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Allspice trees are evergreen medium sized, grow up to a height of 8 to 10 meters and with a slender upright trunk and smooth greyish bark. The mail trees produce only few fruits. The male and female trees are similar in appearance and cannot be identified till flowering commences.
Origin and Distribution The tree is indigenous to West Indies (Jamaica) but is also found in Central America. Attempts to introduce into countries in tropical regions didn’t succeed fully. In India, there are few trees in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The dried berries range in size (6.5 to 9.5 mm in diameter) and there are 13 to 14 berries per gram. The quality of pimento is affected by factors like growing area, stage of maturity of berries at harvest and storage conditions. Uses The major use of allspice is in food industry (65 to 70%) in domestic use (5% to 10%), production of berry oil (20% to 25%), extraction of oleoresin (1% to 2%) and pharmaceutical and perfume industry. Berry, berry oil, oleoresin, leaf oil are products of economic use. It is used mostly in Western cooking and less suitable for Eastern cooking. It has medicinal, anti-microbial, insecticidal, nematicidal, anti-oxidant and deodorant properties.
Botanical name Pimenta dioica Indian names
Kannada Malayalam Tamil
Family name Myrtaceae
Commercial part Fruit & Seed
: Gandamenasu : Sarvasugandhi : Sarvasukanthi
Foreign Name of Spices
Arabic Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German
: Bahar, Bhar hub wa na’im : Allehande : Jamaica pepper, piment : Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimento, newspice : Harilik pimwnsipuu, Vurts : Maustepippuri : Piment. Piment Jamaique, Poivre aromatique, toute-epice, poivre de la Jamaique : Piment Neugewurz, Allgewurz, Nelkenpeffer, Jamaicapfeffer, Englisches Gewurz
Hungarian : Jamaikai szegfubors, Szegfubors, Pimento, Amomummag Icelandic Italian Polish Russian Spanish Swedish Turkish : Allrahanda : Pimento, pepe di Giamaica : Ziele angielskie : Yamaiskiy pjerets : Pimienta de Jamaica, Pimienta gorda : Kryddpeppar : Yeni bahar
Norwegian : Allehande Portuguese : Pimenta da Jamaica
Description Aniseed is an annual plant with an average height of 30 to 50 cm. The plant is completely covered with fine hairs. Aniseed is ground-grey to greyish brown in colour,3 to 5mm in length, oval in shape with short stalk attached. Five longitudinal ridges are visible on each pericarp. Vittae (oil ducts) are almost always present embedded in the fruit wall beneath the ridges. It has a characteristic agreeable odour and a pleasant aromatic taste.
Origin and Distribution It is a native of East Mediterranean Region. It is widely cultivated in Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, South America, Syria, Turkey, Spain, UK and USSR. In India, it is grown to a small extent as a culinary herb or as a garden plant. The major products are anis oil and oleoresin anis. Uses It is used mainly as a flavourant, culinary, household, cosmetic and medicinal. The fruit of anis, commercially called aniseed is widely used for flavouring curries, bread, soups, baked goods, dried figs, deserts, cream cheese, pickles, egg dishes, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The essential oil is valuable in perfumery. The oil is used for production of anethole and sometimes as sensitizer for bleaching colours in photography. The other functional properties are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, stimulant, carminative and expectorant.
Botanical name Pimpinella anisum Indian Names
Family name Apiaceae
Commercial part Fruit
Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya
Valaiti saunf or aawonf Muhuri, Mitha jira Anisi, Sowa sompu Shombu Somp, Badishop Sop
Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu
Valaiti sounf Shatapusapa Shombu Kuppi soptu
Description Asafoetida is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the living underground rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula (three of which grow in India), which is a perennial herb (1 to 1.5 mtr. High). Origin & Distribution The species are distributed from the Mediterranean region to Central Asia. In India it is grown in Kashmir and in some parts of Punjab. The major supply of asafoetida to India is from Afghanistan and Iran. There are two main varieties of asafoetida ie. Hing Kabuli Sufaid (Milky white asafoetida) and Hing Lal (Red asafoetida). Asafoetida is acrid and bitter in taste and emits a strong disagreeable pungent odour due to the presence of sulphur compounds therein. It is available in three forms ie. ‘Tears’, ‘Mass’ and ‘Paste’. ‘Tears’, is the purest form of resin, rounded or flattened, 5 to 30 mm in diameter and a greyish or dull yellow in colour. ‘Mass’ asafoetida is the common commercial form, uniform in mass. ‘Paste’ form contains extraneous matter. The white or pale variety is water soluble, whereas the dark or black variety is oil soluble. Since pure asafoetida is not preferred due to its strong flavour, it is mixed with starch and gum and sold as compounded asafoetida mostly in bricket form. It is also available in free flowing (Powder form) or in tablet forms. Uses Asafoetida is extensively used for flavouring curries, sauces, and pickles. It is also used in medicines because of its antibiotic properties. Botanical name Ferula asafoetida Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Oleogum resin extracted from rhizome and thickened root
Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati
: Hing : Hing : Hing
Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu
: Hinger : Yang, Sap : Kayam : Hing : Hengu : Hing : Badhika, Agudagandhu : Perungayam : Inguva, Ingumo : Hing
Name in international languages
Persian French German Arabic Sindhi Hindi
: Angustha-Gandha : Ferule Asafoetida : Stinkendes steckenkraut : Tyib, Haltheeth : Vaghakkyani,Vagharni : Hing
Description Basil also known as French Basil or Sweet Basil or Tulsi is an erect glabrous herb, 30-90 cm high is indigenous to India. The leaves of basil have numerous oil glands with aromatic volatile oil. The herb bears cluster of small white lipped flowers in racemes. The freshly picked bright green leaves turns brownish green when dried and become brittle and curled. The major types are American Basil, French Basil, Egyptian Basil and Indian Basil. Origin & Distribution It is indigenous to the lower hills of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and is cultivated throughout India. It is also cultivated in Southern France, Egypt, Belgium, Hungary, and other Mediterranean countries and also in USA. Uses The dried leaves and tender four sided stems are used as spice for flavouring and for extraction of essential oil. Apart from flavouring numerous foods, it is used for seasoning in tomato paste products. The sweet basil oil is widely used in perfumery compounds. It has application in areas of medicine and also used as an insecticide and bactericide. Botanical name Ocimum basilicum L. Family name Lamiaceaee Commercial part Leaf
Indian Names Assamese Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Tetali or Tatuli : Imli, Amli : Ambli : Ambli : Amli, Huli : Puli : Chinch, Chincha : Teetuli, Koina or Konya : Imli, Amli : Amli, Ambdika : Puli : Chinthappandu or Chinta or Amlika : Imli, Amli
Name in international languages
Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese
: Alba Laca : Basilic : Basilienkrant : Basilkort : Raihan : Basilicum : Basilico : Manjericao : Basilik : Meboki : Lo-le
Description Bay Leaf or Laurel Leaf are dried leaves or an evergreen shrub or more rarely a tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 mtrs. The upper surface of the leaf is glabrous and shiny, olive green, and lower surface is dull olive to brown with a prominent rib and veins. The aroma of the crushed leaves is delicate & fragrant and taste is aromatic and bitter. The size of the leaves is ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 cms in length and 1.6 to 2.5 cms in breadth. The shape is elliptical and tapering to a point at the base and tip of the leaves. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Mediterranean and grow widely in scrub land woods in Europe and California. It widely cultivated in Europe, America and Arabian countries. It is not cultivated as a commercial crop in India.
5 cms in breadth. stimulant and narcotic properties. The major functional properties are anti-microbial. meat. Uses Bay leaves are used as flavouring in soups. Family name Lauraceae Commercial part Leaf Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Laurel : Laurier : Lorbeer : Lager : Ghar : Laurier : Alloro : Loureiro : Laur : Gekkeiju : Yuch-kuei Bishop's Weed Description Bay Leaf or Laurel Leaf are dried leaves or an evergreen shrub or more rarely a tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 mtrs. It widely cultivated in Europe.5 to 7. fish. sauces and in confectionaries. The size of the leaves is ranging from 2. stews. It is not cultivated as a commercial crop in India. Both leaves and fruits possess aromatic. olive green. hypoglycaemic. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Mediterranean and grow widely in scrub land woods in Europe and California.6 to 2. meat. The essential oil from the leaves are also used as spice and food flavouring agent and has wider application in traditional medicines of different countries. The shape is elliptical and tapering to a point at the base and tip of the leaves. anti-fungal. The aroma of the crushed leaves is delicate & fragrant and taste is aromatic and bitter. fish.Uses Bay leaves are used as flavouring in soups. Botanical name Laurus nobilis L. and lower surface is dull olive to brown with a prominent rib and veins. anti-ulcerogenic etc. sauces and in . stews. The upper surface of the leaf is glabrous and shiny. America and Arabian countries.5 cms in length and 1.
6 to 8 grooves. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Western Ghats of Kerala (India). anti-fungal. stimulant and narcotic properties. The major functional properties are anti-microbial.) Sprague Indian Name Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Ajowan : Jowan or Joan : Yavan : Oma : Jawind : Omum : Onva : Juani : Ajamoda. It is fairly common in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Fruit is weighing 50 to 180 gms. 6 to 8 seeds and succulent arils. Avanika : Omum : Vamu : Ajowain Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Fruit Name in international languages Latin Persian Arabic : Trachy Spermum Ammi : Zinian. Uses . hypoglycaemic. Its habitat extends from Konkan southward to Travancore and into the shola forests of Nilgiris. Fruit is a berry having a size of an apple. The essential oil from the leaves are also used as spice and food flavouring agent and has wider application in traditional medicines of different countries.confectionaries. anti-ulcerogenic etc. Botanical name Trachyspermum amoni (L. Both leaves and fruits possess aromatic. yellow or red. Avanika : Ajamoda. forming blunt lobes with tough rind. Nankhwah : Kamme Muluki Cambodge Description Cambodge is a tropical fruit commonly known as ‘Malabar Tamarind’ is a medium size evergreen dioecious tree with rounded crown and horizontal or drooping branches attaining a height of 18 mtrs.
Cyprus. Dry heat and intense sunlight provide the preferred environment for caper plants. The rind contains hydroxy citric acid and is widely employed in anti-obesity drugs. It gives flavour. meats and salads. they are pink with long tassels of purple stamens. Algeria. Uses The flower buds. reach 1 meter height. pizza. flowers are borne on first year branches. Caper extracts and pulp are used in cosmetics. It has anti-oxidant property. fish. sharply drained gravelly soils. Spain. leaf stipules are transformed into spines. aroma and saltiness to Pasta sauces. Morocco. They are small shrubs. The flowers open in the morning and close by noon. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Mediterranean from Canary Islands and Morocco to Crimea and Armenia. It also survives at temperature up to –8 degree C. Botanical name Garcinia cambogia Family name Clusiaceae Commercial part Pericarp-lobes Caper Description Capers also known as caper berry are immature flower buds of Capparius spinosa. It is cultivated in Armenia. It is reduces flatulence and anti-rheumatic. It survives temperatures of 40 degree C and in an area with 350 mm annual precipitation. It grows well in nutrient poor. The low inner valleys of the Indian mountain ranges offer immense possibilities of large-scale production of this valued spice.The dried rind is used as a condiment for flavouring curries. Egypt. Tunisia. vermifuges and tonics. They are salt tolerant and have an extensive root system for deep penetration. as diuretic. It helps to improve liver function and used against arteriosclerosis. Italy and Iran. Producing region The best quality caper is produced on hilly terrains. In Sri Lanka the dried rind with salt is used for curing fish. semi mature fruits and young shoots with small leaves are pickled for use as a spice. Botanical name Capparis spinosa Family name Capparaceae Commercial part Fruit / root Caraway seed Description .
pointed at ends with 5 longitudinal ridges on the surface. It is cultivated as a cold season crop in the hills of Kashmir and Kumaon at an altitude of above 2750 MSL. Denmark. Origin and Distribution It is a native of North and Central Europe and is extensively cultivated in Holland. 4 to 6. Seeds are hard and sharp to touch. The plant has a fleshy root and slender branched stem that attains a height of 0. Morocco.6 mtrs. It is also used for seasoning sausages and as medicine. Uses Caraway is widely used as a spice for culinary purposes and for flavouring bread. with small white flowers in compound umbels. Botanical name Carum carvi Indian Names Hindi Bengali Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Sindhi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Fruit : Siya zira or Shia zira : Jira or Zira : Shime jeerige : Gunyun : Shima jirakam : Vilaiti zirah : Kalu Duru : Zira-siah : Sushavi : Shimai shambu : Sima jirakai Cardamom Exporters of Cardamom (Small) Cardamom (small) . Syria. Russia. cakes and cheese.5mm long. The fruit when ripened splits into narrow elongated carpel.5 to 0. Bulgaria. Rumania. The dried fruit is brown in colour has pleasant odour is with sharp taste. curved.Caraway of commerce is the fruit of a biennial herb. and to a small extent in England. Poland. biscuits. and US.
'Alleppey Green Bold' (AGB) and 'Alleppey Green Superior' (AGS) are names that register instant appeal worldwide. a traditional exporter of cardamom to the Middle East countries where it goes mostly into the preparation of 'Gahwa' . Uses The major use is for the preparation of ‘gahwa’ – a strong cardamom coffee concoction which is a symbol for hospitality among Arabs. The cardamom growing regions of South India lies within 8 . In Europe and North America it is an ingredient in curry powder and in some sausages products. and Papua & New Guinea. Cambodia. Sri Lanka.Description Cardamom of commerce is the dried ripe fruit (capsules of cardamom plant) often referred as the “Queen of Spices” because of its very pleasant aroma and taste. Japanese and Russians who relish it for its distinct enriching properties. Cardamom is a perennial. herbaceous. cardamom is grown as a commercial crop in Guatemala and on small scale in Tanzania. India. Thailand. and Vazhukka with semi erect panicle. Laos. three varieties are recognized viz. In Scandinavian countries it is used in baked goods and confectionaries. Mysore with erect panicle. health foods medicines and beverages. Indian cardamom is offered to the international markets in different grades: 'Alleppey Green Extra Bold' (AGEB). El Salvador.a strong cardamom . Besides India. Malabar with prostrate panicle. it can add a lingering sparkle to every kind of dishes both traditional and modern. Vazhukka variety is a mix of both the above in physical characteristics.coffee concoction without which no day is complete or no hospitality hearty for an Arab. Based on the nature of panicles. The optimum altitudinal range on growing cardamom is 600 to 1500 mtr above MsL. perfumery. Honduras. Origin and Distribution Cultivation of cardamom is mostly concentrated in the ever green forests of Western Ghats in South India. rhizomatous plant. In Asia. Cardamom oil and oleoresin has applications in flavouring . Apart from this cardamom is widely used as a flavouring material in whole and ground form. Vietnam.30 degree N latitudes and 75-78 degree longitudes. Cardamom oil is a precious ingredient in food preparations. whereas plant robust (3 to 4 mtr height) with leaves glabrous on both sides with ovoid capsules in the case of Mysore. Plants are of medium size (2 to 3 mtr height) with pubescent leaves (on the dorsal side) and fruits globose in the case of Malabar. Indian cardamom enjoys a premium preference in the Middle East.
Botanical name Elettaria cardamomum Maton Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Chhoti elaichi : Chhoti elachi : Elaychi : Yelakki : Aa’lbuduaa’l : Elathari : Velchil : Alaichi : Elaychi : Ela Family name Zingiberaceae Commercial part Fruit (Capsule) : Yelakkai or Elakkai : Yealak-Kayulu or Elakkayi : Ilaychi Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Cardamomo : Cardamome : Kardamom : Kardemumma : Hal : Kardemom : Cardamomo : Cardamomo : Kardamon : Karudamon : Pai-tou-k'ou Exporters of Cardamom (Large) Cardamom (large) .
It has applications in flavouring cola. 18-20 mtr high and 40-60 cm diameter with a straight and cylindrical trunk and grey brown bark. Botanical name Amomum subulatum Roxb. Uses It is used as a flavourant in dishes like Pulavu.6 mtr and possess 9 to 13 leaves in each tiller. Fruit is round or oval shape. liquors. ever green tree. Each shoot has height of 1. capsule with reddish brown colour. It is grown in cold humid conditions under shade of trees at an altitude between 800-2000 meters above MSL. It is an ingredient in curry powder and spice masala mixtures and is also used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. Leaves are glabrous on both sides with a prominent mid-rib. Biriyani and meat preparations.. biscuits. Origin and Distribution Large Cardamom is cultivated in the Sub-Himalayan region of North Eastern India. Each spike has 10-15 fruits. with an average precipitation of 3000-3500 mm spread over about 200 days and with temperature ranging from 6-30 degree C. bushy. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Malayalam Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Bara Elaichi : Bara Elaichi : Perelam : Bara Elaichi : Brihadaela : Periya yalam : Peddayelaki : Bara Elaichi Family name Zingiberaceae Commercial part Fruit (Capsule) Cassia Description Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese Cinnamon) is the dried bark of cassia which is a small. Nepal and Bhutan. Inflorescence is a condensed spike with yellowish perianth. Each capsule is trilocular with many seeds.Description Large Cardamom is a perennial herb with subterranean rhizomes and 50-140 aerial leafy shoots.7 to 2. 13-15mm thick .
Botanical name Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Laos. In India only a few plants are available. Uses Dried Cassia bark is the spice. Apart from its use as spice. Khakasa : Gaehagesha kasakasa : Kasakasa. The essential oil is called cassia cinnamon oil (Oleum Cinnamon). Khas : Khasa. and Myanmar. the body fire. slightly shade tolerant when young. it is a well known medicine reinforcing ‘yang’. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Kashash : Kashash : Khuskhush : Khasksi : Kashakasha : Khus khus Family name Lauraceae Commercial part Bark and leaf : Khush khush. Vietnam. It is a light demanding tree. Origin and Distribution Chinese Cassia occurs mainly in South China. preferring cool and wet condition. Gasagasla. ‘Gui zhi’ (dried twig of cassia cinnamon) is collected in spring and summer and dried in the sun or in the shade used in decoctions. Gasalu : Kashkash sufaid Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Japanese Chinese : Canela de la China : Cannelle de cochinchine : Z Limtkassie : Kassia : Darasini : Kassia : Cassia : Bokei : Kuei/Kwei . It is grown at altitudes up to 300 mtr MSL with a mean daily temperature of about 23 degree C and an annual rainfall of 1250 mm in about 135 wet days.when mature. has analgesic and anti-pyretic properties.
Its flavour blends well with both sweet and savory dishes. It is also grown in Zanzibar. Lavangam : Lavangalu . leaves and stalks yield essential oil. It has wider applications in preparations of toothpaste and mouthwashes. It is also reported to help diabetics in sugar assimilations. The antiseptic and antibiotic properties of clove oil are used in medicine especially in dentistry. Unopened flower buds. Sri Lanka and India. Madagascar. oral and pharyngeal treatments. Uses The use of clove in whole or ground form is mainly for culinary purposes and as a flavouring agent in food industry. soaps and perfumes. It continues to produce flower buds for 80 or more years. The tree grows to a height of 10-12 mtrs and start flowering in about 7 years.Clove Description The clove of commerce is the air-dried unopened flower bud obtained from evergreen medium sized tree. Clove clusters are plucked by hand when the buds are fully developed with a pronounced pink flush and then dried over several days in the sun. Botanical name Syzygium aromaticum Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Family name Myrtaceae Commercial part Unopened flower bud : Lung : Lawang : Lavang : Lavanga : Grambu : Luvang : Labang : Laung : Lavanga : Kirambu. good and well-distributed rainfall (above 150 cm) and high humidity (above 70%) are preferred. Origin and Distribution The plant is indigenous to North Molucca Islands of Indonesia. In Indonesia. It is a valuable spice of the orient. It is highly valued in medicine as carminative. aromatic and stimulant. the lion share of production is consumed in production of ‘kretek’ cigarettes. The tree prefers well drained rich soil with sufficient soil moisture throughout the year. Malaysia. High atmospheric temperature (25 to 35 degree C) with heavy sun light.
soda & syrups. Russia. and aphrodisiac. In medicines it is used as a carminative. when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit is globular. it is used against seasonal fever. one erect and tall with a comparatively stronger main shoot and the other bushy with a relatively weaker main shoot and longer spreading branches.Urdu : Laung Coriander Description Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. Morocco. Leaves are alternate. The plant is a thin stemmed. Uses The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups. Indian Names Hindi : Dhania or Dhanya Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Leaf and seed . Origin and Distribution It is a native of Mediterranean and commercially produced in India. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Coriander is a tropical crop and can be successfully cultivated as a rabi season crop in an area free from severe frost during February when the crop flowers and sets its seeds. small. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings. bushy herb. East European countries. Botanical name Coriandrum sativam L. 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. 3 to 4 mm diameter. and nausea. There are two distinct morphological types. sausages and seasonings. in bakery products. Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products. Central America. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. seeds are pale white to light brown in colour. In household medicines. and USA. puddings. compound. diuretic. refrigerant. France. The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders. stomach disorders. meat products. Mexico. candy preserves and liquors. Fruit has delicate fragrance.
ovoid. cakes and cheese. the Mediterranean region. Sicily and Malta. Dhania : Kothmiri. Syria. Libdhaba : Kothambri. seasonings of breads. alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The plant is 15 to 50 cm high. Iran and India. It is employed in .Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu : Dhana. 3 to 6 mm long. It is used as a condiment. Cumin is a tropical plant and is cultivated as a rabi crop in areas where atmospheric humidity during February-March is low. Kothambalari : Kothumpalari bija : Dhana : Dhania : Dhania : Dhanyaka : Kothamalli : Dhaniyalu Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Culantro : Corriandre : Koriander : Koriander : Kuzhbare : Koriander : Coentro : Koriandr : Koendoro : Hu-sui Cumin Description Cumin is the dried. Kothamiri bija : Deaniwal. white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. China. slightly bitter and has a warm flavour. Origin and Distribution Cumin is indigenous to Northern Egypt. The flowers are white or rose coloured in small umbels. Uses Cumin seed have an aromatic odour and bitter taste. The aromatic seed like fruit is elongated. It is also cultivated in Mexico. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges. and is an ingredient in curry powders.
. stomachic and astringent. In medicine. it is used as a stimulant.native dishes of Central and South America. It is cultivated mainly in homesteads but to a certain extent on a plantation scale. The tree is an aromatic deciduous one. Zira or Safaid jeera Or Zeera : Safaid jira or Zeera : Jiru or Jeeru : Jeeriege : Zyur : Jeerakam : Jeregire : Jira. : Ziragum or Jeeragam : Jidakara. Jikaka Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Fruit Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Chinese : Comino : Cumin : Romischer Kummel : Spiskummin : Kammun : Komijn : Comino : Cominho : Kmin : Machin Curry Leaf Description The leaves of curry leaf tree is a spice. Botanical name Cuminum cyminum L. Jeera : Zero : Jiraka. Jeera. Cumin seed oil is used in perfumery and for flavouring liqueurs and cordials. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Sindhi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu : Jira. 15-40 cm in diameter. five meter in height. carminative. Jira.
It is cultivated as a cold weather crop in many parts of India. Bisharhari : Kathnim. Germany. a native of Northern India is bolder than the European dill. Bhuraunga : Curry patta : Krishna nimba : Karivempu. Kadhilimbdo : Karibevu : Karriveppilei : Karhinimb. Karuveppilei : Karepaku Family name Rutaceae Commercial part Leaf Dill Description Dill is a herbaceous annual with pinnately divided leaves.) Sprengel Indian Names Assamese Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu : Narsinghs. The Indian dill (Anetheum sowa). Gandla. Jhirang : Barsan. USA and Russia. Mitha neem. It is much cultivated for its aromatic leaves. The leaves.Origin and Distribution Curry leaf is found almost throughout India up to an altitude of 1500 mtrs. Gandhela. carminative and stomachic. The ripe. Botanical name Murraya koenigii (L. The leaves have pleasant aromatic odour and warm taste. Both seeds and leaves are valued as spice. Turkey. Origin and Distribution European Dill (Anetheum graveolens) is indigenous to Europe and is cultivated in England. Uses The leaf is used in South India as a natural flavouring agent in various curries. Basango. Bareanga : Barsanga. stimulant. Romania. . Kariphulli : Goranimb. Volatile oil is used as a fixative for soap perfume. Curry or kurry patta. Poospala. bark and root of the plant are used in the indigenous medicine as a tonic. light brown seeds emit an aromatic odour.
The essential oil is used in the manufacture of soaps. Dill stems and blossom heads are used for dill pickles.Uses Dill seed is used both whole and ground as a condiment in soups. sausages and pickling. salads. Both seeds and oil are used in indigenous medicinal preparations. Shepu : Sowa : Satapushpi : Sathakuppi Sompa : Sabasiege : Sowa Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Chinese : Eneldo : Aneth : Dill : Dill : Shibith : Dille : Aneto : Endro : Ukrop : Shin-Lo Fennel . Botanical name Anethum graveoluns L. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Fruit : Sowa : Sowa : Surva : Sabasige : Sor : Sathakuppa : Surva. The emulsion of dill oil in water is an aromatic carminative. processed meats.
5 ridged and having agreeable aroma. stimulant and carminative. It is an essential ingredient in Italian sausages.8mm long. straight or slightly curved. They are also used for flavouring soups. Pedda-jilakara Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Fruit Name in international languages . confectionaries and liquors. sonp : Pan. Prolonged cloudy weather at the time of flowering is conducive to diseases and pests. Botanical name Foeniculum vulgare Miller Indian Name Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu : Saunf. stout. It comes up well in fairly mild climate. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Europe and Asia Minor. oblong. greenish yellow. pastries. aromatic. 6. The fruits are aromatic. widely used to sprinkle on pizza.Description It is a biennial. Uses The leaves of fennel is used for garnishing. It is cultivated extensively in Northern India as a cold weather crop. glabrous. The ripe fruit (seed) is small.5 to 1. deeply furrowed. meat dishes. cylindrical. sauces. Dried fruits have fragrant odour and pleasant aromatic taste and therefore used as a masticatory. 1. The dry and cold weather favours high seed production. Leaves and stalks are used in salads. Mauri : Variari : Badi-sopu : Perum jeerakam : Badishep : Saunf : Madhurika : Shombei : Sopu.8 mtr high. Muhiri.
Fenugreek oil is used in the manufacture of hair tonics. each grooved across one corner. dysentery. It is also used as a carminative. It is a cold season crop and is fairly tolerant to frost and very low temperature. each pod contains 10-20 small hard yellowish brown seeds. is 30-60 cm tall and produces slender. It is one of the principle constituent of curry powder. chronic cough and enlargement of liver and spleen. In India it is grown extensively in Rajasthan. Argentina. Maharashtra and Punjab. The seeds are used in colic flatulence. It is best suited to tracts of moderate to low rainfall and is sown in all types of soil but perform better in loam and clayey loam with proper drainage. gout and diabetes. giving them a hooked appearance. Origin and Distribution Fenugreek is a native of South Eastern Europe and West Asia. Powder of dried leaves is also used for garnishing and flavouring variety of food. Uses Fenugreek is used both as a food and food additive as well as in medicines. Madhya Pradesh. and aphrodisiac. This robust herb has light green leaves. It can also be grown on black cotton soils.Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Hinojo : Fenouil : Fenchel : Fankal : Shamar : Venkel : Finocchio : Funcho : Fyenkhel : Uikyo : Hui-Hsiang Fenugreek Description Fenugreek seed is the ripe fruit of an annual herb. which are smooth and oblong. now cultivated in India. Fresh tender pods. As a spice. Morocco and Lebanon). leaves and shoots are eaten as curried vegetable. Uttar Pradesh. about 3mm long. rickets. beaked pods. tonic. dyspepsia. Egypt and Mediterranean countries (Southern France. 10-15 cm long. it flavours food. Gujarat. diarrhoea. . Fenugreek extract is used as a flavouring agent of imitation maple syrup.
Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Methe : Methe : Methe : Menthya Family name Fabaceae Commercial part Fruit : Ventayan.Botanical name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Uluva : Methe : Methe : Methe : Methe : Vendayam or Venthiyam : Mentulu or Menthulu : Methe Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Alholva : Fenugrec : Bockshorklee : Bockshornklee : Hulba : Fenegriek : Fieno Greco : Alforva : Pazhitnik : Koroha : K'u .Tou Garlic .
Garlic prefers cool weather and grow in a well-drained. Oil of garlic is used as a flavouring agent in soups. garlicked potato chips. rooted. India. Garlic has a strong flavour and taste. moderately clay loam at higher elevation (900 to 1200 mtrs). Lahsun : Rashun : Lasan : Bellulli : Ruhan : Vellulli : Lusson : Rasuna : Lassan. skin diseases. garlic bread. garlic salt. Spain. sauces etc. meat preparations etc. curry powders. China. garlic vinegar. USA. Origin and Distribution Garlic is a native of West Asia and Mediterranean area. In India and other Asian and Middle East Countries. liquid garlic preparations are other products.Description Garlic is a hardy. Argentina and Egypt are the major garlic growing countries. garlic cheese croutins. perennial plant with narrow flat leaves and bears small white flowers and bulbils. garlic is used in pickles. bulbous. white or pinkish papery sheet. Uses Garlic is used for flavouring various dishes practically all over the world. thin. salad dressings and in several meat preparations. In the area of medicine. Lessan. fungicidal and insecticidal. In United States almost half of the produce is dehydrated for use in mayonnaise products. Botanical name Allium sativum Indian Name Assamese Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Family name Liliaceae Commercial part Bulb : Naharu : Lasun. it is used for various ailments of stomach. The other properties are anti-bacterial. Lasun : Lashuna . It has wider applications in indigenous medicines and is also considered as highly nutritive. garlicked bacon etc. canned foods. Korea. Raw garlic is used in the preparation of garlic powder. The compound bulb consists of 6 to 34 bulblets called ‘cloves’ which are surrounded by a common. curried vegetables. Spray dried garlic products.
Tamil Telugu Urdu : Ullipundu. Leshun Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Ajo : Ail : Knoblanch : Vitlok : Thum : Knoflook : Agilio : Alho : Chesnok : Ninniku : Suan Ginger . Vellaippundu : Velluri : Lassun.
Description Ginger of commerce is the dried underground stem of the herbaceous tropical plant grown as an annual. A well distributed rainfall (150 to 300cm) during growing season and dry spells during land preparation and harvesting are required for the crop. Ginger is a slender perennial herb. it is used as carminative and stimulant. dry ginger powder. raw or processed. The inflorescence is a spike springs directly from the rhizome. table sauces. liquors etc. carbonate drinks. Now it is widely cultivated in India. It has wider applications in indigenous medicines. Jamaica. Botanical name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil : Adrak : Ada : Adu : Shunti. certain curried meats. Ginger requires warm and humid climate and thrives well from sea level to an altitude of 1500 mtrs above MSL. oleoresin and oil are used in food processing. curry powders. ginger ale. In medicine. Malaysia. ginger cocktail. It is indispensable in the manufacture of ginger bread. Southern China and Japan. is valued as spice. Origin and Distribution It is a tropical plant with the centre of distribution in India and Malaysia. 30-50 cm tall with palmately branched rhizome bearing leafy shoots. Sierra Leone. in pickling and in the manufacture of certain cordials. Nigeria. The ginger oil is used as food flavourant in soft drinks. lateritic loams are preferred for higher yields. Ardraka : Inchi : Ale : Ada : Adrak : Ardraka : Inji Family name Zingiberaceae Commercial part The rhizome . Uses Fresh ginger. The leafy shoot is a pseudostem formed by leaf sheath and bears 8 to 12 distichous leaves. The whole plant is refreshingly aromatic and the underground rhizome. confectionary. Though grows on a wide range of soils.
China and Surinam. many flowered. Bangladesh. indigestion. The plant requires sunny or moderately shady locations with fertile moist soil preferably sandy or clayey. This is a perennial. The pseudostem formed by the rolled leaf sheaths is erect. aromatic. antifungal. enlarged spleen. mouth and stomach cancer. anti-protozoal. robust.Telugu Urdu : Allamu. Uses The rhizomes have many applications in traditional medicines such as for skin diseases. dysentery. Sonthi : Adrak. the inflorescence is terminal. India. rhizomatous herb. Rhizomes show anti-bacterial. Origin and Distribution Greater Galanga is a native to Indonesia and is currently cultivated in all South East Asian countries. . rich in organic matter with good drainage.1 mtrs high and bears perennial rhizome (2. The plant is 1. respiratory diseases. Adhrak Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Jengibre : Gingembre : Ingwer : Ingefara : Zanjabil : Gember : Zenzero : Gengibre : Imbir : Shoga : Chiang Greater Galanga Description Greater Galanga is the dried rhizome of a plant Alpenia galanga. constricted in the middle and contain 3 to 6 seeds. tillering. which are deep orange to brown in colour. colic. In tropics the plant occurs up to an altitude of 1200 mtrs.8 to 2. and expectorant activities.5 to 10 cm thick). The fruits are about 13 mm long. pungent and bitter.
. Leaves are used in salads and sandwiches. Horse raddish is available in dehydrated form also. White flowers with a sweet honey scent are produced on terminal panicles in late spring. Thailand. It is used in the treatment for general debility. which contain oil with strong pungent odour and hot. The plant attains a height of 0. In India it is found growing to a small extent in gardens in North India and hill stations of South India. Grated roots when mixed with vinegar and salt is an appetizing spice and a pungent condiment to enhance the flavour of boiled or roasted beef. There are two types of horse raddish one is ‘common type’ with broad crinkled leaves and roots of high quality and the other is ‘bohemian type’ with narrow leaves and poor quality roots. perennial and is grown for its pungent root. The taproot is tuberous and cylindrical (30 cm long and 18 mm in diameter). Propagation is by planting pieces of side roots. sauce. diaphoretic. Horse Raddish is a stimulant.9 mtr when in flower.6 to 0. Indonesia and China. diuretic.Young rhizome is a spice used to flavour various dishes in Malaysia. Origin and Distribution Horse Raddish is a native of the marshy districts of Eastern Europe. The roots develop entirely underground and grow to a meter in length. It rarely produces seeds. The top of the plant consists of a rosette of large paddle-shape leaf and a flower stalk. Uses Horse Raddish is used as an appetizing spice. Botanical name Alpinia galanga Family name Zingiberaceae Commercial part The rhizome or underground stem Horse Radish Description Horse Raddish is a hardy herb having large leaves. Other products in use are horse raddish cream. The high Vitamin ‘C’ content present in it is credited with digestive and antiscorbutic properties. and digestive. biting taste. or relish. Southern Russia and Eastern Ukraine but has become naturalized in North America and New Zealand.
Hyssop oil is used as flavouring agent in bitters and tonics and in perfumery. Origin and Distribution It is a native to Southern Europe and temperate zones of Asia. It is also grown as a pot herb. The essential oil of hyssop has antimicrobial properties. uterine. linear-oblong. respirative infections.arthritis. flowers are bluish purple in auxiliary tufts arranged unilaterally on terminal branches. and urinary troubles. and congestion and lung complaints. The leaves and flowering tops are used in flavouring of salads and soups. The branches are erect or defuse. carminative and expectorant and is used in colds. Leaves are stimulating stomachic. digestive. 30-60 cm high. Botanical name Armoracia rusticane Family name Brassicaceae Commercial part Rhizome Hyssop Description Hyssop is an aromatic perennial herb. Uses Hyssop is used as a condiment and also as medicine. The leaves and flower tops constitutes the spice. In India it is found in the Himalayas and is cultivated in Kashmir. gout. It is cultivated in Europe especially in Southern France. The plant thrives in light rich soil in hill stations. It is also used in the preparation of liquors and perfumes. leaves are sessile.). urinary infections and fevers. grown at higher elevations (above 1500 mtrs. Botanical name Hyssopus officinalis Family name Lamiaceae Commercial part Leaf Juniper Berry Description . It is effective in pulmonary. carminative and colic. coughs. Hyssop is considered as a stimulant.
it is found in Himalayas at an altitude of 1500-4000 mtrs above MSL. The mail and female flowers produced in April and May usually born on separate plants. It is also found in the evergreen forests of Assam. found in Southern India. the male flowers in short catkins and female flowers in small cones. Khasi. occasionally gaping and exposing bony seeds. rind and juice of Kokkam fruit are commonly used in cooking. stimulant and diuretic properties. Uses The fruits are used as a food flavourant and as a food. It thrives well on warm sunny places especially in mountain slopes. The crop prefers warm and moderately humid tropical climate with a total rainfall range of 25005000mm grows under a mean annual temperature of 20-30 degree C. The fleshy berry like fruit is sub-globose. It is also used as a garnish to give an acid flavour to curries and for preparing attractive. Origin and Distribution The plant grows wild in many parts of Europe and Asia and in North America. The three scales comprising fruit. and embedded in the pulp. Botanical name Juniperus communis Family name Cupressaceae Commercial part Berry Kokam Description Kokkam is a slender evergreen small tree with drooping branches. elongated.Juniper is an evergreen shrub sometimes attaining the height of a small tree up to 3 mtrs with erect trunk and spreading branches. The fruit is spherical. Uses The ripened. West Bengal and Gujarat. about 6-13 mm long and with sharp prickly points. purple. 1013 mm in diameter covered with waxy blook. . The fruits and volatile oil possess carminative. Konkan. Leaves are straight and rigid. Coorg and Wynadu region. It is dioecious plant. In Europe it is used for the preparation of alcoholic beverages. In India. ovoid. covered with a shreddy bark. The trunk diameter is 25-30 cm. oval shape. Juniper oil is used in flavouring liquors and cordial. usually three. The dried and salted rind is used as a condiment in curries. 6080% humidity and up to an altitude of 800 mtrs above MSL. Origin and Distribution The tree is oriental in origin. not grooved having 5-8 seeds compressed in an acid pulp. bluish black. particularly in the tropical rain forest of Western Ghats of Ratnagiri. It is a dioecious tree growing up to 18 mtr high. dark purple when ripe. Jantia hills.
Kokkam butter used as an edible fat. demulcent and antiseptic. Katambi. pleasant flavoured cooling syrup. Ratamba : Kokam : Murgal Lovage Description Lovage is a hardy perennial with a height of 90 cm. It bears clusters of yellow flowers with a sharp smell. dying down in autumn. flowers in summer. In medicine it is used as a liver tonic and is used against bladder inflammation. The rind has antioxidant property Botanical name Garcinia indica Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Tamil : Kokam : Kokam : Kokan Family name Clusiaceae Commercial part Peel of fruit(cured) : Murgala : Punampulli : Amsol. It grows well in well-drained soil. Origin and Distribution It is a native of Europe and is now cultivated in USA. Botanical name levisticum officinale Family name Apiaceae Commercial part leaf Marjoram Description . Flowering tops yield volatile oil. Tamil Nadu. The roots are dug out in second or third year of planting and cut into slices in 13 mm thick and carefully dried. The seeds are sown in late summer and transplanted in the following spring. Uses The roots. Kokam. In India it is grown in Nilgiris. is nutritive. The leaves and stems are blanched and eaten as salads. seeds and leaves are used for flavouring foods.red.
slightly sharp bitterish and camphoraceous. Kumaon bantulsi : Maruva : Marwa : Maru. Russia.Marjoram is a perennial aromatic herb. Its dried leaves and flower tops constitutes the spice. Marjoram grows in any well-drained. Origin and Distribution Marjoram is a native of Southern Europe. fertile garden loam and cultivated as an annual. Morocco. expectorant and tonic. it is best when added shortly before the end of cooking. Leaves are light. It is used in the preparation of homeopathic mother tincture. USA. Botanical name Marjorana hortensiss Indian Names Hindi Bengali Kannada Malayalam Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Urdu : Marwa : Murru. China. The aromatic seeds are used in confectionary. Muruva : Maruga. The sweet marjoram is characterized by a strong spicy pleasant odour. Sweet marjoram is considered carminative. The flavour is fragrant. Leaves and seeds are astringent. white or pinkish or red. The plant is 30-60 cm high and develops a large number of leafy stalks with small leaves. Marjoram oil is used as an external application on sprains. Murwo : Maruvu : Marva khusha Family name lamiaceae Commercial part leaf & Flower top Mint Description . bruises. greyish green reaching around 21 mm in length and 11 mm breadth. Sinshi. Deccan. North Africa and India. sausages and salamis. Now it is grown widely in Europe. stiff and paralytic lymph and tooth ache. The flowers are small. Uses Marjoram is used in seasonings. Since the spice has a delicate perfume which can be lost easily while cooking.
Bergamot Mint (Mentha citrata) and Spear Mint (Mentha Spicata) are also commercially cultivated though on a lesser scale. in ointments for headaches. dementhalised oil is for flavouring mouth washes. Temperate to tropical climate is suited for plant growth.4-0. carminative. Punjab and Haryana. flowers appearing in May-June and again in SeptemberNovember under cultivation. it is largely confined to North India in the States of Uttar Pradesh. Pepper Mint (Mentha piperita). Origin and Distribution These aromatic perennial herbs are distributed mostly in the Northern hemisphere. rich in humus which can retain moisture. Branching freely. stews.Japanese Mint (Mentha Arvensis) is a perennial herb with creeping root stalk and an erect stem. is suitable for mint cultivation. tooth paste and pharmaceutical preparations. Plant rises to a height of 0. fish. vinegar. refrigerant. Uses Mint is used for flavouring meat. A deep soil. it is used against stomach disorders. tobacco and cordials. These species are morphologically variant to that of Japanese Mint. Sunny weather with moderate rain is conducive to its luxuriant growth.8 mtr. The oil and dried plants are antiseptic. inhalations etc. oblong-ovate. sauces. In India. rheumatism. in cough drops.5 – 5cm long. soups. Leaves are 2. Flowers are in auxiliary whorls. tea. In medicine. none at the top. Botanical name Mentha piperita Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu Family name Lamiaceae Commercial part Leaf : Pudina : Pudina : Pudina : Pudyanu : Puthina : Pudina : Pudina : Pudina : Pudina : Pudina . stimulant and diuretic. 1-2 quadrangulate branched with short dense hair. The mint oil is used for the production of natural menthol.
Kalee sarson : Rai : Sasave : Aasur. Whole mustard is used as a flavouring agent in Indian cooking. whereas brown mustard is from China introduced to Northern India. China. Chili. They are pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica hirta). Kalee sarson : Asuri. The leaves of the plant are alternate. The black mustard is endemic in the Southern Mediterranean region. North Africa. 3 species are known for its condiment value. It is raised during rainy season from July to November in South India. Uses The major processed products are mustard powder used in the manufacture of mayonnaise. of which. Origin and Distribution The yellow/white mustard is indigenous to Southern Europe. brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black mustard (Brassica nigra). The Netherlands. whereas ground mustard provides flavour and consistency in Bengali fish curries. Kalee sarson Family name Brassicaceae Commercial part Seed Name in international languages . Flowers are small. bristly branched.5-3mm. Seeds are 1. petiolate. Indian Names Hindi Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Rai. The UK. cruciform. The white mustard is widely cultivated in Australia. Mustard flour has preservative and antioxidant properties in addition to providing flavour and colour. & Coss. hairy on both sides. long. whole mustard seeds etc. Italy. Canada and USA. yellow with 4petals. Japan.) Czern. Denmark. Banarasi rai. Bimbata : Kadugo : Avalu : Rai. It is grown as rabbi crop in North India. Botanical name Brassica juncea (L. dried or dehydrated mustard leaves.Mustard Description Mustard is an annual herb cultivated as oil seed crop or as vegetable or as fodder. Banarasi rai. Mustard prefers loamy or clayey loam soil. Sorisa : Kaduku : Rai. Banarasi rai.
It also grows on a smaller scale in Sri Lanka. China. Excessive doses have a narcotic effect. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 250 cm is ideal for the crop. shiny shell of the seed called nutmeg. puddings. India. seasoning of meat and vegetable etc. covering the hard black. Nutmeg oleoresin is used in the preparation of meat products. The spice in the ground form is mainly used in the food processing industry especially as a standard seasoning in many Dutch dishes.Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Mostaza : Moutarde : Senfsaat : Senap : Khardal : Mosterd : Senape : Mostarda : Gorchitsa : Shiro Karashi : Chieh Nutmeg & Mace Description Nutmeg & Mace are two distinctly different spices produced from a fruit of an evergreen tree usually 9-12 mtr high. Mace is the dried reticulated ‘aril’ of the fruit and nutmeg is the dried seed kernel of the fruit. spherical in shape. astringent and aphrodisiac properties. When the fruit mature it burst open along the groove exposing the bright attractive mace. It is used as a drug in Eastern countries because of its stimulant. Nutmeg thrives well in places with warm humid climate from sea level up to 600 mtrs MSL. The male flowers are born in clusters. sauces. Mace is used in savory dishes. soups. The fleshy outer cover of the fruit is crystallized or pickled or made into jellies. whereas female flowers are often solitary. Uses Both nutmeg and mace are used as condiment particularly in sweet foods. baked foods. It grows on a variety of soils from sandy to clayey loams and red laterite soils with good drainage. pale yellow in colour with a longitudinal groove in the centre. Origin and Distribution Nutmeg tree is indigenous to Moluccas. Fruit is a fleshy drupe. bearing either male or female flowers. carminative. confectionaries. The trees are normally unisexual. Malaysia. The major nutmeg growing areas are Indonesia and Granada. Zanzibar. Botanical name Myristica fragrans Family name Myristicaceae Commercial part Seed . Mauritius and Solomon Island. Nutmeg oil is used in cosmetics and toiletries.
which gives the plant aroma and colour. Temperate to sub-tropical climate is preferred by the plant and it grows in light. It has antioxidant and anti-microbial properties. sausages. diaphoretic properties. Turkey. Uses Oregano is used in meat. salads. Origin and Distribution Oregano is endemic to Mediterranean region but is cultivated in Mexico. diuretic. The foliage is dotted with small glands containing the volatile oil. dressings. Each flower produces four small structures.5 cm long). Italy. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages and in baked goods. The oregano oil possesses carminative. It is a most common spice for pizza. The flowers are pale purple and the flowering period extends from late June to August. Dominican Republic and Greece. oregano oil and oleoresin is used in food and beverages. 30-90 cm high.Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Jaiphal : Jaiphal : Jaiphal : Jayikai : Zaaphal : Jathikka : Jaiphal : Jaiphala : Jaiphal : Jatiphala : Jathikai : Jajikai : Jaiphal Oregano Description Oregano is a perennial herb with creeping roots. stomachic. well-drained soil in a sunny position. It is also used as an external application for healing wounds. petiolate and hairy leaves (1. stews and soups. branched woody stems and opposite. In food industry. . In India it is found in temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. It is a hardy plant and can be grown in all warm garden soils. It is used in whooping cough and bronchitis.
Spain and Yugoslavia. The roots are used as a vegetable in soups. Parsley herb oil and parsley seed oil are obtained from steam distillation. The one cultivated for leaves. It is also used as a seasoning in meat and poultry. The bright green leaves are finally divided and curled.Botanical name Origanum vulgare Indian Names Hindi Malayalam Punjabi Urdu Family name Lamiaceae Commercial part Leaf & Flowering top : Sathra. Leaves and seeds are used as spice. The herb is possessing diuretic. which is found in India and the other grows for its turnip like roots. The juice of the fresh leaves is used as an insecticide. The flowering stalk reaches up to a height of 100 cm in the second year. Flowers are yellow or yellowish green in compound umbels. Dominican Republic. In India it grows better at higher altitudes. carminative. There are two main types of horticultural parsleys. Mirzanjosh : Kattumaruva : Mirzanjosha : Mirzanjosha Parsley Description Parsley is the dried aromatic leaf of a biennial herb with dense foliage and white flowers. moist soil. Haiti. The aroma of the herb is characteristic. Botanical name Petroselinum crispum Indian Names Hindi Kannada Malayalam Family name Apiaceae Commercial part Seed :Ajmood :Achu-Mooda :Seema malli . The dried leaves and roots are used as condiments. Canada. crescent shape. They are eaten fresh incorporated in salad and used as an ingredient in soups. Italy. fragrant and spicy due to volatile oil present. West Germany. It also grows in Mexico. France. Parsley is a cold weather crop. Fruits 2-3 mm long. Belgium. anti-pyretic properties. growing best in rich. conspicuously rigid and consisting of two mericarps. Hungary. stews and sauces. Origin and Distribution Parsley is a native of Sardinia and is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the USA. Uses Parsley is commonly used for garnishing and seasoning of foods.
Sri Lanka. Origin and Distribution Pepper is considered originated in the hills of South Western Ghats of India. changing to red on ripping.Pepper Description Black Pepper is the dried mature berry of Piper nigrum. Under cultivation pepper vines are trailed over support as columns. 5-6 mtr tall. green pepper in brine. Family name Piperaceae Commercial part Fruit . arranged spirally on fleshy pedantries. baking. from sea level to up to 1500 meters above MSL. The climbing woody stems have swollen nods with clinging roots at each node. which helps in anchoring the vine to the support trees (standards). It has straight upward growing main stem and have lateral shoots from the axils of the leaves having shorter inter nodes without adventitious roots. Fruit is a single seeded drupe often called berry. dehydrated green pepper. Black pepper is an essential ingredient in Indian system of medicine. Cambodia. Other products in use are pepper oil. Uses Pepper is largely used by meat packers and in canning. The inflorescence is a pendent spike. therefore used as a final dash at the end of cooking to effectively adjust the flavour. pickling. white pale yellow. considering for its preservative value. frozen pepper etc. In such branches the terminal buds get modified into an inflorescence (spike) and the auxiliary buds continue further growth. Mexico. The major functional properties of pepper are analgesic. Flowers are minute. 1-2 meter diameter. and Guatemala apart from the country of origin. The root system confined to 75-100 cm radius and depth. Thailand. Pepper requires hot and humid climate and grows between 20 degree North and South latitudes. anti-oxidant and anti-microbial. a climbing. micro encapsulated pepper. anti-pyretic. oleoresin. green in colour. Malaysia. Vietnam. China. It has the ability to correct the seasoning of dishes. The crop tolerates temperatures between 10 degree and 40 degree C. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 125 to 200 cm is considered ideal for pepper. It is now grown in Indonesia. Piperine. 3-15 cm long with 50150 flowers. the pungent principle in pepper oleoresin helps to enhance bio-availability and therefore used in pharmaceuticals. moist region of Southern India. black specks of black pepper is not liked. perennial shrub mostly found in hot. It is spherical in shape. It is an important component of culinary seasoning of universal use and is an essential ingredient of numerous commercial foodstuffs. Brazil. The specie is naturally selfpollinated and pollen dispersal is aided by the presence of water droplets. It is also used as an ingredient in spice mixes. Botanical name Piper nigrum L. White pepper is used in products like mayonnaise where.
It is widely cultivated in Iran. orange red. globose. nallamulaku Mira. thin and wrinkled. prolonged above the ovary. . Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Seeds are angular. Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh. Calyx persistent.Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Kali mirch Kala morich. Leaves are opposite. kali mirch Gol maricha Kali mirch Marich ushana. large. kalomirich Kare menasu Marutis Kurumalaku. hapusha Milagu Miriyala tige Kali mirch. Petals 1. Tamil Nadu. In India it is grown in almost all states but cultivated in large scale in the States of Maharashtra. It is distributed in the warmer regions of both the hemispheres. 2. It can tolerate alkaline and wet soil. golmorich Kalamari. In humid weather the quality of fruit is not good. It grows up to a height of 1600 mtr MSL. Fruits are large. Origin and Distribution The crop is indigenous to Southern Europe and Mediterranean area.5 cm long.5-6 cm long.2-2. Flowers at terminals or auxiliary. 5-8 cm across. oblong. It thrives best in places with a hot dry summer. Uttar Pradesh. Gujarat. Siah mirch Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Pimienta : Poivre : Pfeffer : Peppar : Filfil Aswad : Peper : Pepe : Pimenta : Pyerets : Kosha : Hu-Chiao POMEGRANATE Description Pomegranate is deciduous shrub or a small tree with a dark grey bark. 5-8 meters high. with irrigation. Karnataka. indehiscent with red pulp. solitary.
The fruit juice is cooling and refrigerant. Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh. Dadam : Dalimbari : Daan : Mathalanarakam : Dalimb : Dalima : Anardana : Dadima : Mathalam pazham : Danimma pandu : Anardana : Dalim POMEGRANATE Description Pomegranate is deciduous shrub or a small tree with a dark grey bark. It is widely cultivated in Iran. The pulp and seeds are stomachic and are also used as laxative. Uttar Pradesh. Fruits are large. 5-8 meters high.Uses The seed dried with pulp is used as a spice in many dishes. Calyx persistent. 2. It thrives best in places with a hot dry summer. The flower buds are used in bronchitis.5-6 cm long. It can tolerate alkaline and wet soil. solitary. Gujarat. In humid weather the quality of fruit is not good. Botanical name Punica Granatum Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Assamese Family name Punicaseae Commercial part Seed : Anardana : Dalimb : Dalamb. oblong.2-2. Leaves are opposite. Uses The seed dried with pulp is used as a spice in many dishes. In India it is grown in almost all states but cultivated in large scale in the States of Maharashtra. indehiscent with red pulp. orange red. The fruit rind is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. thin and wrinkled. with irrigation. Karnataka. Seeds are angular. It is distributed in the warmer regions of both the hemispheres. Andhra Pradesh. The . Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Tamil Nadu. large. Flowers at terminals or auxiliary. prolonged above the ovary. Origin and Distribution The crop is indigenous to Southern Europe and Mediterranean area.5 cm long. globose. 5-8 cm across. It grows up to a height of 1600 mtr MSL. Petals 1.
Serbia. aromatic herb. The flower buds are used in bronchitis. hardy. woody and brown. Morocco. hairy leaves. 90 cm high with small (2-4 cm) pointed. China. It can be grown either as a field crop or as an indoor plant. The fruit rind is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhoea. Branches are rigid with fissured bark and stem is square. Russia. sticky. The leaves are resinous. evergreen. Uses . This is a dense. Middle East. The soil properties influence the yield and the composition of rosemary oil. Botanical name Punica Granatum Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Assamese Family name Punicaseae Commercial part Seed : Anardana : Dalimb : Dalamb. Tunisia. The upper surface of the leaf is dark green whereas it is white on the lower side. It is also grown in Algeria. Origin and Distribution Rosemary is the native of Mediterranean region and is cultivated in Europe and California in US. The pulp and seeds are stomachic and are also used as laxative. Turkey. perennial. Dadam : Dalimbari : Daan : Mathalanarakam : Dalimb : Dalima : Anardana : Dadima : Mathalam pazham : Danimma pandu : Anardana : Dalim Rosemary Description Rosemary of commerce comprises dried leaves of evergreen shrub of Rosmarinus Officinalis. Romania. Temperate climate is suitable for the cultivation of Rosemary.fruit juice is cooling and refrigerant. and to a limited extend in India. Pale blue small flowers appear in cymose inflorescence.
impotence and infertility. and enlargement of liver and spleen. mayonnaise. loamy. The plant is a bulbous. perennial with globular corms. . which along with the style tops yield the saffron of commerce. 15-20 cm high. Austria. Flowers have tri-lobed stigma. gravelly. Rosemary oil obtained by steam distillation of leaves. Slightly acidic to neutral. melancholia. Photoperiod exerts a considerable influence in the flowering of saffron. cakes. Greece. carcinogen blocker.5 – 3. Saffron thrives best in warm sub-tropical climate. Mughlai dishes. France. England. It is also used in speciality breads. it is cultivated in Jammu & Kashmir and in Himachal Pradesh.2 cm. Dried and powdered leaves are used as condiment. In Spain. Flowers are arising directly from the corms. sandy soils are suitable for saffron cultivation. Unusually low temperature coupled with high humidity during flowering season affects flowering of the crop. liver-detoxifier and anti-rheumatic. Iran. anti-spasmodic. the most expensive spice in the world is derived from the dry stigmata of the plant Crocus Sativus. it is grown in dry temperate conditions with an annual rainfall below 40 cm.Rosemary has wide range of uses in food processing. liquors and cordials. rise. chicken and meat. one to two flowers with a lilac-purple colour with perianth segments of 3. In medicine saffron is used in fevers. It grows at an elevation of 2000 mtrs MSL. pickles. Saffron is also used as a perfume in cosmetics. In medicine rosemary is credited as carminative. In India. Being a strong herb its use need to be perfected as a culinary art. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to heal arthritis. confectionaries. Uses Saffron is used as a culinary seasoning and to colour. Fresh tender tops are used for garnishing and flavouring of cold drinks. Turkey. flower tops and twigs is pale yellow in colour with characteristic odour.5 – 5 cm and style branches of 2. Botanical name Rosmarinus officinalis Family name Lamiaceae Commercial part Leaf Saffron Description Saffron. It has 6 to 10 leaves present at anthesis. soups etc. particularly in Spain. cottage cheese. Spring rains boost production of new corms. An optimum period of 11 hours illumination is desirable. anti-inflammatory. anti-microbial. anti-depressant. Origin and Distribution Saffron is a native of Southern Europe and cultivated in Mediterranean countries. possesses anti-oxidant properties. It has wide range of uses in Chinese and Tibetan medicines. The yellow style is deeply divided into three branches and the stigmata are bright red.
Jafranekar Name in international languages Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Azafran : Safran : Safran : Saffran : Zafran : Saffraan : Zafferano : Acofrao : Shafran : Safuran : Fan Hung-Hua Sage Description Sage is the dried leaf of Salvia officinalis. Asrika : Kungumapoo : Zafran. Aruna. leaves turns silvery grey with soft velvety texture. or white in simple racemes. The flowers are blue. Zafran : Keshara. leaves are greyish green. Kunkuma. oblong. On drying. petiolate. purple. It is a hardy sub-shrub. Kesara : Kesar. aromatic. Stems are white. Origin and Distribution .Botanical name Crocus sativus L. 7-8 cm long. wooly. 32-60 cm tall. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Urdu : Zaffran : Jafran : Keshar Family name Iridaceae Commercial part Stigma : Kumnkuma kesari : Kong : Kunkumapoove : Keshar. Asra.
it is sparingly cultivated in Jammu. Savory grows in light soil and on rocky hillsides. Sefakus : Salvi tulasi Family name Lamiaceae Commercial part Leaf Savory Description Savory is a highly aromatic. It is used for flavouring meat and fish dishes and for poultry stuffing. canned meat and poultry dressings. Canada and USA. linear with deep-pitted glands on both sides. Germany. 535 cm in height with pinkish branches. Botanical name Salvia officinalis Indian Names Hindi Malayalam : Salvia. Sage is used as a mild tonic. Botanical name Family name Commercial part . while the latter constitutes savory of commerce. England. astringent and a little bitter. Fresh sage leaves are used in salads and sandwiches. Turkey. Sage and sage oil exhibit anti-oxidant properties. An infusion of leaves treats gastric upsets. up to 10mm length with strong warm odour and with sharp camphoraceous taste. hardy annual or perennial herb. It is diaphoretic and anti-pyretic. Spain. spicy. Leaves are oblong. Portugal. Albania. Savory is an erect pubescent annual herb. Italy. Sage thrives well in rich clayey and loamy soil. The taste is fragrant. astringent and carminative. A hot and dry climate is not suitable for its cultivation Uses Sage is used in the culinary preparation in the West. The dried leaves are of brown green colour. In India. Canada and USA. Two important species of the genus are Satureja hortensis (summer savory) and Satureja montana (winter savory). it is found in Kashmir. Flowers are in small auxiliary cymes. Origin and Distribution The crop is indigenous to Southern Europe and Mediterranean area.Sage is a native of Mediterranean area. Temperate climate and full sun are preferred Uses Savory is used in flavouring soups and sauces. The species are cold sensitive. salad dishes. egg. Spain. Savory has aromatic and carminative properties. Cyprus. It grows wild in the Dalmatian region of Yugoslavia. indigestion and loss of appetite. It is distributed in the warmer regions of both the hemispheres. It grows in Southern France. In India. the former is aromatic annual grown as a garden herb. Sage oil is used in perfumes as a deodorant. It is cultivated in Yugoslavia. warm. England.
2. diuretic and stomachic. mildly acidic to neutral soils. Seeds are brown. sunny edges. The fruit is anti-bacterial. star shaped fruit of Illicium verum.5 – 5 cm broad. which are light to medium and having good drainage. smooth. It tolerates temperatures down to –10 degree C. compressed. It is considered useful in flatulence and spasmodic. carminative. spirits. ovoid. confectionaries. elliptic. However it prefers woodlands. flowers are solitary. Commercial production is limited to China and Vietnam. which has prevented repeated attempts of other countries to grow star anise. In India. Fruits are star shaped. boat shaped. Origin and Distribution Star Anise is indigenous to South Eastern China. and to marinate meat. hard and wrinkled containing a seed. bakery products and liquors. white to red in colour. it is produced to a small a extent in Arunachal Pradesh.Satureja Hortensis Lamiaceae Stem. 10-15 cm long. It is also used in perfumery. It is used to flavour vegetables. meat. Leaf & Flowering top Star Anise Description Star anise is the dried. It is used as a condiment for flavouring curries. The plant grows well in humus rich. The five-spice powder mix common in China contains star anise. The leaves are entire. shiny and brittle. and dappled shade. and for pickling. The crop requires specific agro climatic conditions available only in the traditional growing areas. Each carpel is 10 mm long. Botanical name Illicium verum Indian Names Hindi Malayalam Marathi Tamil Telugu : Anasphal : Takkolam : Badian : Anashuppu : Anaspuvu Family name Illiciaceae Commercial part Dried Fruit Sweet Flag Description . reddish brown consisting of 6-8 carpels arranged in a whorl. Uses Star anise is one of the signature flavours of Chinese savory cooking. The essential oil of star anise is used to flavour soft drinks. It is an evergreen tree attaining a height of 8-15 meters and a diameter of 25 cm.
aromatic rhizome. Gorabach : Bach : Gandhilovaj. erect and sword shape. Botanical name Acorus Calamus Indain Names Assamese Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Urdu Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu : Themeprir : Bach. It is used in perfumery industry. The water-ethanolic extract of sweet flag exhibit anti-oxidant property. when bruised emits strong scent. The rhizome is cylindrical about 19-25 mm in diameter and 10 cm long. Sweet flag thrives best in marshy and moist places under variable climates. It is found wild or cultivated in India and Sri Lanka up to 1800 meters. The leaves are thick. Vekhand : Baje. Godavaj. semi aquatic. It also has insecticidal properties. Vasa Family name Araceae Commercial part Rhizome Tamarind . widely dispersed around the USA.Sweet Flag is a perennial herb. In the form of infusion it is carminative and possesses emetic and anti-spasmodic properties.Bajegda : Vabi : Vayampe : Vekhand. It is light brown outside. Bulami : Vashambu : Vadaja. The oil is used to cure gastritis. Bariboj. Origin and Distribution Sweet flag is a native to most Northern latitude countries around the world. Plants rarely flower or set seed. Uses Sweet flag is mainly used in medicine. Wach : Bacha : Bacha : Bhadra. marshy plant with a creeping and much branched. The plant is grown in clayey loams and light alluvial soils of the riverbanks. white and spongy inside. Sweet flag produces small yellow flowers on a spike.
brownish coloured. slightly curved. Myanmar. It is also used against fluorosis. sweetish or acidic. it is used as appetizing. In India. cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. up to 24 mtr in high and 7 mtr in girth. In medicine. in textile. oblong. alkali and gravelly soils. evergreen tree.5-20 cm long. and soils prone to erosion. Bangladesh. pods are 7.5 cm. It is a moderate size to large. Leaves are paripinnate up to 15 cm long. traversed by branched ligneous strands. longitudinally and horizontally fissured. confectionary. It can come up even in saline. leaflets are 10-20 pairs. The outer cover of the pod is fragile and easily separable. it is chiefly grown in Madhya Pradesh. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. more or less constricted between seeds.5 cm broad. 2. Bark is brown or dark gray. dark brown shining. Malaysia. Andhra Pradesh. It is also a raw material for the preparation of wine like beverages. Tamarind is suited to semi-tropical region with low rainfall. 1. Thailand. Seeds are 3-12 oblong compressed. Central American and South American countries. 8-30 mm. laxative. several African. Botanical name Tamarindus indica L. The tender leaves and flowers are used as vegetables. The tree prefers warm climate but sensitive to frost.Description The ripe fruit of tamarind tree is used as a condiment. Origin and Distribution Tamarind is originated in Madagascar and is now extensively cultivated in India. Family name Cesalpiniaceae Commercial part Pods Tarragon Description . edible pulp. The tree is not exacting as regards to soil but thrives best in deep alluvium. 1 cm thick. Endocarp is light brownish. healing and antihelmintic. Uses Tamarind pulp is used in numerous culinary preparations. The testa is used in dyeing and tanning industry. Sri Lanka. The tamarind kernel powder is found to be extensively used for its sizing properties. yellowish with pink stripes. Flowers are small.
Two varieties available in the international market are French Tarragon and Russian Tarragon. The tree has height up to 7. It grows to a height of 2 ft. Uses The leaf is mainly used for flavouring food. salads. The aromatic leaves are stomachic. It also grows in Nepal. temperate zones of USA. Mature leaves are collected during October to March. West Asia. stimulant. The leaves are harvested when the tree attains an age of 10 years which continue for a century. salad dressings and liqueur. prepared mustard and to a limited extend in soups. Afghanistan. It is also used in perfumes. Origin and Distribution Cinnamomoum tamala is mostly occurring in the tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas extending to North East Indian up to an altitude of 2000 meters MSL. pickles. and Russia. Bangladesh and Myanmar.It is a perennial herb. It is also used in Indian system of traditional medicines. In India. Botanical name Cinnamomum tamala Indian Names Family name Lauraceae Commercial part Bark & Leaf . Origin and Distribution Tarragon is cultivated in Southern Europe (France. Spain).5 mtr with zigzag branching. bark rough. Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Uses It is used for flavouring vinegar. It is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of its hypoglycemic. The leaves of this tree is the spice having clove like taste and a faintly pepper like odour. Botanical name Artemisia dracunculus Family name Arteraceae Commercial part Leaf Tejpat Description Indian Cassia also known as Tejpat (Cinnamomum Tamala) is a small to moderately sized ever green tree. dark grey to reddish brown in colour. meat dishes.2 is found to be preferred for better yield of herb material and essential oil. stimulant and carminative properties. it is grown in Jammu. The dried leaves and flowering tops are known for its flavour. The aroma is warm. trunk up to 95 cm girth. Soil with a pH of 6.
Origin and Distribution Thyme is a native to Southern Europe from Spain to Italy.Hindi Bengali Gujarati Malayalam Marathi Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu : Tejpat : Tejpat : Tamalapatra : Tamalapatram : Darchini : Tejpat : Tamalaka (Tejpatra) : Talishappattiri : Talisapatri : Tejpat Thyme Description Thyme is a hardy perennial shrub. The flavour is aromatic. the dried leaves are curled. brownish green colour. tomato soups. Apart from Europe it is grown in Australia. In India. 5mm long. 6. headcheese. Flowers are light violet. with hairy glandular calyx. Thyme prefers a mild climate. Masho. Thyme oil is used in treatment of bronchitis. fish and meat dishes. Rangsbur : Hasha Commercial part Leaf . Uses Thyme is used to season. two lipid. Canada and USA. North Asia. a mallow upland soil and grows best in the hills. It has anti-spasmodic and carminative properties. Spanish Thyme and American Thyme. The major types of thyme available in the international market are French Thyme. it is cultivated in the Western temperate Himalayas and Nilgiris. liver and pork sausages. marketed in whole or ground form. 20-40 cm high. warm and pungent.7 mm long. cottage and cream cheese. It possesses anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties. Botanical name Thymus vulgaris Indian Names Hindi Malayalam Punjabi Urdu Family name Lamiaceae : Banajwain : Thottathulasi : Marizha. North Africa.
Vietnam. Uses Turmeric is used to flavour and to colour foodstuffs. Nepal. Halad Family name Zingiberaceae Commercial part Rhizome or underground stem . Sri Lanka. The aqueous extracts has biopesticidal properties. Orissa. butter and cheese etc. Haldi : Arishia : Halad : Manjal : Halede.Turmeric Description Turmeric is the boiled. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence. gelatins. Maharashtra. Turmeric is a tropical crop cultivated from sea level to 1200 meter MSL. Caribbean Islands and Central America. with a short stem and tufted leaf. 1-4 flowers are born in axil of the bract opening one at a time. non-alcoholic beverages. China. carminative. Philippines. blood purifier and an antiseptic. Malaysia. ointments and poultice. black clayey loams and red soils in irrigated and rainfed conditions. it is cultivated in Pakistan. The plant is a herbaceous perennial. The crop cannot stand water logging or alkalinity. Inflorescence is a central spike of 10-15 cm length. It is used in cosmetics. Myanmar. Japan. There are 7 to 12 leaves. It is a principal ingredient in curry powder. Malagasy. the leaf sheaths forms the pseudo stem. It grows in light black. Origin and Distribution It is a native of India. tonic. Indian Names Hindi Bengali Gujarati Kannada Konkani Malayalam Marathi : Haldi : Halud. Tamil Nadu. Thailand. It is used in the preparation of medicinal oils. In India. dried. East & West Africa. cleaned and polished rhizomes Curcuma longa. Pitras : Haldhar. It is stomachic. Turmeric oleoresin is used in brine pickles and to some extend in mayonnaise and relish formulations. Botanical name Curcuma longa L. Korea. Apart from India. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike. Turmeric is also used as a dye in textile industry. South Pacific Islands. Karnataka and Kerala. The lamina is green above and pale green below and has a length of 3040 cm and width 8-12 cm. The colour curcumin extracted from turmeric is used as a colourant. it is cultivated in the States of Andhra Pradesh. 60-90 cm high.
oblong leaves. short petioled.5 cm wide. succulent stem.Chin Vanilla List of major growers and companies Description Vanilla. Flowers are 6 cm long. Haldhar. nearly cylindrical and about 20 cm long. . 2. about 20 cm long. a member of the orchid family is a climbing monocot possessing a stout. The inflorescence is a raceme with 20 or more flowers. either yellowish green or white.Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Name in international languages : Haldil : Haldar. Harita : Manjal : Pasupu : Haladi Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese : Curcuma : Curcuma : Kurkuma Gelbwurzel : Gurkmeja : Kurkum : Geelwortel : Curcuma : Acafrao-da-India : Zholty Imbir : Ukon : Yu. Haldi : Haladi. Fruit popularly known as ‘beans’ or ‘pod’ is a capsule.
candies. Seychelles and India.525 ha. Natural growth is obtained at latitudes. Vanilla thrives well from the sea level up to 1000 meter MSL. Indonesia. Partial shade is essential for successful cultivation.) Name in international languages Family name Orchidaceae Spanish French German Swedish Arabic Dutch Italian Portuguese Russian Japanese Chinese Area and Production : Vainilla : Vanille : Vanille : Vanilj : Wanilla : Vanille : Vaniglia : Baunilia : Vanil : Banira : Hsiang . confectionaries and various bakery items. tropical climate with adequate welldistributed rainfall. 15 degree North and 20 degree South of the equator. Uses Vanilla is used mainly as a flavouring material. it is used in the preparation of ice creams. Botanical name Vanilla planifolia Andrews (V.fragrans salisb..Tsao The area of vanilla cultivation in the world recorded during 1999 was 37. Comoro. moist. milk. It grows best in light. Dry period of about 2 months is needed to restrict vegetative growth and induce flowering. a critical intermediary in a host of pharmaceutical products and as a subtle component of perfumes. beverages. The optimum temperature ranges from 21-32 degree C and rainfall 2000-2500 mm annually. Malagasy Republic. Tahiti. porous and friable soils with pH. with . under hot. As a flavouring agent. The important vanilla producing countries are Madagascar.Origin and Distribution It is a native of Atlantic Coast from Mexico to Brazil. Reunion. Mexico. 6-7.
USA. The area under cultivation at present is about 1000 ha. UK and Germany around 10%. In India.429 89.805 109.313 79. » » » » The Bourbon Vanilla (grown in Madagascar. 2. World Import of Vanilla Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Quantity in tonnes 1895 2116 2234 2643 3547 3496 4650 4560 4243 Value US $'000 98. Comoros and Reunion. UK and Germany account for 60% of world imports.. Split Oily..332 70.762 129. of which about 30% has started giving yield.production 4403 tonnes.. The present production of processed vanilla is estimated to be around 6-8 tonnes annually in India. They differ in flavour and organoleptic properties as a result of growing conditions.. Market The aggregate global demand for vanilla is estimated at about 4500 mts a year. Red/Brownish to dark Brawn.644 106. Mexico. Karnataka and Tamilnadu since early 1990s... the USA absorbing more than 30%. Sapple upto 12 cms: low grade upto 22 cms: Standard 22 cms : Top grade according 1... The Bourbon vanilla ranks tops in quality terms with following specifications : Colour : Quality: Aspect Length Dark Brown to Black Whole. France.8% to buyer to demand.. France.. Indonesia.997 84. These 3 countries are also major re-exporters of both vanilla beans and processed vanilla products. Mexican Vanilla (grown mainly in Mexico).969 136.247 Source : ITC/UN Statistics Quality Product Four major types of vanilla beans are distinguished in the world market. The Java Vanilla (grown in the island Java in Indonesia). Camoros and Reunion). The major vanilla producing countries are Madagascar..... harvesting and curing process.4% shining : : 10cm 13 cms Above . The Bourbon-like Vanilla (grown in the island Bali in Indonesia). vanilla cultivation is gaining in Kerala.Cuts Chopped Vanillin Content : Moisture Content : 16% to 28% . The countries.
com . List of major growers and companies For more details: mail@indianspices.Average Import price of Vanilla during 1992 to 1999Price per KG in US$ Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Price 52 49 49 38 26 18 17 17 Source : ITC/UN Statistics In India Vanilla is predominantly grown by small and marginal growers in their fields interplanting with other crops. It is grown largely in organic situations though not certified.
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