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Published by: Jargosouth1 on Nov 08, 2010
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Semiotics Semiology

Semiotics sees communication as the generation of meaning in messages. Meaning is not static , it is an active process.

Ferdinand de Saussure1857 - 1913
‡ Founder of semiotics ‡ Linguist ‡ Semiotics - theory of language as a system of signs ‡ Interested in way words ( signs ) related to other words

Saussure¶s Sign ‡ A physical object with a meaning ‡ Sign = a signifier and a signified ‡ Signifier = signs image as we perceive it ‡ marks on paper sounds in air .

‡ Signified = the mental concept to which it refers ‡ This mental concept is broadly common to all members of the same culture who share the same language .

Two marks OX ‡ Could be two moves in noughts and crosses ‡ Or they could be read as a word ³ OX ´ ‡ Signifier = OX ‡ Signified = mental concept of oxness . My way of giving MEANING to the world and understanding it. the animal ‡ Signification = the relationship between my concept of oxness and the physical reality of oxen. .

SIGNIFIEDS ‡ The signifieds ( meaning ) are as much a product of a particular culture as the signifiers ( words ) ‡ It ¶s easy to imagine that the signifieds are universal ‡ My concept of oxness is very different to that of an Indian farmer ‡ Even if I learn the Hindu word for ox it does not help me share understand his concept of oxness any better .

‡ In translations can¶t just substitute an English word for a French one .

Signs and System ‡ What do we mean by the sign OX ‡ Saussure would answer this by asking what we do not mean by this sign ‡ So man can mean . not animal. not girl . not boy .

Deneuve ± A sign .

‡ The meaning of Deneuve as a sign is also because she is not Charlize (too young) Cruz( to Spanish) Vanessa Paradis (not traditional enough ) .

S.PEIRCE (1839 ± 1914) ‡ American logician and philosopher another founder of semiotics ‡ Peirce divided the sign into 3 types ‡ icon ‡ index ‡ symbol .C.

bears a resemblance to its object.A map. .. Beethoven¶s Pastoral. Ladies toilet. Easy to see with visual signs. A painting.ICON ‡ Icon .

.INDEX ‡ Index .a sign with a direct existential connection to its object ‡ smoke is an index of fire ‡ a sneeze is an index of ahead cold ‡ If I want to meet you and tell you I¶ll hold a copy of the Argus and carry a rd rose then the red rose and the paper are indexes of me.

SYMBOL ‡ Symbol is a sign whose connection with its object is a matter of convention. There is no reason why the shape 2 should refer to a pair of objects. agreement or rule ‡ Words and numbers are symbols. (II is iconic) .

Film Semiotics ‡ Semiotics of the cinema is the theory of film as a system of signs ‡ We think of film as a kind of language ‡ Metz interested in The nature of the film image Relation between sound and image The effect of various kinds of editing .

focus .Metz ‡ Restrict study to narrative feature film ‡ Should study denotation and connotation ‡ Barthes 1977 Denotation is the mechanical reproduction on film of object that camera is pointed at Connotation is the human part of the process. what to include in frame . camera angle .

‡ Connotation describes the interaction that occurs when the signs meet the feeling or emotions of the user and the values of his culture Denotation what is photographed Connotation is how it is photographed .

zooms .Metz 1. Look at meaning of close-ups . Films made up of minimal sequences called syntagmas 3. Discover the codes of filmic punctuation 2.

Peter Wollen ( likes Peirce) ‡ The filmmaker like the mathematician is constructing sign to see what the implications of those signs are ‡ Wollen believes works of art exploit various codes ‡ Analysis of these helps us understand great directors .

They disagree slightly about the nature of semiotics ‡ Agree that they are trying to replace film theory and criticism with a semiotics of the cinema.Metz and Wollen ‡ Agree that the theory of film must be a part of semiotics. .

Umberto Eco Eco ³ it is not possible to understand the social relevance and aesthetic functioning of a movie without focusing on it from a semiotic point of view .

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