Camera Work

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Aims To identify the various shot types and techniques used in film, television, interactive media and games. To develop an understanding of camera technology and terminology.

To establish reasons why particular shots are chosen.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
OBJECTIVE CAMERA
The attempt to suggest that the camera acts only as a passive recorder of what happens in front of it. The use of objective camera relies on de-emphasis of technique, involving minimal camera movement and editing.

http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
SUBJECTIVE CAMERA Shots simulating what a character actually sees; audience, character, and camera all "see" the same thing.
Much subjective camera involves distortion, indicating abnormal mental states. Shots suggesting how a viewer should respond are also called "subjective" (for example, a high-angle shot used to make a boy look small and helpless).
http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dr, Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 1931 cinematography by Karl Struss
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dr, Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 1931 cinematography by Karl Struss
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Building Blocks of a Scene:
Wide Shot / Long Shot Full Shot Medium Shot Close Up Two Shot

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Wide Shot aka Long Shot
The wide/long shot is taken at a great distance. Almost always an exterior shot and shows much of the locale. Used a lot in Establishing shots. It is the opening shot of the scene and therefore tells us where we are.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Wide Shot aka Long Shot
Try to inject threads of narrative into the shot to grab the audiences attention and entice them to see ‘what happens next.’ A zoom towards a building tells the audience we are about to enter the building.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dirty Harry, 1971 cinematography by Bruce Surtees

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dirty Harry, 1971 cinematography by Bruce Surtees

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Full Shot
A full shot includes all of the subject. Whether it be a full shot of a person, object or a building.

Full Shot from Dawn of the Dead 1978
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Medium Shot

Full Shot

Medium Shot

For example, a full shot of a helicopter includes all of the helicopter. A shot which includes the pilot and part of the door would be a medium shot.
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Medium Shot
A medium shot is usually from the knee to waste up. Also known as Waist Shot or Mid Shot

Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991, Cinematgoraphy by Adam Greenberg
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Medium Shot

Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus

A medium shot is commonly used as it can capture facial reactions, body language and environment.
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Close Up aka Single
A Close Up concentrates on a relatively small object. For example, CU on the characters face or CU on a mobile phone. A Single refers to a single character shot.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Hurt Locker 2008, cinematography by Barry Ackroyd

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Extreme Close Up
Extremely close to the subject. For example, ECU on the characters eyes or on the actors mouth.

2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, directed by Stanley Kubrick
Sunday, 31 October 2010

2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, cinematography by Geoffrey Unsworth

Sunday, 31 October 2010

2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, cinematography by Geoffrey Unsworth

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Two Shot
A frame which contains two characters. Two shots are frequently used and are a fundamental peace of story telling.

Grand Theft Auto IV (2008)
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Three Shot
A frame which contains three characters.

Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory (2005)
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Four Shot
A frame which contains four characters.

The Inbetweeners (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Over the Shoulder

Red Dead Redemption (2009)

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Character Shots
Head & Shoulders Big Head Cowboy Tight Two Dirty Single Clean Single

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Good, The Bad and the Ugly, 1966 cinematography by Tonino Delli Colli

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Good, The Bad and the Ugly, 1966 cinematography by Tonino Delli Colli

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Camera Angles
Eye Level Birds Eye View High Angled Shots Low Angled Shots Oblique Angle

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Eye Level
Most scenes in a film are photographed at eye level 5-6ft from the ground. The audience sees the event as if it were happening right in front of them. This shot is used to treat characters as equals and discourages the audience judging them and permits viewers to make up their own mind.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Birds Eye View
Shot from directly overhead the camera hovers from above like an all seeing all powerful God. The shot expresses an idea of fate.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Shining, 1980 cinematography by John Alcott

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Shining, 1980 cinematography by John Alcott

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
High Angled Shots
The camera is tilted down and therefore the ground is in the background. A character seems harmless and insignificant. The higher the angle the more it tends to imply fatality.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
High Angled Shots

Red Dead Redemption (2009)
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dawn of the Dead 2004, cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Dawn of the Dead 2004, cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Low Angled Shots
The camera is tilted upwards and therefore the sky or ceiling is in the background. Can be used to inspire awe or excitement. Can also express authority and power. Heightens the importance of a subject.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Full Metal Jacket 1987 cinematography by Douglas Milsome

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Starship Troopers 1997 cinematography by Jost Vacano

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Starship Troopers 1997 cinematography by Jost Vacano

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Commando 1985 cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Commando 1985 cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991, Cinematgoraphy by Adam Greenberg
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Work
Oblique Angle
The lateral tilt of the camera. Suggests tension, transitions or impending movement

Evil Dead, 1981 cinematography by Joseph LoDuca

Image that slants to the right - Acting Forceful Image that slants to the left - Weak, Static
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Modern Warfare 2 (2009)

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
• • • • • •
Pan Swish Pan Tilt Pedestal Truck/Track Zooms

• • • • • •

Dolly Dolly Zoom Hand Held Floating Crane/Jib Helicopter

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Pan
Horizontal movement from a stable point. Look left and right, that’s panning.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Swish Pan
Fast horizontal movement. Creates a motion blur. Can make the shot more subjective. Can be used as a transition into another shot or scene.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Tilt
Vertical Movement from a stable point. Look up and down, that’s tilting.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Pedestal
Moving the camera up or down without changing the horizontal or vertical axis. Physically moving the whole camera.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Cameraman 1928, cinematography by Edward Sedgwick

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Cameraman 1928, cinematography by Edward Sedgwick

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Truck/Track
Motion Left or Right but not panning.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Exorcist 1973, cinematography by Owen Roizman
Sunday, 31 October 2010

The Exorcist 1973, cinematography by Owen Roizman
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Zoom
Changes the focal length of a camera lens to make the subject appear closer or further away. The timing of a zoom is critical because sometimes it can distract the viewer.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Dolly
Motion towards or away. Physically move the camera closer or further away from the subject.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Dolly Zoom
A cinematic effect that occurs when the camera pulls away from the subject as the lens is zoomed closer or vice versa.

1958
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Vertigo 1958, cinematography by Robert Burks
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Vertigo 1958, cinematography by Robert Burks
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Dolly Zoom
Aka The Hitchcock Zoom,Vertigo Zoom, Jaws Shot,Trombone Shot, Zolly/Zido, Telescoping, Contra-Zoom and Reverse Tracking, The Dolly Zoom creates perspective distortion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contra-zoom_aka_dolly_zoom_animation.gif
Sunday, 31 October 2010

1975

Jaws 1975, cinematography by Bill Butler

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Jaws 1975, cinematography by Bill Butler

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Hand Held
When the camera operator films without the use of a tripod. This type of shooting is like news reel and documentary footage. It can be very unstable.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Floating
The Steadicam was invented by Garrett Brown in 1971. Brown wanted to achieve smoother shots hand held rather that lay down bulky tracks which is time consuming, expensive and inflexible.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Garrett Brown Steadicam tests
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Garrett Brown Steadicam tests
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Rocky 1976, cinematography by James Crabe & Garrett Brown

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Rocky 1976, cinematography by James Crabe & Garrett Brown

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Crane/Jib
A Crane or Jib can be used to achieve high or low angles and can move smoothly in most directions. They are bulky, expensive and can be tricky to operate.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Crane/Jib

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Camera Dynamics
Helicopter
Footage shot from a helicopter can also achieve great results. It is also expensive and dependant on weather conditions.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Attenborough’s Journey (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Attenborough’s Journey (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Fallout: New Vegas 2010
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Fallout: New Vegas 2010
Sunday, 31 October 2010

Summary
Building Blocks
Wide Shot / Long Shot Full Shot Medium Shot Close Up Two Shot

Character Shots
Head & Shoulders Big Head Cowboy Tight Two Dirty Single Clean Single

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Summary
Camera Angles
Eye Level Birds Eye View High Angled Shots Low Angled Shots Oblique Angle

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Summary
Camera Dynamics
• • • • • •
Pan Swish Pan Tilt Pedestal Truck/Track Zooms

• • • • • •

Dolly Dolly Zoom Hand Held Floating Crane/Jib Helicopter

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Further Study
READING Cinematography: Theory & Practise by Blain Brown DVD Visions of Light (1992) The Cutting Edge: The Magic of Movie Editing (2004) Hollywood Camera Work: The Master Course WEB LINKS http://www.tv-handbook.com/Composition%20and%20Camera%20Movement.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolly_zoom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contra-zoom_aka_dolly_zoom_animation.gif http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010

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