Name: Steven P Sanderson II Date: 6/26/06 Class: Intro to Business BA11 5040 Professor: McNamara Chapter 10 Questions from page

305 What are the similarities and differences between Taylor’s time-motion studies and Mayo’s Hawthorne studies? Taylor’s time-motion studies dealt with the time it took to perform a task. Taylor proceeded to invent a wide variety of sizes and shapes of shovels and, with stopwatch in hand, measured output over time in what became known as time-motion studies – studies of the tasks performed to complete a job and th3e time needed to do each task. Sure enough, an average person could shovel more (in fact, form 25 to 35 tons more per day) using the most efficient and effective methods and tools. Taylor’s scientific management came to dominate the 1900’s. With Hawthorne it seemed people would perform better when they know they are being studied. Both forms produced better productivity but in different ways. With Hawthorne’s study people felt that they were in a social group, the atmosphere was informal and they could talk freely and they interacted regularly with their supervisors and the experimenters. The workers were involved in the planning of the experiments. For example, they rejected one kind of pay schedule and recommended another, which was used and made them feel like their opinions were valued. How did Mayo’s findings influence scientific management? Mayo found that not only was an efficient method needed to perform the job in the best way but also need to satisfy the employees in a certain manner. This cam through with the Hawthorne studies. He showed that people needed to feel valued and appreciated. No matter what the physical conditions were, the workers enjoyed the atmosphere of their special room and the additional pay they got for more productivity, and satisfaction increased substantially. Draw a diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Label and describe the parts. Self actualization the top of the pyramid and is the need to develop ones self to the fullest potential. Esteem needs which is the next one down is the need for recognition and acknowledgment from others, as well as self respect and a sense of status or importance. Social needs which are the need to feel loved accepted and part of the group. Next comes Safety needs come next and are the needs to feel secure at work and at home. Finally the bottom but most important part of the pyramid Physiological needs, which contain the very basic of needs, such as shelter and the need for food and water. According to Andrew Grove, what is the ultimate source of all motivation? According to Andrew Grove the ultimate source of all motivation is from self actualization or the need to develop ones self to the fullest potential. Questions from page 316

Briefly describe the managerial attitudes behind Theories X, Y and Z Some attitudes of Theory X management are as follows: Employees dislike work and will try to avoid it, Employees prefer to be controlled and directed, Employees seek security, not responsibility, employees must be intimidated by managers to perform and employees are motivated by financial rewards. Some theories from theory Y are as follows: Employees view work as a natural part of life, employees prefer limited control and direction, employees will seed responsibility under proper work conditions, employees perform better in work environments that are not intimidating and employees are motivated by many different needs not just money. Lastly some theories from Theory Y are as follows: Employees involvement is the key to increased productivity, employee control is implied and informal, employees prefer to share responsibility and decision making, employees perform better in environments that foster trust and cooperation and finally employees need guaranteed employment and will accept slow evaluations and promotions. Relate job enrichment to Herzberg’s motivating factors. Job enrichment can come from many different forms on the job. Some of the things that cold bring enrichment to an employee mentioned by Herzberg are as follows: Employees need to feel a sense of achievement, they need earned recognition, generally need to be interested in the work at hand; they need an opportunity for growth and advancement. Employees also need to have a sense or responsibility along with peer groups and natural relationships. Another motivating factor but not the top factor is pay, which we all need to pay the bills, a supervisors fairness is also something that is needed otherwise employees may feel that they are being cheated or not as good as others or just not like by the manager. Evaluate expectancy theory. Can you think of situations in which expectancy theory could apply to your efforts of lack of effort? Victor Vroom stated that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. I find this to be true in many places. For example at my last job I was a supervisor, but my boss was a Theory X type of manager and wanted the employees treated in a certain manner. Now I deliberately chose to treat the employees in a different manner. I liked to treat them in the Theory of Y. For me it seemed to work, I was able to gain the respect and trust of the crew that I was supervising and was able to get the job done every night and usually ahead of schedule. By taking the employees out of the prison like environment I made them feel like they were human beings and actually made a difference in what happened around the job. Explain the principals of Equity Theory. Equity Theory deals with the questions “If I do a good job, will it be worth it?” and “What’s fair?” It has to do with perceptions of fairness and how those perceptions affect employees’ willingness to perform, the basic principle is that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions. Equity comparisons are made from the information that is available through personal

relationships, professional organizations and so on. This also has to do with social capital which I had mentioned in one of my reaction papers in the last module. Questions form page 322 What are several steps firms can take to increase internal communications and thus motivation? Some steps that can help to increase communication and thus motivation are self directed teams and communications systems such as e-mail. Open communication helps both top managers and team members understand the objectives and work together to achieve them. Communication must flow freely through out the organization when teams are empowered to make decisions – they can’t make these decisions in a vacuum. It is crucial for people to be able to access the knowledge they need when they need it, which is why we have seen the rise and growth of companies such as Google that take today’s information and catalogue it for the world to see, and apply if needed. The need to create an organizational culture that rewards listening is also important. Manages must create places to talk and the must show employees that talking with superiors counts – by providing feedback, adopting employee suggestions and rewarding upward communication – even if the discussion is negative. Employees must feel free to say anything they deem appropriate. What problems may emerge when trying to implement participative management? Some problems that may occur when trying to establish participative management are that the different generations may clash. It is common for the previous generation to think that the next generation is lazy and always breaks the rules. When in fact the new generation is just doing what they deem necessary to get the job done and is the best way for them to do it. Besides, employees react different to different styles of management. It is quite impossible to please all the people all of the time but it is possible to please some of the people most of the time and finding managers that can do this is not always easy. Why is it important today to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Are there any general principles of motivation that today’s mangers should follow? Today it is important to adjust to different motivational styles to help individual employees stay motivated not only because of the cost associated with loosing one and retraining another but it could also reflect on the company’s reputation. By loosing one employee you may loose the productivity of many employees because of the social bond between them that has since been broken. There are of course many general principals that can be followed by today’s managers. Many of them are mentioned earlier in the chapter. By making employees feel needed and taking them seriously you not only make them feel appreciated but you empower them at the same time. The way that they become empowered is that now they know you value their opinion and they will do what it takes to get that feeling over and over again. It makes them feel like not just employees but partners with you on the project that is being worked on for the company.

Chapter 11 Questions from page 338 What is human resource management? Human resource management is the process of determining human resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating, compensating and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals. What are the five steps in human resource planning? The five steps for human resource planning are as follows: Preparing a human resource inventory of the organization’s employees, this includes the ages, names, education, capabilities, training, specialized skills and other information pertinent to the specific organization such as languages spoken. Preparing a job analysis which is a study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles. Such analyses are necessary in order to recruit and train employees with eh necessary sills to do the job. The results of job analysis are tow written statements; job description and job specifications. A job description specifies the objectives of the job and the job specifications are a written summary of the minimum qualifications such as education skills and so on, required of workers to do a particular jo0b. Assessing future human resource demand is yet another function in human resource planning. Because technology changes rapidly, training programs must be started long before the need is apparent. Human resource managers who are proactive – that is, who anticipate the organization’s requirements identified in the forecast process – make sure that trained people are available when needed. Assessing future supply is also critical. The labor force is constantly shifting; getting older, becoming more technically oriented, attraction more women and so forth. There are likely to be increased shortages of some workers in the future such as computer and robotic repair. Finally establishing a strategic plan is the last part of human resource planning. The plan must address recruiting, selecting, training and developing, appraising, compensating and scheduling the work force. What factors make it difficult to recruit qualified employees? Some organizations have policies that demand promotions from within, operate under union regulations, or offer low wages which all of these usually make it difficult to recruit well qualified employees, it can also be difficult to find the necessary people to fill jobs because of the team work that is required. What are the six steps in the selection process? The six steps in the selection process are one obtaining complete application forms. This was once a simple procedure with few complications. Today, however, legal guidelines limit the kinds of questions that may appear on an application form. Nonetheless, such forms help the employer discover the applicant’s educational background. Conducting initial and follow-up interviews. A staff member from the human resource department often screens applicants in a first interview. If the interviewer considers the applicant a potential employee the manager who will supervise the new employee interviews the applicant as well. Next comes giving employment tests. Organizations use tests to measure basic competencies in specific job skills such as welding and word processing to

name a few. In using employment tests, it’s important that they be directly related to the ob. Employment tests have been severely criticized as potential sources of illegal discrimination. For example several Bell South employees sued the company for discrimination because they were not promoted when they failed math/logic tests. The employees said the tests did not assess the interpersonal skills needed for the job. Conducting background investigations is another central part of the selection process. Most organizations now investigate a candidates’ work record, school record, credit history and references more carefully than they have in the past. Obtaining results form physical exams is another part of the process. There are obvious benefits to hiring physically and mentally healthy people. However medical tests cannot be just given to screen out employees. Finally there is a probationary period that needs to be determined and met. Often an organization will hire an employee conditionally. This enables the person to prove his or her worth on the job. After a specified probationary period perhaps six months or a year the firm may either permanently hire or discharge that employee on the basis of evaluations from supervisors. What are contingent workers? Why do companies hire such workers? Contingent workers are workers that do not work full time and are often not entitled to the pay and benefits of full time employees. Theses employees can consist of college students, interns, seasonal workers and independent contractors. Some companies use these workers because they may be in an industry that has projects that last only a day or a couple of weeks or months but usually that is it. Many time employers will use these kinds of employees and if they are satisfied with what they do they may offer them a full time position. Questions from page 343 Can you name and describe four training techniques? Four training techniques would be as follows: off the job training which occurs away form the workplace and consists of internal or external programs to develop any of a variety of skills or to foster personal development. Online training offers an example of how technology is improving the efficiency of many off-the-job training programs, in such training, employees “attend” classes via the internet. Many colleges and universities now offer a wide variety of internet courses. Vestibule training is done in classrooms where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job. Such classrooms enable employees to learn proper methods and safety procedures before assuming a specific job assignment in an organization. Finally there comes job simulation which is the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so that trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job. Job simulation differs from vestibule training in that the simulation attempts to duplicate the exact combination of conditions that occur on the job. This is the kind of training given to astronauts and pilots. What is the primary purpose of a performance appraisal?

The primary purpose of a performance appraisal is to evaluate the performance level of employees are measured against established standards to make decisions about promotions, compensation, additional training, or firing. What are the six steps to performance appraisal? The six steps to performance appraisal are to establish a performance standard which is a crucial step. Standards must be understandable, subject to measurement and reasonable. Communicating those standards, where most managers assume that employees know what is expected of them but such assumptions are dangerous at best. Employees must be told clearly and precisely what the standards and expectations are and how they are to be met. Evaluating performance is the next step to be considered, if the first two steps are done correctly. Performance evaluation is relatively easy. Discussing results with employees is another important facet of the evaluation process. Most people will make mistakes and fail to meet expectations at first. It takes time to learn a new job and to do it will. Discussing an employee’s successes and areas that need improvement can provide managers with an opportunity to be understanding and helpful. Taking corrective action is also needed. As an appropriate part of the performance appraisal, a manger can take corrective action or provide corrective feedback to help the employee perform his or her job better. Finally using the results to make decisions. Decisions about promotions, compensation, additional training, or firing are all based on performance evaluations. Questions from page 350 Can you name and describe five alternative compensation techniques? Five alternative compensation techniques are as follows: Pay systems which may vary from firm to firm. Some parts of the pay system would be salary, pay for hours worked, piecework system, bonus plans and even stock options. Next comes to compensating teams, the individuals will receive maybe a special bonus if the team reaches a certain goal and still get compensated on their own merit. One example of this would be sports team going to the playoffs, the whole team may get a bonus but each player still has their own individual contract. Next come fringe benefits. Fringe benefits come in all sorts of packages. There has been an emergence in what is called a cafeteria style fringe benefits package. This allows the employee to choose what is best for him or her in terms of benefits. Flextime plans are also becoming popular in retaining employees through alternative compensation. Some families may be dual income and need flexible time schedules so they can take care of their families and get work done. Telecommuting has also grown in popularity as the employees do not need to leave their home to get their job done. What advantages do compensation plans such as profit sharing offer an organization? With profit sharing comes a feeling that the firm belongs to the employee and they almost do whatever is necessary to get the job done. They will make sure they come under budget and always get the task done on time or ahead of schedule. These are major pluses for any firm in business today. What are the benefits and challenges of flextime? Telecommuting? Job Sharing?

Flextime gives the employees some freedom to choose when to work, as long as they work the required amount of hours per week. The most popular plans allow employees to come in between 7am and 9am and leave from 4pm to 6pm. There are some real disadvantages to flextime as well. Flextime is certainly not for all organizations. For example, it cannot be offered to certain industries like manufacturing when it is essential for all employees to be there at the same time. Another disadvantage to flextime is that managers need to work long hours many times between 6am and 6pm. Telecommuting has grown tremendously in recent years. Nearly 10 million U.S. workers now work at least several days per month at home. Telecommuting can be a cost saver for employers. Now that some of their employees work from home there is no need to have office space to house them. Job sharing is an arrangement whereby two part-time employees share on full-time job. This is good for employees who cannot or prefer not to work full-time, it usually permits a high level of enthusiasm, and there is also reduced absenteeism and tardiness. Questions from page 356 Can you explain what was covered by the following laws? The civil rights act of 1964; this allowed the commission to issue specific guidelines for acceptable employer conduct in administering equal opportunity employment. The civil rights act of 1991 expanded the remedies available to victims of discrimination by amending Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Now victims of discrimination have the right to a jury trial. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 was added as an amendment to Title VII. It strengthened the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires employers to give disabled applicants the same consideration for employment. Chapter 12 Questions from page 379 What are major laws that affected union growth, and what does each one cover? Some major laws that affect union growth would be the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 this amended the Wagner Act; permitted states to pass laws prohibiting compulsorily union membership (right to work laws); set up methods to deal with strikes that affect national health and security, prohibited secondary boycotts, closed-shop agreements and featherbedding (the requiring of wage payments for work not performed) by unions. This gave management a boost. Why do the objectives of unions change over time? The objectives of unions change overtime because business changes over time. Obviously if an economy is going from manufacturing to service the need for unions is not as largely needed. Sometimes unions come into existence for a certain purpose and when that purpose has been met they no longer need to exist. For the union to stay in business they must evolve with the rest of the world and business or the very people they represent may be out of a job and hence no dues would be paid.

What are the major tactics used by unions and management to assert their power in contract negotiations? One thing unions do during a negotiation period if they do not get their way is to strike the company; this is a strategy by which workers refuse to go to work. When workers go on strike this could potentially cripple a company or even shut them down, so you can see how important the right to strike is to unions. There are also things such as work slow downs which seem to be quite self explanatory and something called the blue flu. The blue flu is where employees engage in sick-outs which are when they refuse to come to work due to an illness since they cannot be forced to come to work. Boycotts are also used. These are when a union encourages both its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute. Some management tactics that get used to pressure union workers would be things like lockouts. This is when management puts pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business. Since they are not working they are not getting paid. Another tactic used by management is and injunction which is a court order directing someone to do something or stop doing something. What kinds of workers are joining unions today? There are many different kinds of workers involved in unions today. Many are people you would never think of such as nurses and doctors. Typically you would think of a dockworker, road worker, or a United Auto Worker (UAW). Today many professionals such nurses and doctors are even forming their own unions in retaliation to many cost cutting measures used by Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO). Questions from page 383 How does top-executive pay in the US compare with that in other countries? Top executive pay in the U.S. has always outdone that of other countries. In other countries many of the employees will be on the board of directors where as in the U.S. you would never or rarely see that happen as company officials would not allow it. Due to this many executives I believe are taking advantage of companies, their employees and stockholders. Where here in the U.S. the average CEO would make about $34 million a year executives say in Japan would make a third of that. What’s the difference between comparable worth and equal pay for equal work? Comparable worth is the thought that people that require similar levels of education, training, or skills should receive equal pay. This somewhat thorn y issue has become more important as women have become a sizable and permanent part of the labor force. In 1980 for example women make up only 15 percent of the workforce; in 2003, the rate was close to 60 percent. Put simply it is a law against paying say a female nurse less than a male nurse unless factors such as seniority, merit pay, or performance incentives are involved. How is the term sexual harassment defined, and when does sexual behavior become illegal? Sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual advance, requests for sexual favors, and other conduct (verbal or physical) of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment. It

became a major workplace issue in the 1980s, but the furor over sexual harassment intensified in 1991 during the televised confirmation hearing of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. At the hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee, an attorney and college professor named Anita Hill accused Thomas of sexual impropriety. Although the charge did not block Thomas’s approval by the U.S. Senate and appointment to the Court, Hill’s testimony on national television clearly heightened interest in this issue. An employee’s behavior on the job can be considered illegal under specific conditions: The employee’s submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment, or an employee’s submission to or rejection of such conduct is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting the worker’s status. A threat such as “Go out with me or your fired” or “Go out with me or you will never be promoted here”, the conduct unreasonably interferes with a worker’s job performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment. This type of harassment is referred to as hostile environment sexual harassment. Questions from page 388 What are some of the issues related to child care and elder care, and how are companies addressing those issues? Childcare is becoming an increasingly important workplace issue in the 1990s and promises to remain a workplace concern for the 21st century. Questions involving responsibilities for child care subsidies, child car programs, and even parental leave are topics that promise to be debated in the private and public sectors of the economy. Many workers strongly question workplace benefits for parent, and argue that single workers and single-income families should not subsidize child care for dual-income families. The workforce in the U.S. is aging. The 2000 census showed that since 1990, the number of people age 65 and over jumped 12 percent, 35 million. The number is expected to double by 2040, with 77 million Americans over 65. In 2005 40 percent of all U.S. workers were between the ages of 40 to 58 years old. This confronts another problem: how to care for older parents and relatives since they are becoming the children or the next generation. The number of households with at least one adult providing elder care has tripled since 1992. In 1940 only 13 percent of persons age 60 or over had an elderly parent still alive: today, the total is44 percent. What are ESOP’s, and what are the benefits and drawbacks of ESOP’s? And ESOP is an employee stock option program. This allows the employee to buy part or total ownership of the firm they are working in. Louis O. Kelso, a San Francisco lawyer and economist, conceived the idea of ESOPs’ about 50 some odd years ago. His plan was to turn workers into owners by selling them stock. Using this concept, he helped the employees of a newspaper buy their company. Since then the idea of employees taking over al or some of the ownership of their companies has gained much favor – there are approximately 11,500 ESOP’s in place today. Some benefits are also increased employee motivation, shared profitability through shared ownership of the firm, improved management – employee relations and higher employee pride within the firm. Some potential drawbacks are as follows: lack of employee stock voting rights

within the firm, lack of communication between management and employee, and little or no employee representation on the board of directors.