By, K.Nagendra 06S11A0421

Why worry about power? --Heat Dissipation
Microprocessor power Consumption

. Reduced weight. Low cost operation High Performance: Low-cost cooling. Reduced volume.Why we go to Low Power. Low-cost operation RELIABILITY: Avoid thermal problems Avoid scaling related problems . Low-cost packaging. PORTABILITY: Enhanced run-time.

Speed/Power performance for available Technologies .

Where Does Power Go In CMOS ‡ Dynamic Power Consumption : Charging and Discharging Capacitors ‡ Short Circuit Currents : Short circuit path between supply rails during switching ‡ Leakage: Leakage diodes and transistors Ptotal = PDYN + PSC + PLeakage =CLVDDF+VDDIPEAK{(Tr + Tf)/2}F+VDD ILEAK .

Dynamic Power Consumption L dd 2 Energy/transition = C * V .

CL ‡ Power dissipation is data dependent Function of switching activity .Dynamic Power Consumption ‡ Power = Energy / Transition * transition rate = CL* V 2 * f dd ‡ So. f . power is proportional to Vdd .

« ‡ Further decreasing may cause affect to Threshold voltage ‡ Relatively independent of logic function and style. 3.2. 1.0.8. 1. 1.Reducing Vdd ‡ Power P is proportional to square of V ‡ VDD has decreased in modern processes ± High VDD would damage modern tiny transistors ± Lower VDD saves power ‡ VDD = 5. ‡ By reducing Vdd Noise margin will be affected . 2. ‡ Power Delay Product Improves with lowering Vdd.

VOL ‡ NMH = VOH .Noise Margin ‡ NML = VIL .VIH .

Power Consumption is Data Dependent Ex: Static 2 i/p NOR Gate A B Y A B Y 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 P(A=1) = ½ P(B=1) = ½ Then P(out=1) = ¼ P(out=0) = 1-P(out=1) =1-1/4 = ¾ P(0->1) = P(out=1).P(out=0) = ¾ * ¼ = 3/16 .

Transition Probability of 2-input NOR Gate .

2Pa * Pb)) (Pa + Pb 2Pa * Pb) Switching Activity for Static CMOS P0 -> 1 = P0 * P1 .Transition Probabilities for Basic Gates P0 -> 1 (1-Pa * Pb) Pa Pb AND (1-Pa)(1-Pb)(1-(1-Pa)(1-Pb)) OR EXOR (1-(Pa + Pb .

? Clk In1 In2 In3 Clk Mp Out CL PDN  Power is only dissipated when out=0  Ceff = P(out=0) * CL Me Two phase operation Precharge (CLK = 0) Evaluate (CLK = 1) .How about Dynamic Circuits..

2 input NOR gate A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 1 0 0 0  Switching activity is always Higher in Dynamic Circuits P(A=1) = ½ P(B=1) = ½ P(out=0) = ¾ Ceff = ¾ * CL .

Transition Probabilities For Dynamic GATES P0 -> 1 AND OR (1-Pa * Pb) (1-Pa)(1-Pb) EXOR (1-(Pa + Pb .2Pa * Pb)) Switching Activity for Precharged Dynamic Gates .

. ‡ Glitching often arises when paths with unbalanced propagation delay converges at the same point in the circuit.Glitching« ‡ Glitching refers to spurious and unwanted transitions that occur before a node settle down to its final steady-state value. ‡ The dissipation caused by the spurious transitions can reach up to 25% of the total dissipation for some circuits.

 No glitching in dynamic circuits .Glitching in Static CMOS  Each gate has Unit delay  Input A. B. C arrive at same time.

? .How to Cope With Glitching..

‡ In static CMOS circuits the flow current from VDD to GND during Switching when both NMOS and PMOS conducting Simultaneously. ‡ Such path never exists in a dynamic circuits.Short Circuit Currents ‡ Short circuit currents are encountered only in static design. .

5 0.0 1 1.0 1.15 NMOS sat PMOS sat NMOS res PMOS sat IV D D ( m A ) 0.05 NMOS res PMOS off 2 .5 NMOS off PMOS res NMOS s at PMOS res 2 0.10 1 1.0 5.5 2 .0 V in (V) 4.0 2.5 0.Short Circuit Currents Vdd Vo u t Vin CL Vout 2.0 3.5 Vin 0.5 0.

Impact of rise/fall time on ShortCircuit Currents V DD V DD V in V out CL V in V out CL Large Capacitive Load  The input through the transient region before the output start to change Small capacitive Load  Output fall time is Substantially smaller than the input rise time .

‡ Short-Circuit reduced by lower the Supply Voltage. .Short-Circuit energy as a function of slope ratio ‡ Short-Circuit energy dissipation (normalized with respect to zero i/p rise time energy) for a static CMOS. ‡ The power dissipation due to short circuit currents is minimized by matching the rise/fall times of the input and output signals.

Leakage Vd d Vo u t D ra in J u n c tio n L eak ag e S u b -T h r e s h o ld C u r ren t Sub-Threshold current Dominant factor S u b -T h r e s h o ld C u r r e n t D o m i n a n t F a c t o r .

 Reduce switching activity  Reduce physical capacitance Vin =5V P s ta t = P (In =1 ) .V d d . I s t a t m inates o ver d yn am ic c on su m p tion .Static Power Consumption Vdd  Dominates over dynamic consumption Istat Vout CL  Not a function of Switching Frequency.

large amounts of power are wasted while the system is in idlemode.System-Level optimization : Power Management ‡ In event-driven application. . ‡ The power consumption can be reduced significantly by using power management scheme to shunt down idle component.

‡ As leakage current cannot be reduced. ‡ The power dissipation due to short circuit currents is minimized by matching the rise/fall times of the input and output signals ‡ Glitching makes power to dissipate so it is reduced by cope process .Conclusion ‡ Thus the low power can be achieved by decreasing Vdd to certain level. the short circuit currents are eliminated by dynamic circuits.

Allen.Aprill 1992´. . ‡ VLSI Design Techniques for Analog and Digital Circuits ±Randall L.RABAEY ‡ Encyclopedia of computer science and technology. ‡ Low-Power CMOS Design ³IEEE journal of solid state circuit -pages 472-484. ‡ Basic VLSI Design A. Phillip E.PUCKNELL.1995.References ‡ Digital Integrated Circuits ±JAN M.Geiger.


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