants for the

d t'· " f ., I - .d I f Th lant consi t d f

pro . uctron 0 a -S,I,n.g' e' rnooe o Gar ~ :'1 'e' pan' consrs reo 0:':

Ooen Body" and Final Assembly Building - four stories - 7',891 by

'-'''r' " ,'," .".' "',." : .. '." '-' ',,'" : .. '" .", '.' '" " ' ... , _ .', ,. ~"." ... '" ,. '." I :.' "".' , '.", • . ,. ".' ,.:." ~.,

192 feet. Railroad tracks (an the entire length of the building

h h t ,.... th ~ II! b -I .. t h f' 'I I I

t irougn a cen .er court WI' -'I projecting .. ra comes a,' eact ioor eve

for un loading su P' 'p'II'i es Cushions trl rnrni n.'g· . r top -'5: artd cu rtai ns

, . =. , " '- ~ '. . '. ",.' ," .,'.',. " .. ",'. .'. I 1 .' " . __ I' " _ ., I, ',: .,.,' .' .', , "',. '. ,',~ " . , "". , ...

"','., ,-:", ',' .sernbled -::"', the fo ,:t·h"·f::I :" 0·';'" '.' bodle: .'-.,,:., ."",,,', stored ,o·-:·n··,

were a.55.em .-' e, o·,n: ~_ e our,· lo'or .. ,'.' pen !:o .. les· were·, . ~ :-". "" '

, h " hi d f -Ii h 'iI' I .. d hcr o, . d . th

t re ,t tru rtoor, 'W':~ I: e motors a:n' other parts were store,'} on me

second floor. Final car assembly was conducted on the ground

·f<I"· '''. "-'" ·,·· th ,." .. ,,". ,~,. 1"., f .. '. , .. '-!I"::. 0'" .",,' ,,-- "'-b':I' .,~'ii .. ":.': , .. :t=f·": 111-' , ",··,d,···· ,···t,··I",,,.::

. oor WI _c,~ prov,l~slonl,s [or SIX ,assem,,·1 Y Iln:~:·s. a, u, .prO··IUCIJO'n.

0""'-,,, ". B·"'d" ,. d"-'" 'C'-,'··, S'·:··t·,-··" ,'.",' 8'" "~/-d''!'~, f"······ " ,·t·· -~, .. 9",',8"'8'" ·b,···· 7;'7"'-

.· .. ",pen'-oy a.n·,:--ar·~,,:' o'rage .U"J In'g ,our S ·Q'fl'eS" .-.,,' :'Y"

" -

f' ,~. t'" , ·'t· 'h" ' .. ",' . ," d,!! ~, III ,-- <i .. ," ,,'. , ... '.',' 'f': ,,', """':- 't- ::--'" '7"'8',"9' 'f':"','-:-C t· 'b-" '4!0'-::' ·f- :" ,':-- t·- :!!i ,- . ~ .. _- .'.'

e·e :'. WII, I ana·, JO.lnln.g a·nnex ,0 . one s, ory,,: .':' , . ee '" '·:"Y :',. I ,eel. In SIZ.e.,

The ground floor was used for washing, polishing" and delivery of

. f'-' h · ~ T"h d' fl . f'" . h I I" " h'

.c:·a.rs· . or 51' I PP" ng. ,;' e se.1Clon::' ,O'o'r was or car ·,stara.get, W-:.I e t, --'e

t;h··r',d··1 ,- :n,,·'·d·· 'f'::··-· -,,·t-'h·' ··t···-.,·:I' .. ,~~. '. :., ." '.,',.' ·d,·,1 f'·,', '.' :.:~.:~ .. ',;0; •• ,.:. ': :' d" ' .. , t, ',. t' '. :-·:f·: L' Ii .. ·h:,·t"

cl"I,1 . a '.' ou r ". _ S o'rles were usel lor cI::elanlng a. : ,. paln.lng ,0. -,lg.l,

S,·IX·;· tIO:' -, .: ti n··:·g~'· c:-' 1,.":, ,-: b'_"1':·'''',d·:!I! .'::: ,'-

........ url ',_ ,ar ",.O""lle·s.

Stores andl Assembly' Building',~, f,our storie's, 524 by" 192 fe'et.

, , ._ ..:. • . .... '. ,,' " ",' , '.:. -~: •. ' '. ' , ' " ,',' ,_., .. _.,. _:c '. '.',;., ' : . '. .,' _ • _ '--,. ' " :_ .': '. '.!II

Railroad tracks ran the length of the building through a center

88

I . _ •

'tau rt, Motors, front axles rear axles transmissions .and steerln« ge~rs ·were as;embled and'stored in fhisbuilding. The fou rth fl~o~ contained offices and a restaurant.

Forge Shop, one story, 742 by 161 feet. This building contained

f: + h hi dt d ls f h d

orgingnarn ·m"·e·' rs-'- ovens. mac unes. c res. a.: ;n· " too .. ·· IS';' "o.:·r' tt e'·:· p,' .. ·-r:'Q' " ""U' C .... :'-

..' :.__ I . >-' .' . ,1_, I '. " ',.. ~ , - II . I". [-. -, ... s= . .... .: .., --' ,'" '.' -:

tion of axles, crankshafts, camshafts, connecting rods, etc.

Stamping Building, one story , 524 by 183 feet and a second building 100 by 96 feet. These buildings contained presses, riveters, fixtures, and tools to produce all Light Six starnpings such as frames, tenders t doors, hoods, etc.

Foundry J one story, 722 by 690 feet. At the time of its construction it was considered one of the most efficient and modern foundries in the world; It had a daily capacity of 600 tons ot castings ..

Machine Shop ,one story; 576 by 425 feet. Equipped with the most modern machine tools, this shop machi ned all the cast. ngs and forgi ngs for l.ight Six production.

Car Shipping and Train Shed Building, one story , 988 by 77 feet.

Trains were loaded at this facility. A total of 500 cars could be shipped per day.

Power House, two stories, 208 by 165 feet .. The power station was equipped with 16 boilers, with a total capacity of 26,000

h h iI h f" • h' d t f- th t bi d .'

norsepower, 'WJ C, :,'" U rrus '''e· 5 team ror vtr e: u r ,C,,'I! n;e,: nven

. , ,

generators, air compressors, steam pum'ps, kilns; and for plant

heating. The four steam turbines furnished electrical power for both Plant 1 and. Pant 2.

Th e com bi ned South Berrd p ants cove redan area of about 150 acres and had over eight miles of internal rail road tracks. The plant maintained three 65~ton locomotives for switching purposes.

THE MODEL EJ LIGHT SIX 1920 TO 1922

The model EJ Light SIx was a completely new design and was quite modern and daring in some of the concepts and engineering innovations. Furthermore, it was a complete bre'ak from Studebaker tradition in that no substantial number of parts were

interchangeable with the other cars of the Studebaker line the Special Six and Big Six. Some of 'the noteworthy engine featuJes 'indude three-point 'SuspenSion, inclined valves operated by bell cranks with roUer cam followers (a feature usually found only on

hig h' ip'" ri c .e d cars) the thermostatic heat control aluminum c __ ylln

".'_,'" .: :':: ':'( .. ,. : ·,.~r'J <I:~.,:~:'~.":~'~~:,:.: ,:,~.~".~., ., ,. '.11" r " 1.1. :IIJ" .'_r.,:., ',-

der head with built-in intake manifold, fully machined crankshaft

d to d d j'l . hain c h f" dri A" ' di .

an connecting ro" S', a,n'", stlent CI'·aln [e·alms_,a· t c r[v·e,. , .... ,. smgte ... ; -,SC

cl utch was used for th e" f~ rst ti me on a Studebaker car: the Special

, 1

and BigSixes still used a cone, clutch until 1922.

The rest 'of the" chassis w'a,s·mo,re conventional, but well

II! d th I A H[ t h k'il dri . I d tth

engi n ecrer never ne ess .. ' I .otc ·: .. :.tss.~: rtvc was emp oyec WI i"

f brl U" ~ •. , h d II! 'h' f tand ill fl .' .. ~ ~T'h

a" rl C.~JOI nits on t; e ...... nve 5 : iatt ann a semi-tloati rig rear axie. , ie

th·" rae-speed tra ns mis S':I~O;': n was mo·,:-:·U"· nt ed S: epa .. ·'1 ra "~,to ely f rom tho '- e"" engi in e

, ". . , . .- '> :.':". . : ' '" ,. __ . ; . [ I; ",'" -', . '.' '.' ,,«.. • -:'''. ~ • ' • .". ".. .. , • ~ .". ..'.' ", '. ~,.I, ,'.. . I I. .... ... : '" ',':. ' ,..'

- ,

O'n'[" a .. ~:· sub 'f" ra me: it was equ ip .•. ··p •. ·e·-·d:; with ··a·.:· th ... eft-pro .. iof tra n" srnission

, ., '. '.. , .. ., . ." " " .. ..1 .'.... '. .. _ I· ..:_ . ". '. .. . . ., II i:;J. I ,

. - . 1

1,0" ck Service brakes co' :nt' ra·: cted ext .. ernally o n th e·:" 'rear drums ~

. '_': I '.. ". _.'. .' ~I·.' ~'. '. ..., -' ' " ,';.', "" .[ ... :.. ,,':. '. .', ". I J II :- . : ' _ ' .' . ". ." " ,."

, ,

e-- m .erge inc 'y .. , .. , brak e"· S·· 'we' r e', ln tern a",' I' expandin g. zon t' he s a rne dru ms

_ ..... ,,: .' ... ""m ,'," ,:.' ',:.' ~." .:_ " • _ " .:, _~, .'" • _. "., ' • :.:,:~ ~'~.' "': ':- ,', "_', ','_ • ' •• ;' r '.' 0;;..:.:..' ._'.'111

• _' - I •. "

Due to inflation and shortage of materials In the postwar era, ~, .... '. i : ,:. _. "" ... " t h ,., L- " . h t 5'· , .r 'I." '. " " .. '.. ,.' -'11 ". ,,"'1 the :$:""1 0'[' '0' ·0":' , '-. ,,"! ... : t ," , .. th rt prlce.s on, . e. ,Ig'.,::-J.x cars were w·e ove,r ,., e[_" .; . .c,~' p·r,lc.e ,ag . ,_a,

had been ... ,"" ," .. d'" ·f<·· A'''" ':·1".',: .. · ,·,:"'·,: .. d ["" .. ~.,,,," . f' ,.,,'. b 5"'--:" uth Bend '." .. :'_"""!iii

.ao treen armec .. :or."nn'ouncec-:'.[ IP~r.ces _.O! .. ·,·,·~oU:., nenc were:

Tou ring car I $1 ,485; Landau-Roadster I $1,650; and Sedan, $2,150.

A II - . 11' 2'·... h h II b 'Th " '.. ~ h . d b t ~ cars were '_ ·~~·,'""I ncn wneet : .. ase, i ne tou·rl n'g ,car welg [e. !al':,O[.U'

2,500 pounds. '

The interesting design of the Light Six engine is worthy of some detailed discussion. Its basic design was to endu re for over 10 years

t h .. ' t, ' .... h th '.:' S-.'t'·1 ... dard s·:- "...... ·D·,IIIC'" 'to ., '1"':'1 ,. S'·'· ....... ·c":'-·'· '., ". : .. " , ·""d··',::"c: ... 5: ~.~ ... [('··G,:'-"J' , .odel

"roug _ tne .,.l.an iar ... X,. I.-:I:,a or ,'l~/,~omlman.:er '_-'_IX > I. mcnet

only); and, finally, the Erskine Six and Studebaker Six. of 1930. By this time so many changes and improvements had been made that scarcely any',' parts were' stir 'in'terchan!g- eable with the first desig n.

.. , "",' ". ",: _,,,, .', .: ', ..... _c-,· .... -, '., I :' ..• ~,:.: ,",.:, ..... ". _ . ,. .... '.' "" •. ,.' ,

but the heritage isplainlvvisible upon close inspection.

T'h'" EJ L·II: 'h:t' 's' '10 .'_, .. ... ,-.,' '. ,~'''' - de .. :..,. 3- 11 .'. c,h" t .. _. k ..... b'"

,. e ,', I l:g·I·I.., IX en,g.1 ne, cvu n er size .,':'_ 18-1 ncr s "ro,·e;_"y

4-Y2-inch bore, displaced.zfl? cubic inches arid was rated at 40 brake horsepower at 2000 rpm. The engine was cast en bloc with the u pper half of the (ran kcase j rrtegral with the cyli nders. This practi ce was another breakfrom the other cars of the Studebaker lin'e which still adhered to the use of separate castings for the cylinder block

d h If': f h' k Thei d L' h Si d .'

.an .uppe·r la ' .. - o· the cra,n~:"c:ase~ ::. e· [m'p'ro[ve,"~: .1 19: '.t,-IX ,:':~sl.·g·n

t !I h t d · I ~ th t tr th d ri idi t f" t h

con rl nuten materia ~'Y' to "I::~ e' great 5' rengtr an 'I r!-:g'I'~, r::.y o ~ r e'

_. .

b " - k

'['OC c,

Much attention has been focussed on the unusual cylinder head 'design of the early EJ LightSix. It is an aluminum casting which

F"' 1"2'[ 3" T' 'L 1"9"2"-'1" M" d I fl"

fg.~ . "". ~,',;!!. . ... " Ie . ' .. :_: .:·:,~,o·-:.Ie ~_.;'

I ig~'ht Six Landau'-Roadster,

_ ,"_" . ,>., • _._ . .. • . ' ....". ' .!Ii

F-I""g" ' ·1::2·'·:· ... ,4',;- T· be remsrke b -te

'_ : .. ''E-.,- "'1' _ 11."", \;,..h::_.:",'., .. "~

40-hQ'fSep"ower Model E1 Lig,ht Six powerplent with

aluminum c,ylinde.r head end muny other edvenced ie« ,t·.:.u' ",·'-e' -'5" 'Th .. ··o elutt: iinu m:' C''- 'Y-· .. ·_' ... ,

.1 i .. ·~-.:, ~ , . __ - _.' .:_:~ .... ~_;.". __ '_. ~ .,' i' :.~. ~.::.~,_":.' ~ ~ _', '~I :' .~ •• _. • ._.- .'," _.

tinder heed was later ebendoned in ievor of i?l: rnore cor: ventionel cest iron heed.

""-' -, " .::~ d - .. d -- -':,' .-. '.' '.,'.- "t·~ -' . - ~ .,.. C ,- k' etl -' " '>,' d i ":_, .'. tlv ,.", - .' '-. - t , h" 1"', .' .- :~I·<'-"·'-'d--: f", r 'J ." andi t --: ':-;". - .' ......

prOV,I,- le~. no water jac .. .eung crrec y .. over e cy In': .. ers, artc J_, may

b . .t b "" d - .. ,,'iI b ad """, ~. -, - . -I , .. ,. I td ~w:·:, t· _ .. -. _. -1 ...... ;:---, 'fi . ,',- - - . -.-', . ":;:-,'" fi .. rd .: ,1" , . esr ne oescnner as S·I mp "y,a I ;~,-~ ater Jac:~.e'-,Iln,g~ W~,S con I ne on y

to a small a rea c n one sid e': of t h e· .. ·' h-~ e' a d d Irec .tly '-' over t-"-h" e valv e' -'s" The

••• ~ •• J •• _~.I, l:~~''''' ' :~ :'~:". ~, :"-. _:~'u -t ,,', ' ~._. ; '} ." ~-:"IJ~~' : .. :. ",:. .'" .,<' l : .. ,~ .':'" ':'.": .~.:.: ;: .:.'.-. I :. ,t ".,~ '~_'<'.'.:')~J' ~ J; ~.~~' ··_·.··a,I __ ·····,,·.~_l_.<. _' :' r

horizontal draft carburetor was bolted to the right side of the

C,~~'iI id '" h .','" td and t .. h·'· e' ln rta .. k·---··e: m-" ianifold ~ p""';a" s"·: s" a-: ,'-, 'g': 'e" 'so crossed d~·I~ re-::~c .... ··t- ~Iy:'

,y~:~nl:::.,er ~"ea·_·, a, ':'_'_r . "" t_ J< i ·.1, .... r . ;:_' __ :1, ~.'" '.,,'~,.':_, ... ' ,_. ;, .. ,,_'_;'_ ',_, :,'",1>,

'''.''- .-, .. ' - the lh ,-·t' ... c_ cti -'., -: b ., . -" th ~'- ',,; _-'Ii',. d - : .. '1.-- '5·':t·· .d ebake -".' ite tted this

o'ver '1,le ,~, o i., secnon anove ._ '. e cy me ers. ~_'.~UI,_',e . ',a:,:,er patente " i I;"

''/I~ n terna [: ho ,:t' - spo ·-~t:·f" p ri n cipl e·.-, which 'W' vas cla I~ me d t ;0-·' g ..•... ive i m·p. iroved

, '.' .,~ , .--c' II,· ... ',,_ :' - _",'.:' ", ':" I .:'" , .... _', ,-' -" ,I, -, "', -'. _ .\,.. '.~. ,- _ _-,,, .':_ " ,' .', __ " , .. "_,' -,,,

I I • "" _

vaporization offuel and reduced carbon deposition in the cylin-

ders Q>-····,f··' .'-',-:.'-- - --::.-;. ,'. .' .:.,-,c·I,,_,_ ..... ':': ~-:-I . ,-,~- I·,-·t~- Id···',· -;' 'h',,- c ·:,~ t-_,"~' t h·"'··' - hiah

- ers~_ C-,O'U,fseI on,IY an ,a,· __ u m,lnum cy]l~n~"er _' ea.-u, [I·as", I. e I, I'g, ,

thermal conductivity required to make the 'scheme workable.

U · .. ·h-:-·- .. · - '·'1,":1,:··· ~·······-t··'···': ',' f' 't" -·d· ,,'-, -c' :" --.- --_c·-t·~1 '-- '_.-' ,:,.-~ -:- .. "_:~III ~- d'-' -",.,','.

nl", ,ap'pi Y ,ror res. ,o'rers·o 'Ql,' ,ay,. no' gen ' .. 'e persua~slo:n, WI; I, I, n,'· ulc,e

an'l ~a-,'lucm--~ltn':"lum"" h··"·e·-;a--d,:· t","O' p""a"r-t' C'O' 'm'-'pa' n'y 'W- -.II-th-- the': :b"'~'o:""C'_'lk'-'-" a·--·n··d·-:' 'Sot' ud'" so, a'-f'"t:'e::"r'--

" ,;' _. ,~" , _" I!!!_ i -- ':'~, I. ":, :. ~,,:: :;', I .. ~'_, _I ,_ : _"_- . !,_~: _. , _ I ;'~" ,>. ~ ,: ' .. ,"- ; _ :'~_ ~-,I, -7" .. , ;' _ __:_, :;.: ,_

th f f'tfty f t'" 'W·' ith Ii t 'I ,;.,

t .. ne passage 10· over 1:1 :-- t. -vears OI'·I:me. vvr '. mtergranuiar corrosion

doing its work over the decades, hammering and prying. on the headare likely to. break it.

Th e ;~ n c-':-I ~ ned ·V· alves of th e'---" E'__:'J -L:;'g'" h t S'" ix en 'g" ·1-' ne ·W- -ere "'. a n .... "'1- C'-- '-ec",

II .. -., 111>-. I :.> -,_' ~'~~ <_".;, '_' _ - -" -Jl," .. ~ __ h ,',', ,< I _,,<: .~ , ,~; _ .. ,'_-'-;

refinementwhich permitted the ready flow of gases into and out of

t -hl, ... , " --"'. '1- ~ rd -, -:", T'h' ... b -,:.) [I'· -,.c --. k- '-' ---. '.' .- .k '- "- -::-, ,~ -.-' .--.:-- -,;-:--:' .'. ,~, .' :,. :.0, 5"/"'1'" 6·'· t.; ch ~ ift -f"··:, .-- -. ,:-,-.

,_ e cy I.:n. __ er-s·,~, , :_ e .. ,'e.-~: cran .. c,:; ro,(-_;er ,a,r.rn·s, g:ave a, .; _<~In.c _, ~I,. ro'm

31:,'16"~ ,;, nch h- iiah ' .. :.' lob ._. ... :--< and wit h"-"- the ',-:- I :~;--'" st "'/,--, ~" .,. r ''-_'''-~:~ red · .. rt "-11"-'5" ,:-~ nc: _ I,g c,a,m IO.,le,$ J a,n: WI,c.:" '. ,e val_ve' s .. em's ~ n'cJ ~,n,e,~ ,a ~,a -'

degree angle from vertical, the valve mechanism was made more accessibletor servicing and grinding valves,

-L- -b '. i f'" h 'L'''' ht S- ,~ ". . I' h dl 'b

IU.~_ rlcat.lo'n 0':' t:, .. :le ' Ig--" -:.~tx e"n,glne, w,a·s a1cc:o'lm:p .I:s,:;e,'_ ,Y'

pO-:·s··· •• ·.·.f~:t, I~V····,'e··-~-' 'p,;u-·'mp·~··· f·'--e,.·-,e·.:',d,; ·t:,Q·.···'. "g:"a-, 1'le"'·r·'I~e·-.·s:'. :a,ib.- .. :·o·' ,-v·:_.e-·· t.·h-·ec ... ·· m~l~n' b·, .. e:~-:~:"rll!ln-_'-:·g.·~:·s-~·, t':O' t: h:-"'e~--::',

, - ' - .. .".. , " I _' . . . . __ . . . _ _I '_ " ,Cd! ' " _. Cl, '.: ., " __

~: .' .' :h· ··'f:t-·c 'b"" '-, .. C._ .... ' .. ,,- .--.: ._-,' : - '~d: t' .--: ,th .... -, f"-"'- ->. - ·,t ".'- .'_.' ''_' - ... - .- ". " d-' ",~', -'.--'. "-c -· .. --d· - t'!II- ~ - .

ca,ms:, -a, . ",.ea.r~,ngs, an, ,0 .. ,_,_e ,ron.:. ac'c.es,s"orY,.lrlve :an.-, Jml,ng·

90"

I .• ,

hi. Th 'Ii" d · d beari 'I bri . db-

c am, I ie pistons anc connecting rOI:'C,' : ... reanngs were ,'U'.::rllcate-···":y

.. '. 'I~" h A" 11 '.' ' .. ~ .'. .... ,'-." 'I'"" ',' ~ I'" '1',· idh .' "·1 - .. -- " . ·t· .,. ,

SP" as ; .. ' ',:1 .e·,ntglin!e' accessorres mcruc .Ing 01. pum:f water pump"

d ,I! t .:.J b t d t d iven f 'I h f t th

rs i nnutor. an"," generator were " nven .. rom a 51 ng I'e sr ar on .ne

iIo h id f~ t'h' ... hi h oil' d ,. bv i h .'" ,

rl,g' It srue O:_-:'I,e engme W:.I,C:.' rn turin was' nven H'Y t re .. timtng

chain. A pulleyon the-accessory shaft d rove the fan vla aflat belt. All

f t h ies could b d "" . di id II' . It f'

0', , .. - e ,acces.s,'Qr~e:s cou "::' .'.-,e re:mo;ve·.·:, (n'··,I\t:L.,iua~ y or as a u'nl.' .. I lor

~ ~

-.-:_._.~ . ,i.f _. -; ',' J .', .. ' ?"~.' .~~~ :.' ~! .. _. '1 .'. ;'.. . ~. _

repai r or replacement.

Only about 7,000 EJ Light Sixes were built in 1920 because of shortages of tools and equipment, but output increased to 28;000 in 1921 and 49,000 jn1922. The last flgure represents nearly half the total' output of Studebaker automobiles 'in that year When first

. ' '" . ." 'I' . . . ., . _' ..- . "" .. ' . , . , . ~ .' -_ "_ ' . . _. ,I. . '_ ~" .. _ _ _. '" • _ _ .' _ . ., , .

a- nnounced in '11920:, three body style ··s·· of the Light Six were

I • • '. - L • • .~. .' • " ' •• ' • •••••••••• • ••••• '_ _' _ _ '.' .' • _ • _. ._. • •

. :.:: '. -

,> ",'~I ible th e' to ",,'" c:·· .:-', .. , ..... ~ '-t .. .h ',: sedar .' ,- d ',' l'" nd: Roadste '.: ('-:F'II··

av.al, a.·. ~ ,,'. : .. U r1 ng c,a,r, "e .:se:.: ani, ani .. "" a -·an·l~ au- " ~'.c ,\j,,". I.er .' I,g~

1'2': 3''':)' T'h'" I·" t "-' '.,' t·· he .-, b' --- orod . ed fo . ,-'I .'" sh ·'t'til ","'.

. " ~" 11 I e _,as:- '~:ee'ms '"c_o'av,e .Ie·en p.ro,:'.luc.,e ,or on,IY ,a S'.:,or,.lmel'

but by early 1921 a standard roadster, and coupe were added to the

I" 'p ,~, f~ 'h- l.i h 'S"'" d II 1 d til b

nneup .. , ... '- rl:ce,s .-0'- the .. Ig·:· .. , .. rt ".}X ic.ars w'e're grac ua, 'Y:' owe,re'·c',lu'n·..1 :, •. 'y.,.-:'

I ' .' . , :", > c ':' .._

'1:" '9"""2' "3' t h ... $~ 110"":"0"-'-'0'-'" b -. '.' e , . ~ - _ - b ken . h ... h .. ~ d 'S'" t d . b' k' , ..

, r ','., r=: e ::1.,'_,,> narner was I.; roxen tr rO'ug', :an<.l'":' U,'> eoa cer

d .. -:,:::-:, .. ibed t h',·" . 'L- r , ht ·S···: ." ,> e- c: to. h·-:-·: . i'j,W' :',,' r, '·'I"d··' I,." 'Gc' , :, sates t :$"'·':1': '00'0'"' M: .~. oto C,', ,. "

. esc.rl. e,: . :e ,_-I,g.: .. ' .IX a,s,,:e "." or ,'.: -5: '" ,rea',e.$, ' .. 1 :c :'" ~.' ,0 ;or.·ar II

A s .. ubstantial number of' running changes were made during

,. . .. . .... "_ . . _ I .. __ . . . I I . _ _._ ~'.. l' .~. • _ I I •.. •. _.~. .' _.' • • • .

• ~ • .' .. ' I· •

the, Model EI~J p,- .. rod "u-, ctiorr ru In' .. ,C', .owl 'a"'- rnps and a";': cow venti later

• _ __ . , • ~ _. _ . , I _ _ - I • _ ,_. _ J I !Ii. _ 1_ ..' .... .••• " ,. • I

. . . i

were added on the 1922 cars, and during 1922 the rear fender

design was changed from a continuous curve ··to, a 'more graceful

• • • L • ..' • ~. --:

reverse curve . Eng ine changes (Fig···. 1'2-4) i' icluded the' following:

.. ::' •.... ..:_ •. , _·....:.....II - :.~. "." I."'. ~_.: .. .'"._ '.' , .... :.ti. l--:J '.:" ~.' ."_ .~. ". '. ':-. '-_ • 1".:.-;111

four piston rings were used after engine number 35-;810; the oil f ~ 1- e''- r'· W·· /a S: re located f rom , I h: re fa n s upp ,'0"'·' r t t"Q,: the ,d~-I' stri b'U'1 rtor h O·····,··UIS··::I!' n g rr

I I: ".' I . _' _: , . " , " . '. ....., . '. . I [ .-.. I 1 I .... ' '" _ e- . .J " _ . , . ' ..':" , '. '. -, . , , .' .:, ,: .., ',' '. " .• :" " .: , 'l

iI 1'9'22' d k b . h . b dd d Ii 19-'2- 2"

support in : -:.-':".<, an '.'. a crankcase .: ' reat ier tube 'was a~· '"". eo,." In "1 :-..:,~ .... ~,

'. h t·· b I'd h d- h d " . d a' i 1-1 b

T re ruse ~.~: lOX ocete on tr e .' as ". was feletec at senat nu:m .. ier

. ,- - f 1 . b f 'I d h It h Ii

1,045,.438'; a' ter this numr .. er, ruses were, ocatec en the lighting

it h

SWlC, ' ..

The standard rear end gear ratio for the EJ Light Six (Fig. 12 .. 5) was 4.55, but option-a ratios of 4.08 and 5.1 could be ordered . 'W··.:"o~- od sp 0": ke w····:"h,,,'e·-··e··'·I-s·· .. wer e":'" s t': a In' da rd e q':' uiprnent wit h'·\ Budd wire

'.' '". ~'.:~"':. ."':'.~ ... : .. ! .... ~: "1 ·I~:.·, .. , .. _ .. 1 _".'" ,1.:, .... _ ._ •• ,-.) " ",.1,1 . [: .•.. _ _ ....... _. 1 .. 1. .••• ~".........:.' ,.'~'. .';"__I::" .. ':. ' .. , J '.'-'.

wheels available as an extra cost option .. Like Henry's Model T, the

E'J' ." - .... f .. ·· .'. -. .h . f .- .. t .. ,".,. - . ". - . I· . _".' - .. -;:-- .. .- .. ' '11. -- blac k" '.' J'" .- .. ,,~ d,,::": .'-," ,1'·: b .. 1

I j carne rom tt '·'e i actory m oruy one CO_,Qf-:·I,a.c· re ieve on y.,-.:y

d stri ,. th 'h I

re strlprng.,Q.-n·t re W': eers,

Fig. 12-5. The 1922 Model El Light Six Sedan.

.-

~ ::

.~

» I ..

H ., •••

FI~fJ' '·1··~,-6·~ Tb« '1·'tl?!3·'·~,:', .. 2;'4·;"" M .. ···:· 'odel E·' ,M········:--· L Itg'·h~ ·t···'S·:,'tx·· sed. ten

.0. . ,it:., '.' til, It] .. :; .. J.~:.:' ,~ ~, :.-" " _' ~ _~.-. '., " ..:'~ , ,: ': .': , .. L. e ··, .. a ': I'

·92:

TH'E MODE'L EM .LIGHT SIX '.11.923 TO 1924

Studebaker compiled a remarkable growth hi sales" from 1920 through 1923. No other manufacturer except Ford could lay claim to such large percentage. increases in sales from year to year. The following table emphasizes the phenomenal record:

Ye,ar

1'920'

. 1': .. 1 .

1..921" 1922

1-g~·2·-:~· 3"

.'"; ., .....

G'ars ·S··oId ,~':-1 J ·4· 74,

66'-~: 0'-4'3':'

. - . .,' .. ". . ..

11Q',2169 145, 167

all- c"re" ".

Iu m irees«

[- ~ . - ~

31

2·9······

.- :

6'5'~'

.:_:_

32"

,

The new light Six touring car for 1923 featured an all steel body. On thetouring car and roadster, the cowl lampswereset into 'the ,lower cOlrn·ers 'of the windshield fra .. mes- Closed cars Included a

C-· '.' '1' -. - - .. -. 'R - .... d' t . I··.· . fiv '-. A:·.... - ,'. '. . - s:· "". d '. ...... .'. d -. five ',- s' '. '" " ' .. "

_ o·upe- ··_ .. o'a'.:s'er, a Iv,el-pass.'e'n'ge.r·e: .. :anl, an',~' a ,~ve~p.a.senger

Coulpe.;

Th h · f h EM' (-F·' 12'" 6:) I' id t'" I t It

11",e: cnassis 0 tne "~:" .·,·I,·g .. , ', :' .... ,., wa:s n'e,ary~ 1·.:en~·'."·lca,1 ":0 tts .. ·

predecessor EJ, but after serial number 1,106,001 r the aluminum cylinder head was abandoned in favor of a cast iron head of a convert ··tl Ion al de slgn T' his chan ge req uired the U5'·:,·e- of a·:' n' .ew .':.

-_ . " '1" '~'. ~.! ~':."' ", .. _Ii,·-." ._ 1~.:":.. :,": ~.: .. _til .. >' ._l~ :', ',," -. ,". :. !.- .

,", . , ~ "

I~ d bl k k ~f lid b d b .

. ' .... ~. II . - . .' .. _." . p ." ~: '. e«, .' .." "" r " 1 .:,. I '.." ' :,.:." ,'- --. '_ , . I ",. [' ••.. :. r', : :.' '_. I . - .. : .' :',' '.': . . ',' .~ r r . . . ". - ,', .~ ." .' '.;;. .. '. -..' :. _

.cy r noer n oc I I .1 ntake man I 0 «r carou retor, an. carou retor con

tr .,,'[:,.,. A"" . d "ft S'···t··· '. '; b;······-·· .. ' M- ted ·111' O"-"'E' 1'·· .C.·· '" -. '. d - ..... ··· .. ited ';'i-' t'h' .'.

I'OlS ... ~n up,~._ ra· I: .':' .ro·m.I~.er,g ._0: el ' .. ~ was· .'U$·e._: mOU.n·e'.:_ o·n . _:e

left side of the engine.

l'~· 'h'-" t" S·:~··' .. d ,,~.. ,._ -. '.. .: .... , '. d : ~ '; th '-.' "I " -', _-·t'·;· '. . 'Ii!:. ; ... :..... . e= ' .. _,iI<. '-, ',' ,. -. d

I .. g .. ':,I·X moe e~s remarneo rat er spar .an In accessories anc

appointments until 1924. In this year, bumpers, balloon tires/and nickel-plated radiator shells were offered as extra equipment to attract style-conscious buyers. About 200~OOO light Sixes were built

from A':: "r~" :1:9"2101 -I ntil .... 'od , c,,··t·:I~O··I-":' 'W' 'as halted in J' I'y" 1"'9"'-'2";4'" t-o'· .. · I" rake

." I ~"p , II, I .. ,~ <r U . I, pro. u. J<n '. ,5 . !I~,., .: ••• 1: 01 U II! ,'. I' . irs: ',' m'"i_~ .-,

. . -. f th ". . a. • I'! h': . ,,>Ill. h t' .'..-. 1"'···· d -.' - -. - d il t . b ,- '1' I'd' t-'h"'-

way' or me n1e.w ight-weigh slx. ... ocy moer mooei to -e ae ca. reo r ~

St d d Si

I - ~an;' ar.·._ IX .•

During this period roughly half all Studebaker cars- sold were light Sixes. In 1924 total sales dropped to 110,240 vehicles, but Light Six sales remained at a high level,

The 1923 production year was- Studebaker's greatest to that time, with earnings exceeding $18 million. It is a remarkable fact

that in": l' 923' :al o···.·n·-·"e<~ th e--.·· sale ... ·· 'S''-' va! U" "e' "1 ,0' .:··f~· a::,c.'·11 Stu d e ba ker cars exceeded

_ • ' '.' 1. " , ," ~, . l, " • ','-. ~.. . ,:-., ,',_ -:. ,.' ." _.' ' . . '''-. ', ... j . ". " ',. " .:. . ",- '. _. _ .. ,._ _.' .'. '. ~

the total sales value of all horsedrawn vehicles in the preceding 6B years of operation. Truly the-Age of the Automobile had arrived!

9"'3'·

. - ,

',~. I,' ,_

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