To Struggle for an Idea
An Advocacy Training Manual for Cambodians
Prepared by Ana Maria O. Clamor
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introductory Activities
Leveling of Expectations Introducing the Concept of Advocacy Word Association Demystifying Advocacy Advocacy and Community Development The Context in Which We are Working “Tao P’sar!”—A Game of Socio-Political and Economic Analysis 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4
Chapter 2. Lecture Topics
Definitions of Advocacy Khmer Definition of Advocacy Advocacy versus Lobbying Community Development and Advocacy Advocacy Approaches Factors that Make Advocacy Possible Elements of Advocacy Duration of Advocacy Ingredients of Successful Campaigning Advocacy Process and Strategy Development
7 7 8 9 9 16 16 17 18 18 21
Chapter 3. Special Topics
Policy Advocacy Political Mapping Measures of Policy Success Running Effective Meetings Using Media for Advocacy What is News?
24 24 25 26 31 39 44
Chapter 4. Preparing for Advocacy
Problem Selection and Analysis Web Chart Problem Tree Problem Definition and Issue Framing
48 48 51 52 53
Goal Setting and Planning SWOT Analysis Making an Initial Advocacy Plan
54 55 56 59 59 60
Chapter 5. Evaluating the Advocacy Workshop
General Questions Detailed Questions
Divide the participants into pairs or small groups.
1) Below are several variations depending on the available time:
Directly ask the guide question(s) below to the participants and write their responses on the board or flip chart paper. some participants may still have different ideas about the objectives of the workshop. The dyads or small groups will write their responses to the guide question(s) below on flip chart paper and report to the big group.
2) Summarize the responses and clarify which among the expectations can and cannot
be met in the workshop. To prevent misunderstanding and address unrealistic expectations.
What do you expect to gain from this workshop?
What do you think will make this workshop successful? What can you contribute to make this workshop successful?
. Ask the participants to write down their responses to the guide question(s) below on multi-colored meta cards that will be posted on the board for everyone to see. it is best to ask what they expect to gain from the workshop. This will indicate if there is a need to modify the design you have prepared.
3) Present the objectives of the workshop and the schedule. 4) (Optional) Set workshop ground rules with the participants.Chapter
Starting the Workshop Right
Leveling of Expectations
Despite prior training needs assessment (TNA).
1) Directly ask participants the question. etc.
What comes to your mind when you hear the word.).
2) Cluster the responses into broad headings (e.
Ask partners in every dyad to share a personal experience when they were able to bring about change:
What kind of change did I want to achieve? What did I do to achieve that change? What was the result?
2) Obtain a sampling of responses from the floor to give participants a sense that
effecting change is something all of us can do. Explain the concept of advocacy with a brief lecture (Refer to lecture topics in Chapter 2). understanding.
3) Randomly divide participants into small groups to share professional/organizational
experiences of effecting change.
4) Ask each group to write their responses on flip chart paper and report to the big group.Introducing the Concept of Advocacy
The appropriate approach in orienting participants to the concept and practice of advocacy will depend on their previous experiences. Refer to the guide questions in the next page. goals and
objectives. and also the time available.. advocacy targets. It will also indicate the participants' current level of understanding and knowledge of advocacy. 5) Synthesize the responses and expound on the meaning of advocacy (Refer to lecture
topics in Chapter 2). Write them on the board.
. Below are five possible ways:
I. Demystifying Advocacy
1) Randomly pair participants.g. and knowledge. "advocacy"?
This is a simple approach to introduce the concept of advocacy. advocacy methods.
and report to the big group. write their responses on flip chart
paper. Group them either by organization or mix
1) Give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to the Community Development and
Advocacy in Chapter 2. It starts off on a point of reference that they can easily understand. comparing CD with advocacy is an appropriate way to introduce the concept to this particular type of participants. Advocacy and Community Development
Most Cambodians working in non-government organizations (NGOs) are familiar with community development (CD) work. As such.Guide Questions
1) 2) 3) 4)
What changes did you want to happen? (change objective) What did you do to achieve that objective? (strategies) What was the result? What factors helped / did not help in achieving your objective?
1) Divide the participants into small groups.
2) Illustrate your point by drawing the contrast between CD and Advocacy (Refer to page
10). pages 9-15).
What specific problems is your organization addressing? What actions have you taken to address these problems?
. pages 9-15).
2) Ask them to discuss the guide questions below.
3) Synthesize their responses and give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to
the Community Development and Advocacy in Chapter 2.
IV.g. They can either be grouped by organization
or randomly mixed. and political environment in their country.
Commodity cards. this session can be a rich source of insights into development issues in general and problems currently affecting society.
2) Ask them to discuss the guide questions below. write their responses on flip chart
paper. Provide relevant historical information.
3) Synthesize their responses with emphasis on the broad context in which they are
4) Give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to the Community Development and
Advocacy in Chapter 2. pages 9-15). “Tao P’sar!” – a Game of Socio-Political and Economic Analysis
While this can be an introductory activity to advocacy. hard paper (e.. economic. containing pictures and captions of the following: Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef
You will need hard paper for this. This activity is also appropriate for Cambodians working in NGOs or government ministries. The Context in Which We Are Working
This approach enables participants to take a broad societal perspective and to situate their work within this context.
1) Divide the participants into small groups. This activity simulates the power dynamics among different social classes and enables participants to experience the workings of an inequitable society. What specific problems is your organization addressing? What actions have you taken to address these problems?
Describe the socio-cultural. cardboard. The number of commodity cards will depend on the number of participants:
. and report to the big group. old folders) to keep the cards upright. about the size of playing cards.
These sub-groups should be seated separately at different corners of the workshop room.
. The top 3 to 5 participants should belong to the first subgroup – Neak Tikrong (City Dweller). Each commodity card will be worth a certain number of points: Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef – – – – – – 5 points 10 points 15 points 25 points 35 points 75 points
Ask each participant to compute the number of points they received based on the commodity cards they have in the envelope. The next 5 to 8 participants will comprise the second sub-group – Neak Chunobot (Rural Resident). s/he announces what type of cards s/he is willing to trade in exchange for certain types of cards. they should lock their arms together to signify that they would exchange cards. list the names of participants and the number of points that they have received. The remaining participants will form the third sub-group – Neak Srok Leu (Highlander).
2) Ask the participants to open their envelopes and examine the commodity cards that
they have received. d) Once a participant has found another person willing to trade. In addition. announce that the aim of the game is to
accumulate the highest possible number of points. Make sure that these envelopes are distributed to participants in random order. s/he should add the following points: 3 of a kind 4 of a kind 5 of a kind 6 of a kind – – – – plus 5 points plus 10 points plus 15 points plus 25 points
On the board. distribute envelopes with commodity cards among the
participants. Arrange them according to the number of points received and divide them into three smaller groups.Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef
– – – – – –
three times the number of participants two times the number of participants exactly the number of participants one-fourth the number of participants one-eight the number of participants ten to 15 cards
Put these items randomly into letter envelopes. There will be trading sessions when each participant can get a chance to accumulate more points. c) If a participant wishes to trade. These sessions will be conducted under the following rules: a) Each trading session will be held for only 3 to 5 minutes. if a participant receives three or more of the same kind of card. Trading session begins when the facilitator yells “Tao P’sar!” (“Let’s go to the market”) b) Each participant should keep his/her trading cards secret and should not disclose the contents to other participants.
1) Before starting the game.
3) Once the three groups are formed.
compute the changes in the number of points of
each participant. f) Once the facilitator has announced that time has ended. s/he can signify this by folding his/her arms.
6) Let the Neak Tikrong lead one or two sessions with new rules and then end the game.e) If a participant is unwilling to trade.
5) After one or two sessions.
How did you feel during the game? What are your insights regarding the following: Initial distribution of commodity cards Trading rules and actual trading of cards Distribution of participants among sub-groups Decision-making during the game
What similarities can you find between the game and Cambodian society regarding the following: Distribution of goods and services Distribution of the population along socio-economic classes Decision making in the country
. and redistribute them to the different sub-groups. all participants should stop all trading under the threat of confiscation of cards.
4) At the end of each trading session.
remove. After each session. three beef cards should be distributed to the Neak Tikrong as a ‘reward’ for good performance. or modify any trading rule that they wish. with recalculations of the number of points of each participant after each session. announce to the group that the Neak Tikrong can now add. Two or three additional trading sessions can be held.
the word "advocate" referred to a person who pleads on behalf of another. providing a solution to that problem and building support for action on both the problem and solution (An Introduction to Advocacy. information. outreach. communication. Advocacy was narrowly used in the legal arena. Advocates as we know it today used to be called activists. Advocacy is working with other people and organizations to make a difference (CEDPA.
Advocacy is putting a problem on the agenda. Training Guide by Ritu R. national. Academy for
Education Development. Advocacy consists of actions designed to draw a community’s attention to an issue and to direct policy makers to a solution. 1995). provincial. strategic thinking. However.
Advocacy involves different strategies aimed at influencing decisionmaking at the local.Chapter
Basic Information for the Participants
These brief lecture topics are meant to build on the experiences of participants and complement their existing knowledge and understanding. the meaning of advocacy has evolved and broadened to include activism and other forms of political action. It consists of legal and political activities that influence the shape and practice of laws. people who take or support vigorous action for a political cause. and international levels. 1997). especially a lawyer who represents a client in court. Sharma. The following are some definitions of advocacy:
Advocacy is the process of influencing decision-making (Oxfam America). and mobilization
(Human Rights Manual by Marge Schuler). Advocacy initiatives require organization.
Definitions of Advocacy
In the past.
kaa koem-tror mete meaning “supporting an idea” 3.
karcrcar nig tv:a karKa¿RTmti karTak. kaa tor-soo mete meaning “struggling for an idea” 5.Khmer Definition of Advocacy
On May 19. It is like the word “gender. When we do advocacy. kaapie mete meaning “defending an idea” There are various definitions of advocacy.” We need to use a long sentence in Khmer to explain the meaning. we naturally support it. kaa chor-chaa nung tor-waa meaning “negotiation and protest” 2. and defend it. draw attention to it. When we struggle for an idea. we help the community brainstorm and come up with an idea. and this can give the wrong impression as to the purpose of the NGO Forum and create confusion. members of the NGO Forum on Cambodia met and discussed the appropriate Khmer translation of the English word. provincial. So we choose to use kaa tor-soo mete.” It is often translated simply as koem-tror (“support”).makers to come up with appropriate solutions. first. Advocacy is action taken to draw attention to ideas about certain issues in order to influence decision-makers or law. and international levels.
There is no single word in Khmer that fully explains the meaning of the English word “advocacy. So we should discuss together which word would be more suitable. now we take many English words. the word “advocacy” also means to raise concern. However. A long discussion followed. But we should decide which Khmer word to use consistently. terng mete. we took many French words. support it. "advocacy. During the French time. This word encompasses all. but we nevertheless understand the word. There are five translations that are sometimes used: 1. Advocacy entails various strategies for influencing grassroots. kaa teq-terng mete 4." Below are excerpts from that meeting. The words koem-tror mete. national. tor-soo mete. 1998. and defend it as well. Then we take the idea. Each word has its basis.Tajmti
meaning “drawing attention to an idea”
. and kaapie mete all express the meaning of advocacy to some degree. Advocacy is to speak out in public to support something or want something or to support a cause by joining a movement. struggle for it.
Advocacy versus Lobbying
Advocacy and lobbying are sometimes used interchangeably. They stayed in the lobby of the legislature as they waited for the targeted legislators. influence. Advocacy targets are often from the government/state because they assume positions of authority and policy-making. goal. However. advocacy is an integral part of community development (CD) work because people empowerment and total human development are the ultimate goals of CD. The term lobbying is derived from the way in which these agents formerly confronted legislators in the lobby or hallways directly outside a legislative chamber. In the United States. Advocacy is a broad term that refers to the practice of influencing decisionmaking. or objective that advocates are working on. The comparative table below shows the similarity (Point No. or resources than the ones doing advocacy. S/He can decide on the issue advocates are working on. They also waited in the lobby of hotels where the lawmakers stayed. Beneficiaries 3. Advocacy targets are the ones in a position to decide on the cause. influence. The lobbyist may request votes either for or against pending legislation. however. however. Advocacy targets 3. Characteristics of beneficiaries: Usually has less power.
1. Beneficiaries are often grassroots communities or vulnerable groups. Work for change 2. there is no need to appeal or make demands from somebody who is usually higher and in a position to decide on our cause. Lobbying is the practice of attempting to influence legislation. They are often from the government/state. 2 and 3):
REGULAR CD PROJECT
1. lobbying is performed by agents called lobbyists. Characteristics of advocacy targets: Usually has more power. Work for change 2. is a more specific form of advocacy. authority.
In doing a regular CD project. CD as generally practiced in Cambodia at present. This situation.
. authority. Lobbying. 1) and differences between a regular community development project and advocacy (Points Nos. is changing as more and more local NGOs realize their crucial role in advocacy. These lobbyists belong to a particular interested group. often does not include advocacy.
Community Development and Advocacy
Ideally. known as the lobby. or resources than the CD implementers.
Advocacy Target Grassroots NGO
NGOs can advocate on their causes.as long as s/he has a cause.The following illustration makes the distinction between regular CD and advocacy clearer.
Advocacy Target Advocate or CD Worker Beneficiaries
Anybody can be an advocate -. or even from the government/state -.whether one is an NGO worker. They can also advocate on behalf of the grassroots or in partnership with the grassroots.
Problem/Issue: Women in the community.
Advocacy Target Grassroots
Whether an issue or problem can be addressed through a regular community development approach or advocacy will depend upon our change objective. however.. and jobless women in the community.The grassroots. probably a regular CD approach will suffice. Problem/Issue: The village lacks water especially during the dry season. illiterate. On the other hand. numeracy. can advocate on their own behalf. Poor. advocacy is probably the correct approach. They can prove to be a potent force if they are organized. and income-generation.
These women are among the most vulnerable in the community because they are poor and powerless. 2.
. if the change objective necessitates influencing someone who can decide on the outcome. If the change objective is achievable within our means and does not require appealing or making demands from relevant decision-makers. Objective: To put in a well that will benefit the entire community.
REGULAR CD PROJECT EXAMPLES Work for Change 1. cannot find other sources of livelihood because they lack education and skills Objective: To provide the women with skills in functional literacy. Beneficiaries Villagers Characteristics of Beneficiaries Villagers are poor and lack resources. especially widows and divorcees.
Problem/Issue: Farmers’ low agricultural productivity. 4.e. and infrastructure.
These villagers cannot afford to buy medicines when they get sick. Problem/Issue: Villagers are suffering from various health problems.. inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Objective: To address the problem of health in the community by regularly sending a mobile team of health practitioners or by giving people training on health and sanitation.
These poor farmers do not have the resources (i. knowledge or skills) to increase their agricultural outputs. Objective: To increase the agricultural outputs of farmers through the provision of training.
. authority. and influence to settle conflicts and impose order in the community. and influence to enforce the law against domestic violence. authority.ADVOCACY EXAMPLES Work for Change Advocacy Targets Village chief or Commune chief Characteristics of Advocacy Targets Village chief has more authority than the villagers. Objective: For the village chief to stop claiming personal ownership of the communal well and share it with the community. 2. Commune chief has more authority than the village chief. wife and child battering) is high in Phum Viay K’niya. Problem/Issue: The village lacks water but the village chief claims personal ownership of the community well donated by an international NGO. Village chief has the power.. village chief or police authorities. Objective: To eliminate or decrease incidence of domestic violence. Husbands who beat their wives and children. Problem/Issue: Incidence of domestic violence (i. Husbands are often physically and economically stronger than their victims are. Police authorities have the power.e.
Objective: Non-passage of the restrictive NGO Draft Law or passage of another law that will preserve the freedom from interference and autonomy of Cambodian NGOs. Objective: To address the problem of health in the community by setting up health clinics and services all over the country. and infrastructure. Ministry of Interior can propose a draft law. Problem/Issue: Villagers suffer from various health problems.
Ministry of Health and/or National Assembly
Ministry of Health has the authority to propose draft legislation on setting up health clinics and services all over the country. and/or National Assembly
Ministry of Agriculture.
National Assembly or Ministry of Interior
National Assembly has the power and authority to pass laws. Ministries of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment have the authority to propose draft legislation to increase agricultural productivity.
4. inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Problem/Issue: The Draft NGO Law restricts the freedom and autonomy of Cambodian NGOs. National Assembly has the power and authority to pass legislation on health. Problem/Issue: Farmers’ low agricultural productivity. National Assembly has the power and authority to pass legislation to increase agricultural productivity. Ministry of Environment.
. Objective: To increase the agricultural outputs of farmers through the provision of training.
the problems/issues are exactly the same. objectives and actions to be taken are at the local level. In the Regular CD examples.
.Advocacy Target Advocate
Take note that in Example Numbers 3 and 4 in the Regular CD and Advocacy Tables. they are at the national level. while some problems/issues can only be effectively addressed through advocacy particularly when the required action is at the national level. However. the differences lie in the level of action. Others require only a regular CD approach. while in the Advocacy examples. Some problems/issues can be addressed either through a regular CD approach or through advocacy.
refers to an
arena in the political and social environment in which basic human rights can be exercised. not dedicated to distributing profits to shareholders or directors. Civil society. If Civil Society is not vigilant. Kingdom of Cambodia). There is actually a wide range of advocacy approaches – from the confrontational to the diplomatic (see illustration below).Advocacy Approaches
Contrary to what many people think. bodily harm. advocacy initiatives are severely limited. State of Cambodia. Nevertheless.. however.
. In democratic environments. can widen democratic space. and even death. UNTAC. 2) Civil Society . They also shape the kind of advocacy actions that can be taken in a particular country:
1) Democratic Space . Democratic Kampuchea. Two factors make advocacy possible.
Factors that Make Advocacy Possible
The meaning and practice of advocacy differs from country to country and from one historical context to another.e. is also true. advocacy still poses some risks but the consequences are often not fatal. People's Republic of Kampuchea. Then ask them if Civil Society existed or if there were local NGOs during those different regimes.can be defined as the massive array of self-governing private organizations. on the other hand. Khmer Republic. The converse.
These two factors mutually reinforce each other: Democratic space can bring about the emergence of a vibrant Civil Society. advocacy is not always against the government or policy makers. Or a small democratic space can prevent Civil Society from flourishing
Prior to your lecture. advocates have a larger space in which to initiate action. In repressive political environments. but pursuing public purposes outside the formal apparatus of the state. democratic space can shrink.
Persuasion / Diplomacy Support / Collaborate
One's repertoire of advocacy actions is shaped by the context in which one is operating. The risks are great and the consequences can be fatal. Advocates – or activists – can suffer from harassment and intimidation. ask participants if advocacy was practiced in Cambodia during the different political regimes (i. Sangkum Reas Niyum.
for example. the Asian Development Bank -.
. Coalitions Coalitions and networks can be vital to maximizing impact as lobbyists. in multilateral agencies. Research After selecting and specifying the issue. The danger is that we skimp on our analysis because we lack resources to do solid research into how the micro links with the macro. These networks work best where groups are able to come together to plan a longer term proactive strategy. We need to know which ministry or department in the government we should lobby. Realistic. Make a list of all these advocacy targets in institutions. Achievable. We must also research the decision-making process that the government. Below are excerpts from the booklet. Goals that are too ambitious are dispiriting and disempowering because you never really feel you are getting anywhere.or influencing opportunities such as the ASEAN. and on a clear division of labor. Advocacy Works! Lessons Learned by Oxfam UK and Ireland by Dianna Melrose:
1. and which individuals in these ministries or departments we should talk to. international finance institutions and multilateral agencies go through and identify the key actors who can actually make a difference. 2. Clear Aims. SMART Objectives One of our major problems is that we try and work hard on far too many issues at the same time. existing policies. and come up with policy change proposals. and Time bound. These can be issue-specific or formed around particular advocacy targets -. 3.Elements of Advocacy
Oxfam UK and Ireland have had many years of doing advocacy as part of their mandate to work for social justice by working against poverty. in government. This dissipates our energy and we are less effective simply because we are trying to do too much. agree on common advocacy positions. we need to do very systematic research into the issue. We need to identify clear aims and SMART objectives that are Specific. Measurable.
Campaigning organizations need people who can present a cogent case and can simultaneously champion the cause and sound eminently reasonable. Effective media work is essential because politicians and even international organizations and multilateral agencies like the UN and the World Bank are very receptive of what the media has to say. Below are excerpts:
1. to seize opportunities when they arise instead of simply reacting. This was made in response to the increasing incidence of homicides victimizing women and the lack of law enforcement ensuring public safety and security. is a product of four important ingredients.a total ban of landmines in all countries. In other organizations. For instance. members of the NGO Forum's Women Working Group and Civil Society Working initiated the writing of a statement on violence against women and impunity of murderers to the Prime Minister (See page 20). both within the organization and externally to the press and media. Managing Without Profit by Mike Hudson. Effective Media Strategy The media is critical to successful advocacy.4. Successful campaigning by an organization. advocacy is integrated in their work. Through selective use of various media. Advocacy in this case was done as a one-shot affair. The book. an issue that is not an issue at the moment can become a political debate. Leadership Successful campaigns depend on individuals who passionately believe in the cause and can argue the case for change. It is advocating on a sustained manner through the conduct of various campaigns. Jesuit Service Cambodia is a member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL).
Duration of Advocacy
In some organizations.
Ingredients of Successful Campaigning
It is best for advocates who are keen in pursuing a sustained campaign to be proactive – to act upon anticipated events rather than be overtaken by it. Guiding its actions is its long-term agenda -. For instance. enumerate these ingredients.
. It is at the forefront of the mine ban campaign in Cambodia and is also actively lobbying at the international level in collaboration with like-minded organizations. however. advocacy is done only as a response to an issue or problem.
They do not run on idealism alone. 3. People need to be managed. Management These organizations also require management. In short. tight management practices are needed to enable people to do the all-important campaigning work. It needs the skills that are found in advertising and public relations agencies. Campaign managers must work within budgets and have the information they need to control costs. Teams need to work both in and across the line-management structure. Only when the messages are clear can the organization build a strong constituency of people who support the cause both politically and financially.2.e. Political acumen This activity (i. people often put insufficient energy into looking after the organization themselves. These people have to have the ability to think in images and to create new ways of communicating complex messages to the public. 4. Fired up by the day-to-day tensions of running campaigns. Campaigning organizations need managers who can make judgements about changes that are achievable and who can then galvanize people into action around that change. Fundraisers need to be able to compare the cost-effectiveness of different fundraising methods. campaigning) depends on having the political acumen to identify campaigns that can be fought and won. Campaigns with unrealistic goals soon lose steam. Responsibilities need to be divided and individuals made accountable. Creative skills Campaigning also depends on people with creative skills to mount campaigns that capture the public imagination.
. Greenpeace has short-term objectives and calls them ‘small wins’ – the essential steps in the political process that lead to desired long-term changes.
To strengthen the capacity. especially women. To effectively strengthen enforcement of the existing laws. 2.STATEMENT of NGO FORUM ON CAMBODIA on VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND IMPUNITY OF MURDERERS Prepared by the Women Working Group and Civil Society Working Group of the NGO Forum on Cambodia To Samdech HUN SEN Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia We. Having considered the many and increasing number of violent acts against and murder of women in the provinces and in Phnom Penh (see attached list). in order to achieve safety and security. suspects have not been taken to court and offenders have not been punished for their crimes. Having understood that progress and a peaceful life depends on social security. Having understood that these violent actions ruin the reputation and dignity of Cambodia and seriously damage the interests of the country. the member organisations of the NGO Forum on Cambodia. 4. Having known of specific cases where clearly identified suspects go free despite the presence of witnesses. contrary to the Cambodian people's expectation that true justice must be done in Cambodia. Having known that all people. We would like to wish Samdech and Lok-Chum-Tiev longevity so as to lead Cambodia towards peace and development. proving that no one is safe from violence. in many circumstances. including all those mentioned on the attached list. on Wednesday. To ensure that concerned ministries promptly investigate homicides.
We trust in the ability of Samdech to solve these problems. humbly request that Samdech use your authority to achieve speedy and effective action from the relevant ministries and institutions to achieve the following: 1. To increase activities to protect public security. so that people can see that justice is being done and not simply delayed until people forget.
• • • • • • • •
Having considered the widespread concern for the present high level of violence and murder in Cambodian society. Having seen that the victims include both poor and rich. as well as to protect the honour of the Royal Government of Cambodia and development of the country as a whole. Prepared in Phnom Penh. 1 September 1999 Koy Veth Convenor Women Working Group Approved by: Russell Peterson Representative NGO Forum on Cambodia Khoun Bunny Convenor Civil Society Working Group
. are very concerned about the security and safety of their families. so that we and all Cambodian people can feel safer and have no concerns about public security and personal safety. thereby increasing the fear of all women and their families. non-violence and absence of abuses of personal rights to freedom. public conscience and morality of authorities at different levels. spouses and children as well as their own safety. unknown and famous.
We. in order to find and bring the offenders to trial in accordance with the law. the member organisations of the NGO Forum on Cambodia. Having known that. including especially the name of the Royal Government of Cambodia. and to increase the confidence and peace of mind of the people. 3.
and Problem Selection and Analysis Problem Definition and Issue Framing Goal-Setting Identification and Analysis of Advocacy Stakeholders and Targets Development of Strategies. and Timeline Implementation of those Strategies and Tactics Evaluation of Impact Application of Evaluation Lessons for Future Advocacy Efforts
These nine stages are presented in the illustration below:
Application of Advocacy Lessons Macro Analysis Problem Analysis and Selection
Evaluation of Advocacy Impact vis-a-vis Changes in . The Institute for Development Research envisions this process to include the following:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Visioning Macro Analysis.Democracy
Implementation of Strategies and Tactics
Problem Definition and Issue Framing Goal-Setting .Immediate . Tactics. Tactics and Timeline
Identification and Analysis of Stakeholders and Targets .Policy .Short-term
Development of Strategies.Long-term (transformational goals) .Opportunities and Threats .Civil Society .Power Analysis
Advocacy Process and Strategy Development
.Advocacy Process and Strategy Development
A sustained advocacy campaign can be seen as a circle or spiral that includes several interrelated and often overlapping stages.
your argument and position need to be well thought out. Effective advocacy campaigns rest on an organization’s clear understanding of what they want their society to be. There are a variety of ways to do this type of assessment. analyze them. In cases where the problem is relatively invisible. Different people concerned about a problem often will have different explanations as to its causes and solutions.Below are excerpts from the Advocacy Sourcebook prepared by the Institute for Development Research. your argument needs to help make the problem a legitimate concern capable of being placed on the public agenda. Chapter 4. documented and articulated to counter opposing positions. This allows organizations to assess the macro forces and power relations that will be affecting their advocacy efforts. and decide which are most appropriate for advocacy (Refer to section on Problem Selection and Analysis. advocacy groups find it important to ground themselves in the current social context in which they will be operating. In order to design effective advocacy strategies. pages 48-52). Clear definitions are also crucial for designing strong and appropriate advocacy strategies and for keeping efforts well focused. Analysis of Macro Social Context After establishing a long-term vision of the ideal society. Since there will be multiple explanations about the problem’s causes and multiple ideas about its solutions. or others whose concerns they share. Some may not even recognize it or want to give it legitimacy as a problem. Problem Definition and Issue Framing Well-conceived definitions and descriptions help groups present their concerns to a wider audience more effectively. it is important to have a way to link or choose among these competing problems.
Visioning This is the process of establishing one’s ideal vision of the world. Problem Selection and Analysis People get involved in advocacy because they. This vision can assist groups in selecting problems and issues that will help lead to transformational change and to set longer-term advocacy goals building towards that change. are facing problems that they think can be resolved or ameliorated by the actions or decisions of governments or other powerful institutions like multinational corporations and multilateral development banks.
. They describe some of the steps in the advocacy process.
As part of strategy development. Activities and Tactics Tactics are often defined as steps for carrying out your overall strategy – the specific things that you and your allies can do to put pressure on your targets. we need to design specific activities or tactics that will be aimed at influencing our different advocacy targets – 1) the decision makers and power holders who have the ability to grant us what we want. groups also need to identify appropriate tactics and activities that will involve.
The next logical step after visioning. In the case of opposition targets. From the evaluation. Sometimes people refer to tactics as activities. tactics need to be selected that will diminish the opponent’s ability to prevent the group from achieving its objectives. The evaluation can be made on three levels – impact on policy. Power Analysis of Advocacy Stakeholders In developing strategies. provides the basis for designing strategies and their accompanying tactics and activities.Goal Setting While framing the issue. groups can set overall goals and specific objectives for their advocacy effort. lessons drawn from the advocacy experience can be used to improve future advocacy efforts.
. analysis. and democracy (Refer to Measures of Policy Success in Chapter 3. Development of Strategy. and 2) those who have power to influence the decision makers. pages 26-27). we also need to assess tactics that each member organization or constituency can best use to make its power felt and reach its advocacy goals. and planning is to implement the advocacy plan. along with clear goal setting. To develop effective strategies. we need a process to identify and analyze the relative power of the different individuals and groups who are concerned about our specific problem and the related policy solution being proposed to address it. As part of this design process. This analysis. Afterwards do an evaluation after the period of implementation to determine what worked and what did not work. civil society. strengthen. Advocacy groups should be able to incorporate their longterm visions for a better society with the more narrow policy goals that they hope to achieve within a shorter time frame. and mobilize their constituents and allies so their power and energy can grow and be sustained.
Policy advocacy can influence the direction of policy reform in Cambodian society. The policy can be a piece of legislation or a decree.
It is the direct advocacy of a single policy or a group of related policies considered valuable by individuals or groups embracing a cause. design effective strategies. it is important that your advocated policy has the following contents: Policy Goals What are your policy goals? How important is each policy goal? Policy Mechanism How do you plan to achieve each policy goal? Policy Indicator How can you measure success in achieving each policy goal?
Political analysis is necessary for successful reform
It can help organizations understand the politics of reform.Chapter
Some Tools and Skills
Whether you are involved in a sustained campaign or a one-shot advocacy activity. organize political information. manage the process of reform.
When you are doing policy advocacy. the tools and skills presented in this chapter may be useful or even necessary. and improve political sense. identify problems and opportunities.
What are the characteristics of the Cambodian policy environment?
Help groups manage the politics of policy reform. strategic areas. the political map will indicate threats and opportunities.
What are the bases of influence and power of the key players?
. Look at the example below. a range of 1 to 5 points can be used – with 1 as the weakest and 5 as the strongest. the total number of points per column will indicate if the policy agenda being advocated has a chance of succeeding. They have the direct power to provide advocates with what they want.Political Mapping
A technique for identifying the different political players in a given issue. they are usually the advocacy targets.
In an advocacy campaign. As such. Help groups design effective advocacy strategies. disagree.
1 2 3 4 Very Weak Weak Moderate Strong
Example: Issue – Prosecution of illegal loggers
Key Players King Norodom Sihanouk Prime Minister Hun Sen National Assembly President Norodom Ranariddh Senate Chairman Chea Sim Minister of Environment Mok Mareth RCAF Commander World Bank Asia Development Bank Provincial Governor Minister of Interior TOTAL
Agree 5 5 4 4 5 5 5
5 4 34 3 8 4
Even if the relative power or influence of each of the key players varies. For instance. and areas to avoid in the political terrain.
What is the position of the players in relation to the policy agenda?
Positions can either be to agree with the policy agenda.
What is the strength of their position?
Strength of position can be given a numerical value.
Six steps in political mapping
What are the implications and possible consequences of the policy agenda? Who are the losers and winners? What is the size or extent of the consequences? How important are the consequences to those who will be affected?
Who are the key players (individuals and institutions)?
Key players are those who have the authority or power to make decisions on the concerned policy agenda. or to be undecided.
3) Stakeholder Analysis
What are the objectives. and practices. Long-term measures to sustain these gains – such as strengthening and consolidating grassroots organizations – tend to get excluded or lost in the rush of everyday demands that such advocacy efforts generate. interests.
.targets to alter the balance of power There are many definitions of the term “strategy. and motivations of the identified key players or stakeholders?
Stakeholders are parties who have a stake or interest in the outcome of an advocacy effort. behaviors.
Measures of Policy Success
Success in policy work is often defined very narrowly and is focused on one set of short-term goals: winning legislative or policy victories. programs.
Policy Networks Analysis
What is the process and system of policy formulation? What government institutions are involved in the process of policy formulation? What is the nature of their interrelationships? What are the “critical paths” in the process that present “points of intervention” or “windows of opportunity”?
When doing policy networks analysis. Sometimes the terms “stakeholders” and “key players” are used interchangeably.
How do the stakeholders prioritize their objectives?
Provides two important kinds of information: Identification of a common ground or basis of unity. take note of the following: Influence. Negative: efforts/actions to block or weaken the power of opposing organizations. Symbolic: efforts/actions to change perception of social realities of the major players and audiences involved in the issue. cooperation or conflict Intensity and formality of the relationship Form of influence
What are the transitions in the implementing organizations? What are the transitions in the inter-organizational environment? What are the transitions in the political environment? What are the “windows of opportunity”?
Strategies for Change . stakeholders would generally encompass a broader scope of people and groups. However. Clear directions in alliance and coalition.” The Institute for Development Research defines it as an action plan designed to influence public policies.building.
Positive: efforts/actions to strengthen one’s position and allies.
Success involves wining advantages on three levels: policy. the media. accountability. as well as improving the attitudes and behaviors of powerbrokers and elites. regarding NGOs and grassroots groups. donor. The arena outside government involves such actors as NGOs. NGO Experiences explains these three different levels of success. legislature/parliament. judiciary. POs. When groups do not succeed in getting desired legislation passed or policies changed. and democracy. government ministries and agencies. governments. World Bank and IMF. as well as multinational business interests.Policy success needs to be viewed as multi-dimensional. Civil society gains – refer to the strengthening. especially of government. The international arena involves another set of players such as international NGOs and federation of POs. some research on US NGOs indicate that as groups professionalize and specialize more on policy work and depend on experts. and world bodies such as the UN. The book Policy Influence. and establish important new links between groups or by raising levels of awareness about issues. Policy gains – refer to legislative and policy victories or achievement of favorable policy or legislative change. church authorities. there is a danger of losing touch with grassroots concerns – a situation which may actually result in lower levels of participation and a weakening of civil institutions representing the poor. function. and effectiveness of NGOs and other organizations representing and supporting the poor. even the police or military. However. civil society. 3. Excerpts from the book are presented in the box below and in pages 28 to 30:
Different levels of success 1. their advocacy efforts may still help consolidate or strengthen NGOs and grassroots institutions. and in some cases. the public at large. consolidation.
. 2. local officials. and expansion of the scope. business and academia. To undertake successful formal policy initiatives. NGOs and people’s organizations (POs) should work in different policy arenas and target a variety of players for advocacy and influence. The government arena involves such players and targets as the executive. Political and democratic gains – refer to increasing the legitimacy and political space in which NGOs and other civil society organizations can operate and function. influential citizens or powerbrokers. It involves expanding the ability of groups to gain and exercise power so they can hold government accountable and influence the norms and practices of the state.
Factors for Success in Policy Advocacy
In order to evaluate policy campaigns fully both on the basis of their short. As such. Learning about these experiences can challenge advocates to understand their own work in new ways and stimulate the development of even more effective campaigns and policy-related activities. it was found that factors that help determined success varied according to the outcome – whether high policy gains. these insights can be useful in raising important questions and issues for other NGOs and grassroots organizations working on policy influence inside and outside the Philippines. high civil society gains. These cases touched on various issues that concerned the urban poor. success needs to be measured by gains achieved across three different dimensions – policy.
. and democracy. full time secretariat with professional expertise Grassroots empowerment goal Campaign as organizational tool Popular education component Formal structures for accountability and decision-making Narrow and comprehensive policy goals Political context Campaign Changed perception of state Alliances with power elites and other sectors Multiple advocacy targets Willingness and ability to negotiate Narrow and comprehensive policy goals
Lessons from Philippine NGO Experiences
The lessons and success factors presented in the table on above and in the next page are derived from a particular moment in Filipino history. From their experiences in policy advocacy. fisherfolk. five cases in the Philippines were studied. or high democracy gains. civil society. peasants. However. Presented in the table below are factors for success according to different outcomes and dimensions:
OUTCOMES HIGH POLICY GAINS
HIGH CIVIL SOCIETY GAINS HIGH DEMOCRACY GAINS
FACTORS FOR SUCCESS Speedy agile decision-making process Willingness and ability to negotiate Change perception of state Alliances with power elites and other sectors Coalition. they may not be directly applicable to different political and social contexts. and ancestral domain.and longterm accomplishments. logging. In the book Policy Influence. structure. NGO Experiences.
Other power brokers . narrow objectives with more transformational goals provide opportunities for winning modest but strategic policy gains while creating the space and vision necessary for avoiding co-optation. Nature and Structure of Coalition The composition and structure of coalitions shape what a campaign is able to accomplish. campaign. for educating constituencies.Other sectors . clear decision-making process. Formal democratic structures of coalition decision-making and accountability. A coordinating body with professional Coordinating body with professional expertise and staff expertise and staff exclusively dedicated to the campaign enables a coalition to exclusively dedicated to plan. 2. Speedy. 3.1. and building toward long-term fundamental change. Defined in terms of both narrow Issues framed in ways that combine and comprehensive policy goals. and operate effectively. grassroots constituency support. Strategies and Tactics Building allies and getting sponsorship . coordinate.Multiple advocacy targets Strategy to counter opposition Building allies among influential policy makers and power brokers and getting their support and sponsorship provides groups with strength for gaining policy influence and organizational legitimacy.Government .
Willingness and strategy for negotiation
. The willingness and capacity of groups to negotiate with government and to accept the validity of incremental reform affects their ability to obtain policy gains and political legitimacy. Framing the Issue The nature and definition of the policy issue chosen by a group affects the process and outcomes of an influence campaign Policy issues framed compellingly in ways Taps urgent grassroots that tap urgent concerns generate strong concerns. A concrete effective strategy aimed at opposition players can counter their potential impact on a campaign.
Providing mechanisms for participation and policy change especially for disenfranchised sectors.
Political and Social Context A country’s political and social context shapes the attitudes and influences the strategies of NGOs and grassroots organizations.
Transformational Goals Groups seeking transformational objectives – basic changes in power relations – need an overall strategic vision that shapes and guides both long-term policy goals and short-term local actions. Accepting the legitimacy of achieving partial success. NGOs and grassroots organizations also need to be willing to make trade-offs and strategic decisions on when to maximize different gains. winning sweeping comprehensive reforms or major shifts in power is highly unlikely. The strategies and campaigns developed in one context may vary considerably from those developed in another.NGOs can strengthen civil society and good government through institutional and coalitional efforts to influence economic and social development policies. Since success in the policy or legislative arena is invariably partial and always filled with loopholes. Direct NGO policy work can affect civil society and government accountability by: Educating citizens on important civic issues and ways to access the political system. and affects the kinds of success they are able to achieve.
. When designing an effective long-term policy program. Building a stronger institutional base of civil society. groups need to identify and pursue strategic short-term goals that build toward long-term structural change.
7) Summarize the session and present the necessary steps to an effective meeting (see
page 38).Running Effective Meetings
1) Ask participants to answer the Evaluate a Meeting checklist (see page 32). update.
Types of Meetings
Task-Oriented Meetings are aimed toward achieving specific work objectives. The range of individual scores will indicate if most of them
are attending effective meetings or not.
Definition of an Effective Meeting
An effective meeting is one that achieves its objectives in a minimum amount of time to the satisfaction of participants.
3) Ask them to do the following:
Identify three disturbing experiences in attending meetings.
4) Present the two types of meetings.
. 2) Get their average score. Come up with a definition of an effective meeting (The definition below can
be used as reference).
These kinds of meetings are for: Information: To give advice. 5) Discuss the steps in planning a meeting:
Do we need to meet? Developing an agenda Selecting participants Choosing a meeting time Arranging facilities
6) Discuss and role play the process of conducting a meeting. or sell when a decision is already made Decision-making: To set goals and solve problems
Interpersonal (Maintenance) Meetings are aimed toward maintaining and increasing healthy relationships among members of the group so that they may achieve their tasks effectively and efficiently.
3. 7. 12. The meeting has a scheduled ending time. 18. Number of Statements Checked ____ x 5 = ____ Meeting Score A score of 80 or more indicates that you attend or conduct a high percentage of quality meetings A score below 60 suggests that work is required to improve the quality of meetings you attend or conduct. 20. No one tends to dominate the discussion. Meeting participants have an opportunity to contribute to the agenda. 8. Everyone has an opportunity to present his or her point of view. The decision process used is appropriate for the size of the group.
.EVALUATE A MEETING
Instructions: Consider the typical meeting you attend whether at work. 6. 15. 13. 4. There are summaries as the meeting progresses. 11. in the community. The facilitator or meeting leader follows up with participants on action agreed upon during the meeting. 9. The meeting begins on time. 2. An agenda is prepared prior to the meeting. 5. Compare your meeting to the following characteristics of an effective meeting. Participants periodically evaluate the meeting. audiovisual equipment is in good working condition and does not detract from the meeting. Check those statements that apply to meetings you normally conduct or attend: 1. People can be depended upon to carry out any action agreed upon during the meeting. When used. 17. Participants listen attentively to each other. 14. Everyone has a voice in decisions made at the meeting. Meeting facilities are comfortable and adequate for the number of participants. A memorandum of discussion or minutes of the meeting is provided to each participant following the meeting. The use of time is monitored throughout the meeting. etc. The meeting typically ends with a summary of accomplishments. 10. The appropriate and necessary people can be counted on to attend each meeting. 19. Advance notice of meeting time and place is provided to those invited. 16.
Sometimes.” probably a meeting is necessary. a memo. bulletin board posting. If most of the answers to the questions are “yes.
CHECKLISTS TO DETERMINE IF A MEETING IS REQUIRED
Consideration Is time of the essence? Is the group geographically dispersed? Does the size of the group make a meeting feasible.Planning the meetings
1) The first thing that you need to do when you are thinking of calling for a meeting is to
ask if it is needed. or phone call is a better means of disseminating information.
Do we need to meet? What are the usual reasons for meetings?
Give participants the Checklists to Determine if a Meeting is Required (see box below). say 10 to 100? Is it imperative that everyone fully understands the information? Is the information being presented needed later as reference material? YES ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ NO ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
Consideration Is the knowledge required for any problem solving dispersed among several people? Is the commitment of several people required for successful implementation of the results? Can the synergy of group interaction contribute to a quality decision? Are there likely to be conflicting points of view which need to be reconciled?
YES ____ ____ ____ ____
NO ____ ____ ____ ____
Are there questions of fairness that need to be resolved?
. email message. however.
Problem solving meeting: Choose participants who have knowledge to contribute.
. equipment.2) Developing an agenda: An agenda is a list of things to be done. authority over the area affected by the decision. Let the others comment on the samples.
Things that should be included in the agenda: Items to be discussed listed in proper sequence Beginning and ending time Time of scheduled breaks. 5) Arranging facilities:
The required facilities. and commitment to carry out decisions. if any
3) Selecting participants: When selecting participants. the best guideline is to have the
smallest number of appropriate people. the following characteristics should be considered when selecting participants: Knowledge of subject area involved in problem Commitment to solving the problem Time to participate Diversity of view point Expressiveness Open-mindedness
4) Choosing a meeting time: Should be acceptable to all. In general. and documents should be prepared before the meeting. Maintenance meeting: Invite all members of the group.
A feasible way of selecting participants is to consider the type of meeting: Information meeting: Select the attendees who need to know the information.
Ask two or three participants to write a sample agenda on the board.
Generate alternatives. Three major components of a meeting: Content: The information. Includes feelings. and expectations that bear on cooperation. Optional
5) Give a brief input on the steps in structuring decision-making meetings (see box below):
Structuring Decision-making Meetings 1. trust.
2) Get their average score as meeting leaders/facilitators and participants. experience.
4) Ask participants to role play an actual meeting. Give feedback to the participants after each round. Set objectives. Interaction: The way participants work together while processing the meeting’s content. Establish evaluation criteria.
What is the meeting leader/facilitator’s role? A meeting leader/facilitator’s role is to focus the energy and attention of participants and keep them moving towards the meeting’s objectives. opinions. State imperatives and desirables. 3. Evaluate alternatives. Define the problem. Study/discuss/analyze the situation. Structure: The way in which both information and participants are organized to achieve the meeting’s purpose. Do it in several rounds to give each
one a chance to be a meeting leader/facilitator. knowledge.
3) Get participants to discuss briefly the question. participation. Their scores
will indicate their present level of effectiveness as meeting leaders/facilitators and participants. 5. Secretly ask some people to play “problem personalities” to add to the dynamics of the role play. Generate suggestions on how to make meetings more effective. Choose among alternatives. listening. 7. 8.
. 2. 6. attitudes and expectations that participants bring to the meeting. and openness. 4. ideas. myths.Conducting Meetings
1) Ask participants to evaluate themselves as meeting leader/facilitator and participant
(Use the checklists on pages 36 and 37). attitudes.
Do I have clear objectives for the meeting? 2. Do I prepare an agenda and distribute it in advance of the meeting? 4. Do I maintain proper control of the discussion? 11. Do I request evaluative feedback from participants? 14.
. rate yourself as a meeting leader/facilitator. Do I follow the agenda? 7. Do I prepare and distribute an agenda or minutes of the meeting? 13. 1. A score of 45 and below suggests that you need to work harder to be
more effective as a meeting leader/facilitator. Do I arrive early enough to check the arrangements? 5. 0 = Never. 2 = Sometimes. Do I encourage everyone to participate? 9. Do I manage time and conclude the meeting as scheduled? 8. Do I take agreed upon action? 15. Do I carefully select the invited participants? 3. 4 = Most of the Time. Do I follow up on action to be taken by others? TOTAL ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
A score of 60 or more that you are an effective meeting leader/facilitator. 3 = Frequently.EFFECTIVE MEETING LEADER / FACILITATOR: SELF PERCEPTION
Instructions: On a scale of 1 to 5. Do I summarize accomplishment at the end of the meeting and clarify any action to be taken? 12. 5 = Always. 1 = Seldom. Be honest. Do I start the meeting promptly regardless of who is present? 6. Do I help in the resolution of conflict? 10.
Do I arrive at meetings before they are scheduled to begin? 6. know the purpose of the meetings I attend? 2. A score of 45 and below suggests that you need to work harder to be more effective as a meeting participant. Do I contribute to improving meetings by giving feedback to the people who conduct them either by a note. rate yourself as a meeting participant. Do I refrain from engaging in side conversations while the meeting is in progress? 7. open my mind to the ideas of others. Do I. as a rule. while in the meeting? 8. 1. Do I confirm my attendance in advance of the meeting? 4. After the meeting. Do I ask questions when I am not sure about something? 9. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
. position. 4 = Most of the Time. 3 = Frequently. 2 = Sometimes. Be honest. 0 = Never. Do I complete required tasks such as looking up information or studying proposals? 5. social status. etc. Do I actively participate in discussions when there is something worthwhile to contribute? 12. even if these come from those who are different from my gender. do I inform the concerned people who did not attend about what was discussed and the outcome? TOTAL A score of 60 or more that you are an effective meeting participant. Do I help others stay on the subject? 13. 1 = Seldom. or a visit? 15. Do I take agreed upon action after the meeting? 14.? 10.EFFECTIVE MEETING PARTICIPANT: SELF PERCEPTION
Instructions: On a scale of 1 to 5. phone call. as a rule. Do I have a clear understanding of my role in meetings I attended? 3. Do I listen well? 11. 5 = Always. Do I keep possible interruptions away. Do I. such as non-emergency telephone calls.
Suggest other participants. 7. (Optional) Send out meeting evaluation. Stay on the agenda and subject. Make final check of meeting room. Take any action agreed upon. 8. Manage the use of time. When necessary. Take any action agreed upon.
During the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. Follow up on action items. 8. 4. 2. 6. Evaluate effectiveness as meeting leader. Define your role. Invite participants and distribute agenda. Evaluate the meeting & give feedback to meeting leader.
. Make preliminary contact with participants to confirm availability. Limit/control discussion. 2. 5. 5.
After the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. Select participants. 3. Brief others as appropriate. 3. Be open-minded/receptive. Schedule meeting room and arrange for equipment and refreshment. 3. 2. Know when and where to meet. 9. 2. Confirm attendance. 4. Participant 1. 4. 4. Prepare the necessary reference materials. Follow up on action items. Start promptly. 6. Clarify action to be taken. Limit or avoid side conversations and distractions. Help resolve conflict. 2. Touch base with non-participants. Solicit additions to the agenda. 5. 3. 5. 1. 5. 5. 7. 4. Prepare agenda. Know the objective. 7. 4. 1. 6. Make sure that room is restored and equipment is returned.Necessary Steps to an Effective Meeting
The tables below present a summary of steps essential in running effective meetings:
Before the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. Participant Block time on schedule. 2. Summarize results. Determine what is needed from you in the meeting. 8. Define objective. Take notes on your action items. ask questions to assure understanding. Participant Listen and participate. 3. Distribute minutes of meeting. 9. Do any required task. Review the minutes of the meeting. Follow the agenda. 6. Elicit participation. 6. 3.
gives some pointers in their advocacy manual. Pagsulong. with wide reach and influence. a coalition of urban poor groups in the Philippines. Be aware of what is being reported in the media. address. The sender should put his/her name. Its different forms are illustrated below:
Broadcast Print Cyberspace
Radio Television Newspaper Magazine Email Internet
Broadcast and print are traditional forms of media while cyberspace is a new realm of electronic communication.
Establishing Effective Relations with Media
Since media can be a powerful tool for advocacy. or to a particular reporter. listen to the radio. have it ready. television or radio station if there are events or issues related to your concerns that are worth reporting. experts or persons in authority. and other important contact persons. and watch the news to monitor that developments and public opinion. position or title. The Urban Land Reform-Task Force. Also list down the names of news sources. Be formal in your writing. Inform the newspaper. As such. Write down their telephone numbers (resident and office) and address. it is important that advocates establish effective relations with media practitioners such as journalists and reporters. and email address or any number where s/he can be contacted immediately. researchers. make sure that you have the addressee’s correct name and spelling. Read the newspapers. Below are some translated excerpts:
When writing a letter to the editor. If there is a need to issue a statement. telephone. Each of these forms would have varying audiences and different scope of influence and reach.Using Media for Advocacy
Media refers to all means of mass communication. it can be a powerful tool for advocacy. Have a list of media persons who can be contacted at short notice. organization.
write the objective of the press conference. If you want the issue to be reported the following day. when the issue of toxic waste dumping in Sihanoukville was exposed. and other materials about your organization. The press conference should be held in a place that is accessible to media persons. or other promotional items. It is good to include a map in the invitation. the date. Make follow up phone calls to confirm attendance. for instance the presentation of evidence. especially controversial or sensitive concerns. Advocates call for a press conference for greater impact. annual report. It is not advisable to hold a press conference at night because it could be the busiest time of newspapers.Holding a Press Conference
A press conference is a meeting called to disseminate information to the media.
. Speakers should answer all the questions clearly. the speakers.
Give the media a chance to take pictures.
(Optional) T-shirts. In the invitation. Relevant photographs. which should contain different kinds of related information. newsletter. hold the press conference before noon or at noontime. send invitations one week before the press conference. Activities like these that show action would have a greater chance of being published or broadcast on television. Whether or not to serve food will depend on what is practiced. time and place. etc. That place need not be expensive. buttons. Speakers should have sufficient knowledge about the objectives of the press conference so s/he can answer the questions. the Basel Action Network and Greenpeace together with the NGO Forum and Legal Aid of Cambodia organized a press conference to raise broader public awareness of the issue and pressure concerned authorities to take action. Usually. For instance. They also organize one if the news cannot be publicized through a simple press release or meeting with reporters. It is better if the topic of the press conference centers on a hot issue or an activity. a press kit contains the following (see box on the right):
Press release or news feature or both about the topic of the press conference and other related information. If there is time. stickers. Provide media with a press kit. They should also be prepared to answer other questions that may be outside the main issue. Brochure. They should practice answering probable questions before the press conference.
easy to understand. If necessary. telephone. A press release is said to be successful if it is able to relate its explicit objective with its real objective. Advocates should know the right time to send a press release. It is true that a press release can call attention to your organization or group and the work that you do.
. Advocates should be alert to the latest news that supports their concerns so that media will readily accept their press release. it is also true that if the press release does not contain any important information and only proves to be a burden to journalists or editors. a press release should only be one page. Make sure that the most important information is in the first paragraph or “lead. make sure that it is written well – clear. Length As much as possible. A press release is a tool of public information that advocates can use to develop basic information for the readers. However. double-spaced or single-spaced and error-free.Writing a Press Release
A press release is an important tool in relating to the public (See page 42). write “more” or “continued” at the bottom of the first page. However. In the example on page 42. this is optional especially if you want to limit the press release to one page. If you know the writer or editor. You can also use the letterhead of your organization. but it also obtains public sympathy and media exposure for the organization and the issue it is advocating. write it as a news item. and address. write a short note on a separate piece of paper or on a corner of the first page. It should have a connection to current events. Put [END] or [END OF PRESS RELEASE] at the end. Put a title to help the writer or editor decide if they will use the press release.” The questions Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How? should be answered. In the second page. Write the press release according to the style of the reporter or of the newspaper. repeat key words and information. Presentation The press release should be printed on a clean and short paper. put the topic of the press release on the top portion of the paper. put the name of the contact person. there are three signatories. You must remember that sending a press release is a way of giving information to the media even if they have the option not to use it. It not only helps journalists and editors. If it is more than two pages. Even if the press release is seldom printed in its entirety. Writing style If an event is important. It will also be helpful if the title summarizes the main point of the press release. his/her title or position in the organization. and direct to the point. Contact Person On the lower left-hand corner. It is a short article given to media to encourage it to join in disseminating the news. it will not be used.
This will also give the reporter or editor to ask further questions. A press release that is personally delivered has a greater chance of being used than one that is faxed. they buy space in a newspaper or magazine. identify the specific recipient to prevent it from being thrown away. Give enough time for the newspaper staff to analyze the importance of the press release. Monitor the newspaper. It is also good to record discussions on television.
Avoid sending the press release to the publisher or editor in chief even if you know them.Sending the press release Make sure that the press release gets into the right hands. send a separate press release. Do not give a press release when the deadline is near. the writer or editor has a chance to ask more questions or information. To ensure that the statement is published or broadcast in its entirety. radio or television to check if they used the press release. But do not overdo the follow up to the point of irritating the one answering the phone. Do not call the reporter or editor if they used the press release because it shows the lack of competence to check and monitor on your own. Follow Up It is not enough to send a press release and expect that it will be used. Giving Pictures Some pictures used in newspapers are in black and white glossy paper. It will help to call the newspaper or television station after a few hours or a day to check if the right person received the press release. (See example on page 20). or airtime in a radio or television program. others are in color. Paste the picture on a separate sheet of paper and explain what it is showing – put a caption. Send the press release to those involved in writing or editing the news. mailed.
. or delivered by a messenger. This by passes those who should receive it and may cause ill feelings. Write the name of the addressee in capital:
Attention: KHOM REAN. Thank the reporter or editor if the press release was used. A statement is a written or verbal declaration of an idea or sentiment. If you are going to fax it. That is why some advocates issue a statement instead. By being there personally. For every addressee.
Sending a press release to media does not guarantee that it will be used.
They do not need to read the whole story. Whatever is happening. Why inverted? For people in a hurry who have no time to read. Conventionalism. Newspapers also have limited space. etc. scandalous. Personalities are emphasized more than ideas. extraordinary. those that have national significance are put on the front page. If a news item needs to be cut. what has changed. Conflict. ideas. what is the latest.
Elements of News
Timeliness. What is familiar.
. Whatever the reader can identify with. famous. expected or stereotypical. Whoever/whatever is known. use the structure of an inverted triangle (see illustration on page 45). Proximity. they will already have an idea about the main point of the article just be scanning the first part.
Writing News Items
When writing news. concrete rather than abstract. Prominence. Whatever is interesting. Whatever has theatrical value. compelling. sensational. newsmakers. etc. During “heavy” days when there are a lot of important news. Clash of personalities. emotional rather than rational. Personalization. the important points will not be sacrificed. Dramatization. Put the most important information up front and write less important in descending order. Titillation and Novelty. The human factor in stories.What Is News?
What is considered news contains the essential information and answers the questions: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
It is important to know the elements of news to enable us to write effectively for media (See box below).
Lead Support. put the essential information such as who. where.
Lead Lead Support
. If possible. Usually the background is written at the end of the article but sometimes it is included in the main news.
Background. The details give color and shape to the news. Details. Here. Events mentioned here have already happened. and how. more details are given. why. The details to be included
should add more emotion to the story. It is also important that this not exceed 25 to 30 words. Here. If you cannot put all. choose only those that can call attention. when. what.Parts of a News Item
Lead. Here you put the information that had not been included in the lead. This part should be able to catch attention. Sums up the most important elements of the news. the other “how” of the news can be written.
This contains the events or information related to the main news.
Thailand to give moral support to the Cambodian team who will participate in the Southeast Asian Games. who?
what? when? where? why? and how? Example: A thousand urban poor dwellers demonstrated in front of the Ministry of National Defense yesterday to condemn the violent demolition of their shanties along the railway station.
5) Write the names of the persons involved or the authority that was the source of the
. the Cambodian team departed for Chiang Mai. the names are usually written at the end of the story. Patrolman Khong Pouv of the police detachment in the area identified the fatalities as Kim Sonleeng. In news that involve many fatalities. The NGO networks comprise over four hundred local and international organizations.
Example: The NGO Statement to the Consultative Group Meeting in Tokyo. poverty alleviation and respect for rule of law because Cambodia’s problems revolved around them. Prime Minister Hun Sen flew with them to give moral support. 20. Thailand for the Southeast Asian Games. The paragraph above can be broken down into two or paragraphs. However. The Prime Minister’s flight is more important than the Cambodian team because he is the head of the country.Effective Writing for Media
Below are some guidelines on effective writing for media based on the manual. 18 and Phit Prakat. Right: Prime Minister Hun Sen left yesterday for Chiang Mai. both residents of the affected district. write only one idea per sentence. The statement raised the three themes that cut across Cambodia’s major problems: human resource development. In a newspaper. done by three major NGO networks composed of almost two hundred local and international organizations. the better. write the most important details that answer the questions.
3) Do not cram all the details in the first paragraph. poverty alleviation and respect for rule of law. the main idea must not be sacrificed in cutting a paragraph short. raised the three issues of human resource development. Example: Two men perished in a three-hour fire yesterday in Toul Kork district.
4) In a paragraph.
rWrong: Yesterday. Pagsulong prepared by the Urban Land Reform Task Force:
1) In the first paragraph.
2) Start with the most important item towards the least important.
Example: Three major NGO networks come up with an NGO statement to the Consultative Group Meeting in Tokyo. the shorter the paragraph.
6) Introduce the persons concerned. When introducing them, write the whole name and
title/position. If possible, explain what this person does. paragraphs, the first name can be used.
In the succeeding
Example: Striking teachers condemned H.E. Tol Lah, Minister of Education, for saying that an agreement has been made with the teachers. These protesters denied that negotiations have taken place, insisting that they have not even met with the Minister. They said that H.E. Tol’s statement is a feeble attempt to make sway public sentiment against them.
7) Explain technical terms. Avoid them if possible. Use more familiar and simpler words
to help readers understand. Example: rigor mortis – dead
8) Limit quotes to those involved in the issue. Make sure that the quote supports the
story. Example 1: ''The majority of the people of Cambodia... are of the opinion that such an incompetent and mean person should be forced from his present position,'' wrote Ieng Thirith, the wife of former Khmer Rouge foreign minister Ieng Sary. She was referring to the director of the private Documentation Centre of Cambodia, Youk Chhang, who has spearheaded efforts to track down war-crime evidence against Khmer Rouge leaders. Example 2: Ieng Thirith, the wife of former Khmer Rouge foreign minister Ieng Sary, lambasted the director of the Documentation Centre of Cambodia Youk Chhang. Youk has spearheaded efforts to track down war crime evidence against Khmer Rouge leaders. The second example is shorter, direct to the point, and has more force than the first example.
9) Avoid using many words.
Use concrete and specific words. There was inclement weather yesterday. – She had an accident. – It rained hard yesterday. A truck hit her.
Use the active voice instead of the passive voice. It was decided in parliament that demonstrations will not be allowed. (passive) The parliament decided not to allow any more demonstrations. (active)
10) Use conjunctives to link up words, phrases or sentences.
Example: There is a law allowing women to vote but until now, it has not been enforced.
Preparing for Advocacy
Translating Knowledge and Skills into Practice
There are several things that groups or organizations can do to prepare for actual advocacy work. An important first step is to choose the problem or issue you want to work on.
Problem Selection and Analysis
Below is a chart containing a set of criteria adapted from the Midwest Academy, an education and training institute working with disenfranchised and marginalized communities in the United States. The checklist allows problems and issues to be compared across a range of sixteen criteria that are presented as questions that are answerable by “yes” or “no”. Those receiving higher scores or more affirmative answers presumably will be more likely subjects of effective advocacy.
Checklist for Choosing a Problem / Issue
Will resolving the problem / Will the issue: Result in a real improvement in people's lives? Give people a sense of their own power? Build strong and lasting organizations and alter the relations of power? Raise awareness about power relations and democratic rights? Be winnable? Be widely felt? Be deeply felt? Be easy to communicate and understand? Provide opportunities for people to learn about and be involved in politics? Have clear advocacy targets? Have a clear time frame? Be non-divisive among your potential constituency? Build accountable leadership? Be consistent with your values and vision? Provide potential for raising funds? Link local concerns to global issues and macro policy context?
Problem/Issue Problem/Issue Problem/Issue 1 2 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
After problems and issues have been identified and strategies developed, this same chart can be used to compare and help select advocacy strategies for addressing these problems. The term strategy can be substituted for the term problem on the chart and some of the questions modified accordingly. The subsequent checklist can help groups do an initial analysis or assessment of the different strategies they are considering.
Problem vs. Issue In carrying out an analysis, it sometimes helps to make a distinction between the terms problem and issue. Some advocacy groups define a problem as a broad area of social concern such as hunger, health care, poverty, or pollution, while they define an issue as one aspect of a problem. For example, if poverty is the overarching problem, expanding access to land might be the issue a group chooses as its advocacy focus. In this sense, they define an issue as a solution to a problem that can be addressed by the public policy process. For instance, under overall problems of health and the environment, national health insurance and pollution standards would be considered issues. However, since many people use the two terms interchangeably, it is sometimes difficult to be precise.
Another way of choosing a problem or issue for advocacy is to use the Problem Analysis Framework below. This framework and the excerpts below and in the next page are taken from the Advocacy Sourcebook of the Institute for Development Research:
Problem Analysis Framework Problems Consequences Causes Solutions
(Who benefits? Who loses?)
(Change in policy, practice, behavior, or program)
1. 2. 3.
This framework provides a way for organizations to analyze and prioritize their concerns. Guided by a simple chart, groups can discuss problems and their possible causes, consequence, and solutions. Using this framework, groups can list several major problems that their organizations and members have identified and prioritized. They can brainstorm some of the consequences and principal causes of those problems. They can provide ideas for solutions that would involve advocacy –
Grants to women's groups for education on rights Government job training programs Women's police stations Government-run women's shelters Stricter laws punishing abusers Men's education programs Etc. In their analysis.
After careful analysis. the women’s groups concluded that the provisions in laws on domestic violence were adequate but certain official structures and attitudes prevented women from using the laws.possible changes in public policies. goals and targets will be. A good problem analysis is crucial for deciding what your advocacy focus.
Example of a Problem Analysis Problems Consequences
(Who benefits? Who loses?)
(Change in policy. or program)
Abuse of spouses and children Murder of victim Victims fear the abuser Children do poorly in school Children repeat pattern as adults Abusers feel powerful Etc. They identified domestic violence as the overall problem they wanted to address.
Violent spouses Machismo Low self-esteem Poor economy Laws not enforced No protection to victims Women are afraid to report abuse to police Women don't know their rights. blame themselves Inadequate laws Family issues are viewed as private matters Etc. these women’s groups set as their goal the creation of police stations staffed entirely by women officers to deal with abuse cases. Because police were key in taking women’s statements and initiating the legal process. practice. they examined a range of consequences and then identified certain causes of domestic violence as being susceptible to advocacy. programs. They decided to focus their advocacy efforts on getting special women’s police stations established to handle domestic abuses cases since male police officers intimidated and denigrated most women seeking help. or programs – that could help address the causes and solve or lessen the problem. The following table summarizes the analysis of some women’s groups in Brazil.
. behaviors. or practices or lack of them. causes that sprang from public policies. they concluded that their main advocacy target would be the Secretary of Public Safety who had the authority to establish the stations. It was an issue they felt would contribute to their long-term vision of changing inequitable and violent relations in the family. As a result of this analysis.
The web chart is a method of analyzing a problem by identifying its causes. They did not put arrows in some of the connecting lines because they were unsure which ones were the causes and which ones were the effects. Afterwards you proceed by writing the causes of the immediate causes and connecting them with arrows until you exhaust all the possible causes and effects.
Loss of biodiversity
Reduced watershed protection
International market demands Population
Increased poverty/loss of livelihood Anarchy – Lack of rules
Involvement of military Fire Privatization of concessions Mining/Quarrying
Resettlement/ relocation Unjust logging practices Corruption
Profit motive of political parties (elections) Need foreign currency for government Lack of rule of law
Lack of land security
War Poor education Lack of awareness of forest degradation
Lack of long-term forest management policy
. You start making a web chart by writing the main problem in the middle of a flip chart paper and encircling it. Connect the immediate causes to the main problem with arrows. Then you write the immediate causes around the main problem and encircle them. the causes of the immediate causes. Deforestation was the main problem they analyzed. forming a virtual spider’s web. and the interrelationships among the causes and effects. The cause should point to the effect. Below is an example of a web chart made by the Environment Working Group of the NGO Forum on Cambodia.
the WGWR aims to decrease the number and use of small arms and light weapons in Cambodia and transform the desire to use own and use weapons into a commitment for nonviolent problem solving.Problem Tree
Doing a problem tree is another option in analyzing a problem. The example below is the result of the analysis of the Working Group for Weapons Reductions (WGWR). As its name implies. a coalition of concerned Cambodian and international organizations and individuals working for peace. the causes and effects of the main problem are clearly delineated.
Armed robbery and banditry Stray bullets/ Incidents with children
Other criminal activities
Suicide Accidental Obstacle to Rule of Law
Tribunal officials threatened
Under influence of alcohol or anger
Abuse of authority and law enforcement
Guns are Harmful
Overwhelming presence of weapons Legal impunity
Political conflict/ Lack of trust
Lack of rule of law Culture of violence
Desire for selfdefense/Sense of insecurity
. In this approach.
did not mean inability. and solutions? How do the opposition define the problem.Problem Definition and Issue Framing
Once advocates identify and select an issue or problem. The code was their ideal vision of what they wanted and set the standard for the later compromises the coalition was willing to accept in negotiations with legislators. Excerpts below and in the next page are from the Advocacy Sourcebook prepared by the Institute for Development Research:
How do you define the problem and its solution? Who benefits and who loses from it? What are the principal causes of the problem? What are the political solutions that can best address the problem? Does the problem require new or changed laws. putting that power in the hands of communities. that care needs to be taken in framing your issue not to dilute its power and appeal by softening or compromising its message to the point where its core constituencies and supporters no longer recognize or identify with it. they emphasized. enforcement of existing laws. Coalition members first developed their own comprehensive fisheries code which called for basic changes in control over fishing resources. and solutions? How can you counter their arguments? What is the scope of their power?
This definition process can assist a group in framing its issue for the public. Issues that are framed in the most inclusive way possible can extend the potential for widespread support. Issues that are defined unclearly can confuse supporters as well as potential allies and lead to failure. its causes. and c) they can be framed in ways that incorporate both. an important step for creating effective strategies. Issues can be framed in terms of achieving a) narrow policy objectives. It should be noted. practices or culture? How do other important players define the problem. For example in the Philippines. Questions that helped one make an analysis of the problem/issue can help guide the development of arguments. another level of questions arises related to how groups defined the problem and the political solution to it. its causes. Government policies and programs needed to be inclusive of people. Policy problems framed compellingly in ways that tap urgent concerns can generate strong grassroots constituency support. however. b) comprehensive policy goals aimed at transforming the structures and consciousness of society. Although the coalition changes its message to a call for a total commercial log ban later. a coalition of Manila-based environmental groups concerned about the rapid depletion of forests framed their issue around the need for a total ban on all logging operations. The way in which a group defines and presents a problem and an issue affects their ability to garner support and ultimately to succeed in their advocacy efforts. whether large commercial enterprises or small community-based ventures. or changes in behaviors. Designing the code with
. The coalition framed its issue in terms of the need for establishing national fishing rights to protect community fishing grounds. For example. it was never fully able to overcome the initial perception of a total ban on all logging. Disability. This alienated important local groups. A coalition representing groups of Filipino fisherfolk incorporated both sets of goals and won some important policy gains while strengthening their membership. in Zimbabwe a coalition of groups representing the disabled framed their concern around the need for the country to involve all citizens in rebuilding and developing the nation after long years of a liberation war.
reflect immediate urgent concern of members or constituents. These include the following:
What are the transformational goals we want to accomplish – goals aimed at transforming the inequitable structures and power relationships of society related to the problem or issue? What specific actions.
Goal Setting and Planning
While framing the issue.
2. are defined in ways that combine narrow short-term policy objectives with more long-term transformational goals. 3. are stated in as inclusive language as possible to draw in broad support without compromising the group's major concerns. some basic questions can help clarity your goals. what specific changes do we want in a policy. educate communities. Because of its broader long-term vision. law.members helped them identify grassroots concerns. advocates can set overall goals and specific objectives for their advocacy effort.
Creative and amusing ways of framing issues can also serve to mobilize people. or changes do we want in the long-term – what will best address the basic cause of our problem and how will we be able to maintain our gains if successful? On a policy or political dimension. decisions. participation. how do we want to strengthen NGOs and grassroots groups as a result of our advocacy so we can sustain and expand our gains? On a democracy dimension. and draw on their knowledge. and legitimacy of civil society with our advocacy effort?
. they set the parameters for discussion with the government and opened negotiating room for themselves when they later narrowed their goals. and 4. program. The following checklist can help advocates frame their issue:
Checklist for Issue Framing The issue and problem -1. By framing the issue comprehensively. As in issue framing. the coalition kept members committed and got approval at the municipal level for several community-run councils to oversee local fishing areas. how do we plan to increase the political space. or behavior? On a civil society dimension. are presented in clear compelling and engaging language.
etc. A simple tool to do this is the SWOT Analysis – acronym for Strengths. This column refers to positive or favorable factors about the advocacy group and the environment This column refers to negative or unfavorable factors about the advocacy group and the environment
This row refers to the advocacy group or factors internal to it. It can also point out what needs to be improved in our advocacy group or modified in our objectives. Opportunities.e.
This row refers to the situation (i.. it is good to assess our own strengths and weaknesses and the environment where we are operating.) external to the advocacy group
The SWOT Analysis Table can indicate if our group is ready for advocacy work and also if the environment is favorable to the achievement of our goals and objectives. Weaknesses. and Threats (See illustration below).What are our intermediate goals? What constitutes victory? To what extent will the campaign or advocacy effort: -Win concrete improvements in people’s lives? Alter the relations of power? Give people a sense of their own power and confidence? Build strong organizations that can make relations of power more equitable and democratic? Improve alliances between colleague organizations? Incorporate political awareness and citizen advocacy skills? Increase citizen/NGO access to policy making? What short-term or partial victories can we win as steps toward our longer-term and transformational goals?
After setting our goals and objectives and before a comprehensive planning.
. events. groups. can be people.
People might be hesitant to join the advocacy effort. Strengths Group knows how to do research. Weaknesses Does not belong to an NGO network. Does not have close relationship with local authorities. Realistic. For first time advocates. Threats Does not have the support of the local authorities and powerful people. For participants who have not experienced doing any advocacy.
Making an Initial Advocacy Plan
Making an advocacy plan. For those currently involved in an issue. Does not have enough documents and other related information. page 17). making a plan will help focus their efforts on realistic objectives and doable activities. Relatively independent media. In this planning guide. it is possible to incorporate objectives that are SMART — Specific. like the one presented on page 57. Lacks logistics and funds. Measurable. Members support advocacy objective. Is a partner of an international NGO that is supportive of advocacy. Objective: To demand a decrease in the cost of electricity.
.Below is the result of a SWOT Analysis of participants of a Basic Advocacy Training Workshop in Kompong Chhnang province:
Example of a SWOT Analysis Issue / problem to be addressed: High cost of electricity in Kompong Chhnang province. Pressure from other groups. is a good way to end an advocacy training workshop. the process of planning will prime them for future activities. Presence of other NGOs in the provinces that share our sentiments. and Time bound (Refer to Elements of Advocacy. People want a decrease in the cost of electricity. would suffice. Has information about the cost of electricity in other provinces. Achievable. Chapter 2. albeit a simple and tentative one. a simple planning table. Members are afraid of the risks involved. Has capability to do advocacy. There is more freedom and democracy. Opportunities Changes in the provincial leadership.
KAWP and Chief of
. Activity 3: Coach the victims in filing complaints and negotiating with the authorities. . Contact the Land Title Department about existing laws on land ownership.KAWP and victims . .Analyze information gathered and make a list of names of victims.Meet with the victims in the villages and communes. Collect the money for transportation and other logistical costs. . The selected representatives or leaders will present their case to the district and provincial authorities. . supporters. the witness. Activity 1: Investigate cases of land grabbing affecting poor people in the province.Meet and discuss with people to decide on what they want to do.Goal: Should be long-term Objectives: Should be SMART and short-term Activities Tasks Persons /Groups Responsible Date
The following is an initial attempt of an NGO – Krom Akphiwat Phum (KAWP) – in Battambang province to make an advocacy plan:
Sample Advocacy Plan Goal: For people to have their grabbed land back. Prepare the list of the victims. Activities Activity 1: .Contact the Land Title Department about existing Tasks . Analyze information gathered and make a list of names of victims. Choose the leaders who will negotiate or demand the return of the lands. and land ownership documents.Investigate cases of land grabbing affecting poor people in the province. Activity 2: Meet with the victims and agree on a course of action with them. Objective: To demand the local authorities in the village and commune level and powerful people involved to return the appropriated land to the people. complaint.Discuss and clarify pertinent provisions of the
When 1-14 June 15-17 June 20 June
and land complaint.Do follow ups and wait . transportation and other logistical costs. complaint. Activity 3: .Villagers and KAWP . . supporters. Legal Aid of Cambodia.Representatives
15 Aug-30 Sept
A column that would specify expected outputs per activity can still be added to further improve this initial advocacy plan. supporters.Collect the money for porters. district and provincial authorities. until some results are obtained.laws on land ownership.Coach the victims in organizations such as filing complaints and negotiating with the authorities. the witness.Representatives
. If participants are serious about doing advocacy.
. ownership documents. . they can add other details after the workshop.Villagers and KAWP . return of the lands.. 27-29 June
.Prepare documents on .Prepare the list of the land ownership and victims.
Land Titles Office .Prepare the list of victims.Choose the leaders who .Human rights groups and KAWP.Go to see the targeted persons two or three times for the result.
15 July 16-31 July
.Villagers and KAWP . .Contact human rights .Villagers and KAWP . Activity 2: . Licadho for pointers on how to negotiate with authorities and pertinent laws. .Decide on method of will negotiate or demand the selecting leaders or representatives. Adhoc. . and witnesses with their corresponding thumbprints.Seek help from sup.The selected reprethe persons in charge in the sentatives or leaders will district and provincial offices present their case to the and the court.Meet with the victims and agree on a course of action with them.Representatives meet .
law on land ownership and use.
Evaluation questions need not be too detailed and complicated. Below are two options: Option 1
Things I found HELPFUL and IMPORTANT in the workshop
Things that were NOT HELPFUL in the workshop
My RECOMMENDATIONS to improve the workshop
. ask your participants to do an evaluation so you will know if the training objectives were achieved or if the participants’ expectations were met.Chapter
Evaluating the Advocacy Workshop
Knowing What Went Right and What Went Wrong
At the end of the workshop. They can be put in a form that participants can easily understand and answer.
Identify community development issues in which you can use advocacy skills? 3. Below is an example of an evaluation form that Pact-Cambodia used during its advocacy workshop:
Did the workshop help you to (Please check answer ) : 1. You can also ask about specific topics and the process or workshop methodology.Option 2
You can also ask more specific evaluation questions that correspond to your training objectives.
. Use knowledge and skills of advocacy in planning and implementing your program activities? 4. Understand the basic skills of advocacy as part of community development? 2. Develop your capacity and skills as a development worker?
Take note that each of the evaluation questions above checks whether the training objectives were achieved (See Pact Cambodia Advocacy Training Objectives on page 61).
To identify advocacy issues in their community that have a higher probability of success and are linked to their existing programs. 4. To understand the basic concept of advocacy as it is related to community development and community organizing processes.
. To appreciate the value of advocacy work in promoting common interests in the community. 2.
Results of the evaluation help improve the design of your future workshops. 3. Make use of them.Pact Cambodia Advocacy Training Objectives At the end of the 4 days workshop the NGO participants will be able: 1. To learn and practice some practical and basic advocacy skills that the NGO participants can use in their organization.
Melrose.K. Influencing Decision-Making in the Mekong (Workshop Proceedings). NGO Experiences. Institute for Development Research. UK: 1995. Institute for Development Research. 1997. Boston. Urban Land Reform Task Force. Quezon City: 1996. Policy Influence.References
Ateneo Center for Social Policy & Public Affairs. and Ireland. Phnom Penh: 4-6 August 1999. Advocacy Works! Lessons Learned by Oxfam U. Philippines: 1997. Managing Without Profit.d. Pagsulong. Penguin Books. Dianna. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
. Mike. Advocacy Sourcebook. Oxfam: n. Hudson. Oxfam America.