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__ ._~~ Uni N~ 0" Portsmouth. Porr/and S~reec Building, Ha 1ps'hifit {curuy Archr 'IKf~ ("hom: Kevin Pu,dy, ~. Un,iuersity of . 5'ign b AI I elf Plre Sf tendon

Fr· . ·,1sp; ee: 0 - ni mir· for-Ingham lu'bil - ,e: Dmpu~ ..

I {, a,l f-fop il1 Gnd . r "-15. (phOEO g"n' HamiJ on- ,nighJ

-I , P I h s ed·n Gre' . n in in 1_ ' by

~ll v- . CADI V

A div'sicn of

o I ~l V s SO'S

j_ 0 J

Co ,Irii ~ ~ID .11 John . i 1e!iJ' Sons L d All righ I resented.

0. pa - 0 -his publu~a ion may be r@prloduced, s 10 ad n t@[fjeval ys(e,r'm\ er transmit ed, in any rorm o~ by any Imean's~ ~ec ranif. m~(hanu:lt phol'[oropving" tecGrcing! 5C,(Blr,.,jng or o(lher1Ni~el fl cepr

und r - heel1ms er h Copy li9ht D._ sign's and Pa'tens - c > gSa: or unde,r h' @rml5 or I lie nc issued

by he Copy ·gh liCI{!nsing Agency. ·0 To nham (IOUl( RD d. London. UK, ~ 9HI I h h

. rmissjcn in w -"- ing of he publisher,

O,'her Wiley EdiforiQI 0 'flees

~ork • W,E! n m!li 'ilsb,me ,.1 ~n

Se' I Bog Ens I I '0,' 50n1' H r

Prin - and [bound in I . Y



Ain rs nds, B u 1'11011111 & Kcr a lelk,

Trinity' Col.lege Dublin Dental Hospltsl Dublin, Irelttlnd

Allh~5 an d M'onis)oln

Unive,rs'i ly of SOtJ r ha mpto 11 Stu den l Un~on Sou t ha rn pton I United Ki ng dorn


Patlnfk [Be1J,er & Jalc'qlUes, Anziunlil

Man rnuzard Univers~ty Maison de' l'U'nlver5ile de' BOUirgog n e, [) ijo,n, Fra nee


De IBlaca,m &: ,M,eiilgher

Trinijty Calleg:e A-r1U1m ~nd Dining Hall! Dubj'l n~ II rel a nd


De, 'Blacanr. " Meagbeill'

Cork Institute of lfcn nology lib~ ary Cork, I [12 loa no

De Blacam ... Mea,gher Cluain Mhuire Schoo~ of Art Ga lway. ire,1 iii nd


OdUe Decq Benoil Cornette, Associ a~e5

Un Iverrsity of Nantes Soc hoo~ of Economic S L iences and law library, Nante5j Fralf'lc:e

Jeremy Dixonl Edward Jorwes Architects Croydon UnrverSlt'y Campus Mas e rp~ Cro-ydon~ United Kingdom



Jelemy Ot>con. Edward Jones ,Archit~'Cts,

Univers1ty of Cambridge DarWin College Study (entr,~ Cambridge. Umted Kingdom

Jeremy DbcoAj Edward Jones A chitects University of Portsmouth Sc~en( BUilding Pommouth. Untted Kingdom



Si r N ilf,mla1111 F0st@r &, [Pill"tne:r!;, lycee' A I berr Ca m u s

Fr~ju!i .. f~an(e


5iir [No rmalnl [f'cls'ter &: P!ar~ners

Rober· Gordon Unrve~rty Fa,c:u,l'~y of Management Aberdeen. United Kingdom


Silr N,grlman " Pint n en

Un iversity of (a m bridge Fa c ul'ry Df Law Cam bridge, United Ki nge om


Henul"i Galldi 111

Sau nt-Leu U 11 ,,,,,ersity facu I ty of Sdel"!ces, Amien!i~ Fr.a nee

IS r,at"tOIlil ,Archirteas

Trl1nity Go~lege' DellJartme-nt o'F MechanicGillEngfneering Dublin" Ireland

Ham pSJhir,e CIoU nt)" AJ!"(hr1t>ec:tslP~:rikins Ogd@ii Allrch it~d;5

Hac: kn ~y Cornrrt U Fllty Col ~~g ['If Lon don, IJ n filed ,Kln 9 d om


Halmpsh ire I(oun'ty A rd,irtecU,

University of Portsrnou h Parr'and Street Buildrl"lg Portsmouth I U ru ~ed Kingdom


Hod de r Al,5'D'cJr.~es

UniVe(3ity of Mancl1lE'liter C reer 5erV1ce~ Unl[

Ma nc-hest@r. Un ired K~ng do m

Hodde,1' Associates,

lIrll'l,i'er.s~'ty of Salford [efuenCiry auild~ng Salmni, Unilt'ed Kr~gdom


Michael HO,pkins, arid Partners

UnJ'II F5,ity of NOlt~f1gham JulbUee Campus Noftrllgh rn, United jngd'~m

1 .. 7


.!Iohn 'Outlr:am

Wim.a m Miinsh Rlcf! tJn.\[Iersiry DunGJ n Hdlll

Ho ustcn Te)ril5~ USA

Jolh;'l 0 ~tram

UniVi"rstt)' of Cambridgt! judge InstJt:ulte of

Management .smd~es;. Cambridge, Ul"1lited King do m

Ede Parry Arch it'tds,

SUS5e:.r Innovation Centre

Falmer, BrighLon, Uflit~ed Kingdom

Alfiitomne Preifock A~hi'tect

UCSB Student A'f1filIirs and Admunl, ratlve Services

Bu~rd~ngr Sal n'~a BCI rb~ ra Califo rota, USA







Antoine predock Architect

UCSC faculty of Music Santa CruZ. Callforn i i, USA

Richard Rogers Pa nersh p

Thames Va~ley University Learning Resource Centre

Slough, UnIted Ki,ngdom

Short & Associates (1cfmeriy Short, Ford It AS50ciatesl De M,ontfort Unlversi y QUE-e,n's Building

L@icester, United Kingdom

Sautro Moura Arquitre,cto5 Lda

Avein) Univers~'ry Department of Geos.c:iences

Aveiro, portug all

James ,$tilrling IMi:charel'Wrilford and Associates Temasek potytec'hnic


Mi ,'halel Wi 1m I'd & Partners Stu ugart MusIc Academy StlJg srt, Germ any

Project In'format~on

Se I eel Bi bl i ag fa phy








Devot@d to uni'J@t'Si'cy bu I ~ders. th is firl ~ appea rs in th e Wi 'eyAcademy 'Builders' series, foHowing those en, among others. ch u rch t mU:5~ LJ rn, Ii bra ry and ai rport alrch itechJ re L The 'Fe I towing case studies provide an Qvervl~w of a broad section of bUilding for an ever-e>tandingi higher educatIon market. Orgsnisl@'d around campus plans, spedalist t.,eachinga,l"1d resea rc.h b u i I di ng sand construction s that act as a. focus to scad ernie life, '[he exa mp I es i3Jre drawn from a round the wo~ld ,. I n seve ra I ca ses dliiffe're nt LJ n ~ve rSI~ty bui I di ng s fro m the Sea me srchitect are included i 0 illustrate elrher the consisb;~n(y or d'y,ersity of the approach the practicre brings to specific design problems, To place the academic architecture rn context, the lntrcducnon examines [he grlowth and develcoment of uniViE!:rs 1t~es over ti rn e p with particu law foeti SI on t'h ~ phi losophrcal ideas that underpin our conception of contemporary higher education. Halving analysed ~he radical chiHiges that have taken place' in this f~~~d towards the end of (he 20 hcenturyj rhe in reduction ends by speclUlating on the form universities might take In the next millennium.

Furst I er us address the tssu e of what a LJ 11 iV@fS l'~y r s fo r;


The very root of wh t iii universlty IS c n be traced a'S 'fair back as man's earU@st search for kno.wledg~~ that. most fundamental urge to comprehend, measure and ~n some 'W~'fI control his en'lli ron m ern,

lndeed, from his most primitive begll"Ir"'lliigs man has sought to explain tne' world tha is his ex enenee. The firs.t representations Df he human experience date from Palaeo~i'th;c time'S, sam e 35~aOO ye'af:S ago. The imagl@s in A ltem ora and Laxcau):: depict scenes painted on. Or sculpted mro, rock faces deep ~n inacce~5ible caves, They t'ue. el<.traordinarily lifelike, and portray not only animals, sueh as bison or slag, tna also landscapes and scenes 0 peopl dancing or per arming, perh ps rltualistk. acts.

Many theories. have been put forward as to the purpose or meaning of these paintlngs, Do they depict fertility r'igh or are they perhaps Intended to promote ptentiful hunling? Or

do. ttl @"I show mys tfca~ or magica I offeri rigs 'to unk nOWii gods? HCH/t,ile,ver. fundalrnent.a I to Ii:! II tne se theorfes is, the sense 'that our dis'tant ancestors welle in some Wily attempting ~CI comprehend, even Influence. 11u~ world In whlich they found 'the m selves.

In OU~ aayj he Quest to derive meaning from our existence W'alS m OS:E e leg a n"'It~y desc rjbed by the Iii (E' Cal~1 Sag~ln in his innod uctlon to S'~eiP hen Hawki ng'5 A Blief Hij f01')l of Time:

W,e go alboLJ~ our dai~y liv18S ur1de,na.,ding almost nothfng of [fl~ world, We give little tnough' to the iitchirll!:l)' that gel'lera es ·tlle 5unligtJ· that makes life (possible. to . he gravity 'thilt' glues us r:a an Eanh t:ha,t would ctherwise send uS spl n n in; 0." into space, or ~o t~e ilr[Oms or whrch W~ are made and On wtlQ~@ st.abllfty we fundamentally depend. Except 'Fer mlldre.1"I ~who don'[ ~110W et'lGLJgh not - 0 ask the impor~iliFU q uestlon sj, fe1N 0 . U 5, spend much time wondering why nature ~s the WCIY rt ~ the (O~m05; came from, or whethe-r lt yVj:!j. ilrh/ltiiyS nef .. tF tim@ wll~ One day How W1ckwilrd anll f'ff~cu Pteced~ ei1U!ies; 0' wheth@r lh@l@ are ldtimate ~imil:5 to wl1a:D humsns (ian )(ncw. Tll'lli?re arf even

ctli IclJ"S"ll and lliave Il"I E':r some of them, who Wilm· [,0 know what ~ b'ack hole looks like; what ls [he s,maUen piece of man.'er; why we fenll!mb r rne pas· and FlO IheLlrurre; now -I Is.. if 'there was chaos. rearly. that rheJe! ~'!1l! d p~arem Iy. order today: and wl1y then!: is ill u nlverse,

Using the most advanced technologi(~1 lnstruments of O'1an's creali~n. Sagan and H2Iwking search [he dep:~hs of space for ali! ~pl2'lInatk)l1. Their ques· is driven byrne" sam~, most prirnitivel human need rher dro-ve our diuant ancestors ro paint lh if world: [he need' '[0 uncov r what human bemgs can know. An essentially phi~osophicall quest. it stems fmm that a djecti'lle's ~lymology: rhe Greek phiJo mean~ng love end sCJphos meaning wl:5dom,


The dellberare exam~nat)fcn of knowledge bl!g'~ns w~fh [he

1 I'II'Ii 1ui""'::IIrtt ""'go. n is filS writings great phjlosopher PIi![L~ some r VU1~1ilI ;;I CI

th~t provide us wlth the first system lie analysjiS and

t .... nlng dnc uf1d€"ts~af'ldp

methodology whereby FlU rna n ques P.... ..


PltltO started from a

ld -ourd be 5 trLJctur~d.' Thls Idea,

of d e: WO~ L.. • rh won ~.

~~!PI~ prerrJlse, 'Phllm~ophY begins ;dtwmenrilI [0 (he: nature

d nv~ ~ QI1I[lon re d "i and the

[hal wonder cm. - r II uruver5~ues IQ a

o~ m~ nklnd, IS a[ tl,e ,e~rt I~d ~h encouragement of hl".lnlifH1 promO'u('In CI t J.,:nowledge a

i:5[1"lJiry remain (ennal, I... ed 011 ascertain ing the

'I:; ..., I dge was uil5.~

Plauis search rm knoW IE rc h lOr abSolute

ns In a relent1e:soS sea '

vClI.dlry or c:'x". lanaHO h. ,[ cr d;a~~CUC prOCess~

. h dol09'1 Wil5 r. 21 .

nnh. ~15i me D .. ,I. ~gau"lS counterproPO-

. nd e!ioung !,em gI

presernlng [1"JeoneS a , d h mE!InOd as one of

_ . I P' pper 'ate~ resra te r e

51 [lcfl.5. Sir Ka r 0, - ' I f (I ch ie"li ng absol ute

. _ d refu malic n, The gOd 0 h

conJl;clure an, f d ceuon and ~es,earc

(.e~1alnty 15 COFl"lf'llOI"1 10 a'i a~pOCl$ 0' e u

worrdwide, d' I between

. - r conversations OF ·1.:;1 oglues

Plato u sed [J structure 0 . .. . ~d

dO' en rhese ,exd1ii!nges wou

advoca es ef oppOSing tdeas ... ',' _., .. ,

d ~t is fro rn T he Greek word

take place in sOCIal circumstances.. an I " ,_ r

for dinner pa~ [hat we derive the word ~)'mpos1umi ,

In anci£!nt GTeec'e the Ideil tfiDI min" was able to artam Insrght lnto his world throuqh (h@ u§€ of his own cognltivf! powers Jed to the single greaiE!~: eXlpansion In human undersEandin,.g that there has ever been, In 387 Be Plato found~d the Aeademv. sometimes descri bed 215 'hiE firs unrv~r~IIY. The academy' was simply the name o'r his house; lhl2re he would receive students for the purpose of discussion and alrg urnent, Am ong , he o~ii;Je groves of encie nt Greece, Plato arches 'fat€d no a syllabus of accepted knowledge and fans. LIt rat er a method of enquiry. This method encouraged an altitude of thinking or oneself fn a community bent on mutual e>.:,plor.atiol1 in the pUfsuir and develcpment or knowledge, Again, ill pr~ru:jple ~harl is seminal to aU uruversiry e)tablis.nmems. loOiy.

ThE' rnos ramous of P'aro's studen s was AristoUe. He s(ydied a ·tl1e A.cademy for 2.0 year5 and wen on to become tum r to Alexa nder h @- Great

,_ Ans~.Qdlts approach to undl:!'rs~anding tile world differed ,From Plaro'5,. ~h~te his master irad leoked to an idealised w.orld that was, as It. were, behind the phenom@n:!l of ~"'p6r. ,

A • 'I·' .. I;iI ~"" c iences

nstot e sought tin ~x!plalnadon root.e..d· ... L... . -

th .. .. c In liI ~e expe' lenc:es

emselve'S, H~s me ad wa s based .-

- . , . -' . on a system of

c[ueg.on.slflg hIE! various i3SPOCIS, of human e J • _ .'

ordering the a,!)pect'S of man' _ . , l<~e,rn~r'I(e. By

, . . . s e nq Ulry he eS'ta bl ~s hed

.suuctiJ r~ of di!;;t I nct d is(ipl i nes withi ' . ',,' ~

cOIJI~ be Focus@d lt I to A' , n whIch I nW:5~ I gatlon

, ., 1.51. nsto'rle that we Q.. . _ .

Str.IJC y re or know~edga. !!Ii nd fr h' - - We m ucn of au r

,""-' 'iii . rom IS bcr ks d ..

dl'ffl:rent slibjeUi we g:ain the d. '_', .. O@voed:o

. . Ist"lplines of 10 " .

IE'{Qnomrcs, psychology, mE!tah '_ . glC, phYSIcs.

ad' - b.. P YSICSt meteorolo h

n e~Hlr~ An enCyCIQ'pfidl:i{ b . -. 9Y. f etaric

d ,I - - I Y nature. A~.s ~otl

e\!'e OJ) further can~9Qri!E 51 and e we nt on to.

s ubseu of li1 ese d i~ . -Ii

OIc.P nes


dOing j)rovlded the mtellectual structure

and. in so ~

of the facultleSI departments and areas of study familiar ~n Our

own universities,

LI'ke PI to before him. AristotlE founded a school to

t e'~cL..inn and enquiry. Called {he lyceum. it was

promo e \£iI ~, ':J

situated outside Afhens dose to the temple of Apollo lyceus.

~f ~ook the form or a gymnasium and garden With covered walks" Ari5tof[e used to stroll through the garden as he taught. a hab~l that gave his school [he name Peri,pat@tic from the Greek word periparerikas mear1ilng walking about. Peripatetics is noW used to describeeac:hers who work in more than one place of learning. Of th~se first universities linle remains today iod w,e ha'V@ to ~e[On~tH.Jct much of their ph'Yslca~ form frern texts, In the dense 5L..JiJlJro'S of modern Athens thp sIte of P~a,tojs Academy is now a chHcben's p~a)lground! while AriUctle's Ly(eurn has. been recendy uncovered and 15 now ch@ 5ubjec of an:haealogical investigations. In both cases ~he schools were relo2ltrvely short-lived and focused around the teachi n 9 s of l h E'~ r resp ectlve rna st,~ rs. Hence it IS c:I ear tha t other than in their i'mportant educational me hods and structures, the,)! bear little relationsbip to what we currently enders and as, a university, palrtkularly in 1 5 physical sense,

Fcjlowing tl"e fall of RamiE!! and [he descent or classical dv'ilisa'tion into the Dark Ages; ecucanon took an a fadically d iffe Fe nt form. With the rl se of (h ri irl a nity the em pn ~ l~S. [he f) nclent Greeks Mad pia ced upo n rna n's a oj I iry to IJ no erstsnd and explain the world thrrou,gh his own powers of enquiry and reasoning was replaced by a new kmd of t,eaching based on a d [vine exp la natiltcln for hu rna n expert ence set a IJl i 11 i fe\"I key texts, Th~ s .a p preach, k n awn as srhola s tid srn from I he Greek word skcJastfkos meanilng studious, would dominate Western tbi n kl n.g a II1d ed ucatlc n For mor-e rha n ni ne ce ntu ri es, Theenqulry of medieval scholars was limited ro 'the preservation and jnt~'rlPretation of God~given scriptures. In an uncertain world dom;l1at@d by rhe threat of barbarian ~nv.asicnl rhe task of preserving the divi'ne texts.~ the 'Scriptures, and their keepers, and hancHng them down to future generations drove the reposirories to the ex rernitres of the known world.

No until the 13th-cell1 ury~ with the transla ion 0 Ari~lotlels texts, which had been preserved in Arabic, in l.arln and their re'inter~retation by such luminaries as Thomas Aqulrl2lSj did a new eonA de nee beg into ,e me rg e tha t wau!d place ('he wonder of numaJl enquiry based on man s ab~Hty [0 reason

back a" h .

e centre 0, academic: endeavour.


The d evel oprn F . .

, ent Q the university dunng th Middle Ages IS:

c I O~H!ly Ifnked l . h . .

Wh'I' 0 l. e e5labllshmenl and growth of craft ~Ullds,

II e the scilola' ·

!HIe world h d a end [0 he. presen a Ion of

scrlpu.Jl"e"s, the secular world had d~veloned 3, .... ,' t

. , 1""'" ... ",'L~U(U re or

practical education tlhrolJgh the grouping toeerh f t d _

'~'" e r 0 tra _ es

and other commercial activitfes in the' orm of guilds. Craf

guilds or collegia had existed since the ime o imperiall ~~me in he form of g rou ps o'r pee pie wi th co mmon in te F@ 5tS wh~ wished to estsblish their status and preserve it from outside inAu@nce 5. Of 'the vairio U s 9 WI ilo s rna ny a re ~a m i!ia r 'rod ay. S LJ C h as masons and jew,!~I!!rs. EstabHshed to preserve and pass en 'their skills 'they developed ways of educating young men and admitting them rOI their group, Central' 0 . his was the svstem of apprenticeship. ln parallel with the Churchs pmtectlcn and hand~ng down of scriptures_ the guilds hali"1ded down the s.kins of a pre-established body of knowledg'e!, Young men were ap pre nticed to masters in order to lea F.r'I by exam pie the ski 1115 otl1e~r trade. Follo,w·ng 'this in~tial tra~ning ney often travelled as journeymen 0 ViU~OU'S places of work when~ they could

IJ rth er refine thei s ki Ills and ,extend hel r kn t1w~edge rh roug h different @~pertfnCes.. On completion of these stages. the epprentlce/loumevrnen could attempt to prove his sklUs through the produerien of ill jma.sterpie,ce: sa'ti:sfactofY examlnerlon 0 which by his peers would lead to entry and membership of the' guHd. M,emb@li'ship @nabled him to ply hi~

rade and in turn quaiified him [0 teach hj;s craftt taking 0:111 apprentices iln lus own right

At first guilds grew as voluntary gn:HJping,s of people who snared common interests, Th ese g'rad usl I y evolved in· s regulatory badEes that ensured levels of compe e'nc@ among their members. By es ab!i5h~ng standards and methods of training the 9 u i Ids soug h t 10 proteo the,i r statu s f n soc j1ety and, ~n part, to rnenopouse their marketplace. ~n fn:rmaJlising th ese processes, celftai n protection s of titl e we'FE' es till b I i 5 nEd, initPal~y by common recognition and later through I'egislation.

In order [0 den'[,ify its Ipallticullar 5 atus each gu~ld adop ed r~ es of pa,ssage from apprentic'eship [' FCJugh 'to marster~ w~h .ndivLdua I~ 'r!omi'tt,ed' to jni n the Fe'Spec~h/e ra oks. A SE nes of r~tlJa!'S; and cusllo,mary regales were developed ro mark the prag ress io r'L

In the nonsecular world most education W,!3S concerned w'th the indue Jon of novices 0 he pr"esthood~ hence he' development of cathedral schools and 'monasteries with predominantlv theological ~dLJcatio,nal agendii!ls, One oif the foremost of the cathedral schcos was Ch,aru·'es., outside Paris. tts origins date b~ck to the 4th-century and the town had es.tabHshed ltself as a centre of learning of'fore consrrucfion of the great Gothic catnedral startee at the e-nd of the 111hcen ury. The subject of study was prlmarrily the relationshlp between the scriptures and Greek philosophy, hom a pankular Neo·Platonic perspective. This involved I for el<ample_ the comparison and resolution of the creation story in

t~ e boo k of G ~nesi:§ Q 11 d th at desnl be-d by Plato in tl1 e Tlmaeus.

,To~~rds the end of' he 13th-century the growth of towrHi and C:1[r~5 (onfli:Hed the activities of the gui~ds Wiin those of t~e.Q'loglc::al sch~~ling, Whic'h in 'turn led 'to. in@ 'IE!'mergence of ~he ~ ~t unlv~ rs itte s is, WI! now them. Toda'!l we miglh I Identify a ul1lversity as a place of ~e.mning and researrl.-b.

e... _ , f n..,p '!j iii

ornrnururv 0- !", d d .

" "J" S'!..l.J ents a f'I reachers or a Go II ecuon of

buildings,. The medieval Latin wor il,i"Ii·_ LiF

""" ~r~r5M:JS mea nt a

corporation, sodetv or (ommlLJni'If\;;,,' of :3ii"!i , II· _ d d _

, ,' •• , ..., _ , - .11' ' lOll I)! r-In: ,ma e up of

In d IVldlla~s sha nng al rornrnon inte rest and t:.. " • d

• . - , ,- . I. nflvlng lin epen-

den[ .Iegal sratus, Univ; did not rle'f@F to lhe universality of

l~i1iI rn: ~g and OO!.J Id denote any glrOti p s.uch as a, craft: gu ~!d or m u n I CI pall corporanon,

The terms sradium general£?: is- probably eleser han UrJiversi·tas to au r modern undEf'standing of a university. Srooj,um denotes the idea of a school or plac@ of re(JIr~iil1g! while' gt!nerole r~fers nat te 'th e ra nge of 5ubjectts, studied but rather to the cJiver'Sity of students and 'rei!(hers 'that it attracrs, The idea of such an institutlon was prem ised on the coming tog1ether of dispa,rai,@ ~fidnvidLiJit~s. as a (olrecr~\le bady_

But why should these people wlsh to essodare with '@-ich ether, and to wh ill: end? At rh@ sH,mpiesr ~ev,erd one purpose was. i!vid~n'tly [he disseminC)tron ot knowiedge t!1rougn sharing ~J<perjences and ideas, And beyond' this dfffusion of e);iSl'enr knowledg,e mer@ was tf'1e ftmdaffientall wish ·'0 sdvence understandlnq and he Ifmf 5. of knowJ~dg'~ ri'tiE'lf. ThE! sl2arch~ or research I into human undEmrtanding does nor simp 1)1 rnean dis'Covertng new thingls alnd the esrl iest Ulliver~ities sou 9 ht [0 provide i!iI conre.):1: in wn ien In e spirit of enqui Fy and investtg'i3lion cou r d be promoIad aI nd cuitiviJ'tced.

To reiteoratJe; rom Plato, came the ttH~ore[ica,' structure fo~ ~eBrning. and From lha[ categorj:sattion we derive the ;Facuil'ties. cHsdplines and (IIJrrLcul~ f.miliar in Urliver5iries rodflY· P~alO'~ pu pil An~tot!e sou 9 h t 10 d eveiop [he varieu S b ran cnes Q'F knowledge~ a pra c tree which tn~(alme If! (rea 5ing~y refined

d urln 9 the M ide Ie Ages, (en ~rall to tt1 is dev-eJopmem was [he r,ecogoition of the sellen libertlll arts, diVided inoo two reaJms:

HS't. the .5tJ bjects of grammarr log r ( an d rhere ric, [oge~l"1er known as the f(Jllium; and second, [he quodrlvlum compnsrng a ri .1"1 me/tic, geom '[ry. a5,u'OriOrny Ind rnu sic, Added [0 l~,eS€ at times were I\I'!IO funhe~ sublectsr rnedidne aflo dfd·ulec:turEi. To rn ed f€'va I scholsrs the uililuf'J1 iI nd th e quadrIVium represel'ned the IWO principal Instruments of phllo!;;or;Jh-y: [he n'lInd WdS el"'1light'@ned and informed by he forme and fOUfld e"l<pre§-

sian in (he latter,

The Imporlance of _he seven libera~ iJrt!i 1$ most crear~y

demon:su;ued In lOiB nght-n.:tnd bay of [fie ~vysl porta' sr Chiillrtre:!iI cadledral. Her@ scnolars who best irruS(lale a


~cJ(h diSCrphne, sculpted In ~he

fJillticular rl represent - Eucrld represents geometry,

h oclt en ,he I ft·hilnd sid • h "ght-hand side

arC I ..... • . dial ,ic. On len

Ocero. rl"l [0'1 .and Aris[orle h S "''''ffcnorny by ptolemy.

ed by boe[ ru , ~-':J

arilhl'111e!t4L: ~!j; rt:lptesent b. the figure of DonatuS or

h as ~(ld griilmmar Y I

music by Py~ agor r th[l arts IS arso clear "I

_ - Th 11 ri!'~l and pi U rpcse 0

pm Clan, . e (tl . Mill and Child, fepreser"ltlr'9

d~U5.Ha ed In I'he p'a:crng 0°:5 th~ cen[ral flgures il1 the

wisdom H1U3rl'1al12, pJilC€ . f ' of iii I I humlllln

(yrnpanurn They awe d,e focus and e'l ectlon

In eHeCluaJ endeavour, . ned for I3ltemptfng

In [hE! 12rh-cenlUry Chanres Wi1~ renew" ._

. . - 1'1 of d,e seven l'lb~r a I ans Ii3 S

[JjJ a~Gibe eQt.J~d emlJh~'5I~ to e~c . ,_. 'kal

the Id~ai Fcunda cion for edu(j3 [ton However, t flls ~hecre' t ,

go,,1 or educational b31~ance was laJrf!ly ~C,hle"l@d and va~~l'Ing

I [S r L...~ "rj'''Jum .3 r1d qUQQnvwm,

emphases wer P ~Cec! on par 0 1'I!l;,i,!n _

[0 rhe e,;d~n that some subjec-rs d~5appea~d from rhe c;:urrllcuIUn1. Kowever. il was g'en~rally aco~pted that the .rriWiJffl was [he EJem 1?r1 tar; rE!VE!J or study, eq Ulvajent to riE'ilcJing ~OJI' our Bac:hekn of Arts degree, and (he quadrivium the higher divislo.n of [tie liberal arts equal to Mastel status, From "15 hierarchy we derive the word 'trivja~~

With theediscovery of AnsLOtle') wrirings, the discipJine~ of dialeClic and logic ~ook on a n@w Importallc@. There was r:ncmge In tn in ki I'lg ffOnl scholastic ao:::eptan ce of divi nel y

g iv@f'I u nquesnon abh@ knowJ@dg@ to ill new-found confide rice in the ability o~ rnan to engage in (re~ ive enquiry that could reveall truths through systemaric analysis_


Early medieval univ-el"siti@5 are (he educerlonal P.Fot(}lypes fOlr our modern nlstftution~_ However, in their physicall manifeslallons they were QUite, di'ffer-ellt. As described, thelr genesIs ""ii~ the coming togetner of peopJe w~th a common aim and

melr m @rll1gs wert y servICed by an ad h· .

ment of I"en. ed rO ..... mll. III... II ' Th. . . . . O( arrange-

_ _ • . I!.oI' ~ Or i 1 iii 5. if!Se 1rs(~generarjQn

u_nWer51t1l~~5 were V@i')I m ud1 an integraf@d pa rt of ~h elr nosr

(~t I@!ii and towns Ae 1':1-, -11=1 .

. ' r., . . _ • ~ ":!~' WI'! IU~fI ceo grew, the e-.slablish mem of

co IJ@~es asso(hned With r,esid . I -

students ern' _ erma grouPIn1g~ of sch()~ars and

._ _ . ,ergM, so producing rdentifiable territories Th

ImpOFtan Issue IS ihat ..... "'" un'I,J6 1~' . . e

I 1I1'li:vdS ",Ies gr'~ -- h- . , ,

or (GWPlS WI'! '. d . . ViI Wit In he cities

- 11 e t,o ay we can recog -.. .

the form of (011 eges In a f, d . ruse parilculii:1l r terntarles in

_ I • • l( or or Cambfidg . rh

progressively with the n. . ~ [ ey dev~loped

. - :;,JOWlflg U Fe-an fa b rl [

In t h ~ United KA,n 9do m on Iy O:d:'o d . .

from the 13th .. centlJru F h' r a. nd Cambridge datE'

, -» rom tel 5; h t 'II . .

Stud erus and 5(hoi.aI]l'~ '!ieekin. . ~. 1 e 19th~enluries

__ .OL. h 9 EI umver!i.lty edu ..

wne e ad to na vel - h (ill [Ion e I se-

en ~r to SCOtJillld (St .~ _

i 410; GI asgow 145 1 'Ab d ",ndrews; fe un d ed

. , .er el2n, 1494 and Ed'

In:-land and Trinity (aU~ge. Dubl1 'f . 1r1bl.lrgh 1583), Or

n ~ nu nd sd l 5.91) a 1 '

, n~y In the


mid- To-late 191 h (entu ry was there any sign,fkant expansk)n in the foundation of new univefslties in England and Wales.


Prec~dlr"'1g univers.lty expansion In Britain4 the early American universities had begun to develop a new typology for the learning en\lironmen[, Harvard is America's oldest academk. inslitulion, havmg been founded .n 1617. Along witn Pr"m::eton and Yale it developed within the Qx:brldge tyPQlogy~ its environment centred on hall buildings and res.denti~l colleges. The canc@'pl of a unified campus pian began to E'merge at William and M~HY CoHegel Wimamsburg. Virginia~ and also an Union (ol~egej Sc.henecradYJ New York. However, the m ajar ~nitia'tive in u ni\lersh:y pla nn in g and 0 rgan i5;ati on wa i 0 co m e rom Tho mas J efferson,


The progenitor of JeffersQnj-s rhinklng and the man respon-

Sible for much of the gnJwth in education that has occurred rmim the late 19th-cenrury until today was the founta,inhead of empirical phllcsophy: john Locke (1532-1 704), Po~iticl~Hl and socia:1 reformer, Locke's marsterpiec@, EHayon the' Nature of Human Un de rstt111din9'. questioned rhe i3ccepl[ed wisdom about the way in which W~ learn, His, at the time

revel ution",ry, 'View w'EJ 5 rh at we a re born WI rh no a pn ori knowledge. By [his he mean' that we have no innate ideas. or alb tUnes. that 0 U r mi nds a re a bla nk sheer. of pa pe r, 0 r robuJo rasa. upon which experience writes. Locke proposed that by generalising from OUf experience'. a process rermed 'induction: we are able to formu late thea rl es sbo IJ { O'U r 'l1li0 rid. Th ese provide us with sulficient, y~t never absolute, explanations that enable us to act lin meaningful and produc ive wa~

Lackie concluded tba we are all equal at birth and that our future development is dependern upon the nature and varll!~ of Ou.r experiences along with the artentien we give 0 the re~fli'CionshiP5 between, and e)(~lanations ofl rhese phenomsna - In effect, OUr edUcation. This marked a liberal revolution in educaIion which occurred in parallel wi h the revoluncn in e~perimental science ~n5pired by Newton and others, Fe [he

first time since the ,. G

I , ~ anCien . reeks man had the confidence to

be,11 eve that h-

, . J5 Own power'S of observation and rational

enquiry were 'the pri

_ ._1' me mE<:hanisms for reaching all under-

sts n dl ng of his worl d

Locke's belief that v II

.. .' We. a hav the pore n I.ill or d evelop-

ment and self-ben -

L.m.' errnen rs now one of the cornerstones 0

Ive.rsily teaching H· d

b ' I~ I ea that our pot en(ra~ IS nat lirnit~d

y Innate ch2lracteri . - '

backg d 5[1(5 denvmg from our social or cultural

. roun s stands as r

dennQcratic ,_ one 0 the governing princlples of

S()C1etles the werlel over I 5 her

surprising that his most immediate in(1uence 'Would be on one of [he' youngest countries faced Wilh establlishinlg a £tructure ba sed on 51LJ rh Ii ber a I idea Is. So I [ i s. th~t when the fou n di ng athers of the un 'ted States, of America penned the firs ,on~ti'tlJtion lt was John loc:~efs innovative thilllking that they ensh ri ned,


Followlin~ on from toe e's Hberal ideas, Thomas Jefferson ins,titur-e<J a major depa tUiI'E! in educsticnal philosophy wi h ne-w legislation which providl,ed a 'State un~versrty 5)1stem. which In tum led to tbe founding ,of the University of Virglinf.a,

Jefferson was not only ~ revolutionary educational thilnker but aliso. a SWl'fes.manr lawyer and ambassador - and thiJrd presideru o'r the United States, In adldit~Q,nj he was a 'tal@nted am21'te u r arc h lrecr and nis design for the Ci m pus of the Unijver_SI'ty of Vi~gin~a repreSl!!n'ted a new paradigm for '[he s.tJucturing or it I.Hli~ers.Tty.~ its pl:anlning and operation,

H15 vision ls notable iln hls use of the,all canon all1d its interpretation via Andrea PaHaduo's QUtlHIO {_j,bri. For Jefferson the adopnon of t ~ classical, order was me 'e 'than a matter 0 ' 'styUsrfc preference; his dep~oymen" of '['he ~~lchVtE'(tU'ral glrammar of [he ancients; il1d icated 2Ii clear a sp~ ratio n to sssociate hts new dernoeranc educanonal politics with those of the classical world, a~beit he fxp1i:c.itly. denied the relevance of me gil"e~n classical hinlkers. Bu jeffer~onr5 greait artuevernem was to combine these ideas with the concept O'f a rbifr~1 de mar: ra cy, throu gh a n ~ga iitarian plain n ing system a nd the cn~ation ,of ill campus architecture. ~nspi~ed by the Relli3lissance ideas of PaUadioj the palvilian in the landscape evok@d the clartty and pOf.enti~1 of man'~ rational understanding in confrast to th'~ chaos of - hL! natural wor~d.

To achleve this ideal scadernlc Environment Jefferson devised i series or pavilions. arr,anged arounc a grear[ public space c;tl,Ued "the lawff. Ih i s formed tn IS! tccu s e,f what he termed an 'academic 'IImag~' l@ad1ng to the prcrnoncn of an ·illcademic commllm.ryi. The populetlon of the ,oommunfry would Uve as famiUes with each vilrla the residence O't a tu or (professor), w1th lodging's above and _ han below fur classes. Eacn vma differed s11ghtly from the r1e:Kt in appeariliocel t~us renecting the indhi'~dual nature of [he group to whicJlI 11 belonged. I m portantl'Y~ each loaging Wi! S (on nected to til e next by means. of a covered walkway, extending fhe idea ef an lndavidual collegiate model but w~thin an overa'rch,ng unitary unlverslty.

Central to this composition was the rotunda. McdeUed on the Pantheon and .n pa rt bo rrowi ng ref rences fro rn Rouel e's cenotaph to Sir Isaac Newton, the occupies the focal

POSitron on 'tthe camo A .

• ' t-'IJS, ccommodallng lecture room~.

hbralry illnd olher··· I .

COm m LJ na areas n represen ts the inrel'iecl1J al

hear of J ff@ r. ,

. . e rSOI1,5 campus deSign end symbol·ses nis

educa tio nail Id eal s.

Jefferson' . d If·

. • .. 5 1110 e 0 a clearly defined acad e!IT'I rc camm untty

prerl1ls~d on a Io,.ble r ..... '

, 1'1'1.::- 'ugleneaus. campus was. repe.ilted acrOS5

mu [h . of N enh America In th estate IJ n~\lef'Sity 5ySt~ m and grew to be 'the predominan~ 'typoJogy 'for new uli'1fversiries worldwide. Most notably this occurred in he deve~opm@nl and planning sirategr~s, adopted for '[he r~pid @xpalnsion 0 WI If'I h/ersities alt th e begij n ning of '(h@ 20: n~enlUI)i iii nd d uri ng (he e~pall1sicn ln higheir ed ucation Er!'F~er d'ie SeooneJ World War.

'I n E ng ~a n d (he esta blis~ rnent 0" new un irve,rsiti@5i w-as a relatively modest affalir duri'ng , he 19,h~eri'tury with Durham in 1832. Londo,n in 1836. Manchester ilri 1 S60 and Cardi f in

, 893. Of hese, Univenh'Y Colle!lgle land on is sign mca nt 'For th~ educational ~nsight and changE brought about by one m~m:

Jere my B~n~ha m. Altho ugh OiiJ~y one oJ' a 9 rOLl p who fa!..! rded tn,e universIty, Bentham is today f,eme'mbered as ,a redlcel educatlcnal and sodsl reformer. Discouraged by . he educati,anal alndl re,li:glicUls, dogma of Oxford a,~d Cambridg@" he 50'Ugf:lt an educt!lionall erwlronrnerr that would enCOU~2Ige

Ig reate r fre'iEldom o'~ '~holJg ht, F 0 und@d on ,8 belief '~hat ~ he irntere·"5ts, of '[he ~ ndlvWd usl are' at one wh[h those of socJety, the phih:t:lsophy Be;ntham derveloped premis@d ii!I utilfty in the applkaltiolrl of knowledge, The u biased pragmcnism and @quality 0 his ldeas is (oday . nshrill'led In Univ@rsity Coilleg~ London's mission statement

10 coruinue un: founder~' vision by PJIOlliding educitional oppenuniues of rhe nighest qL.1~tJty 10 ~II, r,egarnr@ss. of

bile-kg round.

An 'enEgmatic c I 2lJraCrer in h 15 lifeUme Benth.a m's p re se nee in

he LH"IiverSi'lY c()rl'tir!lu~s mos literally [odaYI wi:M his emballmed body drre$5~d In hts normal clothes sear£,ed jn a

glass case in the ,~n [ran (e' halt

epreSientaljon of .:II

f h urnes but IIl§o as a r nd

a~(I'lleC[IJr~1 ).yle a f fI f educal~on. mark [he secc

1t:!5S o§tentati LJ Mi3n..,er 0 . ns and a consciOuS move

.::.r.a£lon 0 university Ir .shlut.O I ' 'iege 0 oxrord and

gen.. d :sOClij~ plll'lil n

if'''NJY from the or.and@ur an bre .spires. Their (onslructlo

Carnbnoge" anden~ and v.ent~; aulcf'Ila,lic: plogre,Ss.on o~ the a lso [lfp,e~el'ted a ch.a n ge 11'1 1M .... O~ brJdge edl.lcatlO rl that

, bite scnoc 11..... h e

c.oun[lvS erl[{i! from pu _ The purpose of t es

. hast 500 yea ':11.

I,~d per I~ted tor [ e P r: more eQual ,access to

proVI de it .ar f

nel.'w· unlVe iues was to . . ( the first glE'l'Ieralion 0

- .. 50 j t wa l 1iH mO~ 0 "

htgnel' edlJca ion, b from th~.r intake.

I aua leS ~'/a5 or n ,

mUi"1iClpal-schoo 9'[1 , . "'at lH'IIJSLJill ~n havrJlg

'. emalned som@WII .

London univ~r~llrf:lS r I I1t",L..., This wa~1 or course,

d i (em~t1C1 r"I'tJ II lm! I\c-

a brOild national an rn :. j iJ,e- caoual. others at tne

'th t'h elf loca uon In \ I""

synonymoUs. WI . ,. . b d' t of their geographkal

, diD...I ,... dral,,'J then mtae Y In

mll e ten 'kU ....

III nd reglonilr stat us,

A ,I..' Inception the r@'dbrlck uruverSIUes were seen as

l h Iflr .. . '!Iir'"

r d wrrh the more p rCilg rna I ...

[E!chnicill eSl~bll'5fl men[S (once I'1tm. . .

" d r'~ ~ i"id WI [11 n rJE ~a ring I3i few studen ts For

issues 01 ever}! a y I re~ £.II' I"'" f"

enlral'lt:"'E! (0 th [.i Lon dan @:((~F nal d !!grees. Vet from a .slow and

pallnful start rhese rn~lUutions egan to show themselves as diiferem from, yet equal to, neoif Oxbrldge counterparts, e5lab~i$tling ~poclatisms and uper'lse WI their cwn right. And ~hrolJgh (hiS ~hey won thel r own un iver51 ~ ste ~lJ S. lena bl ~n 9 them 10 award their own degrees.

The gre,uen expan)lon In IJniven~ty education in the United KIngdom came in the decade from 1960 to '1970. The RobbIns Report of 1'963 fe.c:omm~nded a y,et g,r~ter extension of hIgher eduranon than was iClir'eadV under way. Over that decade the number of British IJnrverslri~s mare than doubl@d, ffQm 2'2 to 46 instilunons, while d,e publication in i 966 ,of the governme nt white pa per A Pian for Po~yrechnrr.::5 and Orner Colleges rneaor that (Mound 30 polyt@c::hnic5 w[lre formed from eX4'§tlng colleges and nrgher @dUGllion instilutlon~ It was in:I~lided rhat [he polyn~c.nni(Si vOlile differ from 'tradlitlonal unlvMitie~ in thaI they would offer greater access [0 palrttime stu dern~ and therr ceu rsss Way I d be 111 rr a nged equa Uy iuotJiJd d~r@;e and 'IIo(atiollal studies" InitiallYI th@y were not ~f{md@d UfllVersity mllC'Q!' 5ta!u~ and hl'nc@ were not able to aw~rd [n1'11 own degrees. Later al1 overar(hing Council for rhe

NaIElCf'!id I Acadern rc Award s was ssta bl i sh ed _

'a '= to provide [he

requ inory fram~mrk for and award ...1_ •

, h . . . r . I., ~1L'1!9ree-glvr rig powers 00 [ e' pol ytKhn~c'5, As a result or tile en su r" . . I. . r

5tud.ent nu b' ... ~ng exp oSlon In

rn Irs. the (NAA was e·'e l 'II

' . • ... 'If -n ua y d\lWlirdlng m

d~gn~e'5 rhan all the collegiate unlvers t. ore

1991 he government w~u I'@ . • lies put togeth@f. In

F, , PQ pel Hrgner &:iUC(U ion N

ramework an 110 u need that pol Ii.. I a . ew

d y ec;, I rues were to b. .

egree-awardilMQ powers and umversi v n ., ,12 gwen

unjted f u.,din ty tlll~s. WI thq f1 a new

9 system of ed !J[iruCi n_


odate [he expansion of new universiUes that To accomm

d between 1960 and 1970 many new, greenfield

cccurre . I d' h fo nd .

ere constructed_ Inc u 1n9 t e u at.ons of East campuses w

, 5' sex Essex and Warwick. Like Jefferson's at Virginia

Anglia! US • • •

. arller these new Institutions. presen~ed with a

] 50 years e

J fOO 'In respect of their des~gn, posed a unique

rabu a raJ, .

III lor ard·utects. They marked the third generation of

cha leng~ II .

, . "hI e.'(nans[on and then growth was meteoric. With

unl;,J.:H51 .. , ., •

d ' t nu' hers e'l(ceeding .3.000 at each instttutlon within a

5.tLJ en In I .

decade of esrctblijshment

Piecemeal generic growth had been largely representa~ive of expansion in higher educaricn in the United Kingdom until th~n and the architects of the new universities were faced w~th iI problem o~ rrresterplanrunq and SOCla~ engloee1ri!ng - central to Which was how rapid growth could be managed through stag d implementation of it! s.rrategic p~a'f'. Wuting in the Atchireccural Review in October 1963, lionel Br,en opined that the approach vaded quite radically between (he arch itects. who we re worki n 9 0 n what were ~ffectively sirmlar projects in terms of programme: and ~cale, but on isolated greenfield sites- He concluded that (here were hree iden[lfiabJe deSign s· rateqies. whkh derived from tile architect's \llew of the way in which growth would be man~ged

Sir Ba5il 5penc:e':si scheme for the Univer5ily of Sussex riEpre sented he compu: m,od e I. A suo ng ~y i den t~fied core buUding would provide the star ing point from which the campus structure plan would ex end outwards. Spence established this stronq idenrltv using is system of precast

co nc rete va u Its a nd brick construct i o n e'\loca ~~ve of Le Corbusier~s Mali 50n j ao U I. a F- the two au i 10 ingl$ j n th e in rt i a I phase', the physlcs building and Falrner House, the latter accClmmodilltes students' roams, [he refectory and the deb.aing chamber tr takes tlhe form of a quadrangle with a central COl.u'-lyard and represent'S the social and lntellecrual core of the campus. However, the inevitable problem with sucb a strategy ~s that [he' cenfral focus is caught between being [00 Large it the beginning of the concenrrk expansion and '[00 sm,a~1 at tne conclu$;on of the expansion. In addirion, as has been [he case at Sussex, an lnirial planning strategy inteo nded to mali fI fa ~n a cerra i n vi'S u a I co n s.ister! cy 1 n arch irectura I 9 Fill! n1 m er has bee n cha ng e d wi t h the p rcqresslcn of tilmeJ acc:ordi ng to the cha ng I n g na t IJ re and fleq ui re menrs of higher edUcation and he ap ointment of 0 her arcbitects. A~,ordingly. the imtial clarily of mrenr represented by [he PloneeJ bUildings has been somewhat swamped by a less V~Sll8Jny consistent range of addlllQn5~ Th5$ mav be considered el~h@r CIS being detrimentalta che OVE'rall coheSion of the plan

or. as is the (~se 'h E . .

.. WI( fie Pan v's building fea ur- d In (he

following case studies as providing the OI'JPonunlty for e'):"ceptija n a I new a I chi rec t u re.

Assessin9llhe des, gin of au:hitects Robert Mathew. lohllscnMarshaH and Partners for the Universilly of Yark. Brett detected w .. at he termed the' molecula, campus. Dertved from tile Ox-bridge collegiate model', its structure p~an estabHshed sev,era~ 'social nudei centred around at tripartite grouping of fllncuons comprised of rhe followi'ng: [VIJO coll@ges; a dedicated bui'lding function, for example. " sdence teachinq O~' research bUlldnngl; and one 0:' the builldings of g,eneraJ function. ~or example, halt library. theatre, ec. The strategy soug'ht to overlary difFerent

a ctr\lit~~5 of the ex pa ndi ng un iversrry ~n pa rallel aro LJ nd these mi>ted-use 'IOri. Th e si~e fa r York was d (!'velo. ped very much in the Engllish Pic' uresque tradition: i3ln lIndulaung t,opogr-aphy! Irreglj~arrty of planting and an artificial winding lake presented a Replan landscape. The Pictu~sque approach lent iltself ''0 the erec ton of individuall pavi~ians jlJ~lapo:sed in the landscape. Howlever. thiS ind~v~dua'iisled bUilding expression was contrasted with the use Qf a 5ta ndardis~d OJ,mpon L!nt bui Iding system across. the via ria lJS (olleg es,

The '[hinj planning type '[0 eccommodare growth came from Deny~ tasduns deslqn for 'the Un~ver5ity of East Anglia and! walS termed the concentrated model. The most important aspect of th~ d ~vel opmenl st r ategy W.aIIS tn e proposed acedernic structure. The unlvers.'it'y was, to be unitary. and o'rganised around schools of study thalt would pnlvide he academic andl sooal structure. Creating ldenUfnable coUeges or faculty bu~tditng5 was discouraged in favour of ~mplemen' ing a bu ~~diing syste m tha l o bSCLJ red aura nomous d tsc i pii n es in favour of blurred a cad em! c bounda ries, Lase! 1II n's rssponse was to devi se a buUd ing lorg anisrn' com pri a II i near i:I rre n g@ment, Dr wan. of neutral teaching illccommod;;rtion fa,cing wh'ch was 21 cha i n of Sl ud em reside'n ces co nnected by a narrow access route. The resldernial units were org.anis~d along the Unes of O>l:blidge coll,ege halls W~d1 12 students s.hanng OOmmon hi(HitieS!. lhe qroups of reams are arrillflged in r3 caseadl ng zig glura -Uke stru rture that aVE: rh::lok-s a rtver ,iI nd open nelds beyond.

The models identified ebeve, while unique to GlJmpus. planning. were j'n no way inn.o~aiiv ~rrt terms of urban

pia nning strategies a rid the Cluestion s they p04ie fen architects are central to much urben pianning tneo,'Y. What Is unique, however, is that fac d wlth the sa me prcb I em an the sa me point in time architects rom broadly silmllar backgrounds should independently generate three contras.tmg models, Ai the reot of each response .5: the question of now much control any One architect can hope to achieve in the des.ign of such a (Omplel( structure as a umvefSlty. campus pJannH1g presents an age-o'd architectural enIgma as to how much control can.

or ind~ed sh au lei be . . dB·

_, ',e:<e ross . a~11 Spe-l1ce WQI!5 al C 11e' 't~ll'Ie

~LlUte at ea~e with 1005@ archit«tural sin.Jctui'E, 5a.yingl of th~

Sussex campus thall he: .

~,. welcomed the idea of incomplr;' eness as a vtrtue, mcompleteness was h~1! ,(seIF. It Win If) that mind ltli3J1 rhe flrsl de:$i~jlI'\s WE:!r~ dona

Yet he could not really gj\l'i! up the idea of his own visi'(m, g031lg 0 n to say:

I 5aw the Unlve sity. flOW and In 'the future in pink br"[k w· h SOme arch~d Forms peepting 11"1 he trees.

Of OOUFSJe" other alrchjt,@c~s have been less carndid in their 5E.",a:Ch fiar ov,era~ I control at nd uni orm~ly i FI calmpu s pla r1 ning a n ell desig n. Dependi ng en politi cal if'l'1pera{ives~ cam p us architec~ure can be a means of achi'ev~ng ideologltCi3II'change. Such was the case, at 'the n1inoJs Innitut~ of TechnoJog'}I where Miles, van de Roh e was, cornmss loned to d e.5~gn a Ullm pus of a !J'Imotitalnan Modernist dogma i 11 order (0 'correct an educ.ational estabhshmenr that was thought to naive, lost its w~y. As the' Ar;chitecruflJI rte(orcl reported ar the tim ~j Mries was, hired to. ileac without fit'l,U 0 al clear and unequivocal spiritual orientation' This he clea~iy did In ' he creation of an uncompro,mising (ilmpus and educiO' ional struc ure, It: has been observed 'th 21 r dog rna even e-:;([e ndsd to 'the orthcqon al pr@',ci$~o'n o,.F the alignme'nt of drawing boards ~j1 [hE! School of Architecture. he fMieli School' W~Hii in effect the anrithesls of Plato~s ancien educationall nbj&tlv@ of enc.ouraging students ro rh ink for themselves,

The e,lev'c:rtron of pciyrechn'ics and other colleges to the status of universides has promoted a 0 urth g@neratlon of univer$~'rie s, Generailly located within an urban COrtft~j{t. these new establJshmenG have' g !"Own 1£1 s ~ndi\f~d lJiil~ (olle!Q@S win iilillegi.a riCe. n 01 to each other but rat her to rh! civic in ~t"r'tutien5. to wh-c:h'liey reline. MUtch I~ e their med,ieval guUd predecessors, they lave made' t'he link between ev@ryd~y lift' and the world of academ~( irrvesngatforl and re5eilrd, ~ 'IIJral pa rt 0 f ci vic life. 11'11 i CQf'lU~Nt of 9 leba I mnform a non e~(hang e ~h~~e Iota Uy based 5choohi ,benefit rrom {he poss i bWties. of an

j i'I'Iterl'lill(io n I g u..J i td Form of n elwari< i nfl Hence, t'h~ [him genera 'ron of i'solalted campuses fs. bell1!} 'haH~nged by a fUi!twOrk of nigher ~ducaliDn ~ 'u;ri(ulions. based locaUy,e

able 10 [hink gjobal1ly, We. stand' Q,r [he dawn 0 a n lfI age In

higher educat[on.

d that .0 Cam-

om mente" h

ucallonal fnstltotKJnS, has; with that of the cflY [ at.

[lin h grow[h IS, so Ingldlne II almost IndlstlnguiSh~

b rcfg~ I I - .s p :V~lca h hev

. - n u 11 s T.lfilt'\' seer d, e Ii'tl~et f houg t I

J' ce I nle b I dlng~ 01''1 ~ . I Til !If\ CDlfegtil- . d IJ.ankS ill ground r v ,

a 11 " !tOre5- !I1Ind cIOffi ~ ,J ops 130 ,h EW uppeJ stClfYS. In

com: f . mi above III . - h

con t.1 1"'1 L.H'1creJ9-4lIdi,Ji3 res 100 f [h~ !)l reet Dllfldjeig ~ mel ts in!O T e

I Co;15~3 rhe ..-ctual f~brJc a r be allf"red wlthoWl

m n) ~I so ,hat one c.c:Inno

fe br c oj • h~ oldl.:o eqe

I"~ ofl'1f'f . I'" nprng of till: ad em' c til nd

d nb~5 Wi over 1JI,po . _

Whl ~ .Ie:rt~J1der· esc "r It ,S also rue rhat, hke

" . as be-mg 0 men,

(omml:raal act1VI~les . be dOrl1l1lat@d b)~ rhe

_ . J:I ClllI!;!:!i have co m 10 . ~

Ca mbrldg e', scm . h ba fa n ce betwee n (IVIC

, ' d it inler,est"5. Her€ l e '

unwerSlty an I 5 I d to such an extent thai rite

.and aea dermc life has bfen a rere

cnv hVfiS Ihrough .{s universlly. , "

'- ... sSTon d redbrick, gene ra t:1 on of

The adven 0 _1[1'....... i ..

. up of edlJcalJon t lfOUglh

tJnrversl rJe~ n1iWed an OJ] nlng . .

.. 11., ba .... .d "'5ulUr~ons. At first these prepared candl-

reg IO,i1,) ~:r LI !;Ll .. f

dal£iS ('Or [he tfadl[lona' examinalro!1s. but O\JIer the CaUf!i!~ 0

lime they developed (heir OWfI eXDenise and ii3lward-gJtU1(lng


'n comras' to rh~ mod~ lou n~vt:!f.s;ly and c: ily 9 FOwi ng Log!? her Wl'thlJl the yriban rnatnx the third generatJOn of IJn~Ver511lie5 sought a ph~5icil containmerrt From their host drlEiS through the est.abUsMment of cur-of-town campuses, Ihis deve'opmen[ was the rlt!5.ul[ of a p05rW3[ exp!o5ion In acces.s '0 I'igh~f Education and a commensurate need rapfdly [0. estabhsh new instituhons, and ~mbodli@d Jefferson's idea of til@' acad~j( viUage. au[QnOl'llOlJS in [rs jocill[ian and QPE!rat~cf'l ~n ceses such a s Su SS@!i<, fas.t Ang ~ia a nd York the crty has dl!'IIeloped acco rding to n$ own co rnmercial agenda and acts only as iii kond oflieFV~(e vehicle for 'the academic satellite_ fl\i!rapl1rilsin.g Donalld Schon's metaphor of archltec~ural practlc~ lh,s model pre,sems a pa,rUc:ular physical and

.mellec ual topography - Uiat of a hfgh ha d or . d

• t . I!:Jr. groufl

cverl.Qoklng a 5iwamp. Qn the high glround stands the IdeahsM world of s n.rd

. ." ,. Y !!II II d reses rch whfi're id~nt lfia bl e

p roblems b~ild the mSE! l'Ves to 30Iu lions. throug· 'h resD~ h-

based ~heo . d. -';;'0 n::

ry an· metl1ods. I n contrast, in th e- swam

lowlands lies; the com pie;: da -to- .. , .. . py

aOivjties where problem ':I day World of Other human

Incapilbl~ of t''''(n • .I'. SI .eIre messy and (Onfu5ing arid

Io!JW m~j)~ so UhOfl.

Schon describe:5 tli e ira ny of dt . -

t1he \!Valid of a.cadem· 1M. I""'arclng ~veryday life 'from

. la, e problems On ,b.. .,' ,. ,

ground 5eern rdl~~~ed. ~P'"iJd I'.'. rnu[u of [he nigh

1iiJ'.· re fHlvely LJ • .

duals and SOCiety. if 113' h .. "'mpOrtilI"H to ~nd"vl.

• rge, oWever g. reift .... -

Imerest, wh.le ."' th tlle1 techmcal

III I, e iwamp he the r .

hUfnaJfl concern H·· . . P oblems or gd'"eit~Sl

' enc@, wI! lie i rnej~@ II'. '

resea rch to the wo"r...l of " ctua y ~ I'll:!' dppllcation """f

I [::I ejJi~ryda .... a't' - OJ

J ni3ns rs an fS~lJe for all



• it no matter what their history or physical 'OtatIft.,;,

unlversme.:JI. ....,. t,

t nomous campus has served only to reinrorce th"'-

the au 0 J;)

perceived separation, . .?

The fourth generatIon of universmes, today m ~ts infancy.

marks recogntl,on of the fact that many in5tltUt~ons undertake higher-educariona roles to th~ ~ame standards as the euablished univer:S.tles. In addition, changes In funding structures and th~ population's exp~ctations regarding access to higher educaticnt and the advent of global education, have done much to encourage established institutions to reappraise rhelr trad~tional role-

Un ivers i [i es now see th ernselves rn ovi ng from being providers of only full-time education, towards becoming estabilishmerH5 that offer specfic academic awards. Greater access to high~r education has encoulra,ged methods of partnme or distance-hasfd learning techniques. Assoc~ated with rhsse develop,ment5 has been the emphasis on credit ac::cun'luJarrof'l and tranSrerl which enables students to neqorlate ~heir educa'tion from a \ia~iety of providers. In this consumer-drlven soci~'ry of p.ra::k and mix from various educaitioni;!iI estaohshmenrs, courses and components, a profound paradiglfllalic shift has occurred in rhe role that educational providers see themselves playing, The concept of ~ifelong learning has arisen in tandem with these chanqes, and to cater for rhis universities have developed portfolios, of short courses often deriv~ng from the full-time CQUFS!e syUabus..

The pedagogrca,l.sul.Jcture of educatlon has also undergone a revolutlon. he change from a reaching-based culture [0 a studE'nl-Cen red learf'ling erwlrorvnen c hCJ~ brought new demands on the kinds of resources offered by univerSi[ies. Librari'es and 5~mirlar rooms have !been reolaced by leaming resource Centres; staff rooms: and cornrnon rooms bye-mail addresses; and examinanon rooms by computer-aided assessment What students expect from scaff, and staff from students, has also changed_ from being passive note-takers

~ nd re-c:eivers of gli ven wisdom stu den rs have be en enro LJ raged towards {and perhaps have themselves enc.oUlr.a~l'ed~ the adopt jon of it far more proaci ive role in their education? With increas~ng requi emenrs of s~rf-funding as a result of the pressur,es greater access has brought to bear on government resources. student expectations regarding the quality of education have changed. Today educational 'consumers' demand value and provision.

In just over a century, from 1889 to 1 99b, the annual

go,vernment ~ d- f . d

IUn mg 0 Unl (Kingdom umversities mcrease

from £15,000 to £7,000 m~niOll" The pattern of grow h has

been expor]e-ntraJ wHh the raplditv dlilnlatkall\I increaSIng

P05'[wa r and Con tlnu~ I" t . k

. . Ing to ~ trn J ever more saeeply mto tile

next mJllennlLJm Hence it i d r that E' re Increasing,ly

mO'V i FIg towa rds a lea r 11 i ng society. A t the 'star t of the 2'1 stcelltury, klllowledge and learning are a Fundamerual element of postrncdern consumption.

.0 mauer that at grclduauan ceremonies students no staff maly arr~y rhernselees ,n . he cloak and mortarbearo of 1] h(en ttl ry apparel, the rea I ity of mod e m h ig her ed uc a ti on

re p resents a cataclysm I C cha 1"'1 ge' ~ha't ha 5 In a d promund

repe rc usslons fo Fun iVIE rs.i'ry a rchitec S" Pres tig io U5 cornrn i $- 510ns fa r rash-rl Gh Oxbridge corleges sru peril st, OU t on an intentional scale thes.e are relatively ,ins.ignifk:ant To meei the demands 0 inC]"f'ssing student numbers and changes in he nature ofeducatlcn, new untvershles need to cornrnlssicn a va riet'y of new b'IJI ilo ilng s and n ew bui I ding 'types. Educ~tia,na I st ructu res. .. ave to embody r~e a s.p i ra'tl ons a no status that 'the institutlons wlsh : 0 achieve and represent, New univ€'fsiti1es hive' qUickly IF,!cognised 'the vSllue and ,pre~{tg@ -h~lt ard- i·-

ec ure CBn provide as an outward symbol of an edUCa'liOrlall body. EdL![adon 15 an invisible substance: architecture allows it 'to become mate ria I.

Li Re' the M@dici in Re n 2lliss;anc@ Flo ren,ce ~ new univers'i ties can be seen as green. architectural patrols at the start of the 21 st-century There is now widespread re,cQgnl'filon that h@ requirement to provide ,u=sthetlc:.21l1y inspirillg and hriglhly

unuiooal environments! has aMorded e:tdJaard~FI~ry opportunities for arc h ltects to ~ nvestiqate 21 no dlevela p new types 01 builldif1g.5 fur education. Iindeed. Jc~ep" Rykwert idernil'Fi:E!d [he U n i'V@1f'5ijty a 5 the a rchetypica I b u i~d ing ty pe for au r era:

I-fi!itorical epochs migh all~Q be dassi'~ed by he kind of buildif1Q which IS ~he archetype or paradigm - depending wh~(h way you an~ 100king - to all thCMt gets buill iln the age. Thall: is what t]1e temple 'WaS In iiH'Kient Greec@.: the City ~n genel'il!l to republicall, the baths alone to lmpe~ii!l~ Rome; fhe cir'~edra to ~he Middle Ages; the rpalace:e the XVl1th cen ury - and 0 on, until you came to the b10-Lk of ~t.s In [he period 192.0,-40, And ror uS now il is rile unl ver!iity,

Architecture has a powerful role! in the m@ssagles a iJniversity wi-shes to send to ~ts staff. students and the outside world. lord St John of Faw51ey ijd~ntLfie:d the lmpsnar'1' sy,mbcll,ic rele architecture had to play when he t~llk@d ~bout Short and Ford"s Que~nJ'5 Building at De Mo,n fort Un~veriiry~

Ar.c.hlt@ctwe. pa rlk:uliilll'1v on ~ camp us, ca 11 have :symbol I, POW!!" and prQ\ll~e a focal point lor a unlve~Slill. pan:~cy~.a rly one that has been mouLded hom di sparate bu lId i FIgs.

De Montfort Unkversity Queen's Building, the Sl.llbje~t of a case study In th~s book. is part,cu~al1y r rnarkable In tn~s semiot~c context. BUi'dmg from his e:cperienc s with Rowe and KQ te~ at Harvard, Alan Chort has Conaged piece of 19(h-cen lu r),. tate Gothk establishment architecture mto a campus of systemk1uilt , %Os gnd.plann ing. The eff~ct is tl1at or Wd I iam

B u tteifn eld m@ftlnf'l M! . d . , ' .

. ~ les van er Rehes 1IIIfl01S Ilm;titule of

T ~ch nol og y. The COrl'tra~t 1 s drama tiC

Univers"t'e d - ..

I~_ d f· . I· s, an certallnly uruvers~ty campuses, represern a

I't.n . Q mKrocosm of th . ·h~ Th .

., _ , _e Chy, ey (ornpns~ a va6e y of

bUiildlng ynes' I"""e-t"uct- I -I' . I"

r- ' '1.:1"· dona, aClltEes. IbrariE5 and rrtuseu1ms,

rese~rch 1~~aratQrieS, inst1itutlc.nal 5entlc~sl hau5iing and sports and recreattonal ffSdlitie!5 al~ongside buildings fo~ extr,acunrr.. eLI lair actl vi'li@s: en u rches, refecte ries, ba ~S~ s hops and ba nks even medical cen res. A singh~ volume cannot hope to cover diU these building it)IP@5 !l.U:(Oss. it range of educl3·tional establishments. !Indeed. to (over one tH"'Iiver'Sity sue as Harv.a rd WOI.J ld req u ~r@ ill ~i m ila 1f-:si;Z~d pldt>HCtr[ ion.

Th e foe us of 'lJne following ~ilise sr udies has a ccoming Iy been oF~anised into a narrow band. W,e do not lndude unhj1arsity museums or lib~alrie5. alrl8ady covered in other books in this series. Nor do we' include residen'lial builldings which, 2111·- hough a (ore plsPBrt of the d@v,elopment and

g rowrh of un 1ve rs rtie 5, would n ~ed an en rire pub!icalt~on fa r fair oovera,ge ~nd comparison.

lh~ rase studies are arri!lng,~d in three areas o:f alfchitec \Hal lnteresr that are key to the development of [ontem,porary unive;rsit~@s. fidt there are campus and stnJctllre plans -he mSinner in which an often diverse ral1g!~ of bui!d~ng typoroglieSi ~ nd 'fUrl (tiona I req lJij remenK Intenela res. We (:0 ns Ider GI rna IOU ses not on ~y as. thE' ~ U tonomous secDnc-ge'neration Uf1!rve~snt.i~s,. brilliandy rennve,nted by. the 5.driing Wi~' crd partnership at Temasek University, Singapore. We 11150 look art campus sb"ategies as in egral parts of theilr host: cjty struct!Jll'eAmong] these, Dixon and Jon 1?5'5 proposal ku a new u nuve·rsity in {roydon p rssen ts a n am bftioLi 5 model or th e way in wh~(h rewn alnrd 9 own can be overla~d to c reatE the. kind of iHl:niltectu~~ colilage (hristcpher AI@ ·am:f£l'f ru)[,ed! ln TriJilnry

SHeet Cambridgl@.

Second, we look Ii -" ~fI d ividu a I spec'a1Iis,l bu iJdifl g5 tnat have

arisen 0 u of spec: ific eel uca l~onal or reseil rrh needs, The fo(l..Is of this exalininalioll1 has been on the !Nay lin which similar bu~ldiJng$ have sougr;'t to symboHs.e ~I,e~r ifld~vidlJaJ funC[rOrl5 as d1S1~nct elements in the university snucrure RiUIi@{ ~l1afl iI

comprehensive catalogue of these bui~ding rypes - for .

example, those 0 medije.)J rs search buildings another book In it~ own right - we hav,~ SOlJgfill to present a range of these

I d !QsYf1l(ra lie structu res

ll"iirdr and amed to the orh~lmj]1 co~legrale: nClwre of

unlverslues, we iHla~y5.~ the collecnve spaces in wl1rch students and teachers come logether acmU, [he!! J specl~ve disciplines. As univerSI£y pedagogy moves, teai(hIJlg-towaJd~ a learning-based envuonmefl we J~Ok iilt the facilities thiH ,cnsfi(ut~ a n w lypojOgy of 'learning

, d h- h maM"" new and old

r~s(;J IJ rce cent re 50 arou n w n: ,


old blackboards and slide projectors; the POdkan,

p~ace for reading from a book or lectuflng from -.-m .... ; a spot for dlrectfng and Inlerpretlng a stream Cf bitt

Desktop-fa-desktop, §witched video networks. radical possibilities of teaching In virtual rather I:: settings. Students might have office conFererl(~ 'Mth)l'l"~ members without leaving their dormitory rOOm!i. Stn,m

d . h' illl

be conducte Wit OLd sermnar rooms. Syn,pOs,ja O'Lijght

a5semble speakers from wid~ly :5canered lOCatiOns

- .... '~

r'I,ightt perform from distant places, and Without the need

concentrate students In auditoriums,

He ends by cornrnentlnq:

As the twentieth century draws 0 a close. the idea of a campus - parallBHng or perhaps replacing the phYSICal or.e seems Increasingly plausible. If a latter-day Jeffef50n were out an ideal educational commun~ty for the third might site i. in cyberspace.

In he five years since Mitchell's book was published the plausibility of the virtual rarnpus is no longer in doubt The question is nat whether such ,an institution will be realised. but rather when it will be, In all probability he

- inception of the Virtual campus win not be through any si educanonal establlshmen but lnstead through one of th giant compurer-software houses.

In the progre,ssion of Brltish university devefopment the medieval inception of Oxford and Cambrldge [0 [he second age of '[he expansion of redbrick universitie~ "he th~lrd age of' he out-of-town campus plans of the a nd he fo u r h of th e pojyrech n i c u ruve rsities as i nteg pa rts of th e ci ryrs fa b ricj we are now m ovi n g towaro5 virtual campus whIch wiU offer the fifth rncarnatran of U 11 lve rs ity. lEt me Con c lu de with a q uotation from the ps'e'udonymou5 author of Red Brirk. Universiries, Bruce Tru He says of universiry students:

When they go fro m un i vers flY th ey shou Id feel Fu IJer, and emptier~ than when they entered it; th~y should nave an i"creia:s~d power, yet at the ssrne time a keener sense of . eir weaknessE's; above j3,11 hey should be a~re w·[j, a passion [0 discover and explore.

I . . dea 'ou n compHlng the foljovl.nng rase studies we have en'll.

fa the power that architecture at Its best has to PFO\rJ an @nvironment [hat wjlj conrrlbu te towards the nurt.uljng such a passIon.



I ,I

Du bli n Dentall Hesp i ra II' which was f'au nd ed I m1 1 895 r COJ"'!I'Ull ins fhe Ss: 'lCC I O'f Dental 5 c i IE'II1Ce, 10 ne of the constituents of the Fa(u~~ of Health and Sciences ;11[ T7rinity Coillegle'. . ub I in.

The fa~ade of the original Victorian bUlillding on li'ncoln Place has for along time been iden1t~fied with the d enta I h051pital a nd a Iso. because i~ ~s in a

co nse rv:a tion ~ rea, needed to be reta i ned. For reasons of raditian, therefore, a'S weU as econcm'~i it was decided to ret81in the exj~til!1g buHdir'lgs on Lincoln Place. to refurbish them 50 that hey form part of 'the new hosp l1al com plex end to e nter the' n,@w hCiJspital fro m Li ncoln P~a ce l h roug h the old bu ild r ng so

mai r'lt~ining the h~ $tori c presen ce 0" th e hesp ital, The new buHding occupies ~he' si'h~ at the realr of the hospiital W'1thi'l"'l the Trinity Colleg@ campus. (It Wi3Is,. now@ver, net:essE},ryo persuade the pla'nning aJuthori'ty to iJ'IIQW demolltlon of an existing addition on tile sitej<

We we~e th ereforl!' faced witn t he need 'to p res[l1'Ve the old buildings and! to keep them, operational as a nospita I - th i s n nvolved iii high Iy c,omp~ex i rneda ce - wh iI e E!rect'Ln g a new b u i I dling On the s i te lb eh ~nd them:

'beh nnd- seell 'from U ncoln ~Ia,cef !; n fron'l r seen 'from tthe crJUege, The mfu rbish>~d o'id building now main ty acccmrrodatss teaching areas for 'the dental school,

Most of '[he (liinic; fi nctlons Df the hDsphal are located wii'tthjn the new building and are de'5.igne' wi h 2!'~P roprlate spa css dea r of SlfUC:W re, approprialtE c:eHing he'ig hts a I1d sU,Jilable s@NiQ21 dis,ttib,ution s~

te m s, Til e cl i J1 [~S are desrg ned to be Ugh il nd rrrE!'ndly i n chalrach~'r a nO to reflect ill be lance of open ness and privacy, order and inorma1lily.

The ce,ntral atrium ~5 a fu I r-heiglht space enclosed between the okJ1 alii d new bui Id i ngs with a fu Illy g ~BZed roof: it conl'ai ns the rna ~n 'Sfair~ ,a nd lift: it! s well as reoepti on and wa i'[ing a rea! a nd bridge lin ks be'twee,j1 the two buildings at all hevels. It is the drculanon hub ilnd uni ies 'the blJ~lding, both visually ~nd functionally'.

New floors ~ire of reinforced <concrete consnuc ion with steel frames used for eoofs ~ nd within 'the old buil'dling'" Ex[:emaHy, blick is used [Q lie in wjth me original hospiu)~ buikling. Granite cladding f5i used within the college in 5J,Yft1pi:fthy with [lie other buildingls.


Hilt Raor pian







E l C



ohmp ,'1 I ndom ..

This new two-storey b [;j ild ing he uses So IJ rna mpto;n

U niversi'ti5 stude nt union shop and~ a n the UpfJ@1!" ~oor~ is! IN id e rop-llt galll'e ry that se rves th ree srna ller rete II units.

The siting of the' bull~dijng relnfcrces the f'xi:sting network ef pedestrian routes, lestab~ished by Sir 8~sil Spil1!mc~~s. '11 950s rnasterplan fer the camous .. tccatec adj;;u:,ent to the e:r<1 stl n 9 stu dent union t th e new

b ui Id IlFIig hel ps 0 defi lie a sq uere to the front that

marks 'lhe southern edge ef the ,celfl'l"ra~ L! ni\l'e~s lEy g r1een which ~'5 'faced by rhe buildings hriCktNcnk north rac.i!IIde. The double-height portkn to the new shop eXll,ends, 'Out ~ nto . he' -sq u a re gliv~ng the union entli'ince an appropriate prominence' and pro'Viding a sheltell'ilEd rneerl ng p~a ce, Whli lie '·hree large tl rneer-sbu ered open i rig 5 revea I th e roof-lit pub I fill: $p.a ce at fI level,

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The Ma,ison de I 'Un ive rsi't@1 S i tuated in rh e Mon trnuza rd Universrty campus, Dro ,~s composed of two cHstirnct parts! positioned one above the other and corre- 5,ponding to the buT~ding~ two. malnfunctlons: flrst .a 9rou nd fi cor pubUc: 1 n chawi3,cter. accorn rno datilng the 5aJJ~ des aCf',es a nd iI rece ptlon a rea; seco n d, two u pp~r levels, adm in fstrative, a nd private in che racte f. contel ning offices. The structure of the bUli1ldin'Qi and the arrangem~nt of the volumes represent the two

dl erent orders: he lnstitutionel oroe:r of the ground floor a nd the ad mi n i stratlve orde r of the flo ens a bove,

The gr'oundJ floor is 'freed from s.tructural supports.

The spann'ing of this volume called For rhecreanon of ill tsch n i cal y i nd ivi dua~ s tructu reo hence a rei nforced concrete beam extends !lC:fQSS the entire area and takes. on thr. load of the two upper levels. lin the' glreijt space on the 9 round floor freed up by the beam, it nd

crossrng [he build1f'1g, is the so "e' d~5 acres,; which

p ovkies 1 SO seals. is structure' 'is @ntirely of b@~(h wood: floor. f;:eilii I1g an d wa,llht It is the representa jv@ 'face of the Maison de rfUni'iJers~t€1 and! is conceived as an eu to norneus p Teo; of !a1r(hrte(tureJ :presented 011 a Slone 'RIflO{.

The Ma liSa n ds l'Un i'rl@ rs~'re is 'enclosed by iii facade of lhree mat~rlaJ5: stone, wood and' melal. Each material ms used Jar a panh:ular func :ion: the stone is for' he gables and the sntrances and is sim~lar to that used for the 'FJ rs t bui~(n rigs. of 'ch@ ca rnpu s; th eo wood ls

em ployed fot the open i rig pa1rt.s; :shu ~r5/panels 'for the ventilation of 'the t)ffice5 illlld for deors ,cat the entr a nces 00 the buildilflQI; and 'I:he m eu I ~s for [Ii ~ wat,@rproo'rung of th e 'facade. of ttl e herlzonts ~ bands and the g~azed frames.


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The 18tl'H:::entury d~niF'lg ha~1 of Trinnty. CcHege, Dublln, 'was ~Imost destroyed by fire In 1984. This buUding complex where malny sod,al actvvities take place, houses the co~leg~s dinflng hallr atch ens", buue.ry~ bars and senior corn man room. The aft~ rmath of the f r !

p resented [he co I ege with both .a rn~jolf task of restorati on, a nd the epportu nizy ~Ol nmprOrve the hirhe~ro piecemeal character of the complex ..

Once the cloakroom'S hac! been removed, the calm s,implid~ of the slone-flagged entralm:e ha~1 w,a's revealed, Whe n tn e Orilg inal di n ing'"'h~11 'IN 1 n d~wsr which ha d been b 10 eked by a In ode rn extension, were

rep~a ced, the n a Ill's cen l rail vel u m e WPiS noooled with natural !ignt. A white Portland stone floor replaced '~he dark mahogany. of the originaL and oak 'tables, and chalrs we~e' desigrJled to furnish '~he 5p~H:eL Th[~ formailly

(om,Po6ed e'l~adon!i of Ehe new nalll establ'shed an erchnectu ra I promena dle for diners.

The sen iCIF [ammon room, I: i ~uatled alba've 'the entrance han~ was restored and r~futFbfshed Wiid~ (iurln ~nue inspired ~. l 8th"c:e ntu 'if originah The new fQU ~-s't[arey ea k"cla d .fl'Url urn links, all l@veJs o.f 'mel

bu ildii ng~ alii d 51 hurters ena bile its !Qalleries 'to be

e nclosed ~ 5 ~eparate rooms 0 r open DU on to th@ space beneath, A :smaU biu. flO! the Fellows' private user re-creates the Adolf LOoM Kall"ntn@r Ball'" amid the aK'~tic Classkism of Irish Palladlhilnfsm.

Other ~ nventio ns f m proved the drcu~a ion. New' stone stali'rcases '[0 he re'ft ii!I rid right C'i the eot i.llri(@ ha II lead down 'to the b ULle.ry iii m1 [cella rs, and smellier meety ng roo rns sO<:let}l' roams and servi c:~ spaces ~ rea cL!om,m,odat@d lnro the pia n.





Form in 9' the fi rS,1 phase of a three-part pmg ram me lJI~ r:ens'trlJct~(ln. l he I ibralry (overs an area of 2j.2 50m2 r with a runner 450m of gailiery s IJa (e. alfld can accornrnoda:re 70.000 volu m es and up 0 500 students. r 0 a la rye extent mat@rta~s tradlrlonal to the a ea were used, in parl~(uli31r day bricks, ,til nd wh lte I imeston e. Th ese are co rru astee with o2l,k-and-g I i::IlSS screens snd flushjointed concrete bioc:kwork. The reading room is 1Ft by a nonh-fac1n,g mofliight over the main drculanon route, rile ga lery spaces by floc -'[o..,ceiHng windows.

Ilf'I,ternalll~, exteFlsive use is mil d·@ of 'seg mental an:h@s whicn. II i ke the (·o~u m 1"115, are brick r.fI(leQ, [he bricks 5'!rv~l1Ig as permanent shutteringl fe:r the reinforced concrete core, The recesses betvY'eeFl eolumn:s were' used to accommodate v~rious fiJrnish~ng elements such a 5 book; sh a ~ong the Clurving so orh wa I L Further rea ding facilities, were in s'ta~~ed iii nd are lif by 9 rou ps of th F@e 5'fl1i111 wi ndows wli lch 'fom~ the onl'y openings ~n 'rhis face.




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The .5chGt;D1 ef Art is loca'led in a former s'@n1ina,ry btl n'r for the ~edemptofi':st Order in the ~ 940.s" 1h.1=. first phase of the work, completed in 199B. acce mmcdares tn IE! '@xvfef 'fine an, sculpture and pottery departments,

The p imary concern for the architecr.s wes to create a cohefi;lnt plan wh ere by each of th e sepa fate

de partrnents m 1 gh~ relate to one ,21 nether;

Within the ex:i sti ng b u ildin9 IIa,rlge spa ores to be usee for draw! ngl and faJbrkat~on were p revided by brellil,king out wallis to the €'xis'tingl cen:s~ whflle' in other a'@BS new' ~;kylights Wfre ~m:'oriPorated to introduce north Ugh!. The' eXI sting i n'OO'm(lll corrie ers we. r@ brig htened up by repla cj I1Ig sol lid doc rs with ta II g ~aled d crus alod

eu nctuatsd ~ liang the~r ~e n Qlth by ta II piVOit doors,

Students underra ke - h el If pIE! rsona I pro [ects in ind~vldLJal cells where these have been retsined and

the i r work is s;tored In pu rpQse.·d~$.~gned m o:biie stalfille$s":5tee~ d'r&wJng chests ~oC~lted .~ the wk1"fl; corridOfs..

On the groundltloor corridor ,running leasr~west Portuguese stone and maple wood have been I iii i'd to en~iven the preViously sombre decor, At the ell1l.nem corner there' is a new ~ I bra ry. 01'11 'five '~oo'r5 c:onSimded iii"'! oak From here 5·tudents ha\i\e views, of Gal~w,ay B~y_ As a CCH.J nterpeint, a dedica'~@d an hmuelc~nema wm b~ prorvided ial[ the west end ~r:l 'the second pha'se of work begtJr'I In 199'9.

Across '~he north elevation a n ~ 5CU~p[:U re worhshoOp has bien DIU ilil' ill! rou rid ,a 1'1 0'110 elm tree, lhE roof is. made up o.f a iI1urn ber of vautrted1I[>{mrug ated-lfron roofs with eas '-'fadng dereslorey Ilig ling,

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Simp~~c:iry and evic,ence. Thes e are the 'two prrnc~ph~s '[Ii CB' hiv,e gruid@d how (he desig n of this ne-w p mjecl is Integ r~ted wit lin the ex i sti n 9 u 111 i\l\ers i ty.

The possihility of ,~itingl the building within protected waod~aind and, he need to connect 'me dijftrent elernen s of '[he un,ivers~ty led 'to tn@ ,need to fin~sh the campus" Howev,erj the bu~rding is more 'than i simple I@'xrerl'sion - lt brings. a new conte,mporalry varJiation. that sUrpaS,'s.e5 the arigina~ idea. Loo.king to l'Erdrre. i'l are ill s a rfi Ite r between ca mpus and woo dland and aJ so provides a net1No:rk of Unks oelween the. ~Hfferen, elernsnts of the universily.,

The appa,errr cCi,nuadictton, hat the prolect ~'s both ii:I group,ing of liaising buildings and a point of traffic confluence~ is addressed by. fr,agmerlt~ng the btJildi'ng's! volum~s~ wh11f reta,ining tne view wWirds l'Erdre from . he ~nrrance to '[he university.

The Ange' Guepin Department of Soclal Scicence is ~itua,ted an one s1d~ of the plan and the Department ,or EconomiC: Sdenc:es and the Horoary of the School of Econom" c Sciences and LdW is on the other. These three diff@rent functio.nll parts of the campUl5 are brought IOgethe~ to form ilin barrnonlous W ole, yet

are fll'Qgmented ~ike the elements O'f til bar code:~ the d!3'rk srripi$ of th e bu i ~dings cornrasr with th ~ ~~gh er strips of 'the views of woodli1:lfllct, wirth empty spac@s, be<ween [hem. The s:tr~,PS vall) in width alocardirTg' to the requlre.ments. of the' programme'. Thf pregre.5:Sjl\l'~ co mpactness of ~he woodle no s,'trips from sou Iii Ito north contfas:s w·'th the larlle, parallel bu~ldif1g of -he Department of .5Qcla~ Science, which stands au ratflt:!'r like a pun rtuation mark and i'j If! key fe!3ltu~e' in the projl~ct~ as weU as an [he university calmpu5. CompiilIriKl W ,a" the' othsr bui~dl,ngs on fhe 5~te whJcn tOWl!r at 1'2 meu'e'sj the Depalftment of Soda ~ $ci ence reaches; rES highest point at 18 metres.

The wl10Je bar code sys,lem 15 then spHt in two by i'lIl larg@ d~agon~1 whrc:h contalns aU the entrances and haUs of 'the blJ~ld,ings. 'This bring, mgEther the entirre archiitec-nJ~I~ compcsidon byfbrming eM visual hnk. the @dges of which are re~ntofced by rows oif lime uees. from one building to the etner.

The ba r code is an eVQ~utioniilr:y' pr(lj@C[ and over

'rime '9 ~ow rhrcug h the ex'tens ion of 'the ~rb roary Qlnd '[he wood'it.lnd nripsJ conrfnuing to a,dd to the vj~atity 0 the

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h, 1 991, ~ageEher with ctner practke~ we were ~nvi'ted by the Ar(hitectUlra~ Foundatjon to panth:~pa[-e lin an urban desiglo ~nrriaritive on ('roydon. WrE: we rei a~,$i'gnecl he negfec.ted area of Croydon Old Town. After some

delibelcnion we' decided to rest rl:"H~ ideal of lill 'community' university for Croydon and. by extenslon, to re-examine' '[h@ more genera~ ldea or-the mutual interdependency of university and efry.

In the 19t5Os land in the centre of cities was e)Cpen5ivl! (lInd as a f€',Siult who~e new cemcuses were buih on me! peripheries - for ex~mp'e# East AFlg~ialr Batn and Dub~in. Ex:perii@nce' r"as shown that ~n spite of the wish to nimu~are' an urban e'n'V~rIQnmenit the campuses have remaiinedbanenalndln5trumen1t.oll.Thirry years later the posi'ljon has be.enl reversed, Many leS'slEn'lja~ city functtons hive been siphoned off into suburbs in the form of business pla,rks and regionall 'shopping centers. ~Edge City' has em@r'ged ~Nving larqe sections of centre abandoned and in search of a new role,

Unlike (he new un~v@r!.ith~'sl -he polytechnics have

allwilY~ had ,B 'foothold in the ce.ter Df ai'IIit!$" With '~heir new univershy status and inri3!rged enro~mernj me expolyre'Chnh:s h - ve an opp.ortunity 'to, redefine arid expalnd. ,e_S:5en-(ia~ n~'~'-ion:sh~p$ to the cilty. Croydon ldffer@d .5 uch din opportu n,ifY. Sj!n(lfl its m,edJeval orig Fns rbe lord rown had developed or-galnJca~ Iy" up to 'the '~960$ with 'rile dramafic fxpr:msion eenned on he' raUway stalio.n, but wirth the ~nrroduc[~on lof urban motoMiys in 'he 197CJ;s it be,e:am@ cut off and was alrowed '[0 decay. Croydon became pohl6!ied - a cit'y of objects exp'res:5~d by individuall office towers. versus the city ,of continu ous 'fabrJe expressed by lhe streers of 'ttl!? ofd ' awn, There ms a c1e'ar diag ram evrd'ent ~n the map c:;r Croydon. A straight line a'fong' th.e axis of St George Streer ~~nlk$ the' mailll1 sta ion 'to' the o~d [own. At right ,anlgre~ to this are' b.arnds of contrasting de'Vero cm@nt ffrs.t t h e dty of 'nre;estan d fng orffice burLIdin gs~ [hen [n e comr:nerci~r dty of the high street end, flrtaiiy_ the de(ay~ng old t(lWn centred on (Murch Stre~t

l"e idea of a community unfver~iry devetoped from

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thf' foUowj ng i mpu Ise 5; fj rst. tha [ Croyd on Wa s. wit nQIU I a strong cul'ruraj base'; and, Second. that an the ingredIents wen:! here to provide one; Croydon CoUege of Highet Educanon whh its 13.000 students and highJy reg'arded fine ar and drama schools housed iI1Inadequ;3[e and overcrowded (3Ccommodilticn in the (om me~cra I (en tre r p,Fovrded tne hy~oth e'[lcilll client

Th ~ empnasts on pa rt -time and VOCdtio'oaj cours~s

rna de the colleg e an iln eres ting m cde,r fOf a new fn'rlerpretal ion 0 a cQ'mmerc:iar ul'"I,iverSirty.

QUI' prOPQ3~hOn was to relocate Croydon COlllegl@ into the pardy abandoned falbrrc ef the old townl a f~bric witf'lou t much co mmerria r va I ue bur ge:og r aph~caHy dose to [he centre, Thus we cOLlld funy integrate '[he universf,ty into the life of the town, The ojd town has a Idear per ern (off streets and pu bHc bujld~ngs,~ in contrast to -he ambJ,guou~ city of

flfees.ta nd~ ng o~jlects in the co mm erda I celltre. Wi'thi ril this parts ,rr1 I' hOJweverj tnere are .5i~g,nif;jc-ant velds in the 5.h'ee- iront~g@. ~e'ading to extensive .and derelict ibac:k!ands. The org,anisa'Ho.n of those vn~- s ~nrt,o the strategic routes beganl to sugg,esr an e~ementary piiBttem ,si mil i!lI r '10 19rth-cen touy afcad es, Wlith in I n is matri)(1 each d~pa rtment wo u!d have a recog n lsa ole street ff'Ontag'€ with stu dlos or works hops behi n d. The School of Cat,ering .. for example, might genelr~te' a restauranL the School 0 F,in~ Arts ,21 gaUery and the School of Drama a theatre, so aHowrng Hfe, in rhe street and liFe in he L.!InTv1en'ity to overlap.

The ,eI r,chilbecture of the p roj ect j"~ intention ally ~OW" key and ~es,j$tl, the' emphas.;:s on three""1dm1enSion,d imagery normally dl5socialted with universilty buUd Ings. The development of [he lnterlor of the b~cc f'mplloy§

.top-li~ ihexpenSlv@ 5f,~d building~ two 10 Ihree •

In height N - slore-yS

- or unhke 19t1-l cenrury artisl[SI studio,s alld

arcades th . - Id b .,

bo .. " ey ~~l!I, _ -e m05 Iy In't@ri'OfS budt up to the . ounda~,es, WI!h Ih~ ;epal~ling divide of the party

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UlnlV~rSlty sp:ac:e, 'Wr=: made t\lVo (,0 mph~mell1l'il ry mod'e+s to expre!'Ss this idea - one out O'f pla5t.e,F 0 P~ris

whereby r~ e wa~~s 0 ,I e boURg. ·9iru ~n...l -h ~ t .1

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W(H.J tes ac - as 'the' fr,2J meWoJ'k to tne COlltin uOYS, bu rrd

fab~~ anc:! he second in cardboard ")(pressing tile n otJonai ~i8nY' wa II~ of "lid i\lliduai de.partments.,

11, e acc.i d'enta,l is importa nt to tha sty-reo of 'the' ~roject H~re' and th~f,e 'the internal route Would bur'rl.c Iflt!o. and 'give ne-w I~f,e . '01 an unfikely 9 oup or e~isting and IJ nderusoo buildill g5 - a nne 1 S'l"-..ceriHury church, a bis ~op's lpa~aoe~ a warlFarworks illnd ,i;! n abandoned depa rtrn ent SI[OFe'. These structures. whi~e rnil'fntalirdng cantin u~ity With Cmydolfrl Old TO\iWl1 ;1111'50 prov1d~

suj' ilbie accomlmodatio:n for ce,remonii1:ll~ and coJJectilve univ~rsity OCG.3sions. Added '~Q' t,his .. tht surrounding streets hav,@' a stack €I' od ina ry al"!d undenJccup.ied re'rraoed hflusing tfun wou'd serve we!! as tn~pef'lSHVe studs nt r@sfdencp.s.. 'The lI~hmle wo. !Jld repfeSEflt ill student quarter '~ully rrm~gr~l'~ed into urban ,life. In order to !}:press. the rer,a'tmonship of universrly fabric 0 (-he town's publfc olJJldings, we P~OdUCM plan drawiilSl5 of th e oJd town ~n (he oon-v-entron of Ha ~istl NoWs Llwey of Home, Hele ~h@ public Ilfllteiiors of blJlrdings iliIre 9iVr~rl tne sa me SP2fti!3! cOltego ry alS! extelnaJ s[re:l?~S; and sqtJiJ'@S. Th@ f@su!lingl ~'gure·groLJnd e~l'r:eS$es a more parous and COf'fllp'e>li re!illt"o.nship between srreet and urban b'ork, and berween EHe un.v€! s~ty and tne'tawn,


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The purpOSr@ of the buUding is 'to provrde facll'i ies far pos:tgraduat.e srudsntste study in a gGod werking ennosphere. The !!;tudy centre is designed tc offer .a [h;air,e' ,('If en\lilfrORments~ cve[,loQk~ n; 'the Ahler (aim t silt! n 9 OUUidE!r Q n the bakony C) :steps. I (;l.~ 1(:] n g wwards SilVrl!r Street. sitting around a large tatbl~e'. chf)osing to be i5:olated under the lantern, relaxing' on a sofa or wcrk!ng in the dedici3lted ,C'omputE( rooms,

The si~e, a ~ong FI fJUOW Fe[t~ng le'~ I es b~"tw'ee.rn In@ eu rVI rof snv~r Strt~'e't Bind the Cam mi lip ool, Tn e c:oUege Tls.etf hi linear In plan. Ove:~ rime exlsril1Q bu~ld~n,gs were joined age her by new contnec:.ring bUilldlrng''s, The sit@ is th&!rerore the linear end Q; ill hnearr plan.

On the S!tre€1 slde he build ~ng is low iii n d e r"'H~rg'es from the 9>1:ijS 1:1 rl g. C IJ rved boundary W,f;I, Ill. On thE river side there are two 'stClreyS' of acccH'nmoda'tio.nj and wfthi n . h~s section eornpiner rooms iUS placed at ground-floor level al~ng the riverfrorr The minn

readi ng room ~s a spa ee thilt extends frern he g ro.und floc r to the first flOOir and everlco ks the wat:e,'(. rhJ~ gi'IJes the apponunit)l to 'P,ovl'~~ a va riety Crf study spac,es.

The 'nlencr of th~ b ultl din'g resem bles one llilu·ge plece of fUfntluFe-. Structure. claddlngrl wiIf.U]Ows. f10or5~ bookcases and furniture an~ all made of' oak_ The timber has different charac ,erlstlcs v~rrying from the dramatlc texture of shakes and spirts vis10le in the structure to the delicate refl nement or veneers In the flU rnitu reo

The dcm~nant aspe-L't of the in{rerior s~ce cernes

rom he geometry of the roof. The §trti'nght nne in the p1an, generated by the watefS!de and ecnoed by the deres 01~ .5 se against n cu vee w 11 which leads to SUver Slree The inside of the wallis lined with bQo~ and the rafters farming the roof reconcile the sttaighr nne to the curve and generate ar gentle threedimensional curved plan when seen In perspect ve.

Tn buUdlng Is constru 0 brickwork n English

lim used to avo movement n

jaJinis. The oak stru au re uses 'Sfctfo ns 0 - ~I $.Jze -har were only av~ilabJ,e "gr'een~ lor ul'1SeasQf!ea. AI~ht\ugh the timloelr was spedaHy cut arlld drU~d for the project, the moisturs oon'~'e!!nrt rH~"'eltheleSrs r'~mairr5 in 'the range' of 25 to 60 per C,E!I"I t i! I"lId the ~trucure will con ' nue to dry 'for swerall ~i3l r.s~ The lin1ber ,join[s, whrc::h trans e ~ofldbe,t.iI ring bew,eeh surfsaes U5e a s;ynem of s.tain _ less-steel rn eeha nita I fIxing s to' a i'l'o,w '[hem to. ,be tigh~f.ned as 'the 'timber dr,ie.s. Th e 021 k ,ra~JJ w,nl~h 'form the S IJ rh ce act compC:l!$.i't,~~V wid, ra double 'skin of plY'l'fID~d deck and pnwlde lifter al stability. The' ground flOID! ~s of nl 'U r,a I stone and' '~lier roors alre of nat Lna I '5JaU~1 and lead.

At the h~ad at the plan are £II s, room, a small 'Halt a no a dmber [Ianh~~!rn, To av~jcl the ILJ se of opening w~FiId~ws ron '~h e street side) the 'anrem opens and do!es au'o matircall~. providing CJos~-1Ji!nUJat\c.", 10, the f'@\fu::Ung areas.

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'Til e city or Ports mouth req u ~red a bUi I di ng tn iii t WOIJ Id prov'ide al sui!alb I f 'alnd mark to a pro minent co mer .5 i r.e In hs centre. The S,K e is partic.ularly visible when seen in persp~c::tiv~ from St MKhaefs Road. In addi r"n~ the

b lJild- ng ts to a II trdpa'te me re' conv,e rnionai fu L! re development of '[he White Swan car park to "e east The cJ'ty funh ~r req u ested rha t the heig h t of tine rH~W bu ilding she u I d crea te a tra n ij,rtioJ") betwee. n the

exls ing S ix- .storey un ive rsity b u Ud ~ngi:llnd the future . OUf-S o~ey' develo rnent on l he White Swan site.

The building is aliso an ealrly. oontribu[,ion tic he new rnastsrplan for th@ Univ@rsi'~ of Portsmouth, ,prepared by' Professor Sir Col i i"'I Sta n sfiel d S mi'~h! 'i n which '[he science depa,nmen s are 10 be consondaf@d here ,and on adjacer1[ sites, To this. end i'tt is "0 p ovlde an e;;tenslon to th@ existing S M~chaelrs Building.

U nli ke the adj a cen t freesta ndling King He'!"'I ry a I1d Sr Michael's; buildings, [he pro.posed in@w sclence building almost toltraUy loccupies lrs il'lJ'egular 5i~e. Also, unHke [he equivC3llenl facades of these nelghbol,Jr~f'l9 burk:Hngls. it pro'Vfdes distinct and diffilfrent elev,if ions, At he corner facing lhe jn[ers~ction at 51: Michael's Road and Ki!l1g R'chard I Sn@@'l, the curved facade acts als 5hi~ld to the noise of traffic and ttrJe .so.lJ'~h@riy exposure, Here the WI ndcwSi a r@ set t1 ush ina six-storey faca de of sllve r aluminium pllnels. whHe the :5'emicin::ular corner PIf"OW form s t he a nd rna rk and co ncea I s ttl e ex posed f1a n k of thf incompl@te S't Michael's BUI'lding, At ground le'ile~ ill pedesthan underpass cuts Into the corner srid forms a flat pa nel for thJEI bu i Idi ng s 19 n. This. closes. off th e 10 ng view afforded rnctortsts as they proceed north ~fong Sl Michael's React

Tn@ east elfiva ion facing the City car park xpresses the 5 uctu ra I ffa me and is fou r storeys h~g h. It fa rm 5 one SIde of a proposed pedestrian street which gives access to the main entrancJEI. At!, the 5t Michael'5 BlIildtng does oat have Ii! credlra bl~ front door. It ts

prc~osed halt this elll1fance will s.erve bc:nh buildings. Turning the carner rrrto W~ile Swan ROild the' acade ~~ re~afrvety n~utfaJ wim w~ndow.Si tOI the escape s al~rs. lit ~s' here that the lilft lobbies. illno corm@clions to St

M~ch ael~s 2! r~ P0:59t!onedr with na lu ria Ilig~l't ~ nd views to the UfI"Iited Se'tI'vices ptaying fie!ds to !he' soulhwe:s.t

111 e bu Udingl p.rellides accom rnodat,ion for [he

pile mlacy, p hysi'cs and research departm~fllts.. Wilh d'le excep ion 0' he lee .ure th~~re5 and the rarge 'leaching laboratories,. Which are acmmmodiHed In (n~ sem ~(j rcu~ar corner (20 metres in dram@it,er); the

rerne ,n ing sceornrn odatio n us. p!~ nn ed in ,a 1~S.5 spedfic a nd more ·~exible. mann er;

~n centrasr 0 'the, reJaflvely neutra~ cole IJrs of . he lexterlor (silVi~r, grrey. ~md b~ac:k) ~,e in' eriors are

fa n rmated by a. strong pOllyc .. romy. The palette of (OrOun ~'i resn'icted [0 pu b I ie area 5 ,0' the buj~d~ngl 10 rectLJIfe rheerres and ~':O aln~as or genera! ci~(u1a('jon.

111 ese [0 mbj ne te con ~ra st with the taboraron['!s and research rooms wf1.1cI"'I the dien reqllJe5ted she lJ'd be p~ rn ed whi e '. h ro ug'tiOlJ .


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F.rejus ls i ra~i'Hv expanding rown 0'1 : he C'~)'[~ d~Al:ur ir'l southern france~ The neee if'cJlli'ilI Lyce@ Po~yvall,enr was ldenti eo ~n response. to '[he ilncrea§rng population in

he area. The Iyc:ee provide! placei for 900 students and cornprlses specr8111sed rea,chi l1'g spa res as weill as Had fllenal classrooms.

The site !tradcUes a hil~ with 'fine vi@ws, out towards the sea and hU~li. The budding is I·near in farm, two !itQ,reys high and maximiseli 'the fine V~~S to the south, The I nte F'l:8 I a 1lT'2! ng@rne'r1 ties :a bJ ~she'$ a 5:( reef. w~~h a II dassrcorns op~nqn,g off It so (hat rt ls {he sedal focus for ~ he lycL?e. Ex rerna Ily_ the cui I dhi ~I ~:s rooted in the ~indsc:ape by he use or rree planting~ with the ~ree forms echoing me sweep of -he r~of.

The met 1ed of ventl'lilting rhe lbuikHng fn the hot eli miue relies ~ 111 ui~chrniCilue 5 fa rn Ul iii r frG m t~ad ~ti onsl Arab architecture. This led to the U$@' O'f a COrl(rete :5llructure' ro p rov[de therrna I mass ~n onje r 'to absorb

mperature varfi:nion'§. as well as 'to he choice G'J'F a buHchng erm thai would I nhsnce natural ve1-""la '·OR uSing a s ack e~ct, thus iil!vorc:ling the f1~@d to vl~nrlla[e the buihling mechanicaUy; tlie ~ofty internal street creates oil solar chrmney 00 lnduce d,e How o'f air. Tfaditional fealJLJIr'e5 as iJriSI!' !JIoJeit are also uS/Led ltlJ sh . de [he south elevation

Th requlremel1 for rapid censt ucrlon was m,~ by adopting a s;lmple r@peritive concrete filllime which p@rmitted thE! sequences of ccrtstrurnen to mllcw in lcgi~al phases. one arter another, to maac1mlse e'ffidenc:y. Wcnk began an 'site..n Sept mber 19~2 and was completed ~n August 1993~ lh~ ['OA'S rucnon pii'O~

ramme required the completion of the 2: 3: m If'e ~ng. 1 ~500m2 buildinq in less tha n 1;2 mont h5, By taking maXimum advantagE' of repetmen, nor only were construction costs reduced. but con strucucn nme w s also minimised The bu Ilding WEI§ completed

wah n he clients bud @ h nal construcnen cost

was 80 mmliG n fran a, 5 m illionalncs belmN me original budqet framework

The mial"erials for the buildiAS we·re chosen 0

res pond ro h~)c!ll cens·trualaJ n fechn iq yes a nd ell mi;BtJil. lh~ ewpo5ed Co ncrete strurni Fe ma kes IJSle aY rh e French . r,.m d'Ho n of good qu aH Y In situ O)ncr~le A me:ti,l-Faced ffa mework en d a spe.cia lIry pn~pafed COJl(r~r mi·>:: were used to ensure ,a hfgh standard 0 finish.

Planningl me b~ i I d i fig with a long (en :ralluee : IQI a ME!' the op.po,r tu n it")' fat the structure to rnmeine @(onomy w;th el,eg'aJ nc@ a nd speed a canst uction. ,de5I'f:e' b~ing lee t, d in an earthQuake r .gren. Through [he econnmles of repe idem. "t aUewed iii ser~es of modular s trucrura I units envelGI!l~lig " he d r"e~en't Inremal spaces [0. b~ d\uigned iU a C(jI1S[nJctiol'1 oos;r rnrnparable to that fur smaHersp21n structures, Each uni'[ cflnlains, .:l wu Ited ooncrr te rl1o,F J , e'~j wh rch u ses the !FuJI depri'1 ~: 'the vau~t tG 5ptlln d~rec.:tll'y en to coIlJf.f'1n:5,. The fiir~t'noor' is. ill regul r cenUiE'1i:@ nbbed slab, and columns are jo(.~nf!d only along he ~rn~et and tJlie extemaJ elevations,

TI"u: l.l ~e or- c-an(re·'~e gives. .111 hlg h diE!J'mai miilss and ra,d ~21 rI t cool ing m rh e btl Hd in9~ both of which are sign frll cain [ I:on tribu lions £0 [J1 e structu re's ~c~"~nergy pfli,r1tl pi ,Repetition 10 the med uf 51 allowed rna 11)1' U~$ to be- obtained from it !-ugh quallry ffmlm~wark. predu t:u' g e«eJ lEn !t:oncr,ete finfshes a~ an. ec:cnomi I::


Ttl e doub~e-slO~-l1ejgh ~ Cir1cLJ lar[IC:! n 5ipa ee aion g

[Me ~rFe 'r betw~~n the dassroom broc: s pfOvmles

I d ~ J [ In r.a!5lcfI h ~ I rner nal

vent'fl'ilIllon and iirltCWS ay!'rg v ,~

f; cades. The tree canopy h~!i v f1Iulii1 Ion fguvre I

wh lch a rl~ con [~eJ I'ed ['0 '" I1SU r ljjIend~d fl em air Ij~ dr[lwn from the street bY' rhe hem n ng fii ecr 01 rhe .5Lrri ~.n th "anopy tlhe~mosyphon e~cr) or by wind aC'~rort


Th! dassroo ms ,iii re ,ur.r} n ~ eel en ~lmel side of I.l"rte sue~'t Willh hugle .ad j,U SHi ble opening ~ r;tus q Pi the imerna·1 and e~ ['e'rm,l F;a cade 5 [Q pr(Miide (0 n [(IEdla,Qte natlJr,tillj vel'ui1a~ i 0 ri th r10u 9 h DIJlI 't hI! ye-in. J1he hig 11 c!;ilings iUlolt unwarnoo h8a1rl g&ll1o$ to '5'[ra[ify~ t'~e he~i[@dI a,ir tis'! fig to i h i"9l~ le""el. al~/ay fro m Ehe oa:UPled §p..!Ice. y.the~)e lt may be' ,~emO\l\KI by

~nTI a[iOI1l. A m itiil!~ outer roor IS provrded over rhe well·in~uliued CQn(rele roaf a nd the' ~nlr space' bel'\wen is ventilated to, redu(le rol'ar gains re",chlf!lg the Hnelior \ria U~ e fDOf.

MechaABCill vefr[Ua'[iO'n i $ ~ ~JOVI dec cnlf W~~~i! dic~a~ by 'Ehe room f\Jnc;tJion.1 foJ' e«am,h~, ~h kdchen5 ,.mInd labr.:H.Il ones, Wlhfere mequ. ~led b, he cherat ;sped-· fh:auicnl ,81~r rol1ldi~ -ofling ha,s bE'2f'1 prOVided ~1 irhil'1 rhe· hem:;!! a nd eeren n 9 ill fleas IHead r'l9 fer 1ih e build I ng i"s pKJt"j ded by a oonve nTio:nal rad riner synem wi( h gas'IWred bollel p~.a 1Il'[_ 11'1@ major ~Nrces, distiJilb IlJrion is loJ.a

hs IJI!l"l'deK(O ( and servrce cores; the I'H"ial senrice:s disUib l!J'I'ion is. ge ne,~~ny ce ~cealed I rill the loo! iii nd Iroor st rue UJfe5,






The opening ~f Hoben Gemoiil Un~versi:)'"5 FSEl..!!ll}I of Managlemer'll rnsrks {hie completion or the-first !i'~ilige of the lO-year plan to TeJcrate most of the universi'ty, currently hQIJ.I~€'d in efght SJeparalt,e teaching sltes, to a greenn~ld site on ~he! north bank of the River D@e. Foster and Parmers is respcnslble fer both he mast-erplan and the design crF' he' first new facul'l:y building'.

The majt:@rp~21n creates a I,ln~~r pedestrian street which connects [he' proprJ5ed facul'ty buHdin§5. The sit'e, is divided i!"1 0 'three zone'5: ca r paifki ng o '~he' north, a (en rra ~ zon e 'or bui~d ings and! PiJrkla no a n ~ wUdlif'e to the south, The ~(lsi~ion of thl! proposed fi3culty buildings, eorresponds ['0 nte old agrkLllrU.Hilll pattern of the east-west lin@ar sequence of 'fie~ds seDi!3rraled by hedgerows. Tin e masrerpl'a! n w n

str ngt'hen e)!rs~ing tree lines and enhance the microLJiman~ to benefit both the site and the people, lirvilng' on t;

The drama 'k sW@fiping proAle Gf the new fiu:::utrl:Y ~5 i1; response 1:0 the folUng [opiElgriphy of the land' Gn~ the e:tcl~ting r e [a napy. The 1 n l mlon wa 5 [0 halve $. I ilt [I ilmpac( as pcs5!1 ble en the surrounding areas af woodland. which shelter the 'she and conceal the developm ent from the roa d. The b uJ I d in.91 h as j c.onc::reu~ Frame Which terraces down the natural slope of tne S(te. The erraaes are ovel"SaU~d by iii II glhr tUNed ,oaf, censtructee of steel, bealmcS supported Gn slender steel columns w~ h a IIghlweig'l'1 se f-fimshed alumin um deck. The u;)of be&!ms proje.c1 beyond th~ buUd~ng envelope and terminate tn the landscape. Grani\ ('adding panels altern ling with Inflll panels of and g'as5 emphasise th structural from tha of the concret frame New Kemnay granl1 J the traditiona~ grani~e U9~ n the drc:h.t~ufe or

Ab@(d~ri\ wal5 dio5en to dafj the blJi~din g.

The un ~veFsl ty's a [cornm odl1l'li0P1 i Cllrranged on eid~u!( skh!' of a oentrall !tree'" When~' he s're,t , throug h ' ~H~ heert a ·th~ lbuil~j"g. a 'fou r .. storey- hig h atrium is Clreated~ nal'rlJr,a~~y Ii rom above vJa glaled rcoflllghu which occupy he 'lull width of the bUilding. Alii teiflching, Horary and affic,e areas ,He accessed 'from this s~reet~ offir::e iillnd catering s~illce to the norh and

e'achrng and Iibral!)' space m 'he sOlUtt,. A secondary ~,inear atrlurn runs perpendlt'JlJlar to the 5treet and mg~ther 'they provide the ftacuJ ty wilil~ most i'mpcr-

an'tly! an informa~ meeti 9 plaice whicn nrourages fln erection between students iiH1d staff, Th@¥ alse pf@vtee Entry and §@CLJrill 'roT [he buildmng arid a c0rridnr for access. '0' t~aching arleas The nUD main aCCe'55 poin s ~I!"no the street ii r by ,a I"Elcelsed r'Qur~'Sto(&1f~h i.9 h 9 ra2ed wal~1. Irrmerna I g~.aling IpnJv~d@'.5 50undprooflng 'or mt S;l3'Ff space and library. Sp.ace~, or student cornrnoe rooms are roc,uoo at th sot.JItliem end of th@ building O\ierlooking a winter g!1lraerl. which In tu,m OpS1U out on ~o the shaded e,xte rn ill I fer~cl!5 by me river.

low mlim1tenalnce. high quaUty ml'she§ wen~ cf105.~n throug heut 00 ensure d Ufa ~m~LY iii nd low

majn 'en;noe costs. A I[Ot1cep of prOb~ftive dados was devo8'lfJpe'd fun he[lvUy used illrea.5 SJU ch as the co rridors In baseii'1ent areas ~'!Ih~c.h have wans or aU'~faced tdcckwork. Oaisrooms: luve brockwo~k [0 a jeyel' (:I , metre above t'he' nnisru~d cor fO J:1rcvjd pro[«~fon where ilt ,5 i110n n eded. Sirn'i1a,li. rn pile panels ane us-ed in rhe ',braf)l and bltlluslrad~ ,e made 0 glaS'-§ wJ'th harndra~~s of nainleu ~;[e,~1 Thes~ ~ow mah:'itenillnc solutions weJi! r,jved T [h~ough rhe d~s~ coop (at on 10 th@ unwersl 's staff r.\!'i rh rhe de~rgn





The a irn of tl1e a rcnilecls has been to press rve E:he errvilllble context of rh [Is build [og, will i ',e provi di 1'19 the Fa(ulry. of law w~th a new focus. It includes, '[he Squire Law Library, five new audj!tori'a, seminar rooms. and cammon room's ,and ,adminis'LrcHlve offices and is do'.se to the' lnst! ute of Criminology. the univlE'niry Hbralry and pri ncipa I a rts fa cu rty buijding 5, Th e new bu~ I ding rs expres5i~~ of the un jJvers rl~ls desire to provfde the mas t up-to-date faci~rt]es for teaching and research.

FOUl storeys hrigh - wi h iii fur" ne two floors below ground le"JIel- rhe new buiklling does net i:n-rude in 0 [he @salblished s,kyline. However. it has a g.ravites approp ri erte to its fu n c'~io 1"'1. adi i,~ved by tn e use oJ

du fa b!e iii rid b.eautiful modem materia ~s.~ I n particu lar natural stOF'1@. The sjJngle rec angular pia' arm is drarmatrca Ily nerrnrnated with at diagonall cu EO respond be h to the form of the history faclJ~ty and to Ih~ fine trees on the Ilawn in front.

Nat urall I1g hr rs used to d ra rna lic effect., es pedirliy in u,@ library wh~'h occupies. the top Ihree wnere benefit IS taken of he fully gla2e!d nor 'h-'facilng elev,ati:on_ Workrng are s ~re designed to have V1eWS out over the g'i3rde'f1-S.

The ground Hoar contairns adlmini.strative offices i8rnd studies fo, stiff, The lowe r glro!J nd f1 oars are' ta ken 1.I P by auditorra, book stores and the student comrncn room. a nd a re lit n a urailly by mea ns of ,j3 fu I l-he ig h t atrium and struc u al glas'~ floors on the north @dge.

The l nt~nor 15 a I urninous and high IV ~'fficiE ru spa ee, unirfilE!d in th~m~ but carefuHy. c::ansider,~ in terms o.f h@ rarnge of a:ctivllies; r houses,

The (QrtCI"@'te ff oers 21 re enclesed abQve 'g ~ournd by . triangulated steel Vierend~e' structu re'j cyl indricall in sectl on, to wn icli ~h ~ cladding 5ysrem.s are fixed, tnis 'triangulalr 'ibrmalt j!l1!lOWS 'thE' reJOerf(ive use of srng~~ ,g'aze:G pa nel ~i~e and niS been d~~jOPM with VRM Anthony Hunt Associates to miu<imnse nruc[ura~ e:Hk~ency.

Ex'. rna Ily. the curved 'ayout of the l1(l)nh fa(~ de's structu Fa I sUricon 9'!ialzi ng de\i\el cps. iii to a 5,Ea inh:~)s-st~~l roof aI bove, If'1i1e' east and we:S,t facades are iIIh~o fin ished wi h gjass which is treeted to combat ,oJB1r heat gain and g~are. The wiest wall! forms a ,sinusoidil CiLI'lNe ~n plan - a function of the (iangular sIee.lwoli geom@,wy. The venicaj south facade is clad in re.constirumed Porrian d smn e reflecblll9 the solfd forml of th e exi st~n9 ra~sed faculty b!Jjld~ng' opposite, whi~e ~h~ ~aw faculty offices arE! dad w~ rh trans I UCe1'1lt 9 lazrngl WrEn dBlf horiZon ·,al v~$~on strips which ,11150 incorporate opening windows to provfde nit'lu~al vernili:rfiol1,

Ths ~aw faculty bundjng demonstrates [h~ prlinfre's strong interest in education. and embod,ie:s riJire IfIlfchitKU· concern to ereste humar1~ modem bufldklgS that respo nd p05il['ivQ1!l~y boih '0 [h ei r su rro U nding:s and the needs of an ef1ergjH~:ons(iau5 dfent.

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SA~NT-LEU UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF SC·-·_ EN::,,·IC .. ·· ·:·E·-S· .. · ..

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The unive il'IY buildings have been in'legr,a,tled wi h 'he canal .5YSlem of Am~lF!ns and heir d~:I;gn has been influenced by theilF proximity to he! city; lhe univers.u[y te'Xmnsion is care''.'IJUy n~jated to 'the scale e·r [he

5U rrou n ding he iJ ses i A footbridge '!il pans the Camilli des Minim,es, providing aecess 0 the comer of rue Edmond Fontai ne and ru@' ttJ es Archers.

The ent'rnncc€' ert CLJ'ites the 9fOU nd pia n. I t is

d irect~y co n nected to the tn re,e! m ale r (om ponen ['5 of the pmgrarnme: the teaching depal1l:rnents; the prat~1cal actiV11 iss buildtngi and' he research de pertments, The main buHding material is brrck, wh'ch is, t.radrUonall in Amiens.

The te'ach~n,g departmenlt$ ~u"e s.itui'ted imm.ediarl"ely off the vas ~ntrance n,;11 and run along [he rue des, Arc.hers, iliiongsid@ which a Gln~1 nas been bUilt linking hree ether exls ilng canid, in a loop, Three ~ectlJJre hans adjoin ,ne hall. The IS situated on [he grouAd fl(lor and the olhe~ two are on the u ppe r floliJ rand look, on te the hal! through a mezzanine Ill£I!vel which is aliso accessible via Ira rnns, Moving from' he entrance. a ga~lery provides access to all th ofiL~tit:.a1 courses via. a bridge strurture, The gallery irs dire.ctly connected' 0 the 'enu~1:!! ha~I§.The 1anguage II~boratories. whh::n

5 nd on piles so thal they can b cle'irrly seen rom the ~ntrance to the gafd~n, are hnke.d tol the tne-ore leal departments and the prac:tical departme'l"Its on the HIf5t floor.

The departments for practical acuvitres art! acces-

sib I·e from the menilll1 i ne in til ~ ha II a rl3a Cd rid alre housed In til wlng thai furlS paralileJ ItO -he tei!ch~rlg depa1r[men' 5. The two arms formed by. tt1is and the 'beich~ng depi!ilrlm@r'I'ts Rank i1iI large garde·n ~n the ~~is of 'the oomDosnlion th ey form w1th the enrali"!ce' han. There is a smalll ((3 IJnyard bet~n tii e hall i!II nd iRe ~angtudl,g~ laboratory wing d''lrouglh which th~ (anal des M~ n i rnes How.§.

The 0.uHding tha" houses the ~Qlog'Y r.::ollenion IS. sl alted on the ,ciEllmt~ near the hall; it adjoins. 'tne ga~den$,r thE' [cl,Jrtyam and a third g!3nden ln which [he store for da ngerous resea reo mi3flerialls i5 loc.a'tJE!d.

The f~e'a rrh buiJd fl"'lg, whic~ is also EI t:ceul cJ~ fro rn the 'entfan1ce hidl~ UrNS right along the 'peniosuJa' es fa r a's, ru e Si! irf -Leu Th e blo logy. ph,Y smCS an d chemistry depillnmen't5 are loca-ed, jn li1i'~ order, between the emrance ha~1 and rue Salli1[ Fach de~arEment has Us own s-ain::ase wnilf:lh p,mvrd·~s access fro m Th~ land~ciJlped aven ue a~orl Q the Calnal des Min lmes,

~n lJ e a}!~s of lhe I!OmposiI[on armed by the

entf n~e n~1I and rhe two ~ad"ling \Ning$~ a Ji)(ge a5phil~[ed squiired, el( ,ent:ied by a '~nds,aped garden, is " ",~,ed by 'three' hans, of r srden~e; _hese are aCCE!)51ble from rue des Clalirofls and wJU be bull' rn th~

secen ~ ph as e ,

ThIs rs 131 co mp'e:.; In whJdl (0 IJ~ [yards, pllS6age$.,

gardens ilnd wiiI,lkwaY!I: play an Imporlan[ rele Th~y ale thE means by which [he breiilme5

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Du III f,€ onei

This proj~Ct ccnsists of an extenslcn to the' 9thcentury P'arsons Building si uated at the sou he,astern corner of Trinity Co~le'ge campus, It accornmodates highly serviced laiboralwries and w(Hkshops. with Blncmary seminalr rocrns and offices. The 1i:)r1ief WiillS comple)(1 in .errns Q'~ ,spec'me condltlens required for each of [he individual workipace5.

The stte on this h~5toric tarnpus is sensitive In that it is dired~'Y visible from 'the m'alin body of the campus, and the project lnveived mlking a connectlon 'to ,the ~xi~ti ng bu ild. ng. While [he' m a in geometry of the campus is on:hogonall~ the grilni e Parsons. lBuillding sal aione, elevated. at an i3lngle to J15. !ij,unroundings. The intention of this, scheme was ["0 acknlCJIINledge the

his ory and local geometries of tn@ site, (,l?sotv1e the functiona~ requilr,ements, and aHow the department 'to have a formal presence on the campus ..

ThE' scheme creates a heavy stone base whrt:h houses the bulk of ~he workshops and the eng~neeringl laooratorie'S. The base is dad in robust Wicklaw glraln~lef with sand and cement lPointing.linea~ windows. cut into rhis gran~te base have 11:1 double Ilayer lin order to abstract and imeglralte them mto lli e skin. lne roof or this space forms a podium and ferecourt [0 Pario,ns Building. RootlighlS in the podium i'l~uminale the workshops, oo1ow and react to the rhythm of the win dews in ~he

o,rtg~na,1 building. ,1\ tube element ~c. B alOOve tile' podium a'no nouses the' fluids. clii"td acoustic engineering laborfJitory. This space IS mnf-lit. and has soudl-Jadng slit wwndO'Ws and a corO@f ,eyeT The alignment 0' the cube nnks into "ne 'FOrmal geemEm~y of the mtl1i1rh c_ampu~ The cube ls dsld in a dar~ reDective basalt ~ava which fS open jojnted. The imaterial was chosen to give e'l(llr~s!)icn to 'he gro'ny na 'lire elf the brief.

Two e)i;is:Ung mature llme [J,'!,e-~ are ret~irl€df. forming alii ~$sel'nral part IO'f the landsc,ape charaeter of '-he proj~c"t. Amphitheatre-type S(1!lP~ togemer with ,a

s,lopi ng grass sward. con n~ct w,tth the uees .. The rcil ised cube~ Parsons BIU iJding and tJhe Mo lime ErI@S now foi'if"M p~rt olf i new endes ure. Th5~' hr,ee ,eleme.nts - me' ne-w,r th E' o~d a nd til e org anic ~ [/Ealn@' ill new place Within the wall!!! of the uniVErsi'ty. The status or he crigiilla~ front deer [0 Parsons BuiJd'ng' is ~eifllfoJ(edJ and i~ now accessed by m,eans of ill gl:EBnct stepped rCllmp whh:n replace.s the ojej slep) 10, til ~ blJ~kHng.

At taller element - [he bock end - ~nr,~d,ed wn iii ~ighry polished p~gmented pf:aster. med~ates belWeen the 'Scale of the denta' 1'105pi{£1iI 10 0 ne s.ide and the ~ma,lIer scare buirclf1Q1s at die w~srem end of the site,. tt houses the' semina! F rooms and ~ts ~~lIj 5JM~l1Ig meta r door arid lifting beam allow fer deliveries to the

glrou nd- and !.I ppe r~froor 'abor,i:n.ori~s.


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