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Camera Work

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Aims

To identify the various shot types and techniques used in film,


television, interactive media and games.

To develop an understanding of camera technology and


terminology.

To establish reasons why particular shots are chosen.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
OBJECTIVE CAMERA

The attempt to suggest that the camera acts only as a passive


recorder of what happens in front of it.
The use of objective camera relies on de-emphasis of technique,
involving minimal camera movement and editing.

http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
SUBJECTIVE CAMERA

Shots simulating what a character actually sees; audience,


character, and camera all "see" the same thing.

Much subjective camera involves distortion, indicating abnormal


mental states.
Shots suggesting how a viewer should respond are also called
"subjective" (for example, a high-angle shot used to make a boy
look small and helpless).

http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dr, Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 1931 cinematography by Karl Struss

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dr, Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 1931 cinematography by Karl Struss

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Building Blocks of a Scene:
Wide Shot / Long Shot

Full Shot

Medium Shot

Close Up

Two Shot

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Wide Shot aka Long Shot

The wide/long shot is taken at a great distance.

Almost always an exterior shot and shows much of the locale.

Used a lot in Establishing shots. It is the opening shot of the scene and
therefore tells us where we are.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Wide Shot aka Long Shot

Try to inject threads of narrative into the shot to grab the audiences
attention and entice them to see ‘what happens next.’

A zoom towards a building tells the audience we are about to enter


the building.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dirty Harry, 1971 cinematography by Bruce Surtees

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dirty Harry, 1971 cinematography by Bruce Surtees

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Full Shot
A full shot includes all of the subject.
Whether it be a full shot of a person, object or a building.

Full Shot from Dawn of the Dead 1978


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Camera Work
Medium Shot

Full Shot Medium Shot

For example, a full shot of a helicopter includes all of the helicopter.


A shot which includes the pilot and part of the door would be a
medium shot.
Sunday, 31 October 2010
Camera Work
Medium Shot
A medium shot is usually from the knee to waste up.
Also known as Waist Shot or Mid Shot

Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991, Cinematgoraphy by Adam Greenberg

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Medium Shot

Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus

A medium shot is commonly used as it can capture facial reactions,


body language and environment.
Sunday, 31 October 2010
Camera Work
Close Up aka Single

A Close Up concentrates on a relatively small object.

For example, CU on the characters face or CU on a mobile phone.

A Single refers to a single character shot.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Hurt Locker 2008, cinematography by Barry Ackroyd

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Extreme Close Up
Extremely close to the subject. For example, ECU on the characters
eyes or on the actors mouth.

2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, directed by Stanley Kubrick

Sunday, 31 October 2010


2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, cinematography by Geoffrey Unsworth

Sunday, 31 October 2010


2001: A Space Odyssey 1968, cinematography by Geoffrey Unsworth

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Two Shot
A frame which contains two characters.

Two shots are frequently used and are a fundamental peace of story
telling.

Grand Theft Auto IV (2008)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Three Shot
A frame which contains three characters.

Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory (2005)

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Camera Work
Four Shot
A frame which contains four characters.

The Inbetweeners (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Over the Shoulder

Red Dead Redemption (2009)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Character Shots
Head & Shoulders
Big Head
Cowboy
Tight Two
Dirty Single
Clean Single

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Good, The Bad and the Ugly, 1966 cinematography by Tonino Delli Colli

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Good, The Bad and the Ugly, 1966 cinematography by Tonino Delli Colli

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Camera Angles
Eye Level

Birds Eye View

High Angled Shots

Low Angled Shots

Oblique Angle

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Eye Level
Most scenes in a film are photographed at eye level 5-6ft from the
ground. The audience sees the event as if it were happening right in
front of them.

This shot is used to treat characters as equals and discourages the


audience judging them and permits viewers to make up their own mind.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Birds Eye View

Shot from directly overhead the camera hovers from above like an all
seeing all powerful God.

The shot expresses an idea of fate.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Shining, 1980 cinematography by John Alcott

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Shining, 1980 cinematography by John Alcott

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
High Angled Shots

The camera is tilted down and therefore the ground is in the background.

A character seems harmless and insignificant.

The higher the angle the more it tends to imply fatality.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
High Angled Shots

Red Dead Redemption (2009)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dawn of the Dead 2004, cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Dawn of the Dead 2004, cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Low Angled Shots
The camera is tilted upwards and therefore the sky or ceiling is in the
background.

Can be used to inspire awe or excitement.

Can also express authority and power.

Heightens the importance of a subject.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Full Metal Jacket 1987 cinematography by Douglas Milsome

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Starship Troopers 1997 cinematography by Jost Vacano

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Starship Troopers 1997 cinematography by Jost Vacano

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Commando 1985 cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Commando 1985 cinematography by Matthew F. Leonetti

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Low Angled Shots

Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991, Cinematgoraphy by Adam Greenberg

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Work
Oblique Angle
The lateral tilt of the camera.

Suggests tension, transitions or


impending movement

Evil Dead, 1981 cinematography by Joseph LoDuca

Image that slants to the right - Acting Forceful

Image that slants to the left - Weak, Static

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Modern Warfare 2 (2009)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
• Pan • Dolly

• Swish Pan • Dolly Zoom

• Tilt • Hand Held

• Pedestal • Floating

• Truck/Track • Crane/Jib

• Zooms • Helicopter

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Pan

Horizontal movement from a stable point.


Look left and right, that’s panning.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Swish Pan

Fast horizontal movement. Creates a motion blur.

Can make the shot more subjective.

Can be used as a transition into another shot or scene.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Tilt

Vertical Movement from a stable point.


Look up and down, that’s tilting.

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Camera Dynamics
Pedestal

Moving the camera up or down without changing the horizontal or


vertical axis.

Physically moving the whole camera.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Cameraman 1928, cinematography by Edward Sedgwick

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Cameraman 1928, cinematography by Edward Sedgwick

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Truck/Track

Motion Left or
Right but not
panning.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Exorcist 1973, cinematography by Owen Roizman

Sunday, 31 October 2010


The Exorcist 1973, cinematography by Owen Roizman

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Zoom

Changes the focal length of a camera lens to make the subject appear
closer or further away.

The timing of a zoom is critical because sometimes it can distract the


viewer.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Dolly

Motion towards or away.


Physically move the camera closer or further away from the subject.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Dolly Zoom

A cinematic effect that occurs when the camera pulls away from the
subject as the lens is zoomed closer or vice versa.

1958
Sunday, 31 October 2010
Vertigo 1958, cinematography by Robert Burks

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Vertigo 1958, cinematography by Robert Burks

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Dolly Zoom

Aka The Hitchcock Zoom,Vertigo Zoom, Jaws Shot,Trombone Shot,


Zolly/Zido, Telescoping, Contra-Zoom and Reverse Tracking, The Dolly
Zoom creates perspective distortion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contra-zoom_aka_dolly_zoom_animation.gif
1975
Sunday, 31 October 2010
Jaws 1975, cinematography by Bill Butler

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Jaws 1975, cinematography by Bill Butler

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Hand Held

When the camera operator films without the use of a tripod.

This type of shooting is like news reel and documentary footage.

It can be very unstable.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Floating

The Steadicam was invented by Garrett Brown in 1971.

Brown wanted to achieve smoother shots hand held rather that lay
down bulky tracks which is time consuming, expensive and inflexible.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Garrett Brown Steadicam tests

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Garrett Brown Steadicam tests

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Rocky 1976, cinematography by James Crabe & Garrett Brown

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Rocky 1976, cinematography by James Crabe & Garrett Brown

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Crane/Jib

A Crane or Jib can be used to achieve high or low angles and can move
smoothly in most directions.

They are bulky, expensive and can be tricky to operate.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Crane/Jib

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Camera Dynamics
Helicopter

Footage shot from a helicopter can also achieve great results.


It is also expensive and dependant on weather conditions.

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Attenborough’s Journey (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Attenborough’s Journey (2010)

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Goodfellas 1990, cinematography by Michael Ballhaus

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Fallout: New Vegas 2010

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Fallout: New Vegas 2010

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Summary
Building Blocks Character Shots

Wide Shot / Long Shot Head & Shoulders


Full Shot Big Head
Medium Shot Cowboy
Close Up Tight Two
Two Shot Dirty Single
Clean Single

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Summary
Camera Angles

Eye Level
Birds Eye View
High Angled Shots
Low Angled Shots
Oblique Angle

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Summary
Camera Dynamics
• Pan • Dolly

• Swish Pan • Dolly Zoom

• Tilt • Hand Held

• Pedestal • Floating

• Truck/Track • Crane/Jib

• Zooms • Helicopter

Sunday, 31 October 2010


Further Study
READING
Cinematography: Theory & Practise by Blain Brown

DVD
Visions of Light (1992)
The Cutting Edge: The Magic of Movie Editing (2004)
Hollywood Camera Work: The Master Course

WEB LINKS
http://www.tv-handbook.com/Composition%20and%20Camera%20Movement.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolly_zoom
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contra-zoom_aka_dolly_zoom_animation.gif
http://www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.html

Sunday, 31 October 2010