WHAT IS BASEMENT«

  

A basement is a story or several stories of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. Not all buildings have basements.
For buildings with basements, the furnace, water heater, car park and air-conditioning system of a house or building are typically located in the basement; so also are amenities such as the electrical distribution system, and cable television distribution point.

IZATUL LAILI JABAR

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Basement Grades (BS 8102)
Grade Grade 1: Basic Utility Grade 2: Better Utility Possible Use Car parking, Mechanical plant rooms Retail Storage, Electrical plant rooms Conditions Required >65% relative humidity 15-32oC temperature 35-50% relative humidity Temperature depends on use:<15oC for storage, up to 42oC for plant rooms 40-60% relative humidity Temperature range 18-29oC, depending on use Moisture Exclusion Minor wet seepage and visible damp patches may be acceptable. Wet seepage unacceptable. No visible moisture patches Seepage and wet patches unacceptable. Possible active control of internal environment required to control temperature and humidity. Environment tightly controlled by active measures. Seepage and visible dampness unacceptable.

Grade 3: Habitable

Offices, Residential use, Kitchens, Restaurants etc

Grade 4: Special

Archive storage of books, documents, art etc

35-50% relative humidity Temperature range typically 13-22oC
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Selection of types of basement 
   

Level of ground water on site Possible contamination of ground water Natural drainage Soil type Access to site

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Requirement of wall below ground 
  

Structural stability Durability Moisture exclusion Buildability

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Basement Type 

Type A - Tanked   

Use impervious material internally or externally to exclude moisture The selected waterproofing element must be capable to withstand hydrostatic pressure from ground water & other loadings Create a tanking effect

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Type A - Tanked

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Type B ± Waterproof  

Utilise waterproof materials within the structure of walls ± structural integrated protection. Introduce crystallising agent inside concrete + usage of proper construction joints

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Type B ± Waterproof

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Type C ± Drained 

Allow the ground water to pass through the wall by providing mechanism to drain it away.

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Type C ± Drained

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TYPES OF BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION 
OPEN-CUT

CONSTRUCTION  CUT AND COVER CONSTRUCTION  BOTTOM UP  TOP DOWN CONSTRUCTION

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OPEN-CUT EXCAVATION

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For all excavations, operators must know:  the line;  the final depth of the excavation;  the approximate width of the excavation at the top; and  the location of any services or other hazards.

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If there is sufficient right of way, open cut trenches can be used in almost any soil condition. Generally a sloped open cut excavation is the most cost and schedule effective method of trenching. When the trench is very deep and/or expensive backfill materials are required, then a vertical cut at the toe of the slope supported by shoring may be effective. Ground water and weak lower layers may force partial shoring or flattening of the excavation slopes.
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OPEN-CUT CONSTRUCTION

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Open cut advantages 
  

 

Allows continuous excavation, laying and backfilling operations. Minor breakdowns usually do not cause delays to all activities. The open trench needs only the design of the cut bank slope. OSHA guidelines can be used, although cost saving usually will result if the bank slope is checked and designed by a registered engineer for a steeper slope. Sloping the excavation is the simplest method to design and use. Because there are no additional support operations and equipment, it is the economical choice. The open trench provides easy access to the work because equipment and construction materials are minimized. The open cut method is suitable for most ground conditions, except for oozing mud and running sands.

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Open cut disadvantages 
 



The slope of the bank requires more excavation and backfill volume than the other options. The only bank support is the strength of the soil. If drying, flooding, or change of soil properties weakens the soil, then sloughing and collapse can happen with little or no warning. The sloped banks require a wider work area. The bank slopes may force the use of larger equipment because the distance to reach into the trench is increased and a greater volume of soil must be excavated and backfilled.
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Construction Method for Shallow Basement  

Open excavation with sloping sides (if constraints of space on the site permits) Angle of slope nature of soil + moisture content

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Construction Method for Deep Basement 

Open excavation is not suitable: 
  

Extent of excavation required around the building would be impractical Risk of affecting ground support for adjacent building High cost for large scale of excavation Existence of high ground water level excavation with temporary support Excavation supported by permanent retaining walls embedded in ground 

Use: 


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CUT AND COVER CONSTRUCTION

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The cut and cover construction technique has been used for many years as a means for building underground transportation facilities. This method involves the installation of temporary walls to support the sides of the excavation, a bracing system, control of ground water, and underpinning of adjacent structures where necessary.

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The main disadvantages of a cut and cover tunnel are its disruptive effects in congested urban environment.  Cost of cut and cover construction increases sharply with increased depth. Tunnel driving costs are usually higher per meter of tunnel than the average shallow cut and cover tunnel. 

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Cut and cover tunnel Ramp
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Soldier piles and lagging

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Steel sheet piles

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BOTTOM UP CONSTRUCTION

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1.

2. 3.

4.

Form perimeter walls to enclose the area to be excavated Excavation install props excavation Construct foundation+column slab (suspended slab) Proceed upper works: extend column, continue upper slabs towards ground level
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TOP DOWN CONSTRUCTION

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Preferred method: speed, cost, ground stability Make use of permanent elements to provide rigidity and bracing. Not required temporary props

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Overall construction method: typically top down, bottom upwards or semi top-down. Wall method. (temporary, permanent or both) 
    

king post walls steel sheet piling soil mix columns r.c. contiguous piles r.c. secant piles (hard/hard, hard/soft) diaphragm walls

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Wall selection  

 

King post walls. Timber laggings allowed to slide downwards between king posts. Poor tolerances, loss of ground. Sheet piling. poor tolerances, Split clutches due to obstructions. Contiguous piles, secant piles. wasting of pile shafts. Overbreak. Diaphragm walls. Slurry inclusions, poor joints, poor cover to steel,bleed, poor tolerances, inclusions at toe of walls.
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Contiguous Piled Wall -IZATUL LAILI JABAR 750mm diameter at 900mm Centres

Plunge Columns - Sequence
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rig boring wall piles

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Secant Walls and Columns

Diaphragm Wall Excavation
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Reinforcing Cage Installation
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Guide wall Construction for piling
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The hard / hard secant piled wall, consisted of 304 piles, 1180mm diameter at 1950mm spacing up to 31m long. The secant piling formed the lower part of the wall, with a new in-situ concrete retaining wall up to 1m thick built over the top. A steel beam was cast into every third pile designed to extend 7m above the pile cut off level into the existing basement. Short flat jack props were placed horizontally in the narrow gap between the beams and the existing wall, to aid the eventual demolition of the old wall. During the development of the site, six existing piles from the previous structure to occupy the site were incorporated into the wall. Water tightness was ensured between these and the new piles by injection grouting. Schematic of Construction SequenceLAILI JABAR IZATUL for hard secant piled wall

IZATUL LAILI JABAR Completed Hard / Hard Secant Piled Wall

Top-Down Construction
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Formation of permanent retaining walls to the perimeter of basement area. Form internal foundation and column support by using plunge method. Create the uppermost floor slab (with temporary base) Excavate downwards tru openings on slab or service shafts Remove temp. base, excavate until the depth of next floor level. Cast the next floor level, repeat the process. Can use non-suspended slab for the basement slab.

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Typical sequence of top down construction

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2) Install bearing piles with plunge columns

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3) Cast ground floor slab

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4) Excavate and cast upper basement floor slab.

5: Extend columns and cast first floor slab
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7: Extend columns and cast second floor slab (not shown)

6: Excavate and cast middle IZATUL basement slab LAILI JABAR

9: Extend columns and cast upper floor slabs (not shown).

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8: Excavate and cast lower basement slab.

Top-down excavation for basement levels 1 and 2

The existing massive piled raft at new basement 2 level was broken up with explosive charges at night and cleared during the day

Excavation at basement 3 level finally included breaking up existing large-diameter piles that were part of the observational method contingency arrangements

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