You are on page 1of 22

MINOR PROJECT REPORT

on

WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION

Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology

In

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Submitted By

DIWAKAR BANSAL 0619231015


SANTOSH KR. VAISH 0619231041
ANKIT SINGH 0619231007

Under the Guidance of

MRS. VINNI CHOUDHARY

Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering


G. L. BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
Plot no. 2, Knowledge Park III, Gr. Noida
Session: 2009-10
Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering
G. L. BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
[Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India & Affiliated to U.P. Technical University,
Lucknow]

CERTIFICATE

Certified that DIWAKAR BANSAL, SANTOSH KR. VAISH AND


ANKIT SINGH have carried out the seminar work presented in this report
entitled “WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION” for the award of
Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering
during the academic session 2009-10 from Uttar Pradesh Technical
University, Lucknow. The project embodies result of the work and studies
carried out by Student himself and the contents of the report do not form the
basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.

Piyush Yadav Mrs. Vinni Choudhary


(Project Coordinator) (Project Guide)
EC Deptt. EC Deptt.

Mr. Amit Sehgal


Asst. Prof.
H. O. D., EC Deptt.
Date: 20 Jan, 2010
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This seminar has been compiled & completed under the expert guidance of
ECE department personnel. I hereby heartily acknowledge their unstinted
help & valuable assistance.

I would like to thank MR. AMIT SEHGAL (HOD ECE), MR PIYUSH


YADAV (Project Coordinator), MRS. VINNI CHOUDHARY (Project
Guide) and entire staff of ECE Department for providing me the guidance
and relevant data and information about the topic.

DIWAKAR BANSAL
SANTOSH KR. VAISH
ANKIT SINGH
4th Year (E.C)
Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engg.
GLBITM, Greater Noida
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT v
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objectives...............................................................................................................1
1.2 Specifications..........................................................................................................2
1.3 Block Diagram........................................................................................................2
1.4 Subprojects.............................................................................................................3
1.4.1 DC Source....................................................................................................3
1.4.2 Full-Bridge Inverter.....................................................................................3
1.4.3 Gate Drivers.................................................................................................3
1.4.4 PIC...............................................................................................................4
1.4.5 DAC/VCO....................................................................................................4
1.4.6 Current Sensing............................................................................................4
1.4.7 Coils and Air Gap........................................................................................4
1.4.8 Transformer..................................................................................................4
1.4.9 Rectifier/Filter..............................................................................................5
1.4.10 Buck Converter..........................................................................................5

2. DESIGN PROCEDURE...............................................................................................6
2.1 DC Source...............................................................................................................6
2.2 Full-Bridge Inverter/Gate Drivers..........................................................................6
2.3 PIC, DAC, and VCO..............................................................................................7
2.4 Current Sensing......................................................................................................7
2.5 Coils and Air Gap...................................................................................................7
2.6 Transformer............................................................................................................8
2.7 Rectifier and Filter..................................................................................................9
2.8 Buck Converter.......................................................................................................9

3. DESIGN DETAILS....................................................................................................10
3.1 DC Source.............................................................................................................10
3.2 Full-Bridge Inverter/Gate Drivers........................................................................11
3.3 PIC, DAC, and VCO............................................................................................12
3.4 Current Sensing....................................................................................................13
3.5 Coils and Air Gap.................................................................................................13
3.6 Transformer..........................................................................................................14
3.7 Rectifier and Filter................................................................................................14
3.8 Buck Converter.....................................................................................................14

4. COMPONENT USED................................................................................................15
4.1 Parts......................................................................................................................15

5. CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................16
5.1 Accomplishments.................................................................................................16
5.2 Uncertainties.........................................................................................................16
REFERENCES..................................................................................................................17
1

1. INTRODUCTION
In the age of wireless communication and portable music players the
demand for powering those devices wirelessly is ever prevalent. The
advantages of portability and wireless communication are greatly hindered
by the fact that the devices themselves must be plugged into the walls to
charge. The next generation in portable devices is a device that receives
power wirelessly. The first step in wireless power is providing power to a
computer charging pad wirelessly. The market for this device would be
businesses with large conference rooms. The device would allow users to
plug their phones and computers into the conference room table without
large power bricks and cords running everywhere. The pads can
conveniently be placed under the table and inside the ceiling so there are no
visible wires that could ruin the aesthetic feel of the room. The ease of
installation and convenience of this device would make the marketability of
this product quite large and if finished could be seen in thousands of
conference rooms. If the efficiency of coupling could be increased slightly
further, wireless power transmission could become a standard means for
charging a mobile device.

1.1 Objectives

The overall goal of this project is to design and successfully implement a


wireless power transmission system to be used in a conference room. The
system will work by using resonant coils to transmit power from an AC line
in the ceiling to a pad on the table. The pad will output DC voltages in
order to charge computers and cell phones. There are several benefits for the
use of such a system:
• Elimination of cords on the ground that make tripping hazards.
• Allows no wire installation and mobility on table.
• A necessary step towards consumer wireless power.
The entire interface has the following features:
• Feedback control for driving frequency to maximize efficiency.
• DC power output for computers and cell phone charging that
allows for elimination of large power bricks.
• Slight mobility offered for different table heights and positions.
2

1.2 Specifications

The specifications original specifications from our design proposal are as


follows in Error: Reference source not found.

TABLE 1: DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS


Transmission Efficiency >30 %
Overall Efficiency >25 %
Output Voltage 18 VDC ± 1.8 V
5 VDC ± .5 V
Frequency Within 10 kHz of optimal
Power Abilities Laptop and cell phone
1.3 Block Diagram

The block diagram for the transmission setup is shown in Error:


Reference source not found.

P IC
Feedback
C u rre n t S e n so r D A /CV C O G a t e D r iv e r C
s
o n tr o l
M ic r o c o n to lle r

DC F u-Bll r id g e
W a ll V o lta g e T o p C o il A ir G a p B o t t o m C o il
S o u rce In v e r t e r

D C/D C
B u c k C o n v e r te r s

C e ll P h o n e R e c t ifie r a n d F ilte r T r a n s f o r m e r
L a p to p

Figure 1: Block Diagram


3

1.4 Block Descriptions

The different blocks shown in the block diagram were implemented


separately and then integrated together. Below are descriptions of each
block and specifications for each.

1.4.1 DC Source

The DC source takes in the input from the wall voltage which is a 60 Hz
sinusoid. Using diodes, the voltage is rectified and passed through a PI
filter. The original design specified a 1 % voltage ripple, but this ripple
requirement was excessive and difficult to meet at such a low frequency.
The final design chosen had a voltage ripple of less than 5 % and was more
than suitable.

1.4.2 Full Bridge Inverter

The full bridge inverter is a circuit that uses four switches, a DC source, and
a load. The four switches are setup in an H-bridge with the middle being the
load. In this case the load is the top coil. Two of the switches are connected
from the high side DC source to opposite sides of the coil. The remaining
two switches are connected from the low side of the DC source to opposite
sides of the coil. High side switches have opposite duty cycles and the low
side switches are connected such that the DC source is applied across the
load. The result is a square wave being applied across the coil. The switches
are MOSFETs that have the capability to carry the max current and can
block the full DC voltage.

1.4.3 Gate Drivers

Gate drivers are used to turn on and off the switches. The gate drivers take
in a timing signal and output a voltage high enough and with enough current
to drive MOSFETs on and off at the same frequency of the timing signal.
4

1.4.4 PIC Microcontroller

The gate drivers are controlled by a PIC microcontroller. There is feed back
into the PIC about how much power is being drawn. The PIC attempts to
increase the frequency until the power out of the DC source is at a
maximum. This should correspond to the resonant frequency because the
increase in input power means there is an increase in output power. The PIC
outputs 10 digital logic pins as either high or low. The pins are then
converted to a voltage by the Digital to Analog Converter (DAC).

1.4.5 DAC/ VCO

The output of the DAC is a voltage between 0 and 5 V. This voltage is an


input to a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO), which produces a square
wave that increases in frequency as the input voltage increases. The range of
frequencies is determined by a bias voltage and an external capacitor, and is
set around our expected resonant frequency.

1.4.6 Current Sensing

The current sensing circuit is used to tell the PIC how much current is being
pulled from the DC source. It uses a precision .15 Ω resistor on the output of
the DC source and that voltage is feed into an op-amp circuit that produces a
voltage proportional to the current. This voltage is designed to be within the
range of inputs for the PIC.

1.4.7 Coils and Air Gap

The coils are each made out of 100 turns of 20 AWG magnet wire. They are
separated by about 2 m and have a diameter of about 1 m. The power
transfer between them is done through resonant magnetic coupling.

1.4.8 Transformer

A transformer is used to scale down the voltage to around 18 V. This is


done before the signal is converted to DC because high frequency
transformers are small and relatively efficient.
5

1.4.9 Rectifier and Filter

A similar circuit is used to convert the AC signal from the transformer to a


DC signal. Different diodes are used due to the high frequency nature of the
signal. Smaller capacitors are used in the filter because the frequency is
much higher than the 60 Hz signal filtered the top filter. The capacitors are
also ceramic because electrolytic capacitors have a much lower self resonant
frequency, after which they begin to behave like inductors.

1.4.10 Buck Converter

A buck converter is used to convert the 18 V for the computer down to 5 V


for charging the cell phone. It was ordered to save us the trouble of making
our own and its ability to keep the voltage regulated with a large input
voltage range.
6

2. DESIGN PROCEDURES
The overall concept for mutually inductive coils is an idea from an MIT
experiment used to transmit power to power a light bulb. The size of the
inductors was increased and the number of turns increased due to ideal
equations in hopes of lowering resonant frequency and increasing
transmission efficiency. PSPICE simulation was done wherever possible to
verify design before actual testing.

2.1 DC source

The DC source was designed with a rectifier and filter circuit. A full bridge
rectifier was chosen because they have less ripple than a half bridge rectifier
because the frequency is twice as fast. This means the filter has to supply
the voltage for only half as long so it has less time to decay. Figure 2 shows
the difference in the two rectifiers.

Figure 2: Rectifier Plots

The capacitors were chosen with relatively high values and the design
choice was verified in PSPICE with a simulation

2.2 Full-Bridge Inverter and Gate Drivers

The full bridge circuit is a generic circuit. The switches were chosen based
on max frequency, current carrying capabilities, and voltage blocking. The
speed is important because our switching frequency is several MHz at high
voltage and a reasonable amount of current. The gate drivers were chosen
because they have the appropriate frequency requirements and are designed
to drive MOSFETs, also they have an inverting and non-inverting signals.
This means that it can drive all of the MOSFETs.
7

2.3 PIC, DAC, and VCO

The PIC was chosen because it was readily available, has an analog input
for feedback, and it can operate at a speed that is fast enough to control the
frequency. The PIC outputs a 10 bit logical signal that is converted to a
voltage by a DAC. The DAC was chosen similar to the PIC in that it was
readily available, has the ability to convert the digital pins to the analog
voltage range needed. C-code already generated for the PIC did not have to
be changed with the operation of this new DAC. The output voltage of the
DAC is an input to the VCO. The VCO was chosen because of its frequency
range.

2.4 Current Sensing

The Transistor part numbers were changed based on what was available in
the parts shop. The fact that the circuit had to handle a common mode
voltage of around 170 V made the circuit more complicated than normal
current sense circuits. The zener diode and the p-type MOSFETs in the
design allow the high side voltage to be as high as 500 V, while only
making the voltage supply to the op-amp around 62 V and taking care of
any common mode voltage problems by referencing to a voltage other than
ground.

2.5 Coils and Air Gap

The coils were designed using a series of ideal equations. If the coils are
treated as windings around a transformer the reluctance can be calculated
using equation.

l
ℜ=
µo µ r A

Using the dimensions given and the relative permeability of air the
A
reluctance is 2.026 x106 . The reluctance can be used to find the mutual
Nm
inductance using equation.

4π N1 N 2 4π N1 N 2 µo µ r A
M= =
ℜ l
8

The resonant frequency is given in equation.

1 l
f = =
2π MC 2π 4π N1 N 2 µo µ r AC

Therefore, in order to reduce the resonant frequency using the mutual


inductance the number of turns should be maximized, the area should be
maximized, and the distance between the coils should be minimized. The
distance between the coils was varied to observe the effects on coupling due
to coil distance but would eventually be set around six feet to simulate the
distance between a tabletop and ceiling. A value of 100 turns was chosen
because it was a large value, but not large enough to start contributing too
much unwanted factors from series resistance and winding capacitance. The
diameter was set to 1 meter because it is large value but not too
unreasonable of a size for a pad on or under a desk. The actual expected
frequency can be calculated by finding the capacitance which is given by
equation.
εo A l
C= ⇒ f =
l 2π A 4π N1 N 2 µo µr ε o
Substituting in values for and results in a resonant frequency of 395.814
kHz. This is a very rough value because of losses in the air and non-ideal
elements in the circuits. The actual measured natural frequency is around
3.4 MHz when measured using a signal generator with amplitude 20 Vp-p.

2.6 Transformer

The transformer was designed based on the turn ratio needed to scale down
the voltage and current requirements to prevent magnetic flux saturation of
the core. The saturation magnetic flux is given by.
imax µ N
Bsat =
l
The core losses were attempted to be minimized using. The number of turns
was kept to a minimum to prevent losses from series resistance in the
windings.

2.7 Rectifier and Filter


9

The rectifier was chosen using a single diode to prevent loss because there
is only current flowing through one diode and the frequency is fast enough
that the full-wave is not need. The diode chosen had its frequency verified
by looking at [12]. The capacitor was picked such that its resonant
frequency is above 6 MHz because it will not act like a capacitor above this
frequency. The inductance from the connections dominates the impedance,
and a smaller capacitor was chosen than in the top filter because the self
resonant frequency is higher. Ceramic capacitors tend to have a lower
capacitance than electrolytic capacitors, but in this case the frequency is
high enough that a lower capacitance is acceptable.

2.8 Buck Converter

The component was selected because it can handle the power necessary for
the cell phone, outputs 5 V, and meets the power requirements for the cell
phone.
A series inductor and a capacitor to ground will filter the signal output by
the buck converter making it a cleaner signal.
10

3. DESIGN DETAILS
3.1 DC Source

The DC source comprises of a rectifier circuit using 1N1188 diodes and a PI


filter.

Figure 3: Wall Voltage to DC Rectifier and Filter (DC Source)

The 1N1188 diodes were chosen because they can carry more than 1 A and
can block up to 400 VDC. They were also readily available in the parts
shop. The voltage ripple from this circuit is hard to calculate on paper due
to the fact that it is a third order filter. The inductor was chosen at a standard
part value and verified in PSPICE that it can regulate the current properly.

A PSPICE simulation was run with Dbreak diodes in place of the 1N1188,
because there is no PSPICE model available for the 1N1188. The diodes
should not noticeably affect the output voltage.
The output signal is connected by switches operating at the speed that the
full-bridge inverter is expected to operate at. The purpose of the switches is
not to test the full-bridge inverter circuit, but make sure that the output
voltage is properly regulated.
This circuit diagram in Figure 4 is what was used to simulate. The switches
were used to make the circuit more like the real circuit that would be
running in the demo.
As Figure 5 shows, after about 40 ms the voltage is very steady. It has a
ripple of less than 1 V. When the circuit in Figure 3 was built, the regulation
was not as steady as shown in the simulation of Figure 5 so the capacitance
values were changed to 1000 µF.
11

Figure 4: Simulation Circuit for Rectifier and Filter

Figure 5: Simulation Results

3.2 Full-Bridge Inverter/Gate Drivers

This inverter takes in the voltage from the DC source and through using the
PIC and gate drivers, outputs signal in the form of a square wave with a
frequency that is controlled by the PIC and is adjusted based on induced
current in the coil. The gate drivers are ICs that take in the signal from the
VCO and output the right amount of voltage to turn on and off the power
MOSFETs in the full-bridge inverter.
12

3.3 PIC Microcontroller, DAC, and VCO

The DAC requirements were that it had 10 bits, parallel inputs, and
transparent output. Finding a part that meet these restrictions was difficult.

Figure 6: DAC and VCO Circuit Diagram

The PIC will control the frequency of the signal that is driving the coil. It
will also adjust the frequency based on the current that is sensed through the
top coil to get the most power transfer through the coils

M CLR’/VPP RB7/PGD ` D7

From Current D6
RA0/AN0 RB6/PGC
Sensing Circuit
RA1/AN1 RB5 D5

RA2/AN2/Vref-/Cvref RB4 D4

RA3/AN3/VREF+ RB3/PGM D3

RA4/T0CK1/C1OUT RB2 D2

RA5/AN5/SS;/C2OUT RB1 D1

RE0/RD;/AN 5 RB0/INT
D0
RE5/W R’/AN6 VDD

RE2/CS’/AN7 VSS
From 5V Source VDD
PIC16F877A RD7/PSP7
High
From 5V Source
Low VSS RD6/PSP6

OSC1/CLKI RD5/PSD5

OSC2/CLKO RD4/PSD4

D8 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC7/RX/DT

RCI/T1OSI/CCP2 RC6/TX/CK
D9
RC2/CCP1 RC5/SDO

RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA

RD0/PSP0 RD3/PSP3

RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2

Figure 7:PIC Pin Out Diagram


13

3.4 Current Sensor

A very low resistance resistor will be put in series with the coil. The voltage
is then measured across it to determine the current through the coil based on
the voltage drop and resistance. The extra parts in this circuit are to protect
the op-amp. The op-amp was not rated for 150-170 V common mode
voltage, but it was found on the datasheet that this circuit would work [8].

Figure 8: Current Sense Circuit

3.5 Coils

An inductor made with about 100 turns and a diameter of around 1 m. It


will also have a current limiting resistor in series to make sure nothing burns
up. An inductor like the top coil that will receive the electromagnetic waves
transmitted by the top coil and have a current and voltage induced to power
the devices. The inductance of either coil was around 27 mH. This was
lower than calculated but still relatively high. Preliminary tests were done
on the coils to find their resonant frequency. Multiple frequencies were
found, including 3.4 MHz, 6 MHz, and one around 9 MHz. The most
resonant of these being the 6 MHz signal, but the 3.4 MHz was chosen for
the target frequency, due to the fact that it is easier to find parts for and will
work nearly as well.
14

These frequencies were far from the expected frequency. This could be due
to a multitude of factors including skin effect of the 20 AWG wire,
imperfections in the windings, incorrect permeability numbers, incorrect
estimates of capacitance, and fringing among others. The high frequency
made the designs a bit more restricted.

3.6 Transformer

The transformer was not made because we were never able to get a voltage
on the bottom coil so it was hard to figure out a turn ratio and what the
saturation current would be.

3.7 Half Wave Rectifier

A diode that will take the signal induced in the bottom coil and cut off the
negative side of the AC, helping to create a DC signal.
Filter: A series 1mH inductor and a capacitor to ground that will filter the
signal output by the rectifier making it a smoother signal.

Figure 11: Circuit Diagram for Transformer, Rectifier, and Filter

3.8 DC/DC Buck Converter

A Buck-Converter will step the 18 V for the laptops down to 5 V for a


phone. Initial tests found that the regulation by this buck converter is
outstanding, changing 1 mV or less through the recommended input voltage
range.
15

4. COMPONENT USED
The final product is designed to operate off a wall outlet. The only other
considerations for cost are placing the bottom coil under the table top. The
final design would also need some voltage supplies (5 and ±12).

4.1 Parts
TABLE 2: ESTIMATED COMPONENT USED
Part Block Quantity
Current Sensing Resistor Current Sensor 1
62 V Zener Diode Current Sensor 1
Operational Amplifier Current Sensor 1
2.7kΩ, 100Ω, Current Sensor 1
and 2M Ω Resistors 1/4W
Current Senor MOSFETS Current Sensor 2
Diodes DC Supply 4
1mH Inductor DC Supply 2
Capacitor 1000uF DC supply 2
40PIN PIC PIC 1
20 MHz Oscillator PIC 1
Voltage Controlled Oscillator DAC/VCO 1
DAC DAC/VCO 1
Gate Driver Gate drivers 2
Full-Bridge Inverter MOSFETs Full-Bridge Inverter 4
700m Magnet Wire (20AWG) Top and bottom coils 1
Scaffolding Wood Top and bottom coils 1
Transformer Transformer 1
Diode Bottom Filter 1
Capacitor 1uF Bottom Filter 1
Resistor 2.7K Buck Converter 1
Buck Converter Buck Converter 1
Capacitors 100uF, .01uF, and Buck Converter 1
470Uf
100uH Inductor Buck Converter 1
16

Diode Buck Converter 1

5. CONCLUSION
5.1 Accomplishments

• Proved that power can be transmitted via resonantly coupled coils


(theoretically)
• Multiple resonant frequencies found at many coil spacing
• PIC able to regulate frequency based on current measured
• 60 Hz DC wall voltage filtered with a small voltage ripple
• 3 MHz signal able to be filtered with a small voltage ripple

5.2 Uncertainties

• MOSFETs were not able to operate fast enough to drive the coils at
resonance.
• Isolation problems for the inverter.
17

REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_energy_transfer.
2. http://www.electricalternative.com/wireless.htm.
3. SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM NIKOLA TESLA
October 18 – 20, 2006, Belgrade, SASA, Serbia
4. http://novaspivack.typepad.com/nova_spivacks_weblog/2003/0
8/i_want_wireless.html.
5. http://ecoupled.com/applicationsMain.html
6. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/01/video-wireless/
7. http://www.instructables.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-
Over-Short-Distances-U/
8. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/techtalk51-30.pdf
9. http://www.electronicsinfoline.com/New/Lights_and_Optics/wire
less-power-transmission-over-short-distances-using-inductive-
power-transfer.html