3G Technologies Overview

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems Multiple Access Methods
FDMA TDMA

CDMA p t
Power

Code n Code 3 Code 2 Code 1

f

Marconi Wireless

Depiction of GSM Technology UNITED NATIONS COCKTAIL PARTY
TS2 TS1 TS3 TSn ni haw

F1>

TS4

F2>

MoshiMoshi Mabuti

F3>

F4>

Kamusta?

Marconi Wireless

Depiction of CDMA Technology UNITED NATIONS COCKTAIL PARTY F1
MoshiMoshi ni haw SAM! OVER HERE! Gud’ Day, Mate

Wats up?

ENGLISH

ASIAN

EURO Mabuti

OK! Kamusta?

NOISE FLOOR FILIPINO

Marconi Wireless

Cellular System Evolution Technology Roadmap

1G
Asia/Pac Americas Europe
NMT TACS

2G
GSM

2.5G
Phase II+ GPRS EDGE ? IS-95B?

3G
(W-CDMA)

UMTS

EDGE?
Cdma2000 (1xRTT,3xRTT) EVDO/EVDV

AMPS NAMPS

CdmaOne D-AMPS

IS-136+

(EDGE Compact)

IS-136 HS

Japan

JTACS

PDC

W-CDMA

INODE

Marconi Internal Use Only Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems
CDMA 2000 Phase 1 1xRTT SR1
- Carrier FORWARD LINK
1 2 3

REVERSE LINK
1 2 3

f

CDMA 2000 Phase 2 3xRTT SR3

1

2

3

f

UMTS FDD

f

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems
ITU – International Telecommunications Union Program – IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000) Goals Local (Stationary) rates > 2 Mbps Limited Mobility rates > 384 Kbps Full Mobility rates > 144 Kbps Numerous proposals were submitted and led to two partnership projects 3GPP – 3rd Generation Partnership Project UMTS (FDD, TDD) 3GPP2 – 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 CDMA 2000 and related technologies Air Interface Selected by ITU UMTS FDD, UMTS TDD, CDMA 2000, EDGE/UWC-136
Fast Fact: 25 UMTS Networks Commercially launched 5M Subscribers

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems
1G Technology Multiple Access AMPS FDMA

- CDMA Evolution 1G to 3G
2G IS-95A CDMAOne CDMA 2.5G IS-95B HSPD CDMA 3G 3G IS-2000 IS-2000 CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1XRTT 3XRTT CDMA CDMA HPSK/QPSK HPSK/QPSK (Spreading (Spreading Modulation) Modulation) 1.25MHz (grouped 1.25MHz x 3 by 1 on reverse (grouped by 3 on link) reverse link)

Modulation

FM

QPSK

QPSK

Carrier

Users/Carrier Packet Data

Features

Services

1.25MHz 1.25MHz Variable - Freq. Variable - Freq. Reuse = 1 appx. Reuse = 1 appx. (34CH/Site(34CH/Site-Carrier 80 Voice and Data 200 Voice ad Data 1 Carrier Typical) Typical) -Typical - Typical 153.6Kbps (RC3), None None 64Kbps 307.2Kbps (RC4) 1 Mbps (RC9) Digital Modulation, Privacy, Soft Enhanced Coding, Analog Handoff Packet Data QoS Enhanced QoS 14.4Kbps Ckt Data, Increased 2.4K Data / Fax Capacity and 64K Packet Data (requires modem) Quality WAP, Internet High Speed Data High Speed Data

30KHz

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems
2G Technology GSM Multiple Access TDMA Frequency Range 450 Band 450.4-486 (UL) 460.4-467.6 MHz (DL)

- GSM Evolution to 3G
2.5G GPRS TDMA 850 Band 824-849 MHz (UL) 869-894 MHz (DL) Standard 900 Band 890-915 (UL) 935-960 MHz (DL) Extended 900 Band 880-915 MHz (UL) 925-960 MHz (UL) GMSK 200 KHz 270.833 Ksps 9.05 - 21.4 Kbps/ts Frequency/TS 2.5G/3G ? EDGE TDMA 900 Band 876-915 MHz (UL) 921-960 MHz (DL) DCS 1800 Band 1710-1785 MHz (UL) 1805-1880 MHz (DL) PCS 1900 1850-1910 MHz (UL) 1930-1990 MHz (DL) 8-PSK/GMSK 200 KHz 270.833 Ksps 384 Kbps Frequency/TS 3G UMTS FDD DS CDMA IMT-2000 Band 1920-1980 MHz (UE) 2110-2170 MHz (NB) PCS 1900 Band 1850-1910 MHz (UE) 1930-1990 MHz (NB) PCS 1800 Band 1710-1785 MHz (UE) 1805-1880 MHz (NB) QPSK (Spreading) 5 MHz 3.84 Mcps 384 Kbps / 2Mbps Static Code

Modulation Channel Spacing Symbol/Chip Rate Data Rate Planning

GMSK 200 KHz 270.833 Ksps 9.6 Kbps Frequency/TS

Features

Digital Modulation

Adaptive Modulation Load Based / Packet Bandwidth on Demand and Coding Scheduler/ QOS

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems
3GPP Technology Multiple Access Carrier Spacing Chip Rate Modulation Data Spreading Frame Structure (slots/frame) Length (ms) Chanelization Codes UMTS FDD DS-CDMA FDD UMTS TDD DS-CDMA TDD CDMA2000(1X) 3GPP2 CDMA2000(3X) EDGE

DS-CDMA / MC-CDMA DS-CDMA / MC-CDMA TDMA 200KHz 5MHz (200KHz Raster) 5MHz (200KHz Raster) 1.25MHz 3.75MHz (600KHz,2.4MHz) N*1.2288 Mcps 3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps 1.2288 Mcps (N=1,3,6,9) UL: Dual Channel QPSK / DL: QPSK QPSK 15 10 OVSF

QPSK QPSK 15 10 OVSF

UL: BPSK / DL: QPSK UL: HPSK / DL: QPSK 16 20 Walsh: 128 Quasi Orthogonal Functions Yes

UL: BPSK / DL: QPSK UL: HPSK / DL: QPSK 16 20 Walsh: 256 Quasi Orthogonal Functions Yes

8-PSK/GMSK

8, 16, 64 4.615

Synchronous

No

No

Yes

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems

3rd Generation Systems
BSS

- GSM to UMTS Transition

UE User Equipment UTRAN

BTS
Base Transceiver Station

MS
Mobile Station

BSS

BTS
Base Transceiver Station

Node B

Node B

2G GSM BSC
Base Station Controller

NSS MSC

VLR HLR AUC

NSS

MSC

2.5G GSM BSC + GPRS
Base Station Controller

Radio Network Controller

3G UMTS RNC RNC
Radio Network Controller

VLR HLR SGSN AUC GGSN

Core Network VLR HLR SGSN MSC AUC GGSN

Internet PSTN

Marconi Wireless

UMTS Functional Description Mixed 2G and 3G Network
GGSN
IP

Gn

Gn

2G MSC/VLR Core Network UTRAN A

Gs

2G SGSN Gb 2G BSS

Gn

3G SGSN Iu 3G RNC Iu

3G MSC/VLR

Air Interface

UE

Marconi Wireless

UMTS Functional Description Relationship of Physical Layer Functions by Specification

25.214 procedures Physical layer procedures control

25.215 measurements

25.224 procedures

25.225 measurements

control

25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels 25.213 Spreading and modulation 25.212 traffic Multiplexing and Channel Coding

25.221

25.223

traffic

25.222

FDD

TDD

Marconi Wireless

Marketing Information 2.5/3G Data Rates Enable a Wide Range of Services
6XRTT
2M
Broadcast Video Conference (High quality) Remote Medical Service (Medical image) Database Access Services Distribution Services

3XRTT384K 1XRTT HSPD 64K
Transmission Speed 32K 16K
Internet

Video Conference (Lower quality)

Video Catalog Shopping

Video on Demand: Sports, News Weather ISDN Karaoke

Image Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates Mobile TV

Voice Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates Mobile Radio

Electronic Newspaper Electronic Publishing

Pager

2G
9.6K 2.4K 1.2K Bi-Directional BiTelephone (Voice)

Voice Mail

Data Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates

E-Mail

Fax

Key: Image Data Voice

Uni-Directional UniPoint-to-Point Point- to-

Multi-Cast MultiMulti-Point Multi-

Source: NTTNote: Data rates shown are maximums (e.g. fixed applications). Data rates decrease as mobility speed increases. Marconi Wireless

Marketing Information Global Market Deployment Update
Europe, Middle East & Africa Country Operator Date
Austria Austria Austria Belguim Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Greece Ireland Ireland Ireland Isle of Man 3 May-03 mobilkom austria Apr-03 T-Mobile Proximus VIPnet Eurotel 3 EMT TeliaSonera Orange SFR O2 Vodafone T-Mobile E-Plus Telestet COSMOTE 3 Vodafone O2 Manx Telecom Dec-03 May-04 May-03 Feb-03 Oct-03 Sep-03 Dec-03 Feb-04 May-04 Apr-04 Feb-04 Apr-04 Jun-04 Jan-04 May-04 Oct-03 Jul-04 Dec-03 Dec-01
Italy 3 Vodafone TIM P&T Luxembourg Tango Monaco Telecom KPN Mobile Vodafone Vodafone TMN Mobitel Mar-03 Feb-04 May-04 Jun-03 May-03 Jun-01 Jul-04 Feb-04 Feb-04 Apr-04 Dec-03 Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Service Launched 3 website Vodafone website TIM website P&T Luxembourg web site Tango web site Monaco Telecom website KPN Mobile website Vodafone website Vodafone website TMN website Mobitel website Telefónica Móviles España website Vodafone website 3 website Vodafone website Tele2 website Etisalat website 3 website Vodafone website T-Mobile website Orange website

Status
Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Service Launched Trial Trial

More Information
3 website mobilkom austria website T-Mobile website Proximus website

Italy Italy Luxembourg Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands

Eurotel website 3 website EMT website TeliaSonera website Orange website SFR website O2 website Vodafone website T-Moblie website E-Plus website Telstet website COSMOTE website 3 website Vodafone website O2 website Manx Telecom web site

Netherlands Portugal Portugal Slovenia Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden UAE UK UK UK UK

Telefónica Feb-04 Móviles España Vodafone Feb-04 3 Vodafone Tele2 Etisalat 3 Vodafone T-Mobile Orange May-03 Feb-04 Jun-04 Dec-03 May-03 Feb-04 Feb-04 Jul-04

* Source: UMTS Forum www.umts-forum.org
Marconi Wireless

Marketing Information Global Market Deployment Update
Asia Pacific Country
Australia Hong Kong Japan Japan Malaysia Malaysia Singapore South Korea South Korea

Operator
3 3 NTT DoCoMo Vodafone K.K. Telekom Malaysia Maxis SingTel KTF SKT

Date
Apr-03 Jan-04 Oct-01 Dec-02 Jul-03 Mar-04 Sep-03 Dec-04 Dec-04

Status
Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched

More Information
3 website 3 website NTT DoCoMo website Vodafone K.K. website Telekom Malaysia website Maxis website SingTel website KTF website SKT website

* Source: UMTS Forum www.umts-forum.org
Marconi Wireless

Industry Bodies Trade Associations
• • • • • UMTS Forum – http://www.umts-forum.org/ GSM Association – http://www.gsmworld.com/index1.html CDMA Development Group – http://www.cdg.org/ GSM Suppliers Association – http://www.gsacom.com/home.html Universal Wireless Communications Consortium – http://www.uwcc.org/

Marconi Wireless

Industry Bodies Standards Groups
• 3GPP – UMTS FDD and TDD – Standards Development – http://www.3gpp.org/ 3GPP2 – cdma2000 – Standards Development – http://www.3gpp2.org/ 3GIP – promoting all-IP solution for 3GPP Release 2000 – Mobile Wireless internet Forum – IP Core Network – http://www.3gip.org/
Marconi Wireless

Industry Bodies Radio Regulatory
• • • • ERO (EU) European Radio Office – http://www.ero.dk/ FCC (USA) Federal Communications Commission – http://www.fcc.gov/ ITU International Telecommunications Union – http://www.itu.int/ RA (UK) Radiocommunications Agency – http://www.radio.gov.uk/

Marconi Wireless

Industry Bodies 3GPP Member Organizations
• • • • ARIB (Japan) Association of Radio Industries and Businesses – http://www.arib.or.jp/arib/english/ CWTS (China) China Communications Standards Association – http://www.cwts.org/english/index.php ETSI (EU) European Telecommunications Standard Institute – http://www.etsi.org/ T1 (USA) – Creates network interconnections and interoperability standards – http://www.t1.org/ TTA (Korea) Telecommunications Technology Association – http://www.tta.or.kr/ TTC (Japan) Telecommunications Technology Committee – http://www.ttc.or.jp/e/

• •

Marconi Wireless

UMTS Systems Overview

SYSTEM OVERVIEW
General Definition UTRA Mode of Operation Spectrum Characteristics Architecture Interface Channels Spreading and Modulation Codes Frames Handover Power Control UMTS Standards

General UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
3GPP Specifications and reports by themselves have no legal standing. It only becomes official when published by the partner organizations. ETSI – UMTS ARIB/TTC - FOMA UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) • Air Interface is W-CDMA (Wideband-CDMA)
– – – – Chip Rate is 3.84 Mcps Channel Spacing is 5 MHz Channel Raster is 200 KHz UTRA Mode of Operation FDD – Frequency Division Duplex TDD – Time Division Duplex – TX-RX Separation FDD (25101-3b0 subclause 5.2a) is 190 MHz FDD (25101-3b0 subclause 5.2b) is 80 MHz

Marconi Internal Use Only

General UTRA Mode of Operation
FDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions use two separated radio frequencies. In the FDD, each uplink and downlink uses the different frequency band. A pair of frequency bands which have specified separation shall be assigned for the system. TDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions are carried over same radio frequency by using synchronised time intervals. In the TDD, time slots in a physical channel are divided into transmission and reception part. Information on uplink and downlink are transmitted reciprocally.

* Source 25201-340 Marconi Internal Use Only

General Spectrum - UE
1900 1920
Unpaired 20 MHz Paired uplink 60 MHz

1980

2010 2025
Unpaired 15MHz

2110
Paired downlink 60 MHz

2170

2200 MHz

• FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)
– Uplink: 1920 – 1980 MHz (60 MHz) – Downlink: 2110 – 2170 MHz (60 MHz)

• FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) – Region 2 (USA)
– Uplink: 1850 – 1910 MHz (60 MHz) – Downlink: 1930 – 1990 MHz (60 MHz)

* Node B frequency Band is just the reverse
Marconi Internal Use Only

General Spectrum - UE • TDD (Time Division Duplex)
– Uplink/Downlink: 1900 – 1920 MHz (20 MHz) – Uplink/Downlink: 2010 – 2025 MHz (15 MHz)

• TDD (Time Division Duplex) – Region 2
– Uplink/Downlink: 1850 – 1910 MHz (60 MHz) – Uplink/Downlink: 1930 – 1990 MHz (60 MHz)

• TDD (Time Division Duplex) – Region 2
– Uplink/Downlink: 1910 – 1930 MHz (20 MHz)

Marconi Internal Use Only

General FDD - UE Characteristics
Transmitter
Power Class 1 + 33 dBm 2 + 27 dBm 3 + 24 dBm 4 + 21 dBm Power Control The UE shall have the capability to change the output power by 1, 2, or 3 dB step size TPC Command 1dB step size 2dB step size 3dB step size L U L U L U +1 + 0 .5 + 1.5 +1 +3 + 1.5 + 4.5 0 - 0.5 + 0.5 - 0.5 + 0.5 - 0.5 + 0.5 -1 - 0 .5 - 1.5 - 1 -3 - 1.5 - 4.5

Receiver
Reference Sensitivity Level The BER shall not exceed 0.001 Parameter Level DPCH_Ec -117 dBm/3.84 MHz Ior -106 dBm/3.84 MHz

Marconi Internal Use Only

General FDD – Node B Characteristics
Transmitter
The Node B shall have the capability to change the output power by 1 dB mandatory and 0.5 dB optional TPC Command 0.5 dB step size 1 dB step size L U L U 1 + 0.25 + 0.75 + 0.5 + 1.5 0 - 0.25 - 0.75 - 0.5 - 1.5

Receiver
Reference Sensitivity Level The BER shall not exceed 0.001 Channel Data Rate 12.2 Kbps Level -121 dBm

Marconi Internal Use Only

General Q&A

• What are the two UTRA mode of operation? • What is the UMTS uplink and downlink UE frequency range and TX-RX separation for USA? • What is the chip rate for UMTS?

• FDD, TDD • UL: 1850-1910, DL: 1930-1990, 80MHz • 3.84 Mcps Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS ARCHITECHTURE

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture General Architecture
IP GGSN HLR PSTN IWF

Gn

SGSN

MSC/VLR TC Iu

Core Network UTRAN RNC

RNC

Node B cells

Node B

Node B

Node B

Node B

UE

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture General Architecture

Non-Access Stratum (NAS)
GC Nt DC GC Nt DC

L3 Upper L3 Lower
end AS entity

Access Stratum (AS) end AS entity Relay
GC Nt DC GC Nt DC GC Nt DC GC Nt DC

RRC L2/L1 UE

Uu Stratum (UuS)

RRC L2/L1 UTRAN

Iu Stratum

Radio (Uu)

Core Network Iu

* Source 25301-3b0
Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture General Architecture
The figure shown is a high level architecture of UMTS. The architecture is depicted in terms of its entities. The three main entities are: UE (User Equipment) UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) CN (Core Network) The high level functional groupings are: AS (Access Stratum) Pertains to the protocols specific to the access technique. Examples of which are: coordination of radio resources, protocols for transferring radio information, etc. NAS (Non Access Stratum) Refers to core network related signaling and services.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture General Architecture
Node B
Radio Network Controller Mobile Switching Centre Gateway MSC

PSTN

UMTS SIM

Terminal Equipment

AIR INTERFACE

Node B

RNC

MSC/VLR

GMSC

USIM

TE

Home Location Register

HLR

UEs

Node B Node B

Radio Network Controller

Serving GSN

Gateway GSN

RNC

SGSN

GGSN

Packet Network

UTRAN
Marconi Internal Use Only

CN

Architecture General Architecture
UE (User Equipment) The user’s radio terminal used to access the UMTS system via the UMTS air interface USIM (UMTS Subscriber Identity Module) – similar to GSM SIM that holds subscriber specific information such as subscriber number, encryption keys, and services (applications) available. Terminal Equipment – User’s human interface to the radio network where high level applications can be displayed and accessed. UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) UTRAN provides radio coverage, radio management, and access point to the core network RNC (Radio Network Controller) – Similar to BSC in GSM and CDMAOne, it provides radio management of radio resources and Node B management (ie. Alarms). It serves as the access point to the Core Network Node B – Radio Base Station. It provides radio coverage on the UMTS system

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture General Architecture
CN (Core Network) Provides switching functions of user traffic to other UTRANs, to the fixed circuit switched network, or packet switched network (Internet). It holds all UMTS subscriber database (HLR,VLR). MSC (Mobile Switching Center) – Switch for circuit switched information and services. GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Center) - Switch and interface to the external circuit switched network (ie POTS) SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) – A router for packet switched information and services GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) – Gateway to external packet switched networks HLR (Home Location Register) – A database that holds a master copy of the subscriber’s profile. VLR (Visitor Location Register) – A database that holds a copy of visitor subscriber’s profile.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture OSI Protocol Layer Stack

L7
PRESENTATION APPLICATION SESSION

L6 L5 L4

PRESENTATION APPLICATION SESSION

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

L3
NETWORK NETWORK

L2
DATALINK DATALINK

L1
PHYSICAL PHYSICAL

A
Marconi Internal Use Only

B

Architecture Radio Interface Protocol Architecture
Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information

OSI L3
Network Layer

Radio Resource Control (RRC)

Radio Link Control (RLC) L2
Data Link Layer

Logical Channels Medium Access Control (MAC) Transport Channels

L1
Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture Radio Interface Protocol Architecture

end to end session Mobility Management L2 Radio Resource Control L2 Radio Link Control Layer 1 Physical

Appli

Appli

CN

MM

MM

RRC RLC L1
Radio interface

RRC RLC L1

UTRAN

UE

Node B

SRNC

SGSN VLR

Destination

Marconi Internal Use Only

Architecture Q&A

• What are the three main entities of UMTS and briefly explain their functions ? • When we speak of logical channels, where exactly are these channels on the protocol architecture ? Transport channels ?

• UE, UTRAN, CN • L2; between RLC and MAC, Between L2 and L1 Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS INTERFACES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces General
- ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

ATM is commonly used as the transport network layer for UMTS. The transport network layer can be IP or ATM but if IP is required, then it will be IP v6 due to improved QoS. ATM is the layer 2 (data link layer) connection across the network. N : 2

Higher Layer Protocols

ATM Adaptation Layer ATM Layer

Data Link Layer

1

Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces General
- ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

ATM Service Classes
ATM Adaptation Layer Bit Rate Connection Mode
AAL 1 AAL 2 AAL 3 AAL 4 AAL 5 Constant Variable Variable Variable Variable Connection Oriented Connection Oriented Connection Oriented Connectionless Connectionless

UMTS network uses AAL2 for synchronous connection based service and AAL5 for asynchronous connectionless service.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
UE
Uu Iub Iu Air Interface

Uu Interface between the RNC and the Node B. NodeB Interface between the RNS and the Core Network Iub
Iucs Iups

RNC
Iu

Iur

RNC

Iur

Interface between RNCs.

Core Network

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iu-cs (circuit)

•AAL5 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane RANAP

User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane
Q.2630.1

Transport Network User Plane

SCCP MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5

Q.2150.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 AAL2

ATM Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iu-ps (packet)

•AAL5 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane RANAP

User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane
SCCP M3UA MTP3-B SCTP SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 IP

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

GTP-U UDP IP AAL5

ATM Physical Layer

ATM Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iur
A point-to-point logical connection between any two RNCs within the UTRAN.

RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) – Signaling protocol used across the Iur

•AAL5 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane RNSAP

User Plane Iur Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane
ALCAP(Q.2630.1)

Transport Network User Plane

SCCP MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 M3UA SCTP IP

STC (Q.2150.1)

MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5

M3UA SCTP IP AAL2

ATM Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iub
The logical interface between the RNC and Node B.

•AAL5 •AAL2 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Control Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane

Radio Network Layer

Node B Application Part (NBAP)

PCH FP

TFCI2 FP

RACH FP

USCH FP

FACH FP

DSCH FP

CPCH FP

DCH FP

ALCAP Q.2630.1
Q.2150.2

Transport Layer

SSCF-UNI
SSCOP

SSCF-UNI
SSCOP

AAL Type 5

AAL Type 5

AAL Type 2
ATM

Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces Q&A

• What are the two ATM service classes used by R99 version of UMTS ? • What are the five main interfaces ?

Marconi Internal Use Only

• AAL2, AAL5 • Uu, Iub, Iur, Iups, Iucs

UMTS CHANNELS

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels
Control Channels Traffic Channels

Logical

BCCH

PCCH

DCCH

CCCH

CTCH

DTCH

Transport

BCH

PCH

CPCH

RACH

FACH

DSCH

DCH

Physical

P-CCPCH

S-CCPCH

PCPCH

PRACH

PDSCH

DPDCH DPCCH

SCH

CPICH

AICH

PICH

DPCH

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Abbreviations
Logical Channels BCCH – Broadcast Control Channel PCCH – Paging Control Channel DCCH – Dedicated Control Channel CCCH – Common Control Channel CTCH – Common Traffic Channel DTCH – Dedicated Traffic Channel Physical Channels P – CCPCH – Primary Common Control Physical Channel S – CCPCH – Secondary Common Control Physical Channel PCPCH – Physical Common Packet Channel PRACH – Physical Random Access Channel PDSCH – Physical Dedicated Shared Channel DPDCH – Dedicated Physical Data Channel SCH – (Primary and Secondary) Synchronization Channel CPICH – (Primary and Secondary) Common Pilot Channel AICH – Acquisition Indication Channel PICH – Paging Indicator Channel DPCH – Dedicated Physical Channel DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control Channel

Transport Channels Common BCH – Broadcast Channel PCH – Paging Channel CPCH – Common Packet Channel RACH – Random Access Channel FACH – Forward Access Channel DSCH – Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated DCH – Dedicated Channel

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Definitions*
Common Transport Channel types: Random Access Channel (RACH) A contention based uplink channel used for transmission of relatively small amounts of data, e.g. for initial access or non-real-time dedicated control or traffic data. Contains control information such as a request to setup an RRC connection. Common Packet Channel (CPCH) A contention based channel used for transmission of bursty data traffic. This channel only exists in FDD mode and only in the uplink direction. The common packet channel is shared by the UEs in a cell and therefore, it is a common resource. The CPCH is fast power controlled. Forward Access Channel (FACH) Common downlink channel without closed-loop power control used for transmission of relatively small amount of data. Downlink channel than can carry control information to known terminals in a cell or used for transmission of small amount downlink packet data. It may support slow power control. Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) A downlink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data.
* Source 25301-3b0
Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Definitions
Uplink Shared Channel (USCH) An uplink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data, used in TDD mode only. Broadcast Channel (BCH) A downlink channel used for broadcast of system information specific to the UTRA or a cell. Paging Channel (PCH) A downlink channel used for broadcast of control information into an entire cell allowing efficient UE sleep mode procedures. Currently identified information types are paging and notification. Another use could be UTRAN notification of change of BCCH information. Dedicated transport channel type: Dedicated Channel (DCH) A channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink. An uplink or downlink channel dedicated to one UE. It carries all user information (speech, data, etc.) and can support variable bit rate and service multiplexing with closed loop power control and supports soft/er handoff.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Definitions
Logical Control Channels Control channels are used for transfer of control plane information only. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) A downlink channel that transfers paging information. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the UE, or, the UE is in the cell connected state (utilising UE sleep mode procedures). Common Control Channel (CCCH) Bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between network and UEs. This channel is commonly used by the UEs having no RRC connection with the network and by the UEs using common transport channels when accessing a new cell after cell reselection. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network. This channel is established through RRC connection setup procedure. Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH) Bi-directional channel that transmits control information for uplink and downlink shared channels between network and UEs. This channel is for TDD mode only.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Definitions
Logical Traffic Channels Traffic channels are used for the transfer of user plane information only. Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) A Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) is a point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user information. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) A point-to-multipoint unidirectional channel for transfer of dedicated user information for all or a group of specified UEs.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Definitions

Downlink Physical Channels Channels CPICH (Common Pilot Channel Spreading Factor 256 Primary 256 Secondary 256 256 Primary 256 Secondary 256 - 4 Primary 256 Secondary 256 AICH (Acquisition Indicator Channel) PICH (Paging Indicator Channel) 256 256 Channelization C,256,0 Arbitrary C,256,1 Scrambled ?? Primary Scrambling Code Primary or Secondary Scrambling Code Carries the BCH Carries the FACH and PCH Used in Cell Search Downlink Slot Synch Downlink Frame Synch reception of PRACH preambles Carries Paging indicators Always associated with S-CCPCH Pure Data Channel Pure Physical Channel Function Phase Reference Other information

CCPCH (Common Control Physical Channel)

SCH (Synchronization Channel)

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Q&A

• What are the three different classifications of channels in the access stratum? • Through which physical channel do you get system control information ?

Marconi Internal Use Only

• Logical, Transport, Physical • P-CCPCH

UMTS SPREADING and MODULATION

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation General
The UTRA modulation scheme is QPSK. Pulse shaping is specified in the TS 25.100 series. With CDMA nature the spreading (& scrambling) process is closely associated with modulation. In UTRA different families of spreading codes are used to spread the signal: For separating channels from same source, channelisation codes derived with the code tree structure as given in TS 25.213 and 25.223 are used. For separating different cells the following solutions are supported. * FDD mode: Gold codes with 10 ms period (38400 chips at 3.84 Mcps) used, with the actual code itself of length 218-1 chips, as defined in TS 25.213. * TDD mode: Scrambling codes with the length 16 used as defined in TS 25.223. For separating different UEs the following code families are defined. * FDD mode: Gold codes with 10 ms period, or alternatively S(2) codes 256 chip period. * TDD mode: codes with period of 16 chips and midamble sequences of different length depending on the environment.
Marconi Internal Use Only

-

Spreading and Modulation General

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Channelization and Scrambling
Symbol Rate Source Chip Rate Modulator RF RF Demodulator Chip Rate Symbol Rate Out

X
(OVSF) Spreading Code

X

X

X

(PN (Gold)) Scrambling Code

(PN (Gold)) Scrambling Code

(OVSF) Spreading Code

• Transmitter - The symbols (user information) are applied to a spreading code - The spread signal are then applied to a scrambling code - The resulting chip-rate signal modulates the transmitter • Receiver - RF and demodulator recovers the signal - the same scrambling code de-scrambles the received signal - the spreading code de-spreads the signal, recovering the original symbol-rate source information

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Uplink
cd,1 DPDCH1
cd,3 DPDCH3
cd,5 DPDCH5 βd

βd

βd

Σ

I

cos(ωt)

Sdpch,n I+jQ
cd,2 βd
Complex-valued chip sequence from spreading operations

Re{S} S
Split real & imag. parts

Pulseshaping
Pulseshaping

DPDCH2
cd,4 DPDCH4
cd,6 DPDCH6
cc DPCCH βc

S

Im{S}

βd

-sin(ωt)

βd

Σ

Q

One DPCCH and up to six parallel DPDCHs can be transmitted simultaneously
j

* Based on 25213-380
Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Uplink
Each physical channel is separated into its so called “I” and “Q” branches. The real-valued symbol data on each physical channel is spread using OVSF codes,
Cd,n.

For DPDCCH and

DPCCH, the binary value "0" is mapped to the real value +1, while the binary value "1" is mapped to the real value –1. The spreading process results in two things. First, it increases the bandwidth of the input data symbol by the chip rate. The number of chips per data symbol is called the spreading factor (SF). Second it makes each channel unique from a single source (UE). After channelization, the spread signals are weighted by gain factors βc . The stream of real-valued chips from both the I and Q branches are then combined (summed) t form a complexvalued stream of chips, I + jQ. The complex-valued signal is then scrambled by a complexvalued scrambling code for transmission.
Sch,n.

The scrambling process is necessary to uniquely define the UE

from the system. After spreading, it goes to the modulator and its corresponding RF sub section

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Downlink
I Any downlink physical channel except SCH

S → P

Sdl,n I+jQ S

Cch,SF,m Q

S
j

Different downlink Physical channels

G1

G2

Σ
P-SCH GP

Σ

(point T in Figure 11)

cos(ωt) Re{T} Complex-valued chip sequence from summing operations T Split real & imag. parts Pulseshaping Pulseshaping -sin(ωt)

S-SCH GS

Im{T}

* Based on 25213-380
Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Downlink
A serial to parallel operation is performed for each input pair of two consecutive real-valued symbol. The even numbered symbols are mapped to the “I” branch while the odd numbered symbol goes to the “Q” branch. The I and Q branches are then spread using real-valued OVSF codes. The spread I and Q branches are then combined and treated as a single complex-valued sequence. After spreading, the complex-valued sequence is scrambled by a complex-valued scrambling code. Each complex-valued spread and scrambled channel is weighted by a weight factor Gi . All downlink physical channels are combined using complex addition and is modulated using QPSK. The spreading process uniquely defines each channel in a cell while scrambling identifies the cell from other cells.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Q&A

• What is Dual Channel QPSK ? • What is the channelization code (spreading process) of the synchronization channel ?

• In the uplink, the “I” and “Q” branches carry separate data channels • None. SCH is a pure physical channel. It does not go through the channelization process Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS CODES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Synchronization Code
The Synchronization Channel (SCH) is used in cell search procedure. It allows the UE to initially synchronize to the Node B. Synchronization is done in two steps, slot synchronization and frame synchronization. Primary SCH The primary synchronization code (PSC) allows downlink slot synchronization in the cell. PSC is common to all cells and is transmitted on every slot at the start of a timeslot. length = 256 chips duration = 66.67uS Secondary SCH The Secondary SCH consists of a modulated code known as Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC). SSC allows the UE to acquire frame synchronization and provides information on which code group the cell is using as its downlink primary scrambling code. Cs i,k where i = 0..63 (scrambling code group number) and k = 0..14 (slot number) length = 256 chips duration = 66.67uS

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Synchronization Code

P-SCH

Cp
256 chips 66.67µs

Cp

Cp

S-SCH

Cs i,0
2560 chips 666.7µs

Cs i,1

Cs i,14

slot # 0

slot # 1

slot # 14

SCH frame 10 mS

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Spreading
- Channelization Codes

Channelization Codes
• Channelization codes have orthogonal properties of variable length used for Uplink Used to separate the physical channels from one UE. It allows the UE to simultaneously transmit multiple physical channels. Downlink -Used to separate the channel set of a cell • OVSF – Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor The code length is directly related to the the spreading factor (SF) and depends on the channel and the bit rate required by the service
FDD Uplink : 256 – 4 Downlink: 512 – 4 TDD Uplink: 16 - 1 Downlink: 16 - 1

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Spreading
- Code Tree Generation for OVSF

Cch , 2, 0  Cch,1, 0 =  Cch , 2,1  Cch,1, 0

Cch,1, 0  1 1  = − Cch,1, 0  1 − 1   

 C ch , 2 ( n+1), 0   C ch , 2n , 0  C  C ch , 2 ( n +1 ),1   ch , 2n , 0   C ch , 2 ( n+1), 2   C ch , 2n ,1     C ch , 2 ( n+1), 3  =  C ch , 2n ,1   :  :    C ch , 2 ( n+1), 2 ( n+1)−2  C ch , 2n , 2n −1  C ( n+1) ( n+1)  C n n  ch , 2 , 2 −1   ch , 2 , 2 −1

C ch , 2n , 0  − C ch , 2n , 0   C ch , 2n ,1   − C ch , 2n ,1   :  C ch , 2n , 2n −1  − C ch , 2n , 2n −1  

• •

The OVSF matrix can be built by replicating and inverting Faster symbol rates require shorter OVSF codes

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Spreading
Cch4,1 Cch2,1
1 1

- Code Tree Generation for OVSF

1

1

1

1

Cch8,1 Cch8,2 Cch8,3 Cch8,4 Cch8,5 Cch8,6 Cch8,7 Cch8,8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1

1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1

1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1

1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1

1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1

1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1

1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1

Cch512,1 Cch512,2

Cch4,2 Cch1,1
1

1

1

-1

-1

Cch4,3 Cch2,2
1 -1

1

-1

1

-1

Cch4,4

1

-1

-1

1

Cch512,511 Cch512,512

Cch2,1
spreading factor number code tree branch number

Higher rates

Lower rates

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Spreading
- OVSF Code Usage

If a short OVSF code is used such as in 384K data channel, the branches (descendants) after the chosen code cannot be used. This greatly reduces the number of physical channels available on a cell

C ch ,4 ,0 = (1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ) C ch ,2 ,0 = (1 ,1 )

I

US N

E

C ch ,4 ,1 = (1 ,1 ,-1 ,-1 ) C ch,1,0 = (1 )

C ch ,4 ,2 = (1 ,-1 ,1 ,-1 ) C ch ,2 ,1 = (1 ,-1 )

C ch ,4 ,3 = (1 ,-1 ,-1 ,1 ) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

√ √ √

x x √ √ √ √ √

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Scrambling
Uplink
• All uplink physical channels are scrambled using a complex-valued scrambling code. • The DPCCH/DPDCH may be scrambled by either long or short scrambling codes • There are 224 long and 224 short scrambling codes Long codes - complex-valued Gold codes from a long sequence 224 of 38400 chip segments codes available: 16,777,216 code length: 38,400 chips Short codes - a sequence from the family of periodically extended S(2) codes. codes available: 16,777,216 code length: 256 chips

Downlink
• A total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling codes, numbered 0…262,142 can be generated but not all are used. Only 512*16 = 8191 codes are used. • There are 512 (0..511) sets. Each set consists of primary codes and 15 (1..15) secondary codes associated with each primary code • The primary CCPCH, primary CPICH, PICH, AICH, AP-AICH, CD/CA-ICH, CSICH and S-CCPCH carrying PCH are always transmitted using the primary scrambling code

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Scrambling Code
- Downlink

Marconi Internal Use Only

Spreading and Modulation Q&A

• How is the channelization code differ in the uplink and downlink ? • How do you generate the OVSF code tree ? • For higher data rate, what should be the size of the channelization code ? • How many primary scrambling codes in the downlink ?
• Uplink: separate channels from one UE; Downlink: separate channels from a cell • • small • 512 Marconi Internal Use Only

Frame Uplink / Downlink Superframe (72 frames)
Tframe = 720ms

Tslot = 666.7µs = 2560 chips Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 14

10 ms frame
Radio Frame: A radio frame consists of 15 slots with a frame length of 38400 chips. Slot: The length of a slot is 2560 chips. Power control: 1500 per second

Marconi Internal Use Only

Frame Timing Relationship
The SCH has two sub channels and are transmitted in parallel The SCH, CPICH, CCPCH, and PDSCH have identical frame timing The S-CCPCH timing offset is always a multiple of 256 chips from P-CCPCH The DPCH timing offset is always a multiple of 256chips from P-CCPCH The PICH timing is always 7680 chips prior to SCCPCH P-CPICH S-CPICH P-CCPCH
n*256chips 7680 chips

- Physical Channels
Primary SCH Secondary SCH

P-CCPCH S-CCPCH

PICH

PDSCH
n*256chips

DPCH

Marconi Internal Use Only

Frame DPDCH
DPDCH Data Ndata bits Tslot = 2560 chips, Ndata = 10*2k bits (k=0..6) DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits Tslot = 2560 chips, 10 bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits

Uplink Structure

I/Q code multiplexed with complex scrambling code

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Time multiplexed with complex scrambling

DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits

DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits

DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits

DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits

Downlink Structure
Slot #0 Slot #1

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..7)

Slot #i One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Marconi Internal Use Only

Frame DPDCH
UPLINK
SF 256 64 12.2 3.4 32 28.8 3.4 16 12.2 64 3.4 16 57.6 3.4 8 12.2 144 3.4 4 12.2 384 3.4 User bit rate (Kbps) Multiplexed Services DPCCH AMR speech DCCH 28.8 Modem DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Fax DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Transport Format Always Convolution coding

- Symbol Rates and Services
DOWNLINK
SF 512 256 128 12.2 3.4 64 32 28.8 Modem 3.4 12.2 64 3.4 32 16 57.6 3.4 12.2 144 3.4 8 12.2 384 3.4 DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Fax DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI AMR speech DCCH CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Convolutional coding User bit rate (Kbps) Multplexed Services Transport Format

Marconi Internal Use Only

Frame Q&A • How many power control groups in one frame ? • Name the physical channels that have identical frame timing ? • To achieve 384Kbps downlink data rate, what should be the size of the spreading factor ? For 144Kbps ? AMR speech? • How many primary scrambling codes in the downlink ?
• • • • 15 P-SCH, S-SCH, CPICH, P-CCPCH, S-CCPCH, PDSCH 8, 16, 128* 512 Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS HANDOVER

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Introduction
UE tracks cells/sectors in two main cell sets: Active Set All UTRAN cells involved in soft or softer connection on a UE. Monitored Set / Neighbor Set contains all cells that the UE is monitoring which are not in the active set but have potential for handover (soft, softer or hard handover) Two measurement Reporting Modes Event Triggered - measurement report sent by the UE when measurement reporting criteria are met Periodical – Periodic measurement report sent by the UE
Event Triggered Periodical

Node B

Node B

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Causes
Uplink/Downlink Signal Measurements This is the standard cause for the soft handover algorithm. It is also a valid handover method for hard handover. Distance Distance between UE and the Cell Location Actual location of the UE Quality BER, BLER

1%

Cell Topology Cause This cause will be used for hard handover between two frequencies (FDD to FDD or UMTS to GSM)
UMTS - f1 UMTS CITY UMTS - f2 GSM SUBURBS

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Reporting Events
Intra-Frequency Events (MEHO) Handoff between cells in the same WCDMA carrier Event 1a: Cell (P-CPICH) enters the Reporting Range 10*log10MNew =< W*10*log10(∑Mi) + (1-W)*10*log10MBest – (Rla – Hla/2) Event 1b: Cell (P-CPICH) leaves the Reporting Range 10*log10MOld =< W*10*log10(∑Mi) + (1-W)*10*log10MBest – (Rlb – Hlb/2) Event 1c: A Non-active cell (P-CPICH) becomes better than an active cell (P-CPICH) When a non-active cell becomes better than the worst active cell in a full active set. It is used to replace the worst cell. Event 1d: Change of best cell Event 1e: A cell (P-CPICH) becomes better than an absolute threshold + Hysteresis (optional) Event 1f: A cell (P-CPICH) becomes worse than an absolute threshold – Hysteresis (optional)

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Reporting Events
∆T
Measurement Quantity CPICH 1

∆T

∆T

As_Th + As_Th_Hyst

AS_Th – AS_Th_Hyst

As_Rep_Hyst

CPICH 2

CPICH 3

Time Event 1A ⇒ Add Cell 2 Event 1C ⇒ Replace Cell 1 with Cell 3 Event 1B ⇒ Remove Cell 3

Cell 1 Connected

1
>>>

2 3
Marconi Internal Use Only

UE HEADING >>

* Based on 25922-370

Handover Handover Reporting Events
Measurement quantity P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2 P CPICH 3 P CPICH 4
Reporting event 1C Reporting event 1C

Time

A primary CPICH that is not included in the active set becomes better than a primary CPICH that is in the active set
Measurement quantity P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2

P CPICH3

Reporting event 1D

Time

A primary CPICH becomes better than the previously best primary CPICH

* Based on 25331-3c0
Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Reporting Events
Measurement quantity P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold

P CPICH 3
Reporting event 1E

Time

Event-triggered report when a Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold
Measurement quantity P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold P CPICH 3

Reporting event 1F

Time

Event-triggered report when a Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold

* Based on 25331-3c0
Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Modes
• • - Intra-frequency Handover

Mode CBA - Advanced mode of operation, with UE cell dominance functionality Mode CFE - Basic mode of operation using threshold levels. This has no UE cell dominance functionality

• • •

Mode BA - Variation of Mode CBA Mode CB - For non-mobile operation such as WLL Mode CF - For non-mobile operation such as WLL

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Reporting Events
Inter-Frequency Events (NEHO) Handoff between cells on different WCDMA carrier Event 2a: Change of best frequency Event 2b: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold AND estimated quality of the non-used frequency is above a certain threshold Event 2c: Estimated quality of the non-used frequency is above a certain threshold Event 2d: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold Event 2e: Estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold Event 2f: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Reporting Events
Inter-System Events (NEHO) Handoff between different radio access technologies such as for WCDMA and GSM or between different radio access modes such as between FDD and TDD Event 3a: Estimated quality of the currently used UTRAN frequency is below a certain threshold AND the estimated quality of the other system is above a certain threshold Event 3b: Estimated quality of other system is below a certain threshold Event 3c: Estimated quality of other system is above a certain threshold Event 3d: Change of best cell in other system

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Types
Softer Handover Softer (intra-cell site) handover entails data splitting/combining operations inside the Node B. The Node B supports the splitting function in the downlink and Maximal Ratio Combining in the uplink

Radio Network Controller

Soft Handover Soft (inter-cell site) handover is mainly transparent to the Node B

Radio Network Controller

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Handover Algorithm
- Soft Handover
Begin

Meas_Sign > Best_Ss – As_Th – as_Th_Hyst for a period of ∆T Yes

No (Event 1B)

Remove Worst_Bs in the Active Set

Meas_Sign > Best_Ss – As_Th + as_Th_Hyst for a period of ∆T No

Yes (Event 1A) Active Set Full Yes No

Best_Cand_Ss > Worst_Old_Ss + As_Rep_Hyst for a period of ∆T No Yes (Event 1C) Add Best BS in Active Set and Remove Worst Bs from th Active Set

Add Best_Bs in the Active Set

flow-chart of a Soft Handover algorithm

* Based on 25922-370

Marconi Internal Use Only

Neighbour Cell Neighbour list
Intra frequency The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells within the same WCDMA carrier Inter frequency The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells total on two WCDMA carrier Intersystem A maximum of 32 inter frequency neighbours must be supported

Marconi Internal Use Only

Handover Q&A • What are the two measurement reporting modes ? • Name at least two that causes a handover ? • What intra-frequency handover mode that has cell dominance functionality ? • What handover type done at the Node B level ?

Marconi Internal Use Only

• • • •

Event, Periodic Quality (BER/BLER), Distance CBA Softer

UMTS POWER CONTROL

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control General
Power control ensures that all users (BSS and UEs) in the system transmits and receives just enough power to send/receive data. This is very important as it minimizes the interference in the system. Without precise power control, CDMA technology will not work.

Power Control
Open Loop The uplink open loop power control involves both the UE and the UTRAN. It requires parameters being broadcast by the cell. Closed loop The closed loop power control is for losses due to Raleigh/Rician (fast) fading, interference level variation (e.g. loading, VAF, etc.), and other losses. It aims to maintain a minimum transmit power from the UE for a desired quality of service. Inner - fast power control for UL and DL - once every power control group = 1500 times per second - addresses the near-far problem - The outer loop takes into account changing requirements in SIR with respect to long term QoS or average erasure rates

Outer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control
ACCESS Power Open Looplist Neighbour (PRACH) Control

- Uplink

Preamble Initial Power
PRACH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + UL_required_CI + open_loop_constant
Preamble

∆Pp-m ∆Po ∆Po

Message

time 4096 chips 4096 chips 4096 chips 10 ms

∆Po (deltaPo) – Power Step (UE) ∆Pp-m (deltaPpm) - Power offset between the preamble and the message part PreambleMaxRetrans - max PreambleTransmissions in one ramping cycle NbOfRampingCyclesMax – max number of ramping cycles

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Open Loop Power Control
1.

- Uplink

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

UE determines RACH from the BCH UE selects a sub-channel and one of the signatures UE measures downlink power and sets the initial power level UE sends up the 1ms preamble UE waits for the AICH with the correct response – preamble is sent in next slot if no response is received UE sends the 10-20ms message part of the RACH

DPCCH Initial Power
DPCCH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + SIRDPCCH - 10*log10(SFDPCCH) Parameter CPICH_Tx_Power CPICH_RSCP UL_interference UL_required_CI Source System Information UE Layer 1 System Information System Information Source Parameter Cpich Power measured at UE measured at node B ul initial target per service type per SF dBm dBm dBm dB Unit

Marconi Internal Use Only

Uplink closed loop power control operation UE-UTRAN
RNC
Oute rloop PC
inne r loop S IRta rge t TP C

QE, CRCI me tric Of Node s B in the active s et

NODEB RX
P r=NoW

+ -

±P s te p
TP C De code & Voting

UE Pt
cl

Encode r Info Bits

TX

Accum.

Pt

Ope n Loop Estimator
K-NoW

Pt

ol

Othe r
Info Bits

S IR me tric

Compute S IR Me tric

RX
pilot s ymbols da ta s ymbols

TX

Encode r

FQI, BER me tric

De code r

MAP

QE - Quality Estimate BER - Physical Channel Bit Error Rate of the decoded frame CRCI - Cyclic Redundancy Check Indicator Pt total received power cl Pt closed loop power estimate component ol Pt open loop power estimate component.
Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Close Loop Power Control
Uplink inner loop power control

The inner loop compares the estimated SIR on the pilot symbol on every DPCCH slot vs. the target SIR and provides feedback to the UE via the TPC command:
SIR ≥ SIR_target

the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot period such that the UE will lower its transmit power,
SIR < SIR_target

the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot period such that the UE will increase its transmit power.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Close Loop Power Control
Uplink outer loop power control The outer loop power control attempts to meet a bit error rate (BER) or BLER for each type service (real time, non-real time) by producing adequate target SIR for each individual inner loop PC. The BER is mapped into a block error rate (BLER), which is implemented in a lookup table in the SRNC. The core network (CN) provides SRNC the SDU error rate in RAB Assignment Request. This is converted to BER or BLER. The service type is used to choose the type of outer loop power control algorithm to implement. Outer power control loop adjusts the SIR_target for the inner loop comparison down in the node B. An algorithm based on CRC of the data stream is used as a measure of the quality.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Close Loop Power Control
Downlink outer loop power control The downlink outer loop power control function is done in the UE. The value of the quality target in the UE is controlled by the admission control. The target SIR for the downlink inner loop PC s adjusted by the UE. If the CPCH used, the SRNC will provide the UE with the BLER target for the downlink outer loop power control. The UTRAN controls the forward link gains and controls the range of power available. It is set per real time or non-real time service and for each spreading factor for each soft handoff state.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Downlink Common Channels

DL Channel Typical Power Level (dBm)
P-CPICH SCH Primary Secondary CCPCH Primary Secondary PICH AICH 27-33 -3 -3 -5 -5 -8 -8

Remarks
RF Design/Optimization relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH (SF=256) relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH (Np = 72) relative to P-CPICH

Marconi Internal Use Only

Power Control Q&A • Which power control loop provides the target SIR for the inner-loop power control ? • How fast is the closed loop inner power control ? • Is fast power control implemented only on the uplink or downlink or both ? • How does the mobile know how much power to transmit during initial access?
• Outer loop power control • 1500 Hz • Both • PRACH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + UL_required_CI Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS TERMINALS

Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS STANDARDS

Marconi Internal Use Only

5

Document structure of physical layer specification

5.1 Overview The physical layer specification consists of a general document (TS 25.201), five FDD mode documents (TS 25.211 through 25.215), five TDD mode documents (TS 25.221 through 25.225). In addition, there are two technical reports (TR 25.833 and 25.944). 5.2 TS 25.201: Physical layer – General description The scope is to describe: the contents of the Layer 1documents (TS 25.200 series); where to find information; a general description of Layer 1.

5.3 TS 25.211: Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the Layer-1 transport channels and physical channels in the FDD mode, and to specify: the different transport channels that exist; which physical channels exist; what is the structure of each physical channel, slot format etc.; relative timing between different physical channels in the same link, and relative timing between uplink and downlink; mapping of transport channels onto the physical channels.

Marconi Internal Use Only

5.4 5.5 -

TS 25.212: Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) coding and multiplexing of transport channels into CCTrCHs; channel coding alternatives; coding for Layer 1 control information, such as TFCI; the different interleavers; how is rate matching done; physical channel segmentation and mapping. TS 25.213: Spreading and modulation (FDD) the spreading (channelisation plus scrambling); generation of channelisation and scrambling codes; generation of RACH and CPCH preamble codes; generation of SCH synchronisation codes; modulation.

The scope is to describe multiplexing, channel coding and interleaving in the FDD mode, and to specify:

The scope is to establish the characteristics of the spreading and modulation in the FDD mode, and to specify:

RF channel arrangements and Pulse shaping are specified in TS 25.101 for UE and in TS 25.104 for Node-B.

Marconi Internal Use Only

5.6 -

TS 25.214: Physical layer procedures (FDD) cell search procedures; power control procedures; random access procedure.

The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer procedures in the FDD mode, and to specify:

5.7 -

TS 25.215: Physical layer – Measurements (FDD) the measurements that Layer 1 is to perform; reporting of measurements to higher layers and network; handover measurements, idle-mode measurements etc.

The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer measurements in the FDD mode, and to specify:

5.8

TS 25.221: Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (TDD)

The scope is to establish the characteristics of the Layer-1 transport channels and physical channels in the TDD mode, and to specify: transport channels; physical channels, structure and contents; mapping of transport channels onto the physical channels.

Marconi Internal Use Only

5.9 TS 25.222: Multiplexing and channel coding (TDD) The scope is to describe multiplexing, channel coding and interleaving in the TDD mode, and to specify: channel coding and multiplexing of transport channels into CCTrCHs; channel coding alternatives; coding for Layer 1 control information, such as TFCI; interleaving; rate matching; physical channel segmentation and mapping.

5.10 TS 25.223: Spreading and modulation (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the spreading and modulation in the TDD mode, and to specify: data modulation; spreading; generation of synchronisation codes. RF channel arrangements and Pulse shaping are specified in TS 25.102 for UE and in TS 25.105 for Node-B.

Marconi Internal Use Only

5.11 TS 25.224: Physical layer procedures (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer procedures in the TDD mode, and to specify: cell synchronisation; timing advance; power control procedures; idle mode tasks.

5.12 TS 25.225: Physical layer – Measurements (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer measurements in the TDD mode, and to specify: the measurements that Layer 1 is to perform; reporting of measurements to higher layers and network; handover measurements, idle-mode measurements etc.

Marconi Internal Use Only

5.13 TR 25.833: Physical layer items not for inclusion in Release ‘99 The scope is to collect materials on UTRA physical layer items not included in the Release ’99 specification documents, such as DSCH control channel, FAUSCH, Hybrid ARQ, 4-state SCCC turbo coding and ODMA.

5.14 TR 25.944: Channel coding and multiplexing examples The scope is to describe examples of channel coding and multiplexing for transport channels of various types and cases.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Q&A

In IS95A/B, the duration of one spreading chip is 1/1.2288MHz = 814 ns, or 244 meters. Multipath differences less than this will lead to flat fading; greater will lead to resolved multipath, which will be diversity combined by the receiver. What is the minimum distance in UMTS for the rake receiver to be able to decode ?

Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS CALL PROCESSING

MODULE 2 CALL PROCESSING
General Idle Mode Cell Search Procedure UE Initiated Call Flow RRC Connection Management Procedures Radio Bearer Control Procedure RRC Connection Mobility Procedure Measurement Procedures Sample Call Flows Timers and Counters

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow General Information
UE switch-on

UE Idle 3GPP TS 25.304

UE connected 3GPP TS 25.331

GSM connected GSM TS 04.18

GPRS Packet Transfer GSM TS 04.60

GSM idle GSM TS 05.08

UE idle 3GPP TS 25.304 3GPP TS 25.331

CELL_DCH 3GPP TS 25.331

CELL_FACH 3GPP TS 25.331 3GPP TS 25.304

CELL_PCH 3GPP TS 25.331 3GPP TS 25.304

URA_PCH 3GPP TS 25.331 3GPP TS 25.304

Mapping of UE state to 3GPP Specifications

* Based on 25331-3c0
Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow Idle Mode

When the UE camps on a cell in idle mode, • Allows the UE to receive system information from the camped PLMN and cell broadcast services. • If the UE is registered, the PLMN knows where to forward a call as it knows where the UE is currently camped on. Similar to other systems, if the UE is unable to find a suitable cell due to either the USIM is not inserted or the registration was a failure, the UE tries to camp to any PLMN and enters to a “limited service” state on which only emergency calls can be made.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow Idle Mode
Three processes in Idle Mode

PLMN Selection/Reselection The first time a UE is switched “ON”, the UE selects a public land mobile network (PLMN) and searches for a suitable cell to camp on. The NAS shall provide a list of equivalent PLMNs contained on the USIM, if available, that the AS shall use for cell selection and cell reselection. Cell Selection/Reselection After choosing the PLMN, the UE camps on a cell belonging to the chosen PLMN. It does this by searching and choosing a suitable cell that can provide services that the UE may require, and tunes to its control channel and camps in. The UE may reselect to another cell if it finds another suitable one. Location Registration The UE may then register its presence, by means of a NAS registration procedure, in the registration area of the chosen cell. The UE may do PLMN reselection at regular time intervals and searches for more suitable cells. Likewise, if the UE loses coverage to any cell belonging to the current PLMN, either a new PLMN is selected manually through a list of available PLMNs or automatically.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow Idle Mode
cell information stored for the PLMN
Stored information Cell Selection
no suitable cell found

go here whenever a new PLMN is selected
no cell information stored for the PLMN

1

no suitable cell found

Initial Cell Selection

suitable cell found

2

suitable cell found
no suitable cell found

Cell Selection when leaving connected mode

suitable cell found

Camped normally

NAS indicates that registration on selected PLMN is rejected (except with cause #14 or #15 [5][16] )

return to idle mode

leave idle mode

trigger

suitable cell found

Connected mode

Cell Reselection Evaluation Process

no suitable cell found

no acceptable cell found

Any Cell Selection

go here when no USIM in the UE

USIM inserted
acceptable cell found

1

Cell Selection when leaving connected mode

acceptable cell found

Camped on any cell

suitable cell found

2

return to idle mode

leave idle mode

trigger

acceptable cell found

Connected mode (Emergency calls only)

Cell Reselection Evaluation Process

no acceptable cell found

Idle Mode Cell Selection and Reselection
Marconi Internal Use Only

* Based on 25304-3b0

Call Flow Cell Search Procedure
P/S-CPICH
Primary SCH Secondary SCH

3 steps in Cell Search Procedure

P-CCPCH

P-CCPCH

Slot Synchronization UE listens to any cell’s P-SCH to acquire slot synchronization. This is done through the UEs matched filter, detecting the peaks on the output.
Matched Filter

Frame Synchronization (code group identification) After acquiring slot synchronization, the UE listens to the S-SCH. The S-SCH consists of a sequence of repeated modulated codes. By correlating the repeated modulated code received with all known secondary synchronization code sequences, the UE can then determine which code group (downlink primary scrambling code group) the cell belongs. By this time the UE now has acquired frame synchronization. Scrambling Code Identification As the UE is now frame synchronized, it now tries to determine the exact primary scrambling code that identifies the cell through which the UE is trying to camp on to. It does this through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the P-CPICH with all the codes that belong to the code group determined during frame synchronization. After the determining the primary scrambling code, the UE can now listen to P-CCPCH for BCH information (system and cell specific information).

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow Cell Search Procedure

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Normal Call Flow
Notes
Call Attempt

Message Type
RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCU L3U RRCD RRCU RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCD L3D RRCD RRCU RRCD L3D RRCD L3D RRCU L3U RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD : : : RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCU L3U

Downlink
CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP"

Uplink
CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST" DCCH "DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE" DCCH "INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CM_SERVICE_REQUEST"

Remarks
Call Setup Failure

DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE" DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND" DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "SETUP" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CALL_PROCEEDING" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "FACILITY" DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP" DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "ALERTING" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CONNECT" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CONNECT_ACKNOWLEDGE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" Dropped Call

Call Setup Failure

Call Setup Complete

Call Completed

DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "DISCONNECT" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "RELEASE" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "RELEASE_COMPLETE"

Dropped Call

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Call
*** NEMO PRIME #.##.## ff ver #.## MM.DD.YYYY : 0.00 : : C:\Nemo Tools\…. : 0.00 : Originate : #.##.## : : XXX-# : : GSM 900/GSM 1800/UMTS 2100 FDD : ### : NTM ##.#.####, MM-DD-YYYY, XXX-#, V ##.## : HH:MM:SS #ID Id tag for simultaneous measurement files #AG External antenna gain (dBi) #BF BTS filename #CF Call list filename #CL External cable loss #CM Call mode #HV Handler version #MF Map filename #MT Mobile type #NN Network name #NT Network type #PN Test call phone number #SW Device software version #HW Device hardware version : {HEX NUMBER}

- Actual Messaging

RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.901 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.931 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.931 BCCH "SCHEDULING_BLOCK_1" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.941 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH "MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_2" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_7" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_18" HEX MESSAGES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Call
- Actual Messaging

RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.061 CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.361 12 -87 -87 -32.0 255.0 0 0 0 RACHI LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.361 12 5 2 1 11 8 -102 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.361 12 1 10762 -93 4 1 10762 208 -3 1 1 10762 216 -16 0 0 0 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.391 CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.662 DCCH "DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.662 DCCH "INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.662 DCCH "CM_SERVICE_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES CHI LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.762 12 5 10762 -1 -1 2.5 100 4.0 640 1.0 100 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.263 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.263 DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 -90 -89 4.8 255.0 0 621 597 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 -4 0 1 0 602 615 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 3700 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 1 10762 -93 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -16 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 6.7 3.1 RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.523 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Call
- Actual Messaging

L3U LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.523 DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.773 DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.773 DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.773 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.773 DCCH "SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.104 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.104 DCCH "IDENTITY_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.104 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.104 DCCH "IDENTITY_RESPONSE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.374 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.374 DCCH "CALL_PROCEEDING" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 -94 -95 4.2 255.0 0 600 900 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 -11 0 1 0 747 754 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 6000 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 1 10762 -89 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -18 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 4.5 3.1

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Call
- Actual Messaging

RRCD LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:09.905 DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 -87 -87 3.3 255.0 0 612 887 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 -4 0 1 0 753 746 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 1200 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 1 10762 -90 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -17 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 9.1 3.1 RRCU LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.626 DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES CAC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.626 1 4 -1 BLER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.766 0.0 BER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.766 12 9.1 3.1 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.896 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.896 DCCH "ALERTING" HEX MESSAGES CAC LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.896 2 4 -1 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.977 DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.027 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.027 DCCH "CONNECT" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.027 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.027 DCCH "CONNECT_ACKNOWLEDGE" HEX MESSAGES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Call Flow UE Initiated Call
- Actual Messaging

RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.422 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.422 DCCH "DISCONNECT" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.672 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.672 DCCH "RELEASE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.672 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.672 DCCH "RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:57.013 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:57.013 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.173 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.333 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.403 12 -77 -76 3.9 255.0 0 447 1052 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.403 12 -20 0 1 0 749 751 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.403 12 19000 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.403 12 1 10762 -77 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.403 12 0.9 0.0

Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS Planning and Optimization

Marconi Internal Use Only

PLANNING Multilayer Networks

Microcell Only Network >>> <<< MultiLayer Network

* Radio Planning of Third Generation Nwtworks in Urban Areas by P R Gould
Marconi Internal Use Only

GENERAL INFORMATION UMTS Commercial Deployment
Initial System Design (Link Budget & Simulations) PLANET Noise Floor Test System Rollout / Site Integration Single Cell Functional Test Drive Routes Cell / Node B Issues ? N Initial Cluster Coverage Survey Update Master RF Database Network Metric Drive Issues ? N KPI Y Y Clustering Prepare Master RF Database Network Coverage Survey Optimize Y Update Master RF Database

A

Network Coverage Design Issues ? N Update Systems Design PLANET Network Metric Drive Test

Optimize

Update Master RF Database

Cluster Coverage Design Issues ? N

Optimize Y

Update Systems Design/Retune Model PLANET Cluster Metric Drive Test

Network Coverage Test Forward Link loaded Conditions Friendly User Performance Test

Cluster Metric Drive Issues ? N

Y

Optimize

Update Master RF Database User Issues ? N Y Trouble Tickets

A
Marconi Internal Use Only

Commercial Service

UE STATES

Marconi Internal Use Only

UE STATES Service States
• The UE operates in one of three basic states – Detached •Not registered to the network – Idle •Registered to the network and performing both LA and RA updates – Connected •CS-Connected – Does not perform LA updates – CS Signalling/Traffic Link Established •PS-Connected – PS Signalling/Traffic Link Established – RA updates for boundary crossings

Detached

CS-Connected

PS-Connected

Idle

Marconi Internal Use Only

UE STATES Idle Mode
Idle mode is when the UE has: – Selected a PLMN – Selected a cell – Carried out Location Registration Once in Idle mode the UE continually reassess its serving cell – Monitoring the serving cell’s and neighboring cells radio performance • The UE should be served by the most reliable cell – Monitoring signaling information • P-CCPCH for cell and system parameters which could provoke cell reselection • S-CCPCH for paging or notification resulting in connection establishment

Marconi Internal Use Only

UE STATES Synchronization
In order to select a PLMN or cell the UE must first be synchronized to the network As discussed in Module 2, the procedure for this is: – Derive slot synchronization from P-SCH – Derive frame synchronization and scrambling code group from S-SCH – Derive scrambling code from CPICH Once the UE acquires the information above, it can now decode the P-CCPCH

Marconi Internal Use Only

MEASUREMENTS

Marconi Internal Use Only

MEASUREMENTS UE
• UTRA carrier RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator, wideband received power within the channel bandwidth CPICH RSCP – CPICH Received Signal Code Power, received power on CPICH after despreading CPICH Ec/No – CPICH Energy/chip to Noise power spectral density, • (CPICH Ec/Io) = (CPICH RSCP) / RSSI CPICH ISCP – CPICH Interference on Signal Code Power, interference on received signal after despreading CPICH SIR – CPICH Signal to Interference Ratio, • (CPICH SIR) = (CPICH RSCP) / (CPICH ISCP)
* Based on 25302-3e0
Marconi Internal Use Only

MEASUREMENTS UE
• SIR – Signal to Interference Ratio, • SIR = (DPCCH RSCP) / (DPCCH ISCP) Transport channel BLER – Estimation of transport channel block error rate UE transmitted power – Total transmitted power of the UE measured at the antenna connector/indication of TX power reaching threshold

* Based on 25302-3e0
Marconi Internal Use Only

MEASUREMENTS UTRAN
• Transport channel BLER – Estimation of transport channel block error rate Physical channel BER – Physical channel BER measured on control part after RL combining Transport channel BER – Transport channel BER measured on data part after RL combining RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator, the wideband received power within the UL channel Transmitted carrier power – The transmitter carrier power is the ratio between the total transmitted power on one DL carrier and the maximum power to use on that carrier Transmitted code power – The transmitted power on one carrier, scrambling and channelisation code combination
* Based on 25302-3e0
Marconi Internal Use Only

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Coverage
Check Downlink Coverage (Scanner Data)

- Downlink and Uplink

U
Check Uplink Coverage (DM Data)

site parameters set correctly CPICH ? Y Y N N

High UE Tx ? Y Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Relocate Antenna Relocate Site

Low RSSI / RSCP ? N N

Blocked Sector ? Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Relocate Antenna Relocate Site

DM / UE Failure ? Y Fix/Calibrate DM Redo Metric Drive

Blocked Sector ? N

Overshooting Coverage ? Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Adjust CPICH Power

High FER / BER / Io ?

Y Multi Pilot ? Y

N

High Interference ? Y Check Noise Floor Data

N

Check w/ Network Related Problems (Node B issues ?)

M
N

Check w/ Network Related Problems (Node B issues ?)

U

DM / UE Failure ? N

Y Fix/Calibrate DM Redo Metric Drive

M

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques General Process
· . · · · . · · · · · · - Goals RSSI and RSCP Pilot Quality (Ec/Io) Uplink Interference UE transmit power Neighbor List BLER call set-up success and failure rates session establishment success rates drop call rates SHO failure rates SHO regions Throughput

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Multi Pilot Reduction
M

- Interference, Ec /Io

Interference Multi Pilot low Ec/Io

CFE Absolute Thresh Handoff Mode ? CBA Multi Dominance # of SCs > 3 w/in Tcomp of Best Server ? Y Reduce overshooting SCs Coverage - 4th,5th , 6th, etc. Best Server •Change Antenna Parameters •CPICH Power Reduce overshooting SCs Coverage - SCs with highest hit count above threshold •Change Antenna Parameters •CPICH Power # of SCs > 3 Above Threshold ?

Y

N

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation
UMTS can have up to 32 Neighbors defined per cell. Improper Neighbor List can cause access failures and drop calls.
Initial Phase • Based on simulation or visual inspection from maps. • Distance of nearby cell (Proximity) • Direction of nearby cell (Orientation) • Line of Site (Visibility, no natural or man-mad blockage) • Drive Route Optimization Phase As above with the following considerations • Actual drive test data showing cells visible to the UE during drive - re-prioritize or eliminate cells initially defined but was not visible during drive test • missing neighbor information from drive test data - include missing neighbors in the neighbor list with corresponding priority based on Ec/Io and RSCP • call failure messaging - either include or exclude cells in the neighbor list that resulted to the call failure - check active set and best candidate before and after the call failure

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation
Access Failures • Missing Neighbors - UE attempts to handoff during access attempt to a strong cell not in neighbor list - call fails due to high interference caused by cell not in neighbor list • Origination on a far cell - overshooting cells Drop Calls • Missing Neighbors - UE cannot handoff to strong nearby cells • UE handoffs to a far cell and cannot handoff back - overshooting cells - combined neighbor list is filled up by neighbors coming from far cells; no room for new cells within the area where the UE is in.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation
N

Create Neighbor List

Create initial list based on simulation and visual inspection • Obtain Metric Drive Data • Check the best server and cells on the active set • Re prioritize the original list based on the metric drive. • Obtain the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc best servers and put them on the top of the list. Demote cells on the list that do not appear in the active set often Eliminate the cells in the neighbor list that do not appear on the active or candidate list Maintain the size of the neighbor list of a cell between 10-15 neighbors, unless otherwise

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation
Composite Neighbor List

When in soft/er handoff, the system combines the neighbor list of all cells on the active list. The maximum combined neighbor list is 32. Implementation of the combined neighbor list is not standardized and is vendor specific. It is therefore recommended to consult the vendor’s documentation. General Rule: 1. The first ten (10) defined neighbors for each cell should be the most important ones and must be based on actual drive test data. They have to be keyed-in in order of importance at the RNC. This will allow all important neighbors to be included in a full 3-way handoff. 2. Typically, three scenarios are implemented a.) All the defined and visible neighbor list of the best server is included and arranged based on how it was arranged at the RNC database. If it is less than 32 neighbors, then the 2nd best server’s list is appended. If it is still less than 32, then the 3rd best server’s list is appended. b.) The combined neighbor list is generated by allocating equal number of neighbor list from all cells in the active set. The priority will still be based on how the neighbor list was arranged at the RNC. The combined list starts with the best server then the 2nd best server and lastly the 3rd best server. c.) The system automatically arranges the neighbor list based on measured Ec/Io values.

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation
First two is always the adjacent cells
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 C C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25

Neighbor List

Combined Neighbor List Scenario a

Danger: Neighbor list of site C will never appear >>>

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12

Combined Neighbor List Scenario b

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10

Combined Neighbor List Scenario c

1 A1 2 A2 3 C1 4 B2 5 A5 6 C4 7 B1 8 C2 9 B9 10 C9 11 A7 12 C3 13 A3 : 14 : 15 : 16 : 17 18 B12 19 A10 : 20 : 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration
Type Different types of antennas are used for different purposes. If an option, choose the correct antenna type during the initial design phase. Antenna Parameters that are important during optimization phase are 1. Operational Bandwidth UMTS, MultiBand 2. Polarization Vertical, Horizontal, Cross Polar 3. Beamwidth Vertical Beamwidth, Horizontal Beamwidth 4. Tilt Electrical (with remote capability?), Mechanical 5. Gain Installation How the antennas are installed also play a major role in minimizing interference. Two major considerations are 1. Antenna Height 2. Antenna Mount Tower Mount, Rooftop, and Flush Mount Tilt Electrical or Mechanical Downtilt or Uptilt

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration
- Antenna Mounting

The document “THE INFLUENCE OF REFLECTIONS ON RADIATION PATTERNS” by KATHREIN ANTENNAS” is a good reference on the effects of different mounting configurations of antennas and its radiation patterns
Main Lobe must not hit the rooftop with the desired tilt.

Weak coverage area Weak coverage area

Roof Mount

Flush Mount

Tower Mount

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration
- Antenna Tilts

0 Etilt and 0 Mtilt
Good Low Antenna Height

n° EDTilt

n° MDTilt

n° EDtilt and n° MDtilt

n° EDtilt and n° MUtilt

High Antenna Height Requires Narrow H Beamwidth Decrease Backlobe Radius

High Antenna Height Requires wide H Beamwidth Increase Backlobe Radius

High Antenna Height Medium H Beamwidth Increased Downtilt Medium Backlobe Strength Requires Narrow H Beamwidth Requires Wide H Beamwidth Medium Site Density Area

High Antenna Height Medium H Beamwidth Minimum Backlobe radius

Bad High Antenna Height Typical Applications Highway Coverage only sites

Low Antenna Height Requires Wide H Beamwidth High Site Density Area – CBD

Low Antenna Height Requires Narrow Beamwidth Low Site Density Area – Suburb

Aesthetics

Very High Sites – Hills Backlobe creates handoff problems

Marconi Internal Use Only

Optimization Techniques CPICH Power Optimization
Most of the other channel’s power is based on the Common Pilot Channel’s (CPICH) power. General Optimization Rule, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. For overshooting cells, adjust CPICH power only when changing antenna parameters is not an option, ie, the antenna is shared by other technology or carrier. Adjust CPICH in +/- 1dB steps. Adjusting CPICH is not an effective way of decreasing the coverage radius of the cell in line of sight situations. It is best to adjust antenna parameters than CPICH power. Adjusting CPICH may increase or decrease in-building penetration. Adjusting CPICH may increase or decrease coverage due to reflection/refraction from nearby obstructions. Too high CPICH values will increase system noise (Io) and may lead to increased access failures. Typical network starting values for CPICH Typical value: 30dBm (1W) Typical adjustment range: 27dBm – 33dBm or (500mW to 2W)

Marconi Internal Use Only

Understanding Layer 3 and Layer 2 Messaging

Marconi Internal Use Only

Understanding Layer 3 and Layer 2 Messaging

Example of Handoff Scenario : EVENT 1b
Previous Handoff Message: : : Current Handoff Messages: >> : : << >> << >> measurement control measurement report active set update active set update complete measurement control

Link

Handoff Call Flow Analysis

Marconi Internal Use Only

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