AMITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE LEARNING Post Box No.
503, Sector-44 Noida – 201303 Principles and Practices of Management Assignment A Marks 10 Answer all questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What were the Hawthorne experiments? What effects did they have on the Management practices? What steps can an organisation take to increase the motivational force for high levels of performance? Explain briefly various Management Functions. What is the basis for saying that planning is the most crucial management function? Discuss. Explain the MBO Process. Elucidate the relationship between planning and control.
Assignment B Marks - 10 Answer all questions. 1. 2. To whom do you think is performance appraisal more significant to the organization or to the individual? Justify. Comment on the statement “Delegation of authority is the key to organization”. Discuss the advantages of delegation in the light of this statement.
3. What are the challenges faced by the professional managers in the contemporary Indian industrial set up? 4. Case study: Please read the case study given below and answer questions given at the end.
NO COMMISSIONS ALLOWED
When Mr.Ram Bansal took over the handbag department at RK & Company New Delhi, he established several important goals for the department. One was to increase sales without increasing the number of salespeople or the way they were paid. Unlike some retail supervisors, Mr.Bansal was not in a position to use commissions to reward improved performance. All his employees were paid a straight wage without commissions and all members of the staff were union led. He also wanted to improve customer service and employee satisfaction. This arrangement offered few motivational options and had a negative effect on employee attitudes. In other departments of the company, customers were often shown a dressing room “cop” who asked how many garments were included and gave them the appropriately coloured tag. The original sales clerk rarely appeared for additional customer service. Many sales people in the company were painfully aware of the lack of personal commitment to their job and customers. One employee commented, “There’s a lot of talk about increasing customers.” Mr.Bansal knew he had to make some changes in order to improve the sales production in the department. His first step was to give full-time employees their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. He also increased the responsibility of the sales staff for managing their own inventory and their own line of merchandise. Any sales person who needed information was encouraged to offer the buying staff suggestions, was encouraged to talk with buyer of handbags. Previously, the sales staff had felt they were not supposed to talk to buyers. Every week, Mr.Bansal brings the staff together for a meeting. At these meetings, he emphasizes the importance of customer service and reviews any change in departmental policies and procedures. He also encourages employees to discuss problems and ask questions. These meetings provide Mr.Bansal with an opportunity to publicly recognize the accomplishments of employees. QUESTIONS 1. What motivational need did Mr.Bansal satisfy for his full-time employees? 2. Discuss these needs with reference to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. 3. Mr.Bansal achieved significant productivity gains because of a positive change in employee’s attitudes. What motivational strategies did he use to achieve this success?
Assignment C (Objective Questions) Tick Marks (√) the most appropriate answer. Marks – 10 1. Decreasing the role of subordinates in decision-making is known as (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. Decentralisation Stabilization Centralization Organization
Which of the following refers to the flow of information among people on the same or similar organizational levels? (a) (b) (c) (d) Diagonal Upward Horizontal Downward
Which of the following is a question that needs to be answered in job analysis? (a) (b) (c) (d) What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish? What qualifications are needed to perform the job? When is the job to be completed? All of the above.
________ refers to the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs or actions of other individuals or groups. (a) (b) (c) (d) Power Responsibility Delegation Discipline
Which one management function helps maintain managerial effectiveness by establishing guidelines for future activities? (a) (b) (c) (d) Organizing Planning Staffing Leading
Which is not a leadership theory? (a) (b) (c) (d) Trait theory ERG theory Contingency theory Transactional theory
Which is an esteem need?
(a) (b) (c) (d) 8.
Basic pay Safety regulations Prestigious office location Training
What interview is comprehensive, and the interviewer encourages the applicant to do much of the talking? (a) (b) (c) (d) Unstructured Structured Stress Directive
What are the typical products of job analysis? (a) (b) (c) (d) Job descriptions and job specifications Work standards Work schedules Desired financial incentives
In Basket Technique is used in (a) (b) (c) (d) Production Marketing Training Accounting
Key result areas are usually terms as (a) (b) (c) (d) Objectives Missions Goals KRAs
Which one is not a stage of Group process? (a) (b) (c) (d) Forming Norming Welcoming Performing
MBO was first suggested by (a) (b) (c) (d) F.W. Taylor Henri Fayol Peter F. Drucker Watson
Which managerial function gives attention to influencing and motivating employees to improve performance and achieve corporate objectives? (a) (b) (c) (d) Leading Organizing Staffing Controlling
Job Evaluation is a technique which aims at: (a) (b) (c) (d) Establishing fair and equitable pay structure Analyzing of requirement of updating technology Assessing safety requirement of jobs Improving productivity
Which is an advantage of decentralization? (a) (b) (c) (d) Encourages decision-making Easy to have uniform policy Greater Control Decreases complexity of coordination
Performance review is done to (a) (b) (c) (d) Reward work done Focus on areas requiring improvement Giving appropriate feed back to individuals All of the above
The general conclusion of the ‘Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments’ was that employees would work better if the management were concerned about their welfare and superiors paid special attention to them. This phenomenon was subsequently labeled as the _________ (a) (b) (c) (d) Relay effect Hawthorne effect Behavioral effect Human effect
19. Which is not a way to overcome the initial resistance to change in organizations? (a) (b) (c) (d) 20. Education and Communication Group inertia Participation and involvement Negotiation and agreement
Management of change refers to (a) (b) (c) (d) Help people to adopt to the change Changing people Change the organization structure Change the top management
Requisites of effective supervision are (a) (b) (c) (d) Technical knowledge of the work Managerial knowledge Knowledge of rules & regulations All of the above
According to Herzberg and his associates ______ are job content factors which lead to job satisfaction? (a) (b) (c) (d) Motivators Hygiene factor Context factors Physiological factors
The establishment of a distinct area, unit of subsystem of an organization over which a manager has authority for the performance of specialized activities and results is termed_______ (a) (b) (c) (d) Centralization Departmentation Decentralization Functionalization
Democratic leadership is also know as _________ leadership. (a) (b) (c) (d) Autocratic Participative Bureaucratic Laissez-faire
A/an ________ is a vital tool for providing information about organizational relationships. (a) (b) (c) (d) Organizational chart Functional chart Organizational model Functional model
Which control principles suggests that managers should be informed about a problem only when the data shows a significant deviation from established standards? (a) (b) (c) (d) Management by waling around Management by objectives Management by goals Management by exception
Line Managers are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Supervisors Staff authorities Managers with authority to direct operations in their spheres of activity Production & Marketing Managers
When an employee asks a question or reports a problem to his or her supervisor, this is an example of which direction of communication? (a) (b) (c) (d) Grapevine Lateral Downward Upward
You have decided to send a message to your supervisor requesting vacation time. You brainstorm some basic concepts and now must decide how to phrase this information for your supervisor. You are at which of the following steps in the communication process? (a) (b) (c) (d) Sending Receiving Encoding Decoding
Group decision-making has certain advantages over individual decision-making. Which of the following statements is not true with regard to group decision-making? (a) (b) (c) (d) It allows pooling of knowledge and information It’s a source of personnel development It discourages risk taking It’s time consuming and costly
The idea that workers look for meaning in their work and will actively seek out new responsibility is most consistent with which of these needs identified by Maslow? (a) (b) (c) (d) Safety Social Self-actualization Physiological
A manager’s posture during a communication with a colleague is an example of which aspect of the communications process? (a) (b) (c) (d) Decoding Non-verbal behavior Informal channel The grapevine
The organization chart is a way of showing (a) (b) (c) (d) How the tasks of an organization are divided and co-ordinated The informal patterns of communication The stakeholders who have an interest in the company The physical layout of the buildings on a site
When a manager secures the agreement of a colleague to work on a project in return for the promise of providing the colleague with some extra remuneration, what type of power is he or she exercising? (a) (b) (c) (d) Expert power Coercive power Referent power Reward power
______ spans of management create ____________ structures with many levels of management. (a) (b) (c) (d) Wide ; tall Narrow ; tall Wide ; unpredictable Narrow ; flat
Which of the following is not one of the steps identified as part of the controlling process? (a) (b) (c) (d) Setting performance standards or goals Measuring performance Writing the reports Taking corrective action
According to Herzberg, which of the following can be classified as a motivator? (a) (b) (c) (d) Working conditions Pay Supervision Recognition
Which of the following refers to changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating and satisfying? (a) (b) (c) (d) Enlargement Rotation Enhancement Enrichment
The tendency to place the primary responsibility for one’s success or failure either within oneself or on outside forces is referred to as (a) (b) (c) (d) Authoritarianism Emotional stability Locus of control Extroversion
______ is a process whereby companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it. (a) (b) (c) (d) TQM Continuous improvement Benchmarking Empowerment _____________________________