Special Section on Diversity

Your guide to finding a job in securities and banking
2009-10
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You Landed the Job.
Now Stay Ahead of the Pack.
www.efinancialcareers.com
Welcome to the fifth edition of Careers in Financial Markets,
from eFinancialCareers.
Investment banking remains a popular career choice among
today’s very best graduates and MBAs, so the competition
to secure that all-important first foot in the door is intense.
The aim of this guide is to offer you real insights into the
world of Wall Street and the securities business, and to give
you the knowledge you need to stand out.
As you develop your career, we hope eFinancialCareers will
be your online companion. We serve the global financial
community as the Web’s top site for career management
and jobs in the securities, investment banking and asset
management fields. Professionals from analysts to manag-
ing directors at the world’s leading investment banks, hedge
funds, ratings agencies and trading firms rely on us every
day.
In addition to job listings, eFinancialCareers provides pre-
mier job market and pay analysis, employment advice and
a series of tools to help you maximize your career oppor-
tunities. One such tool for job seekers is our career guides
published in the U.S. and Europe. These unique guides
profile the current trends, career paths, top players and
skills required for the principal financial professions.
If, having read this guide, you’d like to learn more about the
industry, conduct some pre-interview research, or simply
post your resume for your next job, come and visit us at
eFinancialCareers. Be sure to check out our Campus Con-
nection, which provides news, tips, background and other
information especially for business students.
With best wishes for your career,
Mark M. Feffer
U.S. Editor, eFinancialCareers
www.efinancialcareers.com
Welcome
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Contents
Welcome 1
Table of Contents 2
How to Use This Guide 3
Overview
A Career in the Financial Markets 4
The Brave New World 5
Into the Storm 6
Finding a Job
The Campus Recruitment Process: A Survival Guide 7
Career Services Officer Q&A 9
All About Internships 11
Landing Your First Job 12
Ace the Interview 13
Resumes and Cover Letters 15
How to Research Potential Employers 16
Networking in College – Online and Off 17
Your First Finance Skill-Set 18
The Ins and Outs of an Overseas Job 19
Managing Your Career
Managing Your Career 20
Voices of Experience 23
When It’s Time to Make a Move 24
Getting the Most Out of Headhunters 25
Office Politics 26
Building Effective Relationships with Mentors 27
Where You’ll Be in Five Years 28
Networking as a Professional 30
Job-Hunting While Employed 31
Working with Corporate Culture 32
Negotiating Compensation (and Related Hints) 33
Profiting From Performance Reviews 34
Diversity
Trends in Diversity 36
Finding the Right Fit 38
Working with Diversity Groups 39
Q&A: Mark L. Chamberlain, Deutsche Bank 40
Q&A: Dale A. Burnett, AIG Investments 42
Sectors
Mergers and Acquisitions 44
Debt and Equity Capital Markets 46
Sales and Trading 48
Research 50
Quantitative Analytics 52
Hedge Funds 54
Foreign Exchange 56
Fund Management 58
Corporate Banking 60
Private Banking and Wealth Management 62
Operations 66
Investment Consulting 68
Private Equity 70
Global Custody 72
Risk Management 74
Compliance 76
Careers in Financial Markets is published by eFinancialCareers Ltd, www.efinancialcareers.com
Editor: Mark Feffer; Deputy Editor: Jon Jacobs; Design: Michael Ballou Dudley; Marketing: Maria Slabaugh
Writers: Dona DeZube, Mark Feffer; Carol Lippert Gray, Jon Jacobs, Lily H. Li, Laura Lorber, Scott Krady, Sonia Lelii, Myra A. Thomas
Additional copies: help-usa@efinancialcareers.com +1 800-380-9040; © 2007-09 eFinancialCareers Ltd; no part of this publication may be reproduced without permission.
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Human Resources 78
Legal 80
Information Technology 82
Marketing and Public Relations 84
Ratings Agencies 86
Information Providers 90
Resources
Resources 92
Diversity Initiatives 93
Glossary 94
Many Paths to a Rewarding Career 96
How to Use This Guide
Careers in Financial Markets is designed to be used in conjunction with
eFinancialCareers, where you’ll find up-to-date pay and hiring news,
career advice and information on employment trends in the financial
markets. This guide will ground you in the securities industry’s different
sectors and provide background information on available career paths
and the skills you’ll need to be successful.
To be credible at interviews, you have to know the difference between,
say, global custody and private equity, or risk management and compli-
ance. That’s why our Sectors section reflects the range of professions
and skills needed for each area. The Overview presents trends and
career paths across the industry as a whole and investment banking in
particular. Finding a Job provides tips for identifying and landing not
just your first job, but the right first job, while Managing Your Career
explores strategies and tactics to help you move steadily up the ladder
– and to the top. Finally, our Diversity section explores the financial
industry’s efforts to attract and retain a diverse work force, from both
the employer and employee point of view.
I hope this guide will inform and inspire you for your financial career.
And, I hope you’ll use eFinancialCareers as you build your success. If
you have questions or comments, please be sure to let us hear from you.
Jon Jacobs
Staff Writer, eFinancialCareers
www.efinancialcareers.com
4
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
A Career in the Financial Markets
Is there any such thing as typical?
Each investment bank has its own personality. Some see
themselves as cutting edge while others pride themselves
on tradition. Some celebrate the art of the deal, while
others laud diligence. Many have tens of thousands of
employees in locations around the world, while others
measure their staffs by the dozen and work out of a single
office suite. Despite such differences, most share a com-
mon approach to their organization. So no matter where
you work, you’ll probably encounter a similar retinue of job
titles in similar spots on the organization chart.
Analyst
In investment banking, the first rung on the ladder is the
analyst. It’s in this position graduates invariably begin their
careers. In the language of Wall Street, “analyst” is simply
another way of saying “trainee.”
The work analysts do varies from division to division. In
corporate finance, they’re the number-crunchers who study
a firm’s financial reports and put together “pitch books”
- the company and sector research that helps a bank win
business. In sales, they hit the phones, calling (relatively
unimportant) clients on various (non-crucial) matters. Ana-
lysts assigned to the trading floor can’t trade until they’ve
passed their regulatory exams. Even once they have, they’re
heavily constrained until they prove they’re not going to
press the wrong button and lose millions.
Most banks keep analysts in place for three years, then
decide whether or not to renew their contracts. Of course
at that point, analysts have the option of deciding whether
they want to stay on or make their way in another firm.
Analysts being considered for promotion must demonstrate
an aptitude for leadership, the ability to present their point
of view persuasively – even when it’s contrary to the views
of others – and an understanding of the needs and motiva-
tions of both their firm and its clients.
Associates
“Associates” are either analysts who’ve made the grade or
business school students who’ve joined the bank after earn-
ing their MBA. Typically, associates manage and allocate
work to their own teams of analysts. Here again, they usu-
ally hold their position for three years.
Vice Presidents
Successful associates move into the role of vice president,
and it’s at this level life starts to get exciting. While the title
may sound daunting, don’t be deceived: Any large invest-
ment bank has scores of VPs in its ranks.
In corporate finance, vice presidents manage the day-to-
day affairs of associates and analysts, and usually have
more frequent contact with clients. Those working in sales,
trading or research often have their own book of custom-
ers, more flexible risk parameters when trading, or their
own list of companies to research. Because sales people
and traders operate on their own, exceptionally talented
trading-desk VPs can make more money than their firm’s
managing directors.
At this level, career transitions are more difficult. So, many
VPs will stay in place for longer than the typical three
years. Those who don’t progress at one bank often jump to
another, where they can join at the next rank: director or
executive director.
Director or Executive Director
For directors and executive directors – the titles are used
interchangeably – the top rung of the ladder is within reach.
These men and women are the right hands of investment
banking’s leaders, the managing directors. In corporate
finance, executive directors help MDs handle relationships
with client companies. In sales and trading, they call bigger
and more important clients and place ever larger trades.
Managing Directors
At the upper echelons of the investment banking hierarchy
are the managing directors. These are the rainmakers who
work directly with clients and bring in business. As hap-
pens in any pyramid structure, few of those who started as
analysts will make it to this level. One large bank promotes
only 6 to 8 percent of its directors to managing director
each year. At Goldman Sachs, the ratio of employees to
managing director is roughly 16 to 1 (as of April 2009).
At the end of the day, individual performance, revenue
generation and client service are keys to moving up in the
investment banking world. How long should it take? It’s not
unreasonable for a hungry new analyst to become a manag-
ing director by his or her early thirties.
5
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
The hiring climate on Wall Street and in the fund industry
has changed dramatically in the past two years.
As recently as 2007, the world’s leading financial institu-
tions were combing U.S. campuses to recruit hundreds
of students each into summer internships and permanent
entry-level jobs. Global banks courted top students with
lavish dinners, gave them weeks to respond to a job offer,
and might even hire a sought-after candidate’s spouse to
help ease the stress of relocating. Students who possessed
top grades, extracurricular leadership roles or Wall Street
internship experience could expect offers from as many as
seven or eight banks.
Those days are gone – perhaps forever. While the banking
industry will eventually resume growing, its structure has
been upended, its power and prestige dented, and some
key practices – including how it compensates employees
– have been placed under unprecedented government
scrutiny and control. All of this translates into fewer job and
internship opportunities on Wall Street than in years past.
And Then There Were Five
Start with the most visible sign: The number of large em-
ployers has shrunk. The disappearance of Lehman Brothers
(broken up after a September 2008 bankruptcy filing) and
Bear Stearns (absorbed by JPMorgan Chase in May 2008)
leaves just five U.S. “bulge-bracket” banks, where there
had been seven. A third bulge-bracket institution, Merrill
Lynch, was acquired by Bank of America at the end of 2008.
Facing a tough business climate and the prospect of tighter
regulatory oversight for many years to come, the surviving
top-tier firms are in no mood to expand aggressively as
they did during the real estate bubble earlier this decade.
Through the early months of 2009, major U.S. and Europe-
based banks continued to visit campuses, but made far
fewer offers, even at top institutions like the University of
Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. Market conditions might
be better by spring 2010. However, even if the worst of the
industry’s troubles are behind, a rapid rebound in campus
hiring is unlikely. In the downturn that followed the technol-
ogy bubble bursting in 2000, Wall Street didn’t resume hir-
ing in a big way until a few years after the economy and the
financial markets had bottomed. A slow, relatively jobless
recovery is widely expected this time around, too.
Fierce Competition
So, for the Class of 2010, the competition for coveted slots
in the big investment banks’ analyst programs looks fiercer
than ever. For subsequent classes, the summer internships
that provide an indispensable springboard to a job offer will
be harder to come by.
Besides erasing more than 200,000 banking jobs worldwide
from 2007 through mid-2009, the recession and financial
blowups also prompted major financial institutions to re-
examine bonus policies, slash employee perks, and cut back
on international relocations.
Still, some business segments and functional departments
have seen demand hold relatively firm during the downturn
- or even benefit. They include restructuring and manag-
ing distressed assets, credit risk management, regulatory
compliance, algorithmic trading systems, and retail financial
advisors.
Coping With a New Landscape
What’s an aspiring banker to do? If you’re set on making a
career in finance, you must have a Plan B and C to fall back
on in case your Plan A doesn’t pan out. Even if you attend a
top-tier university, you should approach foreign banks, mid-
tier firms and boutiques rather than focus all of your energy
on getting an offer (or even an interview) from Goldman
Sachs or JPMorgan. As bulge brackets pull back, selected
institutions in those other categories are moving into the
breach. And rather than confine your focus to investment
banking, knock on other front-office doors like asset man-
agement or foreign exchange. Consider even starting out in
a non-financial corporation with the idea of doubling back to
Wall Street when conditions are better. For certain types of
roles, banks like to draw well-placed people from industry.
However, always look before you leap. When you join an
employer, its name will loom large on your resume, helping
define your own brand reputation both while you work
there and even after you leave. So perform thorough due
diligence on any firm you consider working for.
And don’t despair: Yes, the landscape has changed and,
yes, the competition is even tougher than it was before,
but Wall Street’s still in business, and it’s looking for smart
people to lead it into the future.
The Brave New World
The recent financial crisis continues to reshape the investment industry
6
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Into the Storm
How to approach a rattled job market
Despite what you may have heard, there are still jobs in
investment banking, because banks never completely stop
hiring students. What’s more, you don’t have to do anything
to find a job that students who graduated into a bull market
didn’t do. You just have to be more intense, more focused
and more flexible in your job search.
What’s it take to win a Wall Street job? Let’s start with the
tangible assets recruiters look for in students:
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financial engineering or economics.
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º |eoJe|s|iu erue|ierce ir ert|ocu||iculo| c|uuus.
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º /r ourt u| ut|e| |eloti.e ir t|e |usiress.
Seek out as many items from that list as possible. Do what
it takes to keep your GPA high. Get tutored, study when
you’d rather party, and build personal relationships with
your professors by visiting during office hours.
Major in a relevant field. High level math and information
technology coursework are proof you have what it takes to
estimate risk or price securities.
Join the business club and volunteer so much they make
you president. Improve your communication skills by joining
the local Toastmasters Club or taking a public speaking
course.
Start building alumni relationships the day you arrive on
campus. Alumni won’t hire you just because you went to
their school, but they may talk to you about company cul-
ture, make sure your resume gets seen and steer you to the
right classes and internships. Join professional associations
and go to live events and informational interviews.
Spend the summer in an investment banking or a related
internship, not counseling kids at Camp Wikiwacky. Other-
wise, you’ll be passed over in favor of the student with the
right experience.
As for relatives in investment banking and rich, trusting
friends - you’ve either got them or you don’t. If you do,
make use of them.
Up Your Odds
Then there are the intangible assets that can put you above
the competition:
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Does it take you an hour to walk across campus because
everyone you pass stops to chat with you? That’s good. If
you’re not well-liked by many, try to figure out why not and
fix your flaws before you job hunt. Ask your bluntest friend
how you come across. Do a practice interview at the career
center and beg them to be harsh.
With competition so fierce, you need to stand out during
interviews and campus events. Prepare by researching com-
panies and the people you’re about to meet. Start at the
company’s Web site, read annual reports and news stories,
then dig deeper with networking conversations.
Pay attention to culture and the differences between indi-
vidual firms. Be ready to discuss current company issues,
who you are, what you want to do and what’s in it for them
if they hire you. Be humble and portray yourself as someone
who knows some things but still has a lot to learn.
This takes a lot of time and energy. So starting your fresh-
man year, schedule a regular day and time for job hunting.
Log your research and networking efforts. File flattering
memos from your internships and copies of brilliant work.
Just Say Yes
When all this work pays off and you finally get an offer,
don’t even think about jerking them around. Respond ASAP.
If you’re waitlisted, express your delight.
If the job’s in Boston and you wanted to live in New York, or
you had your heart set on analysis but the job is in munici-
pal bond sales, take it anyway. Do what you can from the
inside to get where you want to be in the future.
7
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Breaking into investment banking has always been difficult.
Drawn by the field’s high pay and the potential for interna-
tional travel, thousands of soon-to-be graduates apply for
the few hundred openings offered by each of the largest
banks in a typical year.
But this isn’t a typical year. As the market re-invents itself,
even experienced investment bankers are challenged to
find work. “The joke on the street is that there’s one job
in investment banking and it might be gone,” says Dr. Phil
Gardner, director of the Collegiate Employment Research In-
stitute at Michigan State University. “In students’ lifetimes,
Wall Street is going to be different.”
Still, your best bet for landing a job in investment banking
remains landing a spot in a training program via on-campus
recruitment. “Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stan-
ley, JPMorgan and Citigroup still have investment banking
practices, and they’ll all have analyst programs in the
future,” says David Schwartz, a financial services recruiter
at DN Schwartz & Co. in New York.
Vivienne Dykstra, a former investment banking recruiter
turned graduate-recruitment consultant, notes the premier
investment banks have sliced recruitment by 35 percent to
50 percent. “That’s true of both internships and full-time
opportunities,” she says. “The challenge for them is making
sure they hire the best of the students when they need less
people, and to have students deselect themselves if they’re
not of the right caliber or lack a passion for the job.” Small
and mid-size firms have also cut back - or even eliminated -
graduate hiring, she adds.
Start Early
While not everyone enters investment banking through
campus recruitment, it’s the route taken by between 80 and
90 percent of the students hired. In addition to on-campus
events, banks use online applications and in-person inter-
views to seine waves of candidates. If you want to secure
your spot on Wall Street, start acquiring coursework, extra-
curricular activities, social skills and relevant internships
as early as possible. Groundwork laid in those areas during
your freshman and sophomore years will help you during
the on-campus process when you’re a senior, Gardner says.
Indeed, the search for your banking job should start the
first week of your freshman year. Check with your school’s
career center to see which banks make campus recruitment
visits and learn how to sign up for events. If the school
doesn’t draw investment bank recruiters, does it draw large
commercial banks? Ask which professors have investment
banking ties and sign up for their classes. Read your profes-
sors’ journal publications, stop by the office to discuss them
and offer to do any task – no matter how menial – to sup-
port their current research projects. Don’t just join student
banking and finance clubs, volunteer for a committee and
move into a leadership position. Next, visit the cooperative
education office to check on internships. Find mentors on
and off campus, and seek their advice on choosing the right
classes for the track you want to get on.
Surviving Application Forms
With thousands of applicants seeking positions, it’s not
surprising investment banks use the Internet as the starting
point in the application process - or that their online forms
eliminate over 50 percent of applicants. “You have to be a
top-notch, A student,” Schwartz says. A GPA below 3.5 will
likely knock you out, unless there are mitigating factors like
being the captain of a Division I Champion team. Still more
are knocked out by behavioral questions such as “Describe
a situation in which you displayed leadership skills to
influence the outcome of an event.” Your answers must be
detailed, concise and demonstrate a skill used in invest-
ment banking. Ask professors, alumni, career center pros
and fellow students for feedback on your replies.
In a year like this one, your job search could be ended by
overly brief answers, spelling errors, skipped questions
and posting replies from one bank’s application form to
another’s.
If you’re at a high-profile college, your application is going
to be noticed. If you lack an Ivy League pedigree, seek
alumni help. “Boston College has a very tight, very active
alumni group on Wall Street that cares about the kids who
come out of BC,” Schwartz says. “If a BC student calls and
says they’re really interested in becoming an analyst, the
alum will keep an eye out and make sure their application
is given due consideration.” However, he notes, “There’s
never a guarantee an alumnus can get you in.”
While you should get your application in as early as pos-
sible, before you submit online, there’s one more thing to
do: Get rid of anything inappropriate that you’ve posted on
The Campus Recruitment Process: A Survival Guide
8
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
your own social networking sites, and ask your friends to
remove anything about you from their pages, as well. That
would include pictures of you drinking, partying, smoking,
less than fully dressed (no bare chests even for men) or
doing anything you wouldn’t want shown on a Today Show
segment your grandmother was watching. Google yourself
to make sure you haven’t missed anything.
Meeting Prep
If you’re at a top-tier university, you’ll likely do a first-round
interview or be invited to attend on-campus presentations
followed by networking receptions. But before attending
any event, or starting your networking efforts, be sure to
prepare, says Lara Berkowitz, associate director, finance
careers, for the London Business School. Remember that
even information chats are interviews. “Read up on the
sector, the company, look at investment banking models,
pitch books, and research. Learn to talk the talk, know why
you want to do what you want to do and how you’re going
to sell yourself,” she says. “Know how you’re going to keep
the conversation going.”
Practice sessions and other programs offered by your
school’s career counseling center can help prepare you for
more formal on-campus interviews, which are designed to
test your skills and probe your personality. Usually, you’ll
face a panel of junior staffers from the business to which
you’ve applied, along with a human resources professional
(see Ace The Interview on page 13). Portray yourself as
a team player and a leader, with technical and company-
related knowledge.
If you succeed, your next step is a second-round interview
at company headquarters. If you make it that far, you’re a
champ: At this point, about 400 of 10,000 applicants are
still standing. Of those, between half and two-thirds will
receive the coveted offer of a full-time job.
If You Don’t Make the Cut…
So, what do you do if you’re one of the many students who
don’t make it through the campus recruitment process?
“If you haven’t found anything by spring, expand your
search, be flexible, but still have in your mind very specific
goals, and continue to be proactive,” recommends Barbara
Hewitt, senior associate director of career services at the
University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. “Think more
broadly about other skills you have and where else can you
use them.”
While you may not land the exact position you wanted, you
can set yourself up to take another run at your dream job in
a few years. One option is to find a slot in another depart-
ment, such as Operations. “When people did that in the
past, it wasn’t terribly effective,” says Dykstra, the graduate
recruitment consultant. “But some experience is better than
none, and some work is better than none.”
Another option is to increase your skill set by continuing
on for a master’s degree in a high demand area, such as
quantitative analysis or financial engineering. Fluency in
one of the languages spoken in emerging markets – includ-
ing Russian, Chinese, Arabic or Nordic languages – can also
help land you a position, says Diane Morgan, director of the
London Business School’s career services department.
Morgan also suggests developing transaction-related skills
by finding deal-oriented work. “Asset management start-up
companies are coming to us looking for students with
research, modeling, forecasting and company evaluation
skills,” she says. “Some of the roles with the smaller start-
up asset managers and hedge funds are unpaid, but you’re
getting experience.”
Or, land a compliance position at a regulator and aim to
return to the private sector within a few years.
It may make sense to get industry expertise and then return
for your master’s in business administration in a few years.
“Learn about a particular industry and use that knowledge
combined with an MBA to move over into banking,” Hewitt
suggests. “Finance is a skill that every organization needs,
so you don’t have to work in financial services to use those
skills.” Hot industries right now include pharmaceuticals,
education, health care and alternative energy.
If you’re completely enamored with banking, perhaps you
can stay in the sector by working in another niche. Regional
commercial banks tend to recruit from Midwestern schools
and tend to be conservative, but they can be great places
to work. Financial services sales, including insurance and
financial planning services, are another option.
As a last resort, students who don’t find any work should be
prepared to do an internship that will eventually lead to a
permanent spot, says Dykstra.
9
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Q&A
Barbara Hewitt, Senior Associate Director
of Career Services, The Wharton School
University of Pennsylvania
What advice are you giving students who want to
pursue a career in financial markets?
We are lucky. Most of the recruiters are still coming here,
but they’re not hiring nearly as many people as they were
in better markets.
Some, after all their
recruiting, decide
they can’t make an
offer to anyone.
We encourage
students to be
proactive, and to
have specific goals
but to be flexible. If
you haven’t found
anything by spring,
expand out. What
other skills do you
have and where
else can you use
them? The federal
government is hir-
ing, smaller firms
are hiring. Think more broadly. Finance is a skill that every
organization needs so you don’t have to work in financial
services to use those skills.
Howhas the recent downturn changed the college
recruitment process?
Student expectations need to be realistic about the oppor-
tunities they may be offered. Most students are not going
to have four or five offers. Companies are not interested in
waiting around to hear back from a student on an offer. In a
tight job market, it can irritate companies if students try to
negotiate too heavily. Organizations want students to take
the offer or not, so don’t try to string them along. Compa-
nies are watching their budgets so I’m not seeing the nice
dinners and lavishness we have seen in the past.
If I want to work on Wall Street but can’t get hired,
what can I do now to improve my chances of eventu-
ally landing a job there?
It’s hard to get those positions when you’re not coming out
of an MBA or undergrad program. However, you might be-
come familiar with a particular industry by working directly
in it and then use that knowledge to move over into banking
eventually. For instance, you could work in the pharmaceuti-
cal industry and then move to a company that invests in
pharmaceutical startups.
Is it possible to find work on the buy side with only
an undergraduate degree?
There are fewer opportunities, but we certainly see
students taking investment research positions and going
into private equity positions doing the background research
on acquisition targets. There are some opportunities on
the buy side and it’s growing more common, but still not as
many as on the sell side.
How do I turn an internship into a full-time job?
Do an extraordinary job. Stay late, network outside your
department, do more than you’re asked. The organization
might have something at the end of the summer for high
performing interns. That being said, fewer interns from last
summer were offered full-time positions in the fall 2008
because of hiring reductions.
What can young people do to make sure they leave
school with a job offer in hand?
Consider how flexible
you’re being. Look at
different geographical
or functional areas. If it
drags into months after
graduation, consider
volunteering at a non-
profit in a business area
to develop fresh skills
and show you’re acquir-
ing new skills. Keep
going back to your career center. Most will provide some
career assistance to alums.
“Organizations want
students to take the
offer or not, so don’t try
to string them along.
Companies are watching
their budgets so I’m not
seeing the nice dinners
and lavishness we have
seen in the past.”
“Do an extraordinary
job. Stay late, network
outside your
department, do more
than you’re asked.”
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11
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
You’d never buy an interview outfit without trying it on
first, to see whether it fits well and becomes you. But
many people jump onto a career path without considering
whether it’s the right one. Having an internship lets you try
a profession on for size.
Corinne, the director of investor relations and marketing
at a Connecticut-based hedge fund, is a perfect example.
In college, she double-majored in finance and art history.
Her first internship was at a major auction house. But she
realized her path there would be stunted. So she took on
business-related internships with employers large and
small, public and family-owned, and found her niche.
Without an internship, she says, “you’re not prepared for
the responsibility and independence.”
That said, however, finding an internship in the financial
world is challenging now. “It’s tight this year, there’s no
question about that,” says Barbara Hewitt, senior associate
director of career services at the University of Pennsylva-
nia’s Wharton School. “We’re down about 27 percent in
terms of on-campus interviews. The big banks we typically
work with are cutting their classes of students. And I don’t
think things will be rebounding any time quickly.”
Among other things, Hewitt notes, that means prospec-
tive interns don’t have a lot of negotiating room. If a bank
makes an offer, it’s one a student can’t refuse. “They’re not
interested in extending deadlines, and aren’t willing to give
people an extra two weeks to decide whether they want a
position because they wanted time to interview with other
firms,” she says. “Ironically, though, it’s more important to
have had an internship now. The large banks didn’t come
back and do a lot of hiring with people who didn’t intern
with them. But it makes you competitive at other organi-
zations (such as asset management and boutique firms,
corporate finance departments and non-profit organizations)
if you understand finance in an applied way.”
Eileen Stephan, the head of graduate recruitment at Citi-
group, has a slightly different perspective. While declining
to give specifics, she reports the number of internships at
her firm is fairly consistent year to year. “We’re aware of
the current economic environment but have not decreased
the size of the program significantly, and we may go a
little bit higher as the markets improve,” she says. Further,
Stephan says, Citi “abides very carefully by the guidelines
set by the schools we recruit from” in terms of setting deci-
sion deadlines.
In choosing summer interns (rising college seniors) and
summer associates (students between their first and second
years of graduate school, 90 percent of whom are MBA
candidates), Stephan says, “we look for people who can
articulate an interest in the financial markets. Are they aca-
demically capable of doing the work? And an enthusiasm
for financial services is important.”
You’ll have “a leg up,” she adds, if you identify internship
opportunities early. “The recruiting process can take a lot of
time in researching firms, preparing your resume, interview-
ing, and networking,” she says. “That’s a lengthy process
along with your academic requirements.”
Hewitt agrees. “It’s more important than ever to go to the
interview having done your homework,” she says. “This
is not a time at all to wing it. And whenever you can, get
people to put in a good word for you. It makes it that much
easier when you can get recommended.”
Keep Your Eyes Open
When seeking your internship, cast a wide net. “Under-
stand that there’s a variety of positions within financial
services,” Stephan says. “We look for people with a variety
of backgrounds for positions in human resources, risk man-
agement, sales and trading, etc. This industry welcomes
students with varied and interesting backgrounds.”
Once you’re in the door, keep a mental checklist:
º 0u ]uu li|e t|e wu||¹
º /|e t|e ut|e| eaulu]ees' irte|ests orJ s|ills siailo| tu
yours? Be curious (but not pushy) about their back-
grounds and responsibilities.
º ls t|e wu|| er.i|uraert cuaíu|to|le u| loc|irc¹
º lí ]uu Jur't íeel ]uu |o.e eruuc| tu Ju, os|, uulitel],
for more.
º /lwo]s |e ert|usiostic orJ u|uíessiurol.
º lí ]uu'|e ir o rew cit], t|] tu retwu|| wit| ut|e| stu-
dents and alumni from your school. As you hone your
existing skills and acquire new ones, you just might
meet someone who can help you find a permanent job.
All About Internships
12
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Landing Your First Job
You’ve studied the theories, honed your skills through in-
ternships, caught leads with your network, and now you’ve
finally got a chance to convince an actual employer you’re
ready for the real world.
How, exactly, do you do that? By knowing who you are,
what you want and what you can offer. Although that
sounds simple, it results from a long process that, if
skipped, often ends up with someone always being a candi-
date - and never an employee.
The key is to view yourself from the employer’s perspec-
tive. As you write your resume, ask yourself if each item
is presented in a way that demonstrates your value to the
employer. When you network, be sure your elevator speech
mentions what you can do for the company that hires you.
Remember – it’s not about you. It’s about the employer’s
needs.
“This year, you have to be focused and know what you have
to offer a company,” says Phil Gardner, director of the Col-
legiate Employment Research Institute at Michigan State
University.
Since banks are cutting back on student recruitment, there’s
less chance that those with majors other than math, finance
and economics will be hired, says Vivienne Dykstra, a for-
mer investment banking recruiter turned graduate recruit-
ment consultant.
“In the next year, recruitment is going to be focused on peo-
ple with the right experience who’ve proven themselves,”
she says. Beyond good internship experience, you’ll also
need to do a mammoth amount of research so you know
what’s going on in the markets generally, and can describe
why you’re interested in joining a particular firm.
Academically, the better your GPA, the better your chances
of landing the job. “Don’t ever forget you need that GPA at
a certain level to be attractive to certain employers,” says
Manny Fernandez, national managing partner, university
relations and recruiting for KPMG, LLP, in Denver.
However, academics alone won’t land you an offer. Your
goal should be to strike a good balance between academic
credentials and interpersonal skills such as leadership and
teamwork, Fernandez says.
If you’ve worked your way through school, explain that
briefly in your resume, along with items that showcase
your leadership roles on and off campus. “If you integrate
those words into your resume, and show how you’ve taken
on responsibility and have been able to complete tasks,
employers will look at you as someone who can grow to be
a great contributor,” Fernandez points out.
That what-I-can-do-for-you attitude needs to show up in
all your networking communications, as well. “Use your
connections, alumni, parents, peers already in the market,
Facebook and LinkedIn,” Gardner says. “And in doing that,
say not what you’re looking for, but what you can offer a
company. The message has to be what you have to offer,
not what you want.”
Right Pedigree
How do you show value? By having a solidly built founda-
tion. Did you take classes that led to a major relevant to
Wall Street? Did you intern in investment banking? “If you
graduate from college and all you’ve done is scoop ice
cream or painted houses, you’re not going to convince a
hiring manager to hire you over everyone else,” says David
Staiti, a principal with Winter, Wyman & Co. in New York.
Can you explain why banking is the right career for you?
Have you networked with alumni working where you want
to work? “A lot of people think they can jump haphazardly
into the Wall Street world,” Staiti says. “They think it will
be glamorous and they’ll make a lot of money. It’s not all
glitz and glamour. I talk to people who are about to gradu-
ate and they don’t seem to have any idea about what the
job entails and the hours that will be involved.”
To make sure investment banking is the right career, have
candid conversations with your business professors, alumni
and students who’ve done internships about what a day in
the life of a banker is like.
“They’re going to tell you that a typical week is 80 to 90
hours,” Staiti says. “Some people love it, but that is a rare
breed. Doing the due diligence is a very important piece for
people.”
If the hours and the challenge of actually finding a job in
investment banking don’t scare you off, remember that
someone is going to get hired - and it could be you. “Those
who are really keen and those who have a passion for the
financial markets are not going to be deterred by what’s
happening,” Dykstra predicts. “The good people will still find
jobs.”
13
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
You thought homework would end with your last final exam.
But there’s plenty of homework involved in a job search,
including the prep you’ll need to do if you want to ace your
interviews.
There are two parts to this: First, know yourself. Second,
know all about the company you’re interviewing with. As an
optional third, it never hurts to know someone who works
there and can put in a good word for you. So network.
Socrates Said It
“Know thyself.”
To answer questions about your skills and experience with
fluency and grace, prepare a mental checklist of the profes-
sional assets you offer. Interviewers may ask open-ended
behavioral questions to assess your organizational and oral
communication skills. “Tell me about yourself” and “Tell me
about a time when…” are perennial favorites. Don’t give
a chronological history of your life, but do talk about your
academic and professional background, why you want the
job, and why you’re the right person for it.
You may also be asked about specific occasions where you
demonstrated a particular skill, such as persuasiveness
or team-building. If you consider your resume to be thin
in these areas, think back to relevant instances during a
part-time or summer job, when you were on a sports team,
on a group trip, or working as a volunteer. In this way, you’ll
uncover pertinent anecdotes.
Don’t be surprised if you’re asked how you’d respond in a
hypothetical situation. A question like this can gauge your
soft skills, things like the ability to think under pressure, in-
tellectual curiosity, drive, and commitment. Before respond-
ing, it’s okay to take a moment to gather your thoughts.
Demonstrate Interest
Companies want to hire people who have a realistic
understanding of the job and why they want to do it. If
you’ve thoroughly researched the firm and the position for
which you’re interviewing, you’ll be able to demonstrate
professional passion and business savvy. So try to talk
with people who work there and people who’ve left. Talk
with people who work in similar capacities at firms in the
same sector. Seek out related chat rooms and professional
organizations, and be well-versed in issues facing the firm
and its sector.
Practice, Practice, Practice
Interview questions necessarily vary with industry, position,
company, and corporate culture. Read sample questions in
job-search books and Web sites, and try to anticipate what
you’ll be asked. If the interviewer throws a curveball, you’ll
have enough material in your mental file to formulate a
cogent and relevant answer.
Like any good performance, an interview takes rehearsal.
Once all the facts and figures about yourself and the
company are in your head, practice communicating them in
concise sound bites. Role-play the interview beforehand.
You never want the interview to be the first place you come
up with an answer. In other words, don’t wing it – practice.
Ask a friend, your roommate, your girlfriend or boyfriend to
role play with you.
And after the interview, debrief. Think about ways you
could have responded better or questions you could have
asked. It’s good preparation for the next round.
Other Considerations
Protocol and etiquette count during and after an interview.
Whether it’s for an internship, summer position, or full-time
job, dress modestly and professionally. Make sure you’re im-
maculate and well-tailored from head to toe. Go easy on the
perfume or cologne. And, in the category of “we shouldn’t
have to say this, but….” - leave the flip-flops home.
Also:
º B|irc ert|o cuuies uí ]uu| |esuae wit| ]uu. T|e] olsu
should be immaculate.
º S|o|e |orJs orJ ao|e e]e curtoct wit| ]uu| irte|-
viewer. Wait until after the interview to jot notes
about what you discussed.
º SerJ o u|uaut t|or|]uu rute. lí ]uu irte|.ieweJ wit|
more than one person, send a separate note to each.
It’s okay to e-mail it, but remember this is a business
letter, so format it as such. Don’t use abbreviations or
emoticons, and spell everything correctly - especially
the recipient’s name. Customize the message for each
recipient by reiterating something you talked about
during the interview.
º 0ur't e.e| lie. 0ur't e.er erocce|ote.
º Tu|r uíí ]uu| cell u|ure |eíu|e ]uu erte| t|e |uilJirc.
Ace the Interview
15
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Fifteen seconds. One-quarter the length of a television com-
mercial. That’s about how long you have to sell yourself to
a potential employer through your cover letter and resume.
Like a good commercial, these two marketing tools need
high production values, perfect editing, and compelling
content. And they have to convey your message clearly and
concisely.
While a resume and cover letter may appear to be two
separate documents, they’re really two components of one
presentation, and should be packaged as such. Use the
same 8 ½ x 11-inch, good quality paper for both - white or
ecru only. Use black ink in the same font throughout, and
be sure the typeface is between 11 and 14 points. Avoid
fancy fonts and other embellishments. Center your contact
information at the top of each. Everything should look neat,
immaculate, and professional.
Once you’ve got those formatting rules down, you can focus
on the content.
Your Cover Letter
The purpose of a cover letter is to explain why you want a
particular job and what you can offer the company. It should
contain no more than four paragraphs on a single page. But
those four paragraphs are crucial, because hiring manag-
ers will use them to assess your writing and organizational
skills as well as your level of interest in the position.
An effective cover letter will take time and preparation,
research about the company, rewriting, honing, and careful
proofreading.
In the first paragraph, convey the purpose of the letter.
If someone at the company has referred you, or if you’ve
previously met the person to whom you’re sending the let-
ter, mention it here. Then describe your qualifications, skills,
and experience, and how they mesh with the job’s require-
ments. Keep your marketable skills front and center.
If you’re sending an electronic cover letter, make it the body
of the e-mail. (It saves hiring managers a step, and puts
your profile in front of them immediately.) Remember, it’s
still a business letter and should be crafted as such, with a
proper salutation and closing.
Tailor each letter you write to the specific position and
organization. Cookie-cutter cover letters go stale quickly.
Your Resume
If the goal of a cover letter is to get the hiring manager to
look at your resume, the goal of your resume is to be invited
in for an interview.
A well-crafted resume is an at-a-glance synopsis of your
skills, experience, and education. If it’s well written, it will
convey competence and spur managers to want to know
more.
While it’s not the great American novel, it is your profes-
sional autobiography. But remember: You’re not writing a
narrative. Avoid using personal pronouns. Focus on action
verbs to emphasize your achievements, words such as
demonstrated, managed, achieved, analyzed, created,
implemented. Use nouns and avoid adjectives. Use short,
easy-to-read sentences. Fragments are okay. Include bullet
points where appropriate. And keep it concise. Even the
most experienced candidate’s resume shouldn’t exceed two
pages.
Stay objective and avoid the personal. That means don’t
mention the previous boss you considered to be mentally
deficient, or the business practices you deem subpar. It
also means not including personal information beyond your
name, address, and pertinent contact information. Don’t
mention hobbies unless they’re career-related.
As a new entrant in the job market, consider using a
chronological resume. This format lists your work history
in reverse chronological order, with the most recent job
first. It’s the most commonly used form and the one most
employers are familiar with.
Before You Send Them
It’s impossible to stress enough the importance of proof-
reading your cover letter and resume. Spell-check them.
Then proofread them again. Ask a colleague, friend, or
relative to have a look - a fresh set of eyes can find things
you’re inured to, and spell-check software often misses
mistakes.
Make sure your grammar and spelling are perfect. Confirm
the punctuation is consistent throughout. If you’re waffling
about including something, ask a mentor, teacher, or former
boss to have a look, too.
Only when you’re sure everything is absolutely perfect
should you put them in a matching envelope, or hit “send.”
Resumes and Cover Letters
16
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Finding a great employer is a lot like finding a great date.
The more you know before you agree to a match, the better.
Backgrounding an employer not only assures that you’ll have
something to talk about if you do get an interview, it also
increases the chances you and the firm will be a good fit.
Among the items you’ll want to know about before you seek
a position:
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º Cultu|e
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º |uw t|e cuauor] t|eots wuaer, airu|ities orJ ut|e|s
º /uu|uoc| tu wu||lliíe |olorce
º |erJirc lowsuits orJ |eculotu|] octiurs
º Me|ce| orJ occuisitiur uutertiol
Delving into all this is easiest when the company is a
large, public firm with thousands of employees. It’s hardest
when the firm is small and privately held. Players in some
industries, such as hedge funds, are particularly difficult
to background because they tend to be guarded about the
information they release to the public.
Online Information
Begin your research with public sources available online or
via your campus library. “The company’s Web site is a good
place to start,” says David Staiti, a principal with Winter,
Wyman & Co., a recruiting firm in New York. “The bigger
firms will have informative sites, private equity and middle-
market firms may not. If you’re looking at a publicly traded
bank, they’ll have lots of information online because they
have public filing requirements.”
Other public records sources include the U.S. Securities
and Exchange Commission’s Web site (www.sec.gov),
which offers information about litigation and administra-
tive proceedings against firms and individuals, as well as
EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval),
a database of public company filings.
You campus career center likely has access to general,
regional and industry-specific business directories such as
|uu.e|'s |www.|uu.e|s.cualí|eeì, w|ic| u|u.iJe |oc|-
ground such as competitors, revenues and officers.
Dig the Dirt
Dig a little bit online and you may turn up things that people
dislike about your target firm. Just because one person
didn’t like the company doesn’t necessarily mean anything,
but you want to be aware, advises Simma Lieberman,
author of Diversity and Inclusion.
And, of course, you can Google using both the company
name and key words, such as “financial reports,” “annual
reports,” etc.
Court Records
You can learn a lot about a potential employer by looking
at lawsuits that have been filed against it, as well as cases
it files against others. Search for that information at the
federal judiciary Web site, PACER (www.pacer.gov), using
the company name, or the names of company officers. You
can also check lower courts in the state in which the com-
pany is headquartered - just Google “state name courts” (ie,
“Delaware Courts”) and the firm’s corporate names.
News Searches
To get the latest dirt, you need more recent sources such
as newspapers, magazines and blogs. Check these sources
before you apply for a job, and follow them throughout the
interview process.
As you search for information about a company, see how
much emphasis the company places on its values, integrity
and ethics, suggests Jeff Thomson, chief executive officer
of the Institute of Management Accountants. For instance,
does it participate in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),
in which companies commit to corporate sustainability
reporting? Does it have internal networks for women, gays
or minorities? What charities does the company support?
Inside Scoop
If you really want the inside scoop, you’ve got to talk to
someone who’s seen the company from the inside. Start
with your own social network, looking for someone who
works for the company. Alumni and professors can also
supply contacts, as can social networking sites such as
LinkedIn, Plaxo and Twitter.
“If you talk to alumni who work there, you’ll hear behind-
the-scenes information that will help you figure out if this is
the kind of place you’d want to work,” Staiti says.
How to Research Potential Employers
Know what you’re getting into
17
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Networking is more than something you do to land your first
job: It’s a life-long skill that, once developed, will pay divi-
dends throughout your career. “Contacts play a strong part
in people getting work experience,” says recruiter Vivienne
Dykstra, director of Graduate Solutions Ltd., a company
that helps employers attract talent. “About a third of the
students with full time jobs in financial services have had
an internship or work experience through family contacts
or networking. It’s the sort of industry where networks are
critical to getting opportunities.”
Ideally, you should start networking during your freshman
year, giving you plenty of time to practice and hone your
skills. Where do you start? Wherever you are.
“Talk to people at the beach, on the plane, at school,” says
Barbara Hewitt, senior associate director of career services
at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
“Let people know what you’re interested in.”
Target Alumni
A good starting point is in your own backyard: your school’s
alumni. Your campus career center or alumni office may
have searchable databases where you can find contacts
based on industry, job function, home town, or major.
If your school lacks such information, use business network-
ing sites such as LinkedIn or Plaxo, or social networking
sites like Facebook to find alums.
Campus Connections
Take advantage of on-campus connections, too. If you play
a sport, ask the coach for the names of older players who
can act as mentors as you choose classes or find intern-
ships. If you want to become a portfolio manager, reach out
to the school’s portfolio manager. Remember, someone is
managing that endowment.
Many campuses offer formal networking events sponsored
by student organizations or academic departments. While
these functions create great networking opportunities, they
also terrify even the most capable students.
What you may not realize is that networking events frighten
adults, too. “Everyone has the same feeling of panic before
networking events,” says Shawne Duperon, a Novi, Mich.,
networking and media consultant. “Your game is to make
friends. Focus on friendship and miracles will happen.”
To prepare for these in-person events, you’ll need three
things: a 60-second explanation about who you are (called
an elevator speech), professionally printed business cards
with your name and contact information, and background
knowledge about the people attending the event.
If you’re a student, your elevator pitch could mention your
internship experience and what you’d like to do eventu-
ally. Students with no experience can toss out other
ice-breakers, even those that aren’t business-related, says
Jeff Thomson, president and chief executive officer of the
Institute of Management Accountants.
“Go in with a couple of things in your head so you’re not at
a loss for words,” he advises. Sports is a safe topic, or you
could mention a great book you just read, or a movie you
saw.
After your 60-second pitch, ask the person to whom you’re
speaking about themselves. What’s it like to live in the
company’s headquarters town (not every financial firm is
located in New York) or the home of a major branch? What
was the impetus behind a new product or service? This is
where your background research can pay off.
As you work your way around the room, focus on asking
questions instead of telling your own story and looking for
work. “People love to talk about themselves, and when you
listen to them, you can see if you want to connect, if there’s
a match,” says Duperon. If they don’t ask you a question, or
they’re not engaged, move on to the next person.
Once you’ve established rapport with someone at a net-
working event, ask if you can follow up later. Try a line like
this: “It was great to meet you and connect, and I so appre-
ciate your coming to this event. Would you mind if I followed
up with you via e-mail? I’d love to hear more about…”
Don’t ask for a card or offer your own until you’ve made a
real connection. “When you pass out a bunch of your busi-
ness cards without establishing a connection first, it’s like
kissing someone on the mouth that you don’t know,” says
Duperon. “Yuck.”
To follow up on your leads, forward a relevant news item, in-
vite the alumni contacts for coffee and keep everyone posted
on what you’re doing this summer to further your career.
Networking in College – Online and Off
In the face of fierce competition for investment banking jobs,
you’ve got to pick up hard skills before you graduate in areas
like analytics, math, and written and verbal communication.
Which ones will you most need? “That differs depending
upon the division the candidate is coming into,” explains
Vivienne Dykstra, a former investment banking recruiter
turned graduate recruitment consultant and director of
Graduate Solutions Ltd., based in London. “Each division
tends to have a slightly different approach to how they
weigh skills. In the trading side of the business, you won’t
be required to write as fluently and competently as you
would in an analyst position.”
“While not impossible, it would be difficult for a student to
land a job in investment banking without any evidence of
economics or finance classes on their resume,” says Mela-
nie Tinto, senior vice president and head of global campus
recruiting and rotational programs for Bank of America.
“Overall classes we look for are finance, accounting, eco-
nomics, statistics and other financial-related courses.”
Because investment banking work is generally done in
teams, you must be a strong team player, Tinto adds.
Evidence of this shows up in the classroom on projects,
leadership roles in clubs or other campus activities, on
sports teams, or in previous work experience.
Here are some of the most common banking divisions and
the skills you’ll need to break into them:
Client Facing
When seeking a client-facing position, expect to have
your communication skills examined. These include being
comfortable speaking to groups, ease in using PowerPoint,
flawless grammar, and the ability to quickly and smoothly
produce written documents such as case studies.
“Sales and general communication skills will be evaluated
carefully, and your ability to work hard and to work with
clients and teammates are probably equally important,”
Dykstra adds.
Financial Engineering/
Quantitative Investment
Here’s the division where speaking Geek is a benefit, not
a drawback. “If you’re going to be structuring deals, the
most important thing is going to be your brain,” Dykstra
says. Classes in database management, computer science,
accounting, finance, upper-level math and quantitative
analysis will show your sincere interest.
Sales and Trading
Remember when you were young and the ice cream truck
pulled up to a group of kids? The sales guy could wait on
four kids at once, remember who bought what, how much
he was owed and how much change to give back. “That’s
what a good trader needs,” says Santiago Maggi, chief
investment strategist at Bulltick Capital Markets in Miami.
“A trader needs to handle many things at the same time
without losing track of all the transactions.”
You also need to be a good salesperson, so you can sell
whatever position you have. Maggi looks for traders who
can read people and have a sense of where the market will
move – a skill referred to as being a good tape reader.
Registered Representative
Obviously, you need sales ability to become a financial ser-
vices salesperson, but you also need math skills. “If you’re
terrible at math you shouldn’t even consider being a finan-
cial advisor,” says Darin Manis, chief executive of financial
recruiter RJ & Makay. “You do have to pass the Series 7
and Series 66 license exams. Both are math intensive and
most companies will make you take a math test.”
Analyst
This fast-paced job comes with immediate demands. “New
hires will be called on to develop financial models and
evaluate companies,” says Tinto. “They’ll be asked to read
balance sheets, income statements, cash flow analysis, etc.,
and translate the information to their partners.“
To do that you’ll need analytical, evaluation, math and
accounting skills, as well as Excel and PowerPoint training.
Polish those skills at campus club or career center semi-
nars, corporate-sponsored challenges or special programs.
MBA
Master’s program graduates need excellent Excel, valu-
ation and financial modeling skills, which they pick up in
their finance and accounting classes, says Lara Berkowitz,
associate director, finance careers, for the London Business
School. They also need communication skills to transform
those analytics into the pitch books and live presentations
that land new accounts and retain existing business.
Your First Finance Skill-Set
What you need to know to get your job done
18
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
For years, finding a position overseas was seen as a way to
build credentials and gather experience that would stand
out on a resume. And now, when any hint of hiring gets
attention, it’s hard to ignore when bright spots emerge
beyond North America.
In March, the Financial Times reported London-based
HSBC Holdings was increasing the number of recruits to its
international management program “from its customary 20
a year to 80 for 2009.” Those had the potential to be sweet
gigs: The firm’s employees change geographic region and
business group every 18 months for the first three years.
After that, transfers in location and function occur every 36
months.
German Herrera, a consultant with recruiter Egon Zehnder
International, notes companies are seeing a bigger percent-
age of their revenue generated overseas, which means
gaining experience abroad could be more important than
ever. Herrera, who shuttles between the U.S. and Latin
America, notes compensation packages are tailor-made:
Companies will offer just enough to attract a hire, but not
more. Of expatriate experience, he summarizes, “If you do
it well, you get good returns.” But from the company’s point
of view, “if you don’t, it’s a waste of their money.”
The competition for international spots can be tough.
Arun H. Dhingra, a financial services specialist with Egon
Zehnder, notes that in a difficult economic climate, firms
often prefer to hire locally rather than internationally. This
year, he’s seen contraction in most geographies and sectors,
particularly banking. Most international recruitment right
now is happening at senior levels, he says. For example, a
European bank may look for an American to lead its U.S.
division, or vice versa.
Cultural Challenges and Distant
Shores
The biggest issue with foreign assignments has always
been cultural assimilation, which includes language fluency,
according to Dhingra. Speaking at least two – but possibly
more – languages definitely pays off. Foreign companies
with a U.S. presence appreciate someone fluent in both
English and their local language or dialect, such as Manda-
rin Chinese, for example.
When considering a post overseas, be sure to investigate
the specifics of the position and the country it’s located
in. “Always visit the country before you decide on a job
overseas,” says Kathy Downs, of Robert Half International’s
finance and accounting division. “Before I place someone
abroad, I will always ask if they’ve ever traveled to the
locale, and I will also ask about their family situation and if
they have a family member who’ll need to work abroad too,
since work visas may be hard to come by.” This is, in her
view, “a huge consideration.”
Another concern is being assigned to a location that’s
remote from industry centers, says Herrera. For example,
if you’re working in New York, London or Hong Kong, you
might be able to pursue contacts – or even job opportuni-
ties – with other financial institutions. However, moving for
a job with South Africa’s Standard Bank Group would be a
different matter. Although the firm has operations in several
parts of the world, expatriates located in its Johannesburg
headquarters don’t have as many colleagues from major
banks for networking and socializing.
And then there’s gender: “Gender differences in the work-
place are a consistent issue,” reports Lily Tang, an indepen-
dent cultural consultant with expertise in financial services.
“The ideal of a respectful workplace is so defined by the
social norms of any given society, even in organizations
working hard on diversity and inclusion, equity is elusive.”
The lack of attention or sensitivity to acceptable behavior
and language can quickly derail a promising career.
For someone who’s thinking of repatriation after a few
years, a bigger risk is to accept an overseas assignment in
an economy as rocky as today’s, warns Dhingra. Structural
changes in the financial sector, which has seen many invest-
ment banks morph into commercial banks, mean certain jobs
may be gone forever. Companies are shifting business mod-
els and realigning compensation, seeking to reduce their
risk and levels of debt. In such times, employers may not
want to bring expatriates back to the U.S. payroll, he says.
Of course, make sure your own passport and any needed
visas and work permits are in order. Consider the quality
of living in the given city and its costs of living. Depending
on what currency you’re paid in, you may need to consider
currency fluctuations, as well. However, notes Downs,
“if you’re being relocated by your current firm, odds are
you’ll be given a housing allowance or some other perk to
relocate.”
The Ins and Outs of an Overseas Job
The realities of working internationally
19
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
20
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Many people think career management is all about getting
that next job. But it’s much more than that. Among other
things, managing your career is about making choices
on what paths to pursue, climbing the ladder, and taking
charge of your personal development.
It might sound overwhelming, but career management
doesn’t have to be complicated. The essentials can be
boiled down to a handful of basics.
Find Your Passion
Your first step should be an exploration of where your
talents, skills and interests can take you, and what options
might await you at the entry level, says Roy Cohen, a New
York executive coach and career counselor who advises
Wall Street and financial professionals.
Once you’ve surveyed the landscape, examine potential av-
enues that could run through each one of them. “What you
do is like decision-tree analysis,” explains Cohen. “If you
explore one option, then you say, ‘Okay, based on this op-
tion, what are the potential directions that could emerge?’”
This step is likely to require a good deal of research. A good
place to start is with a simple Google search on a descrip-
tive phrase, such as “private equity.” Reading up on each
career on Web sites like eFinancialCareers is another good
idea.
You also should talk to people who work in the sectors that
interest you to gain an understanding of what they do. Find
out what motivates them, and what excites them. Ask how
they got to their current position, and look for parallels in
their career paths. Also ask what they value when hiring at
the entry level.
Focusing on a dream without knowing much about it can be
dicey. “Unless you’ve grown up in the financial district, you
may not know that you want to be a hedge fund manager or
an investment banker,” points out Cohen. So take the time
to examine your interests, talents and skills and understand
your options. Your ultimate destination may not be so ap-
parent at the beginning of your career. And many jobs may
cease to exist as Wall Street restructures itself.
Set Goals
Once you start working, and learn more about the direction
you’d like to take, map out a game plan for where you’d
like to see yourself in three or five years. That could include
going back to school, or pursuing a professional certification
like Chartered Financial Analyst or Certified Financial Plan-
ner. Your plan will have a lot to do with understanding your
goals in both the mid and long terms.
When talking to people, try to gain an understanding of
what you need to do to distinguish yourself. “In a very
competitive marketplace, you need to consider every pos-
sible option to make yourself as attractive as possible,”
says Cohen. This inevitably includes seizing any leadership
opportunities that present themselves.
You can start working on your leadership credentials as an
undergraduate: Participate in an investment club at school,
conduct research for a professor, work a summer job. Any
kind of summer experience, even if it’s unpaid, can be
valuable. And remember, “Wall Street loves athletes,” says
Cohen. “You don’t have to be a great athlete, you just have
to be a good team member.”
Build Your Network
The majority of jobs are filled through introductions. But
networking isn’t about talking to people who can get you an
immediate job. Good networking is about finding the com-
mon ground you share with other people, and understand-
ing how you can help them so that they’ll have a reason to
help you.
Most newly minted professionals don’t appreciate the
potential benefits of networking. But as more and more
young people find themselves displaced amid layoffs and
corporate restructurings, being able tap into resources and
communities where you can promote your career becomes
increasingly important. Networking doesn’t guarantee you
a job, but having connections can open doors that might
otherwise be closed to you.
The easiest way to get started is through your school’s
alumni organization. Many schools provide networking
opportunities for students and alumni to meet and mingle.
You’ll also want to identify professional organizations
where you can get a student membership. For example,
students interested in the more analytically oriented roles
on Wall Street may find their local security analysts’ society
a good venue for meeting people and getting exposed to
helpful information and ideas.
Managing Your Career
It’s about more than your next job
22
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Extend your networking online to social-networking sites
such as LinkedIn and Facebook. But don’t mistake it for
real networking, says Denise Palmieri, director of client
relations at the Pinnacle Group, an executive recruiting firm
in New York. “It’s a hologram of your networking,” she says.
“All you are doing online is interlinking your networks.”
The reunion - where you really see each other and make
genuine connections - is the real networking.
Continue Learning
Give after-work activities such as continuing education
their due. Professional development classes are available
through many professional societies, along with specialized
educational firms. Formally recognized programs such as a
part-time MBA or the Chartered Financial Analyst program
have helped many a professional advance his or her career
growth. Although many businesses have pulled back from
sponsoring career-related education, some still do reim-
burse a portion of their employees’ course fees.
It’s also important that you read trade publications, such as
Institutional Investor and others, to get exposed to industry
lingo and the major trends in your field.
Develop Your People Skills
Success in a financial-services industry career isn’t just
being good at math and quantitative analysis. You’ll need
to have a diverse set of skills, including good interpersonal
skills. This is particularly true in a competitive job market
since people typically prefer to work with people they like.
“For a long time, Wall Street was really forgiving. It allowed
in people who have may have been a little rough around the
edges but were very smart and talented in their quantitative
abilities,” says Cohen. “But that’s not acceptable any more.
It gets companies into trouble.”
When you think about continuing education, don’t overlook
these “soft” skills. Bear in mind what can help you succeed
early in your career may be very different than what you
need as you advance. Entry-level employees usually need
to roll up their sleeves and be willing to do nearly anything.
As you rise, you’ll need to learn how to delegate. You don’t
become a leader by doing everything yourself. “What might
be valuable initially, might be irrelevant or dangerous mid-
career,” says Cohen.
When it comes to the people that you work with, try not
to take things personally or blame yourself unnecessarily.
Often young people will get frustrated or disappointed, then
make an impulsive decision. When it comes to career man-
agement, the biggest error you can make is being impatient
and making a job move too quickly. “Wall Street is not a
fraternity,” says Cohen. “It can be a very rough experience.
You’ve got to be thick-skinned.”
Managing Yourself
Not long ago, advice on career management included
discussions about the need to maintain an adequate
work-life balance. For juniors and seniors graduating into a
hyper-competitive job market, that may be impractical, says
Cohen. “The only way that they will succeed is by bending
over backwards and working 110 percent,” he says. “This is
a market that demands extra, not just enough. Extra.”
The good news is that if you’ve done your homework, you’ll
have found a career you’re passionate about. You’ll have
aligned your personal and professional goals and will likely
be willing to make that commitment early on.
That’s not to say that you should be working 24 hours a day.
Don’t let yourself get overtired. To stay on your game, you’ll
need to maintain a high level of energy and preserve your
health.
Bear in mind that managing your career is a process, and
the various elements often go hand in hand or overlap. The
above isn’t a to-do list where you check off an item and
then move on. These basics are worth revisiting periodi-
cally. It won’t be unusual to find your interests and passions
changing, your goals in need of realigning, or that you’ve
fallen out of touch with your network. An annual, semian-
nual or even quarterly career-management check-up will
serve you well.
Voices of Experience
Professionals offer advice on investment banking careers
Richard Kass
Chief Investment Officer
KBK
Wealth Management
Marcia Rothschild
Managing Director
BNP Paribas
Megan Brown
Vice President
J.P. Morgan
Asset Management
Dale A. Burnett, Real Estate Private Equity Group,
AIG Investments
º |i|st, íucus ur ocoJeaics. SecurJ, ir.est ir t|e ueuule
around you. When you’re 19 or 20 years old, you’re not
thinking about that. Don’t hang around with the same
type of people you hung out with in high school. Part
of your future worth is who you know, which plays a
big role in how enriched your life is.
Sarah Baldwin Kavanagh, Vice-Chair and Co-Head,
Diversified Industries, Scotia Capital
º |ic| stuc|s u| |uilJ ]uu| uwr uu|tíuliu. lí ]uu luu| ot
the market and try to understand why things trade the
way they do, and why investors are behaving the way
they are, you will be in a better position to understand
capital markets.
Gunjan Kedia, EVP, Global Product Management,
BNY Mellon Asset Servicing
º Mor] cuortitoti.e ueuule cor |e cuaíu|to|le wit|
data and still fail to recognize a simple and important
aspect of being successful: Data is only good as a
“tool” to make better business decisions.
Jonathan Feniak, Director of Marketing,
Sands Brothers Asset Management, LLC
º Cuae ir orJ to|e ur os auc| |esuursi|ilit] os uus-
sible and prove you can succeed in a role higher than
your current one.
º Tol| tu ueuule, otterJ e.erts w|e|e ]uu cor aeet
people who work at hedge funds, and try to convince
them why you should be a part of their team.
Megan Brown, Vice President,
J.P. Morgan Asset Management
º To|e t|e uuuu|turit] tu retwu|| orJ aeet ueuule ir
different aspects of the business.
º 0ur't |e Jiscuu|oceJ |] cu||ert ao||et curJitiurs.
If you’re passionate about asset management and
financial services, don’t be afraid to demonstrate your
excitement.
º Must iauu|tort is t|e o|ilit] tu lister tu clierts. T|is
allows you to determine which products are best-
suited to helping them achieve their goals.
Richard Kass, Chief Investment Officer
KBK Wealth Management
º Tu |e successíul, ]uu reeJ tu |o.e o tec|ricol urJe|-
standing of various investment products, so you can
advise clients.
º lt's iauu|tort tu |e o ueuule ue|sur, |ecouse t|e ju|
requires you to listen and understand clients’ fears
and goals. It’s critical that you be able to communicate
with a wide range of people. They can range from
professionals who are familiar with basic investment
concepts to others who have little understanding of
the markets.
º lt's iauu|tort tu |e o|le tu to|e cuauler ir.estaert
concepts and simplify them.
Robin Marshall, Partner, Growth Capital,
3i Group
º SuerJ tiae wit| ueuule ir t|e |usiress u| retwu||irc.
º Yuu s|uulJ |e íulluwirc t|e wu|lJ uí |usiress, |eoJirc
the obvious publications – such as The Wall Street
Journal, Financial Times, The Economist, etc.
º T|e|e o|e olsu uu|licotiurs sueciíc tu t|e u|i.ote
equity world. Use them to learn about the key firms
and important deals being done.
º lt's iauu|tort tu uo|ticiuote ir irJust|] u|cori/otiurs.
Marcia Rothschild, Managing Director, BNP Paribas
º Yuu aust |e selíauti.oteJ orJ o|le tu wu|| irJe-
pendently. It’s important to be versatile and embrace
different challenges. Demonstrate that you can close
deals and grow a client relationship over time.
Alan G. Reid, Managing Director, DBRS
º lt's iauu|tort tu |o.e st|urc irte|ue|surol orJ w|itirc
skills, as well as a hunger for learning since research
into companies requires you to dig deep through
information so you can ask the right questions and
ultimately make the correct rating recommendation.
23
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
24
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Your grandfather may have retired with a gold watch, but
it’s unlikely that today’s graduates will become lifers with
any one employer. In the boom-and-bust financial industry
in particular, professionals must be ready, willing and able
to launch a job search on a moment’s notice.
“New graduates must learn to be proactive,” says Patricia
Dorch, president of Six Figure Career Coach and author of
Six Figure Career Coaching Advice: The Ultimate Guide to
Achieving Success. “The time to update your resume is
right after you pass your probationary period.”
Since the question for new grads isn’t “if” you should
change jobs but “when,” here are signs to help you recog-
nize when it’s time to move on.
Red Flags Need Prompt Action
º |irorciol t|uu|les. Stoíí |eJuctiurs o|e cuaaur Ju|irc
economic downturns, and any layoffs may not affect
you or portend severe financial problems for your
employer. But if your company is consistently losing
money, seeking a buyer or divesting major business
units, be proactive and start looking for opportunities
elsewhere. Likewise if either your department or your
desk fails to meet revenue or profit targets for more
than a quarter or two.
º |iaiteJ c|uwt| uuuu|turities. lí ]uu'|e stocrotirc, ]uu|
career has plateaued and you foresee no changes on
the horizon, it’s time to move on.
º |osseJ u.e|. lí ]uu| curt|i|utiurs o|er't |eirc |ecuc-
nized, and peers with similar skills and experience are
passing you by or being given special assignments, it’s
a red flag signaling the need for change.
º lew |uss |i|irc ulJ c|uries. / rew |uss Juesr't
always necessitate a job change. However, if she’s
terminating current employees and hiring former loyal-
ists, chances are you’re on borrowed time. Also, if it’s
public knowledge that your new boss was brought in
to clean up your department, then it’s probably time to
go. Once you’re associated with an underperforming
business unit, it’s very difficult to salvage your profes-
sional reputation and keep your career on track.
º BoJ .i|es í|ua aoroceaert. w|ile it's rut olwo]s
fair, being liked by company management is critical
for success. So if your boss or company executives
give you the cold shoulder, and there’s no leadership
change in the offing, it’s time to look for a new job.
Yellow Flags Are Warnings
If you have little control over a yellow flag situation listed
below and things haven’t been resolved within six months,
it’s probably time to move on, says Hallie Crawford, a certi-
fied career coach specializing in young professionals and
recent college grads.
“It’s human nature to either be impulsive or over-analytical
in response to workplace challenges,” says Crawford. “In
the case of young professionals, 60 percent of the time they
probably need to stay to get more experience and learn how
to work through problems, and 40 percent of the time, they
need to leave.”
º |uu| ue|íu|aorce |e.iews. /r]ure cor ao|e o
mistake or occasionally miss some goals. But don’t
ignore serious performance issues or a situation that is
de-motivating you from giving your best performance.
“If you’ve received bad evaluations and negative feed-
back from your boss and co-workers, you either need
to work on your performance or leave,” says Crawford.
º 0|cori/otiurol c|orces. w|et|e| it's o rew |uss, o
company-wide reorganization or a lateral transfer,
give yourself time to adapt to the situation so you can
evaluate how it will impact your career. Also, don’t
get caught up in the post-change frenzy of co-workers;
make a stay or go decision based solely upon an
unemotional evaluation of what’s best for you.
º |uu| cultu|ol ít. T|is is ure uí t|e u|iao|] |eosurs
employees change jobs. But remember politics, red
tape and frustration abound in all organizations, and
new grads must learn how to adapt and survive in
tough business environments. Give yourself time to
acclimate to the culture before deciding to jump ship.
º Rec|uiteJ owo]. w|ile it's íotte|irc tu |e uu|sueJ,
remain grounded so you don’t view a new opportunity
through rose colored glasses, only to have regrets
later. Do your homework and ask tough questions
before deciding to accept another offer. “Learn to ap-
preciate what you have,” says Crawford. “Because the
grass isn’t always greener at another company, it’s just
more grass.”
When It’s Time to Make a Move
When and how to change jobs
25
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Also known as “headhunters” or, more formally, “executive-
search consultants,” recruiters typically don’t enter the pic-
ture until you’re looking for your second job. You’ll have to
have some work experience before one will even consider
talking to you. But once you’ve been in your first job for
about a year, recruiters can become a solid resource. Before
you begin reaching out to these career middlemen, here are
five things you should know:
They Work for the Hiring Company
While recruiters can be helpful to candidates, they’re paid
by employers. “The company is our master,” says Adam
Zoia, chief executive officer of Glocap Search, a New York
executive-search firm focused on financial services.
Companies often hire recruiters to supplement their own
efforts, which typically include employee referrals and job
postings on internal career portals and outside job boards.
Recruiters can enter the picture when employers want to
scour the market for a range of candidates, usually a wider
selection than they could get on their own. Employers also
hire recruiters to screen candidates.
Recruiters are paid to have a handle on the broad talent
market and access to potential hires, using their judgment
to narrow a list of 500 possible candidates, for example, to
a limited slate of, say, 20. And recruiters often help with the
interview process, provide feedback, and, if the offer stage
is reached, help with negotiations.
They Influence Hiring Decisions
When working with recruiters, the most common mistake
young professionals make is underestimating their impor-
tance to the hiring process. Cultivating good relations can
pay off for you down the road, particularly as you gain expe-
rience and reach more senior levels, where recruiters often
play an integral part in the search and selection process.
If a company outsources the task of filling a particular posi-
tion entirely to one search firm, the recruiter’s influence is
very important. “If you don’t get through the recruiter, the
gatekeeper, you don’t get to the client,” Zoia points out.
How the recruiter is paid can send important signals to the
candidate. If a search firm has been hired on retainer, the
company is paying for its services up-front, that’s a sign
the company is more serious about filling the position. It
also can mean the firm considers the recruiter an important
partner in the process, making it even more critical to view
her (or him) as a first-round interview with the company.
Put Your Best Foot Forward
To their detriment, young professionals often arrive late,
unkempt or disorganized to recruiter meetings. “When can-
didates interview with a recruiter, they should be as serious
as they would be with a company,” says Zoia.
Any offense – a missed meeting, flaky comment or inap-
propriate behavior – could haunt you for years to come.
Recruiting firms maintain databases of candidates for
“sourcing” hires, and make notes about the people they’ve
met. If down the road another recruiter sees negative notes
about you in the database, he or she is a lot less likely to
call you in.
If a recruiter sends you to a company on an interview, e-
mail or call the recruiter to report on how it went.
One surefire way to get dinged in a database is to skip an
interview. Last-minute cancellations are also a no-no. If
something comes up you simply cannot help, give as much
notice as possible.
Get On a Recruiter’s Radar
Some recruiters have Web sites where you can submit your
profile, others want candidates to contact them through
e-mail, and some want a phone call. Usually an e-mail fol-
lowed by a phone call is the best way to get started.
Make sure your resume is in good order. While recruiters
usually will offer a few tips to polish up your resume, don’t
expect them to write it.
Your resume should highlight anything that might help you
stand out from the crowd. Include any transactions you’ve
worked on, awards, sports you’ve played and your grade
point average, even if it isn’t particularly high. Otherwise,
recruiters and hiring managers will assume the worst.
Stay in Touch
Once you’ve connected with a recruiter, you’ll want to make
sure you’re top of mind when a position comes up that
might fit you. The best way to build a mutually beneficial
relationship is to share information about what you’re see-
ing in the job market. For example, let recruiters know when
your company is hiring. After you’ve secured that new
position, keep in contact.
Getting the Most Out of Headhunters
26
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Politics exist in every workplace, and financial companies
are no exception. Amid the constant competition for clients,
resources, promotions and raises, nearly everyone has a
story of unscrupulous co-workers who took advantage of a
situation by cutting corners or stomping on toes.
Yet, office politics shouldn’t be considered the exclusive
domain of back-stabbers and manipulators. To the contrary,
those who can understand the political landscape in their
organization can use it to a career-boosting advantage.
Office politics most often boils down to a struggle for
control, usually over resources, information or people, says
Timothy Johnson, chief accomplishment officer for Des
Moines, Iowa-based consulting firm Carpe Factum, Inc., and
author of Gust: The ‘Tale’ Wind of Office Politics.
Individual or group success typically depends on tough
tasks like pushing a project to the top of the queue, finding
the right people to work on it and getting the time and
tools to do the job right. Each department will have its own
dynamics in play at any given time, as well. For example,
“Show me an IT pro who doesn’t answer to at least two dif-
ferent bosses, either implied or not,” says Johnson. “Then
you look at all the different technical issues going on, like
who has the best software selection, who can make deci-
sions about operating systems and compatibility. Informa-
tion is also part of it, such as who has what information at
what time.”
Skills Trump Politics?
Oddly enough, those who don’t play well with others often
still succeed, especially if they have in-demand skills or,
particularly, if they bring in revenue. “I’ve seen people who
seem to offend anybody, but their phones ring all the time
with people asking them for advice because they’re good at
what they do,” observes one manager.
Still, left unchecked, unhealthy office politics can lead to
more overtly offensive behavior, such as emotional bullying
and all-out sabotage of others’ efforts. When co-workers
are doing a number on each others’ psyches day in and
day out, absenteeism, poor-quality work and a high rate of
turnover are often the result.
The answer to all this: Play the game the right way. That
means mastering a few simple strategies and avoiding a
couple of key mistakes.
Perhaps the biggest faux pas is to make inappropriate
comments to co-workers without considering their ramifica-
tions. For example, don’t remark on the ugly car parked
in front of the building: It could belong to your new group
managing director.
Another common mistake is publicly displaying potentially
career-damaging information. If you call in sick with a
family emergency, don’t go to a party that night and post
pictures of it on Facebook. It’s not much of a stretch to
imagine one of your co-workers spotting them and alerting
the boss. Remember: In the world of social networking, you
never really know who’s connected with whom.
Careful Communication
First and foremost, being a successful office politician
means developing a rapport with co-workers - without
being gossipy or delving into personal issues. It’s important
to understand the communications style of your group or
department, especially since those who rise to manage-
ment positions tend to be good communicators.
That extends to e-mail and electronic communications. Be
judicious when using the “reply all” and “bcc” options, and
write every e-mail calmly and respectfully. A good rule of
thumb: Imagine the division head will read it.
Finally, do more observing than talking. Before long, it’ll
become clear what most people’s motives are. Be cognizant
of who’s around you at any given time. It’s might be okay to
say something controversial to a friend, but if they’re not a
friend, what you say may come back to haunt you.
Office Politics
Yes, they exist. But you can turn them to your advantage.
27
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Mentors can help you find the right career, steer you down
the path to success and link you to a ready-made network
of industry contacts. So where do you find them? Start by
checking to see if your school has a mentor program, then
expand your search to alumni and industry experts.
Whether they come from campus programs, a trade asso-
ciation or your own search campaign, as early as your fresh-
man year you should begin to gather a group of experts who
can act as a board of directors for your career.
Look first to your instructors. “Many professors have real
life business experience, especially adjunct professors,”
says Jeff Thomson, president and chief executive of the
Institute of Management Accountants (IMA).
Alumni also make great mentors, so check to see if your
school has a program like DePaul University’s Alumni Shar-
ing Knowledge (ASK), where students can search for men-
tors by the industry they work in, the company they work
for, their country of origin, their profession or their location.
Gillian Steele, managing director for the Career Center at
DePaul, says on-campus events as well as student finance
and business club meetings also offer opportunities to find
mentors.
Real World Resources
Outside campus, groups such as the National Association
of Securities Professionals and the National Association
of Personal Financial Advisors offer reduced-cost student
memberships. Join and attend events, including any student
conferences like those held by IMA, to seek out mentors.
Also, some professional groups, including the New York So-
ciety of Security Analysts, have formal mentoring programs
for student members.
In today’s world of remote workplaces, social networking
sites are another source of mentors. The same trade as-
sociations that offer in-person networking events may have
online message boards where students can lurk until they
get a feel for the site, present relevant questions, and then
seek out relationships with those who post answers.
Find Your Mentors
Once you’ve signed up for an event, how do you find a men-
tor in the crowd? The key, says Steele, is to network. “Talk
to as many people as you can and look for someone you
feel comfortable with, who impresses you. You don’t need
to say to someone, ‘Will you mentor me?’ You just tell them
you have a lot of respect for them and their knowledge of
the area, and you’d like to talk to them about what you’re
thinking.” Then, you stay in touch.
Once you’ve found your first mentor, don’t stop there. Susan
Battley, a New York-based executive coach and author of
Coached to Lead: How to Achieve Extraordinary Results
with an Executive Coach, recommends finding multiple
mentors. One person may help with concrete ambitions like
getting up to speed on trading technology, while another
may be a sounding board for sensitive, interpersonal topics.
“Cast a wide net and build a personal advisory board,”
Battley says.
Build the Relationship
To get the most from your relationships, be sure to select at
least one mentor who’s different than you, says Chip R. Bell,
author of Managers as Mentors: Building Partnerships for
Learning. “People who are different can bring a perspective
that can be instructive,” he explains.
As you talk with your mentors, know what you’re seeking.
Early on, communicate your goals for the relationship and
your expectation for the outcome, Bell says.
If improving performance is on your list of goals, remember
your mentors have to see the real you if they’re going to
help. “Make sure that you’re authentic, real and genuine
and that you show your foibles and less-confident side,”
Bell says.
Be prepared to hear the good, the bad and the truly grim.
“Many times when students come out of college they’re a
little bit full of themselves,” Bell warns. “That sometimes
makes it more challenging for students to hear and value
feedback and advice, particularly when it’s not what they
were expecting to hear.”
No matter how much your mentors’ words cut, the best
reply is one that’s accepting such as: “Thank you. I appreci-
ate your candor. I’m going to think about that.” Denying
the problem or giving excuses will only discourage your
mentors from giving additional candid advice.
Finally, remember that a mentoring relationship is like a
marriage. “Honesty is critical,” Bell says. “If it’s not work-
ing, you need say this is not what I want to do and allow
both parties to adjust or abandon the relationship.”
Building Effective Relationships with Mentors
It’s a two-way street
28
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Where will you be in five years? Although it’s a common
interview question for college graduates, it deserves
special consideration for those starting careers in finance,
especially at a time when the industry is undergoing an
historic reconstruction. Your dreams and plans are likely to
encounter forces beyond your control, so balancing them
with a keen eye on reality is likely to be an important skill
to develop for the newest generation of financial profes-
sional.
Not long ago, your first career-management challenge might
have been competing for a coveted spot in a bulge bracket’s
training program. Now that many of these traditional entry-
level jobs have disappeared, your main challenge might be
figuring out just what your first step should be. To do that,
you might need to rethink your professional and personal
ambitions, says Denise Palmieri, director of client relations
for Pinnacle Group International, an executive-search firm in
New York.
“If you had your eyes set on Wall Street as your next target,
what was that about?” Palmieri asks. “Dig into the underly-
ing basis of why you wanted to go to Wall Street.” For
example, did a parent or teacher suggest finance was the
career for you? Or are you intrigued by analytics, research,
or the technology?
On the Right Road
For some, a Wall Street job was a way to get somewhere
else. If that’s true for you, ask yourself if there’s another
route you can follow. If you’d seen Wall Street as the
gateway to a career in private equity or venture capital, for
example, what attracted you to those sectors to begin with?
In other words, ask yourself: What is the dream you’re try-
ing to fulfill?
“If it’s really because someone told you that’s where the
money is, you have to pick a new job,” observes Palmieri.
“Because that’s not the case anymore.”
Some people see Wall Street as a means to jumpstart
launching their own business, perhaps by meeting bankers
and other contacts and learning about financing. For others,
the goal is to make a lot of money to seed a new idea. If
either of these was your long-term plan, consider other av-
enues toward your goal. For example, is your new company
something you could bootstrap?
Once you have a strong sense of what your long-term goal
truly is, you have your mission. Now try putting it in writing.
“There’s power in creating a written plan,” notes Vickie
Austin, founder of Choices Worldwide, a career-coaching
firm in Wheaton, Ill.
Next, think about what you’ll need on your resume in five
years, as a waypoint to your long-term objective. Map out
a strategy to get there, then decide the tactics you’ll use to
turn the strategy into action. Turn those, too, into a written
outline. Then, get busy. Your outline should become your
checklist.
Hello, Reality
Unfortunately, dreams need to be flexible. If you find other
aspects of your life – your finances or relationships, for
example – are suffering, you may have to reevaluate your
goal or try another road toward reaching it.
Focusing on dreams and plans isn’t something you do only
at the outset. All through your career, you should stay
tuned in to them. As time passes, your dreams are likely to
change. What’s more, you’ll have to stay up to date on the
business world’s evolution in order to make sure your goals
and your strategies remain valid. “You may have to reframe
your dream in the context of the market,” notes Austin.
Balancing dreams with reality often requires resilience. It’s
important to be able to bounce back from the disappoint-
ments that you’ll inevitably encounter. Having a strong
network of people to whom you can turn for support and
guidance is key, as is having a contingency plan. Be open to
trade-offs.
To stay on course, you may need to manage your expecta-
tions. A setback in the morning doesn’t mean you can’t still
accomplish something that moves you closer to your goal,
says Greg Sells, a Chicago-area Certified Financial Planner.
“Persistence can be one of your most powerful assets,” he
says.
Reality may impose limitations on your dreams. But when
you’re committed to a lifelong mission that you truly believe
in, such setbacks need only be temporary.
Where You’ll Be in Five Years
Dreams, plans and forces beyond your control
The Wall Street Technology Association (WSTA) provides a forum for IT
and networking professionals in the financial industry to stay on top of
current and emerging technologies, operational approaches, and business
issues that affect their firms.
Founded in 1967, the WSTA provides educational opportunities and
facilitates interaction between financial technology professionals and
a broad spectrum of vendors and consultants. This is achieved via
seminars, networking and social events, print and on-line publications
and white papers.
Who are WSTA members?
Currently, the WSTA has approximately 1700 financial technology
professionals from banks, brokerages and insurance companies. Most are
located in the New York Tri-State area, with over 50% having titles of
CIO/CTO, Vice President or Manager.

About the WSTA Vendor Affiliate Program
(open to vendors, industry specialists and consultants)
The WSTA Vendor Affiliate Program provides organized opportunities to
keep financial industry professionals aware of current and emerging
technologies and other services important to the industry. Networking
and relationship development is a significant part of the Vendor
Affiliate Program.
To learn more about joining the WSTA or its
programs, please visit www.wsta.org or
call 732-530-8808.
Building
Knowledge &
Professional
Relationships
in the Financial Industry
Building
Knowledge &
Professional
Relationships
in the Financial Industry
30
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Like many a business buzzword, “networking” is a victim of
its own success. Over the years it’s become so enwrapped
in oversimplified myths, the central idea was lost. The
unfortunate result is that many people who’d benefit if they
put enough effort into networking give up before they’ve
given it a serious try.
For instance, one widespread myth portrays networking as
a parlor game built around trading business cards the way
school kids once traded baseball cards. Attend a variety
uí |usiresslsuciol e.erts, u|ess t|e íes|, ao|e o íew
good impressions, and presto! A newfound acquaintance
will refer you - or even introduce you - to someone who’s
interviewing candidates for your dream job.
Of course, it’s never that easy.
Even a less pie-in-the-sky version - request job leads from
people you already know professionally - rarely yields
results. Does that mean nurturing a network is a waste of
time? Decidedly not.
Networking is Hard Work
One reason many people have difficulty networking is
they don’t appreciate what hard work it is. Networking
with strangers is hardest of all. Advancing from a new
acquaintance to a potential job referral usually means
cycling through multiple levels of contacts (one refers you
to another, who then refers you to another, and so on) and
informational interviews - whose only return on your time
invested may be the opportunity to secure yet another
informational interview with a next-in-line contact.
Even when networking with people you already know,
success requires tenacity, creativity, a willingness to take
chances, and a willingness to do favors for others.
However challenging it is, effectively building and leverag-
ing a network of professional contacts is essential to your
continued success. The good news: Even if glad-handing
isn’t your style, there are several ways to make it more
comfortable.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a widely used personal-
ity test, defines people according to where they get their
energy on the extrovert-introvert scale. Typically, extroverts
get theirs from interaction with other people and taking
initiative in work and personal situations, while introverts
tend to get energy from thoughts, memories, and feelings.
Conventional wisdom says extroverts jump into network-
ing easily. However, the reality is introverts are often more
successful because they prepare so well. Extroverts are
often so used to “winging it,” they often don’t develop good
contacts and good information.
Tips for Introverts
New York career coach Bettina Seidman offers these tips to
improve your networking:
º 0ur't t|] tu |ecuae o aoste| retwu||e| u.e|ric|t.
Instead, take baby steps. If networking hasn’t been
a regular part of your life, take it slowly and build
confidence.
º 0ur't ossuae ]uu'|e |ut|e|irc ueuule. Must will |e
glad to hear from you based on a mutual contact,
friend or colleague.
º Rel] ur ]uu| suuuu|te|s. letwu|| í|st wit| aertu|s,
close colleagues, and friends.
º Reaea|e| oll t|e tiaes w|er ]uu |o.e |eer success-
ful in other group endeavors.
º T|] tu to|e o culleocue, í|ierJ u| aoroce| tu aeetircs
or conferences so you’ll know someone there.
º 0ur't urJe|estiaote t|e uuwe| uí listerirc.
º ReoJ or irJust|] rewslette| |eíu|e otterJirc o |usi-
resslsuciol e.ert u| or iríu|aotiurol irte|.iew, su
that you will be comfortable sharing the tidbits you
have learned.
º 0e.eluu o wellc|oíteJ uitc|, íucuseJ ur ]uu| cuol orJ
what you bring to the table.
º Re|eo|se, |e|eo|se, |e|eo|se w|ot ]uu ulor tu so].
º lí ]uu |o.e rews u| o u|u|lea tu sul.e, t|] uic|irc uu
the phone and telling someone else about it.
º lí ]uu'|e urcuaíu|to|le ot cot|e|ircs set uu sulel] íu|
networking, try to attend those that have a purpose –
listening to a speaker, for example – since they tend to
have a planned agenda.
º Reoc| uut os uíter os ]uu cor, |] uic|irc uu t|e u|ure
or sending an e-mail.
Networking as a Professional
It never stops
31
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Most people move on more often in their careers than in
their love lives. But no matter how many times you do it,
looking for a new job while you have one can be tricky.
“Keep in mind that even though you may be looking for a
new job, you still must devote your full attention to your
current company while in the office,” says DeLynn Senna,
CPA, executive director of North American permanent
placement services for Robert Half International in Menlo
Park, Calif. “This means you shouldn’t use your work
computer to search job boards, for example, or speak with
potential employers from the phone at your desk.”
Most companies would make an exception if you’re using
their computer to search the internal postings. Just be sure
to let your supervisor know before you apply for another
slot in your own firm.
“Most managers would rather keep a top performer with
the organization in some capacity than lose the person to
another company,” Senna observes. “If you’re open about
your intentions, your current manager likely can put in a
good word and smooth the transition for you.”
Look Inward
Be cautious about who you share your restlessness with.
“Network for opportunities with those you trust,” says
Roberta Chinsky Matuson, CCP, president, Human Resource
Solutions in Brookline, Mass. “This will help reduce the
likelihood that your current employer will find out about
your search before you’re ready to tell them about it.”
The hush-hush attitude should carry through into your
dealings with recruiters, adds Jim Boghos, president of
Corporate Search America in Longwood, Fla. “Usually the
way an employer finds out someone is looking is when a
potential suitor ... (breaches) confidentiality,” he says.
The perils of real life aren’t the only risks a job hunter faces.
What you do online can also reveal your intentions. When
you post your resume at eFinancialCareers, your first deci-
sion is whether to make your contact information visible or
keep your profile confidential.
If you want to remain anonymous, be careful about
what you put in your resume. “Don’t do anything that’s a
dead giveaway to where you work, like mentioning your
experience with a proprietary software or unique delivery
system,” says Matt Johnston, chief executive officer of
Workway, a Burbank, Calif., staffing firm.
And be careful your online self doesn’t trip up your real
world self. “Don’t make the mistake of posting something
on your blog about your current job search,” says Matuson.
“More and more employers are doing Google searches on
their employees.”
On the other hand, don’t make yourself so unknown recruit-
ers and employers can’t quickly locate you via e-mail or cell
phone, says Gregory Reymann, a recruiter for the Judge
Group in West Conshohocken, Pa. If you have queries
forwarded to an e-mail address, check that address daily.
Returning calls at lunch or in the early evening is fine since
many recruiters work late precisely so they can speak with
candidates outside of business hours. But, don’t expect a
recruiter to hang around the office waiting for your call until
you drive home from work and have dinner, he warns.
Being Discreet
If you’re at all good at job hunting, you’re eventually going
to have to sneak out to do interviews. If you can’t schedule
interviews on the weekends or before or after work hours,
be careful how you dress, warns Johnston. “If the office is
casual, a suit is going to be noticed,” he says. Keep your
interview clothes in the car or in your off-site gym locker
and change on the way to the interview.
Another alternative is to schedule all your interviews for
a single day, and then take the time off with a vacation or
personal day. “One day off looks less suspicious than a half
day here and a half day there,” Reymann says.
As you tiptoe around, keep in mind you may end up staying
put, Johnston says. “You may realize after three or four
interviews that the job you have is your best job,” he says.
“We always caution people not to damage the bond of trust
they have with their current manager. At your next job, you
may be learning new skills that will enable you to manage
the company you just left.”
Besides, showing respect is the right thing to do. “If you
are disrespectful toward your firm during your job search,”
Senna concludes, “you are unlikely to receive a strong
recommendation from your manager. Practicing proper
etiquette can help you avoid burning bridges.”
Job-Hunting While Employed
How to look, discreetly and professionally
32
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Once you’ve landed a job, how you do your work will be
only one of the factors that figures into your success. In
large part, the relative ease and speed of your advancement
will depend on how well you navigate its corporate culture.
You won’t find the rules in the employee handbook. So
learning the lay of the land should be one of your top priori-
ties when starting a new job. Here’s a roadmap to learning
and working effectively within your firm’s culture:
Ask Questions
During your first month, try to find out these three things
about every person whom you meet:
º |uw t|e] coae tu t|e u|cori/otiur.
º w|] t|e]'|e uossiurote o|uut t|e u|cori/otiur.
º w|] t|e]'|e uossiurote o|uut t|ei| ju|.
After talking to several people, you’ll begin to see themes
emerge that will reveal the true nature of the company’s
culture.
As you talk to people, listen for clues about the company’s
value system. Every business has a different process for
getting things done, usually based on what the organization
values most. For example, a fast turnaround might be more
important than being thorough. Or maybe being organized is
what gets emphasis. “You’re going to get some consistent
answers,” says J.T. O’Donnell, founder of Careerealism.
com, a career news Web site based in North Hampton, N.H.
The sooner you figure out the company’s values and how
you can represent them, the sooner you’ll rise to the top.
The key question you want to answer is: What makes a
person successful here?
For your first 30 or so days on the job, hold back from
offering any opinions. Instead, be an observer. If you’re
asked your views on a business policy or decision, say you’d
rather not answer since you just joined and are still learning
how things work. It’s okay to respond with something like,
“I’m the new person here and can you ask me that in a
month.”
Manage Up
Your boss is your No. 1 customer. Make it your goal to find
out what’s truly important to him or her, and help achieve
those goals. “Try to see where they’re coming from,” says
O’Donnell. Your next step is to leverage that knowledge.
Ask your boss for projects in which you can showcase your
skills and talents.
However, don’t bite off more than you can chew. Put your
hand up for small assignments at first, even it’s just heading
up an office committee. Then be sure to knock it out of the
park. If you’re not 150 percent sure you can deliver, don’t
take it on. There’ll always be leadership opportunities after
you’ve established your reputation.
Word will spread quickly about your abilities. Soon, you’ll
be tapped when a job you’re best suited for needs doing.
Seek Out Mentors
Having mentors is important, and so is having at least one
outside the organization. Why? You’ll want to be able to
confide in someone separate from your company who can
provide perspective on what you encounter and help equip
you to handle office opportunities - and threats.
After about six months or so on the job, after you’ve had a
chance to prove yourself, find a mentor in the organization.
While the company stars might be an obvious choice, it’s
often best to find someone who’s not only in the position
to help you climb the ladder, but also has the time and
bandwidth to work with you. When approaching would-be
mentors, explain the reasons you respect them and cite
concrete examples. Be sure to say you’ll work with them on
their terms. “People rarely say no,” says O’Donnell.
Avoid Gossip
When conversations with co-workers turn gossipy, don’t go
there. Walk away. People often use gossip as leverage to get
one up on one another, as if to say, I know something that
you don’t know. What’s more, gossip can make colleagues
wonder what you might say about them when they’re not
around. Avoiding gossip shows you’re career minded, and
that you want to maintain your professionalism.
Take the Long View
If you find yourself clashing with the prevailing culture, take
a deep breath and remind yourself the situation is only tem-
porary. Young people change jobs about every 18 months.
Avoid making generalizations about a workplace based on
one or two negative encounters. But when there are deep
differences in values and styles, don’t compromise yourself.
“You don’t need to change who you are,” says O’Donnell.
Working with Corporate Culture
Know the lay of the land
33
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Say “negotiate” in a word-association game and most
people will probably respond with “compensation” or
“raise.” Areas open to career-related negotiation, however,
encompass much more than money. So knowing how to ne-
gotiate effectively, what to negotiate for, and how to plead
your case can help to advance your career. By association,
your compensation will advance as well.
In fact, says Lee Miller, author of Get More Money on Your
Next Job in Any Economy, “the most important thing is not
money. It’s probably the least important, as long as you’re
getting a competitive salary.” What’s more valuable, Miller
says, are opportunities for training and professional devel-
opment, job opportunities, and the projects and teams you
may be invited to work on. “Frankly, the company wants to
develop you,” he observes. “And companies like employees
who are proactive in developing their own career.”
That doesn’t mean you should agree to be woefully under-
paid, however. Research the salary range in the sector and
geographic area you’re interested in. (Sites such as JobStar,
Salary Expert, Moving.com, and CNN Money are good
places to start.) Objectively assess whether your educa-
tion, experience, and skill sets merit numbers in the higher
range.
Sleep On It
If, after one or more interviews, you receive an offer, ask
for time to consider it. “When the offer is extended, show
appreciation and interest, but don’t respond immediately,”
recommends the Career Development Center at Brown Uni-
versity. “Let the employer know that you want to review the
offer (which you should ask for in writing) and that you need
time to make the best decision for you and the employer.
Ask when a decision is expected – and, if needed, request
more time to compare offers or do necessary research. The
offer will not be withdrawn if you make this request.”
Even in your first job out of school, “if the salary isn’t
competitive, you can ask for more,” Miller says. But, he
cautions, “ask, not demand.” In other words, say, “would it
be possible” rather than “I need to have.”
And never mention your high rent, significant student debt,
or materialistic romantic partner as justification for want-
ing more money. Underwriting your private life isn’t your
employer’s responsibility.
Rather, Miller says, “show why you think the salary isn’t
competitive and ask whether they can improve it. Be very
prepared. Know your value in the market, what you bring to
the table, and what you want.”
If the company is adamant about adhering to the lower
range, try to find alternative deal sweeteners. For instance,
ask whether you can have a performance review in three or
six months that might raise your salary. Find out whether
there’s wiggle room in the benefits package, or miscella-
neous perks like tuition reimbursement or in-house training.
Ask about options such as flextime, telecommuting, or
covered commuting expenses.
If an offer is truly unacceptable but you’d like to pursue
the position, make your position clear in as positive a way
as possible. Specifically note what’s lacking in the original
offer: is it the role and responsibilities, the money, the loca-
tion, or the benefits? Then, suggest a solution. However,
be willing to accept the consequences. The offer could be
rescinded.
Speak for Yourself
While the rules of negotiation are the same for men and
women, the sexes “tend to behave differently,” at discus-
sion time, Miller notes. “Women tend to negotiate less,
especially when it comes to negotiating for themselves.” If
you don’t feel confident acting as your own best advocate,
he recommends taking a course in negotiation skills and
reading books on the subject. “You have to feel comfortable
negotiating for yourself.”
Finally, in any negotiation, don’t become emotional. Stay
objective and be armed with facts. Have a goal in mind,
then try to find mutually beneficial ways to achieve it.
And regardless of the outcome, don’t burn any bridges. Be
gracious. You don’t want to alienate the person with whom
you’ve negotiated, who could be a hiring manager or even
your future boss.
Negotiating Compensation (and Related Hints)
Know your value and ask for it ... politely
34
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
To many, the annual performance review is about as
welcome as a colonoscopy. Could any good ever come from
a one-on-one where your boss – no matter how much he
or she might respect your work – is required to detail your
strengths and weaknesses?
Simply put: “Yes.”
“Performance reviews are one of the few chances for em-
ployees to receive honest feedback that determines whether
or not they’ll get a raise or a promotion,” says Vicky Oliver,
author of Bad Bosses, Crazy Coworkers & Other Office
Idiots. “As such, they are valuable tools if used correctly.”
To make the most of the opportunity, career advisors and hir-
ing managers outline a series of steps that can be summed
up in three broad injunctions: Be prepared. Be objective. Be
strategic.
Plan Ahead
Like every important business meeting, performance reviews
have a planned agenda that requires certain information
compiled in advance. Typically, there is a review meeting
and related evaluation and self-evaluation forms that both
supervisor and employee must complete. As an employee,
you’ll aim to emphasize your strong points, obtain high
ratings, and turn discussion of your weaker areas into a
springboard to opportunities like education, training, or
involvement in a project that will look good on your resume.
“When the employee understands it properly, they can actu-
ally guide their manager,” observes career coach Bettina
Seidman. Performance appraisals “really should be profes-
sional development plans,” she says. “You might even get
some seminars paid for, or even a graduate degree.”
Planning ahead is vital. A favorable review is more attain-
able if you’ve recorded your own achievements as they
occur, have pro-actively managed your relationship with
your boss, and are prepared to pitch your own professional
development goals for the next year or two.
“Keep track of your successes over the course of the year.
Don’t try to remember them at the last moment,” advises
New York career coach Win Sheffield.
Don’t Ignore the Easy Stuff
When toting up achievements for your review form, don’t
confine your list to only major challenges. “A lot of our jobs
are spent doing things that are so easy for us - after all,
that’s why we’re hired,” Sheffield points out. He says it’s
important to state how you added value through superior
performance in those cut-and-dried, routine aspects of your
role. When doing so, take care to note “the subtleties, the
things that you add on top, that show you are not just a
good analyst but a great analyst, the guy taking initiative.”
Sheffield suggests making continuous efforts to air any
concerns your boss may have with your performance. If the
boss wasn’t fully satisfied with something, you’re better
off knowing right away so you can take steps to address
it, rather than let the discontent build up until review time.
Since a supervisor often won’t voice criticisms without
prompting, you should take the initiative to actively solicit
negative feedback. Each time you complete a project, Shef-
field suggests asking your boss: “What can I do the next
time to take it to the next level?”
How to Profit From Criticism
Of course, the review meeting itself is almost certain to
bring out some negative feedback. When it does, practice
judo - not boxing. “Don’t expect to change the boss’s mind,”
counsels one manager who’s led teams within a number
of large companies. Instead of challenging or disputing a
negative comment, he says, “Continually twist the boss’s
feedback to your advantage.” For instance if told, “I need
to see you take on more responsibility,” ask for the big,
high-profile project you’ve set your sights on in anticipation
of that moment.
He offers these additional tips on handling criticism in a
performance review:
º "Ve|] colal] orJ ricel]' os| íu| curc|ete eroaules uí
the failing that was attributed to you. Ask for specifics
that can help you recognize the behavior yourself.
º lí ]uu |ecei.e o |oJ |otirc ur suae Jiaersiur uí ]uu|
job, ask for a follow-up meeting to get feedback about
your progress on that particular issue. It makes it much
less likely that will be identified as a weakness next
time around.
Profiting From Performance Reviews
Making the most of that one-on-one with your boss
36
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
In 2008, two fundamental events altered the dynamics of
diversity on Wall Street.
First, the election of Barack Obama – as the first African-
American president of the United States, not to mention the
first black head of state outside of Africa – ensures diver-
sity will remain front and center within corporate America,
by example if not dialogue. Second, on Sept. 29, the Dow
Jones Industrial Average suffered a decline of 777.68
points, wiping out $1.2 trillion in market value. Two weeks
earlier, the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing of Lehman Brothers
Holdings and the acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of
America sent shockwaves through the business world.
The carnage in the markets was measured in jobs as
well as money. During 2008, announced financial job cuts
reached 260,110, peaking at 91,356 during the month of
November, according to outplacement firm Challenger, Gray
& Christmas. The Bureau of Labor Statistics said unemploy-
ment in securities, commodities, funds, trusts and other
financial investments reached 82,000 during 2009’s first
quarter, more than double the level of the previous year’s
period.
The impact of the crisis was fast and sobering. Andrea
Sáenz, executive director of the Hispanic Alliance for Career
Enhancement, says her budget this year was slashed. At
the same time, Gloria J. Woods, vice president of client
solutions at the Kaleidoscope Group, a diversity consultant,
says financial firms “are trying to stay committed.” As an
example, she cites firms who’ve begun to develop their
staffs’ ability to lead internal diversity councils and deliver
education workshops. And, she adds, “while firms aren’t
hiring now, they are maintaining memberships and network-
ing to build talent pipelines with minority associations.”
Indeed, developing and retaining a diverse workforce
remains a critical challenge for investment firms and
banking institutions. Most large firms still have diversity
uííce|s orJlu| Jeuo|taerts tu Jeol wit| |i|irc issues
and programs. However, according to the Robert A. Toigo
Foundation, which was founded to encourage minority
students to consider financial careers, 55 percent of diverse
financial professionals believe minorities have borne a dis-
proportionate burden amid headcount reductions. Not only
are financial pressures felt through layoffs, Wall Street’s
troubles have resulted in more competition for most every
job, leading experienced people to compete for positions
that were once the domain of juniors. Since many firms
have focused their efforts on diversifying their more junior
ranks – thus building a pipeline that would eventually rise
to senior management – the risk to their long-term goals is
real.
Changes Afoot
As the financial services industry changes, so does the defi-
nition of diversity. Companies are moving to recruit diverse
candidates from across the globe. As they deal with offices,
operations and clients in different locations, having a work-
force with an understanding of local languages and cultures
is a key factor for their success. According to a 2008 survey
í|ua Ku|rl|e||] lrte|rotiurol, o |us /rceles|oseJ u|u.iJe|
of talent management solutions, 49 percent of its consul-
tants noted diversity issues were increasing in visibility due
to globalization trends. The study, The Executive Recruiter
lrJer, is o cuo|te|l] su|.e] uí ZZ8 Ku|rl|e||] lrte|rotiurol
consultants serving some of the world’s largest corporations
and not-for-profit organizations.
Why is diversity a success factor? Because markets aren’t
monochromatic anymore. Having a diverse employee base
to meet and transact business with is a key to making
sure a firm remains competitive. As one executive puts
it, “Customers like to work with professionals who look
like them.” Add to that the growing economic force of the
world’s communities. JPMorgan Chase notes more than 43
million people in the U.S. - or 14.7 percent of the population
- identify themselves as Hispanic. As the country’s largest
and fastest-growing ethnic segment, Hispanics control
purchasing power approaching $1 trillion a year. As their
wealth increases, families tend to look toward members
of their own communities to help them manage it, and that
goes for customers of private wealth managers as well as
retail banks.
For all that, R. Roosevelt Thomas, Jr., founder and president
of the American Institute for Managing Diversity, contends
the most important thing for companies to ask when hiring
is “Are they qualified?” Corporate America, he notes, is
embracing a representative workforce, which isn’t the same
as one that is diverse. A diverse workforce, he emphasizes,
has “differences and similarities with regard to attributes
and behavior.”
Trends in Diversity
Investment firms continue to pursue diversity goals, if more quietly
37
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
In other words, not everyone thinks or behaves in the same
way as other members of their community. A diverse team
made up of Harvard Business School graduates may not be
particularly diverse in its thinking, no matter how dissimilar
are their characertistics such as gender or ethnicity. “The
challenge today is that it’s difficult to have a representative
workforce without diversity,” Thomas explains.
Developing Talent
Mentoring and networking are cornerstones of talent
development, notes the Toigo foundation. Within many
investment firms, minority workers have access to formal
mentoring programs and can establish informal mentoring
ties, often “forged through social processes of attraction
and career similarity.” But being of the same gender or race
isn’t enough to make a prospective mentor valuable. That
kind of common ground is fine, but one also must connect
on deeper, more fundamental issues.
Fortunately, the industry has both company-wide and
industry-wide programs to foster networking and mentor-
ships. For example, Women on Wall Street is an annual
conference sponsored by Deutsche Bank’s Women on Wall
Street Network that brings together thousands of profes-
sionals from Wall Street firms and related industries for an
evening of networking and career development. Goldman
Sachs’s Brokering Change presents speakers, panels, career
workshops, roundtable discussions and draws participants
from a variety of Wall Street firms. Morgan Stanley’s Insti-
tutional Securities Women’s Day brings together female
undergraduates from investment banking, fixed income,
equity research, and institutional equities divisions with
senior employees.
Of course, with times being tight, newer and smaller firms
may find it difficult to devote resources to anything above
and beyond what they see as their main business. But at
firms with established programs, which have succeeded
in knitting diversity into the fabric of their cultures, efforts
continue. Having buy-in from key leaders is still the best
barometer for success of any and all diversity efforts.
Diversity Initiatives
Organization Target Organization Target
American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC)
www.aigcs.org
American Indian and Alaska Native Hispanic Alliance for Career
Enhancement (HACE)
www.hace-usa.org
|isuoricl|otiru
Asian & Pacific Islander American
Scholarship Fund (APIASF)
www.apiasf.org
/siorl|ociíc lslorJe| Management Leadership for Tomorrow
(MLT)
www.ml4t.org
African American,
|isuoricl|otiru, lo-
tive American
Financial Women’s Association (FWA)
www.fwa.org
Women National Black MBA Association
(NBMBAA)
www.nbmbaa.org
African American
Graduate Management Admission
Council (GMAC)
www.gmac.com
/í|icor /ae|icor, |isuoricl|otiru,
Native American; Women
National Hispanic Business
Association (NHBA)
www.nhba.org
|isuoricl|otiru
HISPA (Hispanics Inspiring Students’
Performance and Achievement)
www.hispa.org
|isuoricl|otiru The Robert A. Toigo Foundation
www.toigofoundation.org
African American,
/siorl|ociíc lslorJe|,
|isuoricl|otiru,
Native American
This is a partial listing. For additional organizations and details, see page 93.
38
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Culture clash is one of the most common reasons profes-
sionals leave their jobs. That’s why many interviewers size
up candidates for what they call “cultural fit” - how well
their goals, values and style will mesh with the company’s.
And as a candidate, you’ll want to do the same thing for the
companies you’re interviewing with.
Finding the right cultural fit requires the self-awareness to
know what kind of environment would suit you best, says
Denise Palmieri, director of client relations for the Pinnacle
Group International, a search firm in New York. Ideally, you
want to be in a place where the people will be thrilled to
have you, as opposed to where you’re constantly trying to
justify yourself. “You’ll have a better experience, you won’t
be under the gun, and you’ll have an opportunity to be
mentored,” she explains.
While culture is important, as a graduating senior or a new
grad, your No. 1 objective is to get a job. While people who
graduated from college just one or two years before you
may have juggled multiple offers, in today’s market, turning
down a job because of cultural issues is a luxury few new
graduates can afford. Your first post-graduation job should
be all about getting experience.
Cultural fit really begins to play a big role in your success
after your first or second job. Workplace subtleties are likely
to become more apparent after you’ve had some first-hand
experience. You may find yourself, for instance, asking, “Is
everybody in this industry a jerk or just the people that I
work with?” says Palmieri.
Where to Find Evidence
So how to gauge a company’s culture? Most companies’
Web sites claim they have a “team-based culture that
values diversity and is dedicated to serving clients and
upholding the highest ethical and professional standards.”
If it sounds like brochureware, it is. Still, a company Web
site may offer clues that might confirm any hunch you have
about it.
One good place to find clues is the site’s “executive bios”
page. Are all the executives men? Are they all of one back-
ground? If all the top managers graduated from Ivy League
schools, for example, you may not fit in as well if you don’t
share that pedigree.
During an interview, be sure to ask your own questions
about how the manager came to be in his or her job, the
challenges facing the company, and the ideal person to help
overcome those challenges. Then listen for the priorities
that emerge in the answers. Every company will have a dif-
ferent approach to solving an identical problem, notes J.T.
O’Donnell, founder of Careerealism.com, a career news site
based in North Hampton, N.H.
You can also try some back-door reference checking by
seeking out former employees through social-networking
sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Recognize, however,
references frequently aren’t honest. People are “careful
about what they say because they don’t want something
attributed to them,” says Palmieri.
Gut-Check Exercise
After all this, what if you still having trouble making up your
mind about a company? “You have to trust your gut,” says
Palmieri, suggesting this “gut check” exercise.
You’ll need a bowl and two slips of paper. On one slip, write
“Take the job.” On the other, write “Keep looking.” Tell
yourself you’re going to draw one slip out of the bowl and,
no matter what, you’ll do what it says. Make your draw,
read the paper, and then check your gut. Do you feel your
heart sinking, or is your reaction: “Great! That’s what I’ll
do!”
Even if you know you’re taking a job that isn’t ideal for you,
this exercise will tell you if you’re compromising. You’ll be
able to go into it with your eyes open, knowing in advance
it wasn’t perfect but you chose to accept it regardless.
If you find yourself in this situation, remind yourself that
every job is temporary. You’re not going to be there forever.
Focus on the good aspects of your experience. You’ll have
the opportunity to build your skills, particularly the ability to
deal with a situation that isn’t 100 percent perfect.
Finding the Right Fit
How to know if a firm is right for you
39
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Business is as much about who you know as what you
know, and for someone about to graduate from college into
the workforce, expanding your network of contacts is both
a vital and long-term proposition. Especially in a downturn,
financial professionals must rethink their strategic relation-
ships at work, especially if they’re a member of a group
that’s underrepresented in the industry.
More than ever, strategic relationships are essential,
observes Liz Lynch, founder of the Center for Network-
ing Excellence in New York. Today’s difficult environment
means more people than ever will tap into their networks
to make sure they can not only advance, but hold onto their
job when their firm is cutting back. Lynch notes that those
in a professional network - where everyone is in the same
sinking boat - should branch out. “Try groups outside of
work and think about reconnecting with your alumni as-
sociation, volunteer or join a nonprofit,” she says.
For example, many more professional women and women
of color are networking at conferences and association
meetings. “For the less-confident professional, honing your
communications and professional skills in a safe environ-
ment can certainly help you to come back to the male-
dominated workplace,” she says. But if you’re limiting your
network to a women’s group or an association for black
professionals, you may be missing out on other opportuni-
ties. Women of color need to look for other networking
opportunities at work and beyond. “You have to be prepared
to take the next step,” she believes.
While cultural influences shouldn’t hold a professional back,
it’s important for professionals to take a look at themselves.
Lynch uses herself as an example: “As an Asian woman, I
was told after business school that I didn’t talk up enough. I
took a Dale Carnegie class and it helped.”
Lynch advises women of color to remember that relation-
ships at work are critical to gaining key posts and landing
assignments with important clients. In addition, she says
women of color need to be flexible when it comes to select-
ing their mentors. “Depending on the expertise or division
in financial services, you simply may not be able to find
someone who is exactly like you in your organization,” she
points out.
Developing Your Network
John C. Guerra, Jr., chief executive of the New America Al-
liance, an organization of Latino business leaders, suggests
starting with your inner circle and moving outward. “Seek
relationships with successful members of a group, such as
the Hispanic employee resource group, and use that group’s
good reputation to establish mentors within the company at
large,” he says. “Then seek more associations out of your
own area of function, expertise or focus.”
But you don’t have to begin at the office. “Almost anyone
in your everyday life can be part of your network, including
relatives, local merchants, neighbors, and fellow alumni,”
writes Jane Hyun, an executive coach and multicultural
leadership strategist, in her book, Breaking the Bamboo
Ceiling. “The earlier in your career you begin to build these
relationships, the better it will be for you as you make vari-
ous transitions.”
“Getting a job is really a marketing process,” notes Kenneth
Lee, an adjunct professor at American InterContinental Uni-
versity and former mentoring director of the Black Alumni of
Notre Dame. In this context, the product is you; the place is
the industry, function and companies you have your sights
set on; price is the salary you’ll accept and the company
will pay; and promotion is your resume, cover letter, eleva-
tor pitch and interviews.
Don’t lose sight, though, of the personal aspect of network-
ing. Be more of a giver than a taker and at the end of every
connection always say, “Don’t hesitate to give me a call,”
even if you’re junior to the contact, suggests Debra Feld-
man, an executive talent agent in Greenwich, Conn. Stay in
touch with everyone you meet, especially former colleagues
and classmates, she adds. “If you admire someone in your
industry, don’t be bashful about introducing yourself. The
person who initiates the network is flattering the person
who’s the contact. Most people really enjoy the fact that
someone is reaching out to them,” Feldman says.
Working with Diversity Groups
Plant the seeds early, and cultivate your network regularly
40
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Q&A: Mark L. Chamberlain
Chief Diversity Officer, Americas, Deutsche Bank AG
As chief diversity officer for the Americas at Deutsche
Bank AG, Mark L. Chamberlain oversees the U.S. divi-
sion’s Diversity Recruiting and Diversity & Inclusion office.
He joined Deutsche Bank in October 2007 after holding a
number of roles in diversity and professional recruiting at
JPMorgan Chase & Co. He also has seven years of experi-
ence as a corporate finance
banker in global leasing
and leveraged finance,
which included arranging
large-ticket, syndicated
financings for companies in
the chemicals and transpor-
tation industries.
Chamberlain graduated
magna cum laude with
a bachelor of science in
business administration
from the University of New
Hampshire. He earned his
MBA from the Yale School
of Management.
Howdoes Deutsche
Bank define diversity?
Our definition of diversity
includes all aspects of an
individual - from age,
ethnicity, nationality, physical ability, gender and sexual
orientation to work and communication style and person-
ality type. Deutsche Bank doesn’t focus on just the two
historical attributes of gender and ethnicity. We look at
culture, sexuality, religion and diversity of thought. Several
years ago Deutsche Bank took the position of broadening its
definition of diversity to be more inclusive and to encourage
all employees to get involved in the bank’s many diversity
initiatives.
Why do you include personality type, and work and
communication style in this definition?
If you have a team of six white women or men, just because
they look or seem alike doesn’t mean they all have identical
backgrounds and experiences. There could be significant
differences among them, and we should try to tap into and
gain from that diversity of experiences.
Amid the current global economic crisis, do you think
banks and other financial entities have pushed diver-
sity to the back burner, because they are concerned
about sheer survival?
We’re fortunate to have our 2009 budget for diversity initia-
tives flat to last year, considering the challenging market
environment. This speaks to Deutsche Bank senior manage-
ment’s commitment to diversity. In addition, Deutsche Bank
recently appointed Eileen Taylor (whose background is in
banking, as opposed to human resources) to global head
of diversity from Global Markets, our sales and trading
division. This sends a strong signal across the bank that
diversity is not just a human resource initiative, but rather
the responsibility of all of us at the bank, especially those in
the business divisions.
Does Deutsche Bank use any metrics to assess the
effectiveness of its initiatives?
We use several metrics on an ongoing basis. For example,
for employee networks such as Rainbow Group Americas
(lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender - or LGBT - employ-
ees) and Multicultural Partnership (minority employees), we
look at attendance figures from conferences and events as
an indicator of the networks’ ability to attract audiences.
Another measure is our mailing lists. There are 1,700
employees on our Women on Wall Street list. Currently
most of them are female, but my goal is to get more men on
that list. Eileen and I have engaged male senior managers,
in divisions such as asset management and banking, to be
more involved in WOWS and they’ve been quite responsive.
What is your personal outlook on the future of diver-
sity and inclusion in financial institutions, no matter
how Wall Street may restructure itself?
Clients already have or will be changing. Companies need to
pay attention to these changes and make sure they have the
right individuals in place to meet evolving customer needs.
“Our definition of
diversity includes all
aspects of an individual
– from age, ethnicity,
nationality, physical
ability, gender and
sexual orientation
to work and
communication style
and personality type.”
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42
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Q&A: Dale A. Burnett
Real Estate Private Equity Group, AIG Investments
At AIG Investments, Dale A. Burnett is responsible for the
evaluation, execution and asset management of commercial
real estate investments in the U.S., Europe and Russia. He
holds a BS in finance from Boston University and an MBA
from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth.
Is your present life what you envisioned as a teen-
ager or even a child?
I have to say life has exceeded my expectations. On the one
hand, I grew up and went to high school in South Jamaica,
Queens, during the crack-cocaine era in New York. At
that time, there were 2,500 murders a year in the city, so I
didn’t always think I would make it out alive, much less be
successful. On the other, I always believed I’d do well and
always hoped I would be a successful businessman.
Today I think I have been blessed beyond what I thought
possible simply because I have done things I never envi-
sioned. I never thought I would open my cellphone and call
a congressman or start a nonprofit. I’ve been fortunate to
travel all over the world, and I live a good life that I can see
getting better.
I also never thought I’d attend Dartmouth as the first
person in my family to go to college right after high school.
Because I did not grow up around politicians and execu-
tives, I was not exposed to certain things. As a result, I did
not decide to get an MBA until I was 28 so even graduate
school was not a part of my original vision.
What are the core values you learned early in life
that are serving you well now?
Integrity: Growing up in a tough neighborhood, you learn
to honor your word and be ready to put your money where
your mouth is. Your word is everything, so I try my best to
be truthful. Ambition: I come from a family of Jamaican
immigrants. If we were not ambitious, we would not have
anything because we started from scratch in America. So
I learned to strive for the best growing up. Since then, I’ve
always wanted to be the best, to work for a top firm, go
to the best schools, etc. Plus I didn’t have a trust fund to
inherit - although that would have been nice. Tenacity: I
wanted to not just survive but to thrive, to expand beyond
Jamaica, Queens, and it took a little fire to stay focused
through all the distractions. That fire still fuels me. Faith: I
was raised in a Christian home, which centered me and
taught me good core principles that have only grown and
become more a part of all that I do as I get older.
Howwould you describe your adjustment from an
academic setting to the business environment?
Corporate culture may be foreign to some. In my case, it
was to some degree, and the socializing that makes work
easier took place in bars, which I didn’t patronize as much
- nor did I realize it made a difference if I did. Because of
that, I didn’t have a strong social rapport with my col-
leagues, and I didn’t have a support network to help me ma-
triculate into a culture that frankly was unfamiliar. I traveled
all over the country during my time at Ernst & Young and
integrated well over time, but I did so in a pretty choppy,
trial-and-error manner that I would not recommend.
Graduates matriculating into corporate America should
seek a sponsor and search out available support networks.
I learned on the fly, which was a bit rough. New graduates
should actively seek mentors, or they may end up doing
things the hard way. I didn’t focus enough on my quantita-
tive abilities early in my career, like using Microsoft Excel.
That was because I didn’t have anyone to point that out to
me. If you don’t have a mentor, you find out things when it’s
too late - like at your review.
What advice would you offer to undergraduates and
high school students?
First, focus on academics. Second, invest in the people
around you. When you’re 19 or 20 years old, you’re not
thinking about that. Don’t hang around with the same type
of people you hung out with in high school. Part of your
future worth is who you know, which plays a big role in how
enriched your life is.
Generally, once you leave college, you’re not going to wake
up in an environment with people from 20 different coun-
tries and 20 U.S. states. When I was in school, I had the
privilege of interacting with the son of a Fortune 500 CEO,
a Saudi princess, a Midwestern farmer for whom I was the
first person of color he had ever met, and the daughter of
a career military family who speaks six languages and has
lived all over the world. Looking at the world through their
eyes broadened my mind almost instantly, as I’m sure just
meeting a kid from the inner city of New York changed their
perspectives as well. The people around you offer you a
whole other education.
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44
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Specialists in mergers and acquisitions, or M&A, travel
the world to work on deals that reshape entire industries.
M&A refers to one of an investment bank’s core functions:
to advise client companies on whether to add businesses
to their portfolio of assets, sell off divisions or subsidiaries
they no longer want to own, or merge themselves entirely
with another firm, either by acquiring the target company or
selling themselves to it.
In truth, it would be more accurate to talk about mergers,
acquisitions and divestitures. There are clearly two sides to
every deal and M&A advisors work on both. In some merg-
ers, two companies join as equals. In others, M&A bankers
help clients find buyers or sellers for businesses that are
of interest. In addition, the past decade saw an explosion
in the number of companies taken private in buyouts by
private equity firms.
Regardless of what drives the deal-making, M&A special-
ists work in a very lucrative business – although many years
may pass before merger activity levels and bankers’ fees
return to the peaks of the past decade.
M&A requires hard work. At their client’s beck and call, the
people involved are often in their offices nights and week-
ends. Once a deal is underway, junior bankers can expect
to keep busy assembling the reams of financial information
and legal documentation necessary to get it done.
A variety of firms act as M&A advisers. While the top-tier
global banks still dominate the volume rankings known as
“league tables,” middle-market and niche advisory firms
have been gaining on them. Deals smaller than $150 million
might be handled by the M&A divisions of accounting firms,
or by boutiques that specialize in smaller transactions or
deals in a particular sector. Although the biggest deals get
the headlines, it’s the numerous smaller deals, which occur
on a regular basis, that drive the business.
Recent Developments
The credit meltdown that began in late 2007 cut the legs
out from beneath the merger business. Lack of access to
credit forced sharp pullbacks in private equity deal-making,
especially leveraged buyouts (LBOs) – debt-fueled deals
where purchasers obtain bank financing by pledging the
assets of an acquired firm. Global private equity volume
plunged 69 percent in 2008 compared with 2007, to $234
billion in announced deals, according to Thomson Reuters.
Total announced merger volume shrank 30 percent from
2007’s record high, to $2.9 trillion. Almost 1,200 pending
deals were cancelled. Activity continued to wither in 2009.
The downturn sapped demand for investment bankers,
sparking layoffs across Wall Street. Beyond that, the
financial crisis is broadly reshaping the industry, which
will affect bankers’ compensation and career prospects for
many years to come.
In general, the largest U.S. and European investment banks
– which long commanded the greatest power and prestige
– suffered the worst damage to their balance sheets and
reputations. These so-called “bulge-bracket” institutions
received most of the trillions of dollars in bailout aid from
governments worldwide. In return for keeping banks sol-
vent, governments imposed ceilings on the compensation of
executives – and in some cases, ordinary employees – who
work for taxpayer-supported institutions. In response, many
bankers fled from large full-service investment houses to
small or mid-size firms.
Over the past two years, boutiques have hired several
hundred bankers away from former bulge-brackets, the
New York Times found. The newer boutiques bear names
such as Moelis & Co., Broadpoint, and BTIG. Their founders
– typically, top dealmakers who left Wall Street to run their
own shows – hope to grow into tomorrow’s bulge-bracket
banks, filling the space left by the disappearance of Lehman
and Bear Stearns.
Meanwhile, Wall Street’s traditional powerhouses are
slashing openings for new graduates and MBA holders in
2009.
Roles and Career Paths
Mergers and acquisitions is principally an advisory role.
When public companies announce they’re “exploring stra-
tegic opportunities,” it means they’ve hired an investment
bank to advise them on a merger or sale.
Traditionally, M&A bankers advise clients on all aspects of
buying, selling, and merging with other companies. They’re
typically part of a broader corporate finance advisory team,
which also advises firms on how to raise the money needed
to finance a transaction.
Mergers and Acquisitions
Big deals, long hours, lots of travel - and lots of money
45
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
As a rule of thumb, the more senior you become in M&A,
the more contact you’ll have with clients. But as an analyst,
you’ll spend a lot of time working on pitch books, which
outline a bank’s ideas for a particular transaction. For ex-
ample, should the client buy company X or company Y and,
if so, how should the deal be financed?
M&A analysts usually conduct basic industry research
and build financial models, which are used to price the
companies concerned. Associates, who are one level higher
in the banking hierarchy, oversee analysts’ work and check
to make sure their models are correct.
A further rung up, vice presidents oversee the work of
analysts and associates, and often order the pitch book to
be partially or completely rewritten – even when it means
staying up until the early hours of the morning. Vice presi-
dents report to the directors and managing directors who
are the main points of client contact.
It’s not unusual for pitch books to come to nothing. Clients
may decide not to go ahead with the suggestions, or they
may engage a rival bank. When a pitch book elicits a posi-
tive response, the M&A team moves into execution mode
– seeing the deal through to completion.
If you’re interested in pursuing a career in M&A, be diligent
and keep banging on doors. It’s critical to be a hard worker
and a team player. It also helps to be bright.
Skills and Qualities
º /uuetite íu| |o|J wu||
º /rol]ticol o|ilit] orJ stotisticol outituJe
º /|ilit] tu wu|| well ir o teoa er.i|uraert
º CuuJ cuaauricotiur s|ills orJ selícuríJerce
º St|urc ottertiur tu Jetoil
Sean Walker, Managing Director
Salem Partners
What’s a typical day like for you?
The M&A business works in ebbs and flows. You’re either try-
ing to get a deal completed or working to get the next deal in the
door. I spend most of my time on marketing. Each day, I’ll review
my calendar and have a briefing with an associate about marketing
documents, upcoming pitches, or ways to get Salem’s name out there.
The rest of the day is spent calling prospects, talking to accountants,
lawyers and private equity investors. Being in the middle-market
is different than being in the bulge bracket. We generally don’t get
mandates because of the firm’s relationships. We have to personally
cultivate our own relationships and that’s not easy work.
When we’re in the market with a client we spend our time trying to
get books (50-page books that describe our client’s business) in the
hands of private equity and corporate buyers, setting up meetings
with those buyers, and trying to provide a compelling offer for our
clients. All the while, we tailor an “acquisition thesis” that may be
unique to each potential acquirer or investor. Ultimately our objective
is to get best deal possible. This involves a lot of jockeying over the
course of a couple of months.
Any advice for an up and coming M&A professional?
Currently it’s very difficult to enter this business. It’s tough to get the
training and development in M&A at a boutique firm. For someone
fresh out of college I’d recommend starting at a large bank with a
training program in place. In that environment, you’re better able to
hone financial modeling and presentation skills. You need to be clas-
sically trained to appreciate how quickly these tasks are performed.
Having that experience will make you more marketable, and help you
stand out compared with other candidates if you decide to move to a
boutique firm or more entrepreneurial environment.
What are the most important skills for a career in M&A?
It’s important to be even tempered because almost every deal is an
emotional roller coaster. Nothing is ever as bad or as great as you
might want to think. To get a deal done, you must manage client ex-
pectations, which requires a steady type of personality. You’re always
an advocate for clients, but you also must advise them appropriately.
Often times, middle-market clients are people who’ve built a business
from scratch and poured a significant part of their life into making the
company grow. They are wedded to their businesses, and you have to
be well-versed in helping them achieve their goals.
Q&A
46
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Debt and Equity Capital Markets
The stimulus for economic and financial market development
Traded financial products are born in the capital markets
divisions of investment banks. There, bankers produce the
securities used by companies and institutions who want to
raise money on the public markets. Their two main products
are stocks, traded on the equity capital markets, and bonds,
traded on the debt capital markets.
Stocks, also known as shares or equities, are bought by
investors who want to share in the profits of a company
through dividends or the appreciation of the stock’s value. If
the share price rises, investors can sell stock to other inves-
tors at a profit. If it falls, they might sell them at a loss. This
trading occurs in the secondary markets, and the company
itself doesn’t directly benefit. It’s raised the capital it needs
through the shares’ initial public offering, or “IPO.”
Investment banks act as “underwriters” on behalf of the
company issuing stock. In return for a fee known as the
“underwriting spread,” they assume the risk of issuing the
shares and do the work necessary to bring them to market.
The underwriting spread represents the difference between
the price the issuing company receives for a stock and
the price at which it’s offered to shareholders. In order to
spread the risk, particularly for large IPOs, investment banks
typically pool their resources, with one acting as the lead
underwriter, which manages the deal. The fees charged
from the offering are shared proportionately between the
underwriting banks, based on a written agreement among
them.
Bonds are a form of debt. Like equities, they’re issued by a
company or government in order to raise money. In return
for their money, the issuer promises to pay bondhold-
ers back at some designated point in the future. In the
meantime, the bonds can be sold to other investors in the
secondary bond markets. So, the bondholder who is eventu-
ally reimbursed is unlikely to be the original buyer. As with
equities, investment banks act as the underwriters to create
bonds and bring them to market.
Until the redemption date, bondholders receive interest
payments in return for the service of lending the issuer
money. Because these payments take the form of a fixed
cash sum paid at regular intervals, bonds are known as
fixed income products. Similarly, the bond markets can be
known as the fixed income markets.
Capital markets divisions also issue more complex products,
such as equity-linked securities – or bonds that can be
converted into equities at a pre-arranged price – and de-
rivatives. Equity capital markets (“ECM”) divisions and debt
capital markets (“DCM”) divisions have traditionally been
separate businesses. However, recent years have seen a
trend toward combining them into a single unit.
Recent Developments
The fees that investment banks generate from stock and
debt offerings depend on corporate America’s aggregate
need for new capital, which in turn reflects the level of eco-
nomic activity and the trend of stock and bond prices. As
the global economic downturn ensued in 2008, issuance of
new securities sputtered. The credit crisis that began in the
U.S. with sub-prime mortgage defaults spread to Europe,
dragging down global equity and debt markets.
Capital raised through U.S. initial public offerings last year
was down 43 percent from 2007, according to Thomson
Reuters. (Most of the year’s $26.4 billion total IPO volume
came from Visa’s record-size $18 billion stock sale in March
2008.) Hundreds of planned IPOs were cancelled. Banks’
total fee income from both merger advisory and stock and
bond underwriting slid 39 percent last year to $53 billion,
according to Bloomberg data.
In the first quarter of 2009, worldwide equity capital market
volume plunged 49 percent to $64.8 billion. IPO activity
shifted to the Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Latin American
regions (notwithstanding a nine-month-long official morato-
rium on IPOs in China, which ended in June).
Meanwhile the credit markets, where the financial crisis
began, showed tentative signs of recovery in early 2009.
But a full return to normal market conditions remained
elusive.
A record $824.4 billion of corporate investment-grade bonds
were sold in this year’s first quarter, more than double the
year-ago volume. Major issuers included Roche with $39.5
billion (the largest non-financial corporate bond sale ever),
Pfizer with $13.5 billion, Microsoft with $3.75 billion, Nokia
with $2.3 billion and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide
Inc. with $500 million.
It remains to be seen whether the corporate borrowing
surge stemmed from improving balance sheets and market
47
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Sarah Baldwin Kavanagh, Vice-Chair and Co-Head
Diversified Industries, Investment Banking,
Scotia Capital
How did you rise to your current role?
After completing my undergraduate degree at Williams College, I
worked in investment management in Boston before attending Har-
vard Business School. After finishing my MBA, I joined Lehman Broth-
ers, where I’d worked as a summer associate. I spent six and a half
years there as a generalist, moving from associate to vice president
and working on IPOs, M&A, and other transactions.
Afterward, I moved to Canada, and worked in several jobs in the
corporate sector. I returned to investment banking because of the
challenge and the ability to gain exposure to different companies. I
joined Scotia Capital in 1999 as a managing director in investment
banking in Toronto. I quickly became focused on the media and
telecom industries, as well as income trust IPOs. Next, I moved into a
series of managerial positions, in relationship management, invest-
ment banking, and equity capital markets.
What’s a typical day like for you?
My co-head and I oversee a team of 20 to 30 professionals across
Canada that covers telecom and media, forestry, power, consumer
and industrial companies. We spend most of our time working with
corporations and helping them with the execution of various trans-
actions. Also, I have my own clients I meet with to advise them on
capital markets. I also spend a fair amount of time recruiting and
mentoring people and developing a business plan for the group.
Any advice for up-and-coming capital markets people?
It’s important to network with different people to identify the roles
that may be the best fit for you. Get to know people in the industry.
Read newspapers. Also, pick stocks or build your own portfolio. If you
look at the market and try to understand why things trade the way
they do, and why investors are behaving the way they are, you will be
in a better position to understand capital markets.
What skills are essential for a career in capital markets?
First, comfort with numbers. Early in your career, the hours are long
and involve heavy work with spreadsheets. You need to be quick and
resourceful. As you move up the ladder, interpersonal skills become
more important for both internal communications and client interac-
tion. Integrity is also very important. Times are very competitive right
now, and it’s critical to constantly maintain the networks you build
early in your career, whether it’s keeping connected with former class-
mates or through organizations that you have been involved with.
Q&A
optimism, or simply federal intervention. Pharmaceutical
giants like Roche borrowed to fund growth and acquisitions.
But bond sales by financial giants JPMorgan Chase, Bank
of America and Goldman Sachs were largely spurred by
government lending, as well as huge guarantees and other
measures by the U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve. For
the most part, only companies possessing the best credit
were able to tap into bond markets, as corporate credit
ratings faced continuing headwinds. In spring 2009 both
General Electric and Berkshire Hathaway lost their top AAA
debt ratings, while General Motors and Chrysler entered
bankruptcy protection.
Roles and Career Paths
If you work in the capital markets division of an investment
bank you could do anything from originating, to structur-
ing, to syndicating. Or, you might work for a law firm that
specializes in securities law and handles the legal aspects
of submitting registration paperwork and other tasks.
In a bank, origination specialists are usually senior capital
markets bankers. Their job involves a lot of travel as they
meet clients in an effort to gain insight into their financing
needs and persuade them to offer business to the bank.
Essentially, origination specialists hold senior level sales
positions.
By comparison, structurers are desk-bound. They spend
their time creating complex financial products to suit a com-
pany’s financing needs as communicated by the originators.
It’s up to the people on the syndication desk to ready the
market for the sale. They calculate the best price range for
the product in question, assess demand, and make sure the
correct documents are in place.
Skills and Qualities
º /rol]ticol o|ilit] orJ stotisticol outituJe
º St|urc cuaauricotiur s|ills
º /|ilit] tu aoroce aultiule u|ujects
º |e|se.e|orce
48
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Sales and Trading
Fortunes are won and lost trading in the secondary markets
Every day, millions of financial products are traded in the
secondary markets, where traders buy and sell financial
products after their initial issue. (That happens in what’s
called the “primary market.”) In the secondary markets,
salespeople advise clients on investment opportunities,
while traders carry out the actual buying and selling of
securities.
Sales
Salespeople spend the bulk of their time communicat-
ing with clients via phone calls, e-mail and other means.
They’re in contact with clients from the moment the
financial markets open until the moment they close, as well
as for several hours before and after. Clients might be high-
net-worth individuals, hedge fund managers, institutional
investors or corporate finance directors. Ultimately, sales-
people take orders for financial products and communicate
them to their trading desks for execution.
Salespeople have to be
charming and persuasive
– in short, they need to
be good at selling. Most
clients are knowledgeable
and sophisticated buyers of
financial products, whether
stocks and bonds or
derivatives like interest rate
swaps or credit derivatives.
It’s the salesperson’s job to
introduce new investment
opportunities to customers,
and to keep them informed
about changing condi-
tions that might affect the
value of securities in their
portfolio.
Sales professionals typically start their day by reviewing
financial publications like The Wall Street Journal, along
with reports from their research staffs. They also listen in
on morning conference calls conducted by their research
departments, where they learn of upgrades or downgrades
to securities already covered, or of new issues being added
to the coverage list. All this material becomes fodder for
the day’s sales calls.
The salesperson’s day doesn’t end when markets close.
Many say the couple of hours between the close and when
clients start heading for home are the best time to discuss
strategies in detail. After that, there are the dinners and
entertainment with clients that can stretch well into the
evening hours.
Trading
Traders are the people who actually buy and sell products
on the secondary markets. They must make snap decisions
that can involve millions of dollars and earn substantial
profits in the process.
If you work as a trader, you’ll have to be at your desk before
the markets open. You’ll spend the rest of the day sitting
before an array of computer screens in the company of
scores of your peers. The screens are a window into the
financial markets, showing movements in the prices of
stocks, bonds, commodities and other financial products,
plus real-time news and research reports. At the touch of a
button, traders can buy and sell the products whose prices
they’re tracking.
Other Jobs
In between salespeople and traders exists a hybrid: the
sales-trader. Like salespeople, sales-traders call clients to
recommend securities. Like traders, they trade the securi-
ties once a sale has been made.
Firms – particularly larger investment firms – also employ
research-sales professionals, whose job is to sell their
employer’s research expertise. While investment sales pro-
fessionals and sales-traders will use the bottom line results
of a research report to pitch actual investments, research
salespeople must be intimately familiar with the details of
the analysis to be successful.
Recent Developments
The global financial crisis that began in 2007 differed in
its impact on various areas of trading. Mortgage-related
securities and structured credit – after growing by leaps
and bounds earlier in the decade – were among the hardest
hit. Thousands of professionals who had prospered through
creating, selling or trading such investments, were abruptly
laid off. Many of the eliminated jobs won’t come back for a
long time, if ever.
“Proprietary traders
traditionally comprised
an elite that included
some of the best-
rewarded people on
Wall Street. But the
banking crisis seriously
hobbled this side of
the business.”
49
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Meanwhile, demand for foreign exchange traders remained
impervious to the credit crunch.
Beyond its impact on product types, the crisis upended the
pecking order between two basic trading roles: flow traders
and propietary traders.
Most traders are flow traders, who buy and sell finan-
cial products on behalf of an investment bank’s clients.
Salespeople tell flow traders what their clients want to buy
and sell, and flow traders determine whether a particular
trade is possible at a particular price. Once a client agrees
to trade an instrument, flow traders are obliged to buy or
sell at the price the
client agreed to.
The trader’s firm can
profit if the trader
buys at a price
lower than what
was quoted to the
client, or can lose
if the market price
climbs before the
trader executes the
purchase.
In contrast to flow
traders, proprietary
traders trade on
behalf of their
employer – placing bets with a bank’s own capital. They
can make huge profits or considerable losses, so it’s not a
job for the faint of heart.
Proprietary traders traditionally comprised an elite that
included some of the best-rewarded people on Wall Street.
But the banking crisis seriously hobbled this side of the
business. Today, keenly aware that banks went overboard
with financial risk, public authorities are cracking down on
proprietary trading. New regulations aim to prevent banks
from giving their “prop desks” as much free rein as they
enjoyed before the crisis.
Demand for flow traders suffered far less, excepting a
few specific product areas (like mortgages, for instance)
at the epicenter of the crisis. Because flow trading brings
in revenue without risking a bank’s own capital, the crisis
actually raised the stature of many sales and trading
professionals who control a reliable “book” of institutional
client accounts.
A third area of change is the inroads of electronic trading
platforms. Computer systems that let institutional clients
enter orders directly are making public trading floors like
Chicago’s famed commodity “pits” all but extinct. The
spread of various high-tech, high-speed trading systems is
slowly molding sales-traders into consultants who instruct
clients how to navigate the latest platforms.
Roles and Career Paths
Traders and salespeople can be categorized according to
the products they trade, by the types of clients they sell
to, or by the sector they specialize in. For example, traders
might focus on foreign exchange, derivatives, corporate
bonds, government bonds, or any number of other products.
One salesperson might sell equities to pension fund inves-
tors, while another might focus on corporate bonds.
In addition, there are two fundamental types of trader:
proprietary traders and flow traders, as explained above.
Skills and Qualities
Sales
º 0utcuirc orJ selícuríJert
º /|ilit] tu c|uw orJ aoirtoir cliert |elotiurs|ius
º Ercellert cuaauricotiur s|ills
º /|ilit] tu urJe|storJ cuauler u|uJucts
Trading
º |ossiurote o|uut írorciol ao||ets
º Cor íurctiur well urJe| u|essu|e
º SelícuríJerce
º Cuaíu|to|le wit| rua|e|s
º /|ilit] tu t|ir| ur ]uu| íeet orJ |eoct cuic|l] tu c|orc-
ing market conditions
“Computer systems that
let institutional clients
enter orders directly are
making public trading
floors like Chicago’s
famed commodity ‘pits’
all but extinct.”
50
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Research
Providing the fundamental analysis behind investment decisions
Investment analysts provide the fundamental research that
helps drive investment decision making on Wall Street.
While money managers and traders ultimately decide what
to buy and sell, the basis for their choices frequently starts
with analysis provided by researchers at the major invest-
ment banks, whose work is then supplemented by internally
produced reports.
Research reports are valuable because they fill in informa-
tion gaps that can lead to inefficiencies in the market. With-
out a sense of a company’s fundamental value, investors
will tend to overvalue or undervalue its stock. By providing
the basic information investors need to make wise buy or
sell decisions, researchers help level the playing field.
Not all research professionals focus on equities. Analysts
are also employed to study instruments such as corporate
or government bonds, municipal securities, mortgage-
backed securities and credit derivatives – even currencies,
entire economies and entire markets.
Analysts who work for institutions like Goldman Sachs,
Morgan Stanley or Citigroup are said to work for the “sell
side” of the market. They produce reports on industries
and companies, which their employers use as a basis for
recommendations to institutional and individual investor
clients. When the media says a firm’s stock rose or fell due
to a change in an “analyst’s recommendation,” the analyst
is typically working on the sell side.
At the same time, institutions on the “buy side” of the
investment landscape – hedge funds, mutual funds, pension
funds and other firms that manage money for individual
and corporate clients – also employ analysts to ferret out
investment and trading opportunities. Since 2000, the buy
side has pulled ahead of Wall Street’s sell side in career
growth opportunities for stock and bond analysts, econo-
mists and other research professionals.
Buy-side and sell-side analysts draw upon the same broad
body of knowledge to generate their reports. Both have the
same basic mission: to forecast returns and risks for differ-
ent investments and make buy and sell recommendations.
Yet, it isn’t easy for an analyst with substantial experience
in either camp to change spots and become employed
across the aisle. Jumping from sell-side research to a
hedge fund is particularly challenging.
Beyond investment banks and asset management firms,
many analysts work in independent research shops. These
niche firms sell their analytical expertise alone, without an
investment banking component.
Recent Developments
The current financial crisis and consolidation of the bank-
ing sector eliminated thousands of research jobs. Major
buy-side institutions cut back too, and dozens of hedge
funds shut their doors. Meanwhile, a 2003 legal settlement
that steered more than $400 million toward independent
research firms ended by summer 2009, hobbling several
independent shops that depended on this revenue stream.
Integrity Research Associates, a consulting firm that follows
the investment research space, said in a February 2009
blog post: “The market for research analysts is likely to be
extremely soft in 2009, as weak equity markets, plunging
commissions, falling assets under management, and con-
tinuing redemptions make sell-side, buy-side, and alterna-
tive research providers lean towards reducing analytical
headcount rather than increase their hiring of research
analysts.”
Three areas that grew strongly in recent years are mid-
market financial firms, boutiques and expert networks. The
decline of full-service institutions such as Merrill Lynch el-
evated mid-size banks and narrowly focused boutiques into
vital career alternatives for many a professional who oth-
erwise would have pursued or stayed within bulge-bracket
banks. For instance, Susquehanna International Group, a
diversified firm with 1,500 employees headquartered in Bala
Cynwyd, Pa., was expanding its sell-side research franchise
and advertising openings for both new graduates and expe-
rienced analysts through the spring of 2009.
During the past decade, a new brand of research providers
called expert networks sprang up. Rather than churn out
their own reports, these firms set up direct contacts be-
tween their clients (primarily hedge funds) and scientists or
other authorities whose specialized knowledge could help
an investor gauge the prospects of a product, company or
market. This corner of the research business mushroomed
from nine firms in 2000 to 42 in May 2009, according to
Integrity Research Associates. Gerson Lehrman Group is the
largest.
51
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Roles and Career Paths
Researchers spend their time scouring companies’ balance
sheets, talking to executives, and participating in confer-
ence calls where company leaders discuss their results
and future expectations. Researchers also analyze interest
rates, economies, and other areas that could provide insight
into the proper valuation of different financial instruments.
As a sell-side analyst’s career develops, advancement and
pay rests critically on relationships he or she is able to
build with institutional buy-side clients. Issuing accurate
recommendations helps. But on the sell side, you’ll be paid
for the business you bring in from big accounts that trade or
do deals through your firm – not the profits someone might
make from your recommendations. Even at boutiques built
around research, analysts are required to build and satisfy a
roster of clients eager to pay for access to their work.
Working on the buy side, for a hedge fund or asset man-
ager, provides more freedom and flexibility plus the chance
that your research will directly translate into investment
or trading decisions. Typically, buy-side analysts receive
bonuses tied to the performance of assets under manage-
ment. Because the buy side is very competitive, it’s harder
to break into than the sell side.
Lead analysts, whether buy or sell side, seldom get hired
without at least two or three years of experience, beginning
as a research assistant or junior analyst under the supervi-
sion of a more seasoned professional. A lot of people break
into the business via an internship. “I always counsel stu-
dents to take advantage of internship programs as much as
possible,” says recruiter Edward Storm of Comprehensive
Recruiting in Phoenix.
Skills and Qualities
º /rol]ticol orJ aot|eaoticol o|ilit]
º /ccuurtirc orJ írorciol stoteaert orol]sis
º St|urc w|itter orJ u|ol cuaauricotiur s|ills
º Sueciíc |ruwleJce uí ao||ets orJ ao||et secaerts
º 0eaurst|oteJ irte|est ir t|e ir.estaert u|ucess
Helge Skibeli, Managing Director
JPMorgan Asset Management
What’s a typical day like in research?
At 8:30 a.m., we have a meeting with the traders, portfolio managers
and analysts where we run through that morning’s news. We’ll look
at news and interpret it and discuss the implications. I work with
analysts, going through spreadsheets, reviewing the company and in-
dustry assumptions to make sure that we are comfortable with them.
At 4 p.m. each day an analyst will present the assumptions he’s
making and determine if we need to modify our position or move to
overweight or underweight on a stock. Also, most days I am doing
something related to recruiting.
What type of skills are important in research?
For research, the skill set is twofold. First, you need to have a strong
analytical acumen. You must be able to understand what’s important
and what the key drivers are in your sector. If you can understand
what the key issues are in a sector, you’ll be able to understand how
companies operate, their relative position with respect to costs, and
be able to differentiate between companies.
In research, our ability to have a long-term perspective of a company
results in a competitive advantage. Our analysts make seven-year
forecasts of earnings. To do so, you must understand sustainability
of a company’s cash flows and earnings. How can a company sustain
flows and earnings? How fast can it grow? In the end, answering
these questions gives you an understanding of the intrinsic value of a
company.
Second, you must be able and willing to take risks. You have to take
your knowledge of a company or industry and make stock recommen-
dations. It’s critical that you have strong communications skills. You
must be able to convey a message to a portfolio manager, as people
act on your analysis.
What advice would you give to someone pursuing a career in
research?
For undergraduate or graduate students, I would recommend getting
experience where you’re getting firsthand knowledge of portfolio
management and research. Many universities have these types of
courses. It’s helpful if you can demonstrate that you have worked
in this capacity during an interview. It shows us that the skill set is
there and is more powerful than simply discussing your education. It’s
important for you to show that you know something about a company
or a particular industry that you have analyzed. It shows that you have
the right skill set for research.
Q&A
52
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Quantitative Analytics
The brains behind financial models
In the international financial markets, successful trading
strategies are devised by highly educated, mathematically-
oriented professionals known as financial engineers or
more colloquially, “quants.” These are the people who
create the financial theories, computer models, valuation
techniques and trading programs used by hedge funds,
investment banks and other market participants to exploit
opportunities that might be missed by average mortals.
By and large, this terrain is occupied by people with
advanced degrees in disciplines such as physics, econom-
ics and computer science, or any of several mathematical
specialties such as multivariate calculus, linear algebra,
differential equations, probability theory and statistical
inference. Generally, these people also need to be familiar
with the C++ programming language, the most widely used
in the field.
The fathers of computational finance are considered to be
the economists Myron Scholes, Fischer Black and Robert C.
Merton. Scholes and Black are synonymous with options
pricing theory, having developed the famous Black-Scholes
equation. Their model provided the fundamental conceptual
framework for valuing options, and has become the de facto
standard in the world’s financial markets for valuing those
instruments, as well as many types of bonds and deriva-
tives that contain embedded options.
Beyond advanced degrees, many employers require
prospective quants to pass a rigorous vetting process that
includes verification of references and, ideally, published
research to point to. One recruiter who specializes in the
field tells of one candidate she placed with a high-profile
New York hedge fund. The job offer was rescinded after a
professor provided a less-than-glowing reference.
“This hedge fund actually went through the trouble of
contacting the professor that supervised his dissertation,
rather than the professors he listed as references – and
that professor was located in Brazil,” the recruiter says. The
moral of the story: Make sure you have built strong relation-
ships with your advisers and fellow researchers to go along
with your good academic record.
Recent Developments
Financial engineers, like other investment professionals,
face a more challenging job market in the wake of the
financial crisis that began in 2007. While banks and asset
management firms continue to need hard-core quant skills,
hiring has become more selective. New Ph.D. or Master
of Financial Engineering graduates no longer can count on
landing a lucrative slot on a trading desk or hedge fund,
unless they have previous relevant experience to convince
an employer they can hit the ground running.
Hedge funds, a prime destination for quants in recent
years, took a beating in 2008. As funds’ assets shrank from
both investment losses and clients withdrawing money,
many companies reduced staffing while others exited the
business altogether. Options Group, a New York-based
recruiting and strategic consulting firm, estimates the fund
industry will lose 20,000 jobs in 2009 on top of 10,000 jobs
lost in 2008. Legendary fund chief George Soros publicly
predicted that the industry ultimately will decline by “any-
where between half and two-thirds.”
Meanwhile, the financial crisis is making banks take less
risk with their balance sheets. That means less proprietary
trading – a role where Wall Street quants are particularly
active. Designing and trading complex structured mort-
gage and credit products, another focus for many sell-side
quants, was one of the first casualties of the crisis.
On the bright side, the banks’ travails spotlight the need
for smarter risk management – an area that’s long utilized
advanced quant credentials. “There’s a growing need for
better quant models and more transparency and people
who can identify risk quickly,” says Jim Geiger of Analytic
Recruiting, a New York search firm. Risk-focused quants
also work for specialized software vendors that create and
produce risk management products.
Another promising area is building and utilizing algorithmic
trading models – tools that either execute large trades at
minimum cost, or identify profitable arbitrage opportunities
and place the indicated trades automatically.
Funds that rely on high-frequency, algorithm-based trading
systems have grown to account for as much as two-thirds
of daily trading volume. The systems proved their worth by
outperforming other strategies when markets buckled. In
order to retain these funds’ business, broker-dealers large
and small are adding engineers to refine the platforms
that communicate orders, and adding modelers to write
software for pinpointing arbitrage opportunities.
53
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Gunjan Kedia, EVP, Global Product Management
BNY Mellon Asset Servicing
Could you tell us about your career path?
I grew up in India and studied engineering in Delhi. I came to the
U.S. in 1992 for an MBA program at Carnegie Mellon. After graduat-
ing, I moved from Pittsburgh to Washington, D.C., where I spent two
years at Price Waterhouse. I worked on international privatizations in
developing countries. I traveled a lot, and it factored into my decision
to move back to Pittsburgh to work in a more family-friendly environ-
ment. I took a job at McKinsey, then in 2004 joined Mellon. I started
out in a corporate role and then moved into our asset servicing busi-
ness. At some point, I figured out that I was good at math, which fit
well with my engineering background and involved a lot of quantita-
tive work.
Could you describe a typical day?
I’ll give you a snapshot of a typical week. In a given week I may spend
a few hours with clients. Their needs are complex, so I listen carefully
and try to understand their needs, and then match our capabilities
to their needs. If we don’t have an existing product, we will design a
product that fulfills it. Also, I spend time driving our development of
leading-edge technology products and am responsible for the alloca-
tion of $650 million in technology capital. I also spend time working
with our internal processes in such areas as risk management and
recruiting, and manage large-scale projects we are working on in
places like Europe. So, there truly is no typical day.
What types of skills are needed to work in a quantitative role?
We live in an era in which there is a tremendous amount of data and
information available, so it is easy to become “data happy” and still
be “information poor.” Many quantitative people can be comfortable
with data and still fail to recognize a simple and important aspect of
being successful: Data is only good as a “tool” to make better busi-
ness decisions. Data can be a powerful tool.
I recommend using the following approach: Look first at what press-
ing questions can be answered by data, and then use the data to
address your hypothesis. What I have found is that, from a problem-
solving standpoint, it helps to already know what question or ques-
tions you want the data to answer. It’s important to learn what you
need to know or what you need to answer, otherwise one could end
up getting lost in what is “possible to know” from the data. With a
hypothesis, you are steering toward an answer to the issue.
Q&A
Roles and Career Paths
If you become a quant, much of your time will be spent
developing, programming and updating financial models.
When just starting out, you may be required to work com-
pletely by yourself, spending long hours building models
from scratch and coding for several hours straight. Still,
good communication skills are also helpful. A quantitative
professional can be viewed by other members of a firm as a
resource who can explain why and how their models work.
Plus, after long periods programming complex models,
you’ll need to ask colleagues to review your efforts.
Quantitative analytics is one area where a candidate with
a doctorate isn’t considered to be overqualified, although a
master’s degree in the appropriate discipline can sometimes
suffice. Unlike with MBA candidates, the pedigree of your
university isn’t always viewed as a hiring advantage. It’s
more important to demonstrate you have the skills needed
to succeed in the job.
Emanuel Derman, a Columbia University professor and
former Goldman Sachs quant strategist who wrote the
widely read autobiography, My Life as a Quant, advises
prospective financial engineers to begin with a bachelor’s
degree in “solid subjects” such as mathematics, statistics
or applied math.
“Then, in an ideal world, learn some finance and then work
for two years in the financial business,” Derman told Trad-
ingMarkets.com. “That will help you decide whether you
like the research side or the trading and sales side of the
business. Then, if you want to be a financial engineer, come
back and get a master’s degree or a Ph.D. in that field.”
Skills and Qualities
º /J.orceJ Jec|ee ir aot|eaotics, ecuruaics, u|]sics,
computer science or similar disciplines
º /|ilit] tu u|uc|oa cuauler írorciol auJels
º CuuJ cuaauricotiur s|ills
54
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Hedge Funds
Live and die by your portfolio returns
The term “hedge fund” is based on the idea money manag-
ers can hedge their bets to ensure a profit, regardless of
whether the market goes up or down. Although their great-
est influence has occurred during the past two decades,
the first was created some 60 years ago: In 1949 money
manager Alfred Winslow Jones began short-selling stocks
while buying others to offset his risk.
Hedge fund managers balance their exposure by using tools
such as options or futures, or simultaneously holding long
positions while also short-selling. What distinguishes them
from traditional mutual fund managers is their willingness
to push the boundaries of normal investment techniques in
a quest for unusually high returns. Their results don’t often
closely track those of stock or bond markets. In addition,
hedge fund managers are set apart by the amount of regu-
latory scrutiny they face – or the lack of it, some might say.
However, that could soon change.
Hedge funds traditionally compete for top talent with the
leading investment banks. However, the investment banks
generally have more conservative bonus structures, are
more risk-averse than hedge funds, and are subject to com-
plicated compliance procedures. For some, all of this makes
working at a hedge fund extremely attractive.
Most hedge funds follow a particular investment strategy.
Popular strategies include:
º Distressed: These funds buy debt (or occasionally
equity) of companies in or near bankruptcy. They strive
to buy securities whose market prices are below the
value of company assets under a bankruptcy plan or
similar reorganization.
º Market Neutral: This strategy rests on hedging bets
– owning one group of securities the fund manager
believes will perform relatively better, while short
selling other, borrowed securities he believes will do
worse. The difference in performance can create profit
even if the values of both the long and short portfolios
rise or fall.
º Global Macro: Instead of focusing on the movements
of particular stocks, global macro funds create and
manage portfolios based on their reading of worldwide
political and economic trends.
º Event-Driven: Managers using this strategy aim to
profit from one-off events, such as mergers, acquisi-
tions or leveraged buyouts.
Hedge funds are considered risky because they use bor-
rowed money (known as “leverage”) to pump up returns,
can hold long or short positions, and put money into illiquid
investments. To counter this risk, some investors put their
money into “funds of funds,” which spread their money –
and supposedly, their perils – across several different funds.
Recent Developments
Hedge fund managers live and die by their investment
returns. Perhaps more than any other corner of the finance
world, the fee revenue earned by hedge funds – and the
compensation of the investment professionals who run
them – closely reflects each fund’s short-term performance.
So the downturns that hit global financial markets in the
latter part of 2008 are taking a heavy toll on the hedge fund
business. In turn, prospects for revival of career opportuni-
ties depend critically on how long stock and bond markets
take to fully recover, and how vigorous the recovery will be.
During 2008, a broad-based hedge fund index compiled by
Hedge Fund Research suffered a loss of 23.3 percent. While
the index gained moderately during the first half of 2009,
most funds and their investors remained under water com-
pared with a couple of years ago. Worldwide hedge fund
assets shrank 32 percent in 2008 to $1.81 trillion, according
to Hedge Fund Intelligence, a firm that compiles news and
data on the global hedge fund industry.
Hedge fund fees come from a percentage of the prior year’s
investment returns (most commonly 20 percent) plus a small
percentage of assets managed (usually 2 percent). After a
losing year, most funds stop collecting performance-based
fees until they’ve earned back all the losses. This is known
as a “high-water mark.” Following 2008’s steep downturn
that affected several asset classes, such fee structures
forced the industry to pull back sharply.
Seven hundred seventy-eight funds closed during 2008’s
fourth quarter alone, a record high. Options Group, a recruit-
ing and strategic consulting firm, estimates 20,000 jobs will
be eliminated among hedge funds worldwide over 2009,
following a loss of 10,000 jobs in 2008.
55
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Jonathan Feniak, Director of Marketing
Sands Brothers Asset Management, LLC
Could you describe your career path?
I studied English at Rutgers University, graduating in 1996. While at
Rutgers I worked at night for UPS, which had a great tuition reim-
bursement program. With my background in operations and transpor-
tation I took a position at Airborne Express upon graduation. Eventu-
ally I became district operations manager for Manhattan, managing a
$25 million budget and developing lots of relationships.
Though my career was going well, I wanted to pursue a career with
a higher upside. So I entered an MBA program at Rutgers, attending
school at night, and transitioned into national account sales at DHL,
where I was responsible for managing large corporate accounts for
companies such as UBS and KPMG. When I graduated I landed a
position at Cornell Capital, where I was responsible for researching
transactions, including structured finance. I was promoted to vice
president of corporate finance, and then became head of investor
relations and marketing.
I met the partners at Sands Brothers during an industry conference
and we developed a relationship. It was a great opportunity to come
into a firm that has been around since 1999, but which was now
structuring and launching a new fund: Genesis Merchant Partners, LP,
a fund we started from scratch to provide asset-based loans to small
borrowers in the U.S. and globally.
Describe your primary role.
I’m in charge of marketing and business development. My main duty
is to speak to institutional investors about our investment product,
how it’s different from the competition, and discuss different aspects
of our fund’s strategy. Also, I try to source transactions for the fund.
Finally, I seek out new managers for our fund of funds.
What advice would you give to someone interested in working
at a hedge fund?
With most hedge funds you need to get a foot in the door and prove
yourself, as an intern, analyst or assistant. Come in and take on as
much responsibility as possible and prove you can succeed in a role
higher than your current one. Ninety percent of the positions in hedge
funds aren’t advertised. Jobs at hedge funds are obtained through
word of mouth and networking with contacts. So you should talk to
people, attend events where you can meet people who work at hedge
funds, and try to convince them why you should be a part of their team.
Q&A
Alongside economic challenges, hedge funds also face the
prospect of new regulatory requirements. Unlike mutual
funds, which are sold to the general public and must
register with the Securities and Exchange Commission,
hedge funds are private pools of capital. Their number and
type of investors are restricted to institutions like pension
funds, endowments and very wealthy individuals. As a
result, they’ve been exempt from SEC registration. But the
Obama administration’s plan to overhaul financial services
regulation calls for making SEC registration mandatory for
hedge funds, and for private equity and venture capital
funds as well.
Roles and Career Paths
Jobs in hedge funds tend to fall into four categories:
º Analysis: Analyzing the companies, markets and
securities a hedge fund invests in.
º Sales and Marketing: Meeting with investors to
help sell the strengths of the fund.
º Portfolio Management and Trading: Executing
the investment strategy, buying and selling financial
products according to analysts’ recommendations.
º Risk Management and Back Office: Settling
trades, working out risk exposure and making sure
everything flows smoothly. Many small funds out-
source these tasks to the prime brokerage divisions of
investment banks.
Most roles are quite distinct: If you join as a risk manager,
the chances of becoming an analyst are slim. On the other
hand, it’s not unknown for analysts to become traders.
Hedge funds rarely hire people fresh out of school. Most
are small organizations that lack the time or resources for
extensive training. New graduates would be better served
trying to join an investment bank to gain a year or two of
experience that will be attractive to a hedge fund.
Skills and Qualities
º Mot| outituJe
º /Jouto|ilit]
º C|eoti.it]
56
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Foreign Exchange
The world’s biggest market
The foreign exchange market (also called the “Forex” or
“FX” market) is the world’s largest in terms of cash value
changing hands daily.
FX trading involves converting one currency into another
and predicting changes in exchange rates based on global
events. The point is simple: to profit from currency price
fluctuations. FX is an extremely liquid market with numer-
ous participants.
Anyone who has lost money by buying a foreign currency
before going on vacation, only to find its worth fell before
they arrived to spend it, will appreciate the need to keep an
eye on the value of currencies. Banks and their clients face
a similar problem, but to a
much greater degree. For
example, a U.S.-based com-
pany that owns hundreds
of millions of euros stands
to lose huge amounts if
the currency drops even
minutely against the dollar.
On the other hand, business
is increasingly global: If
the dollar weakens, U.S.
companies with significant
sales in European and Asian
markets can reap significant
bottom-line benefits when
they convert their euro or
yen-denominated sales
back into dollars.
Working in foreign exchange means predicting whether one
currency will fall (depreciate) or rise (appreciate) against
another. If depreciation is forecast, salespeople and traders
advise clients to sell the currency and buy one that’s ap-
preciating. It’s a simple variant of the “buy low, sell high”
maxim of financial markets.
The trading of currencies themselves is known as the spot
market, and is transacted by the world’s banks. However,
many of the products bought and sold in foreign exchange
markets aren’t actual currencies, but deferred-payment cur-
rency contracts known as futures, and one-way bets on the
direction of foreign exchange price movements, known as
options. Both futures and options are types of derivatives:
contracts whose value is based on the performance of an
underlying financial asset, index, or other investment. Large
investors – like pension or hedge funds, or multinational
corporations with significant overseas sales – use these de-
rivative products as a “hedge” against the rise or fall of the
actual currencies. It’s a form of insurance meant to protect
against fluctuations in a portfolio or on a balance sheet.
While geographically diverse, the top 10 FX trading institu-
tions account for about four-fifths of the estimated $175 tril-
lion in annual volume. According to the magazine Euromon-
ey’s 2009 survey, they were Deutsche Bank, UBS, Barclays
Capital, Royal Bank of Scotland, Citigroup, JPMorganChase,
HSBC, Goldman Sachs, Credit Suisse and BNP Paribas.
Recent Developments
During 2008 and 2009, while career opportunities for stock
and bond traders and bankers got hammered by the global
recession, jobs and pay for FX traders proved fairly resilient.
For instance, London-based recruiting firm Napier Scott’s
survey released in April 2009 found FX traders’ bonuses
dipped just 8 percent for the preceding year, while pay for
other classes of traders plunged as much as 86 percent.
A key reason: wider fluctuations among exchange rates
spurred demand for both simple and complex currency prod-
ucts. Global foreign exchange trading volume grew nearly
15 percent in 2008, according to Greenwich Associates,
as increased activity from corporations and large financial
institutions outweighed a sharp dropoff in FX trading by
hedge funds.
For most of this decade, the big story in FX markets has
been the weakness of the dollar. In the second half of
2008, however, the dollar rebounded sharply from decade
lows. The specter of bank failures led global investors to
seek safety in U.S. assets - notwithstanding that the crisis
originated in the U.S. The flight to safety overrode two fac-
tors that tend to drive foreign exchange rates under typical
conditions: the flow of trade in goods and services, and
government interest rates.
In the long run, the chronic trade deficits in the U.S. tend
to pull down the dollar’s value, because businesses must
continually trade away dollars to obtain the foreign curren-
cies needed to pay for goods made overseas. In addition, FX
traders pay attention to what is happening in the govern-
ment bond markets – particularly trading of U.S. Treasury
securities – because economic policies can impact the FX
market.
“While career
opportunities for stock
and bond traders and
bankers got hammered
by the global recession,
jobs and pay for FX
traders proved fairly
resilient.”
57
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Marc Chandler, Global Head of Currency Strategy
Brown Brothers Harriman
Could you tell us about your career path?
There are three main skills that translate to success in any career:
the ability to think critically, being able to write well and having
communications skills. My first job was as a reporter for a newswire
covering Chicago futures. It was difficult because you couldn’t have
an opinion. After graduate school I found that I had strong opinions
and the markets seemed to be a place that rewarded them.
I took a job with Dean Witter as a currency futures analyst. Then I
spent several years with a foreign exchange research firm, had a stint
with a hedge fund, and worked at Deutsche Bank, Mellon Bank and
HSBC.
At Brown Brothers, my role is focused on helping to deepen and
broaden the firm’s client relationships. Through persuasive writing we
seek to identify trading opportunities or a way to manage their risk.
What’s a typical day like for you?
I’m up at 3:45 a.m. Once I arise, I’ll read newspapers and stories on
the Internet to understand what happened overnight. I arrive at the
office at 5:30. I write a one page commentary that reaches clients by
7 a.m. It combines fundamental and technical factors, policy with eco-
nomics, major economies with emerging markets and across different
asset classes. I try to provide clients with three or four things that I
want to make sure they are aware of and what they mean.
My morning consists of writing commentary and analyses about the
markets, talking to clients, and speaking to reporters. The afternoons
consist of work on long-term projects and speaking to clients. My day
usually ends when the stock market closes.
It’s also important to find other opportunities to develop my skill set
outside the office. So, I write for various external publications and
teach at NYU one night a week, which allows me to practice public
speaking and test my ideas.
Which skills are central for a career in foreign exchange?
Each job in foreign exchange requires different skills. A spot trader
requires a different skill set than an economist. Unlike a bond or a
stock, foreign exchange is impacted by many different variables, and
so unlike these asset classes, you can’t model a currency. The valu-
ations are more elusive. Currencies are tied to relative value versus
absolute value. If you view foreign exchange as a marathon not a
sprint, you are much better able to wrestle with the business.
Q&A
Roles and Career Paths
Roles in the world of foreign exchange are much the same
as in the sales and trading arena, except that you’d be
trading currencies and derivatives instead of corporate or
government bonds and equity products.
FX trading jobs are usually split between vanilla trading,
where products are simple and trades are easy to execute,
and more complex derivatives trading. As with other trad-
ing desks, some traders execute transactions on behalf
of clients, while
proprietary traders
seek to earn profits
for the institution
that employs them.
Sales jobs in foreign
exchange (as in
other product areas)
are usually divided
between different
client types, with
some salespeople
specializing in
hedge funds and
others selling only
to companies.
As with equity and bond trading, researchers who special-
ize in studying currency markets produce written reports
that salespeople use to keep clients informed of market de-
velopments. If you work with FX derivatives, you could also
become a structurer, assembling complex exotic derivative
products for clients.
Skills and Qualities
º urJe|storJirc uí ceuuuliticol e.erts orJ
macroeconomics
º ûuic| t|ir|irc wit| o cuuJ owo|eress uí |uw
markets work
º |u| |X Je|i.oti.es. |eosuro|l] st|urc aot| outituJe
º |u| st|uctu|e|s. uotierce orJ cuaauricotiurs s|ills
“Some traders execute
transactions on behalf
of clients, while
proprietary traders
seek to earn profits for
the institution that
employs them.”
58
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Fund Management
People, process, philosophy, performance
Fund managers are professionals who invest money on be-
half of their clients. The term can refer either to a firm that
provides investment management services or an individual
who makes investment decisions for others.
Whichever definition fits, a fund manager’s clients may
include pension funds, insurance companies and other
sources of institutional cash. Individual investors employ
fund management professionals through their investments
in mutual funds, either directly or as part of an Individual
Retirement Account or other retirement plan.
Traditional investment managers select financial products
in the belief their value will rise over time. Today, at many
hedge funds, a newer breed is in charge, managers who of-
ten have a shorter investment horizon and employ a variety
of techniques to “hedge” risk through the use of options
or futures. These fund managers may hold long positions,
sell short, or use a combination of both. (For more, see our
profile of the Hedge Funds sector on page 54.)
In this section, we focus on the two basic kinds of funds:
Passive funds and active funds.
Passive funds, also called “index trackers,” are designed to
mimic the performance of well-known stock market indexes
like the S&P 500. The investment decisions of passive funds
are typically made using computers. A passive fund might
not hold exactly the same stocks as listed in the index it’s
intended to mimic.
Taking the opposite tack, active fund managers decide for
themselves which financial products to buy or sell. Their
work follows more closely the common idea of what fund
management is all about. They invest in products their
research indicates are likely to rise in price over time, thus
allowing investors to share in the appreciation of the stocks
and saving them the work of ferreting out opportunities on
their own.
Funds invest in everything from stocks, bonds or real estate
to physical commodities such as oil or metals. Because
different types of clients tolerate different amounts of risk,
fund managers usually offer several funds at a time. Some
offer fast growth along with a larger measure of risk, while
others offer slower growth at less risk. Funds also can be
highly specialized, targeting specific sectors or regions of
the world. Some managers are only interested in small
capitalization growth stocks, while others focus on the
world’s biggest companies. The ways in which investment
products can be categorized are virtually endless, as are the
types of funds that cater to the desires of investors.
Recent Developments
Historically, most large investment banks had their own
fund management divisions. In 2009, however, the number
was on the decline as the industry consolidated due to
worsening economic conditions. In 2008, Bank of America
acquired Merrill Lynch and Crédit Agricole merged its asset
management business with Société Générale. Meanwhile,
JPMorgan absorbed Bear Stearns, and Barclays acquired
the prized assets of Lehman Brothers Holdings investment
bank after it entered bankruptcy. Later, in June of 2009,
BlackRock reached agreement to acquire Barclays’ fund
management business, Barclays Global Investors, in a deal
that would create the world’s largest asset management
firm.
Some anticipate the fund management business – particu-
larly the alternative investment industry – will continue
to shrink. In 2008, approximately 920 hedge funds, or 12
percent of the total, closed, according to Chicago-based
Hedge Fund Research.
While the fund industry’s growth has slowed, promising
niches remain. Green funds have become an increasingly
Largest Institutional Asset Managers
Manager
Institutional assets
($mn; as of year-end 2008)
State Street Global 1,236,250
Barclays Global 1,149,185
BlackRock 1,089,356
BNY Mellon Asset Mgmt. 814,337
Fidelity Investments 762,522
J.P. Morgan Asset Mgmt. 715,049
PIMCO 617,320
Legg Mason 605,297
Vanguard Group 580,620
Northern Trust Global 463,829
Source: Pensions & Investments
Reprinted with permission
59
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Q&A
important part of the industry. Fund intelligence firm Lipper
Inc. reports assets in green funds, which invest in environ-
mentally conscious companies, grew to $1.1 billion in 2008,
compared with $153 million in 2001. Of course, that still
represents just a tiny sliver of the $60 trillion fund industry.
Roles and Career Paths
Fund managers focus on the business of managing, and
none are hired without experience. Many have an advanced
degree, like an MBA, and many will also have a Chartered
Financial Analyst (CFA) designation. Early on, you might
gain exposure to fund management as a researcher respon-
sible for identifying potential investment candidates, and
eventually work your way into a job assisting a principal
fund manager. You could also work in the industry as a fund
marketer or in an operations role.
In the case of institutional fund management, marketing
and sales professionals present the firm’s investing track
record and capabilities to potential clients in an effort to
persuade them to invest money. They also manage relation-
ships with existing clients, meet investment consultants
and play a role in the development of new products. Mutual
funds can be sold through investment advisors – such
as Merrill Lynch financial consultants – or through direct
marketing to individuals as is done by fund companies like
Vanguard or Fidelity.
Analysts help steer fund managers in the right direction
when it comes to choosing assets in which to invest. They
spend their time analyzing companies’ results and meeting
with senior management to discuss strategy. They then
write reports communicating their conclusions.
Like their counterparts in investment banks, operations
staffers do everything from work in information technol-
ogy to settle and report trades. Funds employ compliance
staff to ensure they meet regulatory requirements, internal
auditors to make sure internal systems and controls function
properly, and financial staff to manage the firm’s own money.
Skills and Qualities
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Megan Brown, Vice President
J.P. Morgan Asset Management
How did you become a vice president in funds management?
After college, I worked on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange
for a convertible arbitrage firm. I loved the challenge but wanted to
expand my career to a larger firm. In 1998, I joined Bear Stearns as
an institutional equity trader. I enjoyed equity trading but wanted a
client-facing role, and found institutional equity sales trading provided
the best of both worlds. In 2005, I joined Bear Stearns Asset Manage-
ment, working in sales but in a consultative role, focused on high-end
clients covering third-party distributors. In 2007, I was appointed head
of third-party distribution, covering registered investment advisors.
After ten years at Bear, I began to transition my clients through the
merger process with J.P. Morgan. In January, I became vice presi-
dent and director of national accounts for J.P. Morgan’s institutional
advisory business.
What’s a typical day like?
I spend a lot of time dealing with challenges my clients are facing. I
carefully determine which strategies fit within the framework of each
client’s end goals. If a client is interested in utilizing a specific prod-
uct, I’ll set up presentations to outline these tools and services. Next,
I’ll work with the client to explain how the strategies work. Today,
firms want to understand more than a portfolio manager’s strategies
or how a mutual fund management team works. If they’re considering
adding a mutual fund to their platform, they’ll want to speak to our
traders, compliance, and legal team to understand how the pieces
fit. Additionally, I’m responsible for managing our internal sales desk,
which allows me to see the entire business cycle from placement of
our products on a platform to their selection by an advisor.
Any advice for up-and-coming fund managers?
Seize opportunities beyond the classroom, such as attending events
and listening to speakers who visit campus. It’s critical to get real
world experience, too. Network and meet people in different aspects
of the business. Don’t be discouraged by current market conditions.
If you’re passionate about asset management and financial services,
don’t be afraid to demonstrate your excitement.
What are the most important skills for a career in fund man-
agement?
Most important is the ability to listen to clients. This allows you to
determine which products are best suited to helping them achieve
their goals. Since my day is often split between reacting to client re-
quests and proactively speaking to them about products, it’s important
to stay focused and organized. This enables me to multi-task.
60
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Corporate Banking
Consolidation may lead to pressure on opportunities
Corporate banking is the broad term given to banking
services that large companies, governments, or other big
institutions need in order to function day to day.
The responsibilities of corporate bankers range from the
relatively simple business of issuing loans to handling more
complex matters such as helping minimize the taxes paid
by overseas subsidiaries, managing changes in foreign ex-
change rates, or working out the details of financing pack-
ages necessary for the construction of a new office, plant
or other facility. If an organization is exporting overseas,
corporate bankers might arrange a process of international
payment or put together “trade finance” packages to ensure
the firm is paid by foreign customers.
In many cases, there’s an overlap between corporate bank-
ing and capital markets. Bankers working in capital markets
help companies raise money by issuing equities or debt.
Corporate bankers typically
help clients raise money
through loans. But, when
it’s necessary, corporate
bankers will bring in the
expertise of their capital
markets colleagues.
Increasingly, corporate
banking requires an
understanding of complex
financing methods like
securitization, where a com-
pany sells bonds based on
the money it will earn in the
future from assets such as
rented shop space or a back
catalogue of products.
This trend was given a
boost with the repeal of
the Glass-Steagall Act in
1999. Glass-Steagall was
a Depression-era law that barred U.S. commercial banks
from owning brokerages or being involved in the securities
markets. With its repeal, the roles of investment bankers
and corporate bankers began merging. In addition, the
increasing globalization of the financial markets makes it
imperative for large money-center banks to be able to offer
a broad array of services to help their business clients raise
needed capital.
Another important development has been the rise of
leveraged lending – extending credit to highly indebted
companies, often to finance buyouts by private equity firms.
When taking over a company, PE firms tend to borrow as
large a portion of a deal’s price as the market will bear, in
order to multiply their return on the equity they contribute.
The acquired firm’s assets become the collateral backing
the loan. As a result, a company acquired in a leveraged
buyout, or LBO, can end up carrying large debts on its books
even if had little debt before it was taken over.
Recent Developments
During the buyout boom earlier this decade, banks were
so eager for corporate banking business that they offered
loans to risky borrowers on ever easier terms. Such loans
were labeled “covenant-lite,” because they did away with
many restrictions, known as covenants, that less creditwor-
thy companies traditionally had to accept in order to obtain
credit. Banks were able to sidestep much of the risk of hold-
ing these loans by packaging them into structured bonds
called Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) that were then
sold to investors.
The credit crunch dealt a severe blow to this type of lend-
ing. Just as with mortgage loans to less creditworthy (“sub-
prime”) home buyers, riskier corporate bonds and loans fell
into disfavor among both lenders and investors soon after
problems surfaced in the summer of 2007. The market for
structured bonds collapsed, leaving global lending institu-
tions stuck holding leveraged loans they had planned to re-
sell. In turn, that limited banks’ ability to make new loans.
Another market severely affected by the recession and
credit pullback is municipal finance. With their tax revenues
declining and investors balking at buying new bond issues,
some state and local governments have had to scramble
for cash to keep providing services. A dramatic instance
was the state of California handing out “warrants” (IOUs)
instead of cash to creditors running the gamut from banks
to individual college students.
Meanwhile, the financial crisis accelerated an ongoing
trend toward bank consolidation. With the disappearance
of Lehman Brothers, JPMorgan Chase’s acquisitions of Bear
“The JPMorgan and
Bank of America
acquisitions illustrate
how universal banks,
which combine
commercial banking
with investment
banking activities, are
displacing standalone
investment banks.”
61
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Patti Perras Shugart, Head of Corporate Banking
RBC Capital Markets
How did you advance to the role of head of corporate banking?
After graduating with a bachelor’s degree in commerce from Queen’s
University, I spent a year working in marketing for a large credit card
company. I missed the intensity of the financial markets having spent
several summers working in a trading environment, so I returned to
sc|uul tu cuaulete or MB/ í|ua t|e uri.e|sit] uí Tu|urtulRutaor.
I’ve spent the past 20 years with three different financial institutions
across a variety of credit and structured lending disciplines. At CIBC, I
ran a corporate lending portfolio representing approximately one-third
of the firm’s lending business. I joined RBC Capital Markets more than
a year ago as managing director and deputy of the global corporate
bank. I was promoted in January to head the corporate bank, which
represents a global lending platform with 95 professionals in seven
offices in Canada, the U.S. and U.K.
What is a typical day like for you?
Each day involves a combination of external client meetings, internal
discussions with our product partners to develop client strategies, a
review of transactions for approval, and managing the operations of
the business and a large group of professionals. There tends to be a
lot of travel given the global nature of our business.
What skills are essential for a career in corporate banking?
Financial analysis and communication skills, attention to detail, and
a strong work ethic are fundamentals. Beyond that, having the ability
to develop relationships with clients as well as internal partners is
very important. When we deliver the RBC Capital Markets platform to
clients there are a number of touch points, so being able to interface
with everyone is critical to success in this business. As you advance,
the ability to develop strong relationships and manage and work with
others is what differentiates you.
What would you tell an up-and-coming corporate banker?
You need to have drive, integrity, a desire to succeed and a competi-
tive nature. In the early stages of your career, it’s important that you
work hard and demonstrate your capacity so that you will be given
more of the interesting transactions and client-facing opportunities.
Broad experience also means not staying in the same position for
too long: Take the opportunity to move around and try new things.
Networking is critical to finding new opportunities. Finally, having
confidence in your own ability – and being prepared to have a view,
make a recommendation and defend it – that is at the heart of what
we do.
Q&A
Stearns and Washington Mutual, Bank of America’s acquisi-
tion of Merrill Lynch and Wells Fargo’s acquisition of Wa-
chovia, the number of top-tier financial institutions suddenly
shrank. The JPMorgan and Bank of America acquisitions
illustrate how universal banks, which combine commercial
banking with investment banking activities, are displacing
standalone investment banks.
Roles and Career Paths
If you opt for a career in corporate banking, you may start
out in any number of roles. For example, you may begin as
a credit analyst, spending your time looking at companies’
balance sheets and working out whether it’s a good idea to
issue loans to them.
From the credit analyst’s role you could progress to being
a relationship manager, responsible for lending money to a
handful of the bank’s customers. It’s a job that requires an
intimate understanding of each company’s strategy, a strong
appreciation for the risks of default, and sales skills. The
current business downturn has made lenders increasingly
conscious of the risk that existing or prospective corporate
customers might default on loans – thus boosting the value
attached to credit analysis skills.
If you aren’t interested in the relationship management side
of corporate banking, you could go into treasury manage-
ment. Treasury managers help companies cope with their
cash flow. They ensure that businesses have enough money
to pay for whatever they need to buy and help them deal
with fluctuations in the value of foreign currency holdings.
Corporate banking also offers a variety of operational posi-
tions, including technology and human resources roles. Vari-
ous banks offer training in corporate banking. These include
Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, UBS and HSBC. While all banks
will want candidates to possess a college degree, an MBA
isn’t required to get a foot in the door of many corporate
banking divisions.
Skills and Qualities
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º St|urc cuaauricotiur s|ills
º /|ilit] tu c|uw orJ aoirtoir cliert |elotiurs|ius
º 0eaurst|o|le J|i.e
62
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Private Banking and Wealth Management
Experience and a strong contact list are keys to working with the
wealthiest individuals
The objective of private bankers is to provide a more
personalized level of service to wealthy clients than is
available to typical customers at a commercial bank. The
business has always catered to the world’s wealthiest
people. Over the last several years, as the ranks of the
wealthy have steadily expanded, many banks have refined
their offerings to serve three distinct gradations of wealth.
At the top are “ultra-high-net-worth” clients - individuals or
families who can invest $10 million or more. Some banks
apply a still higher minimum, such as $30 million, to this
category. This is the fastest-growing slice of the private
banking market, and banks are pursuing it avidly.
Next comes “high-net-worth,” clients, typically defined as
having at least $1 million in liquid assets to invest. Finally,
there are the “mass affluent,” clients whose account bal-
ances add up to at least $100,000. This last group repre-
sents something of a gray area. While they usually don’t
qualify for the full range of private banking services, many
institutions still give them a degree of personal attention
that’s beyond what ordinary account holders receive.
The main role of a private banker is to help clients man-
age their money. Traditionally, this involves helping them
invest wisely while avoiding risks that might reduce the
value of their assets. Private bankers also offer tax planning
and pension advice, help clients develop a strategy for
philanthropy, and advise them on estate planning. In one
subset of the sector known as “Family Offices,” the bankers
perform additional tasks that range from screening solicita-
tions for charitable contributions to making sure the client’s
bills are paid on time.
A successful private banker needs an outgoing, service-
oriented personality, plus the ability to carefully listen to
clients. It’s a role best suited to people who can observe
other individuals and come to understand their needs. Their
real talent is connecting with people who may have a lot
of their wealth tied up in a fairly narrow activity, such as a
successful family business, or who can be very demanding.
In short, good people skills help.
Recent Developments
Before the current financial crisis, the prospects for private
bankers were overwhelmingly rosy. Demographics were,
and continue to be, a powerful force for the industry as a
host of groups, led by the millions of baby boomers entering
retirement, required expert financial advice. Now, fol-
lowing the erosion of enormous sums of wealth that has
impacted every economic class, the need for experienced
professionals who can preserve and grow college funds
and retirement savings has only been reinforced. Despite
losses in the stock market, wealth professionals who can
demonstrate an aptitude for providing personalized service
and possess a sharp ear will find opportunities in rebuilding
the portfolios owned by the world’s wealthiest individuals.
These opportunities will exist across a broad spectrum of
organizations, ranging from global financial institutions to
regional insurers to specialized private-banking boutiques.
Trends determining where jobs will reside are taking shape.
Some of them, such as consolidation among top-tier invest-
ment banks, are a by-product of the credit crisis. Others,
including moves by insurance companies such as Genworth
and Hartford Financial, are aimed at tapping into the assets
and revenues that accompany managing individual wealth.
There are clear reasons why firms are wooing private
bankers: First, their services continue to be in demand. In its
semi-annual Independent Advisor Outlook Study, released
in March 2009, Charles Schwab & Co. reported more than
90 percent of the nearly 6,000 independent investment advi-
sors it surveyed had added new clients during the previous
six months. Second, firms are realizing that by encouraging
The 10 Largest Private Wealth Managers
Institution
Assets under management
($ billion; year-end 2008)
Bank of America 1501
UBS 1393
Citi 1320
Wells Fargo 1000
Credit Suisse 612
JPMorgan 552
Morgan Stanley 522
HSBC 352
Deutsche Bank 231
Goldman Sachs 215
Source: Scorpio Partnership
Private Banking KPI Benchmark 2009 report
how Ihere's a 8etter way to 0!sagree
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Comment: Love Working in Finance?
You're in finance. Are you there mostly because you expect to make more money
than you could earn in a different profession? Or, are (or were) you doing work
that you love? Or is it a combination of both?
Compensation - Going Up?
With both trading profit and underwrit-
ing business rebounding in many mar-
kets, the newspapers are rife with sto-
ries about the return of boom-era pay-
days.. Are you optimistic that your
personal take at year-end will be close
to, or even more than, what you
earned in 2007?
Should U.S. Nationalize Banks?
Ìs nationalization the best remaining
option to stave off collapse of one or
more of the biggest banks? Ìf you are /
were out of work, would you consider
applying to work at a bank that was
nationalized?
18 Mar 2009
Yes Ì did join finance for the glamo r Ì thought it had, but once
Ì joined it, Ì actually love what Ì do, making real-time smart
decisions, being paid when Ì'm right, that's what is fun about
it. Ì am an analyst at a fundamental hedge fund.
Join the Debate »
12 Mar 2009
i do it for the money - that's it.
Join the Debate »

u
64
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Richard Kass, Chief Investment Officer
KBK Wealth Management
How did you become chief investment officer here?
I began my career at Bear Stearns, working in options and municipal
bond trading. Next, I moved to IDS Financial Services, where I trained
to be a financial planner. I completed my CFP (Certified Financial
Planner) certification and moved to a firm called Total Asset Planning.
I spent 15 years there, learning the business and helping individu-
als develop strategies to meet their investment goals. I’ve been a
financial planner for 20 years.
My work revolves around designing investment portfolios, looking
at risk, making sure individuals have the right insurance coverage,
and structuring pension plans. A large part of our practice deals with
retirees and designing strategies that allow them to maintain their
standard of living into retirement. We do a lot of income planning
projections, as well as evaluating risk in portfolios.
What’s a typical day like for you?
My day begins at 5:30 a.m. when I review the day’s news and go to
the gym. I usually read The Wall Street Journal, New York Times and
Bloomberg. This allows me to hit the ground running. When I get to
the office, I review client reports and the prior day’s trading to make
sure the trades we’ve made are in the right investment accounts.
Typically, I have a set agenda which revolves around client meet-
ings, in which we’ll discuss their portfolio in detail and determine
whether they have sufficient income streams or too much exposure in
a particular asset class.
What skills are vital for a career in wealth management?
To be a successful, you need to have technical understanding of
various investment products, so you can advise clients. It’s important
to be a people person, because the job requires you to listen and
understand clients’ fears and goals. It’s critical that you be able to
communicate with a wide range of people, including some who have
little understanding of the markets. So, it’s important to be able to
take complex investment concepts and simplify them.
Any advice for up-and-coming wealth managers?
I’m a firm believer in the knowledge and skills that come with the CFP
certification. It’s valuable whether you’re just starting out or changing
careers. It’s important that you be able to meet people and talk about
investments and markets. Other areas in finance and investments are
quantitative, but this field is about working with people, understand-
ing their concerns, and being attuned to their life needs and how you
can help fulfill them.
Q&A
people to invest in 401(K) plans or insurance products and
arming their private banking teams with top professionals
they can enhance their institutional product lines.
Roles and Career Paths
If you work as a private banker, you can expect to focus in
one of three areas: investing for existing clients, building
relationships, or managing back office functions such as
human resources and accounting.
People working on the investment side either invest their
clients’ money or offer detailed advice to help clients make
their own decisions. They are typically product specialists
who are expert in a particular asset class.
People working on the relationship side are essentially
salespeople who spend their time building connections with
clients and selling the bank’s services. This can involve a lot
of traveling and close contact with interesting, unusual, and
demanding people. When a relationship banker has estab-
lished a client’s needs, investment specialists are brought in
to put more detailed solutions together. For clients who are
very wealthy, the relationships are often entrusted only to
experienced executives.
A decade ago, most private bankers combined the inves-
tor and relationship roles. In some organizations, they still
do. However, in most banks, investors and relationship
managers are now separate - another sign of the industry’s
growing complexity.
Firms such as Goldman Sachs, HSBC and UBS run graduate
training programs for private bankers. If you don’t find a
place in one of those, it’s often possible to move into pri-
vate banking if you have a background in corporate finance
or, more particularly, fund management.
Having an MBA or majoring in business isn’t considered
critical for a private banker. In fact, a diverse background
can be an asset, because clients can differ considerably in
their needs and personalities.
Skills and Qualities
º 0isc|etiur orJ t|ustwu|t|iress
º T|e o|ilit] tu |uilJ st|urc |elotiurs|ius wit| Jisce|rirc
clients
º KruwleJce orJ urJe|storJirc uí írorciol ao||ets
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66
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Operations
Rising demands from the back office
Operations may not be where banks make their profits, but
it’s certainly an area where they can lose them. The more
efficient a firm is at conducting its business, the greater the
percentage of revenue that falls to its bottom line.
The ushering in of a new era in regulation by the global
financial crisis will bring tremendous opportunities to
operations professionals. Fueled by hedge fund meltdowns
and an unraveling of complex derivatives, investors and
regulators are seeking to instill a greater level of transpar-
ency in the investment banking industry. Further, market
volatility and a decrease in liquidity have resulted in greater
emphasis by asset managers on operational risk controls.
As a result, people working in operations will be well-
positioned to help shape the industry of the future.
In light of the financial crisis, opaque markets such as
derivatives may soon be standardized, altering the way
many instruments are settled, reported, and traded. Credit
default swaps are at the forefront of the creation of central
clearinghouses that can handle the settlement and trading
of derivatives and other illiquid instruments. As products
move from over-the-counter markets to public markets, an
unprecedented era of oversight – impacting areas such as
reporting, trade capturing, accounting and valuation – will
arrive. In this new world, operations professionals are
poised to lay the groundwork for how third parties service
asset managers and other firms.
Investment banks and other firms need operations manag-
ers who can act decisively. The failure of Lehman Brothers
demonstrated the need for quick action in order to protect
client assets. Yet, because operations encompasses a
wide range of activities, firms need people who can wear
multiple hats. Operations professionals must be able to
consider what could happen on any given day. By weighing
various “what if” scenarios, operations becomes critical to
a firm’s ability to respond if an adverse event - such as a
counterparty default - should occur. The ability to ask tough
questions and instill a crisis procedure before it’s needed
means operations professionals can help an investment
bank stay ahead of the curve.
The operations groups at investment banks, brokerage
houses, hedge funds, mutual funds and other financial insti-
tutions are commonly referred to as the “back office.” Un-
like the traders, salespeople, bankers, fund managers and
corporate financiers of the front office, operations people
don’t work directly with customers to generate revenue and
profit. Instead, they serve in support functions. While their
jobs may be “behind the scenes,” they’re critically impor-
tant: An inefficient back office can drain a firm’s profits.
Operations professionals ensure a firm functions smoothly
and efficiently. Their work covers everything from infor-
mation technology to human resources, trade support,
accounting and finance, and risk management. In fact, the
overall operations role is so broad that employees typically
specialize in only one of these areas.
At the core of operations is the function of clearing and
settling trades. Clearing trades involves looking at the
records made by traders or investment managers when they
buy and sell financial products, then checking to make sure
they match the records kept by the counterparties to those
trades – the people from whom securities were bought or
to whom they were sold.
Settling trades is about making sure securities are
exchanged for the correct amount of money. Settlements
cover everything from preparing the documentation required
for a sale to making sure the bank has been paid for all of
the shares it sold, or has paid for all the shares it bought.
Another area is hedge fund operations, or “prime broker-
age.” Prime brokers are the back office for hedge funds,
offering everything from clearing, settlement and custody
facilities to help in managing relationships with investors
and raising new funds. Prime brokers play a lucrative role
in large investment banks, but increasingly many asset
managers are moving to a multi-prime broker model.
Realizing just how important operations can be to profit-
ability, investment banks and other firms are seeking a
higher caliber of employee to work there. These profession-
als support trading operations by performing a multitude
of functions, including reconciling a trading desk’s daily
profit-and-loss statements or maintaining a firm’s internal
portfolio accounting system. The electronic “paper trails”
they maintain play an important role in risk management,
helping supervisors ensure their in-house traders comply
with position limits and other rules and policies.
Roles and Career Paths
Roles in clearing and settlements are typically for exception
67
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Andrew Dougherty, Chief Operating Officer
BNP Paribas Financial Services
How did you become a chief operating officer at BNP Paribas?
I graduated from Delaware Valley College, majoring in business ad-
ministration, with a concentration in finance. My first job was with an
international accounting firm. In 2000, I moved to investment manage-
ment, joining CooperNeff Advisors, part of BNP Paribas. I focused on
the middle office needs of their prop trading businesses. A year later
I became vice president of operations and development. In 2004 we
began to offer our services to third-party customers, resulting in the
creation of BNP Paribas Financial Services and a third-party offering
for hedge funds. In 2007, I became chief operating officer and head of
operations for global fund services North America.
Howwould you describe your role?
My role is spread over four business lines: alternative fund adminis-
tration, traditional fund administration and middle office outsourcing,
custody services for funds of funds and investment reporting and
performance. Most of our 75-person U.S. team is based in King of
Prussia, Pa., but our fund of funds custody group is based in New York.
What’s a typical day like for you?
Usually I begin by responding to overnight queries from colleagues or
dealing with issues a client may raise with our London or European
offices. I routinely participate in morning conference calls that may
deal with strategy, operational risk mitigation, quality, efficiency,
cost, or P&L. We’ll look at trends we’re seeing in various markets and
determine if we can use that information to assist our other offices.
Next, I’ll have ad-hoc, one-on-one interactions with my management
team to monitor our daily operational production, specifically looking
at our key performance and risk indicators. I also discuss the status
of our operations from a platform and infrastructure perspective to
ensure applications work as expected and are improved over time.
I also accompany sales people to meetings with potential clients.
Any advice for up-and-coming operations managers?
I recommend getting direct exposure to the varied activities that occur
within operations. At CooperNeff I leaned on my accounting experi-
ence, and when I managed the middle office I drew upon my analyst
experience. When I moved into technology and IT, I learned SQL and
Visual Basic so I could write my own code. As you move through
different roles you develop a perspective for operations that can’t be
obtained in a textbook. You come to understand the challenges an
operations analyst faces on a daily basis. The only way to effectively
manage an operation is if you’ve done the work yourself.
Q&A
managers, the people who deal with instances where data
on electronic systems don’t match. They try to work out the
reasons for any discrepancy. If you work as an exception
manager, you might find yourself talking to traders who
claim to have sold shares for $3 each when the buyer says
the price was only $2. You might also find yourself chasing
payment from recalcitrant overseas buyers for transactions
they deny ever took place, especially following periods
where trading was particularly volatile and rapid.
Electronic systems have vastly increased the speed with
which simple trades are processed. But derivative trades
are often too complex to be settled electronically. Many
times, for example, trades are still confirmed by fax or
through the review of actual contracts. The large number
of documents required for derivatives transactions creates
roles for documentation specialists. Some derivative opera-
tions positions require an accounting degree and a CPA
designation, as well as experience in public accounting.
Most operations jobs have a strategic element. Banks use
operations staff to analyze ways of making processes more
efficient, and project managers implement their suggestions.
Thus, a finance background and knowledge of how securi-
ties markets operate can be important for success in this
field. The more senior you become, the more likely you will
work in this kind of strategic or project management role.
Skills and Qualities
º 0eol wit| curíicts í|al] orJ eííciertl]
º St|urc orol]ticol orJ u|u|leasul.irc s|ills
º St|urc aot| s|ills
º /ttertiur tu Jetoil
º CuuJ u|cori/otiur orJ tiaeaoroceaert s|ills
68
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Investment Consulting
Strategic advisors to fund managers – and scrutinizers of them
Investment consultants advise the trustees of corporate and
public retirement plans, university endowments, founda-
tions, healthcare systems, not-for-profit organizations,
high-net-worth individuals and financial intermediaries on
what to do with their money.
They help these clients determine the asset allocation
that will enable them to reach their investment goals,
whether by making sure a pension fund can meet its payout
obligations or maximizing the wealth of an endowment. In
the process they recommend which fund managers clients
should invest with, and what percentage of the client’s
money should be directed to non-traditional, alternative
investments.
Investment consultants will first work with trustees or other
fiduciaries to analyze their investment goals and learn how
their funds are governed. They want to understand what
level of performance the trustees expect and their sensitiv-
ity to risk. The consultants then develop liability plans and
profiles that enable them to recommend an acceptable
investment policy.
After establishing the appropriate allocation of funds across
different asset classes and investment managers, invest-
ment consultants help implement their plan by identifying
the fund managers who are most likely to meet the goals
that have been established with the least overhead costs.
It’s also their job to monitor how the funds perform, and
if the managers of those funds are meeting – or failing to
meet – the benchmarks that have been established. Most
traditional fund managers have lengthy track records they
can point to, and investment consulting firms have devel-
oped tools and databases to help them monitor and rank
those managers.
In recent years, one of the biggest issues facing the
trustees of large pension funds has been determining the
amount of money they should shift out of traditional stocks
and bonds and into alternative investments, such as hedge
funds or real estate. As the number of hedge funds and
private equity funds swelled over the past decade, invest-
ment consulting firms built expertise about them in order to
better advise their clients.
Some of the larger investment consulting firms include
Watson Wyatt, Mercer, Wilshire Associates, Frank Russell
Co., Callan Associates, RogersCasey, and Evaluation As-
sociates.
Roles and Career Paths
Jobs in investment consulting usually fall into one of two
categories: asset allocation and fund selection.
Asset allocation specialists advise clients whether to invest
in equities, bonds, or alternative asset classes in order to
generate the returns they require to pay pensions or fulfill
other long-term goals. It’s a complex role that involves ex-
amining economic factors like interest rate changes, as well
as the timing of the pension fund’s liabilities or pay-outs,
and the likely risks and returns associated with each type
of asset. To help them, asset allocation specialists create
mathematical models that forecast how a client’s money
should be divided among asset classes.
Fund selection specialists spend much of their time analyz-
ing individual fund managers and asking questions about
their investment strategy. They scrutinize particular funds
and author reports on their strengths and weaknesses.
The 15 Largest Investment Consultants
Consultant
Worldwide assets
under advisement
(as of June 30, 2008; $ million)
Mercer Invest. Consulting 3,700,000
Institutional Consulting 2,357,000
Watson Wyatt Investment 2,000,000
Cambridge Associates 1,600,000
Callan Associates 1,383,941
Ennis Knupp + Associates 837,000
Wilshire Associates 800,000
R.V. Kuhns & Associates 756,357
Strategic Invest. Solutions 703,965
Pension Consulting Alliance 538,850
JPMorgan Investment 500,000
Hewitt Associates 419,000
NEPC 300,168
API Asset Performance 300,000
Rocaton Investment Advisors 300,000
Source: Pensions & Investments. Reprinted with permission
69
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Kelli P. Washington, Investment Consultant
Cambridge Associates
Tell us about your career path.
As an undergraduate at Washington University in St. Louis, I majored
in business and was intrigued by the financial markets. That interest
intensified when I served as a student representative to a committee
responsible for managing the university’s endowment.
After graduation, I worked 10 years at the brokerage firm Edward
Jones, ultimately becoming a portfolio manager. I also earned the
Chartered Financial Analyst designation. A rethinking of my career led
me to earn an MBA at the Yale School of Management and led to my
selection as a Toigo Fellow. I joined Cambridge Associates in 2007.
What’s your current role and range of responsibilities?
As an investment consultant, I work with clients including founda-
tions, universities, and settlement trusts on developing and maintain-
ing investment policies, asset allocation and manager selection. In
making recommendations, I have to consider each client’s short- and
long-term missions, risk profiles and tolerances and spending needs,
as well as broader financial considerations. Endowment oversight is
more than simply trying to invest in the best hedge fund or private
equity fund. It requires a holistic understanding and review of the
entire organization.
What skills and qualities are most important for an investment
consultant?
While a deep understanding of the financial markets is necessary, it’s
equally important to hone relationship management skills. The majority
of my clients have committees involved with the decision-making
process. Each person has a different opinion and perspective on the
recommendations I make. As a consultant, I have to be prepared for the
unexpected and learn to meet, manage, and balance the different and
sometimes conflicting objectives of the committee members, the staff
and the organizational mission the investment pool ultimately supports.
What should students interested in this field be reading?
Working with endowments requires a broad knowledge of different
asset classes, global markets, and the global economy. Students
interested in this field should regularly read The Wall Street Journal,
the Financial Times, and the Economist among other periodicals.
Additionally, they should read the periodic market reviews by industry
experts like Bill Gross of Pacific Investment Management Company
(PIMCO) and Jeremy Grantham of Grantham, Mayo, Van Otterloo &
Company (GMO). And, read Pioneering Portfolio Management by Da-
vid Swensen and Foundation and Endowment Investing by Lawrence
Kochard and Cathleen M. Rittereiser.
Q&A
Along with examining an investment manager’s staff and
investment process, selection specialists dissect historical
performance data using statistical tools designed to pin-
point sources of return and risk and gauge how well a fund
performed relative to its peers. Most investment consulting
firms produce confidential lists ranking fund managers ac-
cording to their likely success going forward.
Within fund selection and asset allocation are roles for re-
lationship specialists, who are the sector’s true consultants.
While many asset allocation and fund selection specialists
work in research and focus on a particular type of fund or
investment product, relationship specialists are usually gen-
eralists. They are often more senior members of the firm.
Staff in investment consultancies usually begin their
careers in research and move into client-facing roles as
they gain more experience. Most large investment consult-
ing firms take on graduates. After entering investment
consulting, you’ll typically go on to gain a professional
qualification, such as the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)
designation.
Skills and Qualities
º /rol]ticol o|ilit] orJ stotisticol outituJe
º Teoawu||irc u|uwess
º /|ilit] tu c|uw orJ aoirtoir cliert |elotiurs|ius
º |uwe|íul |eosurirc s|ills
70
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Private Equity
You’ll need some experience or an MBA to make it in this sector
At a base level, private equity funds raise money for com-
panies in need of a capital infusion. In that respect, they’re
similar to investment banks. But while banks raise money
by selling stocks or bonds on the public markets on behalf of
client companies, private equity funds do it by raising cash
from wealthy individuals and institutions like pension funds.
The similarity between PE funds and investment banks
ends there. Where investment banks don’t take a control-
ling ownership interest in the companies they take public,
PE firms use the capital they raise – along with leverage
gained from issuing debt – to assume control of businesses
either as co-owners or, often, sole owners.
In ideal situations, PE funds invest in underperforming
companies, turn them around, and sell their stake at a profit
some years later, often in the public markets. Sometimes
private equity companies engage in “asset stripping,” or
breaking up a company and selling its assets separately in
order to make their profit.
Private equity funds sometimes use a technique known as
a “leveraged buyout” (LBO) for all or part of a company’s
purchase costs. In an LBO, the acquiring group uses loans,
bonds or other debt instruments to raise the capital neces-
sary to buy the target. Often, they use the target company’s
own assets as collateral. Sometimes, a company’s own
managers work with private equity groups to raise the
money necessary to buy the stock of the firm they’re run-
ning. These deals are known as “management buyouts.”
A subset of private equity is called “venture capital.” Ven-
ture capital, or VC, firms focus on funding promising new
businesses.
Firms like Blackstone Group, Cerberus Capital, TPG Capital
(also known as Texas Pacific Group), Carlyle Group and Kohl-
berg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR) are a few of the sector’s big
players. KKR was doing high-profile buyout deals as far back
as the 1980s. According to Fortune magazine, it was the
first PE firm to take over a public company when it bought
machine-tool maker Houdaille for $355 million in 1979.
The biggest PE firms tend to get the most media attention
because of the size of the acquisitions they complete. How-
ever, many mid-tier firms are also at work, acquiring smaller
companies that can benefit from an injection of capital and
management talent.
Recent Developments
Between 2003 and 2007, private equity funds saw explosive
growth. That made the sector into a highly coveted class of
customers for the leading investment banks, who serve PE
firms as “financial sponsors.” However, the credit crunch
that began in mid-2007 sent private equity activity into a
tailspin from which it has yet to recover.
With both banks and institutional investors pulling away
from risky lending, funding for leveraged buyouts all but
disappeared. Overall, private equity volume declined 69
percent in 2008 and 82 percent in the first half of 2009 from
the respective year-earlier periods, according to Thomson
Reuters. The $22.4 billion first-half 2009 deal flow was the
smallest in 17 years and accounted for just 2.6 percent of
overall merger and acquisition activity during the period.
As recently as 2006, buyout deals made up 20.5 percent of
total M&A volume.
When market conditions turned hostile, PE firms struggled
to cancel many deals they’d committed to and rescue oth-
ers that had already closed. Restructuring and managing
distressed assets – including steering a portfolio company
through bankruptcy court – emerged as a substantial
area of activity for PE firms, and for the financial services
industry as a whole. Firms that specialize in buying dis-
tressed companies with the aim of turning them around and
ultimately selling at a profit form one niche within private
equity that is having little difficulty attracting new capital.
The pullback in private equity dealmaking is affecting big
global banks as well. Bank revenues from financial sponsors
for deals in Europe fell 95 percent from the first quarter of
2007 to the first quarter of 2009, according to Dealogic.
But while deal fees collapsed, PE firms were paying banks
to restructure many of their past acquisitions that became
troubled.
Wavering commitment from institutional investors creates
a medium-term challenge for the private equity industry.
Late in 2008, Harvard University and a number of other
large endowments that had been steadily boosting their
allocations in private equity suddenly began to backpedal,
seeking to sell their existing PE fund stakes at a discount
into an increasingly illiquid market. Secondary market sales
of as much as 10 percent of the estimated $1.2 trillion in
71
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Robin Marshall, Partner, Growth Capital
3i Group
Tell us about your career.
I started in marketing and brand management, spending five years
working for Procter & Gamble in the U.K. and Germany. It was a
great experience that allowed me to understand how business
worked. Next, I moved over to McKinsey & Company, where I spent
three years in the U.K. and Sweden. That expanded my horizons and
exposed me to many different people and cultures.
As I thought about the future, I wanted a role which combined the
decision-making responsibility I had enjoyed at P&G with the variety
and intellectual stimulation McKinsey offered. Private equity seemed
like the ideal next step. I joined 3i, the leading private equity firm in
Europe, in 2000.
What type of skills do you look for?
It’s important to be around private equity investors because the busi-
ness is so experience-based and very much follows an apprenticeship
model. We deal with lots of information and it comes at you very
quickly, thus analytical and strategic skills provide the foundation for
sound judgment that is developed over time. You must be able to sort
through a lot of information, make decisions having taken account of
a myriad of potential consequences, then communicate the decisions
to all parties involved.
It’s critical that you have strong interpersonal skills since you work
with different types of people on deals, and you need to be able to
get along well with them. A fundamental philosophy at 3i is part-
nership – we partner with management teams in our deals and it’s
only through shared aspirations and true partnership that we jointly
achieve our goals.
You also should be resilient. Working in private equity can be an
emotional roller-coaster and it’s important to maintain a sense of
perspective so you don’t get carried away with the highs and don’t
get too down with the lows. A sense of humor also helps.
What are some strategies for pursuing a career in
private equity?
Spend time with people in the business or networking. You should be
following the world of business, reading the obvious publications –
such as The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The Economist, etc.
There are also publications specific to the private equity world. Use
them to learn about the key firms and important deals being done. It’s
important to participate in some industry organizations, for example
the Association for Corporate Growth.
Q&A
worldwide private equity fund shares would compete with
PE firms’ efforts to attract investment in new funds.
Roles and Career Paths
Despite their waning influence, private equity funds remain
a huge force in the global economy.
At the senior-most levels, PE professionals can make huge
sums of money. They are individuals with the experience
and contacts to identify, originate and close deals. Below
them are the analysts, number-crunchers and lawyers
necessary to undertake the due diligence that will make the
deals work profitably. There is a trend among mid-tier firms
to bring more analyst and associate positions in house,
rather than rely too much on outside consulting firms to get
their work done.
Careers in private equity offer two main entry points. Like
their investment bank peers, PE funds prefer people to have
a minimum of two to three years of experience at an invest-
ment bank, management consulting firm or accounting firm.
People emerging from a graduate business school with an
MBA program, who have some real-world experience, are
also suitable.
Skills and Qualities
º /rol]ticol o|ilit] orJ aot| outituJe
º Teoawu||irc u|uwess
º CuríJert orJ uutcuirc
º /|ilit] tu c|uw orJ aoirtoir cliert |elotiurs|ius
72
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Global Custody
Providing transparency to increasingly complex investments
Global custodians undertake the job of processing cross-
border securities trades while at the same time working to
keep the financial assets of clients safe and servicing their
associated portfolios.
Before computers existed, global custodians had gigantic
filing systems for their core work - storing certificates of
stock and bond ownership for their clients. Today, cer-
tificates related to stock and bond ownership are stored
electronically, making the business of custody much less
space-intensive and easier to conduct. That’s not necessar-
ily the case within the booming alternative investment sec-
tors such as hedge funds and off-shore funds, though even
in those industries formerly cumbersome tracking systems
are moving toward more efficient electronic methods.
Recent Developments
Global custody continues to be an evolving business,
particularly as the investment landscape has become more
sophisticated. As the hedge fund industry has grown, for
example, global custodians have become service providers.
Today, their technology-rich services include recordkeeping,
reporting, and trade processing.
According to Globalcustody.net, a specialist Web site
that tracks the industry, global custodians provided fund
accounting and administrative services to funds holding
more than $95 trillion in assets as of July 2009. (Due to the
worldwide decline in asset prices, that figure was down 17
percent from a year earlier.)
A 2007 merger between Bank of New York and Mellon
Financial produced the world’s largest global custodian,
BNY Mellon Asset Servicing, with $19.5 trillion of assets-
in-custody. U.S. institutions also occupy the next three
places on the list, with JPMorgan in the number two spot,
followed by State Street Bank and Citigroup. The next tier
is heavy in European and UK names such as BNP Paribas,
UBS, Société Générale and HSBC.
After Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy filing in September 2008
stranded billions of dollars in assets Lehman had adminis-
tered for some 700 hedge funds, broker-dealers seeking cus-
tody business face much greater scrutiny of their financial
strength. The Lehman bankruptcy and the earlier distress
sale of Bear Stearns triggered what Global Custodian
magazine called a “seismic restructuring” of the hedge fund
administration market, with more than half of the largest
funds saying they’d terminated a relationship with a prime
broker during the past year. Of those that did, one-third cited
“counterparty credit risk concern” as the reason.
That’s opened the door for the strongest banks to expand
their niche in prime brokerage, broadening services to win
over lucrative hedge fund clients. In recent years global
custodians also have branched out to offer other services,
such as securities lending. At the same time, they are shift-
ing to controlling risk for asset managers, realizing that as
assets under management have fallen, their clients need to
be more efficient. And because asset managers find it less
expensive to outsource the safekeeping and administration
of global securities portfolios to a single firm, global custo-
dians are even more important today. As protecting assets,
monitoring compliance, and determining risk exposures to
everything from counterparties to foreign currencies has
become more difficult, global custodians continue to play a
significant role in financial markets.
Small custodians lack the manpower and technological
expertise for these higher margin activities, and so are
gradually being subsumed into bigger players. Meanwhile,
bigger players are merging so as to become even bigger. In
exchange for safeguarding client assets, custodians charge
a fee based on the value of what they administer. The
percentage fee level will vary according to the frequency of
Largest Banks By Global Custody Assets, 2009
Provider Assets under custody,
worldwide ($ bn)
BNY Mellon 19,500
J.P. Morgan 13,500
State Street 11,337
Citi 11,025
BNP Paribas 4,651
Société Générale 3,563
HSBC Securities Services 3,558
CACEIS Investor Services 3,143
Northern Trust 3,000
RBC Dexia Investor Services 2,720
© 2009 globalcustody.net No reproduction without consent.
Extract from www.globalcustody.net used with permission. The above extract was
taken from from the globalcustody.net Asset Tables as at Jul 17, 2009
73
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Marcia Rothschild, Managing Director, BNP Paribas
Could you describe your role for us?
I’m responsible for business development for BNP Paribas’ global
fund services in the Americas. Our client base includes traditional
and alternative asset managers, insurance companies, pension funds,
government agencies and corporate clients. We provide a full suite of
services including global custody, fund administration and accounting,
middle- and back-office outsourcing, investment reporting and perfor-
mance, securities lending, transfer agency, compliance and trustee
services and foreign exchange.
How did you become a managing director?
I’m originally from Brazil. I received a degree in business administra-
tion from a leading business school there and later an MBA from
Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. My education had a
strong international focus, and my speaking three languages helped
tremendously. Each role I’ve had has been in relationship manage-
ment and sales. I began with Citibank’s Securities Services division
in 1992. In 2000 I joined FXall, an online multi-bank foreign exchange
trading portal. In 2002, I joined BNP Paribas as it built a team to
market fund services in the U.S.
What are the most important skills for a career in fund services?
In business development you need to be ambitious, persistent, proac-
tive, and possess superior networking and consultative skills. We look
for people that possess a network of contacts that can be leveraged
to help grow our business. It’s important to be able to interpret news
and trends and identify opportunities for the bank. We seek people
who are creative, independent and have a broad set of experiences.
Interpersonal skills are paramount in order to develop relationships
with clients and internal groups. The ability to obtain what you need
from your peers and influence others to get things done is critical.
Any advice for up-and-coming global custody professionals?
It’s important to stay current with the markets as, especially now,
things are changing so dramatically. If you’re interested in working
at a firm such as BNP Paribas, be able to identify opportunities that
exist for the organization. During an interview, demonstrate your
track record, the value-add that you offer, and how you’d help grow
the business. Provide examples of situations in which you have been
proactive, creative, or overcome challenges.
You must be self-motivated and able to work independently. It’s
important to be versatile and embrace different challenges. Demon-
strate that you can close deals and grow a client relationship over
time.
Q&A
transactions, the complexity of the portfolio, and the spe-
cific services required. Over the past two decades intense
competition has put downward pressure on custody fees.
With asset managers increasingly selective in choosing a
global custodian, this trend could continue.
Roles and Career Paths
While much of the work is administrative and repetitive, the
role of custodian has widened to include a range of other
services. These include income collection (e.g. collecting
dividends from clients’ investments), performance measure-
ment (calculating the returns a client’s investments have
made over a period of time), and proxy voting on behalf
of clients at shareholder meetings. Custodians typically
specialize in a particular area, so exactly what you do will
depend on where you work.
Corporate action professionals normalize and consolidate
corporate announcement information – generally referred
to in the industry as “scrubbing” – to inform clients about
important events at companies that might impact the value
of the shares they hold. You need a basic understanding of
underlying cash flows, accounting treatments, operational
controls, credit risks and market practices to be successful
in this role.
You might be asked to record and monitor the investments
made by fund management clients, or to work on clearing
and settlements. Staff in clearing and settlements make
sure the contracts and payments are in place following a
client’s trade. Similar to operations staff working in invest-
ment banks, fund operations staff in custody houses look
out for so-called “exceptions,” when trades have not been
settled properly, and try to resolve any problems.
Custodians also offer more client-focused and techni-
cal jobs. Relationship managers, for example, work with
clients to reassure them their assets are safely maintained.
Graduates may start out in corporate actions or settlements
and move into other positions after a few years. Few global
custodians offer structured graduate training programs.
Skills and Qualities
º St|urc cuaauricotiur, u|esertotiur, orJ sellirc s|ills
º 0|cori/eJ orJ u|ucessJ|i.er
º wu|| well urJe| u|essu|e
74
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Risk Management
Brakes on a bank’s risky activities
Risk management can apply to a variety of aspects of the
financial business. On a fundamental level, it involves
protecting a company from negative events.
In the banking sector, risk managers strive to make sure
a bank isn’t overexposed to borrowers or trading partners
that might not repay debts or other obligations, plummeting
stock markets, regulatory flaws, or other financial pressures
that could jeopardize the strength of its balance sheet.
Similarly, in the asset management and investment banking
fields, risk management helps ensure the overall health of a
firm’s portfolio and, sometimes, manages regulatory risk.
The insurance industry uses the term to describe services
and products its corporate and business clients use to help
protect themselves from potential losses. The insurance
industry also has risk professionals on staff – including
those on the underwriting or actuarial end – monitoring the
exposures a company might suffer from policy coverage and
its own investment decisions.
In corporate IT departments, risk managers are charged
with ensuring the business can continue to function after a
computer systems failure, terrorist attack, or natural disas-
ter. They also track employee or business partner activities
to prevent fraud.
Today, banks and investment firms are working overtime
to get a handle on the systemic (firm-wide) risk from the
subprime crash and the devaluing of derivatives tied to the
housing market. While many banks and investment firms
have had to let people go, those on the risk management
side needn’t fear: Chief risk officers are beefing up their
teams. While financial services firms have often held a bias
toward those on the moneymaking or trading side of the
business, given today’s need for better risk management the
profile of individuals working on this side of the operation is
fast rising.
Banking executives try to manage three principal risks as
defined by a series of international agreements known
as the Basel Accords. These are a set of recommenda-
tions on banking laws and regulations promulgated by the
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which is part
of the Bank for International Settlements based in Basel,
Switzerland.
First there’s market risk, which ties in with systemic risk.
This is the hazard that a whole group of traded financial
products, such as stocks, bonds, or commodities, will fall
in value simultaneously. Market risk is caused by outside
events, such as market fluctuations caused by rising oil
prices, terrorist threats, a physical disaster, shifts in foreign
exchange rates, or sudden interest rate hikes.
Credit risk is the risk that a particular company or indi-
vidual will default on its obligation to repay its debts. This
category of risk has come to the fore recently, due in large
part to the failure of new products that were designed to
help manage it: credit default swaps, along with a plethora
of complex credit derivatives. While the explosive growth
of credit derivatives earlier this decade boosted demand for
Ph.D.-level quantitative modeling within banks’ credit risk
departments, lately the pendulum is shifting back toward
more traditional, fundamental tools involving the analysis of
company balance sheets, cash flows and debt ratios.
Finally, operational risk is the risk something might go
wrong in the day-to-day running of a bank. This could
come, for example, through the impact of a serious physical
disaster or a large-scale fraud committed by employees or
management. Reputational risk – sometimes considered a
sub-sector of operational risk – is the risk something will
happen to damage a firm’s reputation. The mortgage and
credit collapse, in addition to previous financial scandals
surrounding biased equity research, improper mutual fund
trading, and phony accounting, have made banks and
investment houses increasingly sensitive to the need for
reputation management after a crisis occurs.
Roles and Career Paths
Individuals working in an area specifically devoted to
market risk at a large bank or investment house are typi-
cally situated on or close to the trading floor. Market risk
specialists use mathematical value-at-risk (VaR) models
to work out the maximum amount of money their bank or
investment firm would lose in the case of a particular event.
They also work closely with traders to calculate the risk
associated with specific transactions. These individuals
possess mathematical modeling skills, in addition to tech
skills related to the field. Smaller investment firms may
combine the market risk activities with asset and liability
management.
Professionals in credit risk analyze company balance sheets
75
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Carey Halio, Vice President, Finance Division
Credit Risk & Management Advisory
Goldman Sachs
What skill sets and qualifications do you prefer for new hires?
We look for talented people familiar with finance and accounting,
since that’s certainly the most useful for us. But that doesn’t mean ev-
ery hire is a finance major. We have a two-year training program, and
we bring people in at the analyst level. Beyond finance and account-
ing skills, we look for individuals who are highly analytical - people
who can learn the needed credit skills.
People are placed on different teams, and the work can be quite de-
manding. But what differentiates candidates over time is intellectual
curiosity. Doing the bare minimum simply isn’t enough when you are
going to assign a credit rating or approve a trade.
Can you give us an idea of the career trajectory for risk
specialists?
The department has individuals who have been here for many years
- some 20-plus. You might start off as a number cruncher, monitoring
limits or analyzing counterparties, and over time you would move on
to leading teams and making significant decisions for the firm. Credit
risk is a very interesting place to stay challenged and motivated. Not
everyone stays in the department, but credit skills are applicable to a
wide variety of positions, including going off to work on the invest-
ment banking or sales and trading side of the business.
What’s a typical day for a risk specialist?
We try to make sure we are protecting the capital of the firm from
credit losses from the default of a counterparty or borrower.
You’re constantly trying to look around corners and anticipate what’s
ahead. Recently, times have been more challenging than in the past,
given where we are in the economic cycle and given my role running
the financial institutions team. I try to stay ahead of what’s going on
in the sector, especially as things develop throughout the day and
over time. If the Fed is announcing stress test results, a company is
announcing earnings, or the FDIC is taking over a bank, I need to be
on top of what that means.
Ideally, we’ve anticipated the events in advance so that we’ve posi-
tioned ourselves well as a firm for any bad news that’s happening in
the market. Strategically, we spend quite a bit of time thinking about
risks as they evolve. We’re constantly working to improve the way we
report risk, working with IT to improve the way we do things.
Q&A
and meet with directors to determine an organization’s
financial health. By comparison, operational risk experts
review the likelihood of particular events taking place, and
formulate plans to implement if they do.
Reputational risk specialists attempt to present the bank’s
best side in public. They generally play a passive role un-
less an adverse event occurs. Then they’re working around
the clock. Few banks employ reputational risk specialists,
per se. The role is typically dealt with by in-house and
external public relations specialists, the Human Resources
department, or in-house counsel and outside lawyers skilled
in the field.
If you want a career in risk management, it’s a good idea to
join a bank’s or brokerage firm’s graduate training program.
At some banks, risk management training is covered by
the IT or Operations department. Additionally, many of the
top investment banking firms and brokerage houses offer
their analyst and associate recruits broad training, which
generally provides classes in risk management, in addition
to courses on corporate finance and the markets. With in-
dustry specific knowledge and risk management skills under
your belt, it will be easier to advance in the risk world.
Risk management training classes and certifications are
also offered by a number of professional trade groups,
including the Risk Management Association’s accreditation
program for credit risk managers and the Risk and Insurance
Management Society’s enterprise-wide and insurance risk
classes and training courses.
Skills and Qualities
º /rol]ticol o|ilit] orJ stotisticol outituJe
º St|urc s|ills ir aot|eaotics orJ írorce
º CuuJ u|u|leasul.irc, Jecisiurao|irc, orJ aultitos|-
ing abilities
º /r urJe|storJirc uí t|e |icce| uictu|e
76
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Compliance
The internal watchdogs of the financial industry
When it’s time to party, are you always the designated
driver? Would you be an FBI agent if only the pay were bet-
ter? Do your friends still love you even after you’re forced to
tell them how stupid they sometimes act? If you can answer
yes to these or similar questions, compliance may the right
niche in investment banking for you.
A compliance professional working for an investment bank,
brokerage, mutual fund company or financial institution
makes sure the firm follows local, state and federal laws,
as well as the rules set by government regulators. To do
this, they interpret ever-changing regulations, apply them to
their company’s individual business, then communicate the
rules to the firm’s employees.
“It takes a unique and specific type of person to work in
compliance, and it’s not an easy job,” says Jack Kelly,
managing director at Compliance Search Group in New
York. “You’re really an internal affairs police officer on Wall
Street.”
To succeed, you’ll need both analytical chops and people
skills. “You have to get along with people because you’re
perceived to be the guy who’s trying to stop business from
taking place, or as the one standing in the way of someone
making money,” Kelly explains. Analytical ability is key,
too, because if you miss something, you could cost the firm
millions.
And by the way: Even though compliance experts at the
top of the food chain might make $1 million a year, most
earn between $150,000 and $250,000, so the people you’re
watching over have historically made more money than you.
“It’s not an easy role to get into every day,” Kelly says. “To
always be the tough one who says ‘No, you can’t do that.’
Everyone’s going to happy hour and do they want to bring
you? Maybe not, because they’ll have to watch everything
they say.”
If our description of compliance rings your bell rather than
putting you off, your first decision will be whether to work
for a public regulator or a regulated company.
Historically, regulators have been a good source of jobs for
people just out of college. In the U.S., the primary regula-
tory body overseeing the financial markets is the Securities
and Exchange Commission. Its main goal is to protect inves-
tors and maintain the markets’ integrity. The nation’s bank
regulators, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora-
tion, the U.S. Comptroller of the Currency, the U.S. Treasury
Department and the National Credit Union Administration,
the Office of Thrift Supervision, and the Federal Reserve
also hire compliance specialists.
The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, a Treasury
agency that monitors financial transactions, and the Finan-
cial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), a private-sector
body, also hire analysts.
Another way to get into compliance is through the private
sector. As regulations expand, more firms will hire recent
college grads and train them in compliance. Goldman
Sachs, Morgan Stanley and other bank holding companies
will have to adhere to new regulatory standards, so Kelly
wouldn’t be surprised if they start hiring college graduates
interested in creating careers in the space.
Private sector compliance professionals typically work in
teams. These include money laundering specialists, training
specialists, monitoring specialists, and advisory and product
specialists.
Virtually no document that’s going to be released to the
public - from marketing materials to financial reports - gets
out the door without being reviewed by a compliance
specialist. In many cases, that review is conducted by an
attorney.
Corporations outside of finance also have compliance offi-
cers. (At these companies, top compliance officers are often
referred to as corporate compliance officers. In the financial
world, they’re known as chief compliance officers.)
Business consulting companies offer compliance expertise
as part of broader risk management programs. These con-
sultants help clients understand business risks, determine
acceptable levels of exposure, implement control programs,
and provide ongoing tools for measuring and monitoring the
effectiveness of a company’s compliance program.
Roles and Career Paths
Jobs in compliance vary depending on the area in which
you work. If you opt for money laundering, you’ll spend your
time on the lookout for suspicious transactions. For exam-
ple, if someone pays cash for a large quantity of bonds, it’s
likely to warrant your attention - particularly if that person
77
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
or organization has never dealt with the bank before.
Compliance training specialists focus on internal controls
and preach the compliance message to a bank’s employees.
They create and present training courses explaining what
the rules and regulations are, and why bankers need to
follow them.
Monitoring specialists look out for infringements of rules
and regulations that suggest employees are up to no good.
Much of this role has been taken over by computers, which
can monitor billions of e-mail messages per day and spot
unusual activities such as dormant trading accounts that
suddenly spring back to life.
Compliance advisors interpret regulations and apply them
to particular business areas and products. An increasing
number are product specialists who offer advice on particu-
lar types of financial products.
Product specialists sit on or near the trading floor, tell
traders whether or not a particular trade can go ahead,
and suggest alternatives that will still be satisfactory to
the client. Compliance advisors need to know a lot about
trading and about the products they’re advising on. Some
are ex-traders.
No matter where you decide to start in compliance, chances
are you’re going to be busy in the near term. With officials
at both the federal and state levels casting a critical eye on
existing regulations and looking for ways to beef them up,
compliance is going to become an even trickier proposition
than it already is.
Skills and Qualities
º SelícuríJert orJ osse|ti.e
º Cuauetert urJe|storJirc uí lecol issues
º Met|uJicol
Doug Henderson, KPMG Financial Services
Regulatory Practice
What makes compliance an appealing field?
It puts you in a position to be knowledgeable on all aspects of the
business. Plus, it’s on the right side of the equation: Typical compli-
ance professionals are trying to do the right things to make sure
the company is doing the right thing by its customers. That’s a good
feeling.
Which classes best prepare a finance major for a compliance
career?
Pre-law, business law, ethics, business, finance and industry-specific
classes. If you want to be in banking, banking classes would be
relevant. The same is true with brokerage, securities or management
classes. Law is probably the most relevant of those classes.
What are some of the things I’d do at the entry level?
The largest firms have significant compliance organizations, and en-
try-level positions are going to be pretty narrow in terms of the scope
of work you do. You might be assigned to review reporting, or conduct
testing, or review activities. You might work as a junior member of a
team that’s involved in investigations or inspections or you could be
assigned to review advertising, correspondence or e-mail.
The smaller the firm, the fewer compliance people and broader the
scope of responsibility on everyone, including entry-level and junior
people.
If you want to go directly into compliance, I’d recommend that you
get some other background first. Go to work for a regulatory agency,
the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority or the Securities and
Exchange Commission on the securities side. On the banking side, the
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve or the
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Or, work for a state banking
or securities regulator. Oftentimes, public positions don’t pay as much
as private industry, but in these times, public agency work is a great
credential to have.
What’s your advice to a student starting his or her first job?
Make sure that you’re current and conversant on the requirements
that apply to the business you’re in and that you understand the
business itself. The best compliance people are able to bridge the gap
and bring compliance in a meaningful way to the business side.
Compliance people can accomplish things by authority, leverage and
power, but they’re most powerful when they communicate and col-
laborate with the business side to find the right answers.
Q&A
78
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Human Resources
The ‘people people’ of investment banks
When an industry is driven by human capital, leaders need
human resources (HR) professionals to manage talent even
during times of severe crisis. So despite massive layoffs in
the securities industry, a few firms continue to hire human
resource generalists to help retain and recruit talent. Since
the industry stretches across the world, the most in-demand
HR professionals have solid knowledge of investment bank-
ing and global markets.
In today’s market, HR professionals form a defensive line
as they attempt to slow the migration of talent from large,
highly regulated financial institutions to less-regulated
competitors and boutique firms, both of which have used
the industry’s current woes to lure away top producers.
Like other departments, HR is being asked to increase
productivity and reduce costs. In some cases, that means
taking on the management of several business lines rather
than focusing on a single area. In other cases, firms are out-
sourcing human resources, or moving backroom operations
to lower-cost markets outside New York City.
Current economic, regulatory and market conditions have
added to the challenges HR faces. For instance, HR must
continue to recruit graduates despite limits on bonuses and
recent negative publicity about banks of all types. They’ve
supervised the layoffs of thousands of their co-workers, ad-
justed employment offers and restructured severance pack-
ages. With job candidates nervously listening to rumors, HR
professionals must also take on the job of publicist to help
bolster the bank’s image with remaining employees.
HR takes care of all the “people issues” that arise in an
investment bank. It writes and enforces rules covering
issues such as hiring and firing, employee pay, diversity,
discrimination and employee monitoring.
The life of HR professionals is a roller-coaster ride. When
times are good, they scramble to bulk up the staff. When
times are tough, they manage layoffs, including making
sure managers follow the law when deciding who stays and
who goes. Given the cyclical nature of finance, HR profes-
sionals can expect to shift from hiring mode to firing mode
many times throughout their career.
In recent years, most banks have outsourced HR’s routine,
peripheral activity. Questions about compensation, benefits
or employee relations that once were addressed by HR
people in each of a bank’s divisions now go to call centers.
Consequently, fewer HR people work directly for the bank.
Those that remain must prove their value as strategic part-
ners who understand the business and can advise depart-
ment heads about how to attract and retain the best talent.
Roles and Career Paths
Jobs in HR usually fit into one of five categories:
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management
º Rec|uitaert
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It’s no easy task to find a job as a graduate trainee in an
investment bank’s HR department. Few banks offer such
traineeships, and those that do usually have no more than
two or three places.
However, other options exist. Banks often recruit experi-
enced professionals from large firms outside the industry.
Former HR staff from Time Warner, General Electric and
PepsiCo can all be found working in banks.
If you’re interested in working in recruitment, another
option is to gain experience at a recruiting firm that helps
investment banks find staff. These firms fall into two cat-
egories: contingent and retained. Contingency recruiters get
paid only if their clients make a hire. By contrast, retained
firms get paid regardless of whether they find anyone to fill
a particular job.
To be a recruiter at a search firm, you’ll usually need previ-
ous experience. But search firms such as Russell Reynolds
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Struggles employ bright graduates as researchers and train
them to become search consultants. International contin-
gency recruitment firms such as Badenoch & Clark, Robert
Walters and Michael Page run graduate training programs.
Skills and Qualities
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cí cc¦cr (8|ack, Hispanic/Latino, Asian and Native American).
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80
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Legal
Sound advice needed to handle a new wave of regulations
Banks are large and complex organizations, and most of
their activities have legal implications. It’s the legal depart-
ment’s responsibility to ensure all contracts signed by the
bank are watertight, that the bank fulfills its contractual
commitments, and that lawsuits are avoided.
Many legal professionals believed that the enactment
of Sarbanes-Oxley in 2002, with its impact on corporate
and securities law, was a once-in-a-lifetime event. The
legislation had a dramatic impact on the profession,
adding complexities to the role of general counsel in the
form of corporate governance requirements and securities
litigation. Perhaps more important was the creation of an
entirely new category of law as the depth and breadth of
Sarbanes-Oxley – in areas such as accounting, taxation,
and securities – enabled attorneys to specialize exclusively
in the law’s intricacies.
Yet, 2009 could shape up as another watershed moment
for attorneys as corporations seek counsel regarding the
wave of new regulations sprouting from the credit crisis
and investment losses due to the Bernard Madoff and other
scandals. Rulemaking from the Federal Reserve, Securi-
ties and Exchange Commission and international bodies
could impact everything from derivatives markets to hedge
funds, and are expected to have a dramatic effect on capital
markets and the financial services industry as a whole. As
a result, companies will require legal counsel in order to
comply with a new era of oversight complete with guide-
lines on how securities are valued, reported, and traded.
Other growing areas include restructuring and bankruptcy
law, particularly as companies short on capital and credit
restructure their debt both in and out of court. Over the
next few years, the strongest demand will be for attorneys
specializing in securities, capital markets, and regulatory
and compliance law.
Growth in Oversight Jobs
While regulators have traditionally been ripe with opportu-
nities for corporate attorneys, the economic crisis has thrust
these roles to a new level. TARP, or the Troubled Asset
Relief Program, the government’s program to strengthen
the financial sector by providing relief to banks, has created
a new area of specialization. Many of its jobs are within
law departments at places such as the U.S. Treasury, which
oversees TARP, as well as the Federal Deposit Insurance
Corp. or the Federal Reserve, which have worked with the
Treasury to supervise the program, determine which banks
qualify for relief, and monitor adherence to guidelines in
areas such as executive compensation and lending.
Of course, there are ways to get a legal job besides working
for the government. The country’s largest corporations are
a prime source of opportunities, for example. Corporate
counsels are responsible for anything and everything legal
at the company, including the negotiating and drafting
contracts, overseeing employment law compliance, advising
senior management, and helping craft legal and business
strategies. More important, these roles often give attorneys
a seat at the table when it comes to forming the corporate
growth strategy. More than ever, the increasing importance
of corporate governance has elevated corporate counsel to
the highest levels in an organization.
Recent Developments
In 2008 and the first half of 2009, an overall reduction in
corporate spending squeezed expenditures for outside legal
services in areas ranging from transactional work to taxa-
tion. In general, both law firms and corporations pulled in
their horns due to lower demand for their services.
Major law firms also lost pricing power amid the recession.
Average billing rates edged up just 2.9 percent in 2009’s
first quarter from a year earlier, well below the 7 percent
annual growth trend of recent years, according to an index
compiled by legal industry consulting firm Hildebrandt Inter-
national. Sluggish fee growth creates pressure on law firms
to control expenses - including freezing associates’ salaries
or cutting staff, as many top-tier law firms did this year.
On the bright side, a survey by BTI Consulting calls for
corporate legal spending to rebound in the second half of
2009. Based on interviews with legal department heads at
some 370 of the largest U.S. corporations, BTI predicted in
May that law budgets would rise 5 percent over the follow-
ing six months, after shrinking 6.7 percent in the first half
of 2009. But those gains were expected to be concentrated
among a narrow group of specific law firms and practice
areas. The main areas of growth are: regulatory compli-
orce, eaulu]aert low, secu|ities orJ |or||uutc]lcu|uu|ote
restructuring law.
Bankruptcy-related work has already surged, rising by more
than 13 percent in 2009’s first quarter compared with a year
earlier, according to Hildebrandt’s data.
81
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Michael Zuppone, Partner and Chair
Securities and Capital Markets Practice
Paul Hastings
What’s a typical day like for you?
Typically, I could be involved in multiple transactions simultaneously.
Our team is built around client service, so it requires that I stay
abreast of the calendar and deadlines. Usually transactional work
requires communication with various parties via conference calls
or meetings, in which we provide guidance and direction to clients
in their fund raising. This work also encompasses resolving various
disclosure issues that often requires interaction with the SEC and
possibly its foreign regulatory counterparts.
The practice that is in demand right now is restructuring. Yet, many of
these cases don’t necessarily involve bankruptcies, but rather working
toward an out of court resolution by working with creditors. These
activities are at the forefront today because of the credit crisis.
My work is also heavily focused on regulatory compliance issues.
We work hand in hand with restructuring attorneys to provide advice
concerning disclosure and other regulations before, during, and after
a bankruptcy proceeding. In some cases, companies are in trouble in
other areas. It could involve work with the SEC or another regulator,
where I am called in to advise a client.
Which skills are most important for a career in securities law?
You need a solid understanding of securities regulation from the
perspective of a U.S. attorney. But as markets are now global, it’s also
important to be familiar with the various regulations in different inter-
national jurisdictions. So much of securities and capital markets law
involves finance, so it’s valuable if you understand basic accounting
principles and financial reporting requirements. Most attorneys have
not been formally educated in these areas, but if you’re able to grasp
them, you can provide a lot of value to a firm in a transaction.
Any advice for up-and-coming securities lawyers?
I’d recommend they jump right into it. Join a practice within a firm and
learn by doing securities work every day. There are a number of orga-
nizations, such as the American Bar Association and the Association
of the Bar of the City of New York, that offer training programs and
information on securities and capital markets legal developments via
their Web sites. The SEC site, for example, provides access to filings,
news and developments that are posted on a daily basis. As a result,
you can stay attuned to any overnight pronouncements issued by the
SEC. Staying current with rulemaking and regulatory developments is
important because of the dynamics of financial markets today.
Q&A
Roles and Career Paths
As a banking lawyer, you may specialize in the legal
complexities of merger and acquisition (M&A) deals. Or
you could find yourself working on the trading floor, or with
capital markets groups. Usually, a team of lawyers also
works in a central legal office dealing with issues such as
discrimination claims and major litigation.
M&A work can involve everything from preparing the docu-
ments expressing one company’s intention to buy another to
conducting due diligence on the proposed purchase. If you
work on the capital markets team you’ll deal with the legal
complexities surrounding the issuance of new financial
products. In addition, lawyers ensure the information pro-
vided by a company preparing to list on a stock exchange
is correct and within the law. Trading floor lawyers advise
on the legality of trades and deal with the documents
required to buy and sell financial products. By determining
which trades can and can’t go ahead, these attorneys play
an important role in the development of new and complex
derivative products.
Few investment banks train lawyers themselves. Instead,
they typically get their start working for a major law firm.
Skills and Qualities
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points
º Ve|] st|urc irte|ue|surol orJ lote|ol t|ir|irc s|ills
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º /|ilit] tu c|uw orJ aoirtoir cliert |elotiurs|ius
82
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Information Technology
The work that’s increasingly outsourced overseas
An investment bank’s information technology (IT) depart-
ment is responsible for the web of networks, computers and
software that underpin any modern financial organization.
Firms use technology for just about everything: communi-
cating with staff, storing information on clients, and running
complex computer models to price and trade financial
products. They are known for having some of the world’s
cutting-edge systems, especially for their trading floors.
In recent years, a growing number of banking IT jobs are
being outsourced to locations such as India and China. The
good news is banks still need plenty of people in western
financial centers to manage and coordinate with overseas
employees. According to technology researcher Forrester
Research, there will be no shortage of future demand for
business analysts and project managers who understand
the banking business and can manage the outsourced func-
tions.
IT professionals who want to stay in advanced technology
are being advised to couple their technical expertise with
deep knowledge of a vertical industry, such as financial
services or pharmaceuticals, or to combine IT with business
skills, perhaps by earning an MBA. Recruiters say financial
firms increasingly seek candidates with a combination of
business and technology skills, such as an understanding of
fixed income and Java, or knowledge of mortgage-backed
securities and C#.
In addition, firms want people who can communicate well,
who can get their point across briefly and directly. They’ll
often have to communicate with clients and interact with
traders on the floor, so communication skills are very
important.
While companies want combined skills, they often don’t
offer an obvious path to acquiring them. So, IT profession-
als should keep an eye out for positions that offer a mentor
who might help them broaden their role in the firm.
Recent Developments
The current recession has eliminated a large number of
jobs in financial IT as consolidations, bankruptcies and
general downsizing have spurred thousands of job losses.
But as the industry reconstructs itself, there’s no escaping
it remains forever dependent on technology for just about
everything.
“The bright spot is the financial services industry is more
dependent on technology than any other industry,” says
Paul Groce, a partner at search firm CTPartners’ New York
office. “Financial services spend a greater percentage of
dollars on technology than other industries, so it will con-
tinue to innovate and employ bright people.”
Philip John Venables, chief information risk officer for Gold-
man Sachs, says that college or university graduates can
expect a full spectrum of career opportunities, especially if
they’re willing to learn and adapt. Because firms depend on
technology - particularly as a key competitive differentiator
- they’ll continue to invest in it. “Generally,” he says, “there
will be a need for people who can take their strong knowl-
edge of technology and marry it with a business specialty.”
Roles and Responsibilities
Jobs in IT generally fall into several categories:
º 0e.eluuaert
º Busiress orol]sis
º ||uject aoroceaert
º lrí|ost|uctu|e oJairist|otiur
º Tec|ricol suuuu|t
If you become a developer, you may be responsible for
writing the computer programs that help financial firms do
everything from pricing and booking trades to calculating
risk. Programming languages used by banks include C++,
Java and Microsoft’s .NET.
Those on the business analysis side include business
analysts who look at the way technology is used in the
bank and analyze the opportunities for making it work
better. A trader might complain about the length of time
it takes his computer to execute a trade, so it’s up to the
analyst to investigate whether the complaint is valid. Once
big changes are underway, the responsibility for managing
them often passes to another part of the IT staff: the project
managers. These are the people who plan, structure and
fulfill IT projects. If IT development work is outsourced, the
project managers work with providers to ensure efforts are
completed correctly and within the mandated time frame.
Those who work in infrastructure administration are
responsible for the day-to-day upkeep and maintenance of
83
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Phil Venables, Goldman Sachs
Chief Information Risk Officer
Can you walk us through your career path?
I didn’t intend to be in this role when I started in my career. People
who do this often get here by accident. I started as a software
developer in various industries, such as defense, petrochemical and
financial firms. I have a master’s degree in computation and cryptog-
raphy, so I ended up developing a lot of security software. I also was
part of a project in another bank that built one of the world’s first In-
ternet banking systems. As a result of that work, I grew more involved
ir iríu|aotiur secu|it] u|ujects, ultiaotel] leoJirc tu o se|ies uí lTl
information security management positions.
What types of skills does a person need for this kind of role?
Our functions are fairly broad, so my team includes people with a
very deep technical background who do a range of specialist security
orol]sis tos|s li|e s]steaslouulicotiur secu|it] testirc. T|e] t]uicoll]
|ecui|e cuauute| scierce orJlu| erciree|irc cuoliícotiurs.
Other roles include business analyst oriented roles for conducting
|usiressliríu|aotiur t||eot orJ |is|s orol]sis ir t|e curtert uí |usi-
ness flows. These people come from a variety of backgrounds. People
on my team hold degrees in information systems, economics and
MBAs as well as computer science, mathematics and engineering.
The message is that what people label IT security used to be a very
straightforward profession. Now it is very broad. Like IT careers in
general, there are many broad and deep specialist areas within it.
Given the recent turmoil on Wall Street, what kind of IT oppor-
tunities can a college or university graduate expect?
Firms like Goldman Sachs are strongly dependent on technology, so
we will continue to invest in it. It’s a key competitive differentiator.
There is going to be a strong focus in maintaining our technology in
order to keep our competitive edge. We will still see a full spectrum
of career opportunities for people who are willing to learn and adapt.
Generally, there will be a need for people who can take their strong
knowledge of technology and marry it with a business specialty.
What’s your typical day like?
There is no real typical day. That’s what makes this type of role
always challenging and interesting. The spectrum of activities may
include meeting with executive leadership of the firm, maintaining
regulatory relationships, reviewing key risks on new projects, meeting
with external threat intelligence sources to stay abreast of threat
developments, and maintaining detailed contact with all of my teams
on regular risk measurement and management activities.
Q&A
a company’s hardware and software installations. Technical
support staff requires razor-sharp technical skills and the
thickest of skins to handle not only technology problems,
but the frustration of irate traders as well. So customer
service skills along with the ability to quickly diagnose a
problem are essential. It’s a role that carries a lot of respon-
sibility: A computer problem on a trading floor lasting a few
minutes could cost
millions of dollars.
It’s up to the support
staff to identify and
resolve the problem.
Another specializa-
tion that’s gaining
more importance
is risk and security.
In this area, roles
range from design-
ing network security
systems to under-
standing systems and trying to figure out potential threats.
People who work in information risk and security teams can
come from different backgrounds, including MBAs or those
with economic degrees.
Skills and Qualities
º Suue|iu| u|uc|oaairc o|ilities
º St|urc cuaauricotiur s|ills
º lrru.oti.e
º CliertíucuseJ
º CuuJ u|u|leasul.irc orJ Jecisiurao|irc
“Firms want people who
can communicate well,
who can get their point
across briefly and
directly.”
84
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Marketing and Public Relations
It takes more than a lengthy contact list to build a firm’s brand
Wall Street’s public relations and marketing staffs are
responsible for representing financial services companies to
customers, clients, investors and the general public. Their
role is to position the firm as it would like to be seen, but
they fulfill that mission in different ways.
Although related, marketing and public relations are distinct
functions. Marketers concern themselves with managing a
firm’s reputation by deciding how its brand name, products
and services are portrayed in advertising and promotional
campaigns. Public relations people focus on how a bank is
represented in the media and, in the case of public compa-
nies, to investors.
Financial firms spend substantial amounts of money to
promote their brand names. Some sponsor sporting events
like golf and tennis tournaments, while others purchase the
naming rights to stadiums and arenas as a way of reinforc-
ing their image. Financial
companies are also regular
advertisers on the Internet
and in traditional media like
newspapers, magazines and
television. Managing the
message across all of these
channels is among the jobs
marketing professionals
perform.
Public relations profession-
als concern themselves
with how their firms are
portrayed by journalists.
Following a spate of bad
publicity after the technol-
ogy boom of the late 1990s
and early 2000s – when
research analysts were seen
to be insufficiently indepen-
dent from their banks’ M&A
arms – the role of PR people become more important. Today,
staff at most Wall Street firms are forbidden to talk to jour-
nalists without the permission of the media relations staff.
At the same time, most firms want to be seen as experts
on the markets and the economy. Thus, they’re willing to
make analysts, portfolio managers, executives and other
professionals available to discuss their views on what’s
driving market activity. It’s the PR staff that controls who’s
made available to journalists and the topics staff members
are permitted to talk about.
In the wake of the financial crisis, independent PR firms are
seeing an increase in the scope of work they perform for
companies. Today, PR is about managing a financial brand.
Where in the past an agency may have been primarily
focused on media coverage, today firms are being hired
to conduct full communications audits, or take a holistic
look at the company’s communications in order to develop
a set of best practices and policies. In addition, PR firms
are preemptively reaching out to investors and analysts via
perception studies to get a grip on what Wall Street and
the general public think of their clients, and how they can
improve their image. Because of these increased demands,
PR firms are moving beyond focusing on former financial
journalists as employees and are seeking professionals
with consultative skills and transactional experience in
areas such as law and M&A. As a result, bankers and other
professionals are joining PR firms, using their experience in
developing valuations to explain the rationale behind new
products and deals to analysts and journalists.
Increasingly, the roles of PR and marketing have become
intertwined. Boutique PR agencies that cater to asset man-
agers and hedge funds have given rise to a “one-stop shop”
approach. These agencies will provide PR and marketing
services such as the development of white papers, by-lined
articles, collateral and types of thought leadership meant to
build credibility and establish the client company’s image.
Roles and Career Paths
Investment banks, brokerages, commercial banks and
fund managers typically employ centrally focused market-
ing staffs to promote their firms as a whole. In addition,
product-specific marketing people sit alongside sales
teams. The role of marketing groups can include sponsoring
events, producing brochures and other collateral, develop-
ing corporate logos, determining the pricing and position-
ing of products and services, and researching markets for
potential new products.
Those interested in marketing or PR careers can look
beyond investment firms themselves. Companies that sell
products and services to Wall Street – such as financial
“PR firms are moving
beyond focusing on
former financial
journalists as employees
and are seeking
professionals with
consultative skills and
transactional experience
in areas such as law
and M&A.”
85
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Claire Koeneman, President
MWW Group’s Financial Relations Board
Could you describe your role?
I’m president of an agency that provides a range of financial commu-
nications and services that help companies achieve their financial and
business goals. Our work centers on helping companies build positive
profiles in the media. I handle everything from running administra-
tion and operations to securing new business. Much of my work is
focused on investor relations and financial communications.
Take us through your career path.
Until I was 26, I wanted to be a television news anchor. I was a
liberal arts major in college, but went to business school and earned
an MBA in finance from the University of Chicago. I joined Salomon
Brothers and worked on the firm’s trading floor. Afterward, I spent a
year working in private real estate before coming to Financial Rela-
tions Board, where I’ve been for the past 15 years.
What’s a typical day like for you?
My day is varied, which is probably why I find the work so exciting.
On a given day I might be counseling a client on an earnings release
or how to handle a huge impairment charge and concerns over how
Wall Street may respond. Or we could work on figuring how to com-
municate a client’s capital situation and the status of its negotiation
over its debt coverage. Currently, we’re seeing more situations in
which we’re helping a company navigate near-term operational and
financial issues because of market conditions.
What are the key skills for a career in financial
communications?
You need to be an effective communicator and understand financial
issues. Our client base consists of CEOs, CFOs and internal investor
relations professionals. Someone in this role needs to have the gravi-
tas, or presence to work with senior executives. Even in a more junior
role it’s critical to be proactive and come up with forward-thinking
strategies for clients. Solid writing skills are also crucial.
Any advice for up-and-coming financial communications
professionals?
I’d certainly recommend that you be aware of what’s happening in
capital markets. It’s important to develop the financial skills to be able
to talk intelligently about balance sheets and income statements.
Having public relations agency experience is helpful, and you must
be comfortable dealing with the financial aspects of a company. We
need curious people and great thinkers who also have a firm grip on
the capital markets.
Q&A
software developers, trading system vendors, or providers
of information products – often seek individuals with spe-
cific market experience to fill product management roles.
Firms like Bloomberg and Reuters generally seek people
with direct, hands-on experience in a specific market to fill
product manager positions.
While people in central marketing communicate to custom-
ers and work closely with sales staffs, people in PR encour-
age journalists to write positive articles about the company
they work for – or engage in damage control if a bank is
attracting negative media attention.
Investment banks typically have in-house PR departments.
Larger firms may have a separate staff to handle the
Investor Relations function, whose role is to communicate
financial results. That job has become more specialized
for all U.S. public companies after the passage of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002.
Few financial firms train their own marketing and PR staffs
in-house. Typically, they hire professionals with several
years’ experience, usually gained in a blue chip company
or a top PR agency. Similarly, product managers usually
come with several years’ experience in large advertising
agencies. However, large financial firms may sometimes
hire entry-level marketing personnel either full-time, or as
interns, to assist more seasoned professionals. There are
also various independent PR agencies active in the financial
world.
Skills and Qualities
º St|urc w|itter orJ u|ol cuaauricotiur s|ills
º letwu||irc orJ |elotiurs|iu aoroceaert
º urJe|storJirc uí orJ o|ilit] tu cuaauricote írorciol
issues
º /|ilit] tu cuic|l] c|osu cuauler issues
º Sueciíc |ruwleJce uí ao||ets orJ ao||et secaerts
86
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Ratings Agencies
Grading the potential of market players
The role of ratings agencies is to assess the creditworthi-
ness of companies and government agencies that issue
debt instruments to investors. Although the debt issuers
actually pay for the privilege of having their business
scrutinized, the agencies are supposed to provide a neutral
analysis of their ability to repay their obligations.
The debt ratings sector is dominated by three companies:
Standard & Poor’s (S&P), Moody’s Investors Service and
Fitch Ratings. Together, they’re believed to hold at least
90 percent of the market. With analysts based in business
centers worldwide, S&P and Moody’s are by far the largest.
Another well-known agency, A.M. Best, specializes in
rating insurance companies – both their debt and “financial
strength,” or ability to pay policy claims. Best also rates
U.S. banks and bank holding companies, including small
and mid-sized community banks.
All four companies issue debt rankings in a similar format,
making it easy for investors to compare the ratings of one
organization to another. A debt issuer rated AAA (in the for-
mat used by S&P and Fitch) or Aaa (in the Moody’s version)
is judged to be almost certain to repay its debts. Any bonds
rated Ba or lower by Moody’s and BB by Fitch and S&P are
considered to be speculative grade, or “junk.” Due to the
greater perceived risk, debt consigned to this category will
have to pay higher yields to attract investors. The lowest
possible ranking is “D.” Buyers of these bonds face the
greatest prospect of not getting their money back.
Over the years, the nature of debt financing has changed
dramatically, and the ratings agencies have had to adapt
accordingly. Wall Street has figured out ways to securi-
tize everything from credit card debt to cosmetic surgery
receivables. Gauging the risk in those deals falls to analysts
on structured finance ratings teams, who are generally
quantitative specialists.
Moody’s analysts follow the debt of 100 countries, 12,000
companies and 29,000 public finance issues. On top of that,
it follows 96,000 structured finance deals – a catch-all term
covering a broad range of obligations created from pools of
other obligations, including mortgages and exotic credit-
derivative instruments.
Along with rating the default risk of thousands of issuers
and securities, in recent years, ratings firms have built
separate businesses that analyze and forecast trends
and prices for various structured credit products. In 2005
Fitch acquired Algorithmics, a provider of enterprise risk
management solutions. Moody’s set up Moody’s Analytics
in January 2008 to develop and market analytical tools used
in credit portfolio management.
Recent Developments
The worldwide financial crisis has strained ratings firms’
finances, business models and reputations. Prospects for
recovery hinge on the repair and recovery of bond markets,
which the crisis clamped shut for some types of securities.
Beyond the loss of business, the credibility of the firms
has been hit hard, raising odds that authorities will force a
permanent change in how ratings are paid for.
Ratings firms were both major beneficiaries and major
enablers of this decade’s unsustainable boom in structured
debt products. The firms came to depend on this relatively
new market for the lion’s share of growth and profits. At
Moody’s, revenue from rating structured finance deals grew
to account for 53 percent of all ratings revenue by 2006.
Residential mortgage loans (including sub-prime mortgages)
were a primary driver of the structured bond boom. When
home mortgages began defaulting at ever-rising rates, the
structured credit products they’d been blended into lost
value so rapidly they came to be tagged as “toxic.” Conse-
quently, the amount of new structured bonds requiring debt
ratings dried up. At Moody’s, ratings revenue from struc-
tured finance tumbled 53 percent year-over-year in 2008.
Perceptions of impartiality also took a beating. Evidence
indicated the ratings firms had rubber-stamped AAA ratings
on structured products built out of sub-prime mortgage
loans in order to generate more business. Some of those
structures ended up defaulting, in the worst cases wiping
out their entire value. In Congressional testimony, Moody’s
Chairman Ray McDaniel admitted, “Maintaining our stan-
dards may conflict with maintaining market share.”
Critics contend ethical conflicts are baked into the basic
rating agency business model, in which issuers pay to be
rated. Congress and the Securities and Exchange Commis-
sion could decide to overhaul longstanding regulations and
business practices that compel most debt securities to be
rated by at least one of the three leading firms.
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89
www.efinancialcareers.com
Alan G. Reid, Managing Director, DBRS
How did you become a managing director at DBRS?
I began my career in the mailroom at Clydesdale Bank in Scotland,
where the branch manager gave me the opportunity to attend night
school. After taking the bank entrance exam there, I attended Cale-
donia University in Glasgow and received my banking qualifications.
Next, I moved to London and worked for Bank of America from 1986
to 1991. Because I had prior banking experience with personal loans
and checking accounts, I had an advantage and understood how a
bank worked.
At Bank of America I worked as a bank analyst in the financial institu-
tions group. In 1991, I moved to Nomura Securities and helped set
up their financial institutions group. I worked at Nomura until 1994,
and gained experience in working with global banks and in areas
such as counterparty credit risk, money market lending and swap
limits. In 1994, I joined Moody’s and stayed there for 10 years. I joined
(Canadian rating agency) DBRS in 2004, after being approached by
the company to build its U.S. business. Today we rate 95 percent of
the debt issued by U.S. banks.
What’s a typical day like?
I manage a team of 13 people. My day-to-day work involves being
part of the ratings committee and oversight of the 100-plus compa-
nies that we rate, including bank holding companies, broker-dealers,
non-bank financial institutions and Western European banks. I man-
age the relationships between DBRS and these issuers by cultivating
relationships with senior management. I also work with the buy side,
and try to convince them of the value of our ratings. The ratings busi-
ness is a real-time business as we are constantly monitoring issuer
ratings.
What are the most important skills for a career in ratings
services?
It’s important to be comfortable working with senior people. You
must be able to communicate and hold your own in an argument.
You should be focused on developing analytical skills early on in your
career.
It’s important to have strong interpersonal and writing skills, as well
as a hunger for learning since research into companies requires you
to dig deep through information so you can ask the right questions
and ultimately make the correct rating recommendation.
Q&A
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Despite all this, 2009 has seen a few hopeful develop-
ments. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch, which had each announced
mass layoffs during the first half of 2008, resumed adding
staff. “These roles are stable through all market environ-
ments, and may even have more demand in an uncertain
economy where bond ratings are more important,” remarks
Ken Murray, president of Mercury Partners, a New York
recruiting firm. And in March 2009, the Federal Reserve
launched a financing program for asset-backed securities
(ABS) as part of a broad government plan for reviving finan-
cial markets. Any sizable rebound in ABS issuance could
prompt rating firms to hire more structured finance analysts.
Roles and Career Paths
Ratings agencies look for people with training in finance,
mathematics, economics and similar quantitative disci-
plines. Advanced degrees aren’t always required but can be
helpful in landing a job.
Typically, analysts at ratings agencies specialize in
particular product types such as corporate finance, which
means rating particular companies; public finance, which
follows local, state and provincial governments; sovereign
debt, issued by countries; infrastructure debt, which might
be issued by a utility or a government agency that funds
development projects like road construction; financial insti-
tutions; or the structured finance arena. Depending on their
area of specialization, staffers can expect some element of
travel to go along with their work.
Skills and Qualifications
º /rol]ticol, stotisticol orJ cuortitoti.e s|ills
º MB/s u| ut|e| c|oJuote Jec|ees useíul orJ suaetiaes
required.
º St|urc w|itter orJ u|ol cuaauricotiur s|ills.
º /|ilit] tu cleo|l] eru|ess cuauler issues.
º Selíauti.otiur orJ t|e o|ilit] tu aeet JeoJlires.
90
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
The fuel that powers the financial markets is a potent com-
bination of real-time news and market data. Whether it’s
the release of a company’s quarterly earnings report, the ac-
tions of central banks on interest rate policies, a significant
merger or acquisition or a default or bankruptcy by a major
debt issuer, market participants react to news every trading
day. Events like these, big and small, drive trading activity.
Because news inspires action, traders ultimately rely on
accurate and timely market data as a basis for their buy-sell
decisions. Trillions of dollars in stocks, corporate and gov-
ernment bonds, futures, options and a seemingly limitless
number of exotic, over-the-counter derivative instruments
– such as swaps or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs)
– are bought and sold worldwide each day. Collecting, mas-
saging and disseminating all of this trading data is the job
of the information providers - the companies in the financial
information industry.
The principal players in this realm are Thomson Reuters,
Bloomberg, News Corp.’s Dow Jones subsidiary, and Stan-
dard & Poor’s, which is owned by McGraw-Hill Companies.
Since late 2007, the sector has undergone high-level
changes. Dow Jones & Co., the 125-year old company that
publishes The Wall Street Journal and whose name is
attached to the best-known U.S. stock-market index, was
acquired by News Corp. in December 2007. Reuters and
Thomson, two formerly separate firms with major footholds
in the financial information space, merged in April 2008.
Each company has extensive news operations and employs
hundreds of people to gather and scrub for accuracy the
data they redistribute to market professionals, corporate
clients and other organizations. Another, smaller player
is Interactive Data, which is majority-owned by Pearson
PLC, publisher of the Financial Times. Interactive Data’s
various business units supply time-sensitive market price
data, reference data and analytical tools to institutions and
individual traders the world over.
Many other companies operate in specialized segments of
the industry. Some are software developers building sophis-
ticated tools and trading programs. Others focus on news
or market analysis. Dow Jones, whose Dow Jones News
Service has been covering the markets for more than 100
years, is one example of the latter. Its content can be deliv-
ered through distribution partners or directly to clients. The
company has also created numerous U.S. and international
indexes that now form the basis for tradable securities.
Vendors like Reuters and Bloomberg not only distribute data
to the financial industry, they also collect it, then consoli-
date and sell it back to the same institutions that initially
generated it. In over-the-counter markets for bonds, foreign
exchange, financial derivatives, and so on, pricing is sup-
plied by dealers and brokers. For example, the trading desks
at large investment banks like Citigroup or Goldman Sachs
generally supply prices for securities that are in their inven-
tory. Think of those as the advertised or list prices, which
can differ from actual selling prices. Brokers, on the other
hand, are middlemen, and the data they provide reflect
Information Providers
Delivering data to the markets
Software and Information Industry Association
Selected Members
Barclays PLC
Bloomberg L.P.
Capital Group Research Inc.
CIBC World Markets
Credit Suisse
Dow Jones & Company
Fidelity Investments
Goldman Sachs & Co.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
London Stock Exchange
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Moody’s Analytics
Morgan Stanley
Nasdaq OMX
NYSE Euronext
RBC Capital Markets
SEI Investments
Société Générale
State Street Bank & Trust
Thomson Reuters
UBS Investment Bank
Wells Fargo Bank
Source: SIIA
91
www.efinancialcareers.com
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
actual transaction prices. ICAP plc, a London-based, publicly
traded company, is the largest inter-dealer broker. Cantor
Fitzgerald was one of the first firms to report the prices for
trades it brokered in the market for U.S. Treasury securities,
which it still resells through its subsidiary, BGCantor Market
Data. Other major suppliers of data feeds are the world’s
stock, commodity and options exchanges.
When the Internet first became popular, data vendors feared
their role would become less important as more informa-
tion became available directly to investors and bankers
alike. That trend has proceeded more slowly than originally
feared, although it has driven consolidation in the industry.
Roles and Career Paths
The diversity of companies in the financial information
sector makes it difficult to describe a single, precise career
path. However, there are certain attributes that will lead to
career success.
A strong understanding of how the markets operate is criti-
cal, whether one enters a sales, operations, data manage-
ment or technical development role.
Technology expertise can be another important skill. Most
trading has already shifted from stock and futures exchange
floors and telephone based, person-to-person transactions,
to screen-based dealings that are driven by sophisticated
software programs. People with the skills to create the algo-
rithms that drive these programs are in increasing demand.
The field offers numerous entry-level opportunities.
Information companies seek individuals with a statistical
background or financial training for the teams responsible
for ensuring their distributed data is accurate. For an
overview of the kinds of companies involved in this industry,
see the member page of Software and Information Industry
Association’s Financial Information Services Division at
www.ísJ.retlo|uutlaea|e|s.osu.
Skills & Qualities
º St|urc urJe|storJirc uí t|e írorciol ao||ets u| t|e
ability to learn.
º /rol]ticol orJ stotisticol s|ills.
º CuuJ u|ol orJ w|itter cuaauricotiur s|ills.
º Tec|ruluc] outituJe u| u|uc|oaairc o|ilities.
Glenn Fannick, Product Development Manager
Dow Jones & Company
Tell us about your job.
My group works on product development for products that deliver
business information to the enterprise. The product I specifically work
on is Dow Jones Insight, which is a media measurement tool that a
public relations company or department might use to understand its
company’s media footprint. They can gauge how much they are being
talked about in the mainstream media, blogs and message boards, to
see if people are talking about their brand and if they need to modify
their media message and approach. My role is to write requirements
for software developers who do the actual software development.
How did you evolve into your role?
I certainly didn’t start out with Dow Jones with the intent of doing
this kind of work. I started with the company 15 years ago, and at that
point I had never even heard of the Internet. I started on a team who
applied metadata to individual documents. I then became an online
news editor and content editor. I left the journalism side and moved
into product management, which involved finding ways to package
our news in our search products.
What kind of skills do you need to do your kind of work?
You don’t need to know how to write code, but you need to have a
high-level understanding of software, servers, storage, databases,
Web design, usability – all of the components that are part of a Web
site. You definitely need to be able to write well and explain your-
self concisely. You also have to understand your clients’ needs and
have project management skills. And you have to be able to wear a
business hat to understand which features can be added to help the
product be more financially successful.
What does your typical day look like?
Think of me as a traffic cop or shepherd. I’m at the center of the
project, the person with the most knowledge of what we are trying to
accomplish so I can answer other departments’ questions or redi-
rect them to the right people on the technology team. I spend time
working on defining requirements, talking to clients, talking to sales
people, working with customer service and working with our product
testing department. Fifty percent of my time is spent in meetings, the
rest is spent corresponding via e-mail and writing requirements, train-
ing guides and marketing materials. I spend 100 percent of my day
with my laptop – and the other 100 percent with my Blackberry.
Do you wish you had stayed a journalist?
I couldn’t afford to be a journalist, but I miss it.
Q&A
92
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Resources
News you should use
Information moves the markets - whether it’s stock, bond or
futures quotes, breaking news driving commodities trading,
the release of a company’s annual report or turnover among
its executives or staff.
To succeed on Wall Street, you have to keep up. Among
other things, that means staying up-to-date on develop-
ments in business, politics, economics and the world in
general. That’s no small task in today’s media-crazed world,
especially if you want to focus your career in specialized
areas like hedge funds or risk management.
This list is meant as a starting point, a collection of infor-
mation resources you can use to keep abreast of what’s
going on in business and general news around the world.
In addition to these, each market sector offers a variety of
trade publications that focus on narrow areas of expertise.
Don’t forget to read the information presented by compa-
nies themselves in their 10-Ks, 10-Qs, annual reports and
press releases, which you can almost always find on their
corporate Web sites.
General and Business News
Bloomberg www.bloomberg.com
BusinessWeek www.businessweek.com
CNN www.cnn.com
Financial News www.financialnews-us.com
The Financial Times www.ft.com
Forbes www.forbes.com
Fortune |ttu.llaure].crr.cualaoco/ireslíu|ture
The New York Times www.nytimes.com
Reuters www.reuters.com
USNews and World Report www.usnews.com
The Wall Street Journal www.wsj.com
Washington Post www.washingtonpost.com
Career Information and Career Development
eFinancialCareers www.efinancialcareers.com
and its Campus Connection www.efinancialcareers.com
lcoauus
Association of Latino Professionals in
Finance and Accounting
www.alpfa.org
Career Opportunities for Students with
Disabilities
www.cosdonline.org
Management Leadership for Tomorrow www.ml4t.org
National Black MBA Association www.nbmbaa.org
Sponsors for Educational Opportunity www.seo-usa.org
Women on Wall Street wows.db.com
General Financial and Investing News
Barron’s www.barrons.com
CNBC www.cnbc.com
FierceFinance www.fiercefinance.com
Institutional Investor www.institutionalinvestor.com
Investor’s Business Daily www.investors.com
InvestmentNews www.investmentnews.com
MarketWatch www.marketwatch.com
The New York Times’ Dealbook dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com
TheStreet.com www.thestreet.com
The Wall Street Journal’s
Deal Journal
|lucs.wsj.cualJeols
Sector News
BondsOnline www.bondsonline.com
Compliance Week www.complianceweek.com
The Deal www.thedeal.com
Fund Action www.fundaction.com
HedgeWorld www.hedgeworld.com
Inside Market Data www.insidemarketdata.com
On Wall Street www.onwallstreet.com
Risk Magazine www.risk.net
Wall Street & Technology www.wallstreetandtech.com
Others
Securities Industry and Financial
Markets Association
www.sifma.org
Securities and Exchange Commission www.sec.gov
The American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants
www.aicpa.org
The Institute of Management Accountants www.imanet.org
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Diversity Initiatives
Organization Target Programs Organization Target Programs
American Indian Business Leaders
(AIBL)
www.aibl.org
Toll-Free: (877) 245-AIBL (2425)
Native
American,
AIBL Advocate
Scholarships Management Leadership for
Tomorrow (MLT)
www.ml4t.org
Telephone: (212) 736-3411
Toll-Free: (888) 686-1993
African American,
|isuoricl|otiru,
Native American
MBA and Career Prepara-
tion, MLT Houston, 4XL,
Career Advancement
American Indian Graduate Center
(AIGC)
www.aigcs.org
Telephone: (505) 881-4584
Toll-Free: (800) 628-1920
American
Indian and
Alaska Native
Scholarships, Fellowships National Black MBA Associa-
tion (NBMBAA)
www.nbmbaa.org
Telephone: (312) 236-BMBA
(2622)
African American Scholarships,
Fellowships,
MBA Preparatory,
Job Posting, Professional
Development,
Networking,
Coaching
American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants (AICPA)
www.aicpa.org
Telephone: (919) 402-4931
African Ameri-
cor, /siorl|o-
cific Islander,
|isuoricl
Latino, Native
American
Scholarships,
Fellowships,
Career Immersion, Leader-
ship Workshops
National Center for American
Indian Enterprise Development
www.ncaied.org
Telephone: (480) 545-1298
American Indian and
Alaska Native
Scholarships
Asian & Pacific Islander American
Scholarship Fund (APIASF)
www.apiasf.org
Telephone: (202) 986-6892
Toll-Free: (877) 808-7032
/siorl|ociíc
Islander
Scholarships, Leadership
Development, Networking
National Hispanic Business
Association (NHBA)
www.nhba.org
Telephone: (512) 380-7575
|isuoricl|otiru Career and Leadership
Development, Networking
Consortium for Graduate Study in
Management (CGSM)
www.cgsm.org
Telephone: (314) 877-5500
Toll-Free: (888) 658-6814
African Ameri-
cor, |isuoricl
Latino, Native
American;
CGSM Advo-
cate
Fellowships National Society of Hispanic
MBAs (NSHMBA)
www.nshmba.org
Telephone: (214) 596-9338
Toll-Free: (877) 467-4622
|isuoricl|otiru Scholarships, MBA
Preparatory,
Job Posting, Professional
and Leadership Develop-
ment, Career Fair, Executive
Summit
Financial Women’s Association
(FWA)
www.fwa.org
Telephone: (212) 533-2141
Women Scholarships,
Professional Development,
Networking, Mentoring;
International, Financial
and Entrepreneurial
Events
Native American Finance
Officers Association (NAFOA)
www.nafoa.org
Native American Scholarships, Summer
Program
Forté Foundation
www.fortefoundation.org
Telephone: (512) 535-5157
Women Fellowships,
Networking,
Corporate Programs
Point Foundation
www.pointfoundation.org
Telephone: (323) 933-1234
Toll-Free: (866) 33-POINT
(337-6468)
Lesbian, Gay, Bisex-
ual and Transgender
Community
Scholarships, Mentoring,
Alumni Events
Graduate Management Admission
Council (GMAC)
www.gmac.com
Telephone: (703) 749-0131
Toll-Free: (866) 505-6559
African Ameri-
cor, |isuoricl
Latino, Native
American;
Women
Career and GMAT Informa-
tion, www.mba.com
Rising Farmworker Dream Fund
(RFDF)
www.risingfarmworkers.org
E-mail:
mcuriel@risingfarmworkers.org
Children and Grand-
children of U.S. Mi-
grant and Seasonal
Farm Laborers
Fellowships, miniMBA
University, Online Com-
munity, Investment for
Entrepreneurs
HISPA (Hispanics Inspiring
Students’ Performance and
Achievement)
www.hispa.org
E-mail: info@hispa.org
|isuoricl
Latino
Role Model Bureau,
Youth Conferences,
Job Posting, Employee Re-
source Group Consulting
Sponsors for Educational Op-
portunity (SEO)
www.seo-usa.org
Telephone: (212) 979-2040
African American,
/siorl|ociíc lslorJ-
e|, |isuoricl|otiru,
Native American
College Preparatory,
Internships,
Philanthropy, Professional
Development,
Job Posting, Networking
Hispanic Alliance for Career
Enhancement (HACE)
www.hace-usa.org
Telephone: (312) 435-0498
|isuoricl
Latino
Scholarships, Leader-
ship and Professional
Development, Career Fair
and Guidance, Mentoring,
Networking
The PhD Project
www.phdproject.org
E-mail: Toni Nelligan
tnelligan@kpmg.com
Telephone: (201) 505-3522
African American,
|isuoricl|otiru,
Native American
Ph.D. in Business,
Networking, Mentoring,
Conferences
INROADS
www.inroads.org
Telephone: (314) 241-7488
African Ameri-
cor, |isuoricl
Latino, Native
American
Internships,
Job Posting, Mentoring
The Robert A. Toigo Foundation
www.toigofoundation.org
Telephone: (510) 763-5771
African American,
/siorl|ociíc lslorJ-
e|, |isuoricl|otiru,
Native American
Fellowships,
Internships, Professional
and Leadership Develop-
ment, Job Posting,
Mentoring
94
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Back Office
Refers to all the behind-the-scenes processes at an investment
bank, which don’t directly bring in revenues. Most of the work is
largely IT-related or administrative.
Block Trade
A trade that involves a large quantity of stock (e.g., 10,000 shares
or more) or large dollar amount of bonds (e.g., $200,000 or more).
Bonds
Unlike equities, bonds are a kind of debt. Instead of getting a bank
loan, companies sell bonds and promise to pay the money back to
whoever buys them in X years’ time. Until then, they pay the bond-
holder a small amount of money each year. Because the amount of
money paid annually is fixed at the start, bonds are also known as
“fixed income” products.
Bulge Bracket Bank
A nebulous term referring to the biggest and best investment
banks. The U.S. banks Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and
Merrill Lynch (now part of Bank of America) traditionally possess
bulge bracket status. More recently, the term has been extended
to gigantic rivals such as Citigroup, JPMorgan, Deutsche Bank and
UBS.
Buy Side
A generic name for organizations that buy financial products (se-
curities) in an attempt to make money out of their changing value.
Fund managers are buy-side firms, as are hedge funds.
Clearing and Settlements
The activities that take place behind the scenes after a financial
product has been traded. In the first part (clearing), banks add up
all the trades done with one company, and look at any problems
that arise. In the second part (settlements), the products traded
are delivered in return for payment.
Commodities
Raw materials such as precious metals or grains whose contracts
are bought and sold on commodities exchanges.
Credit Protection (a.k.a. Credit Default Swap)
A tradable contract that transfers the risk of loss if a company or
other entity defaults on its debt.
Debt Capital Markets (DCM)
The division of a bank that solicits, structures and executes bond
deals and related product businesses, including new issues of
both public and private debt.
Derivatives
A derivative is a financial device that is based and priced on
another financial product (e.g. a stock, bond or foreign currency),
or on changes in a financial index or rate (e.g. the Dow Jones
index of the 30 largest U.S. companies, an interest rate, or an
exchange rate). When you buy or sell a derivative you don’t buy
or sell an actual product, but a contract linked to that product. For
example, someone buying a simple stock “call option” (a kind of
derivative) acquires the right to purchase a stock in the future at a
pre-ordained price.
Equities
Another word for company stocks or shares. The name comes from
the notion that stockholders share equally in the ownership of the
company (according to how many shares they own).
Equity Capital Markets (ECM)
Undertakes the origination, structuring, marketing and pricing of
public offerings and private placements of equity and equity-
related securities.
Front Office
The revenue-generating areas of the bank. People in the front
office interact with clients to bring in business and create profits.
Front office employees include salespeople, traders and corporate
financiers. Front office bankers typically earn the most money.
Futures
An exchange-traded contract that represents an obligation to
either buy or sell a specfic amount of a financial or physical com-
modity on a specified date (which can be months or years in the
future) for a price set today but not paid until the settlement date.
Most futures contracts are “offset” before settlement by the buyer
or seller taking an opposite position in the same contract, thereby
cancelling out the obligation to trade the underlying commodity.
An offsetting or “closing” trade may be at a different price than
the initial one, resulting in a profit or loss.
IPO
Initial Public Offering, meaning the first time a company sells
its shares on the open market. Privately owned companies that
launch on the stock exchange “float” an IPO, for example, as a
way to raise capital.
Glossary
Banking terminology the top banks will expect you to know
To search the full glossary online, visit our Campus Connection
Jargon Buster. www.eírorciolco|ee|s.cualcoauus
95
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Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
Libor
An acronym for London Interbank Offered Rate, the most widely
quoted short-term interest rate for international lending between
banks.
Middle Office
Positioned between the front and back office of a bank, the middle
office is concerned with risk management and the calculation of
profit and loss. People who work here are, therefore, typically risk
managers and accountants.
Origination
As opposed to “execution,” (doing a deal), “origination” is the
word bankers use to describe the process of winning business in
the first place. Origination bankers are senior bankers with strong
client relationships.
Pitchbook
The research books that junior bankers (analysts) typically compile
to help senior M&A bankers win business.
||icelEo|rircs Rotiu
A popular statistic used to analyze whether the price of a stock is
reasonable. It is calculated by dividing the current price of a stock
with that company’s earnings per share.
Primary Market
The financial market where investors buy brand new securities
which haven’t been traded anywhere else previously. Shares re-
leased during an IPO are sold on the primary market, for example,
as are newly released bonds, or subsequent issues of new shares
by companies already floating on the stock exchange.
Sarbanes-Oxley
A 2002 U.S. law intended to protect investors from companies and
executives who issue false financial statements. Section 404 of
the act, which requires companies to document how they control
internal processes, boosted demand for accountants and internal
auditors to produce a paper trail proving internal controls exist.
Secondary Markets
The markets in which existing financial products are exchanged
between investors. The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq are
secondary markets, for example.
Securities
All financial products that can be bought and sold. These include
shares, bonds, and derivatives.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The federal agency that enforces securities laws and sets
standards for disclosure about publicly traded securities, including
mutual funds. It was created in 1934 and consists of five com-
missioners appointed by the U.S. President and confirmed by the
Senate.
Sell Side
Refers to organizations that sell financial products to clients,
including fund managers (buy side). Investment banks are sell-side
organizations, for example.
Short Selling
The practice of selling stock that you don’t own. This can be
advantageous when you borrow stock, sell it expensively, and then
buy it back cheaply when prices have fallen.
Structuring
The process of assembling complex financial products.
Swap
A contract in which two parties agree to exchange, or swap, a
series of periodic payments based on different interest rates, cur-
rencies or asset returns. In a plain vanilla interest rate swap, for
instance, one side agrees to pay a constant (“fixed”) rate on each
payment date and the counterparty pays a variable (“floating”)
rate that will change with market conditions. On each payment
date, the two amounts are netted and recipient of the higher rate
is paid the difference by the other party.
TARP
A bank bailout program enacted by the U.S. Congress in late
2008. The original legislation allotted $700 billion for the Treasury
Department to purchase banks’ troubled financial assets, such as
bonds created from non-performing mortgage loans – hence the
name, Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). Later the acronym
came to be used more generally, to refer to a wider range of U.S.
government aid to financial institutions.
Underwriting
The process by which banks agree to buy any leftover shares in
an IPO or other share issue. Banks charge an underwriting fee to
cover this risk.
Universal Bank
A bank that deals with companies, fund managers and other
professional investors, and that also deals with members of the
public who have bank accounts with it (known as “retail” inves-
tors). Citigroup and JPMorgan Chase are examples.
96
Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10
The financial services industry is going through a massive
transformation, not seen since the 1930s. This sea change
brings with it enormous opportunity for students interested
in a career in financial services. However, the career path
may not be as straight as it was in the past, and job seekers
may need to take a few detours before reaching their final
destination.
During the boom years, the spotlight was on the highly paid
deal-making investment bankers who were compensated
for short-term gains. Going forward the focus will be more
on nuts and bolts banking, corporate finance and regulatory
control. Those entering the industry will have a once in a
lifetime opportunity to learn the business from the ground
up and to understand what went wrong during the boom
years and how to fix it. That knowledge base will serve stu-
dents well as they advance in their careers and help shape
the future direction of the industry.
Hard working, ambitious students can find a rewarding
career in financial services, but students must also be pre-
pared to cast a wide net and be flexible in the opportunities
they consider. Successful candidates share some common
traits, so I suggest students do the following:
Set Goals
What is it you ultimately want to do with your life? What
are the different paths you can take to get there? Identify
several job functions that will give you experience. There
are many professions within financial services that exist in
other sectors, such as accountants, risk managers, sales
professionals and credit managers. Working in finance at
a manufacturing company can be great experience to later
move to a financial company. Accepting a marketing posi-
tion in a top-tier bank can be your foot in the door to a great
career as a banker in the same company. Small boutique
companies or startups offer a more entrepreneurial experi-
ence that could prove valuable down the road. Understand
that your dream position is probably not available, and
there are no right or wrong jobs; just choices.
Identify Prospects
Renewable technologies, energy efficiency, healthcare and
education are just some of the industries poised for growth.
Successful financial companies understand the need to
invest in growing fields and have business plans in place to
do so. Identify growth industries and the companies with
plans to exploit that growth. Business publications and
Web sites can provide some of the broad trends, but I find
research analysts to be an often overlooked source of excel-
lent information. Companies that are good investments also
tend to be good employers.
Drill Deep
Once you identify the companies, keep on drilling. What
positions are available? Who are the key individuals there?
What do people that work there think? Is this a place you
would want to spend eight to ten hours a day? Be disci-
plined with your research. Once you land the interview, you
will need to demonstrate that you understand the industry
and the company and why you are a good fit.
Network
Until you land that job, networking is your job. Start with
your college alumni association, professors, the college
career office, parents, friends’ parents and casual acquain-
tances such as through your religious institution or gym.
Join a professional organization in your field; many have
student arms. Both the American Institute of Certified Public
Accountants (www.aicpa.org) and the CFA Institute (www.
cfainstitute.org) have national and local chapters that offer
many educational and networking opportunities. Another
good resource is the Securities Industry and Financial Mar-
kets Association (www.sifma.org). Attend events, and ask
for advice. Establish a profile on business networking sites.
Review your profile on Facebook and other social network-
ing sites. If there is anything there you wouldn’t want a
prospective employer to see, change or remove it.
Be Flexible
Don’t hesitate to take a completely different path to reach-
ing your ultimate goal. Service organizations like Teach
for America and AmeriCorps teach valuable skills that are
transferable to the financial services industry. A stint in an
undesirable location can set you up for a better position
later on. Learning a new industry – even in a nonfinancial
role – can be valuable preparation for a future position as
an analyst or financial expert in that industry.
The financial industry may be in the midst of dramatic
change, but one thing that remains the same is its strong
focus on hiring smart, hard working, talented individuals.
Challenging career paths are open to those with ambition,
talent and a strong work ethic.
Many Paths to a Rewarding Career
John L. Jacobs
Executive Vice President
Chief Marketing Officer
NASDAQ OMX
eFinancialCareers is the leading global career site network for professionals working in the investment
banking, asset management and securities industries. The website provides job opportunities, job market
news and analysis, salary surveys and career advice. eFinancialCareers.com includes a student-focused
Campus Connection section to provide students and recent grads with further insight into their career
options.
It takes that something extra to make it in finance these days.
How are you going to stand out?
A career in the financial markets is challenging in the best of times. Now, more than ever, you need
focus, hard work and dedication to succeed. Before you even go on your first interview, you have to
know the landscape, be well-versed in the latest trends, and prepare better than the competition.
This fifth edition of Careers in Financial Markets gives you an in-depth look at the current job market
and provides practical and actionable advice you can’t get anywhere else.
Careers in Financial Markets gives you
the competitive edge with:
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º Co|ee| u|uíles uí u|uíessiurols wu||irc ir .o|iuus sectu|s wit| .oluo|le oJ.ice
º Tius íu| írJirc o ju| t|ot is toilu|eJ tu liíe ur T|e St|eet orJ |uw tu cet ir
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tions to read and organizations to join
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Welcome
Welcome to the fifth edition of Careers in Financial Markets, from eFinancialCareers. Investment banking remains a popular career choice among today’s very best graduates and MBAs, so the competition to secure that all-important first foot in the door is intense. The aim of this guide is to offer you real insights into the world of Wall Street and the securities business, and to give you the knowledge you need to stand out. As you develop your career, we hope eFinancialCareers will be your online companion. We serve the global financial community as the Web’s top site for career management and jobs in the securities, investment banking and asset management fields. Professionals from analysts to managing directors at the world’s leading investment banks, hedge funds, ratings agencies and trading firms rely on us every day. In addition to job listings, eFinancialCareers provides premier job market and pay analysis, employment advice and a series of tools to help you maximize your career opportunities. One such tool for job seekers is our career guides published in the U.S. and Europe. These unique guides profile the current trends, career paths, top players and skills required for the principal financial professions. If, having read this guide, you’d like to learn more about the industry, conduct some pre-interview research, or simply post your resume for your next job, come and visit us at eFinancialCareers. Be sure to check out our Campus Connection, which provides news, tips, background and other information especially for business students. With best wishes for your career,

Mark M. Feffer U.S. Editor, eFinancialCareers www.efinancialcareers.com

Contents Welcome Table of Contents How to Use This Guide 1 2 3 Job-Hunting While Employed Working with Corporate Culture Negotiating Compensation (and Related Hints) Profiting From Performance Reviews 4 5 6 31 32 33 34 Overview A Career in the Financial Markets The Brave New World Into the Storm Diversity Trends in Diversity Finding the Right Fit Working with Diversity Groups 36 38 39 40 42 Finding a Job The Campus Recruitment Process: A Survival Guide Career Services Officer Q&A All About Internships Landing Your First Job Ace the Interview Resumes and Cover Letters How to Research Potential Employers Networking in College – Online and Off Your First Finance Skill-Set The Ins and Outs of an Overseas Job 7 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 Q&A: Mark L. Marketing: Maria Slabaugh Writers: Dona DeZube. Chamberlain. Mark Feffer.efinancialcareers. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . no part of this publication may be reproduced without permission. Carol Lippert Gray. Sonia Lelii. Lily H. www. Deutsche Bank Q&A: Dale A. AIG Investments Sectors Mergers and Acquisitions Debt and Equity Capital Markets Sales and Trading Research Quantitative Analytics Hedge Funds Foreign Exchange Fund Management 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 66 68 70 72 74 76 Managing Your Career Managing Your Career Voices of Experience When It’s Time to Make a Move Getting the Most Out of Headhunters Office Politics Building Effective Relationships with Mentors Where You’ll Be in Five Years Networking as a Professional 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 Corporate Banking Private Banking and Wealth Management Operations Investment Consulting Private Equity Global Custody Risk Management Compliance Careers in Financial Markets is published by eFinancialCareers Ltd. Thomas Additional copies: help-usa@efinancialcareers. © 2007-09 eFinancialCareers Ltd. Jon Jacobs. Li. Scott Krady. Myra A. Deputy Editor: Jon Jacobs.com Editor: Mark Feffer. Burnett. Design: Michael Ballou Dudley.com +1 800-380-9040. Laura Lorber.

eFinancialCareers www. Finding a Job provides tips for identifying and landing not just your first job. The Overview presents trends and career paths across the industry as a whole and investment banking in particular. from both the employer and employee point of view. That’s why our Sectors section reflects the range of professions and skills needed for each area. Finally.com Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . please be sure to let us hear from you. This guide will ground you in the securities industry’s different sectors and provide background information on available career paths and the skills you’ll need to be successful. or risk management and compliance. career advice and information on employment trends in the financial markets. To be credible at interviews. but the right first job. you have to know the difference between. global custody and private equity.www. If you have questions or comments. I hope this guide will inform and inspire you for your financial career.efinancialcareers. while Managing Your Career explores strategies and tactics to help you move steadily up the ladder – and to the top. Resources Resources Diversity Initiatives Glossary Many Paths to a Rewarding Career 92 93 94 96 Jon Jacobs Staff Writer. I hope you’ll use eFinancialCareers as you build your success. our Diversity section explores the financial industry’s efforts to attract and retain a diverse work force. say. where you’ll find up-to-date pay and hiring news. And.efinancialcareers.com Human Resources Legal Information Technology Marketing and Public Relations Ratings Agencies Information Providers 78 80 82 84 86 90 How to Use This Guide Careers in Financial Markets is designed to be used in conjunction with eFinancialCareers.

don’t be deceived: Any large investment bank has scores of VPs in its ranks. 4 Analyst In investment banking. Analysts being considered for promotion must demonstrate an aptitude for leadership.the company and sector research that helps a bank win business. Because sales people and traders operate on their own. Even once they have. where they can join at the next rank: director or executive director. In corporate finance. These are the rainmakers who work directly with clients and bring in business. exceptionally talented trading-desk VPs can make more money than their firm’s managing directors.A Career in the Financial Markets Is there any such thing as typical? Each investment bank has its own personality. many VPs will stay in place for longer than the typical three years. Of course at that point. they’re heavily constrained until they prove they’re not going to press the wrong button and lose millions. few of those who started as analysts will make it to this level. Those who don’t progress at one bank often jump to another. they usually hold their position for three years. Associates “Associates” are either analysts who’ve made the grade or business school students who’ve joined the bank after earning their MBA. Some celebrate the art of the deal. and usually have more frequent contact with clients. How long should it take? It’s not unreasonable for a hungry new analyst to become a managing director by his or her early thirties. One large bank promotes only 6 to 8 percent of its directors to managing director each year. At the end of the day. then decide whether or not to renew their contracts. In corporate finance. Typically. the first rung on the ladder is the analyst. Those working in sales. At Goldman Sachs. “analyst” is simply another way of saying “trainee. associates manage and allocate work to their own teams of analysts. vice presidents manage the day-today affairs of associates and analysts. while others laud diligence.” The work analysts do varies from division to division. So. trading or research often have their own book of customers. or their own list of companies to research. and it’s at this level life starts to get exciting. analysts have the option of deciding whether they want to stay on or make their way in another firm. In sales. These men and women are the right hands of investment banking’s leaders. while others measure their staffs by the dozen and work out of a single office suite. revenue generation and client service are keys to moving up in the investment banking world. Analysts assigned to the trading floor can’t trade until they’ve passed their regulatory exams. calling (relatively unimportant) clients on various (non-crucial) matters. they’re the number-crunchers who study a firm’s financial reports and put together “pitch books” . In corporate finance. Here again. It’s in this position graduates invariably begin their careers. Most banks keep analysts in place for three years. most share a common approach to their organization. Vice Presidents Successful associates move into the role of vice president. executive directors help MDs handle relationships with client companies. Director or Executive Director For directors and executive directors – the titles are used interchangeably – the top rung of the ladder is within reach. Managing Directors At the upper echelons of the investment banking hierarchy are the managing directors. individual performance. So no matter where you work. In sales and trading. In the language of Wall Street. they hit the phones. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Despite such differences. As happens in any pyramid structure. Some see themselves as cutting edge while others pride themselves on tradition. the ability to present their point of view persuasively – even when it’s contrary to the views of others – and an understanding of the needs and motivations of both their firm and its clients. career transitions are more difficult. they call bigger and more important clients and place ever larger trades. Many have tens of thousands of employees in locations around the world. While the title may sound daunting. At this level. the managing directors. more flexible risk parameters when trading. the ratio of employees to managing director is roughly 16 to 1 (as of April 2009). you’ll probably encounter a similar retinue of job titles in similar spots on the organization chart.

Consider even starting out in a non-financial corporation with the idea of doubling back to Wall Street when conditions are better. And don’t despair: Yes. Through the early months of 2009. you should approach foreign banks. When you join an employer. you must have a Plan B and C to fall back on in case your Plan A doesn’t pan out. However. the surviving top-tier firms are in no mood to expand aggressively as they did during the real estate bubble earlier this decade. even at top institutions like the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. the world’s leading financial institutions were combing U. and some key practices – including how it compensates employees – have been placed under unprecedented government scrutiny and control. and might even hire a sought-after candidate’s spouse to help ease the stress of relocating. And Then There Were Five Start with the most visible sign: The number of large employers has shrunk. knock on other front-office doors like asset management or foreign exchange. Besides erasing more than 200. Still. a rapid rebound in campus hiring is unlikely. algorithmic trading systems. midtier firms and boutiques rather than focus all of your energy on getting an offer (or even an interview) from Goldman Sachs or JPMorgan. Facing a tough business climate and the prospect of tighter regulatory oversight for many years to come. the competition is even tougher than it was before. always look before you leap. extracurricular leadership roles or Wall Street internship experience could expect offers from as many as seven or eight banks. its structure has been upended.or even benefit. the landscape has changed and. As bulge brackets pull back. its power and prestige dented. selected institutions in those other categories are moving into the breach. and it’s looking for smart people to lead it into the future. So perform thorough due diligence on any firm you consider working for. gave them weeks to respond to a job offer. A third bulge-bracket institution. All of this translates into fewer job and internship opportunities on Wall Street than in years past. its name will loom large on your resume. and retail financial advisors.efinancialcareers. “bulge-bracket” banks. Wall Street didn’t resume hiring in a big way until a few years after the economy and the financial markets had bottomed. and Europebased banks continued to visit campuses. and cut back on international relocations. helping define your own brand reputation both while you work there and even after you leave. As recently as 2007. The disappearance of Lehman Brothers (broken up after a September 2008 bankruptcy filing) and Bear Stearns (absorbed by JPMorgan Chase in May 2008) leaves just five U. Students who possessed top grades. For certain types of roles. And rather than confine your focus to investment banking. the competition for coveted slots in the big investment banks’ analyst programs looks fiercer than ever.S. slash employee perks. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . some business segments and functional departments have seen demand hold relatively firm during the downturn . Global banks courted top students with lavish dinners. While the banking industry will eventually resume growing. For subsequent classes. too. In the downturn that followed the technology bubble bursting in 2000.000 banking jobs worldwide from 2007 through mid-2009. A slow. but Wall Street’s still in business. Merrill Lynch. They include restructuring and managing distressed assets. yes. credit risk management. the recession and financial blowups also prompted major financial institutions to reexamine bonus policies. Those days are gone – perhaps forever.S. campuses to recruit hundreds of students each into summer internships and permanent entry-level jobs. regulatory compliance. Market conditions might be better by spring 2010. 5 Coping With a New Landscape What’s an aspiring banker to do? If you’re set on making a career in finance. the summer internships that provide an indispensable springboard to a job offer will be harder to come by. However. relatively jobless recovery is widely expected this time around. Even if you attend a top-tier university.S.com The Brave New World The recent financial crisis continues to reshape the investment industry The hiring climate on Wall Street and in the fund industry has changed dramatically in the past two years. but made far fewer offers. for the Class of 2010. major U. even if the worst of the industry’s troubles are behind.www. banks like to draw well-placed people from industry. Fierce Competition So. where there had been seven. was acquired by Bank of America at the end of 2008.

Log your research and networking efforts. If you do. What’s more. 6 friends . Seek out as many items from that list as possible. If the job’s in Boston and you wanted to live in New York. Otherwise. because banks never completely stop hiring students. not counseling kids at Camp Wikiwacky. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and build personal relationships with your professors by visiting during office hours. Do what it takes to keep your GPA high. Get tutored. take it anyway. you’ll be passed over in favor of the student with the right experience. but they may talk to you about company culture. Up Your Odds Then there are the intangible assets that can put you above the competition: What’s it take to win a Wall Street job? Let’s start with the tangible assets recruiters look for in students: financial engineering or economics. Just Say Yes When all this work pays off and you finally get an offer. don’t even think about jerking them around. If you’re not well-liked by many.Into the Storm How to approach a rattled job market Despite what you may have heard. Major in a relevant field. make use of them. there are still jobs in investment banking. then dig deeper with networking conversations. Start building alumni relationships the day you arrive on campus. As for relatives in investment banking and rich. Prepare by researching companies and the people you’re about to meet. Do a practice interview at the career center and beg them to be harsh. make sure your resume gets seen and steer you to the right classes and internships. who you are.you’ve either got them or you don’t. File flattering memos from your internships and copies of brilliant work. Start at the company’s Web site. you need to stand out during interviews and campus events. Does it take you an hour to walk across campus because everyone you pass stops to chat with you? That’s good. express your delight. If you’re waitlisted. Alumni won’t hire you just because you went to their school. Spend the summer in an investment banking or a related internship. Respond ASAP. So starting your freshman year. more focused and more flexible in your job search. try to figure out why not and fix your flaws before you job hunt. Be humble and portray yourself as someone who knows some things but still has a lot to learn. Improve your communication skills by joining the local Toastmasters Club or taking a public speaking course. Pay attention to culture and the differences between individual firms. You just have to be more intense. read annual reports and news stories. Do what you can from the inside to get where you want to be in the future. you don’t have to do anything to find a job that students who graduated into a bull market didn’t do. or you had your heart set on analysis but the job is in municipal bond sales. Join the business club and volunteer so much they make you president. Be ready to discuss current company issues. Join professional associations and go to live events and informational interviews. trusting With competition so fierce. study when you’d rather party. High level math and information technology coursework are proof you have what it takes to estimate risk or price securities. Ask your bluntest friend how you come across. what you want to do and what’s in it for them if they hire you. This takes a lot of time and energy. schedule a regular day and time for job hunting.

” says Dr. “The joke on the street is that there’s one job in investment banking and it might be gone.or even eliminated graduate hiring. Morgan Stanley. your job search could be ended by overly brief answers. thousands of soon-to-be graduates apply for the few hundred openings offered by each of the largest banks in a typical year. JPMorgan and Citigroup still have investment banking practices. Merrill Lynch. alumni. stop by the office to discuss them and offer to do any task – no matter how menial – to support their current research projects. A student.” Schwartz says.5 will likely knock you out. before you submit online.” Schwartz says. Still more are knocked out by behavioral questions such as “Describe a situation in which you displayed leadership skills to influence the outcome of an event. and they’ll all have analyst programs in the future.” While you should get your application in as early as possible. As the market re-invents itself.” says David Schwartz. social skills and relevant internships as early as possible. Phil Gardner.” she says. start acquiring coursework. “If a BC student calls and says they’re really interested in becoming an analyst. your application is going to be noticed. the search for your banking job should start the first week of your freshman year. in New York.” Small and mid-size firms have also cut back . career center to see which banks make campus recruitment visits and learn how to sign up for events. your best bet for landing a job in investment banking remains landing a spot in a training program via on-campus recruitment. If you want to secure your spot on Wall Street. does it draw large commercial banks? Ask which professors have investment banking ties and sign up for their classes. there’s one more thing to do: Get rid of anything inappropriate that you’ve posted on Start Early While not everyone enters investment banking through campus recruitment. she adds. a financial services recruiter at DN Schwartz & Co. very active alumni group on Wall Street that cares about the kids who come out of BC. If you’re at a high-profile college. But this isn’t a typical year. Vivienne Dykstra. a former investment banking recruiter turned graduate-recruitment consultant. banks use online applications and in-person interviews to seine waves of candidates. “In students’ lifetimes. “That’s true of both internships and full-time opportunities. Groundwork laid in those areas during your freshman and sophomore years will help you during the on-campus process when you’re a senior. Wall Street is going to be different.or that their online forms eliminate over 50 percent of applicants. career center pros and fellow students for feedback on your replies. director of the Collegiate Employment Research Institute at Michigan State University.efinancialcareers. Drawn by the field’s high pay and the potential for international travel. notes the premier investment banks have sliced recruitment by 35 percent to 50 percent. Indeed. and to have students deselect themselves if they’re not of the right caliber or lack a passion for the job. A GPA below 3. visit the cooperative education office to check on internships. even experienced investment bankers are challenged to find work.www. seek alumni help. concise and demonstrate a skill used in investment banking. extracurricular activities. and seek their advice on choosing the right classes for the track you want to get on. Ask professors. Don’t just join student banking and finance clubs. “Boston College has a very tight. “You have to be a top-notch. “There’s never a guarantee an alumnus can get you in. unless there are mitigating factors like being the captain of a Division I Champion team.” Still.” Your answers must be detailed. Gardner says. “Goldman Sachs. it’s not surprising investment banks use the Internet as the starting point in the application process . 7 Surviving Application Forms With thousands of applicants seeking positions. In a year like this one. skipped questions and posting replies from one bank’s application form to another’s. “The challenge for them is making sure they hire the best of the students when they need less people. spelling errors. he notes. volunteer for a committee and move into a leadership position.com The Campus Recruitment Process: A Survival Guide Breaking into investment banking has always been difficult. it’s the route taken by between 80 and 90 percent of the students hired. Read your professors’ journal publications. the alum will keep an eye out and make sure their application is given due consideration. Check with your school’s Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Next. In addition to on-campus events. Find mentors on and off campus. If the school doesn’t draw investment bank recruiters.” However. If you lack an Ivy League pedigree.

you’ll likely do a first-round interview or be invited to attend on-campus presentations followed by networking receptions. between half and two-thirds will receive the coveted offer of a full-time job. It may make sense to get industry expertise and then return for your master’s in business administration in a few years. director of the London Business School’s career services department. your next step is a second-round interview at company headquarters. know why you want to do what you want to do and how you’re going to sell yourself. the graduate recruitment consultant. “When people did that in the past. such as quantitative analysis or financial engineering. But before attending any event. but still have in your mind very specific goals. Financial services sales. partying. “Know how you’re going to keep the conversation going. Arabic or Nordic languages – can also help land you a position. for the London Business School.your own social networking sites. 8 broadly about other skills you have and where else can you use them. modeling. If you make it that far. what do you do if you’re one of the many students who don’t make it through the campus recruitment process? “If you haven’t found anything by spring. As a last resort. are another option. “But some experience is better than none. including insurance and financial planning services. so you don’t have to work in financial services to use those skills. If You Don’t Make the Cut… So. you’ll face a panel of junior staffers from the business to which you’ve applied. finance careers. Google yourself to make sure you haven’t missed anything.” Hot industries right now include pharmaceuticals. but you’re getting experience. you’re a champ: At this point. expand your search. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Meeting Prep If you’re at a top-tier university. less than fully dressed (no bare chests even for men) or doing anything you wouldn’t want shown on a Today Show segment your grandmother was watching. as well. and some work is better than none.” says Dykstra. forecasting and company evaluation skills. That would include pictures of you drinking. Fluency in one of the languages spoken in emerging markets – including Russian.” Hewitt suggests. the company. Of those. along with a human resources professional (see Ace The Interview on page 13).” While you may not land the exact position you wanted. Chinese. about 400 of 10. associate director. “Learn about a particular industry and use that knowledge combined with an MBA to move over into banking. Morgan also suggests developing transaction-related skills by finding deal-oriented work.” Or.” Another option is to increase your skill set by continuing on for a master’s degree in a high demand area. “Read up on the sector. Portray yourself as a team player and a leader. and continue to be proactive. be flexible. Usually. senior associate director of career services at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. “Asset management start-up companies are coming to us looking for students with research. If you succeed. smoking. pitch books. students who don’t find any work should be prepared to do an internship that will eventually lead to a permanent spot. or starting your networking efforts.” Practice sessions and other programs offered by your school’s career counseling center can help prepare you for more formal on-campus interviews. says Dykstra. look at investment banking models. Regional commercial banks tend to recruit from Midwestern schools and tend to be conservative. says Diane Morgan.” she says. land a compliance position at a regulator and aim to return to the private sector within a few years.” recommends Barbara Hewitt. education. says Lara Berkowitz. and research. “Think more .” she says. such as Operations. and ask your friends to remove anything about you from their pages.000 applicants are still standing. be sure to prepare. health care and alternative energy. it wasn’t terribly effective. “Some of the roles with the smaller startup asset managers and hedge funds are unpaid. Learn to talk the talk. Remember that even information chats are interviews. One option is to find a slot in another department. perhaps you can stay in the sector by working in another niche. with technical and companyrelated knowledge. If you’re completely enamored with banking. “Finance is a skill that every organization needs. but they can be great places to work. which are designed to test your skills and probe your personality. you can set yourself up to take another run at your dream job in a few years.

so don’t try to string them along. Most will provide some career assistance to alums. What other skills do you have and where else can you use them? The federal government is hiring. If it drags into months after graduation. If I want to work on Wall Street but can’t get hired. after all their recruiting. but we certainly see students taking investment research positions and going into private equity positions doing the background research on acquisition targets. In a tight job market. Some. Companies are watching their budgets so I’m not seeing the nice dinners and lavishness we have seen in the past. There are some opportunities on the buy side and it’s growing more common. and to have specific goals but to be flexible.com Q&A Barbara Hewitt. Is it possible to find work on the buy side with only an undergraduate degree? There are fewer opportunities. It’s hard to get those positions when you’re not coming out of an MBA or undergrad program. The organization might have something at the end of the summer for high performing interns. Stay late. Think more broadly. what can I do now to improve my chances of eventually landing a job there? Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 “Do an extraordinary job. However. The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania What advice are you giving students who want to pursue a career in financial markets? We are lucky. do more than you’re asked. Keep going back to your career center. but still not as many as on the sell side. you could work in the pharmaceutical industry and then move to a company that invests in pharmaceutical startups. Companies are watching their budgets so I’m not seeing the nice dinners and lavishness we have seen in the past. Companies are not interested in waiting around to hear back from a student on an offer. Organizations want students to take the offer or not. do more than you’re asked.” . What can young people do to make sure they leave school with a job offer in hand? Consider how flexible you’re being.” We encourage students to be proactive. expand out. network outside your department. but they’re not hiring nearly as many people as they were in better markets. so don’t try to string them along. 9 “Organizations want students to take the offer or not. decide they can’t make an offer to anyone. fewer interns from last summer were offered full-time positions in the fall 2008 because of hiring reductions. it can irritate companies if students try to negotiate too heavily. That being said. For instance. Look at different geographical or functional areas. How do I turn an internship into a full-time job? Do an extraordinary job. consider volunteering at a nonprofit in a business area to develop fresh skills and show you’re acquiring new skills. How has the recent downturn changed the college recruitment process? Student expectations need to be realistic about the opportunities they may be offered. you might become familiar with a particular industry by working directly in it and then use that knowledge to move over into banking eventually. Finance is a skill that every organization needs so you don’t have to work in financial services to use those skills.www.efinancialcareers. Most of the recruiters are still coming here. Senior Associate Director of Career Services. Most students are not going to have four or five offers. network outside your department. Stay late. If you haven’t found anything by spring. smaller firms are hiring.

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All About Internships
You’d never buy an interview outfit without trying it on first, to see whether it fits well and becomes you. But many people jump onto a career path without considering whether it’s the right one. Having an internship lets you try a profession on for size. Corinne, the director of investor relations and marketing at a Connecticut-based hedge fund, is a perfect example. In college, she double-majored in finance and art history. Her first internship was at a major auction house. But she realized her path there would be stunted. So she took on business-related internships with employers large and small, public and family-owned, and found her niche. Without an internship, she says, “you’re not prepared for the responsibility and independence.” That said, however, finding an internship in the financial world is challenging now. “It’s tight this year, there’s no question about that,” says Barbara Hewitt, senior associate director of career services at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. “We’re down about 27 percent in terms of on-campus interviews. The big banks we typically work with are cutting their classes of students. And I don’t think things will be rebounding any time quickly.” Among other things, Hewitt notes, that means prospective interns don’t have a lot of negotiating room. If a bank makes an offer, it’s one a student can’t refuse. “They’re not interested in extending deadlines, and aren’t willing to give people an extra two weeks to decide whether they want a position because they wanted time to interview with other firms,” she says. “Ironically, though, it’s more important to have had an internship now. The large banks didn’t come back and do a lot of hiring with people who didn’t intern with them. But it makes you competitive at other organizations (such as asset management and boutique firms, corporate finance departments and non-profit organizations) if you understand finance in an applied way.” Eileen Stephan, the head of graduate recruitment at Citigroup, has a slightly different perspective. While declining to give specifics, she reports the number of internships at her firm is fairly consistent year to year. “We’re aware of the current economic environment but have not decreased the size of the program significantly, and we may go a little bit higher as the markets improve,” she says. Further, Stephan says, Citi “abides very carefully by the guidelines Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 set by the schools we recruit from” in terms of setting decision deadlines. In choosing summer interns (rising college seniors) and summer associates (students between their first and second years of graduate school, 90 percent of whom are MBA candidates), Stephan says, “we look for people who can articulate an interest in the financial markets. Are they academically capable of doing the work? And an enthusiasm for financial services is important.” You’ll have “a leg up,” she adds, if you identify internship opportunities early. “The recruiting process can take a lot of time in researching firms, preparing your resume, interviewing, and networking,” she says. “That’s a lengthy process along with your academic requirements.” Hewitt agrees. “It’s more important than ever to go to the interview having done your homework,” she says. “This is not a time at all to wing it. And whenever you can, get people to put in a good word for you. It makes it that much easier when you can get recommended.”

11

Keep Your Eyes Open
When seeking your internship, cast a wide net. “Understand that there’s a variety of positions within financial services,” Stephan says. “We look for people with a variety of backgrounds for positions in human resources, risk management, sales and trading, etc. This industry welcomes students with varied and interesting backgrounds.” Once you’re in the door, keep a mental checklist:

yours? Be curious (but not pushy) about their backgrounds and responsibilities.

for more.

dents and alumni from your school. As you hone your existing skills and acquire new ones, you just might meet someone who can help you find a permanent job.

Landing Your First Job
You’ve studied the theories, honed your skills through internships, caught leads with your network, and now you’ve finally got a chance to convince an actual employer you’re ready for the real world. How, exactly, do you do that? By knowing who you are, what you want and what you can offer. Although that sounds simple, it results from a long process that, if skipped, often ends up with someone always being a candidate - and never an employee. The key is to view yourself from the employer’s perspective. As you write your resume, ask yourself if each item is presented in a way that demonstrates your value to the employer. When you network, be sure your elevator speech mentions what you can do for the company that hires you. Remember – it’s not about you. It’s about the employer’s needs. “This year, you have to be focused and know what you have to offer a company,” says Phil Gardner, director of the Collegiate Employment Research Institute at Michigan State University. Since banks are cutting back on student recruitment, there’s less chance that those with majors other than math, finance and economics will be hired, says Vivienne Dykstra, a former investment banking recruiter turned graduate recruitment consultant. “In the next year, recruitment is going to be focused on people with the right experience who’ve proven themselves,” she says. Beyond good internship experience, you’ll also need to do a mammoth amount of research so you know what’s going on in the markets generally, and can describe why you’re interested in joining a particular firm. Academically, the better your GPA, the better your chances of landing the job. “Don’t ever forget you need that GPA at a certain level to be attractive to certain employers,” says Manny Fernandez, national managing partner, university relations and recruiting for KPMG, LLP, in Denver. However, academics alone won’t land you an offer. Your goal should be to strike a good balance between academic credentials and interpersonal skills such as leadership and teamwork, Fernandez says. If you’ve worked your way through school, explain that briefly in your resume, along with items that showcase your leadership roles on and off campus. “If you integrate those words into your resume, and show how you’ve taken on responsibility and have been able to complete tasks, employers will look at you as someone who can grow to be a great contributor,” Fernandez points out. That what-I-can-do-for-you attitude needs to show up in all your networking communications, as well. “Use your connections, alumni, parents, peers already in the market, Facebook and LinkedIn,” Gardner says. “And in doing that, say not what you’re looking for, but what you can offer a company. The message has to be what you have to offer, not what you want.”

12

Right Pedigree
How do you show value? By having a solidly built foundation. Did you take classes that led to a major relevant to Wall Street? Did you intern in investment banking? “If you graduate from college and all you’ve done is scoop ice cream or painted houses, you’re not going to convince a hiring manager to hire you over everyone else,” says David Staiti, a principal with Winter, Wyman & Co. in New York. Can you explain why banking is the right career for you? Have you networked with alumni working where you want to work? “A lot of people think they can jump haphazardly into the Wall Street world,” Staiti says. “They think it will be glamorous and they’ll make a lot of money. It’s not all glitz and glamour. I talk to people who are about to graduate and they don’t seem to have any idea about what the job entails and the hours that will be involved.” To make sure investment banking is the right career, have candid conversations with your business professors, alumni and students who’ve done internships about what a day in the life of a banker is like. “They’re going to tell you that a typical week is 80 to 90 hours,” Staiti says. “Some people love it, but that is a rare breed. Doing the due diligence is a very important piece for people.” If the hours and the challenge of actually finding a job in investment banking don’t scare you off, remember that someone is going to get hired - and it could be you. “Those who are really keen and those who have a passion for the financial markets are not going to be deterred by what’s happening,” Dykstra predicts. “The good people will still find jobs.” Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10

or full-time job. but…. Don’t be surprised if you’re asked how you’d respond in a hypothetical situation. you’ll have enough material in your mental file to formulate a cogent and relevant answer. It’s okay to e-mail it. Practice. Second. Whether it’s for an internship. viewer.especially the recipient’s name. on a group trip. Demonstrate Interest Companies want to hire people who have a realistic understanding of the job and why they want to do it. your girlfriend or boyfriend to role play with you. dress modestly and professionally. Practice. your roommate.efinancialcareers. Seek out related chat rooms and professional organizations. and why you’re the right person for it. you’ll be able to demonstrate professional passion and business savvy. it’s okay to take a moment to gather your thoughts. Don’t give a chronological history of your life. in the category of “we shouldn’t have to say this. and spell everything correctly . summer position. It’s good preparation for the next round. So try to talk with people who work there and people who’ve left.www. If you’ve thoroughly researched the firm and the position for which you’re interviewing. As an optional third. Go easy on the perfume or cologne. and try to anticipate what you’ll be asked. things like the ability to think under pressure. know yourself.com Ace the Interview You thought homework would end with your last final exam. Talk with people who work in similar capacities at firms in the same sector. Wait until after the interview to jot notes about what you discussed. In other words. Also: should be immaculate. And after the interview. Once all the facts and figures about yourself and the company are in your head. including the prep you’ll need to do if you want to ace your interviews. Customize the message for each recipient by reiterating something you talked about during the interview. when you were on a sports team. know all about the company you’re interviewing with. Practice Interview questions necessarily vary with industry. Make sure you’re immaculate and well-tailored from head to toe. drive. Role-play the interview beforehand. In this way.” To answer questions about your skills and experience with fluency and grace. or working as a volunteer. If you consider your resume to be thin in these areas. and commitment. more than one person. but remember this is a business letter. don’t wing it – practice. 13 Socrates Said It “Know thyself. If the interviewer throws a curveball. intellectual curiosity. so format it as such. practice communicating them in concise sound bites. position. You never want the interview to be the first place you come up with an answer. Think about ways you could have responded better or questions you could have asked. company. it never hurts to know someone who works there and can put in a good word for you. Like any good performance. such as persuasiveness or team-building. Other Considerations Protocol and etiquette count during and after an interview. You may also be asked about specific occasions where you demonstrated a particular skill. And. and corporate culture. Don’t use abbreviations or emoticons. send a separate note to each. prepare a mental checklist of the professional assets you offer. debrief. think back to relevant instances during a part-time or summer job. A question like this can gauge your soft skills. Read sample questions in job-search books and Web sites. an interview takes rehearsal. There are two parts to this: First. So network. But there’s plenty of homework involved in a job search.” . “Tell me about yourself” and “Tell me about a time when…” are perennial favorites.leave the flip-flops home. Interviewers may ask open-ended behavioral questions to assess your organizational and oral communication skills. Ask a friend. why you want the job. but do talk about your academic and professional background. you’ll uncover pertinent anecdotes. and be well-versed in issues facing the firm and its sector. Before responding. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 .

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Stay objective and avoid the personal. convey the purpose of the letter. Focus on action verbs to emphasize your achievements. Cookie-cutter cover letters go stale quickly. you can focus on the content. Like a good commercial. and careful proofreading. or the business practices you deem subpar. Before You Send Them It’s impossible to stress enough the importance of proofreading your cover letter and resume. And keep it concise. Don’t mention hobbies unless they’re career-related. Use short. In the first paragraph. If you’re sending an electronic cover letter. 15 Your Cover Letter The purpose of a cover letter is to explain why you want a particular job and what you can offer the company.) Remember. It should contain no more than four paragraphs on a single page. It’s the most commonly used form and the one most employers are familiar with. or former boss to have a look. it will convey competence and spur managers to want to know more. and puts your profile in front of them immediately. It also means not including personal information beyond your name. they’re really two components of one presentation. That’s about how long you have to sell yourself to a potential employer through your cover letter and resume. honing. or relative to have a look . and education. these two marketing tools need high production values. or if you’ve previously met the person to whom you’re sending the letter.white or ecru only. Center your contact information at the top of each. Avoid fancy fonts and other embellishments. Keep your marketable skills front and center. Then describe your qualifications. If someone at the company has referred you. Fragments are okay. and pertinent contact information. If you’re waffling about including something. it’s still a business letter and should be crafted as such. immaculate. or hit “send. A well-crafted resume is an at-a-glance synopsis of your skills. and how they mesh with the job’s requirements. teacher. Use the same 8 ½ x 11-inch. Tailor each letter you write to the specific position and organization. rewriting.com Resumes and Cover Letters Fifteen seconds. While it’s not the great American novel.a fresh set of eyes can find things you’re inured to. Use nouns and avoid adjectives. Use black ink in the same font throughout. perfect editing. address. consider using a chronological resume. Your Resume If the goal of a cover letter is to get the hiring manager to look at your resume. the goal of your resume is to be invited in for an interview. Then proofread them again. and be sure the typeface is between 11 and 14 points. friend. ask a mentor. (It saves hiring managers a step. achieved. Include bullet points where appropriate. and professional. That means don’t mention the previous boss you considered to be mentally deficient. If it’s well written. mention it here.” Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 .www. words such as demonstrated. managed. with the most recent job first. Everything should look neat. it is your professional autobiography. and experience. experience. And they have to convey your message clearly and concisely. Ask a colleague. As a new entrant in the job market. Spell-check them. Even the most experienced candidate’s resume shouldn’t exceed two pages. with a proper salutation and closing.efinancialcareers. But remember: You’re not writing a narrative. While a resume and cover letter may appear to be two separate documents. This format lists your work history in reverse chronological order. research about the company. Confirm the punctuation is consistent throughout. One-quarter the length of a television commercial. make it the body of the e-mail. created. skills. An effective cover letter will take time and preparation. too. and compelling content. because hiring managers will use them to assess your writing and organizational skills as well as your level of interest in the position. Avoid using personal pronouns. and spell-check software often misses mistakes. Only when you’re sure everything is absolutely perfect should you put them in a matching envelope. analyzed. implemented. and should be packaged as such. Make sure your grammar and spelling are perfect. good quality paper for both . But those four paragraphs are crucial. easy-to-read sentences. Once you’ve got those formatting rules down.

gov). magazines and blogs. Delving into all this is easiest when the company is a large. and Retrieval). gays or minorities? What charities does the company support? Online Information Begin your research with public sources available online or via your campus library.pacer. chief executive officer of the Institute of Management Accountants.” Other public records sources include the U. revenues and officers. Backgrounding an employer not only assures that you’ll have something to talk about if you do get an interview. integrity and ethics. a recruiting firm in New York. you’ve got to talk to someone who’s seen the company from the inside.. suggests Jeff Thomson. Inside Scoop If you really want the inside scoop. such as hedge funds. Players in some industries. as well as cases it files against others.” Staiti says. advises Simma Lieberman. “If you talk to alumni who work there. public firm with thousands of employees. “Delaware Courts”) and the firm’s corporate names.” “annual reports. And. regional and industry-specific business directories such as ground such as competitors. Start with your own social network. does it participate in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). Check these sources before you apply for a job. of course. As you search for information about a company. it also increases the chances you and the firm will be a good fit. You campus career center likely has access to general. you can Google using both the company name and key words. author of Diversity and Inclusion. or the names of company officers. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . PACER (www. the better. you need more recent sources such as newspapers. but you want to be aware.How to Research Potential Employers Know what you’re getting into Finding a great employer is a lot like finding a great date. a principal with Winter. Wyman & Co.just Google “state name courts” (ie. Securities and Exchange Commission’s Web site (www.sec. and follow them throughout the interview process.S. as well as EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering. If you’re looking at a publicly traded bank.” says David Staiti. Just because one person didn’t like the company doesn’t necessarily mean anything. see how much emphasis the company places on its values. Plaxo and Twitter. You can also check lower courts in the state in which the company is headquartered . a database of public company filings. Analysis. in which companies commit to corporate sustainability reporting? Does it have internal networks for women. you’ll hear behindthe-scenes information that will help you figure out if this is the kind of place you’d want to work. as can social networking sites such as LinkedIn. are particularly difficult to background because they tend to be guarded about the information they release to the public. It’s hardest when the firm is small and privately held. private equity and middlemarket firms may not. “The company’s Web site is a good place to start. News Searches To get the latest dirt. Alumni and professors can also supply contacts. Among the items you’ll want to know about before you seek a position: Dig the Dirt Dig a little bit online and you may turn up things that people dislike about your target firm. Search for that information at the federal judiciary Web site. “The bigger firms will have informative sites. looking for someone who works for the company.gov). 16 Court Records You can learn a lot about a potential employer by looking at lawsuits that have been filed against it. they’ll have lots of information online because they have public filing requirements. which offers information about litigation and administrative proceedings against firms and individuals. The more you know before you agree to a match. using the company name. such as “financial reports. For instance.” etc.

or they’re not engaged. and I so appreciate your coming to this event. “Let people know what you’re interested in.” Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Where do you start? Wherever you are. a Novi. “About a third of the students with full time jobs in financial services have had an internship or work experience through family contacts or networking. if there’s a match. 17 Target Alumni A good starting point is in your own backyard: your school’s alumni. too. reach out to the school’s portfolio manager. Sports is a safe topic. or a movie you saw. Campus Connections Take advantage of on-campus connections. If you play a sport. If your school lacks such information. once developed. senior associate director of career services at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. What’s it like to live in the company’s headquarters town (not every financial firm is located in New York) or the home of a major branch? What was the impetus behind a new product or service? This is where your background research can pay off. Would you mind if I followed up with you via e-mail? I’d love to hear more about…” Don’t ask for a card or offer your own until you’ve made a real connection.” says recruiter Vivienne Dykstra. networking and media consultant. “Talk to people at the beach.” says Duperon. giving you plenty of time to practice and hone your skills.” says Barbara Hewitt. Students with no experience can toss out other ice-breakers. you’ll need three things: a 60-second explanation about who you are (called an elevator speech). or major.. and background knowledge about the people attending the event.” Ideally. or you could mention a great book you just read. president and chief executive officer of the Institute of Management Accountants. What you may not realize is that networking events frighten adults. a company that helps employers attract talent. someone is managing that endowment. Remember. your elevator pitch could mention your internship experience and what you’d like to do eventually.” says Shawne Duperon. forward a relevant news item.” he advises. use business networking sites such as LinkedIn or Plaxo. “Everyone has the same feeling of panic before networking events.” To prepare for these in-person events. they also terrify even the most capable students. “Yuck.com Networking in College – Online and Off Networking is more than something you do to land your first job: It’s a life-long skill that. on the plane. If they don’t ask you a question. or social networking sites like Facebook to find alums.efinancialcareers. will pay dividends throughout your career. “Contacts play a strong part in people getting work experience. even those that aren’t business-related. professionally printed business cards with your name and contact information. Mich. it’s like kissing someone on the mouth that you don’t know. If you want to become a portfolio manager. “When you pass out a bunch of your business cards without establishing a connection first.www. too. and when you listen to them. Your campus career center or alumni office may have searchable databases where you can find contacts based on industry. at school. While these functions create great networking opportunities. Try a line like this: “It was great to meet you and connect. home town. After your 60-second pitch.” To follow up on your leads. move on to the next person. If you’re a student. “Your game is to make friends. director of Graduate Solutions Ltd. invite the alumni contacts for coffee and keep everyone posted on what you’re doing this summer to further your career. It’s the sort of industry where networks are critical to getting opportunities. Focus on friendship and miracles will happen. job function.” says Duperon. ask the person to whom you’re speaking about themselves. says Jeff Thomson. Many campuses offer formal networking events sponsored by student organizations or academic departments. ask the coach for the names of older players who can act as mentors as you choose classes or find internships. “Go in with a couple of things in your head so you’re not at a loss for words. ask if you can follow up later. focus on asking questions instead of telling your own story and looking for work. As you work your way around the room. you can see if you want to connect. “People love to talk about themselves. you should start networking during your freshman year.. Once you’ve established rapport with someone at a networking event.

upper-level math and quantitative analysis will show your sincere interest. corporate-sponsored challenges or special programs. chief investment strategist at Bulltick Capital Markets in Miami.” “While not impossible. accounting. based in London. associate director. “Sales and general communication skills will be evaluated carefully. as well as Excel and PowerPoint training. Both are math intensive and most companies will make you take a math test. “A trader needs to handle many things at the same time without losing track of all the transactions. so you can sell whatever position you have.” says Darin Manis. They also need communication skills to transform those analytics into the pitch books and live presentations that land new accounts and retain existing business. 18 Registered Representative Obviously. Which ones will you most need? “That differs depending upon the division the candidate is coming into. it would be difficult for a student to land a job in investment banking without any evidence of economics or finance classes on their resume.. “If you’re terrible at math you shouldn’t even consider being a financial advisor. how much he was owed and how much change to give back. Classes in database management.“ To do that you’ll need analytical. etc.” Dykstra says.” You also need to be a good salesperson. remember who bought what. chief executive of financial recruiter RJ & Makay.” Analyst This fast-paced job comes with immediate demands. “They’ll be asked to read balance sheets. “Each division tends to have a slightly different approach to how they weigh skills. says Lara Berkowitz. ease in using PowerPoint. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Financial Engineering/ Quantitative Investment Here’s the division where speaking Geek is a benefit.” says Tinto. or in previous work experience. “New hires will be called on to develop financial models and evaluate companies. you need sales ability to become a financial services salesperson. you’ve got to pick up hard skills before you graduate in areas like analytics. Client Facing When seeking a client-facing position. and the ability to quickly and smoothly produce written documents such as case studies. a former investment banking recruiter turned graduate recruitment consultant and director of Graduate Solutions Ltd. you won’t be required to write as fluently and competently as you would in an analyst position. income statements. leadership roles in clubs or other campus activities. . expect to have your communication skills examined. These include being comfortable speaking to groups. senior vice president and head of global campus recruiting and rotational programs for Bank of America. “You do have to pass the Series 7 and Series 66 license exams. for the London Business School.” Dykstra adds. economics. which they pick up in their finance and accounting classes. Tinto adds. Here are some of the most common banking divisions and the skills you’ll need to break into them: accounting. finance careers.. flawless grammar. math and accounting skills. computer science. but you also need math skills. and written and verbal communication.Your First Finance Skill-Set What you need to know to get your job done In the face of fierce competition for investment banking jobs. math. Sales and Trading Remember when you were young and the ice cream truck pulled up to a group of kids? The sales guy could wait on four kids at once. Maggi looks for traders who can read people and have a sense of where the market will move – a skill referred to as being a good tape reader. evaluation. on sports teams. “That’s what a good trader needs.” says Santiago Maggi. and translate the information to their partners. In the trading side of the business. cash flow analysis. Evidence of this shows up in the classroom on projects. finance. valuation and financial modeling skills.” explains Vivienne Dykstra. you must be a strong team player. the most important thing is going to be your brain.” Because investment banking work is generally done in teams. statistics and other financial-related courses.” says Melanie Tinto. “Overall classes we look for are finance. Polish those skills at campus club or career center seminars. MBA Master’s program graduates need excellent Excel. “If you’re going to be structuring deals. and your ability to work hard and to work with clients and teammates are probably equally important. not a drawback.

Consider the quality of living in the given city and its costs of living. And then there’s gender: “Gender differences in the workplace are a consistent issue. you might be able to pursue contacts – or even job opportunities – with other financial institutions. London or Hong Kong. odds are you’ll be given a housing allowance or some other perk to relocate. Dhingra.” 19 Cultural Challenges and Distant Shores The biggest issue with foreign assignments has always been cultural assimilation.S. as well. which has seen many investment banks morph into commercial banks. notes compensation packages are tailor-made: Companies will offer just enough to attract a hire.” says Kathy Downs. warns Dhingra.” Another concern is being assigned to a location that’s remote from industry centers. This year. In March. division. a bigger risk is to accept an overseas assignment in an economy as rocky as today’s. In such times. For example. Of expatriate experience.” But from the company’s point of view. which means gaining experience abroad could be more important than ever. since work visas may be hard to come by. For someone who’s thinking of repatriation after a few years. Foreign companies with a U. which includes language fluency. “Before I place someone abroad. However. notes Downs. says Herrera. Most international recruitment right now is happening at senior levels. in. he says. mean certain jobs may be gone forever. transfers in location and function occur every 36 months. Structural changes in the financial sector. he summarizes. but not more. Although the firm has operations in several parts of the world. if you’re working in New York. it’s a waste of their money.” Those had the potential to be sweet gigs: The firm’s employees change geographic region and business group every 18 months for the first three years.S.” The competition for international spots can be tough. “If you do it well. be sure to investigate the specifics of the position and the country it’s located Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . notes companies are seeing a bigger percentage of their revenue generated overseas. “Always visit the country before you decide on a job overseas. After that. he says. Companies are shifting business models and realigning compensation. it’s hard to ignore when bright spots emerge beyond North America. you may need to consider currency fluctuations. Depending on what currency you’re paid in. “a huge consideration. notes that in a difficult economic climate.” reports Lily Tang.www. finding a position overseas was seen as a way to build credentials and gather experience that would stand out on a resume. make sure your own passport and any needed visas and work permits are in order. presence appreciate someone fluent in both English and their local language or dialect.S. Speaking at least two – but possibly more – languages definitely pays off. Herrera. and I will also ask about their family situation and if they have a family member who’ll need to work abroad too. when any hint of hiring gets attention. firms often prefer to hire locally rather than internationally. seeking to reduce their risk and levels of debt. for example. payroll.com The Ins and Outs of an Overseas Job The realities of working internationally For years. “if you don’t. “The ideal of a respectful workplace is so defined by the social norms of any given society. “if you’re being relocated by your current firm. a European bank may look for an American to lead its U. of Robert Half International’s finance and accounting division. he’s seen contraction in most geographies and sectors. equity is elusive. When considering a post overseas. And now. For example. or vice versa. moving for a job with South Africa’s Standard Bank Group would be a different matter. Arun H.” This is. a consultant with recruiter Egon Zehnder International. you get good returns. and Latin America. expatriates located in its Johannesburg headquarters don’t have as many colleagues from major banks for networking and socializing.S. in her view. according to Dhingra. a financial services specialist with Egon Zehnder. Of course. German Herrera. who shuttles between the U. employers may not want to bring expatriates back to the U. particularly banking. even in organizations working hard on diversity and inclusion. However.efinancialcareers.” The lack of attention or sensitivity to acceptable behavior and language can quickly derail a promising career. the Financial Times reported London-based HSBC Holdings was increasing the number of recruits to its international management program “from its customary 20 a year to 80 for 2009. I will always ask if they’ve ever traveled to the locale. an independent cultural consultant with expertise in financial services. such as Mandarin Chinese.

map out a game plan for where you’d . Also ask what they value when hiring at the entry level.” explains Cohen. But it’s much more than that. Most newly minted professionals don’t appreciate the potential benefits of networking. The essentials can be boiled down to a handful of basics. managing your career is about making choices on what paths to pursue. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Set Goals Once you start working. then you say. and taking charge of your personal development. and what options might await you at the entry level. “Unless you’ve grown up in the financial district. talents and skills and understand your options. But as more and more young people find themselves displaced amid layoffs and corporate restructurings. Good networking is about finding the common ground you share with other people. but having connections can open doors that might otherwise be closed to you. Your ultimate destination may not be so apparent at the beginning of your career.” Reading up on each career on Web sites like eFinancialCareers is another good idea. Many schools provide networking opportunities for students and alumni to meet and mingle. “Wall Street loves athletes. climbing the ladder. It might sound overwhelming. And remember. conduct research for a professor. skills and interests can take you.Managing Your Career It’s about more than your next job Many people think career management is all about getting that next job.” Find Your Passion 20 Your first step should be an exploration of where your talents. So take the time to examine your interests. Once you’ve surveyed the landscape. you need to consider every possible option to make yourself as attractive as possible. ‘Okay. A good place to start is with a simple Google search on a descriptive phrase. Build Your Network The majority of jobs are filled through introductions. Any kind of summer experience. You can start working on your leadership credentials as an undergraduate: Participate in an investment club at school. can be valuable. work a summer job. That could include going back to school. “If you explore one option. This inevitably includes seizing any leadership opportunities that present themselves. “You don’t have to be a great athlete. When talking to people. based on this option. and what excites them. and look for parallels in their career paths. what are the potential directions that could emerge?’” This step is likely to require a good deal of research. Ask how they got to their current position. like to see yourself in three or five years. but career management doesn’t have to be complicated. “What you do is like decision-tree analysis. try to gain an understanding of what you need to do to distinguish yourself.” says Cohen. But networking isn’t about talking to people who can get you an immediate job. such as “private equity. Your plan will have a lot to do with understanding your goals in both the mid and long terms. Among other things. and learn more about the direction you’d like to take. Focusing on a dream without knowing much about it can be dicey. You also should talk to people who work in the sectors that interest you to gain an understanding of what they do. a New York executive coach and career counselor who advises Wall Street and financial professionals. Networking doesn’t guarantee you a job. And many jobs may cease to exist as Wall Street restructures itself.” points out Cohen.” says Cohen. even if it’s unpaid. you just have to be a good team member. being able tap into resources and communities where you can promote your career becomes increasingly important. you may not know that you want to be a hedge fund manager or an investment banker. examine potential avenues that could run through each one of them. You’ll also want to identify professional organizations where you can get a student membership. “In a very competitive marketplace. For example. or pursuing a professional certification like Chartered Financial Analyst or Certified Financial Planner. students interested in the more analytically oriented roles on Wall Street may find their local security analysts’ society a good venue for meeting people and getting exposed to helpful information and ideas. says Roy Cohen. Find out what motivates them. and understanding how you can help them so that they’ll have a reason to help you. The easiest way to get started is through your school’s alumni organization.

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you’ll need to learn how to delegate. To stay on your game. some still do reimburse a portion of their employees’ course fees. that may be impractical. you’ll have found a career you’re passionate about. says Denise Palmieri. try not to take things personally or blame yourself unnecessarily. not just enough. to get exposed to industry lingo and the major trends in your field. You’ll need to have a diverse set of skills. you’ll need to maintain a high level of energy and preserve your health.Extend your networking online to social-networking sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. It allowed in people who have may have been a little rough around the edges but were very smart and talented in their quantitative abilities. You’ve got to be thick-skinned. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . “It’s a hologram of your networking. or that you’ve fallen out of touch with your network. Don’t let yourself get overtired. Develop Your People Skills Success in a financial-services industry career isn’t just being good at math and quantitative analysis. Entry-level employees usually need to roll up their sleeves and be willing to do nearly anything. This is particularly true in a competitive job market since people typically prefer to work with people they like. then make an impulsive decision. Although many businesses have pulled back from sponsoring career-related education. including good interpersonal skills. along with specialized educational firms. You’ll have aligned your personal and professional goals and will likely be willing to make that commitment early on. the biggest error you can make is being impatient and making a job move too quickly. your goals in need of realigning.” Continue Learning 22 Managing Yourself Not long ago. Extra. As you rise. For juniors and seniors graduating into a hyper-competitive job market. Give after-work activities such as continuing education their due. You don’t become a leader by doing everything yourself. “It can be a very rough experience.” says Cohen. These basics are worth revisiting periodically.” she says. It won’t be unusual to find your interests and passions changing. It’s also important that you read trade publications.” he says.where you really see each other and make genuine connections .” says Cohen.” The reunion . Bear in mind what can help you succeed early in your career may be very different than what you need as you advance. “The only way that they will succeed is by bending over backwards and working 110 percent. Bear in mind that managing your career is a process. “But that’s not acceptable any more. It gets companies into trouble. “What might be valuable initially. When it comes to career management. says Cohen. But don’t mistake it for real networking. and the various elements often go hand in hand or overlap. such as Institutional Investor and others. advice on career management included discussions about the need to maintain an adequate work-life balance.” says Cohen. “Wall Street is not a fraternity. director of client relations at the Pinnacle Group. Often young people will get frustrated or disappointed. That’s not to say that you should be working 24 hours a day. “This is a market that demands extra. Formally recognized programs such as a part-time MBA or the Chartered Financial Analyst program have helped many a professional advance his or her career growth. semiannual or even quarterly career-management check-up will serve you well.is the real networking. “All you are doing online is interlinking your networks. Professional development classes are available through many professional societies. an executive recruiting firm in New York. Wall Street was really forgiving. “For a long time. An annual.” The good news is that if you’ve done your homework. When it comes to the people that you work with. The above isn’t a to-do list where you check off an item and then move on.” When you think about continuing education. don’t overlook these “soft” skills. might be irrelevant or dangerous midcareer.

so you can advise clients. people who work at hedge funds. Reid. Robin Marshall. as well as a hunger for learning since research into companies requires you to dig deep through information so you can ask the right questions and ultimately make the correct rating recommendation. DBRS skills. 3i Group Richard Kass Chief Investment Officer KBK Wealth Management 23 the obvious publications – such as The Wall Street Journal. Partner. AIG Investments around you. etc.P. It’s important to be versatile and embrace different challenges. Vice-Chair and Co-Head. and try to convince them why you should be a part of their team. Chief Investment Officer KBK Wealth Management standing of various investment products. Marcia Rothschild. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Use them to learn about the key firms and important deals being done. Real Estate Private Equity Group. Megan Brown. allows you to determine which products are bestsuited to helping them achieve their goals. Managing Director.www. J. Gunjan Kedia. Jonathan Feniak. Scotia Capital the market and try to understand why things trade the way they do. Part of your future worth is who you know. When you’re 19 or 20 years old. Sarah Baldwin Kavanagh. LLC Marcia Rothschild Managing Director BNP Paribas Richard Kass. Global Product Management. don’t be afraid to demonstrate your excitement.com Voices of Experience Professionals offer advice on investment banking careers Dale A. BNP Paribas pendently.efinancialcareers.P. Demonstrate that you can close deals and grow a client relationship over time. requires you to listen and understand clients’ fears and goals. Don’t hang around with the same type of people you hung out with in high school. The Economist. EVP. Alan G. Financial Times. Megan Brown Vice President J. which plays a big role in how enriched your life is. and why investors are behaving the way they are. Morgan Asset Management If you’re passionate about asset management and financial services. Director of Marketing. you’re not thinking about that. It’s critical that you be able to communicate with a wide range of people. concepts and simplify them. Diversified Industries. Managing Director. you will be in a better position to understand capital markets. Growth Capital. Morgan Asset Management different aspects of the business. equity world. BNY Mellon Asset Servicing data and still fail to recognize a simple and important aspect of being successful: Data is only good as a “tool” to make better business decisions. sible and prove you can succeed in a role higher than your current one. They can range from professionals who are familiar with basic investment concepts to others who have little understanding of the markets. Vice President. Burnett. Sands Brothers Asset Management.

make a stay or go decision based solely upon an unemotional evaluation of what’s best for you. then it’s probably time to go. it’s just more grass. However. they need to leave. “In the case of young professionals. 60 percent of the time they probably need to stay to get more experience and learn how to work through problems. seeking a buyer or divesting major business units. it’s probably time to move on. remain grounded so you don’t view a new opportunity through rose colored glasses. Likewise if either your department or your desk fails to meet revenue or profit targets for more than a quarter or two. it’s very difficult to salvage your professional reputation and keep your career on track.” says Crawford. a certified career coach specializing in young professionals and recent college grads. if she’s terminating current employees and hiring former loyalists. Give yourself time to acclimate to the culture before deciding to jump ship. “The time to update your resume is right after you pass your probationary period. But remember politics. and 40 percent of the time. fair. “If you’ve received bad evaluations and negative feedback from your boss and co-workers. says Hallie Crawford. “Learn to appreciate what you have. nized. Red Flags Need Prompt Action economic downturns. company-wide reorganization or a lateral transfer.When It’s Time to Make a Move When and how to change jobs Your grandfather may have retired with a gold watch. Yellow Flags Are Warnings If you have little control over a yellow flag situation listed below and things haven’t been resolved within six months. So if your boss or company executives . if it’s public knowledge that your new boss was brought in to clean up your department. president of Six Figure Career Coach and author of Six Figure Career Coaching Advice: The Ultimate Guide to Achieving Success. In the boom-and-bust financial industry in particular. be proactive and start looking for opportunities elsewhere. employees change jobs. chances are you’re on borrowed time. willing and able to launch a job search on a moment’s notice. it’s a red flag signaling the need for change. Once you’re associated with an underperforming business unit.” mistake or occasionally miss some goals. you either need to work on your performance or leave. “It’s human nature to either be impulsive or over-analytical in response to workplace challenges.” says Patricia Dorch. professionals must be ready. it’s time to look for a new job. it’s time to move on. But don’t ignore serious performance issues or a situation that is de-motivating you from giving your best performance.” Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Since the question for new grads isn’t “if” you should change jobs but “when. and any layoffs may not affect you or portend severe financial problems for your employer. “New graduates must learn to be proactive. but it’s unlikely that today’s graduates will become lifers with any one employer. Do your homework and ask tough questions before deciding to accept another offer. and peers with similar skills and experience are passing you by or being given special assignments. and new grads must learn how to adapt and survive in tough business environments.” says Crawford.” says Crawford. and there’s no leadership change in the offing. But if your company is consistently losing money. don’t get caught up in the post-change frenzy of co-workers. career has plateaued and you foresee no changes on the horizon.” here are signs to help you recognize when it’s time to move on. “Because the grass isn’t always greener at another company. Also. always necessitate a job change. red tape and frustration abound in all organizations. give yourself time to adapt to the situation so you can evaluate how it will impact your career. being liked by company management is critical for success. Also.” 24 give you the cold shoulder. only to have regrets later.

Your resume should highlight anything that might help you stand out from the crowd. that’s a sign the company is more serious about filling the position. “executivesearch consultants. Recruiting firms maintain databases of candidates for “sourcing” hires. the recruiter’s influence is very important. here are five things you should know: partner in the process. provide feedback. say. “When candidates interview with a recruiter. Recruiters can enter the picture when employers want to scour the market for a range of candidates. Companies often hire recruiters to supplement their own efforts. 20. While recruiters usually will offer a few tips to polish up your resume. unkempt or disorganized to recruiter meetings.efinancialcareers. you don’t get to the client. if the offer stage is reached. If down the road another recruiter sees negative notes about you in the database. It also can mean the firm considers the recruiter an important Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Stay in Touch Once you’ve connected with a recruiter. You’ll have to have some work experience before one will even consider talking to you.” says Adam Zoia. sports you’ve played and your grade point average. “If you don’t get through the recruiter. email or call the recruiter to report on how it went. How the recruiter is paid can send important signals to the candidate. to a limited slate of. which typically include employee referrals and job postings on internal career portals and outside job boards. Make sure your resume is in good order. usually a wider selection than they could get on their own. They Influence Hiring Decisions When working with recruiters. Otherwise. keep in contact. The best way to build a mutually beneficial relationship is to share information about what you’re seeing in the job market. For example. the gatekeeper. Cultivating good relations can pay off for you down the road. Put Your Best Foot Forward To their detriment. recruiters can become a solid resource. you’ll want to make sure you’re top of mind when a position comes up that might fit you. chief executive officer of Glocap Search. more formally. Before you begin reaching out to these career middlemen.” recruiters typically don’t enter the picture until you’re looking for your second job. One surefire way to get dinged in a database is to skip an interview. help with negotiations. If a search firm has been hired on retainer. They Work for the Hiring Company While recruiters can be helpful to candidates. But once you’ve been in your first job for about a year. and. and some want a phone call. If something comes up you simply cannot help.” Zoia points out. and make notes about the people they’ve met. And recruiters often help with the interview process. a New York executive-search firm focused on financial services. even if it isn’t particularly high. they’re paid by employers. If a company outsources the task of filling a particular position entirely to one search firm. the company is paying for its services up-front. flaky comment or inappropriate behavior – could haunt you for years to come. young professionals often arrive late. After you’ve secured that new position. give as much notice as possible. he or she is a lot less likely to call you in. for example. particularly as you gain experience and reach more senior levels. Any offense – a missed meeting. Employers also hire recruiters to screen candidates.” says Zoia.com Getting the Most Out of Headhunters Also known as “headhunters” or. don’t expect them to write it. Recruiters are paid to have a handle on the broad talent market and access to potential hires. 25 Get On a Recruiter’s Radar Some recruiters have Web sites where you can submit your profile. making it even more critical to view her (or him) as a first-round interview with the company. Usually an e-mail followed by a phone call is the best way to get started. awards. others want candidates to contact them through e-mail. where recruiters often play an integral part in the search and selection process. they should be as serious as they would be with a company. let recruiters know when your company is hiring. using their judgment to narrow a list of 500 possible candidates. Include any transactions you’ve worked on. recruiters and hiring managers will assume the worst. Last-minute cancellations are also a no-no. “The company is our master. . If a recruiter sends you to a company on an interview. the most common mistake young professionals make is underestimating their importance to the hiring process.www.

Office Politics
Yes, they exist. But you can turn them to your advantage.
Politics exist in every workplace, and financial companies are no exception. Amid the constant competition for clients, resources, promotions and raises, nearly everyone has a story of unscrupulous co-workers who took advantage of a situation by cutting corners or stomping on toes. Yet, office politics shouldn’t be considered the exclusive domain of back-stabbers and manipulators. To the contrary, those who can understand the political landscape in their organization can use it to a career-boosting advantage.
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The answer to all this: Play the game the right way. That means mastering a few simple strategies and avoiding a couple of key mistakes. Perhaps the biggest faux pas is to make inappropriate comments to co-workers without considering their ramifications. For example, don’t remark on the ugly car parked in front of the building: It could belong to your new group managing director. Another common mistake is publicly displaying potentially career-damaging information. If you call in sick with a family emergency, don’t go to a party that night and post pictures of it on Facebook. It’s not much of a stretch to imagine one of your co-workers spotting them and alerting the boss. Remember: In the world of social networking, you never really know who’s connected with whom.

Office politics most often boils down to a struggle for control, usually over resources, information or people, says Timothy Johnson, chief accomplishment officer for Des Moines, Iowa-based consulting firm Carpe Factum, Inc., and author of Gust: The ‘Tale’ Wind of Office Politics. Individual or group success typically depends on tough tasks like pushing a project to the top of the queue, finding the right people to work on it and getting the time and tools to do the job right. Each department will have its own dynamics in play at any given time, as well. For example, “Show me an IT pro who doesn’t answer to at least two different bosses, either implied or not,” says Johnson. “Then you look at all the different technical issues going on, like who has the best software selection, who can make decisions about operating systems and compatibility. Information is also part of it, such as who has what information at what time.”

Careful Communication
First and foremost, being a successful office politician means developing a rapport with co-workers - without being gossipy or delving into personal issues. It’s important to understand the communications style of your group or department, especially since those who rise to management positions tend to be good communicators. That extends to e-mail and electronic communications. Be judicious when using the “reply all” and “bcc” options, and write every e-mail calmly and respectfully. A good rule of thumb: Imagine the division head will read it. Finally, do more observing than talking. Before long, it’ll become clear what most people’s motives are. Be cognizant of who’s around you at any given time. It’s might be okay to say something controversial to a friend, but if they’re not a friend, what you say may come back to haunt you.

Skills Trump Politics?
Oddly enough, those who don’t play well with others often still succeed, especially if they have in-demand skills or, particularly, if they bring in revenue. “I’ve seen people who seem to offend anybody, but their phones ring all the time with people asking them for advice because they’re good at what they do,” observes one manager. Still, left unchecked, unhealthy office politics can lead to more overtly offensive behavior, such as emotional bullying and all-out sabotage of others’ efforts. When co-workers are doing a number on each others’ psyches day in and day out, absenteeism, poor-quality work and a high rate of turnover are often the result.

Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10

www.efinancialcareers.com

Building Effective Relationships with Mentors
It’s a two-way street
Mentors can help you find the right career, steer you down the path to success and link you to a ready-made network of industry contacts. So where do you find them? Start by checking to see if your school has a mentor program, then expand your search to alumni and industry experts. Whether they come from campus programs, a trade association or your own search campaign, as early as your freshman year you should begin to gather a group of experts who can act as a board of directors for your career. Look first to your instructors. “Many professors have real life business experience, especially adjunct professors,” says Jeff Thomson, president and chief executive of the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA). Alumni also make great mentors, so check to see if your school has a program like DePaul University’s Alumni Sharing Knowledge (ASK), where students can search for mentors by the industry they work in, the company they work for, their country of origin, their profession or their location. Gillian Steele, managing director for the Career Center at DePaul, says on-campus events as well as student finance and business club meetings also offer opportunities to find mentors. to say to someone, ‘Will you mentor me?’ You just tell them you have a lot of respect for them and their knowledge of the area, and you’d like to talk to them about what you’re thinking.” Then, you stay in touch. Once you’ve found your first mentor, don’t stop there. Susan Battley, a New York-based executive coach and author of Coached to Lead: How to Achieve Extraordinary Results with an Executive Coach, recommends finding multiple mentors. One person may help with concrete ambitions like getting up to speed on trading technology, while another may be a sounding board for sensitive, interpersonal topics. “Cast a wide net and build a personal advisory board,” Battley says.

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Build the Relationship
To get the most from your relationships, be sure to select at least one mentor who’s different than you, says Chip R. Bell, author of Managers as Mentors: Building Partnerships for Learning. “People who are different can bring a perspective that can be instructive,” he explains. As you talk with your mentors, know what you’re seeking. Early on, communicate your goals for the relationship and your expectation for the outcome, Bell says. If improving performance is on your list of goals, remember your mentors have to see the real you if they’re going to help. “Make sure that you’re authentic, real and genuine and that you show your foibles and less-confident side,” Bell says. Be prepared to hear the good, the bad and the truly grim. “Many times when students come out of college they’re a little bit full of themselves,” Bell warns. “That sometimes makes it more challenging for students to hear and value feedback and advice, particularly when it’s not what they were expecting to hear.” No matter how much your mentors’ words cut, the best reply is one that’s accepting such as: “Thank you. I appreciate your candor. I’m going to think about that.” Denying the problem or giving excuses will only discourage your mentors from giving additional candid advice. Finally, remember that a mentoring relationship is like a marriage. “Honesty is critical,” Bell says. “If it’s not working, you need say this is not what I want to do and allow both parties to adjust or abandon the relationship.”

Real World Resources
Outside campus, groups such as the National Association of Securities Professionals and the National Association of Personal Financial Advisors offer reduced-cost student memberships. Join and attend events, including any student conferences like those held by IMA, to seek out mentors. Also, some professional groups, including the New York Society of Security Analysts, have formal mentoring programs for student members. In today’s world of remote workplaces, social networking sites are another source of mentors. The same trade associations that offer in-person networking events may have online message boards where students can lurk until they get a feel for the site, present relevant questions, and then seek out relationships with those who post answers.

Find Your Mentors
Once you’ve signed up for an event, how do you find a mentor in the crowd? The key, says Steele, is to network. “Talk to as many people as you can and look for someone you feel comfortable with, who impresses you. You don’t need Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10

Where You’ll Be in Five Years
Dreams, plans and forces beyond your control
Where will you be in five years? Although it’s a common interview question for college graduates, it deserves special consideration for those starting careers in finance, especially at a time when the industry is undergoing an historic reconstruction. Your dreams and plans are likely to encounter forces beyond your control, so balancing them with a keen eye on reality is likely to be an important skill to develop for the newest generation of financial professional.
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Once you have a strong sense of what your long-term goal truly is, you have your mission. Now try putting it in writing. “There’s power in creating a written plan,” notes Vickie Austin, founder of Choices Worldwide, a career-coaching firm in Wheaton, Ill. Next, think about what you’ll need on your resume in five years, as a waypoint to your long-term objective. Map out a strategy to get there, then decide the tactics you’ll use to turn the strategy into action. Turn those, too, into a written outline. Then, get busy. Your outline should become your checklist.

Not long ago, your first career-management challenge might have been competing for a coveted spot in a bulge bracket’s training program. Now that many of these traditional entrylevel jobs have disappeared, your main challenge might be figuring out just what your first step should be. To do that, you might need to rethink your professional and personal ambitions, says Denise Palmieri, director of client relations for Pinnacle Group International, an executive-search firm in New York. “If you had your eyes set on Wall Street as your next target, what was that about?” Palmieri asks. “Dig into the underlying basis of why you wanted to go to Wall Street.” For example, did a parent or teacher suggest finance was the career for you? Or are you intrigued by analytics, research, or the technology?

Hello, Reality
Unfortunately, dreams need to be flexible. If you find other aspects of your life – your finances or relationships, for example – are suffering, you may have to reevaluate your goal or try another road toward reaching it. Focusing on dreams and plans isn’t something you do only at the outset. All through your career, you should stay tuned in to them. As time passes, your dreams are likely to change. What’s more, you’ll have to stay up to date on the business world’s evolution in order to make sure your goals and your strategies remain valid. “You may have to reframe your dream in the context of the market,” notes Austin. Balancing dreams with reality often requires resilience. It’s important to be able to bounce back from the disappointments that you’ll inevitably encounter. Having a strong network of people to whom you can turn for support and guidance is key, as is having a contingency plan. Be open to trade-offs. To stay on course, you may need to manage your expectations. A setback in the morning doesn’t mean you can’t still accomplish something that moves you closer to your goal, says Greg Sells, a Chicago-area Certified Financial Planner. “Persistence can be one of your most powerful assets,” he says. Reality may impose limitations on your dreams. But when you’re committed to a lifelong mission that you truly believe in, such setbacks need only be temporary.

On the Right Road
For some, a Wall Street job was a way to get somewhere else. If that’s true for you, ask yourself if there’s another route you can follow. If you’d seen Wall Street as the gateway to a career in private equity or venture capital, for example, what attracted you to those sectors to begin with? In other words, ask yourself: What is the dream you’re trying to fulfill? “If it’s really because someone told you that’s where the money is, you have to pick a new job,” observes Palmieri. “Because that’s not the case anymore.” Some people see Wall Street as a means to jumpstart launching their own business, perhaps by meeting bankers and other contacts and learning about financing. For others, the goal is to make a lot of money to seed a new idea. If either of these was your long-term plan, consider other avenues toward your goal. For example, is your new company something you could bootstrap?

Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10

Vice President or Manager. the WSTA provides educational opportunities and facilitates interaction between financial technology professionals and a broad spectrum of vendors and consultants. . Who are WSTA members? Currently.org or call 732-530-8808. Most are located in the New York Tri-State area. To learn more about joining the WSTA or its programs. with over 50% having titles of CIO/CTO.Building Professional Knowledge & Relationships in the Financial Industry The Wall Street Technology Association (WSTA) provides a forum for IT and networking professionals in the financial industry to stay on top of current and emerging technologies. the WSTA has approximately 1700 financial technology professionals from banks. industry specialists and consultants) The WSTA Vendor Affiliate Program provides organized opportunities to keep financial industry professionals aware of current and emerging technologies and other services important to the industry. About the WSTA Vendor Affiliate Program (open to vendors. brokerages and insurance companies. print and on-line publications and white papers. operational approaches. networking and social events. Founded in 1967. and business issues that affect their firms. Networking and relationship development is a significant part of the Vendor Affiliate Program.wsta. please visit www. This is achieved via seminars.

Extroverts are often so used to “winging it. and feelings. However challenging it is. take baby steps. the central idea was lost. Advancing from a new acquaintance to a potential job referral usually means cycling through multiple levels of contacts (one refers you to another.to someone who’s interviewing candidates for your dream job.Networking as a Professional It never stops Like many a business buzzword. friend or colleague. ful in other group endeavors. close colleagues. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. who then refers you to another. memories. one widespread myth portrays networking as a parlor game built around trading business cards the way school kids once traded baseball cards. and friends.rarely yields results. what you bring to the table. Even when networking with people you already know. Typically. or sending an e-mail. effectively building and leveraging a network of professional contacts is essential to your continued success.whose only return on your time invested may be the opportunity to secure yet another informational interview with a next-in-line contact. Over the years it’s become so enwrapped in oversimplified myths. a widely used personality test. Tips for Introverts New York career coach Bettina Seidman offers these tips to improve your networking: Instead. If networking hasn’t been a regular part of your life. Networking with strangers is hardest of all. For instance. a willingness to take chances. the phone and telling someone else about it. try to attend those that have a purpose – listening to a speaker. while introverts that you will be comfortable sharing the tidbits you have learned. However. The unfortunate result is that many people who’d benefit if they put enough effort into networking give up before they’ve given it a serious try. glad to hear from you based on a mutual contact. it’s never that easy. networking.or even introduce you . Of course. Does that mean nurturing a network is a waste of time? Decidedly not. or conferences so you’ll know someone there. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and presto! A newfound acquaintance will refer you . Even a less pie-in-the-sky version . The good news: Even if glad-handing isn’t your style. success requires tenacity. and so on) and informational interviews . the reality is introverts are often more successful because they prepare so well. Networking is Hard Work One reason many people have difficulty networking is they don’t appreciate what hard work it is. creativity. defines people according to where they get their energy on the extrovert-introvert scale. take it slowly and build confidence. Conventional wisdom says extroverts jump into networking easily. there are several ways to make it more comfortable. extroverts get theirs from interaction with other people and taking initiative in work and personal situations.” they often don’t develop good contacts and good information.request job leads from people you already know professionally . “networking” is a victim of its own success. good impressions. for example – since they tend to have a planned agenda. and a willingness to do favors for others. Attend a variety 30 tend to get energy from thoughts.

“If you are disrespectful toward your firm during your job search.” says Matt Johnston. “Keep in mind that even though you may be looking for a new job. you still must devote your full attention to your current company while in the office. president. a suit is going to be noticed. “This means you shouldn’t use your work computer to search job boards. “Most managers would rather keep a top performer with the organization in some capacity than lose the person to another company. At your next job. be careful about what you put in your resume. Johnston says. Another alternative is to schedule all your interviews for a single day. “Network for opportunities with those you trust. Pa. CCP.” Most companies would make an exception if you’re using their computer to search the internal postings. If you have queries forwarded to an e-mail address. CPA. (breaches) confidentiality. And be careful your online self doesn’t trip up your real world self.com Job-Hunting While Employed How to look. discreetly and professionally Most people move on more often in their careers than in their love lives.” Senna concludes. executive director of North American permanent placement services for Robert Half International in Menlo Park. or speak with potential employers from the phone at your desk. don’t expect a recruiter to hang around the office waiting for your call until you drive home from work and have dinner.” The hush-hush attitude should carry through into your dealings with recruiters. like mentioning your experience with a proprietary software or unique delivery Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . If you want to remain anonymous.” he says. What you do online can also reveal your intentions. president of Corporate Search America in Longwood. Fla. be careful how you dress. staffing firm.. “You may realize after three or four interviews that the job you have is your best job. says Gregory Reymann. If you can’t schedule interviews on the weekends or before or after work hours. Just be sure to let your supervisor know before you apply for another slot in your own firm. chief executive officer of Workway. Practicing proper etiquette can help you avoid burning bridges. looking for a new job while you have one can be tricky.. and then take the time off with a vacation or personal day.” Senna observes. your first decision is whether to make your contact information visible or keep your profile confidential. “you are unlikely to receive a strong recommendation from your manager. As you tiptoe around. you may be learning new skills that will enable you to manage the company you just left.” system. for example. The perils of real life aren’t the only risks a job hunter faces. Calif. showing respect is the right thing to do.” Look Inward Be cautious about who you share your restlessness with. “This will help reduce the likelihood that your current employer will find out about your search before you’re ready to tell them about it. Mass. your current manager likely can put in a good word and smooth the transition for you.” says Matuson.” On the other hand. don’t make yourself so unknown recruiters and employers can’t quickly locate you via e-mail or cell phone. a recruiter for the Judge Group in West Conshohocken.efinancialcareers.. warns Johnston.” he says. 31 Being Discreet If you’re at all good at job hunting. “If you’re open about your intentions. But. Human Resource Solutions in Brookline. When you post your resume at eFinancialCareers. a Burbank. check that address daily. “If the office is casual. “Don’t do anything that’s a dead giveaway to where you work. “Don’t make the mistake of posting something on your blog about your current job search. “One day off looks less suspicious than a half day here and a half day there. “We always caution people not to damage the bond of trust they have with their current manager. keep in mind you may end up staying put. you’re eventually going to have to sneak out to do interviews. Keep your interview clothes in the car or in your off-site gym locker and change on the way to the interview.” says DeLynn Senna.” Besides. adds Jim Boghos. he warns. But no matter how many times you do it.www. Returning calls at lunch or in the early evening is fine since many recruiters work late precisely so they can speak with candidates outside of business hours.” Reymann says.” he says. “More and more employers are doing Google searches on their employees. Calif.” says Roberta Chinsky Matuson. “Usually the way an employer finds out someone is looking is when a potential suitor .

Walk away. After talking to several people. But when there are deep differences in values and styles. The sooner you figure out the company’s values and how you can represent them. Or maybe being organized is what gets emphasis. If you’re not 150 percent sure you can deliver. say you’d rather not answer since you just joined and are still learning how things work. O’Donnell. the sooner you’ll rise to the top. listen for clues about the company’s value system. usually based on what the organization values most. While the company stars might be an obvious choice. Avoiding gossip shows you’re career minded.” says O’Donnell. If you’re asked your views on a business policy or decision. Word will spread quickly about your abilities. I know something that you don’t know.” Avoid Gossip When conversations with co-workers turn gossipy. try to find out these three things about every person whom you meet: Seek Out Mentors Having mentors is important. a career news Web site based in North Hampton. a fast turnaround might be more important than being thorough. and so is having at least one outside the organization. Soon. the relative ease and speed of your advancement will depend on how well you navigate its corporate culture. “You’re going to get some consistent answers. founder of Careerealism. even it’s just heading up an office committee. after you’ve had a chance to prove yourself. you’ll begin to see themes emerge that will reveal the true nature of the company’s culture. . it’s often best to find someone who’s not only in the position to help you climb the ladder.” says O’Donnell.H. You won’t find the rules in the employee handbook.Working with Corporate Culture Know the lay of the land Once you’ve landed a job. As you talk to people. When approaching would-be mentors. Put your hand up for small assignments at first.and threats. Make it your goal to find out what’s truly important to him or her. The key question you want to answer is: What makes a person successful here? For your first 30 or so days on the job.T. There’ll always be leadership opportunities after you’ve established your reputation. Young people change jobs about every 18 months. Then be sure to knock it out of the park. as if to say. For example.” says J. “People rarely say no. People often use gossip as leverage to get one up on one another. explain the reasons you respect them and cite concrete examples. take a deep breath and remind yourself the situation is only temporary. gossip can make colleagues wonder what you might say about them when they’re not around. don’t take it on. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Manage Up Your boss is your No. Every business has a different process for getting things done. However. don’t go there. So learning the lay of the land should be one of your top priorities when starting a new job. and help achieve those goals. you’ll be tapped when a job you’re best suited for needs doing. how you do your work will be only one of the factors that figures into your success. What’s more.” says O’Donnell. hold back from offering any opinions. “Try to see where they’re coming from. Instead. N. Your next step is to leverage that knowledge. com. “I’m the new person here and can you ask me that in a month. After about six months or so on the job. and that you want to maintain your professionalism. be an observer. Here’s a roadmap to learning and working effectively within your firm’s culture: Ask your boss for projects in which you can showcase your skills and talents. 1 customer. In large part. don’t compromise yourself. but also has the time and bandwidth to work with you. Why? You’ll want to be able to confide in someone separate from your company who can provide perspective on what you encounter and help equip you to handle office opportunities . Ask Questions 32 During your first month. Take the Long View If you find yourself clashing with the prevailing culture. “You don’t need to change who you are. It’s okay to respond with something like. Avoid making generalizations about a workplace based on one or two negative encounters. find a mentor in the organization. Be sure to say you’ll work with them on their terms. don’t bite off more than you can chew.

“Let the employer know that you want to review the offer (which you should ask for in writing) and that you need time to make the best decision for you and the employer.” And never mention your high rent. And regardless of the outcome. or covered commuting expenses. author of Get More Money on Your Next Job in Any Economy. and the projects and teams you may be invited to work on. then try to find mutually beneficial ways to achieve it.” If the company is adamant about adhering to the lower range. ask for time to consider it. if needed. “Frankly. or miscellaneous perks like tuition reimbursement or in-house training.” In other words. significant student debt. “the most important thing is not money. and CNN Money are good places to start. you receive an offer. Rather. and what you want. “would it be possible” rather than “I need to have. “You have to feel comfortable negotiating for yourself. what you bring to the table. however. “if the salary isn’t competitive. If an offer is truly unacceptable but you’d like to pursue the position. the company wants to develop you. in any negotiation. the money. In fact.” at discussion time. For instance. “ask. Sleep On It If. “And companies like employees who are proactive in developing their own career. “Women tend to negotiate less. The offer will not be withdrawn if you make this request. So knowing how to negotiate effectively.com.” Even in your first job out of school. especially when it comes to negotiating for themselves. Miller notes. telecommuting. politely Say “negotiate” in a word-association game and most people will probably respond with “compensation” or “raise. or the benefits? Then. Have a goal in mind. “show why you think the salary isn’t competitive and ask whether they can improve it... Ask when a decision is expected – and.” Finally. says Lee Miller. who could be a hiring manager or even your future boss. Miller says. try to find alternative deal sweeteners. after one or more interviews. Salary Expert. Know your value in the market. suggest a solution. By association. Stay objective and be armed with facts. don’t burn any bridges.efinancialcareers. Underwriting your private life isn’t your employer’s responsibility.” Areas open to career-related negotiation. don’t become emotional. You don’t want to alienate the person with whom you’ve negotiated. Moving. make your position clear in as positive a way as possible. “When the offer is extended. not demand. your compensation will advance as well. Research the salary range in the sector and geographic area you’re interested in.” recommends the Career Development Center at Brown University. be willing to accept the consequences. 33 Speak for Yourself While the rules of negotiation are the same for men and women. But. (Sites such as JobStar. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 .” Miller says.www. Find out whether there’s wiggle room in the benefits package. However. he cautions. the location. The offer could be rescinded. Ask about options such as flextime. encompass much more than money. ask whether you can have a performance review in three or six months that might raise your salary. or materialistic romantic partner as justification for wanting more money. request more time to compare offers or do necessary research. the sexes “tend to behave differently.” he observes.” That doesn’t mean you should agree to be woefully underpaid. Be very prepared. as long as you’re getting a competitive salary.) Objectively assess whether your education.” If you don’t feel confident acting as your own best advocate. It’s probably the least important.” What’s more valuable. you can ask for more. say. but don’t respond immediately. Be gracious. however. and how to plead your case can help to advance your career. Miller says. and skill sets merit numbers in the higher range. are opportunities for training and professional development.com Negotiating Compensation (and Related Hints) Know your value and ask for it . job opportunities. he recommends taking a course in negotiation skills and reading books on the subject. what to negotiate for. Specifically note what’s lacking in the original offer: is it the role and responsibilities. experience. show appreciation and interest.

Profiting From Performance Reviews Making the most of that one-on-one with your boss To many. take care to note “the subtleties. you’ll aim to emphasize your strong points.” To make the most of the opportunity. A favorable review is more attainable if you’ve recorded your own achievements as they occur. If the boss wasn’t fully satisfied with something. Don’t Ignore the Easy Stuff When toting up achievements for your review form. Don’t try to remember them at the last moment. Crazy Coworkers & Other Office Idiots.” says Vicky Oliver. rather than let the discontent build up until review time. career advisors and hiring managers outline a series of steps that can be summed up in three broad injunctions: Be prepared. they can actually guide their manager. Instead of challenging or disputing a negative comment. It makes it much less likely that will be identified as a weakness next time around. ask for a follow-up meeting to get feedback about your progress on that particular issue. performance reviews have a planned agenda that requires certain information compiled in advance. Sheffield suggests asking your boss: “What can I do the next time to take it to the next level?” 34 Plan Ahead Like every important business meeting. Typically.” Planning ahead is vital. job. the things that you add on top. confine your list to only major challenges. high-profile project you’ve set your sights on in anticipation of that moment. Since a supervisor often won’t voice criticisms without prompting.” Sheffield suggests making continuous efforts to air any concerns your boss may have with your performance. the guy taking initiative. Could any good ever come from a one-on-one where your boss – no matter how much he or she might respect your work – is required to detail your strengths and weaknesses? Simply put: “Yes. “As such.” ask for the big.” For instance if told. practice judo . or even a graduate degree. you’re better off knowing right away so you can take steps to address it. routine aspects of your role. “Keep track of your successes over the course of the year. the annual performance review is about as welcome as a colonoscopy. Be objective. and turn discussion of your weaker areas into a springboard to opportunities like education. He says it’s important to state how you added value through superior performance in those cut-and-dried. “Don’t expect to change the boss’s mind. he says. How to Profit From Criticism Of course. When doing so. don’t Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . that’s why we’re hired. Be strategic.not boxing.” she says. you should take the initiative to actively solicit negative feedback. they are valuable tools if used correctly. there is a review meeting and related evaluation and self-evaluation forms that both supervisor and employee must complete. obtain high ratings. He offers these additional tips on handling criticism in a performance review: the failing that was attributed to you. the review meeting itself is almost certain to bring out some negative feedback. that show you are not just a good analyst but a great analyst.” advises New York career coach Win Sheffield. “You might even get some seminars paid for.” Sheffield points out. As an employee.” counsels one manager who’s led teams within a number of large companies. Each time you complete a project. “Continually twist the boss’s feedback to your advantage. “I need to see you take on more responsibility. “A lot of our jobs are spent doing things that are so easy for us .” observes career coach Bettina Seidman. or involvement in a project that will look good on your resume. “When the employee understands it properly. When it does. Performance appraisals “really should be professional development plans. author of Bad Bosses. training. and are prepared to pitch your own professional development goals for the next year or two.” “Performance reviews are one of the few chances for employees to receive honest feedback that determines whether or not they’ll get a raise or a promotion.after all. have pro-actively managed your relationship with your boss. Ask for specifics that can help you recognize the behavior yourself.

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so does the definition of diversity. As one executive puts it. more than double the level of the previous year’s period. families tend to look toward members of their own communities to help them manage it. he emphasizes. As they deal with offices. not to mention the first black head of state outside of Africa – ensures diversity will remain front and center within corporate America. two fundamental events altered the dynamics of diversity on Wall Street. 29. leading experienced people to compete for positions that were once the domain of juniors. they are maintaining memberships and networking to build talent pipelines with minority associations. trusts and other financial investments reached 82. she adds. The study. says her budget this year was slashed. The Bureau of Labor Statistics said unemployment in securities. Jr. Not only are financial pressures felt through layoffs.” Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 36 . Companies are moving to recruit diverse candidates from across the globe. Woods.” Indeed.S. The carnage in the markets was measured in jobs as well as money. announced financial job cuts reached 260.Trends in Diversity Investment firms continue to pursue diversity goals. which isn’t the same as one that is diverse.” As an example. Gray & Christmas. operations and clients in different locations. . A diverse workforce. the Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered a decline of 777. However. Since many firms have focused their efforts on diversifying their more junior ranks – thus building a pipeline that would eventually rise to senior management – the risk to their long-term goals is real. “Customers like to work with professionals who look like them. And. “while firms aren’t hiring now. Toigo Foundation. contends the most important thing for companies to ask when hiring is “Are they qualified?” Corporate America. Second. the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing of Lehman Brothers Holdings and the acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of America sent shockwaves through the business world. Most large firms still have diversity and programs. R. funds. the election of Barack Obama – as the first AfricanAmerican president of the United States. developing and retaining a diverse workforce remains a critical challenge for investment firms and banking institutions.” Add to that the growing economic force of the world’s communities. First. The impact of the crisis was fast and sobering. For all that. if more quietly In 2008. is embracing a representative workforce. on Sept. Why is diversity a success factor? Because markets aren’t monochromatic anymore. and that goes for customers of private wealth managers as well as retail banks.or 14.68 points. according to the Robert A. The Executive Recruiter consultants serving some of the world’s largest corporations and not-for-profit organizations. At the same time.2 trillion in market value. Changes Afoot As the financial services industry changes. according to outplacement firm Challenger. a diversity consultant.7 percent of the population . Andrea Sáenz. commodities. Roosevelt Thomas. JPMorgan Chase notes more than 43 million people in the U. Wall Street’s troubles have resulted in more competition for most every job. According to a 2008 survey of talent management solutions. she cites firms who’ve begun to develop their staffs’ ability to lead internal diversity councils and deliver education workshops. wiping out $1. Two weeks earlier. by example if not dialogue. peaking at 91.000 during 2009’s first quarter.. says financial firms “are trying to stay committed. As their wealth increases. founder and president of the American Institute for Managing Diversity. executive director of the Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement.356 during the month of November. As the country’s largest and fastest-growing ethnic segment. vice president of client solutions at the Kaleidoscope Group. he notes.110. During 2008. which was founded to encourage minority students to consider financial careers. Gloria J. Having a diverse employee base to meet and transact business with is a key to making sure a firm remains competitive. 55 percent of diverse financial professionals believe minorities have borne a disproportionate burden amid headcount reductions. having a workforce with an understanding of local languages and cultures is a key factor for their success. 49 percent of its consultants noted diversity issues were increasing in visibility due to globalization trends.identify themselves as Hispanic. Hispanics control purchasing power approaching $1 trillion a year. has “differences and similarities with regard to attributes and behavior.

which have succeeded in knitting diversity into the fabric of their cultures.org This is a partial listing. ships.org The Robert A. fixed income. not everyone thinks or behaves in the same way as other members of their community. Fortunately. Developing Talent Mentoring and networking are cornerstones of talent development. but one also must connect on deeper. But at firms with established programs. career workshops.toigofoundation.hace-usa.org Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund (APIASF) www.org Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) www. no matter how dissimilar are their characertistics such as gender or ethnicity.com HISPA (Hispanics Inspiring Students’ Performance and Achievement) www.www. equity research. panels. Having buy-in from key leaders is still the best barometer for success of any and all diversity efforts. notes the Toigo foundation. with times being tight. tive American African American Women National Black MBA Association (NBMBAA) www.org National Hispanic Business Association (NHBA) www. minority workers have access to formal mentoring programs and can establish informal mentoring ties.hispa.org Management Leadership for Tomorrow (MLT) www. Of course. A diverse team made up of Harvard Business School graduates may not be particularly diverse in its thinking.org Target African American.org Native American.com In other words. Native American Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . more fundamental issues. That kind of common ground is fine.nhba. 37 Target American Indian and Alaska Native Organization Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE) www.aigcs.gmac. Women African American.org Financial Women’s Association (FWA) www. the industry has both company-wide and industry-wide programs to foster networking and mentorDiversity Initiatives Organization American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC) www.fwa. Within many investment firms.” But being of the same gender or race isn’t enough to make a prospective mentor valuable.ml4t. “The challenge today is that it’s difficult to have a representative workforce without diversity. Goldman Sachs’s Brokering Change presents speakers. Women on Wall Street is an annual conference sponsored by Deutsche Bank’s Women on Wall Street Network that brings together thousands of professionals from Wall Street firms and related industries for an evening of networking and career development.” Thomas explains.nbmbaa. roundtable discussions and draws participants from a variety of Wall Street firms. efforts continue. see page 93. Morgan Stanley’s Institutional Securities Women’s Day brings together female undergraduates from investment banking. newer and smaller firms may find it difficult to devote resources to anything above and beyond what they see as their main business. often “forged through social processes of attraction and career similarity. and institutional equities divisions with senior employees. Toigo Foundation www. For example.efinancialcareers.apiasf. For additional organizations and details.

in today’s market.” On the other.T. you may not fit in as well if you don’t share that pedigree. you won’t be under the gun. Do you feel your heart sinking.” If it sounds like brochureware. read the paper. N. asking. and the ideal person to help overcome those challenges.” says Palmieri. be sure to ask your own questions about how the manager came to be in his or her job.” Tell yourself you’re going to draw one slip out of the bowl and. write “Keep looking. and you’ll have an opportunity to be mentored. a search firm in New York. You’ll be able to go into it with your eyes open. you’ll want to do the same thing for the companies you’re interviewing with. references frequently aren’t honest. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . 38 Gut-Check Exercise After all this. as opposed to where you’re constantly trying to justify yourself. Recognize. Focus on the good aspects of your experience. suggesting this “gut check” exercise.” she explains. particularly the ability to deal with a situation that isn’t 100 percent perfect. Workplace subtleties are likely to become more apparent after you’ve had some first-hand experience. what if you still having trouble making up your mind about a company? “You have to trust your gut. no matter what. Where to Find Evidence So how to gauge a company’s culture? Most companies’ Web sites claim they have a “team-based culture that values diversity and is dedicated to serving clients and upholding the highest ethical and professional standards. it is. “You’ll have a better experience. 1 objective is to get a job. Are all the executives men? Are they all of one background? If all the top managers graduated from Ivy League schools. notes J. and then check your gut. You may find yourself. One good place to find clues is the site’s “executive bios” page.Finding the Right Fit How to know if a firm is right for you Culture clash is one of the most common reasons professionals leave their jobs. People are “careful about what they say because they don’t want something attributed to them. You’ll need a bowl and two slips of paper. And as a candidate. founder of Careerealism. Still. however. While culture is important. “Is everybody in this industry a jerk or just the people that I work with?” says Palmieri. On one slip. Make your draw. write “Take the job. That’s why many interviewers size up candidates for what they call “cultural fit” . remind yourself that every job is temporary. knowing in advance it wasn’t perfect but you chose to accept it regardless. While people who graduated from college just one or two years before you may have juggled multiple offers. for example. During an interview. turning down a job because of cultural issues is a luxury few new graduates can afford. Ideally. you’ll do what it says. you want to be in a place where the people will be thrilled to have you. If you find yourself in this situation. Every company will have a different approach to solving an identical problem. Cultural fit really begins to play a big role in your success after your first or second job. for instance. O’Donnell. your No. a career news site based in North Hampton. You’ll have the opportunity to build your skills. Your first post-graduation job should be all about getting experience. director of client relations for the Pinnacle Group International. this exercise will tell you if you’re compromising. You’re not going to be there forever.com. or is your reaction: “Great! That’s what I’ll do!” Even if you know you’re taking a job that isn’t ideal for you. a company Web site may offer clues that might confirm any hunch you have about it. You can also try some back-door reference checking by seeking out former employees through social-networking sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. as a graduating senior or a new grad.” says Palmieri. values and style will mesh with the company’s.H. says Denise Palmieri. Finding the right cultural fit requires the self-awareness to know what kind of environment would suit you best.how well their goals. the challenges facing the company. Then listen for the priorities that emerge in the answers.

“For the less-confident professional. neighbors. and promotion is your resume. you may be missing out on other opportunities. “Don’t hesitate to give me a call. I was told after business school that I didn’t talk up enough.efinancialcareers.” Feldman says. the better it will be for you as you make various transitions. Especially in a downturn. price is the salary you’ll accept and the company will pay. While cultural influences shouldn’t hold a professional back. an executive talent agent in Greenwich. 39 Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and fellow alumni. you simply may not be able to find someone who is exactly like you in your organization.” he says.” notes Kenneth Lee. such as the Hispanic employee resource group. More than ever. function and companies you have your sights set on. don’t be bashful about introducing yourself. For example. “Try groups outside of work and think about reconnecting with your alumni association. In addition. Women of color need to look for other networking opportunities at work and beyond.” Lynch advises women of color to remember that relationships at work are critical to gaining key posts and landing assignments with important clients.” even if you’re junior to the contact. financial professionals must rethink their strategic relationships at work.” “Getting a job is really a marketing process. she adds. it’s important for professionals to take a look at themselves. observes Liz Lynch. she says women of color need to be flexible when it comes to selecting their mentors. But if you’re limiting your network to a women’s group or an association for black professionals. many more professional women and women of color are networking at conferences and association meetings. Today’s difficult environment means more people than ever will tap into their networks to make sure they can not only advance. Jr.www. an adjunct professor at American InterContinental University and former mentoring director of the Black Alumni of Notre Dame. Developing Your Network John C. The person who initiates the network is flattering the person who’s the contact.should branch out. “Almost anyone in your everyday life can be part of your network.” she says. especially if they’re a member of a group that’s underrepresented in the industry. elevator pitch and interviews. Stay in touch with everyone you meet. suggests starting with your inner circle and moving outward. “You have to be prepared to take the next step. suggests Debra Feldman. Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling.. founder of the Center for Networking Excellence in New York. “The earlier in your career you begin to build these relationships. expertise or focus.” writes Jane Hyun. Lynch notes that those in a professional network . Most people really enjoy the fact that someone is reaching out to them. and use that group’s good reputation to establish mentors within the company at large.” But you don’t have to begin at the office. in her book.com Working with Diversity Groups Plant the seeds early.” she points out. volunteer or join a nonprofit. strategic relationships are essential. I took a Dale Carnegie class and it helped. though. “Then seek more associations out of your own area of function. an organization of Latino business leaders. honing your communications and professional skills in a safe environment can certainly help you to come back to the maledominated workplace. an executive coach and multicultural leadership strategist. Conn. chief executive of the New America Alliance. and cultivate your network regularly Business is as much about who you know as what you know.” she says. Guerra. and for someone about to graduate from college into the workforce. local merchants. Lynch uses herself as an example: “As an Asian woman.” she believes. In this context. the place is the industry. the product is you. including relatives. of the personal aspect of networking. “Depending on the expertise or division in financial services. Don’t lose sight. “Seek relationships with successful members of a group. cover letter. especially former colleagues and classmates. expanding your network of contacts is both a vital and long-term proposition. but hold onto their job when their firm is cutting back.where everyone is in the same sinking boat . Be more of a giver than a taker and at the end of every connection always say. “If you admire someone in your industry.

nationality. and we should try to tap into and gain from that diversity of experiences. to be more involved in WOWS and they’ve been quite responsive. in divisions such as asset management and banking. Does Deutsche Bank use any metrics to assess the effectiveness of its initiatives? We use several metrics on an ongoing basis. we look at attendance figures from conferences and events as an indicator of the networks’ ability to attract audiences. He earned his MBA from the Yale School of Management. our sales and trading division. as opposed to human resources) to global head of diversity from Global Markets. which included arranging large-ticket. Americas. He also has seven years of experience as a corporate finance banker in global leasing and leveraged finance. Deutsche Bank AG As chief diversity officer for the Americas at Deutsche Bank AG. Chamberlain oversees the U.” Our definition of diversity includes all aspects of an individual . for employee networks such as Rainbow Group Americas (lesbian. considering the challenging market environment. gay. especially those in the business divisions. division’s Diversity Recruiting and Diversity & Inclusion office. Another measure is our mailing lists. This sends a strong signal across the bank that diversity is not just a human resource initiative. 40 “Our definition of diversity includes all aspects of an individual – from age. How does Deutsche Bank define diversity? Amid the current global economic crisis. but rather the responsibility of all of us at the bank. physical ability. There are 1. do you think banks and other financial entities have pushed diversity to the back burner.S. Companies need to pay attention to these changes and make sure they have the right individuals in place to meet evolving customer needs.employees) and Multicultural Partnership (minority employees). Chamberlain Chief Diversity Officer. Deutsche Bank recently appointed Eileen Taylor (whose background is in banking. gender and sexual orientation to work and communication style and personality type. just because they look or seem alike doesn’t mean they all have identical backgrounds and experiences. because they are concerned about sheer survival? We’re fortunate to have our 2009 budget for diversity initiatives flat to last year. syndicated financings for companies in the chemicals and transportation industries. and work and communication style in this definition? If you have a team of six white women or men. physical ability. Deutsche Bank doesn’t focus on just the two historical attributes of gender and ethnicity. There could be significant differences among them. Chamberlain graduated magna cum laude with a bachelor of science in business administration from the University of New Hampshire. Currently most of them are female. In addition. sexuality.from age. nationality. He joined Deutsche Bank in October 2007 after holding a number of roles in diversity and professional recruiting at JPMorgan Chase & Co. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Mark L. gender and sexual orientation to work and communication style and personality type. no matter how Wall Street may restructure itself? Clients already have or will be changing.Q&A: Mark L. but my goal is to get more men on that list. Several years ago Deutsche Bank took the position of broadening its definition of diversity to be more inclusive and to encourage all employees to get involved in the bank’s many diversity initiatives. bisexual and transgender . We look at culture. religion and diversity of thought.or LGBT . For example. ethnicity. What is your personal outlook on the future of diversity and inclusion in financial institutions. This speaks to Deutsche Bank senior management’s commitment to diversity. ethnicity. Eileen and I have engaged male senior managers.700 employees on our Women on Wall Street list. Why do you include personality type.

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to expand beyond Jamaica. What advice would you offer to undergraduates and high school students? First. I didn’t focus enough on my quantitative abilities early in my career. If we were not ambitious. Since then. focus on academics.nor did I realize it made a difference if I did.Q&A: Dale A. you find out things when it’s too late . Looking at the world through their eyes broadened my mind almost instantly. a Saudi princess. I grew up and went to high school in South Jamaica. I didn’t have a strong social rapport with my colleagues.S. during the crack-cocaine era in New York. like using Microsoft Excel. Ambition: I come from a family of Jamaican immigrants.like at your review. What are the core values you learned early in life that are serving you well now? Integrity: Growing up in a tough neighborhood. Your word is everything. Second. a Midwestern farmer for whom I was the first person of color he had ever met. I had the privilege of interacting with the son of a Fortune 500 CEO. Burnett is responsible for the evaluation. so I didn’t always think I would make it out alive. you’re not thinking about that. we would not have anything because we started from scratch in America. there were 2. and the daughter of a career military family who speaks six languages and has lived all over the world. Because I did not grow up around politicians and executives. go to the best schools. That fire still fuels me. or they may end up doing things the hard way. I always believed I’d do well and always hoped I would be a successful businessman. In my case. you’re not going to wake up in an environment with people from 20 different countries and 20 U. I was not exposed to certain things. but I did so in a pretty choppy. I did not decide to get an MBA until I was 28 so even graduate school was not a part of my original vision. Faith: I was raised in a Christian home. Burnett Real Estate Private Equity Group. which centered me and . Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Today I think I have been blessed beyond what I thought possible simply because I have done things I never envisioned. and it took a little fire to stay focused through all the distractions. When you’re 19 or 20 years old. On the other.although that would have been nice. etc. AIG Investments At AIG Investments. As a result. That was because I didn’t have anyone to point that out to me. states. it was to some degree. New graduates should actively seek mentors. I never thought I would open my cellphone and call a congressman or start a nonprofit.. Dale A. to work for a top firm. I also never thought I’d attend Dartmouth as the first person in my family to go to college right after high school.500 murders a year in the city. Europe and Russia. Graduates matriculating into corporate America should seek a sponsor and search out available support networks. He holds a BS in finance from Boston University and an MBA from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth. so I try my best to be truthful. invest in the people around you. much less be successful. Generally. I traveled all over the country during my time at Ernst & Young and integrated well over time. and I didn’t have a support network to help me matriculate into a culture that frankly was unfamiliar. Queens. Part of your future worth is who you know. once you leave college. and I live a good life that I can see getting better. When I was in school. and the socializing that makes work easier took place in bars. which I didn’t patronize as much . On the one hand. At that time. Is your present life what you envisioned as a teenager or even a child? I have to say life has exceeded my expectations. as I’m sure just meeting a kid from the inner city of New York changed their perspectives as well. I’ve always wanted to be the best. I learned on the fly. So I learned to strive for the best growing up. The people around you offer you a whole other education. execution and asset management of commercial real estate investments in the U. which plays a big role in how enriched your life is. Tenacity: I wanted to not just survive but to thrive. trial-and-error manner that I would not recommend. Because of that. I’ve been fortunate to travel all over the world. 42 taught me good core principles that have only grown and become more a part of all that I do as I get older. you learn to honor your word and be ready to put your money where your mouth is. Plus I didn’t have a trust fund to inherit . How would you describe your adjustment from an academic setting to the business environment? Corporate culture may be foreign to some. Don’t hang around with the same type of people you hung out with in high school. which was a bit rough. Queens.S. If you don’t have a mentor.

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” middle-market and niche advisory firms have been gaining on them. Activity continued to wither in 2009. it’s the numerous smaller deals.” it means they’ve hired an investment bank to advise them on a merger or sale. In general. Global private equity volume plunged 69 percent in 2008 compared with 2007. according to Thomson Reuters. While the top-tier global banks still dominate the volume rankings known as “league tables. long hours. These so-called “bulge-bracket” institutions received most of the trillions of dollars in bailout aid from governments worldwide. many bankers fled from large full-service investment houses to small or mid-size firms. Beyond that. At their client’s beck and call. In others. M&A bankers help clients find buyers or sellers for businesses that are of interest. which also advises firms on how to raise the money needed to finance a transaction. or by boutiques that specialize in smaller transactions or deals in a particular sector. Roles and Career Paths Mergers and acquisitions is principally an advisory role. sparking layoffs across Wall Street. The downturn sapped demand for investment bankers. When public companies announce they’re “exploring strategic opportunities. travel the world to work on deals that reshape entire industries. filling the space left by the disappearance of Lehman and Bear Stearns.Mergers and Acquisitions Big deals. selling. which will affect bankers’ compensation and career prospects for many years to come. Traditionally. In response. A variety of firms act as M&A advisers. Wall Street’s traditional powerhouses are slashing openings for new graduates and MBA holders in 2009. either by acquiring the target company or selling themselves to it. acquisitions and divestitures. and merging with other companies. Recent Developments The credit meltdown that began in late 2007 cut the legs out from beneath the merger business. There are clearly two sides to every deal and M&A advisors work on both. or merge themselves entirely with another firm. M&A specialists work in a very lucrative business – although many years may pass before merger activity levels and bankers’ fees return to the peaks of the past decade. M&A bankers advise clients on all aspects of buying..200 pending deals were cancelled. and European investment banks – which long commanded the greatest power and prestige – suffered the worst damage to their balance sheets and reputations. sell off divisions or subsidiaries they no longer want to own. that drive the business. Broadpoint. top dealmakers who left Wall Street to run their own shows – hope to grow into tomorrow’s bulge-bracket banks. junior bankers can expect to keep busy assembling the reams of financial information and legal documentation necessary to get it done. the largest U. In truth. 44 billion in announced deals. Regardless of what drives the deal-making.9 trillion. the New York Times found. In return for keeping banks solvent. Their founders – typically. Almost 1. two companies join as equals. to $234 Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . or M&A. The newer boutiques bear names such as Moelis & Co. In some mergers. the past decade saw an explosion in the number of companies taken private in buyouts by private equity firms. boutiques have hired several hundred bankers away from former bulge-brackets. Deals smaller than $150 million might be handled by the M&A divisions of accounting firms. lots of travel . Meanwhile. ordinary employees – who work for taxpayer-supported institutions. governments imposed ceilings on the compensation of executives – and in some cases. to $2. which occur on a regular basis. M&A refers to one of an investment bank’s core functions: to advise client companies on whether to add businesses to their portfolio of assets. They’re typically part of a broader corporate finance advisory team. Once a deal is underway. it would be more accurate to talk about mergers. especially leveraged buyouts (LBOs) – debt-fueled deals where purchasers obtain bank financing by pledging the assets of an acquired firm. and BTIG. Lack of access to credit forced sharp pullbacks in private equity deal-making. M&A requires hard work. Although the biggest deals get the headlines.and lots of money Specialists in mergers and acquisitions. Total announced merger volume shrank 30 percent from 2007’s record high. Over the past two years. the people involved are often in their offices nights and weekends. the financial crisis is broadly reshaping the industry.S. In addition.

who are one level higher in the banking hierarchy. or ways to get Salem’s name out there. which requires a steady type of personality. Associates. Vice presidents report to the directors and managing directors who are the main points of client contact. I spend most of my time on marketing. I’ll review my calendar and have a briefing with an associate about marketing documents. upcoming pitches. 45 Skills and Qualities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Ultimately our objective is to get best deal possible. A further rung up. and often order the pitch book to be partially or completely rewritten – even when it means staying up until the early hours of the morning. It’s critical to be a hard worker and a team player. lawyers and private equity investors. You need to be classically trained to appreciate how quickly these tasks are performed. The rest of the day is spent calling prospects. But as an analyst. you must manage client expectations.efinancialcareers. vice presidents oversee the work of analysts and associates. Having that experience will make you more marketable. and trying to provide a compelling offer for our clients. It’s not unusual for pitch books to come to nothing. should the client buy company X or company Y and. how should the deal be financed? M&A analysts usually conduct basic industry research and build financial models. and you have to be well-versed in helping them achieve their goals. and help you stand out compared with other candidates if you decide to move to a boutique firm or more entrepreneurial environment. To get a deal done. which outline a bank’s ideas for a particular transaction. you’ll spend a lot of time working on pitch books. which are used to price the companies concerned. setting up meetings with those buyers. Sean Walker. All the while. oversee analysts’ work and check to make sure their models are correct. you’re better able to hone financial modeling and presentation skills. When we’re in the market with a client we spend our time trying to get books (50-page books that describe our client’s business) in the hands of private equity and corporate buyers. Clients may decide not to go ahead with the suggestions. the more contact you’ll have with clients.www. We have to personally cultivate our own relationships and that’s not easy work. if so. This involves a lot of jockeying over the course of a couple of months. the M&A team moves into execution mode – seeing the deal through to completion. It’s tough to get the training and development in M&A at a boutique firm. talking to accountants. In that environment. For someone fresh out of college I’d recommend starting at a large bank with a training program in place. When a pitch book elicits a positive response. For example. Being in the middle-market is different than being in the bulge bracket. It also helps to be bright. Nothing is ever as bad or as great as you might want to think. If you’re interested in pursuing a career in M&A.com Q&A As a rule of thumb. What are the most important skills for a career in M&A? It’s important to be even tempered because almost every deal is an emotional roller coaster. Managing Director Salem Partners What’s a typical day like for you? The M&A business works in ebbs and flows. we tailor an “acquisition thesis” that may be unique to each potential acquirer or investor. Any advice for an up and coming M&A professional? Currently it’s very difficult to enter this business. Each day. but you also must advise them appropriately. We generally don’t get mandates because of the firm’s relationships. Often times. You’re always an advocate for clients. You’re either trying to get a deal completed or working to get the next deal in the door. be diligent and keep banging on doors. They are wedded to their businesses. middle-market clients are people who’ve built a business from scratch and poured a significant part of their life into making the company grow. the more senior you become in M&A. or they may engage a rival bank.

” they assume the risk of issuing the shares and do the work necessary to bring them to market. It remains to be seen whether the corporate borrowing surge stemmed from improving balance sheets and market Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 46 . The underwriting spread represents the difference between the price the issuing company receives for a stock and the price at which it’s offered to shareholders. and bonds. the issuer promises to pay bondholders back at some designated point in the future.8 billion. Microsoft with $3. bonds are known as fixed income products. or “IPO. It’s raised the capital it needs through the shares’ initial public offering. they might sell them at a loss. they’re issued by a company or government in order to raise money. traded on the debt capital markets. The fees charged from the offering are shared proportionately between the underwriting banks. bankers produce the securities used by companies and institutions who want to raise money on the public markets.3 billion and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc.Debt and Equity Capital Markets The stimulus for economic and financial market development Traded financial products are born in the capital markets divisions of investment banks. In order to spread the risk. Their two main products are stocks.) Hundreds of planned IPOs were cancelled. As with equities. Major issuers included Roche with $39.S. The credit crisis that began in the U. This trading occurs in the secondary markets. which in turn reflects the level of economic activity and the trend of stock and bond prices. which ended in June). Stocks. dragging down global equity and debt markets. Until the redemption date. In return for a fee known as the “underwriting spread. with $500 million. which manages the deal. bondholders receive interest payments in return for the service of lending the issuer money. investors can sell stock to other investors at a profit. Pfizer with $13. A record $824.4 billion of corporate investment-grade bonds were sold in this year’s first quarter. As the global economic downturn ensued in 2008. (Most of the year’s $26.” Investment banks act as “underwriters” on behalf of the company issuing stock. such as equity-linked securities – or bonds that can be converted into equities at a pre-arranged price – and derivatives. Like equities. the bonds can be sold to other investors in the secondary bond markets. Because these payments take the form of a fixed cash sum paid at regular intervals. according to Bloomberg data.4 billion total IPO volume came from Visa’s record-size $18 billion stock sale in March 2008.5 billion. Equity capital markets (“ECM”) divisions and debt capital markets (“DCM”) divisions have traditionally been separate businesses. IPO activity shifted to the Asia-Pacific. more than double the year-ago volume. where the financial crisis began.S. In the first quarter of 2009. In return for their money. issuance of new securities sputtered. Middle East and Latin American regions (notwithstanding a nine-month-long official moratorium on IPOs in China. So. the bond markets can be known as the fixed income markets. Capital raised through U. are bought by investors who want to share in the profits of a company through dividends or the appreciation of the stock’s value. Capital markets divisions also issue more complex products. Nokia with $2. Similarly. based on a written agreement among them. Bonds are a form of debt. the bondholder who is eventually reimbursed is unlikely to be the original buyer. initial public offerings last year was down 43 percent from 2007.75 billion. traded on the equity capital markets. according to Thomson Reuters. also known as shares or equities. Banks’ total fee income from both merger advisory and stock and bond underwriting slid 39 percent last year to $53 billion. with sub-prime mortgage defaults spread to Europe. and the company itself doesn’t directly benefit. recent years have seen a trend toward combining them into a single unit. investment banks typically pool their resources. There. particularly for large IPOs. But a full return to normal market conditions remained elusive. showed tentative signs of recovery in early 2009. with one acting as the lead underwriter. If the share price rises. Recent Developments The fees that investment banks generate from stock and debt offerings depend on corporate America’s aggregate need for new capital. investment banks act as the underwriters to create bonds and bring them to market. If it falls. Meanwhile the credit markets. However.5 billion (the largest non-financial corporate bond sale ever). worldwide equity capital market volume plunged 49 percent to $64. In the meantime.

investment banking. Investment Banking. I spent six and a half years there as a generalist. and make sure the correct documents are in place. the hours are long and involve heavy work with spreadsheets. Or. As you move up the ladder. Early in your career. I returned to investment banking because of the challenge and the ability to gain exposure to different companies. Any advice for up-and-coming capital markets people? It’s important to network with different people to identify the roles that may be the best fit for you. Bank of America and Goldman Sachs were largely spurred by government lending. Times are very competitive right now. They calculate the best price range for the product in question. Afterward. origination specialists hold senior level sales positions. while General Motors and Chrysler entered bankruptcy protection. pick stocks or build your own portfolio. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Roles and Career Paths If you work in the capital markets division of an investment bank you could do anything from originating. They spend their time creating complex financial products to suit a company’s financing needs as communicated by the originators. Their job involves a lot of travel as they meet clients in an effort to gain insight into their financing needs and persuade them to offer business to the bank. In spring 2009 both General Electric and Berkshire Hathaway lost their top AAA debt ratings. Get to know people in the industry. Vice-Chair and Co-Head Diversified Industries. and other transactions. assess demand. power. structurers are desk-bound. and it’s critical to constantly maintain the networks you build early in your career. and why investors are behaving the way they are. What’s a typical day like for you? My co-head and I oversee a team of 20 to 30 professionals across Canada that covers telecom and media. 47 Skills and Qualities . moving from associate to vice president and working on IPOs. Also.www. to syndicating. as corporate credit ratings faced continuing headwinds. Essentially. forestry. consumer and industrial companies. We spend most of our time working with corporations and helping them with the execution of various transactions. Read newspapers. I joined Lehman Brothers. M&A. You need to be quick and resourceful. I joined Scotia Capital in 1999 as a managing director in investment banking in Toronto. Also. I moved to Canada. comfort with numbers. origination specialists are usually senior capital markets bankers. and equity capital markets. as well as huge guarantees and other measures by the U. In a bank. Next. Pharmaceutical giants like Roche borrowed to fund growth and acquisitions.efinancialcareers. By comparison. I moved into a series of managerial positions. After finishing my MBA. or simply federal intervention. whether it’s keeping connected with former classmates or through organizations that you have been involved with. Sarah Baldwin Kavanagh.S. Integrity is also very important. Scotia Capital How did you rise to your current role? After completing my undergraduate degree at Williams College. and worked in several jobs in the corporate sector. But bond sales by financial giants JPMorgan Chase. as well as income trust IPOs. I also spend a fair amount of time recruiting and mentoring people and developing a business plan for the group. What skills are essential for a career in capital markets? First. interpersonal skills become more important for both internal communications and client interaction. Treasury and Federal Reserve. you will be in a better position to understand capital markets. I worked in investment management in Boston before attending Harvard Business School. I have my own clients I meet with to advise them on capital markets. where I’d worked as a summer associate. It’s up to the people on the syndication desk to ready the market for the sale. in relationship management.com Q&A optimism. If you look at the market and try to understand why things trade the way they do. I quickly became focused on the media and telecom industries. For the most part. to structuring. only companies possessing the best credit were able to tap into bond markets. you might work for a law firm that specializes in securities law and handles the legal aspects of submitting registration paperwork and other tasks.

The screens are a window into the financial markets. It’s the salesperson’s job to introduce new investment opportunities to customers. Other Jobs In between salespeople and traders exists a hybrid: the sales-trader. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . along with reports from their research staffs. as well as for several hours before and after. While investment sales professionals and sales-traders will use the bottom line results of a research report to pitch actual investments. commodities and other financial products. they trade the securities once a sale has been made. there are the dinners and entertainment with clients that can stretch well into the evening hours. Like traders. plus real-time news and research reports. All this material becomes fodder for the day’s sales calls. After that. They’re in contact with clients from the moment the financial markets open until the moment they close. Recent Developments The global financial crisis that began in 2007 differed in its impact on various areas of trading. salespeople advise clients on investment opportunities. whether stocks and bonds or derivatives like interest rate swaps or credit derivatives. traders can buy and sell the products whose prices they’re tracking. millions of financial products are traded in the secondary markets. where they learn of upgrades or downgrades to securities already covered. Clients might be highnet-worth individuals. Mortgage-related securities and structured credit – after growing by leaps and bounds earlier in the decade – were among the hardest hit. (That happens in what’s called the “primary market. If you work as a trader. Like salespeople. research salespeople must be intimately familiar with the details of the analysis to be successful. At the touch of a button. Many say the couple of hours between the close and when clients start heading for home are the best time to discuss strategies in detail.”) In the secondary markets. salespeople take orders for financial products and communicate them to their trading desks for execution. Sales professionals typically start their day by reviewing financial publications like The Wall Street Journal. institutional investors or corporate finance directors. they need to be good at selling. were abruptly laid off. e-mail and other means. sales-traders call clients to recommend securities. whose job is to sell their employer’s research expertise. showing movements in the prices of stocks. you’ll have to be at your desk before the markets open. if ever. Sales Salespeople spend the bulk of their time communicating with clients via phone calls. You’ll spend the rest of the day sitting before an array of computer screens in the company of scores of your peers.Sales and Trading Fortunes are won and lost trading in the secondary markets Every day. But the banking crisis seriously hobbled this side of the business. selling or trading such investments. where traders buy and sell financial products after their initial issue. They also listen in on morning conference calls conducted by their research departments. The salesperson’s day doesn’t end when markets close. Ultimately. and to keep them informed about changing conditions that might affect the value of securities in their portfolio. Thousands of professionals who had prospered through creating. Trading Traders are the people who actually buy and sell products on the secondary markets. while traders carry out the actual buying and selling of securities. They must make snap decisions that can involve millions of dollars and earn substantial profits in the process.” Salespeople have to be charming and persuasive – in short. bonds. Many of the eliminated jobs won’t come back for a long time. 48 “Proprietary traders traditionally comprised an elite that included some of the bestrewarded people on Wall Street. or of new issues being added to the coverage list. Firms – particularly larger investment firms – also employ research-sales professionals. Most clients are knowledgeable and sophisticated buyers of financial products. hedge fund managers.

com Meanwhile. flow traders are obliged to buy or sell at the price the client agreed to. 49 “Computer systems that let institutional clients enter orders directly are making public trading floors like Chicago’s famed commodity ‘pits’ all but extinct. A third area of change is the inroads of electronic trading platforms. excepting a few specific product areas (like mortgages. there are two fundamental types of trader: proprietary traders and flow traders. The trader’s firm can profit if the trader buys at a price lower than what was quoted to the client. Salespeople tell flow traders what their clients want to buy and sell. In addition. or any number of other products. The spread of various high-tech. as explained above. demand for foreign exchange traders remained impervious to the credit crunch. public authorities are cracking down on proprietary trading. the crisis actually raised the stature of many sales and trading Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 ing market conditions . the crisis upended the pecking order between two basic trading roles: flow traders and propietary traders. keenly aware that banks went overboard with financial risk. for instance) at the epicenter of the crisis. In contrast to flow traders. or by the sector they specialize in. Demand for flow traders suffered far less. Beyond its impact on product types.” Skills and Qualities Sales Trading Proprietary traders traditionally comprised an elite that included some of the best-rewarded people on Wall Street. They can make huge profits or considerable losses. high-speed trading systems is slowly molding sales-traders into consultants who instruct clients how to navigate the latest platforms. Computer systems that let institutional clients enter orders directly are making public trading floors like Chicago’s famed commodity “pits” all but extinct. so it’s not a job for the faint of heart. who buy and sell financial products on behalf of an investment bank’s clients. New regulations aim to prevent banks from giving their “prop desks” as much free rein as they enjoyed before the crisis. and flow traders determine whether a particular trade is possible at a particular price. government bonds. or can lose if the market price climbs before the trader executes the purchase. proprietary traders trade on behalf of their employer – placing bets with a bank’s own capital. Once a client agrees to trade an instrument. traders might focus on foreign exchange. corporate bonds. One salesperson might sell equities to pension fund investors. by the types of clients they sell to. Today. But the banking crisis seriously hobbled this side of the business. Most traders are flow traders. For example. Roles and Career Paths Traders and salespeople can be categorized according to the products they trade. derivatives. Because flow trading brings in revenue without risking a bank’s own capital. professionals who control a reliable “book” of institutional client accounts.www. while another might focus on corporate bonds.efinancialcareers.

Pa. Analysts who work for institutions like Goldman Sachs. the basis for their choices frequently starts with analysis provided by researchers at the major investment banks. investors will tend to overvalue or undervalue its stock. a 2003 legal settlement that steered more than $400 million toward independent research firms ended by summer 2009. it isn’t easy for an analyst with substantial experience in either camp to change spots and become employed across the aisle. Beyond investment banks and asset management firms. without an investment banking component. Rather than churn out their own reports. and continuing redemptions make sell-side. according to Integrity Research Associates. During the past decade. entire economies and entire markets. 50 Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . a diversified firm with 1. a consulting firm that follows the investment research space. mutual funds.” Three areas that grew strongly in recent years are midmarket financial firms. Buy-side and sell-side analysts draw upon the same broad body of knowledge to generate their reports. Morgan Stanley or Citigroup are said to work for the “sell side” of the market.500 employees headquartered in Bala Cynwyd. Recent Developments The current financial crisis and consolidation of the banking sector eliminated thousands of research jobs. these firms set up direct contacts between their clients (primarily hedge funds) and scientists or other authorities whose specialized knowledge could help an investor gauge the prospects of a product. Both have the same basic mission: to forecast returns and risks for different investments and make buy and sell recommendations. Gerson Lehrman Group is the largest. whose work is then supplemented by internally produced reports. Yet. company or market. which their employers use as a basis for recommendations to institutional and individual investor clients.. The decline of full-service institutions such as Merrill Lynch elevated mid-size banks and narrowly focused boutiques into vital career alternatives for many a professional who otherwise would have pursued or stayed within bulge-bracket banks. economists and other research professionals. Integrity Research Associates. These niche firms sell their analytical expertise alone. pension funds and other firms that manage money for individual and corporate clients – also employ analysts to ferret out investment and trading opportunities. institutions on the “buy side” of the investment landscape – hedge funds. By providing the basic information investors need to make wise buy or sell decisions. Susquehanna International Group.Research Providing the fundamental analysis behind investment decisions Investment analysts provide the fundamental research that helps drive investment decision making on Wall Street.” the analyst is typically working on the sell side. Analysts are also employed to study instruments such as corporate or government bonds. a new brand of research providers called expert networks sprang up. many analysts work in independent research shops. and alternative research providers lean towards reducing analytical headcount rather than increase their hiring of research analysts. plunging commissions. Jumping from sell-side research to a hedge fund is particularly challenging. was expanding its sell-side research franchise and advertising openings for both new graduates and experienced analysts through the spring of 2009. hobbling several independent shops that depended on this revenue stream. Not all research professionals focus on equities. When the media says a firm’s stock rose or fell due to a change in an “analyst’s recommendation. municipal securities. as weak equity markets. Research reports are valuable because they fill in information gaps that can lead to inefficiencies in the market. falling assets under management. While money managers and traders ultimately decide what to buy and sell. At the same time. boutiques and expert networks. researchers help level the playing field. Major buy-side institutions cut back too. Without a sense of a company’s fundamental value. said in a February 2009 blog post: “The market for research analysts is likely to be extremely soft in 2009. the buy side has pulled ahead of Wall Street’s sell side in career growth opportunities for stock and bond analysts. and dozens of hedge funds shut their doors. mortgagebacked securities and credit derivatives – even currencies. buy-side. This corner of the research business mushroomed from nine firms in 2000 to 42 in May 2009. For instance. Since 2000. They produce reports on industries and companies. Meanwhile.

beginning as a research assistant or junior analyst under the supervision of a more seasoned professional. we have a meeting with the traders. It’s important for you to show that you know something about a company or a particular industry that you have analyzed. economies.. Second. How can a company sustain flows and earnings? How fast can it grow? In the end. whether buy or sell side. you must understand sustainability of a company’s cash flows and earnings. answering these questions gives you an understanding of the intrinsic value of a company. Working on the buy side. Also.com Q&A Roles and Career Paths Researchers spend their time scouring companies’ balance sheets. Issuing accurate recommendations helps. In research. But on the sell side. you’ll be able to understand how companies operate. It shows us that the skill set is there and is more powerful than simply discussing your education. It’s helpful if you can demonstrate that you have worked in this capacity during an interview. To do so. Lead analysts. going through spreadsheets. and participating in conference calls where company leaders discuss their results and future expectations. Many universities have these types of courses. A lot of people break into the business via an internship. Because the buy side is very competitive. You must be able to understand what’s important and what the key drivers are in your sector. the skill set is twofold.” says recruiter Edward Storm of Comprehensive Recruiting in Phoenix. talking to executives. most days I am doing something related to recruiting. I work with analysts. each day an analyst will present the assumptions he’s making and determine if we need to modify our position or move to overweight or underweight on a stock. What type of skills are important in research? For research. At 4 p. You have to take your knowledge of a company or industry and make stock recommendations. it’s harder to break into than the sell side. for a hedge fund or asset manager. What advice would you give to someone pursuing a career in research? For undergraduate or graduate students. you’ll be paid for the business you bring in from big accounts that trade or do deals through your firm – not the profits someone might make from your recommendations. If you can understand what the key issues are in a sector. Helge Skibeli. and be able to differentiate between companies. advancement and pay rests critically on relationships he or she is able to build with institutional buy-side clients. Even at boutiques built around research.www. It’s critical that you have strong communications skills. We’ll look at news and interpret it and discuss the implications. I would recommend getting experience where you’re getting firsthand knowledge of portfolio management and research. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 51 Skills and Qualities . reviewing the company and industry assumptions to make sure that we are comfortable with them. Our analysts make seven-year forecasts of earnings. you must be able and willing to take risks. their relative position with respect to costs. seldom get hired without at least two or three years of experience. provides more freedom and flexibility plus the chance that your research will directly translate into investment or trading decisions.m. as people act on your analysis. and other areas that could provide insight into the proper valuation of different financial instruments. analysts are required to build and satisfy a roster of clients eager to pay for access to their work. buy-side analysts receive bonuses tied to the performance of assets under management. It shows that you have the right skill set for research. First. “I always counsel students to take advantage of internship programs as much as possible.efinancialcareers. Managing Director JPMorgan Asset Management What’s a typical day like in research? At 8:30 a. you need to have a strong analytical acumen. Typically.m. our ability to have a long-term perspective of a company results in a competitive advantage. You must be able to convey a message to a portfolio manager. Researchers also analyze interest rates. portfolio managers and analysts where we run through that morning’s news. As a sell-side analyst’s career develops.

face a more challenging job market in the wake of the . investment banks and other market participants to exploit opportunities that might be missed by average mortals. hiring has become more selective. unless they have previous relevant experience to convince an employer they can hit the ground running. Their model provided the fundamental conceptual framework for valuing options. differential equations. successful trading strategies are devised by highly educated. or Master of Financial Engineering graduates no longer can count on landing a lucrative slot on a trading desk or hedge fund.” Meanwhile. Beyond advanced degrees. While banks and asset management firms continue to need hard-core quant skills. Options Group. Recent Developments Financial engineers. this terrain is occupied by people with advanced degrees in disciplines such as physics. Legendary fund chief George Soros publicly predicted that the industry ultimately will decline by “anywhere between half and two-thirds. as well as many types of bonds and derivatives that contain embedded options. these people also need to be familiar with the C++ programming language. was one of the first casualties of the crisis. Another promising area is building and utilizing algorithmic trading models – tools that either execute large trades at minimum cost. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 The fathers of computational finance are considered to be the economists Myron Scholes. Risk-focused quants also work for specialized software vendors that create and produce risk management products. and has become the de facto standard in the world’s financial markets for valuing those instruments. ideally. Merton. took a beating in 2008. Hedge funds. Generally. or any of several mathematical specialties such as multivariate calculus. probability theory and statistical inference.D.000 jobs in 2009 on top of 10. The systems proved their worth by outperforming other strategies when markets buckled. published research to point to. That means less proprietary trading – a role where Wall Street quants are particularly active. valuation techniques and trading programs used by hedge funds. mathematicallyoriented professionals known as financial engineers or more colloquially. In order to retain these funds’ business. linear algebra. the financial crisis is making banks take less risk with their balance sheets.” says Jim Geiger of Analytic Recruiting. By and large. the banks’ travails spotlight the need for smarter risk management – an area that’s long utilized advanced quant credentials. the most widely used in the field. On the bright side. Fischer Black and Robert C. or identify profitable arbitrage opportunities and place the indicated trades automatically. and adding modelers to write software for pinpointing arbitrage opportunities. rather than the professors he listed as references – and that professor was located in Brazil. Scholes and Black are synonymous with options pricing theory. The moral of the story: Make sure you have built strong relationships with your advisers and fellow researchers to go along with your good academic record. computer models.” These are the people who create the financial theories. “This hedge fund actually went through the trouble of contacting the professor that supervised his dissertation. New Ph. broker-dealers large and small are adding engineers to refine the platforms that communicate orders. economics and computer science. many companies reduced staffing while others exited the business altogether. One recruiter who specializes in the field tells of one candidate she placed with a high-profile New York hedge fund. Designing and trading complex structured mortgage and credit products. Funds that rely on high-frequency. many employers require prospective quants to pass a rigorous vetting process that includes verification of references and. a New York search firm.Quantitative Analytics The brains behind financial models In the international financial markets. another focus for many sell-side quants. estimates the fund industry will lose 20. “quants. As funds’ assets shrank from both investment losses and clients withdrawing money. having developed the famous Black-Scholes equation. The job offer was rescinded after a professor provided a less-than-glowing reference. like other investment professionals. “There’s a growing need for better quant models and more transparency and people who can identify risk quickly.000 jobs lost in 2008. algorithm-based trading systems have grown to account for as much as two-thirds of daily trading volume. 52 financial crisis that began in 2007. a prime destination for quants in recent years.” the recruiter says. a New York-based recruiting and strategic consulting firm.

in that field. D. advises prospective financial engineers to begin with a bachelor’s degree in “solid subjects” such as mathematics. and then match our capabilities to their needs. 53 Skills and Qualities computer science or similar disciplines Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Global Product Management BNY Mellon Asset Servicing Could you tell us about your career path? I grew up in India and studied engineering in Delhi. Plus. I recommend using the following approach: Look first at what pressing questions can be answered by data. you are steering toward an answer to the issue. At some point. In a given week I may spend a few hours with clients. “That will help you decide whether you like the research side or the trading and sales side of the business.” Gunjan Kedia. we will design a product that fulfills it. in 1992 for an MBA program at Carnegie Mellon. I figured out that I was good at math. My Life as a Quant. so I listen carefully and try to understand their needs. there truly is no typical day. where I spent two years at Price Waterhouse. With a hypothesis. spending long hours building models from scratch and coding for several hours straight.” Many quantitative people can be comfortable with data and still fail to recognize a simple and important aspect of being successful: Data is only good as a “tool” to make better business decisions. It’s more important to demonstrate you have the skills needed to succeed in the job. so it is easy to become “data happy” and still be “information poor. the pedigree of your university isn’t always viewed as a hiring advantage. Then.” Derman told TradingMarkets. in an ideal world. What types of skills are needed to work in a quantitative role? We live in an era in which there is a tremendous amount of data and information available. I traveled a lot. from a problemsolving standpoint. If we don’t have an existing product. a Columbia University professor and former Goldman Sachs quant strategist who wrote the widely read autobiography. Still. Unlike with MBA candidates. I also spend time working with our internal processes in such areas as risk management and recruiting. although a master’s degree in the appropriate discipline can sometimes suffice. much of your time will be spent developing. I moved from Pittsburgh to Washington. which fit well with my engineering background and involved a lot of quantitative work. Data can be a powerful tool. I started out in a corporate role and then moved into our asset servicing business.com Q&A Roles and Career Paths If you become a quant. Emanuel Derman.S.C. otherwise one could end up getting lost in what is “possible to know” from the data. Could you describe a typical day? I’ll give you a snapshot of a typical week. and manage large-scale projects we are working on in places like Europe. It’s important to learn what you need to know or what you need to answer.efinancialcareers. So. “Then. you’ll need to ask colleagues to review your efforts. A quantitative professional can be viewed by other members of a firm as a resource who can explain why and how their models work. Quantitative analytics is one area where a candidate with a doctorate isn’t considered to be overqualified. if you want to be a financial engineer. you may be required to work completely by yourself. learn some finance and then work for two years in the financial business. after long periods programming complex models. and it factored into my decision to move back to Pittsburgh to work in a more family-friendly environment. EVP. good communication skills are also helpful. come back and get a master’s degree or a Ph. it helps to already know what question or questions you want the data to answer. What I have found is that. I came to the U. I took a job at McKinsey. then in 2004 joined Mellon. I spend time driving our development of leading-edge technology products and am responsible for the allocation of $650 million in technology capital. After graduating.D. programming and updating financial models.www.. and then use the data to address your hypothesis. Their needs are complex.com. statistics or applied math. When just starting out. I worked on international privatizations in developing countries. Also.

They strive to buy securities whose market prices are below the value of company assets under a bankruptcy plan or similar reorganization. Hedge fund managers balance their exposure by using tools such as options or futures. most funds and their investors remained under water compared with a couple of years ago. a firm that compiles news and data on the global hedge fund industry. In turn. and are subject to complicated compliance procedures. Popular strategies include: Distressed: These funds buy debt (or occasionally equity) of companies in or near bankruptcy. such fee structures forced the industry to pull back sharply. or simultaneously holding long positions while also short-selling. acquisitions or leveraged buyouts. estimates 20. some might say. prospects for revival of career opportunities depend critically on how long stock and bond markets take to fully recover. However. Perhaps more than any other corner of the finance world. regardless of whether the market goes up or down.” Following 2008’s steep downturn that affected several asset classes. following a loss of 10. Their results don’t often closely track those of stock or bond markets. Worldwide hedge fund assets shrank 32 percent in 2008 to $1. and how vigorous the recovery will be.000 jobs will be eliminated among hedge funds worldwide over 2009. This is known as a “high-water mark. the investment banks generally have more conservative bonus structures. that could soon change. In addition. such as mergers. can hold long or short positions. a record high. a recruiting and strategic consulting firm. a broad-based hedge fund index compiled by Hedge Fund Research suffered a loss of 23. Most hedge funds follow a particular investment strategy. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Market Neutral: This strategy rests on hedging bets – owning one group of securities the fund manager believes will perform relatively better. Recent Developments Hedge fund managers live and die by their investment returns. all of this makes working at a hedge fund extremely attractive. and put money into illiquid investments.000 jobs in 2008. global macro funds create and manage portfolios based on their reading of worldwide political and economic trends. After a losing year. 54 Event-Driven: Managers using this strategy aim to profit from one-off events. their perils – across several different funds. some investors put their money into “funds of funds. Options Group. Although their greatest influence has occurred during the past two decades. Global Macro: Instead of focusing on the movements of particular stocks. However. What distinguishes them from traditional mutual fund managers is their willingness to push the boundaries of normal investment techniques in a quest for unusually high returns. while short selling other. borrowed securities he believes will do worse. While the index gained moderately during the first half of 2009. Hedge funds traditionally compete for top talent with the leading investment banks. according to Hedge Fund Intelligence. are more risk-averse than hedge funds. The difference in performance can create profit even if the values of both the long and short portfolios rise or fall. During 2008.3 percent. For some. most funds stop collecting performance-based fees until they’ve earned back all the losses. So the downturns that hit global financial markets in the latter part of 2008 are taking a heavy toll on the hedge fund business.81 trillion.Hedge Funds Live and die by your portfolio returns The term “hedge fund” is based on the idea money managers can hedge their bets to ensure a profit. the first was created some 60 years ago: In 1949 money manager Alfred Winslow Jones began short-selling stocks while buying others to offset his risk. Seven hundred seventy-eight funds closed during 2008’s fourth quarter alone. Hedge fund fees come from a percentage of the prior year’s investment returns (most commonly 20 percent) plus a small percentage of assets managed (usually 2 percent). To counter this risk. hedge fund managers are set apart by the amount of regulatory scrutiny they face – or the lack of it.” which spread their money – and supposedly. Hedge funds are considered risky because they use borrowed money (known as “leverage”) to pump up returns. the fee revenue earned by hedge funds – and the compensation of the investment professionals who run them – closely reflects each fund’s short-term performance.

and globally. Risk Management and Back Office: Settling trades. Portfolio Management and Trading: Executing the investment strategy. it’s not unknown for analysts to become traders. and transitioned into national account sales at DHL. buying and selling financial products according to analysts’ recommendations. Jonathan Feniak. but which was now structuring and launching a new fund: Genesis Merchant Partners. including structured finance. graduating in 1996. Hedge funds rarely hire people fresh out of school. analyst or assistant.efinancialcareers. Sales and Marketing: Meeting with investors to help sell the strengths of the fund. 55 Skills and Qualities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and try to convince them why you should be a part of their team. While at Rutgers I worked at night for UPS. how it’s different from the competition. markets and securities a hedge fund invests in. Roles and Career Paths Jobs in hedge funds tend to fall into four categories: Analysis: Analyzing the companies. which had a great tuition reimbursement program. Finally. Most roles are quite distinct: If you join as a risk manager. New graduates would be better served trying to join an investment bank to gain a year or two of experience that will be attractive to a hedge fund.www. and for private equity and venture capital funds as well. I wanted to pursue a career with a higher upside. Jobs at hedge funds are obtained through word of mouth and networking with contacts. Ninety percent of the positions in hedge funds aren’t advertised. I was promoted to vice president of corporate finance. Unlike mutual funds. What advice would you give to someone interested in working at a hedge fund? With most hedge funds you need to get a foot in the door and prove yourself. endowments and very wealthy individuals. they’ve been exempt from SEC registration. managing a $25 million budget and developing lots of relationships. Director of Marketing Sands Brothers Asset Management. Most are small organizations that lack the time or resources for extensive training. With my background in operations and transportation I took a position at Airborne Express upon graduation. which are sold to the general public and must register with the Securities and Exchange Commission. and discuss different aspects of our fund’s strategy. As a result. Though my career was going well. the chances of becoming an analyst are slim. I seek out new managers for our fund of funds. So you should talk to people. where I was responsible for researching transactions.com Q&A Alongside economic challenges. I met the partners at Sands Brothers during an industry conference and we developed a relationship. Also. working out risk exposure and making sure everything flows smoothly. LLC Could you describe your career path? I studied English at Rutgers University. But the Obama administration’s plan to overhaul financial services regulation calls for making SEC registration mandatory for hedge funds.S. attending school at night. Eventually I became district operations manager for Manhattan. Come in and take on as much responsibility as possible and prove you can succeed in a role higher than your current one. Their number and type of investors are restricted to institutions like pension funds. So I entered an MBA program at Rutgers. I try to source transactions for the fund. as an intern. On the other hand. LP. hedge funds are private pools of capital. I’m in charge of marketing and business development. and then became head of investor relations and marketing. a fund we started from scratch to provide asset-based loans to small borrowers in the U. where I was responsible for managing large corporate accounts for companies such as UBS and KPMG. When I graduated I landed a position at Cornell Capital. Describe your primary role. My main duty is to speak to institutional investors about our investment product. It was a great opportunity to come into a firm that has been around since 1999. hedge funds also face the prospect of new regulatory requirements. attend events where you can meet people who work at hedge funds. Many small funds outsource these tasks to the prime brokerage divisions of investment banks.

but deferred-payment currency contracts known as futures. On the other hand. index.notwithstanding that the crisis originated in the U. while pay for other classes of traders plunged as much as 86 percent. UBS. FX trading involves converting one currency into another and predicting changes in exchange rates based on global events. For most of this decade. Treasury securities – because economic policies can impact the FX market. It’s a simple variant of the “buy low. London-based recruiting firm Napier Scott’s survey released in April 2009 found FX traders’ bonuses dipped just 8 percent for the preceding year.S. Credit Suisse and BNP Paribas. a U. It’s a form of insurance meant to protect against fluctuations in a portfolio or on a balance sheet. Barclays Capital. companies with significant sales in European and Asian markets can reap significant bottom-line benefits when they convert their euro or yen-denominated sales back into dollars. The trading of currencies themselves is known as the spot market. Both futures and options are types of derivatives: contracts whose value is based on the performance of an . Large investors – like pension or hedge funds. For instance. the dollar rebounded sharply from decade lows.S. but to a much greater degree. In the second half of 2008. known as options. However. the big story in FX markets has been the weakness of the dollar. JPMorganChase. and government interest rates. Anyone who has lost money by buying a foreign currency before going on vacation.Foreign Exchange The world’s biggest market The foreign exchange market (also called the “Forex” or “FX” market) is the world’s largest in terms of cash value changing hands daily. underlying financial asset. In the long run. Citigroup. FX traders pay attention to what is happening in the government bond markets – particularly trading of U. Royal Bank of Scotland. however. will appreciate the need to keep an eye on the value of currencies. A key reason: wider fluctuations among exchange rates spurred demand for both simple and complex currency products. they were Deutsche Bank. only to find its worth fell before they arrived to spend it.S. The specter of bank failures led global investors to seek safety in U. as increased activity from corporations and large financial institutions outweighed a sharp dropoff in FX trading by hedge funds. and is transacted by the world’s banks. jobs and pay for FX traders proved fairly resilient. tend to pull down the dollar’s value. The point is simple: to profit from currency price fluctuations.” Recent Developments During 2008 and 2009. If depreciation is forecast. because businesses must continually trade away dollars to obtain the foreign currencies needed to pay for goods made overseas. According to the magazine Euromoney’s 2009 survey. The flight to safety overrode two factors that tend to drive foreign exchange rates under typical conditions: the flow of trade in goods and services. while career opportunities for stock and bond traders and bankers got hammered by the global recession. In addition. HSBC. Global foreign exchange trading volume grew nearly 15 percent in 2008. assets . and one-way bets on the direction of foreign exchange price movements. U. sell high” maxim of financial markets. jobs and pay for FX traders proved fairly resilient. For example. the chronic trade deficits in the U.S. While geographically diverse. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Working in foreign exchange means predicting whether one currency will fall (depreciate) or rise (appreciate) against another. or other investment. 56 “While career opportunities for stock and bond traders and bankers got hammered by the global recession.-based company that owns hundreds of millions of euros stands to lose huge amounts if the currency drops even minutely against the dollar. according to Greenwich Associates. many of the products bought and sold in foreign exchange markets aren’t actual currencies. Goldman Sachs. the top 10 FX trading institutions account for about four-fifths of the estimated $175 trillion in annual volume. Banks and their clients face a similar problem. or multinational corporations with significant overseas sales – use these derivative products as a “hedge” against the rise or fall of the actual currencies. salespeople and traders advise clients to sell the currency and buy one that’s appreciating. business is increasingly global: If the dollar weakens.S. FX is an extremely liquid market with numerous participants.S.

had a stint with a hedge fund. Marc Chandler.www. being able to write well and having communications skills. It was difficult because you couldn’t have an opinion. assembling complex exotic derivative products for clients. while proprietary traders seek to earn profits for the institution that employs them. So. Currencies are tied to relative value versus absolute value. I’ll read newspapers and stories on the Internet to understand what happened overnight.m.com Q&A Roles and Career Paths Roles in the world of foreign exchange are much the same as in the sales and trading arena. and worked at Deutsche Bank. except that you’d be trading currencies and derivatives instead of corporate or government bonds and equity products. If you view foreign exchange as a marathon not a sprint. At Brown Brothers. some traders execute transactions on behalf of clients.efinancialcareers. It’s also important to find other opportunities to develop my skill set outside the office. 57 “Some traders execute transactions on behalf of clients. and so unlike these asset classes. with some salespeople specializing in hedge funds and others selling only to companies. you are much better able to wrestle with the business.” As with equity and bond trading. you can’t model a currency. I arrive at the office at 5:30. It combines fundamental and technical factors. I write a one page commentary that reaches clients by 7 a. If you work with FX derivatives. researchers who specialize in studying currency markets produce written reports that salespeople use to keep clients informed of market developments. Sales jobs in foreign exchange (as in other product areas) are usually divided between different client types. you could also become a structurer. policy with economics. I try to provide clients with three or four things that I want to make sure they are aware of and what they mean. Global Head of Currency Strategy Brown Brothers Harriman Could you tell us about your career path? There are three main skills that translate to success in any career: the ability to think critically. which allows me to practice public speaking and test my ideas. major economies with emerging markets and across different asset classes. Through persuasive writing we seek to identify trading opportunities or a way to manage their risk. FX trading jobs are usually split between vanilla trading. talking to clients.m. I took a job with Dean Witter as a currency futures analyst. The valuations are more elusive. my role is focused on helping to deepen and broaden the firm’s client relationships. I write for various external publications and teach at NYU one night a week. What’s a typical day like for you? I’m up at 3:45 a. My first job was as a reporter for a newswire covering Chicago futures. where products are simple and trades are easy to execute. Then I spent several years with a foreign exchange research firm. My morning consists of writing commentary and analyses about the markets. After graduate school I found that I had strong opinions and the markets seemed to be a place that rewarded them. As with other trading desks. Mellon Bank and HSBC. while proprietary traders seek to earn profits for the institution that employs them. foreign exchange is impacted by many different variables. Skills and Qualities macroeconomics markets work Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Unlike a bond or a stock. My day usually ends when the stock market closes. Once I arise. The afternoons consist of work on long-term projects and speaking to clients. and more complex derivatives trading. Which skills are central for a career in foreign exchange? Each job in foreign exchange requires different skills. and speaking to reporters. A spot trader requires a different skill set than an economist.

Fidelity Investments J. active fund managers decide for themselves which financial products to buy or sell.320 605.522 715. targeting specific sectors or regions of the world. while others offer slower growth at less risk. fund managers usually offer several funds at a time. Funds invest in everything from stocks. Passive funds. most large investment banks had their own fund management divisions. a newer breed is in charge. Funds also can be highly specialized. The investment decisions of passive funds are typically made using computers. Meanwhile.049 617. Their work follows more closely the common idea of what fund management is all about. Recent Developments Historically. Largest Institutional Asset Managers Manager State Street Global Barclays Global BlackRock BNY Mellon Asset Mgmt. a fund manager’s clients may include pension funds. and Barclays acquired the prized assets of Lehman Brothers Holdings investment bank after it entered bankruptcy. They invest in products their research indicates are likely to rise in price over time. Whichever definition fits. BlackRock reached agreement to acquire Barclays’ fund management business. The ways in which investment products can be categorized are virtually endless.) In this section. Some offer fast growth along with a larger measure of risk.250 1.P. Some managers are only interested in small capitalization growth stocks.337 762. however. see our profile of the Hedge Funds sector on page 54. closed.149. The term can refer either to a firm that provides investment management services or an individual who makes investment decisions for others. Because different types of clients tolerate different amounts of risk.829 Some anticipate the fund management business – particularly the alternative investment industry – will continue to shrink.620 463. according to Chicago-based Hedge Fund Research. process.356 814. Traditional investment managers select financial products in the belief their value will rise over time. Green funds have become an increasingly Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . These fund managers may hold long positions. sell short.089. Individual investors employ fund management professionals through their investments in mutual funds. the number was on the decline as the industry consolidated due to worsening economic conditions. philosophy. we focus on the two basic kinds of funds: Passive funds and active funds. thus allowing investors to share in the appreciation of the stocks and saving them the work of ferreting out opportunities on their own. In 2008. insurance companies and other sources of institutional cash. Taking the opposite tack. A passive fund might not hold exactly the same stocks as listed in the index it’s intended to mimic. bonds or real estate to physical commodities such as oil or metals. Barclays Global Investors. performance Fund managers are professionals who invest money on behalf of their clients. In 2009. While the fund industry’s growth has slowed.” are designed to mimic the performance of well-known stock market indexes like the S&P 500. promising niches remain.Fund Management People. Today. also called “index trackers.185 1. JPMorgan absorbed Bear Stearns. in a deal that would create the world’s largest asset management firm. at many hedge funds. or 12 percent of the total. Morgan Asset Mgmt. Later. while others focus on the world’s biggest companies.297 580. managers who often have a shorter investment horizon and employ a variety of techniques to “hedge” risk through the use of options or futures. either directly or as part of an Individual Retirement Account or other retirement plan.236. (For more. approximately 920 hedge funds. as of year-end 2008) 1. PIMCO Legg Mason Vanguard Group Northern Trust Global Source: Pensions & Investments Reprinted with permission 58 Institutional assets ($mn. or use a combination of both. Bank of America acquired Merrill Lynch and Crédit Agricole merged its asset management business with Société Générale. as are the types of funds that cater to the desires of investors. in June of 2009. In 2008.

that still represents just a tiny sliver of the $60 trillion fund industry. grew to $1. If they’re considering adding a mutual fund to their platform. don’t be afraid to demonstrate your excitement.1 billion in 2008.www. Since my day is often split between reacting to client requests and proactively speaking to them about products. like an MBA. compliance. I enjoyed equity trading but wanted a client-facing role. they’ll want to speak to our traders. Like their counterparts in investment banks. I began to transition my clients through the merger process with J. and eventually work your way into a job assisting a principal fund manager. compared with $153 million in 2001.efinancialcareers. Network and meet people in different aspects of the business. covering registered investment advisors. Any advice for up-and-coming fund managers? Seize opportunities beyond the classroom. Early on. Morgan. It’s critical to get real world experience. In the case of institutional fund management. Today. Of course. In January. Morgan Asset Management How did you become a vice president in funds management? After college. You could also work in the industry as a fund marketer or in an operations role. I joined Bear Stearns Asset Management. and legal team to understand how the pieces fit. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 59 Roles and Career Paths Fund managers focus on the business of managing. They spend their time analyzing companies’ results and meeting with senior management to discuss strategy. I’m responsible for managing our internal sales desk. marketing and sales professionals present the firm’s investing track record and capabilities to potential clients in an effort to persuade them to invest money.P. Funds employ compliance staff to ensure they meet regulatory requirements.P. focused on high-end clients covering third-party distributors. In 1998. If a client is interested in utilizing a specific product. meet investment consultants and play a role in the development of new products. such as attending events and listening to speakers who visit campus. I’ll work with the client to explain how the strategies work. working in sales but in a consultative role. which invest in environmentally conscious companies. In 2007. Additionally. Vice President J. This enables me to multi-task. Skills and Qualities . What’s a typical day like? I spend a lot of time dealing with challenges my clients are facing. I became vice president and director of national accounts for J.com Q&A important part of the industry. which allows me to see the entire business cycle from placement of our products on a platform to their selection by an advisor. and none are hired without experience. I worked on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange for a convertible arbitrage firm. Next. operations staffers do everything from work in information technology to settle and report trades. too. Mutual funds can be sold through investment advisors – such as Merrill Lynch financial consultants – or through direct marketing to individuals as is done by fund companies like Vanguard or Fidelity. This allows you to determine which products are best suited to helping them achieve their goals. I’ll set up presentations to outline these tools and services. it’s important to stay focused and organized. reports assets in green funds. and found institutional equity sales trading provided the best of both worlds. They then write reports communicating their conclusions. Analysts help steer fund managers in the right direction when it comes to choosing assets in which to invest. and many will also have a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation. Morgan’s institutional advisory business. If you’re passionate about asset management and financial services. I was appointed head of third-party distribution. internal auditors to make sure internal systems and controls function properly.P. Fund intelligence firm Lipper Inc. In 2005. you might gain exposure to fund management as a researcher responsible for identifying potential investment candidates. Many have an advanced degree. and financial staff to manage the firm’s own money. I loved the challenge but wanted to expand my career to a larger firm. firms want to understand more than a portfolio manager’s strategies or how a mutual fund management team works. I carefully determine which strategies fit within the framework of each client’s end goals. Megan Brown. I joined Bear Stearns as an institutional equity trader. What are the most important skills for a career in fund management? Most important is the ability to listen to clients. Don’t be discouraged by current market conditions. After ten years at Bear. They also manage relationships with existing clients.

the roles of investment bankers and corporate bankers began merging. corporate bankers might arrange a process of international payment or put together “trade finance” packages to ensure the firm is paid by foreign customers. the financial crisis accelerated an ongoing trend toward bank consolidation. Glass-Steagall was a Depression-era law that barred U. In many cases. or LBO. But. a company acquired in a leveraged buyout. In addition. The acquired firm’s assets become the collateral backing the loan. Another market severely affected by the recession and credit pullback is municipal finance.” because they did away with many restrictions. Recent Developments During the buyout boom earlier this decade. Just as with mortgage loans to less creditworthy (“subprime”) home buyers. Corporate bankers typically help clients raise money through loans. Increasingly. Bankers working in capital markets help companies raise money by issuing equities or debt. can end up carrying large debts on its books even if had little debt before it was taken over. or working out the details of financing packages necessary for the construction of a new office. With its repeal. the increasing globalization of the financial markets makes it imperative for large money-center banks to be able to offer . there’s an overlap between corporate banking and capital markets. The credit crunch dealt a severe blow to this type of lending. riskier corporate bonds and loans fell into disfavor among both lenders and investors soon after problems surfaced in the summer of 2007. in order to multiply their return on the equity they contribute. Meanwhile. Banks were able to sidestep much of the risk of holding these loans by packaging them into structured bonds called Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) that were then sold to investors. With the disappearance of Lehman Brothers. As a result. that less creditworthy companies traditionally had to accept in order to obtain credit. some state and local governments have had to scramble for cash to keep providing services. With their tax revenues declining and investors balking at buying new bond issues. plant or other facility. are displacing standalone investment banks. Such loans were labeled “covenant-lite.Corporate Banking Consolidation may lead to pressure on opportunities Corporate banking is the broad term given to banking services that large companies. a broad array of services to help their business clients raise needed capital. banks were so eager for corporate banking business that they offered loans to risky borrowers on ever easier terms.S. leaving global lending institutions stuck holding leveraged loans they had planned to resell. when it’s necessary. commercial banks from owning brokerages or being involved in the securities markets. often to finance buyouts by private equity firms. The market for structured bonds collapsed. managing changes in foreign exchange rates. The responsibilities of corporate bankers range from the relatively simple business of issuing loans to handling more complex matters such as helping minimize the taxes paid by overseas subsidiaries. or other big institutions need in order to function day to day. When taking over a company. governments. A dramatic instance was the state of California handing out “warrants” (IOUs) instead of cash to creditors running the gamut from banks to individual college students. Another important development has been the rise of leveraged lending – extending credit to highly indebted companies. PE firms tend to borrow as large a portion of a deal’s price as the market will bear. corporate banking requires an understanding of complex financing methods like securitization. known as covenants. which combine commercial banking with investment banking activities. where a company sells bonds based on the money it will earn in the future from assets such as rented shop space or a back catalogue of products. JPMorgan Chase’s acquisitions of Bear Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 60 “The JPMorgan and Bank of America acquisitions illustrate how universal banks. corporate bankers will bring in the expertise of their capital markets colleagues. If an organization is exporting overseas. that limited banks’ ability to make new loans.” This trend was given a boost with the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999. In turn.

It’s a job that requires an intimate understanding of each company’s strategy. make a recommendation and defend it – that is at the heart of what we do. having confidence in your own ability – and being prepared to have a view.K. a desire to succeed and a competitive nature. I missed the intensity of the financial markets having spent several summers working in a trading environment. Beyond that. which represents a global lending platform with 95 professionals in seven offices in Canada. you may begin as a credit analyst. a strong appreciation for the risks of default. it’s important that you work hard and demonstrate your capacity so that you will be given more of the interesting transactions and client-facing opportunities.efinancialcareers. Head of Corporate Banking RBC Capital Markets How did you advance to the role of head of corporate banking? After graduating with a bachelor’s degree in commerce from Queen’s University. 61 Roles and Career Paths If you opt for a career in corporate banking. I spent a year working in marketing for a large credit card company. internal discussions with our product partners to develop client strategies. the ability to develop strong relationships and manage and work with others is what differentiates you. spending your time looking at companies’ balance sheets and working out whether it’s a good idea to issue loans to them. What skills are essential for a career in corporate banking? Financial analysis and communication skills. attention to detail.www. What is a typical day like for you? Each day involves a combination of external client meetings. These include Citigroup. Skills and Qualities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . you could go into treasury management. and a strong work ethic are fundamentals. integrity. Bank of America’s acquisition of Merrill Lynch and Wells Fargo’s acquisition of Wachovia. Corporate banking also offers a variety of operational positions. the U. including technology and human resources roles. The current business downturn has made lenders increasingly conscious of the risk that existing or prospective corporate customers might default on loans – thus boosting the value attached to credit analysis skills. There tends to be a lot of travel given the global nature of our business. are displacing standalone investment banks. What would you tell an up-and-coming corporate banker? You need to have drive. The JPMorgan and Bank of America acquisitions illustrate how universal banks. I joined RBC Capital Markets more than a year ago as managing director and deputy of the global corporate bank. so I returned to I’ve spent the past 20 years with three different financial institutions across a variety of credit and structured lending disciplines. and U. responsible for lending money to a handful of the bank’s customers. Various banks offer training in corporate banking. which combine commercial banking with investment banking activities. UBS and HSBC. When we deliver the RBC Capital Markets platform to clients there are a number of touch points. I ran a corporate lending portfolio representing approximately one-third of the firm’s lending business. Networking is critical to finding new opportunities. As you advance. an MBA isn’t required to get a foot in the door of many corporate banking divisions. At CIBC. so being able to interface with everyone is critical to success in this business. Goldman Sachs. From the credit analyst’s role you could progress to being a relationship manager. a review of transactions for approval. For example.S. and sales skills. If you aren’t interested in the relationship management side of corporate banking. Patti Perras Shugart. the number of top-tier financial institutions suddenly shrank. having the ability to develop relationships with clients as well as internal partners is very important. In the early stages of your career. you may start out in any number of roles. Finally. They ensure that businesses have enough money to pay for whatever they need to buy and help them deal with fluctuations in the value of foreign currency holdings. Broad experience also means not staying in the same position for too long: Take the opportunity to move around and try new things.com Q&A Stearns and Washington Mutual. I was promoted in January to head the corporate bank. While all banks will want candidates to possess a college degree. Treasury managers help companies cope with their cash flow. and managing the operations of the business and a large group of professionals.

firms are realizing that by encouraging Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Recent Developments Before the current financial crisis. ranging from global financial institutions to regional insurers to specialized private-banking boutiques. to this category. their services continue to be in demand. Finally. In one subset of the sector known as “Family Offices. typically defined as having at least $1 million in liquid assets to invest.000. released in March 2009. the need for experienced professionals who can preserve and grow college funds and retirement savings has only been reinforced. the prospects for private bankers were overwhelmingly rosy. It’s a role best suited to people who can observe other individuals and come to understand their needs. At the top are “ultra-high-net-worth” clients .000 independent investment advisors it surveyed had added new clients during the previous six months. Some banks apply a still higher minimum. This is the fastest-growing slice of the private banking market. are a by-product of the credit crisis.” the bankers perform additional tasks that range from screening solicitations for charitable contributions to making sure the client’s bills are paid on time. help clients develop a strategy for philanthropy. and advise them on estate planning. Next comes “high-net-worth. Despite losses in the stock market. The business has always catered to the world’s wealthiest people. This last group represents something of a gray area. such as a successful family business. led by the millions of baby boomers entering retirement. Their real talent is connecting with people who may have a lot of their wealth tied up in a fairly narrow activity.” clients whose account balances add up to at least $100. Others. The main role of a private banker is to help clients manage their money. There are clear reasons why firms are wooing private bankers: First. and continue to be. Private bankers also offer tax planning and pension advice. a powerful force for the industry as a . are aimed at tapping into the assets and revenues that accompany managing individual wealth. Demographics were. wealth professionals who can demonstrate an aptitude for providing personalized service and possess a sharp ear will find opportunities in rebuilding the portfolios owned by the world’s wealthiest individuals.Private Banking and Wealth Management Experience and a strong contact list are keys to working with the wealthiest individuals The objective of private bankers is to provide a more personalized level of service to wealthy clients than is available to typical customers at a commercial bank. including moves by insurance companies such as Genworth and Hartford Financial. as the ranks of the wealthy have steadily expanded. following the erosion of enormous sums of wealth that has impacted every economic class. such as $30 million.individuals or families who can invest $10 million or more. Some of them. this involves helping them invest wisely while avoiding risks that might reduce the value of their assets. In its semi-annual Independent Advisor Outlook Study. While they usually don’t qualify for the full range of private banking services. serviceoriented personality. there are the “mass affluent. Second. Traditionally. Now. such as consolidation among top-tier investment banks. many institutions still give them a degree of personal attention that’s beyond what ordinary account holders receive. In short. and banks are pursuing it avidly. plus the ability to carefully listen to clients. year-end 2008) 1501 1393 1320 1000 612 552 522 352 231 215 62 These opportunities will exist across a broad spectrum of organizations. reported more than 90 percent of the nearly 6. The 10 Largest Private Wealth Managers Institution Bank of America UBS Citi Wells Fargo Credit Suisse JPMorgan Morgan Stanley HSBC Deutsche Bank Goldman Sachs Source: Scorpio Partnership Private Banking KPI Benchmark 2009 report Assets under management ($ billion. required expert financial advice. or who can be very demanding. many banks have refined their offerings to serve three distinct gradations of wealth. Charles Schwab & Co. good people skills help. Trends determining where jobs will reside are taking shape. host of groups.” clients. Over the last several years. A successful private banker needs an outgoing.

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and being attuned to their life needs and how you can help fulfill them. HSBC and UBS run graduate training programs for private bankers. What’s a typical day like for you? My day begins at 5:30 a. where I trained to be a financial planner. you can expect to focus in one of three areas: investing for existing clients. it’s often possible to move into private banking if you have a background in corporate finance or. because the job requires you to listen and understand clients’ fears and goals. the relationships are often entrusted only to experienced executives. unusual. understanding their concerns. If you don’t find a place in one of those. learning the business and helping individuals develop strategies to meet their investment goals. including some who have little understanding of the markets. Richard Kass. It’s important that you be able to meet people and talk about investments and markets. and demanding people. We do a lot of income planning projections. However. you need to have technical understanding of various investment products. in which we’ll discuss their portfolio in detail and determine whether they have sufficient income streams or too much exposure in a particular asset class. It’s important to be a people person. So. I spent 15 years there. It’s valuable whether you’re just starting out or changing careers. This allows me to hit the ground running. investment specialists are brought in to put more detailed solutions together. I moved to IDS Financial Services. Firms such as Goldman Sachs. For clients who are very wealthy. 64 A decade ago. I’ve been a financial planner for 20 years. investors and relationship managers are now separate . I usually read The Wall Street Journal. This can involve a lot of traveling and close contact with interesting. Other areas in finance and investments are quantitative. I have a set agenda which revolves around client meetings. looking at risk. Next. It’s critical that you be able to communicate with a wide range of people. I completed my CFP (Certified Financial Planner) certification and moved to a firm called Total Asset Planning. making sure individuals have the right insurance coverage. They are typically product specialists who are expert in a particular asset class. when I review the day’s news and go to the gym.another sign of the industry’s growing complexity. or managing back office functions such as human resources and accounting. Roles and Career Paths If you work as a private banker. When I get to the office. A large part of our practice deals with retirees and designing strategies that allow them to maintain their standard of living into retirement. working in options and municipal bond trading. Chief Investment Officer KBK Wealth Management How did you become chief investment officer here? I began my career at Bear Stearns. New York Times and Bloomberg. it’s important to be able to take complex investment concepts and simplify them. When a relationship banker has established a client’s needs. fund management. People working on the relationship side are essentially salespeople who spend their time building connections with clients and selling the bank’s services. Typically. Skills and Qualities clients Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . as well as evaluating risk in portfolios. What skills are vital for a career in wealth management? To be a successful. I review client reports and the prior day’s trading to make sure the trades we’ve made are in the right investment accounts. Any advice for up-and-coming wealth managers? I’m a firm believer in the knowledge and skills that come with the CFP certification. building relationships. In some organizations. and structuring pension plans. more particularly. a diverse background can be an asset. In fact. because clients can differ considerably in their needs and personalities. so you can advise clients. in most banks. they still do. but this field is about working with people. People working on the investment side either invest their clients’ money or offer detailed advice to help clients make their own decisions. Having an MBA or majoring in business isn’t considered critical for a private banker. most private bankers combined the investor and relationship roles.m.Q&A people to invest in 401(K) plans or insurance products and arming their private banking teams with top professionals they can enhance their institutional product lines. My work revolves around designing investment portfolios.

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opaque markets such as derivatives may soon be standardized. investors and regulators are seeking to instill a greater level of transparency in the investment banking industry. Clearing trades involves looking at the records made by traders or investment managers when they buy and sell financial products. accounting and valuation – will arrive. In light of the financial crisis. salespeople. the overall operations role is so broad that employees typically specialize in only one of these areas. Their work covers everything from information technology to human resources. These professionals support trading operations by performing a multitude of functions. The more efficient a firm is at conducting its business. or “prime brokerage. but increasingly many asset managers are moving to a multi-prime broker model. In fact.Operations Rising demands from the back office Operations may not be where banks make their profits. altering the way many instruments are settled.” they’re critically important: An inefficient back office can drain a firm’s profits. Settlements cover everything from preparing the documentation required for a sale to making sure the bank has been paid for all of the shares it sold. hedge funds. Investment banks and other firms need operations managers who can act decisively. The operations groups at investment banks. accounting and finance.” Prime brokers are the back office for hedge funds. an unprecedented era of oversight – impacting areas such as reporting. As a result. By weighing various “what if” scenarios. Yet. operations becomes critical to a firm’s ability to respond if an adverse event . settlement and custody facilities to help in managing relationships with investors and raising new funds. Credit default swaps are at the forefront of the creation of central clearinghouses that can handle the settlement and trading of derivatives and other illiquid instruments.” Unlike the traders. or has paid for all the shares it bought. firms need people who can wear multiple hats. Operations professionals ensure a firm functions smoothly and efficiently. Settling trades is about making sure securities are exchanged for the correct amount of money. The failure of Lehman Brothers demonstrated the need for quick action in order to protect client assets. mutual funds and other financial institutions are commonly referred to as the “back office. Another area is hedge fund operations. Further. because operations encompasses a wide range of activities. market volatility and a decrease in liquidity have resulted in greater emphasis by asset managers on operational risk controls. people working in operations will be wellpositioned to help shape the industry of the future. fund managers and corporate financiers of the front office. trade support. operations professionals are poised to lay the groundwork for how third parties service asset managers and other firms. helping supervisors ensure their in-house traders comply with position limits and other rules and policies. brokerage houses. operations people don’t work directly with customers to generate revenue and profit. The electronic “paper trails” they maintain play an important role in risk management. the greater the percentage of revenue that falls to its bottom line. they serve in support functions. trade capturing. In this new world. investment banks and other firms are seeking a higher caliber of employee to work there. and risk management. The ushering in of a new era in regulation by the global financial crisis will bring tremendous opportunities to operations professionals. reported. The ability to ask tough questions and instill a crisis procedure before it’s needed means operations professionals can help an investment bank stay ahead of the curve.such as a counterparty default . and traded. Prime brokers play a lucrative role in large investment banks. but it’s certainly an area where they can lose them.should occur. Realizing just how important operations can be to profitability. then checking to make sure they match the records kept by the counterparties to those trades – the people from whom securities were bought or to whom they were sold. offering everything from clearing. 66 Roles and Career Paths Roles in clearing and settlements are typically for exception Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . At the core of operations is the function of clearing and settling trades. While their jobs may be “behind the scenes. Operations professionals must be able to consider what could happen on any given day. Fueled by hedge fund meltdowns and an unraveling of complex derivatives. Instead. bankers. including reconciling a trading desk’s daily profit-and-loss statements or maintaining a firm’s internal portfolio accounting system. As products move from over-the-counter markets to public markets.

www.S. traditional fund administration and middle office outsourcing. and project managers implement their suggestions. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 67 Skills and Qualities . A year later I became vice president of operations and development. I moved to investment management. At CooperNeff I leaned on my accounting experience. I focused on the middle office needs of their prop trading businesses. Some derivative operations positions require an accounting degree and a CPA designation. efficiency. especially following periods where trading was particularly volatile and rapid. or P&L. The more senior you become. the people who deal with instances where data on electronic systems don’t match. The only way to effectively manage an operation is if you’ve done the work yourself. Most of our 75-person U. specifically looking at our key performance and risk indicators. Banks use operations staff to analyze ways of making processes more efficient. I routinely participate in morning conference calls that may deal with strategy. But derivative trades are often too complex to be settled electronically.. you might find yourself talking to traders who claim to have sold shares for $3 each when the buyer says the price was only $2. They try to work out the reasons for any discrepancy. Chief Operating Officer BNP Paribas Financial Services How did you become a chief operating officer at BNP Paribas? I graduated from Delaware Valley College. one-on-one interactions with my management team to monitor our daily operational production. for example. as well as experience in public accounting. a finance background and knowledge of how securities markets operate can be important for success in this field. quality. I also discuss the status of our operations from a platform and infrastructure perspective to ensure applications work as expected and are improved over time. custody services for funds of funds and investment reporting and performance. team is based in King of Prussia. I’ll have ad-hoc.com Q&A managers. I became chief operating officer and head of operations for global fund services North America. You come to understand the challenges an operations analyst faces on a daily basis. Any advice for up-and-coming operations managers? I recommend getting direct exposure to the varied activities that occur within operations. Thus. In 2007. resulting in the creation of BNP Paribas Financial Services and a third-party offering for hedge funds. the more likely you will work in this kind of strategic or project management role. cost. but our fund of funds custody group is based in New York. and when I managed the middle office I drew upon my analyst experience. Electronic systems have vastly increased the speed with which simple trades are processed. How would you describe your role? My role is spread over four business lines: alternative fund administration. Most operations jobs have a strategic element. The large number of documents required for derivatives transactions creates roles for documentation specialists. My first job was with an international accounting firm. I also accompany sales people to meetings with potential clients. When I moved into technology and IT. with a concentration in finance. part of BNP Paribas. If you work as an exception manager. majoring in business administration. What’s a typical day like for you? Usually I begin by responding to overnight queries from colleagues or dealing with issues a client may raise with our London or European offices. You might also find yourself chasing payment from recalcitrant overseas buyers for transactions they deny ever took place. In 2000. In 2004 we began to offer our services to third-party customers. As you move through different roles you develop a perspective for operations that can’t be obtained in a textbook. Many times. Pa.efinancialcareers. joining CooperNeff Advisors. trades are still confirmed by fax or through the review of actual contracts. I learned SQL and Visual Basic so I could write my own code. We’ll look at trends we’re seeing in various markets and determine if we can use that information to assist our other offices. operational risk mitigation. Andrew Dougherty. Next.

asset allocation specialists create mathematical models that forecast how a client’s money should be divided among asset classes.000 419. investment consultants help implement their plan by identifying the fund managers who are most likely to meet the goals that have been established with the least overhead costs.600.V. Some of the larger investment consulting firms include Watson Wyatt.000 800.000 1. Roles and Career Paths Jobs in investment consulting usually fall into one of two categories: asset allocation and fund selection. It’s also their job to monitor how the funds perform. They help these clients determine the asset allocation that will enable them to reach their investment goals. Mercer.000 2. foundations. one of the biggest issues facing the trustees of large pension funds has been determining the amount of money they should shift out of traditional stocks and bonds and into alternative investments. or alternative asset classes in order to generate the returns they require to pay pensions or fulfill other long-term goals. The consultants then develop liability plans and profiles that enable them to recommend an acceptable investment policy. In the process they recommend which fund managers clients should invest with.Investment Consulting Strategic advisors to fund managers – and scrutinizers of them Investment consultants advise the trustees of corporate and public retirement plans. To help them. university endowments. not-for-profit organizations. bonds. investment consulting firms built expertise about them in order to better advise their clients.000. $ million) 3. such as hedge funds or real estate. The 15 Largest Investment Consultants Worldwide assets under advisement Consultant Mercer Invest.357 703. After establishing the appropriate allocation of funds across different asset classes and investment managers. RogersCasey. alternative investments. As the number of hedge funds and private equity funds swelled over the past decade. healthcare systems. and if the managers of those funds are meeting – or failing to meet – the benchmarks that have been established.700. whether by making sure a pension fund can meet its payout obligations or maximizing the wealth of an endowment.965 538. It’s a complex role that involves examining economic factors like interest rate changes. Wilshire Associates.000 756. Most traditional fund managers have lengthy track records they can point to. In recent years.168 300.000 300.357. 2008.941 837. Frank Russell Co. and investment consulting firms have developed tools and databases to help them monitor and rank those managers. and what percentage of the client’s money should be directed to non-traditional.. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and the likely risks and returns associated with each type of asset. They want to understand what level of performance the trustees expect and their sensitivity to risk.000 300. Solutions Pension Consulting Alliance JPMorgan Investment Hewitt Associates NEPC API Asset Performance Rocaton Investment Advisors (as of June 30. Kuhns & Associates Strategic Invest. Investment consultants will first work with trustees or other fiduciaries to analyze their investment goals and learn how their funds are governed. Asset allocation specialists advise clients whether to invest in equities.850 500. They scrutinize particular funds and author reports on their strengths and weaknesses.000 68 Source: Pensions & Investments. Reprinted with permission Fund selection specialists spend much of their time analyzing individual fund managers and asking questions about their investment strategy. high-net-worth individuals and financial intermediaries on what to do with their money.000 2. as well as the timing of the pension fund’s liabilities or pay-outs.383. Consulting Institutional Consulting Watson Wyatt Investment Cambridge Associates Callan Associates Ennis Knupp + Associates Wilshire Associates R. and Evaluation Associates. Callan Associates.000 1.

as well as broader financial considerations. and the Economist among other periodicals. They are often more senior members of the firm.efinancialcareers. Rittereiser. Staff in investment consultancies usually begin their careers in research and move into client-facing roles as they gain more experience. it’s equally important to hone relationship management skills. What should students interested in this field be reading? Working with endowments requires a broad knowledge of different asset classes. What skills and qualities are most important for an investment consultant? While a deep understanding of the financial markets is necessary. Kelli P. the Financial Times.and long-term missions. Within fund selection and asset allocation are roles for relationship specialists. and the global economy. and settlement trusts on developing and maintaining investment policies. such as the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation.com Q&A Along with examining an investment manager’s staff and investment process. I also earned the Chartered Financial Analyst designation. selection specialists dissect historical performance data using statistical tools designed to pinpoint sources of return and risk and gauge how well a fund performed relative to its peers. universities. Most large investment consulting firms take on graduates. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 69 Skills and Qualities . Additionally. As an undergraduate at Washington University in St. Van Otterloo & Company (GMO). A rethinking of my career led me to earn an MBA at the Yale School of Management and led to my selection as a Toigo Fellow. The majority of my clients have committees involved with the decision-making process. After graduation. read Pioneering Portfolio Management by David Swensen and Foundation and Endowment Investing by Lawrence Kochard and Cathleen M. As a consultant. I majored in business and was intrigued by the financial markets. and balance the different and sometimes conflicting objectives of the committee members. Mayo. the staff and the organizational mission the investment pool ultimately supports. That interest intensified when I served as a student representative to a committee responsible for managing the university’s endowment. asset allocation and manager selection. While many asset allocation and fund selection specialists work in research and focus on a particular type of fund or investment product.www. Louis. After entering investment consulting. ultimately becoming a portfolio manager. Washington. Each person has a different opinion and perspective on the recommendations I make. relationship specialists are usually generalists. I work with clients including foundations. I have to be prepared for the unexpected and learn to meet. I joined Cambridge Associates in 2007. you’ll typically go on to gain a professional qualification. I worked 10 years at the brokerage firm Edward Jones. In making recommendations. What’s your current role and range of responsibilities? As an investment consultant. Students interested in this field should regularly read The Wall Street Journal. It requires a holistic understanding and review of the entire organization. they should read the periodic market reviews by industry experts like Bill Gross of Pacific Investment Management Company (PIMCO) and Jeremy Grantham of Grantham. risk profiles and tolerances and spending needs. Endowment oversight is more than simply trying to invest in the best hedge fund or private equity fund. And. Investment Consultant Cambridge Associates Tell us about your career path. Most investment consulting firms produce confidential lists ranking fund managers according to their likely success going forward. global markets. I have to consider each client’s short. who are the sector’s true consultants. manage.

(KKR) are a few of the sector’s big players. Restructuring and managing distressed assets – including steering a portfolio company through bankruptcy court – emerged as a substantial area of activity for PE firms. it was the first PE firm to take over a public company when it bought machine-tool maker Houdaille for $355 million in 1979. PE firms were paying banks to restructure many of their past acquisitions that became troubled. acquiring smaller companies that can benefit from an injection of capital and management talent. KKR was doing high-profile buyout deals as far back as the 1980s. Bank revenues from financial sponsors for deals in Europe fell 95 percent from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2009.2 trillion in 70 Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . According to Fortune magazine. Cerberus Capital. The $22. Overall. or VC. they’re similar to investment banks. TPG Capital (also known as Texas Pacific Group).” A subset of private equity is called “venture capital. and sell their stake at a profit some years later. PE firms use the capital they raise – along with leverage gained from issuing debt – to assume control of businesses either as co-owners or. a company’s own managers work with private equity groups to raise the money necessary to buy the stock of the firm they’re running. the acquiring group uses loans. funding for leveraged buyouts all but disappeared.4 billion first-half 2009 deal flow was the smallest in 17 years and accounted for just 2. sole owners. In ideal situations. The pullback in private equity dealmaking is affecting big global banks as well. Sometimes. As recently as 2006.” However. and for the financial services industry as a whole. according to Thomson Reuters. turn them around. private equity funds saw explosive growth. Wavering commitment from institutional investors creates a medium-term challenge for the private equity industry. according to Dealogic. Harvard University and a number of other large endowments that had been steadily boosting their allocations in private equity suddenly began to backpedal. With both banks and institutional investors pulling away from risky lending. In an LBO. Recent Developments Between 2003 and 2007. private equity volume declined 69 percent in 2008 and 82 percent in the first half of 2009 from the respective year-earlier periods. firms focus on funding promising new businesses. buyout deals made up 20. they use the target company’s own assets as collateral. private equity funds do it by raising cash from wealthy individuals and institutions like pension funds. private equity funds raise money for companies in need of a capital infusion. The similarity between PE funds and investment banks ends there. who serve PE firms as “financial sponsors. These deals are known as “management buyouts. Sometimes private equity companies engage in “asset stripping. Firms that specialize in buying distressed companies with the aim of turning them around and ultimately selling at a profit form one niche within private equity that is having little difficulty attracting new capital. Late in 2008. often. Where investment banks don’t take a controlling ownership interest in the companies they take public. the credit crunch that began in mid-2007 sent private equity activity into a tailspin from which it has yet to recover.6 percent of overall merger and acquisition activity during the period. Carlyle Group and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. The biggest PE firms tend to get the most media attention because of the size of the acquisitions they complete. Firms like Blackstone Group. But while deal fees collapsed. many mid-tier firms are also at work. Often. Private equity funds sometimes use a technique known as a “leveraged buyout” (LBO) for all or part of a company’s purchase costs. bonds or other debt instruments to raise the capital necessary to buy the target. That made the sector into a highly coveted class of customers for the leading investment banks. In that respect. But while banks raise money by selling stocks or bonds on the public markets on behalf of client companies.5 percent of total M&A volume. PE funds invest in underperforming companies. When market conditions turned hostile. Secondary market sales of as much as 10 percent of the estimated $1.Private Equity You’ll need some experience or an MBA to make it in this sector At a base level. seeking to sell their existing PE fund stakes at a discount into an increasingly illiquid market. PE firms struggled to cancel many deals they’d committed to and rescue others that had already closed. However.” or breaking up a company and selling its assets separately in order to make their profit.” Venture capital. often in the public markets.

Financial Times.K. A fundamental philosophy at 3i is partnership – we partner with management teams in our deals and it’s only through shared aspirations and true partnership that we jointly achieve our goals. You also should be resilient. in 2000. make decisions having taken account of a myriad of potential consequences. PE funds prefer people to have a minimum of two to three years of experience at an investment bank. Next. reading the obvious publications – such as The Wall Street Journal. We deal with lots of information and it comes at you very quickly. Private equity seemed like the ideal next step. number-crunchers and lawyers necessary to undertake the due diligence that will make the deals work profitably. Careers in private equity offer two main entry points. Like their investment bank peers. Below them are the analysts. thus analytical and strategic skills provide the foundation for sound judgment that is developed over time. I started in marketing and brand management. At the senior-most levels. Growth Capital 3i Group Tell us about your career. Partner. There is a trend among mid-tier firms to bring more analyst and associate positions in house. I moved over to McKinsey & Company.K. You must be able to sort through a lot of information. rather than rely too much on outside consulting firms to get their work done. As I thought about the future. They are individuals with the experience and contacts to identify. The Economist. It’s critical that you have strong interpersonal skills since you work with different types of people on deals. management consulting firm or accounting firm.www. Use them to learn about the key firms and important deals being done. spending five years working for Procter & Gamble in the U. I joined 3i.efinancialcareers. Skills and Qualities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . then communicate the decisions to all parties involved. and Germany. private equity funds remain a huge force in the global economy. the leading private equity firm in Europe. What type of skills do you look for? It’s important to be around private equity investors because the business is so experience-based and very much follows an apprenticeship model. There are also publications specific to the private equity world. What are some strategies for pursuing a career in private equity? Spend time with people in the business or networking. who have some real-world experience. Robin Marshall. You should be following the world of business. PE professionals can make huge sums of money. for example the Association for Corporate Growth. It was a great experience that allowed me to understand how business worked. and Sweden. People emerging from a graduate business school with an MBA program.com Q&A worldwide private equity fund shares would compete with PE firms’ efforts to attract investment in new funds. originate and close deals. That expanded my horizons and exposed me to many different people and cultures. etc. and you need to be able to get along well with them. I wanted a role which combined the decision-making responsibility I had enjoyed at P&G with the variety and intellectual stimulation McKinsey offered. It’s important to participate in some industry organizations. where I spent three years in the U. 71 Roles and Career Paths Despite their waning influence. Working in private equity can be an emotional roller-coaster and it’s important to maintain a sense of perspective so you don’t get carried away with the highs and don’t get too down with the lows. are also suitable. A sense of humor also helps.

net Asset Tables as at Jul 17. with more than half of the largest funds saying they’d terminated a relationship with a prime broker during the past year. After Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy filing in September 2008 stranded billions of dollars in assets Lehman had administered for some 700 hedge funds. global custodians provided fund accounting and administrative services to funds holding more than $95 trillion in assets as of July 2009. reporting. global custodians had gigantic filing systems for their core work . Of those that did. At the same time.net used with permission.storing certificates of stock and bond ownership for their clients. That’s opened the door for the strongest banks to expand their niche in prime brokerage.337 11. monitoring compliance. their technology-rich services include recordkeeping. 2009 Provider BNY Mellon J. they are shifting to controlling risk for asset managers.net No reproduction without consent. The next tier is heavy in European and UK names such as BNP Paribas. global custodians continue to play a significant role in financial markets. Today. Meanwhile. their clients need to be more efficient.Global Custody Providing transparency to increasingly complex investments Global custodians undertake the job of processing crossborder securities trades while at the same time working to keep the financial assets of clients safe and servicing their associated portfolios. global custodians are even more important today.563 3. followed by State Street Bank and Citigroup.net. Extract from www. Before computers existed. certificates related to stock and bond ownership are stored electronically. U.143 3.500 11. though even in those industries formerly cumbersome tracking systems are moving toward more efficient electronic methods. broker-dealers seeking custody business face much greater scrutiny of their financial strength. and trade processing. The Lehman bankruptcy and the earlier distress sale of Bear Stearns triggered what Global Custodian magazine called a “seismic restructuring” of the hedge fund administration market. Small custodians lack the manpower and technological expertise for these higher margin activities.558 3. global custodians have become service providers. 2009 According to Globalcustody. and so are gradually being subsumed into bigger players. worldwide ($ bn) 19. a specialist Web site that tracks the industry. And because asset managers find it less expensive to outsource the safekeeping and administration of global securities portfolios to a single firm. one-third cited “counterparty credit risk concern” as the reason.720 © 2009 globalcustody.globalcustody. making the business of custody much less space-intensive and easier to conduct. realizing that as assets under management have fallen. for example.) A 2007 merger between Bank of New York and Mellon Financial produced the world’s largest global custodian. Société Générale and HSBC. custodians charge a fee based on the value of what they administer.S. institutions also occupy the next three places on the list. In exchange for safeguarding client assets. UBS. with JPMorgan in the number two spot. with $19. That’s not necessarily the case within the booming alternative investment sectors such as hedge funds and off-shore funds. As the hedge fund industry has grown. broadening services to win over lucrative hedge fund clients. and determining risk exposures to everything from counterparties to foreign currencies has become more difficult. Largest Banks By Global Custody Assets.5 trillion of assetsin-custody. such as securities lending.025 4. The above extract was taken from from the globalcustody. that figure was down 17 percent from a year earlier.P. particularly as the investment landscape has become more sophisticated. bigger players are merging so as to become even bigger. Morgan State Street Citi BNP Paribas Société Générale HSBC Securities Services CACEIS Investor Services Northern Trust RBC Dexia Investor Services Assets under custody. worldwide decline in asset prices. As protecting assets. In recent years global custodians also have branched out to offer other services.000 2. (Due to the . Today. BNY Mellon Asset Servicing. The percentage fee level will vary according to the frequency of Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Recent Developments 72 Global custody continues to be an evolving business.651 3.500 13.

Custodians typically specialize in a particular area. independent and have a broad set of experiences. investment reporting and performance. Demonstrate that you can close deals and grow a client relationship over time. My education had a strong international focus. insurance companies. Custodians also offer more client-focused and technical jobs. the value-add that you offer. We look for people that possess a network of contacts that can be leveraged to help grow our business. Any advice for up-and-coming global custody professionals? It’s important to stay current with the markets as. We provide a full suite of services including global custody. We seek people who are creative. for example. pension funds.and back-office outsourcing. Interpersonal skills are paramount in order to develop relationships with clients and internal groups. In 2002. performance measurement (calculating the returns a client’s investments have made over a period of time). Similar to operations staff working in investment banks. operational controls. Staff in clearing and settlements make sure the contracts and payments are in place following a client’s trade.efinancialcareers. I received a degree in business administration from a leading business school there and later an MBA from Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. Few global custodians offer structured graduate training programs.www. and my speaking three languages helped tremendously. credit risks and market practices to be successful in this role. fund operations staff in custody houses look out for so-called “exceptions. collecting dividends from clients’ investments). government agencies and corporate clients. an online multi-bank foreign exchange trading portal. work with clients to reassure them their assets are safely maintained. transfer agency. accounting treatments. the complexity of the portfolio. How did you become a managing director? I’m originally from Brazil. You need a basic understanding of underlying cash flows. proactive.S. creative. demonstrate your track record. especially now. BNP Paribas Could you describe your role for us? I’m responsible for business development for BNP Paribas’ global fund services in the Americas. and how you’d help grow the business. Our client base includes traditional and alternative asset managers. 73 Skills and Qualities . things are changing so dramatically. Each role I’ve had has been in relationship management and sales. Provide examples of situations in which you have been proactive. or overcome challenges. and try to resolve any problems. Marcia Rothschild. Managing Director. the role of custodian has widened to include a range of other services. With asset managers increasingly selective in choosing a global custodian. Relationship managers. In 2000 I joined FXall. The ability to obtain what you need from your peers and influence others to get things done is critical. or to work on clearing and settlements. Corporate action professionals normalize and consolidate corporate announcement information – generally referred to in the industry as “scrubbing” – to inform clients about important events at companies that might impact the value of the shares they hold. fund administration and accounting. and proxy voting on behalf of clients at shareholder meetings. I joined BNP Paribas as it built a team to market fund services in the U. These include income collection (e. securities lending. What are the most important skills for a career in fund services? In business development you need to be ambitious.g.com Q&A transactions. persistent. You might be asked to record and monitor the investments made by fund management clients. Over the past two decades intense competition has put downward pressure on custody fees. During an interview. It’s important to be able to interpret news and trends and identify opportunities for the bank. If you’re interested in working at a firm such as BNP Paribas. and possess superior networking and consultative skills. be able to identify opportunities that exist for the organization. It’s important to be versatile and embrace different challenges. this trend could continue. Graduates may start out in corporate actions or settlements and move into other positions after a few years.” when trades have not been settled properly. middle. You must be self-motivated and able to work independently. compliance and trustee services and foreign exchange. and the specific services required. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Roles and Career Paths While much of the work is administrative and repetitive. so exactly what you do will depend on where you work. I began with Citibank’s Securities Services division in 1992.

will fall in value simultaneously. risk management helps ensure the overall health of a firm’s portfolio and. The mortgage and credit collapse. These are a set of recommendations on banking laws and regulations promulgated by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. risk managers are charged with ensuring the business can continue to function after a computer systems failure.D. in the asset management and investment banking fields. Today. terrorist attack. lately the pendulum is shifting back toward more traditional. While financial services firms have often held a bias toward those on the moneymaking or trading side of the business. While many banks and investment firms have had to let people go. or natural disaster. Reputational risk – sometimes considered a sub-sector of operational risk – is the risk something will happen to damage a firm’s reputation. Finally. given today’s need for better risk management the profile of individuals working on this side of the operation is fast rising. manages regulatory risk. risk managers strive to make sure a bank isn’t overexposed to borrowers or trading partners that might not repay debts or other obligations. 74 Roles and Career Paths Individuals working in an area specifically devoted to market risk at a large bank or investment house are typically situated on or close to the trading floor. and phony accounting. terrorist threats. Credit risk is the risk that a particular company or individual will default on its obligation to repay its debts. Market risk is caused by outside events. shifts in foreign exchange rates. which is part of the Bank for International Settlements based in Basel. or commodities. or other financial pressures that could jeopardize the strength of its balance sheet. such as market fluctuations caused by rising oil prices. On a fundamental level. in addition to tech skills related to the field. which ties in with systemic risk. banks and investment firms are working overtime to get a handle on the systemic (firm-wide) risk from the subprime crash and the devaluing of derivatives tied to the housing market. These individuals possess mathematical modeling skills. Switzerland. plummeting stock markets. such as stocks. Market risk specialists use mathematical value-at-risk (VaR) models to work out the maximum amount of money their bank or investment firm would lose in the case of a particular event. Professionals in credit risk analyze company balance sheets Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . in addition to previous financial scandals surrounding biased equity research. They also work closely with traders to calculate the risk associated with specific transactions. While the explosive growth of credit derivatives earlier this decade boosted demand for Ph. First there’s market risk. In the banking sector. They also track employee or business partner activities to prevent fraud. improper mutual fund trading. sometimes.-level quantitative modeling within banks’ credit risk departments. through the impact of a serious physical disaster or a large-scale fraud committed by employees or management. Banking executives try to manage three principal risks as defined by a series of international agreements known as the Basel Accords. Similarly. it involves protecting a company from negative events. or sudden interest rate hikes. a physical disaster. The insurance industry also has risk professionals on staff – including those on the underwriting or actuarial end – monitoring the exposures a company might suffer from policy coverage and its own investment decisions. for example. This is the hazard that a whole group of traded financial products. In corporate IT departments. This could come.Risk Management Brakes on a bank’s risky activities Risk management can apply to a variety of aspects of the financial business. operational risk is the risk something might go wrong in the day-to-day running of a bank. cash flows and debt ratios. fundamental tools involving the analysis of company balance sheets. This category of risk has come to the fore recently. The insurance industry uses the term to describe services and products its corporate and business clients use to help protect themselves from potential losses. those on the risk management side needn’t fear: Chief risk officers are beefing up their teams. regulatory flaws. bonds. have made banks and investment houses increasingly sensitive to the need for reputation management after a crisis occurs. along with a plethora of complex credit derivatives. due in large part to the failure of new products that were designed to help manage it: credit default swaps. Smaller investment firms may combine the market risk activities with asset and liability management.

Finance Division Credit Risk & Management Advisory Goldman Sachs What skill sets and qualifications do you prefer for new hires? We look for talented people familiar with finance and accounting. and we bring people in at the analyst level. Additionally. Strategically. a company is announcing earnings. People are placed on different teams.people who can learn the needed credit skills. it’s a good idea to join a bank’s or brokerage firm’s graduate training program. With industry specific knowledge and risk management skills under your belt. in addition to courses on corporate finance and the markets. They generally play a passive role unless an adverse event occurs. we spend quite a bit of time thinking about risks as they evolve. By comparison. 75 Skills and Qualities ing abilities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Can you give us an idea of the career trajectory for risk specialists? The department has individuals who have been here for many years . Then they’re working around the clock. many of the top investment banking firms and brokerage houses offer their analyst and associate recruits broad training. the Human Resources department. If the Fed is announcing stress test results. Beyond finance and accounting skills. and over time you would move on to leading teams and making significant decisions for the firm. Ideally. We have a two-year training program. we look for individuals who are highly analytical . or in-house counsel and outside lawyers skilled in the field. or the FDIC is taking over a bank. Doing the bare minimum simply isn’t enough when you are going to assign a credit rating or approve a trade. working with IT to improve the way we do things. including going off to work on the investment banking or sales and trading side of the business. I need to be on top of what that means. Recently. but credit skills are applicable to a wide variety of positions. we’ve anticipated the events in advance so that we’ve positioned ourselves well as a firm for any bad news that’s happening in the market. You’re constantly trying to look around corners and anticipate what’s ahead. But what differentiates candidates over time is intellectual curiosity. risk management training is covered by the IT or Operations department. especially as things develop throughout the day and over time. and formulate plans to implement if they do. and the work can be quite demanding.efinancialcareers. We’re constantly working to improve the way we report risk. since that’s certainly the most useful for us. Not everyone stays in the department. Reputational risk specialists attempt to present the bank’s best side in public. At some banks. Risk management training classes and certifications are also offered by a number of professional trade groups. Carey Halio. it will be easier to advance in the risk world. The role is typically dealt with by in-house and external public relations specialists. monitoring limits or analyzing counterparties. Vice President. Few banks employ reputational risk specialists. which generally provides classes in risk management.some 20-plus. per se. operational risk experts review the likelihood of particular events taking place. I try to stay ahead of what’s going on in the sector. given where we are in the economic cycle and given my role running the financial institutions team.com Q&A and meet with directors to determine an organization’s financial health. If you want a career in risk management. What’s a typical day for a risk specialist? We try to make sure we are protecting the capital of the firm from credit losses from the default of a counterparty or borrower. Credit risk is a very interesting place to stay challenged and motivated. times have been more challenging than in the past.www. But that doesn’t mean every hire is a finance major. You might start off as a number cruncher. including the Risk Management Association’s accreditation program for credit risk managers and the Risk and Insurance Management Society’s enterprise-wide and insurance risk classes and training courses.

And by the way: Even though compliance experts at the top of the food chain might make $1 million a year.) Business consulting companies offer compliance expertise as part of broader risk management programs. you could cost the firm millions.. if someone pays cash for a large quantity of bonds. most earn between $150. and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). because they’ll have to watch everything they say. The nation’s bank regulators. a private-sector body. Corporations outside of finance also have compliance officers. Virtually no document that’s going to be released to the public .’ Everyone’s going to happy hour and do they want to bring you? Maybe not. you’ll spend your time on the lookout for suspicious transactions. implement control programs. state and federal laws. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. because if you miss something.S. monitoring specialists. Comptroller of the Currency. compliance may the right niche in investment banking for you. too.” says Jack Kelly. then communicate the rules to the firm’s employees. top compliance officers are often referred to as corporate compliance officers. Another way to get into compliance is through the private sector. In many cases. Goldman Sachs. “It takes a unique and specific type of person to work in compliance. the U. apply them to their company’s individual business. determine acceptable levels of exposure. your first decision will be whether to work for a public regulator or a regulated company.gets out the door without being reviewed by a compliance specialist. training specialists. “You have to get along with people because you’re perceived to be the guy who’s trying to stop business from taking place. and advisory and product specialists. Treasury Department and the National Credit Union Administration. so the people you’re watching over have historically made more money than you. Private sector compliance professionals typically work in teams. so Kelly wouldn’t be surprised if they start hiring college graduates interested in creating careers in the space. the Office of Thrift Supervision. the primary regulatory body overseeing the financial markets is the Securities and Exchange Commission.” To succeed. you can’t do that. including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. mutual fund company or financial institution makes sure the firm follows local. or as the one standing in the way of someone making money.S. you’ll need both analytical chops and people skills. Its main goal is to protect investors and maintain the markets’ integrity. These consultants help clients understand business risks. also hire analysts.from marketing materials to financial reports .000 and $250.S. brokerage. regulators have been a good source of jobs for people just out of college. Historically. Morgan Stanley and other bank holding companies will have to adhere to new regulatory standards. managing director at Compliance Search Group in New York. As regulations expand. it’s likely to warrant your attention .particularly if that person Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . These include money laundering specialists. and provide ongoing tools for measuring and monitoring the effectiveness of a company’s compliance program. a Treasury agency that monitors financial transactions. To do this. “You’re really an internal affairs police officer on Wall Street. In the financial world. “It’s not an easy role to get into every day. In the U. For example.” Kelly says.” Kelly explains.” If our description of compliance rings your bell rather than putting you off. are you always the designated driver? Would you be an FBI agent if only the pay were better? Do your friends still love you even after you’re forced to tell them how stupid they sometimes act? If you can answer yes to these or similar questions. and it’s not an easy job.Compliance The internal watchdogs of the financial industry When it’s time to party. If you opt for money laundering. as well as the rules set by government regulators. 76 Roles and Career Paths Jobs in compliance vary depending on the area in which you work. they’re known as chief compliance officers. more firms will hire recent college grads and train them in compliance. the U. they interpret ever-changing regulations. Analytical ability is key. “To always be the tough one who says ‘No. and the Federal Reserve also hire compliance specialists. A compliance professional working for an investment bank. that review is conducted by an attorney.000. (At these companies.

Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 77 Skills and Qualities . which can monitor billions of e-mail messages per day and spot unusual activities such as dormant trading accounts that suddenly spring back to life. The same is true with brokerage. but they’re most powerful when they communicate and collaborate with the business side to find the right answers. banking classes would be relevant. it’s on the right side of the equation: Typical compliance professionals are trying to do the right things to make sure the company is doing the right thing by its customers. and suggest alternatives that will still be satisfactory to the client.efinancialcareers.www. public agency work is a great credential to have. finance and industry-specific classes. Some are ex-traders. Compliance training specialists focus on internal controls and preach the compliance message to a bank’s employees. business law. or review activities. and entry-level positions are going to be pretty narrow in terms of the scope of work you do. Monitoring specialists look out for infringements of rules and regulations that suggest employees are up to no good. Doug Henderson. the fewer compliance people and broader the scope of responsibility on everyone. business. That’s a good feeling. chances are you’re going to be busy in the near term. public positions don’t pay as much as private industry. ethics. leverage and power. Or. and why bankers need to follow them. They create and present training courses explaining what the rules and regulations are. If you want to go directly into compliance. You might work as a junior member of a team that’s involved in investigations or inspections or you could be assigned to review advertising. The smaller the firm. What’s your advice to a student starting his or her first job? Make sure that you’re current and conversant on the requirements that apply to the business you’re in and that you understand the business itself. but in these times. Compliance advisors interpret regulations and apply them to particular business areas and products. The best compliance people are able to bridge the gap and bring compliance in a meaningful way to the business side. compliance is going to become an even trickier proposition than it already is. Product specialists sit on or near the trading floor. work for a state banking or securities regulator. securities or management classes. Oftentimes. Law is probably the most relevant of those classes. No matter where you decide to start in compliance. the Federal Reserve or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.com Q&A or organization has never dealt with the bank before. Go to work for a regulatory agency. On the banking side. What are some of the things I’d do at the entry level? The largest firms have significant compliance organizations. Much of this role has been taken over by computers. Compliance advisors need to know a lot about trading and about the products they’re advising on. Plus. or conduct testing. the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. An increasing number are product specialists who offer advice on particular types of financial products. With officials at both the federal and state levels casting a critical eye on existing regulations and looking for ways to beef them up. tell traders whether or not a particular trade can go ahead. If you want to be in banking. the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority or the Securities and Exchange Commission on the securities side. You might be assigned to review reporting. Compliance people can accomplish things by authority. I’d recommend that you get some other background first. correspondence or e-mail. KPMG Financial Services Regulatory Practice What makes compliance an appealing field? It puts you in a position to be knowledgeable on all aspects of the business. including entry-level and junior people. Which classes best prepare a finance major for a compliance career? Pre-law.

leaders need human resources (HR) professionals to manage talent even during times of severe crisis. In some cases. The life of HR professionals is a roller-coaster ride. With job candidates nervously listening to rumors. Former HR staff from Time Warner. When times are tough. General Electric and PepsiCo can all be found working in banks. retained firms get paid regardless of whether they find anyone to fill a particular job. fewer HR people work directly for the bank. HR must continue to recruit graduates despite limits on bonuses and recent negative publicity about banks of all types. But search firms such as Russell Reynolds Struggles employ bright graduates as researchers and train them to become search consultants. Banks often recruit experienced professionals from large firms outside the industry. regulatory and market conditions have added to the challenges HR faces. Roles and Career Paths Jobs in HR usually fit into one of five categories: management 78 It’s no easy task to find a job as a graduate trainee in an investment bank’s HR department. In other cases. firms are outsourcing human resources. most banks have outsourced HR’s routine. Skills and Qualities . HR professionals can expect to shift from hiring mode to firing mode many times throughout their career. other options exist. you’ll usually need previous experience. Since the industry stretches across the world. They’ve supervised the layoffs of thousands of their co-workers. adjusted employment offers and restructured severance packages. Like other departments. diversity. a few firms continue to hire human resource generalists to help retain and recruit talent. Contingency recruiters get paid only if their clients make a hire. discrimination and employee monitoring. HR is being asked to increase productivity and reduce costs. When times are good. benefits or employee relations that once were addressed by HR people in each of a bank’s divisions now go to call centers. and those that do usually have no more than two or three places. highly regulated financial institutions to less-regulated competitors and boutique firms. In recent years. Robert Walters and Michael Page run graduate training programs. they manage layoffs. Current economic. employee pay. In today’s market. or moving backroom operations to lower-cost markets outside New York City. HR takes care of all the “people issues” that arise in an investment bank. they scramble to bulk up the staff. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Consequently. the most in-demand HR professionals have solid knowledge of investment banking and global markets. both of which have used the industry’s current woes to lure away top producers. including making sure managers follow the law when deciding who stays and who goes. Those that remain must prove their value as strategic partners who understand the business and can advise department heads about how to attract and retain the best talent. International contingency recruitment firms such as Badenoch & Clark. HR professionals must also take on the job of publicist to help bolster the bank’s image with remaining employees. It writes and enforces rules covering issues such as hiring and firing. Given the cyclical nature of finance. So despite massive layoffs in the securities industry.Human Resources The ‘people people’ of investment banks When an industry is driven by human capital. For instance. Questions about compensation. By contrast. To be a recruiter at a search firm. HR professionals form a defensive line as they attempt to slow the migration of talent from large. Few banks offer such traineeships. another option is to gain experience at a recruiting firm that helps investment banks find staff. However. that means taking on the management of several business lines rather than focusing on a single area. These firms fall into two categories: contingent and retained. peripheral activity. If you’re interested in working in recruitment.

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the strongest demand will be for attorneys specializing in securities.7 percent in the first half of 2009. 2009 could shape up as another watershed moment for attorneys as corporations seek counsel regarding the wave of new regulations sprouting from the credit crisis and investment losses due to the Bernard Madoff and other scandals. and most of their activities have legal implications. the government’s program to strengthen the financial sector by providing relief to banks. there are ways to get a legal job besides working for the government. and traded. advising senior management. according to Hildebrandt’s data. that the bank fulfills its contractual commitments. a survey by BTI Consulting calls for corporate legal spending to rebound in the second half of 2009. More than ever. for example. overseeing employment law compliance. Securities and Exchange Commission and international bodies could impact everything from derivatives markets to hedge funds. corporations. It’s the legal department’s responsibility to ensure all contracts signed by the bank are watertight. reported. rising by more than 13 percent in 2009’s first quarter compared with a year earlier. Yet. as well as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. an overall reduction in corporate spending squeezed expenditures for outside legal services in areas ranging from transactional work to taxation. Treasury to supervise the program. Based on interviews with legal department heads at some 370 of the largest U. adding complexities to the role of general counsel in the form of corporate governance requirements and securities litigation.S. was a once-in-a-lifetime event. Sluggish fee growth creates pressure on law firms to control expenses . Perhaps more important was the creation of an entirely new category of law as the depth and breadth of Sarbanes-Oxley – in areas such as accounting. which oversees TARP. capital markets. both law firms and corporations pulled in their horns due to lower demand for their services. TARP. On the bright side. Treasury. Rulemaking from the Federal Reserve. the economic crisis has thrust these roles to a new level. But those gains were expected to be concentrated among a narrow group of specific law firms and practice areas. and are expected to have a dramatic effect on capital markets and the financial services industry as a whole. companies will require legal counsel in order to comply with a new era of oversight complete with guidelines on how securities are valued. Of course. and helping craft legal and business strategies. Bankruptcy-related work has already surged. taxation. after shrinking 6. Other growing areas include restructuring and bankruptcy law. including the negotiating and drafting contracts. More important. has created a new area of specialization. Recent Developments In 2008 and the first half of 2009. the increasing importance of corporate governance has elevated corporate counsel to the highest levels in an organization. Average billing rates edged up just 2. Many legal professionals believed that the enactment of Sarbanes-Oxley in 2002. Over the next few years. and regulatory and compliance law. As a result. or the Troubled Asset Relief Program.S. according to an index compiled by legal industry consulting firm Hildebrandt International. Major law firms also lost pricing power amid the recession. and securities – enabled attorneys to specialize exclusively in the law’s intricacies. In general. The legislation had a dramatic impact on the profession. or the Federal Reserve. and that lawsuits are avoided.Legal Sound advice needed to handle a new wave of regulations Banks are large and complex organizations. as many top-tier law firms did this year. BTI predicted in May that law budgets would rise 5 percent over the following six months. these roles often give attorneys a seat at the table when it comes to forming the corporate growth strategy. Many of its jobs are within law departments at places such as the U. Corporate counsels are responsible for anything and everything legal at the company. particularly as companies short on capital and credit restructure their debt both in and out of court. determine which banks qualify for relief.including freezing associates’ salaries or cutting staff. well below the 7 percent annual growth trend of recent years. which have worked with the . with its impact on corporate and securities law. and monitor adherence to guidelines in areas such as executive compensation and lending. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 80 Growth in Oversight Jobs While regulators have traditionally been ripe with opportunities for corporate attorneys. The main areas of growth are: regulatory complirestructuring law. The country’s largest corporations are a prime source of opportunities.9 percent in 2009’s first quarter from a year earlier.

such as the American Bar Association and the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. By determining which trades can and can’t go ahead. Our team is built around client service. But as markets are now global. news and developments that are posted on a daily basis. Usually. many of these cases don’t necessarily involve bankruptcies. Michael Zuppone. Staying current with rulemaking and regulatory developments is important because of the dynamics of financial markets today. Trading floor lawyers advise on the legality of trades and deal with the documents required to buy and sell financial products. provides access to filings. and after a bankruptcy proceeding. M&A work can involve everything from preparing the documents expressing one company’s intention to buy another to conducting due diligence on the proposed purchase.S. they typically get their start working for a major law firm. companies are in trouble in other areas. these attorneys play an important role in the development of new and complex derivative products. it’s also important to be familiar with the various regulations in different international jurisdictions. There are a number of organizations. We work hand in hand with restructuring attorneys to provide advice concerning disclosure and other regulations before. lawyers ensure the information provided by a company preparing to list on a stock exchange is correct and within the law. but rather working toward an out of court resolution by working with creditors. Usually transactional work requires communication with various parties via conference calls or meetings. you can stay attuned to any overnight pronouncements issued by the SEC. Few investment banks train lawyers themselves. These activities are at the forefront today because of the credit crisis. The SEC site. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 81 Skills and Qualities points . you may specialize in the legal complexities of merger and acquisition (M&A) deals.com Q&A Roles and Career Paths As a banking lawyer. In addition. where I am called in to advise a client. I could be involved in multiple transactions simultaneously.www. Instead. As a result.efinancialcareers. a team of lawyers also works in a central legal office dealing with issues such as discrimination claims and major litigation. Most attorneys have not been formally educated in these areas. so it requires that I stay abreast of the calendar and deadlines. If you work on the capital markets team you’ll deal with the legal complexities surrounding the issuance of new financial products. you can provide a lot of value to a firm in a transaction. attorney. that offer training programs and information on securities and capital markets legal developments via their Web sites. Which skills are most important for a career in securities law? You need a solid understanding of securities regulation from the perspective of a U. So much of securities and capital markets law involves finance. for example. but if you’re able to grasp them. Yet. in which we provide guidance and direction to clients in their fund raising. It could involve work with the SEC or another regulator. so it’s valuable if you understand basic accounting principles and financial reporting requirements. during. Any advice for up-and-coming securities lawyers? I’d recommend they jump right into it. Or you could find yourself working on the trading floor. My work is also heavily focused on regulatory compliance issues. In some cases. The practice that is in demand right now is restructuring. or with capital markets groups. This work also encompasses resolving various disclosure issues that often requires interaction with the SEC and possibly its foreign regulatory counterparts. Partner and Chair Securities and Capital Markets Practice Paul Hastings What’s a typical day like for you? Typically. Join a practice within a firm and learn by doing securities work every day.

they’ll continue to invest in it. so it will continue to innovate and employ bright people. But as the industry reconstructs itself. firms want people who can communicate well. says that college or university graduates can expect a full spectrum of career opportunities. and running complex computer models to price and trade financial products. storing information on clients. the project managers work with providers to ensure efforts are completed correctly and within the mandated time frame. “Generally. a growing number of banking IT jobs are being outsourced to locations such as India and China. Once big changes are underway. there’s no escaping it remains forever dependent on technology for just about everything.” Philip John Venables. “Financial services spend a greater percentage of dollars on technology than other industries.particularly as a key competitive differentiator .Information Technology The work that’s increasingly outsourced overseas An investment bank’s information technology (IT) department is responsible for the web of networks. . bankruptcies and general downsizing have spurred thousands of job losses. Because firms depend on technology . especially for their trading floors. If IT development work is outsourced.” Roles and Responsibilities Jobs in IT generally fall into several categories: IT professionals who want to stay in advanced technology are being advised to couple their technical expertise with deep knowledge of a vertical industry. such as an understanding of fixed income and Java. the responsibility for managing them often passes to another part of the IT staff: the project managers. who can get their point across briefly and directly. Programming languages used by banks include C++. These are the people who plan.NET. especially if they’re willing to learn and adapt. so communication skills are very important. So. 82 “The bright spot is the financial services industry is more dependent on technology than any other industry. or to combine IT with business skills. Those on the business analysis side include business analysts who look at the way technology is used in the bank and analyze the opportunities for making it work better. According to technology researcher Forrester Research. They are known for having some of the world’s cutting-edge systems.” says Paul Groce. structure and fulfill IT projects. They’ll often have to communicate with clients and interact with traders on the floor. Firms use technology for just about everything: communicating with staff. Recruiters say financial firms increasingly seek candidates with a combination of business and technology skills. computers and software that underpin any modern financial organization. In recent years. If you become a developer. there will be no shortage of future demand for business analysts and project managers who understand the banking business and can manage the outsourced functions. “there will be a need for people who can take their strong knowledge of technology and marry it with a business specialty.” he says. chief information risk officer for Goldman Sachs. The good news is banks still need plenty of people in western financial centers to manage and coordinate with overseas employees. Java and Microsoft’s . IT professionals should keep an eye out for positions that offer a mentor who might help them broaden their role in the firm. Those who work in infrastructure administration are responsible for the day-to-day upkeep and maintenance of Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Recent Developments The current recession has eliminated a large number of jobs in financial IT as consolidations. A trader might complain about the length of time it takes his computer to execute a trade. or knowledge of mortgage-backed securities and C#. In addition. you may be responsible for writing the computer programs that help financial firms do everything from pricing and booking trades to calculating risk. While companies want combined skills. so it’s up to the analyst to investigate whether the complaint is valid. a partner at search firm CTPartners’ New York office. such as financial services or pharmaceuticals. they often don’t offer an obvious path to acquiring them. perhaps by earning an MBA.

It’s up to the support staff to identify and resolve the problem.” Another specialization that’s gaining more importance is risk and security. so we will continue to invest in it. but the frustration of irate traders as well. maintaining regulatory relationships. What types of skills does a person need for this kind of role? Our functions are fairly broad. so I ended up developing a lot of security software. meeting with external threat intelligence sources to stay abreast of threat developments. reviewing key risks on new projects. The message is that what people label IT security used to be a very straightforward profession. I also was part of a project in another bank that built one of the world’s first Internet banking systems.com Q&A a company’s hardware and software installations. I have a master’s degree in computation and cryptography. Given the recent turmoil on Wall Street. As a result of that work. People on my team hold degrees in information systems. and maintaining detailed contact with all of my teams on regular risk measurement and management activities. It’s a role that carries a lot of responsibility: A computer problem on a trading floor lasting a few minutes could cost millions of dollars. what kind of IT opportunities can a college or university graduate expect? Firms like Goldman Sachs are strongly dependent on technology. there are many broad and deep specialist areas within it. who can get their point across briefly and directly. such as defense. Phil Venables. Skills and Qualities Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . These people come from a variety of backgrounds. I grew more involved information security management positions. Other roles include business analyst oriented roles for conducting ness flows. So customer service skills along with the ability to quickly diagnose a problem are essential. Now it is very broad. We will still see a full spectrum of career opportunities for people who are willing to learn and adapt. In this area.efinancialcareers. mathematics and engineering.www. People who do this often get here by accident. including MBAs or those with economic degrees. Like IT careers in general. That’s what makes this type of role always challenging and interesting. so my team includes people with a very deep technical background who do a range of specialist security 83 “Firms want people who can communicate well. It’s a key competitive differentiator. People who work in information risk and security teams can come from different backgrounds. there will be a need for people who can take their strong knowledge of technology and marry it with a business specialty. petrochemical and financial firms. Goldman Sachs Chief Information Risk Officer Can you walk us through your career path? I didn’t intend to be in this role when I started in my career. economics and MBAs as well as computer science. There is going to be a strong focus in maintaining our technology in order to keep our competitive edge. The spectrum of activities may include meeting with executive leadership of the firm. I started as a software developer in various industries. roles range from designing network security systems to understanding systems and trying to figure out potential threats. Generally. What’s your typical day like? There is no real typical day. Technical support staff requires razor-sharp technical skills and the thickest of skins to handle not only technology problems.

In addition. developing corporate logos. Because of these increased demands. they’re willing to make analysts. determining the pricing and positioning of products and services. but they fulfill that mission in different ways. clients. product-specific marketing people sit alongside sales teams. using their experience in developing valuations to explain the rationale behind new products and deals to analysts and journalists. commercial banks and fund managers typically employ centrally focused marketing staffs to promote their firms as a whole. collateral and types of thought leadership meant to build credibility and establish the client company’s image. Those interested in marketing or PR careers can look beyond investment firms themselves. Their role is to position the firm as it would like to be seen. independent PR firms are seeing an increase in the scope of work they perform for companies. Companies that sell products and services to Wall Street – such as financial Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . today firms are being hired to conduct full communications audits. These agencies will provide PR and marketing services such as the development of white papers. portfolio managers. Financial firms spend substantial amounts of money to promote their brand names. producing brochures and other collateral. Increasingly. In the wake of the financial crisis. The role of marketing groups can include sponsoring events. marketing and public relations are distinct functions. bankers and other professionals are joining PR firms. Managing the message across all of these channels is among the jobs marketing professionals perform. As a result. in the case of public companies. Today. executives and other Roles and Career Paths Investment banks. Although related. Public relations people focus on how a bank is represented in the media and. Where in the past an agency may have been primarily focused on media coverage. and researching markets for potential new products. the roles of PR and marketing have become intertwined. while others purchase the naming rights to stadiums and arenas as a way of reinforcing their image.Marketing and Public Relations It takes more than a lengthy contact list to build a firm’s brand Wall Street’s public relations and marketing staffs are responsible for representing financial services companies to customers. In addition. It’s the PR staff that controls who’s made available to journalists and the topics staff members are permitted to talk about. by-lined articles. 84 “PR firms are moving beyond focusing on former financial journalists as employees and are seeking professionals with consultative skills and transactional experience in areas such as law and M&A. or take a holistic look at the company’s communications in order to develop a set of best practices and policies. investors and the general public. At the same time. Following a spate of bad publicity after the technology boom of the late 1990s and early 2000s – when research analysts were seen to be insufficiently independent from their banks’ M&A arms – the role of PR people become more important. most firms want to be seen as experts on the markets and the economy. PR is about managing a financial brand. Financial companies are also regular advertisers on the Internet and in traditional media like newspapers. staff at most Wall Street firms are forbidden to talk to journalists without the permission of the media relations staff. professionals available to discuss their views on what’s driving market activity. Today. Some sponsor sporting events like golf and tennis tournaments. Boutique PR agencies that cater to asset managers and hedge funds have given rise to a “one-stop shop” approach. to investors. magazines and television. PR firms are preemptively reaching out to investors and analysts via perception studies to get a grip on what Wall Street and the general public think of their clients. Marketers concern themselves with managing a firm’s reputation by deciding how its brand name. and how they can improve their image. products and services are portrayed in advertising and promotional campaigns. Thus. brokerages. PR firms are moving beyond focusing on former financial journalists as employees and are seeking professionals with consultative skills and transactional experience in areas such as law and M&A.” Public relations professionals concern themselves with how their firms are portrayed by journalists.

However. Typically. Having public relations agency experience is helpful. Currently.S. That job has become more specialized for all U. large financial firms may sometimes hire entry-level marketing personnel either full-time. where I’ve been for the past 15 years. Few financial firms train their own marketing and PR staffs in-house. I handle everything from running administration and operations to securing new business. What’s a typical day like for you? My day is varied. or providers of information products – often seek individuals with specific market experience to fill product management roles.com Q&A software developers. or presence to work with senior executives. or as interns. I joined Salomon Brothers and worked on the firm’s trading floor. product managers usually come with several years’ experience in large advertising agencies. CFOs and internal investor relations professionals. What are the key skills for a career in financial communications? You need to be an effective communicator and understand financial issues. President MWW Group’s Financial Relations Board Could you describe your role? I’m president of an agency that provides a range of financial communications and services that help companies achieve their financial and business goals. Larger firms may have a separate staff to handle the Investor Relations function. which is probably why I find the work so exciting. While people in central marketing communicate to customers and work closely with sales staffs. whose role is to communicate financial results. Until I was 26.efinancialcareers. Afterward. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 85 Skills and Qualities issues . public companies after the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002. Solid writing skills are also crucial. Even in a more junior role it’s critical to be proactive and come up with forward-thinking strategies for clients. Claire Koeneman. hands-on experience in a specific market to fill product manager positions. and you must be comfortable dealing with the financial aspects of a company. There are also various independent PR agencies active in the financial world. I spent a year working in private real estate before coming to Financial Relations Board. Similarly. It’s important to develop the financial skills to be able to talk intelligently about balance sheets and income statements.www. I was a liberal arts major in college. we’re seeing more situations in which we’re helping a company navigate near-term operational and financial issues because of market conditions. Investment banks typically have in-house PR departments. Someone in this role needs to have the gravitas. Any advice for up-and-coming financial communications professionals? I’d certainly recommend that you be aware of what’s happening in capital markets. On a given day I might be counseling a client on an earnings release or how to handle a huge impairment charge and concerns over how Wall Street may respond. usually gained in a blue chip company or a top PR agency. Our work centers on helping companies build positive profiles in the media. Firms like Bloomberg and Reuters generally seek people with direct. Much of my work is focused on investor relations and financial communications. Take us through your career path. to assist more seasoned professionals. but went to business school and earned an MBA in finance from the University of Chicago. people in PR encourage journalists to write positive articles about the company they work for – or engage in damage control if a bank is attracting negative media attention. they hire professionals with several years’ experience. We need curious people and great thinkers who also have a firm grip on the capital markets. I wanted to be a television news anchor. Or we could work on figuring how to communicate a client’s capital situation and the status of its negotiation over its debt coverage. Our client base consists of CEOs. trading system vendors.

who are generally quantitative specialists.Ratings Agencies Grading the potential of market players The role of ratings agencies is to assess the creditworthiness of companies and government agencies that issue debt instruments to investors. Moody’s analysts follow the debt of 100 countries. including small and mid-sized community banks. Moody’s Chairman Ray McDaniel admitted. Any bonds rated Ba or lower by Moody’s and BB by Fitch and S&P are considered to be speculative grade.000 companies and 29. Some of those structures ended up defaulting. or “junk.000 structured finance deals – a catch-all term covering a broad range of obligations created from pools of other obligations.S. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 All four companies issue debt rankings in a similar format. specializes in rating insurance companies – both their debt and “financial strength. Moody’s Investors Service and Fitch Ratings. The debt ratings sector is dominated by three companies: Standard & Poor’s (S&P). The firms came to depend on this relatively new market for the lion’s share of growth and profits. making it easy for investors to compare the ratings of one organization to another. they’re believed to hold at least 90 percent of the market. banks and bank holding companies. Ratings firms were both major beneficiaries and major enablers of this decade’s unsustainable boom in structured debt products. it follows 96. Along with rating the default risk of thousands of issuers and securities. In Congressional testimony. S&P and Moody’s are by far the largest. which the crisis clamped shut for some types of securities. At Moody’s. business models and reputations. ratings revenue from structured finance tumbled 53 percent year-over-year in 2008. the agencies are supposed to provide a neutral analysis of their ability to repay their obligations. Another well-known agency. 86 separate businesses that analyze and forecast trends and prices for various structured credit products. When home mortgages began defaulting at ever-rising rates. ratings firms have built . On top of that. Gauging the risk in those deals falls to analysts on structured finance ratings teams. Beyond the loss of business. a provider of enterprise risk management solutions. Perceptions of impartiality also took a beating. A. Evidence indicated the ratings firms had rubber-stamped AAA ratings on structured products built out of sub-prime mortgage loans in order to generate more business. “Maintaining our standards may conflict with maintaining market share. Although the debt issuers actually pay for the privilege of having their business scrutinized. in the worst cases wiping out their entire value.000 public finance issues. At Moody’s. In 2005 Fitch acquired Algorithmics.” or ability to pay policy claims. debt consigned to this category will have to pay higher yields to attract investors. Together.” Buyers of these bonds face the greatest prospect of not getting their money back. Residential mortgage loans (including sub-prime mortgages) were a primary driver of the structured bond boom.” Critics contend ethical conflicts are baked into the basic rating agency business model.M. Moody’s set up Moody’s Analytics in January 2008 to develop and market analytical tools used in credit portfolio management. the credibility of the firms has been hit hard. revenue from rating structured finance deals grew to account for 53 percent of all ratings revenue by 2006. in recent years. Congress and the Securities and Exchange Commission could decide to overhaul longstanding regulations and business practices that compel most debt securities to be rated by at least one of the three leading firms. Prospects for recovery hinge on the repair and recovery of bond markets. With analysts based in business centers worldwide. the nature of debt financing has changed dramatically. the structured credit products they’d been blended into lost value so rapidly they came to be tagged as “toxic. in which issuers pay to be rated. A debt issuer rated AAA (in the format used by S&P and Fitch) or Aaa (in the Moody’s version) is judged to be almost certain to repay its debts. The lowest possible ranking is “D. raising odds that authorities will force a permanent change in how ratings are paid for. and the ratings agencies have had to adapt accordingly. Best also rates U.” Due to the greater perceived risk. Recent Developments The worldwide financial crisis has strained ratings firms’ finances. 12. Over the years.” Consequently. including mortgages and exotic creditderivative instruments. Best. Wall Street has figured out ways to securitize everything from credit card debt to cosmetic surgery receivables. the amount of new structured bonds requiring debt ratings dried up.

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It’s important to have strong interpersonal and writing skills. Moody’s.efinancialcareers. banks. infrastructure debt. staffers can expect some element of travel to go along with their work. public finance. Managing Director. sovereign debt. money market lending and swap limits. “These roles are stable through all market environments. Skills and Qualifications required. S&P and Fitch. financial institutions.” remarks Ken Murray.www. Because I had prior banking experience with personal loans and checking accounts. I manage the relationships between DBRS and these issuers by cultivating relationships with senior management. and gained experience in working with global banks and in areas such as counterparty credit risk. In 1994. analysts at ratings agencies specialize in particular product types such as corporate finance. At Bank of America I worked as a bank analyst in the financial institutions group. Any sizable rebound in ABS issuance could prompt rating firms to hire more structured finance analysts. including bank holding companies. I moved to London and worked for Bank of America from 1986 to 1991. the Federal Reserve launched a financing program for asset-backed securities (ABS) as part of a broad government plan for reviving financial markets. mathematics. In 1991. or the structured finance arena. I attended Caledonia University in Glasgow and received my banking qualifications. after being approached by the company to build its U. I joined Moody’s and stayed there for 10 years. I moved to Nomura Securities and helped set up their financial institutions group. What are the most important skills for a career in ratings services? It’s important to be comfortable working with senior people. non-bank financial institutions and Western European banks. Today we rate 95 percent of the debt issued by U. which means rating particular companies. I worked at Nomura until 1994. and try to convince them of the value of our ratings. You should be focused on developing analytical skills early on in your career. as well as a hunger for learning since research into companies requires you to dig deep through information so you can ask the right questions and ultimately make the correct rating recommendation. I had an advantage and understood how a bank worked. Reid. issued by countries. which had each announced mass layoffs during the first half of 2008. 2009 has seen a few hopeful developments. DBRS How did you become a managing director at DBRS? I began my career in the mailroom at Clydesdale Bank in Scotland. My day-to-day work involves being part of the ratings committee and oversight of the 100-plus companies that we rate. Advanced degrees aren’t always required but can be helpful in landing a job. Typically. Depending on their area of specialization. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 .S. 89 Roles and Career Paths Ratings agencies look for people with training in finance. broker-dealers. business. The ratings business is a real-time business as we are constantly monitoring issuer ratings. a New York recruiting firm. And in March 2009. Next. resumed adding staff.com Q&A Despite all this. You must be able to communicate and hold your own in an argument. Alan G. What’s a typical day like? I manage a team of 13 people. where the branch manager gave me the opportunity to attend night school. I also work with the buy side. After taking the bank entrance exam there. which follows local. state and provincial governments. and may even have more demand in an uncertain economy where bond ratings are more important. president of Mercury Partners. I joined (Canadian rating agency) DBRS in 2004. which might be issued by a utility or a government agency that funds development projects like road construction.S. economics and similar quantitative disciplines.

News Corp. they also collect it. Capital Group Research Inc. Another. London Stock Exchange McGraw-Hill Companies. Trillions of dollars in stocks. For example. CIBC World Markets Credit Suisse Dow Jones & Company Fidelity Investments Goldman Sachs & Co. JPMorgan Chase & Co. Dow Jones & Co. pricing is supplied by dealers and brokers. Others focus on news or market analysis. Moody’s Analytics Morgan Stanley Nasdaq OMX NYSE Euronext RBC Capital Markets SEI Investments Société Générale State Street Bank & Trust Thomson Reuters UBS Investment Bank Wells Fargo Bank Source: SIIA The principal players in this realm are Thomson Reuters. in December 2007. Think of those as the advertised or list prices. In over-the-counter markets for bonds. two formerly separate firms with major footholds in the financial information space. which is majority-owned by Pearson PLC. and so on.’s Dow Jones subsidiary. and Standard & Poor’s. corporate clients and other organizations. Reuters and Thomson. Many other companies operate in specialized segments of the industry. Since late 2007.Information Providers Delivering data to the markets The fuel that powers the financial markets is a potent combination of real-time news and market data. drive trading activity. smaller player is Interactive Data. Its content can be delivered through distribution partners or directly to clients. over-the-counter derivative instruments – such as swaps or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) – are bought and sold worldwide each day. the trading desks at large investment banks like Citigroup or Goldman Sachs generally supply prices for securities that are in their inventory. which can differ from actual selling prices. Inc. foreign exchange. market participants react to news every trading day. and international indexes that now form the basis for tradable securities. Interactive Data’s various business units supply time-sensitive market price data. the 125-year old company that publishes The Wall Street Journal and whose name is attached to the best-known U. Each company has extensive news operations and employs hundreds of people to gather and scrub for accuracy the data they redistribute to market professionals. Whether it’s the release of a company’s quarterly earnings report. merged in April 2008. was acquired by News Corp. Collecting. traders ultimately rely on accurate and timely market data as a basis for their buy-sell decisions. massaging and disseminating all of this trading data is the job of the information providers . and the data they provide reflect Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . which is owned by McGraw-Hill Companies. stock-market index. is one example of the latter. are middlemen. corporate and government bonds.the companies in the financial information industry. reference data and analytical tools to institutions and individual traders the world over. Events like these. Software and Information Industry Association Selected Members Barclays PLC Bloomberg L.S.. the sector has undergone high-level changes. the actions of central banks on interest rate policies. futures. The Vendors like Reuters and Bloomberg not only distribute data to the financial industry. big and small. Brokers.P. options and a seemingly limitless number of exotic. Bloomberg. Dow Jones. 90 company has also created numerous U. financial derivatives. a significant merger or acquisition or a default or bankruptcy by a major debt issuer. whose Dow Jones News Service has been covering the markets for more than 100 years. publisher of the Financial Times. Because news inspires action. Some are software developers building sophisticated tools and trading programs.S. on the other hand. then consolidate and sell it back to the same institutions that initially generated it.

You definitely need to be able to write well and explain yourself concisely. is the largest inter-dealer broker. My role is to write requirements for software developers who do the actual software development. to see if people are talking about their brand and if they need to modify their media message and approach. a London-based. Cantor Fitzgerald was one of the first firms to report the prices for trades it brokered in the market for U. And you have to be able to wear a business hat to understand which features can be added to help the product be more financially successful. I then became an online news editor and content editor. What does your typical day look like? Think of me as a traffic cop or shepherd. I started with the company 15 years ago. I started on a team who applied metadata to individual documents. Do you wish you had stayed a journalist? I couldn’t afford to be a journalist. The product I specifically work on is Dow Jones Insight. You also have to understand your clients’ needs and have project management skills. They can gauge how much they are being talked about in the mainstream media. I spend 100 percent of my day with my laptop – and the other 100 percent with my Blackberry. see the member page of Software and Information Industry Association’s Financial Information Services Division at 91 Skills & Qualities ability to learn. Other major suppliers of data feeds are the world’s stock. databases. data vendors feared their role would become less important as more information became available directly to investors and bankers alike. the rest is spent corresponding via e-mail and writing requirements. blogs and message boards. and at that point I had never even heard of the Internet. working with customer service and working with our product testing department. Treasury securities. storage. training guides and marketing materials. Glenn Fannick. there are certain attributes that will lead to career success. servers. For an overview of the kinds of companies involved in this industry. My group works on product development for products that deliver business information to the enterprise. but I miss it.efinancialcareers. Most trading has already shifted from stock and futures exchange floors and telephone based. person-to-person transactions. When the Internet first became popular. talking to clients. That trend has proceeded more slowly than originally feared. talking to sales people. Information companies seek individuals with a statistical background or financial training for the teams responsible for ensuring their distributed data is accurate. I left the journalism side and moved into product management. ICAP plc. which it still resells through its subsidiary. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Roles and Career Paths The diversity of companies in the financial information sector makes it difficult to describe a single. The field offers numerous entry-level opportunities. However. although it has driven consolidation in the industry. which is a media measurement tool that a public relations company or department might use to understand its company’s media footprint. Product Development Manager Dow Jones & Company Tell us about your job. data management or technical development role. I’m at the center of the project. whether one enters a sales. Technology expertise can be another important skill. commodity and options exchanges. . Web design. BGCantor Market Data. A strong understanding of how the markets operate is critical. the person with the most knowledge of what we are trying to accomplish so I can answer other departments’ questions or redirect them to the right people on the technology team.www. People with the skills to create the algorithms that drive these programs are in increasing demand. publicly traded company. How did you evolve into your role? I certainly didn’t start out with Dow Jones with the intent of doing this kind of work. to screen-based dealings that are driven by sophisticated software programs. precise career path. I spend time working on defining requirements.com Q&A actual transaction prices. which involved finding ways to package our news in our search products. What kind of skills do you need to do your kind of work? You don’t need to know how to write code. operations.S. usability – all of the components that are part of a Web site. but you need to have a high-level understanding of software. Fifty percent of my time is spent in meetings.

com www.nbmbaa.blogs.com www.bloomberg. economics and the world in general.com www.org www.hedgeworld.seo-usa.org wows. That’s no small task in today’s media-crazed world. 10-Qs.com www. To succeed on Wall Street.cnbc.org www.com www. Among other things.nytimes.ml4t.risk.cnn. the release of a company’s annual report or turnover among its executives or staff.marketwatch. a collection of information resources you can use to keep abreast of what’s going on in business and general news around the world.investors.org Compliance Week The Deal Fund Action HedgeWorld Inside Market Data On Wall Street Risk Magazine Wall Street & Technology www.whether it’s stock.com www.com www.com Sector News BondsOnline General Financial and Investing News Barron’s CNBC FierceFinance Institutional Investor Investor’s Business Daily InvestmentNews MarketWatch The New York Times’ Dealbook TheStreet.businessweek.Resources News you should use Information moves the markets .usnews.com www. especially if you want to focus your career in specialized areas like hedge funds or risk management.com www.efinancialcareers.com www.org www.thedeal.financialnews-us.fiercefinance.investmentnews. In addition to these. breaking news driving commodities trading.wallstreetandtech.efinancialcareers.org www. General and Business News Bloomberg BusinessWeek CNN Financial News The Financial Times Forbes Fortune The New York Times 92 Reuters USNews and World Report The Wall Street Journal Washington Post www.fundaction.com www.com Association of Latino Professionals in Finance and Accounting Career Opportunities for Students with Disabilities Management Leadership for Tomorrow National Black MBA Association Sponsors for Educational Opportunity Women on Wall Street www.com Others Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Securities and Exchange Commission The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants The Institute of Management Accountants www.com www.alpfa.bondsonline.complianceweek.insidemarketdata. you have to keep up.db.com dealbook.imanet. Don’t forget to read the information presented by companies themselves in their 10-Ks.net www.institutionalinvestor.com www.com www.com www.com www. politics. each market sector offers a variety of trade publications that focus on narrow areas of expertise.gov www.reuters.com www.ft.com www.org www.com www.com www. bond or futures quotes.aicpa.washingtonpost.thestreet.com www.wsj.com www.forbes. that means staying up-to-date on developments in business. which you can almost always find on their corporate Web sites. annual reports and press releases.sifma. Career Information and Career Development eFinancialCareers and its Campus Connection www.com This list is meant as a starting point.onwallstreet.barrons.org www.nytimes.com www.com www.com Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 .com www.sec.com The Wall Street Journal’s Deal Journal www.cosdonline.

org E-mail: Toni Nelligan tnelligan@kpmg. Gay.org Telephone: (314) 241-7488 African AmeriLatino.org Role Model Bureau. Youth Conferences. Career Advancement American Indian and Alaska Native Scholarships.fwa.www. Career Immersion. Philanthropy. Mentoring. Corporate Programs Forté Foundation www. Professional Development. Professional and Leadership Development. Alumni Events Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) www.hace-usa.ncaied. MBA Preparatory.org Telephone: (212) 979-2040 The PhD Project www.ml4t.aigcs. Native American Fellowships.nafoa. Networking Internships.org E-mail: info@hispa. Networking.toigofoundation.com Telephone: (201) 505-3522 The Robert A. Networking. Job Posting. Fellowships African American Scholarships.org Telephone: (312) 435-0498 INROADS www.org Telephone: (510) 763-5771 Children and Grandchildren of U. Job Posting. Native American Fellowships. Coaching Scholarships American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) www. Professional and Leadership Development.gmac.org Telephone: (312) 236-BMBA (2622) Target African American. Internships.efinancialcareers. Native American Programs MBA and Career Preparation.org Telephone: (919) 402-4931 African Americific Islander. Fellowships. Career Fair. Professional Development. Mentoring. Networking National Hispanic Business Association (NHBA) www.com Diversity Initiatives Organization American Indian Business Leaders (AIBL) www. Leadership Workshops National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development www. Networking. Native American. Bisexual and Transgender Community Scholarships. Networking. CGSM Advocate Women Fellowships Scholarships. Native American African American. Mentoring Sponsors for Educational Opportunity (SEO) www. in Business. Women Latino Career and GMAT Informa. Networking African AmeriLatino.org E-mail: mcuriel@risingfarmworkers. AIBL Advocate Programs Scholarships Organization Management Leadership for Tomorrow (MLT) www. MBA Preparatory.org Telephone: (314) 877-5500 Toll-Free: (888) 658-6814 Financial Women’s Association (FWA) www. International.org Telephone: (505) 881-4584 Toll-Free: (800) 628-1920 Target Native American. Executive Summit Scholarships. Professional Development. Employee Resource Group Consulting Scholarships.inroads.org Telephone: (512) 380-7575 National Society of Hispanic MBAs (NSHMBA) www. www. 4XL.org Toll-Free: (877) 245-AIBL (2425) American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC) www.cgsm. Mentoring.com (RFDF) www. Fellowships.org Telephone: (214) 596-9338 Toll-Free: (877) 467-4622 Native American Finance Officers Association (NAFOA) www.Rising Farmworker Dream Fund tion. Native American African American.org Telephone: (512) 535-5157 Women Point Foundation www.nbmbaa. Mentoring. Job Posting.org Telephone: (212) 533-2141 Islander Scholarships. Native American.S.pointfoundation. Conferences Latino African AmeriLatino.org Telephone: (480) 545-1298 American Indian and Alaska Native Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund (APIASF) www.seo-usa.risingfarmworkers. Leadership and Professional Development. Toigo Foundation www.phdproject. Latino.com Telephone: (703) 749-0131 Toll-Free: (866) 505-6559 HISPA (Hispanics Inspiring Students’ Performance and Achievement) www.hispa.fortefoundation.org Native American Career and Leadership Development. Migrant and Seasonal Farm Laborers African American. Summer Program 93 Scholarships. Internships. Networking Ph.nhba.org Telephone: (323) 933-1234 Toll-Free: (866) 33-POINT (337-6468) Lesbian.org Telephone: (212) 736-3411 Toll-Free: (888) 686-1993 National Black MBA Association (NBMBAA) www.aicpa. Job Posting. Investment for Entrepreneurs College Preparatory. MLT Houston.org Telephone: (202) 986-6892 Toll-Free: (877) 808-7032 Consortium for Graduate Study in Management (CGSM) www.nshmba.D. Job Posting. miniMBA University. Online Community.mba. Financial and Entrepreneurial Events Fellowships.aibl. Mentoring Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . Career Fair and Guidance.org Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE) www. Native American Scholarships. Leadership Development.apiasf. Job Posting.

bond or foreign currency). Buy Side A generic name for organizations that buy financial products (securities) in an attempt to make money out of their changing value. Fund managers are buy-side firms. When you buy or sell a derivative you don’t buy or sell an actual product. including new issues of both public and private debt. or on changes in a financial index or rate (e.a. an interest rate. Credit Default Swap) A tradable contract that transfers the risk of loss if a company or other entity defaults on its debt. the Dow Jones index of the 30 largest U. Equities Another word for company stocks or shares. People in the front office interact with clients to bring in business and create profits. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . and look at any problems that arise. companies. Back Office Refers to all the behind-the-scenes processes at an investment bank. Morgan Stanley and Merrill Lynch (now part of Bank of America) traditionally possess bulge bracket status. they pay the bondholder a small amount of money each year. Front office bankers typically earn the most money.g. traders and corporate financiers. For example. banks add up all the trades done with one company. $200. someone buying a simple stock “call option” (a kind of derivative) acquires the right to purchase a stock in the future at a pre-ordained price. An offsetting or “closing” trade may be at a different price than the initial one. JPMorgan. 10.g. meaning the first time a company sells its shares on the open market.000 or more).k. a stock. but a contract linked to that product. Commodities Raw materials such as precious metals or grains whose contracts are bought and sold on commodities exchanges. 94 Front Office The revenue-generating areas of the bank. the term has been extended to gigantic rivals such as Citigroup. Bulge Bracket Bank A nebulous term referring to the biggest and best investment banks.S. Instead of getting a bank loan.. visit our Campus Connection Jargon Buster.S. structuring. IPO Credit Protection (a. Deutsche Bank and UBS. Derivatives A derivative is a financial device that is based and priced on another financial product (e. marketing and pricing of public offerings and private placements of equity and equityrelated securities.g. as are hedge funds. as a way to raise capital. The name comes from the notion that stockholders share equally in the ownership of the company (according to how many shares they own). thereby cancelling out the obligation to trade the underlying commodity. To search the full glossary online. companies sell bonds and promise to pay the money back to whoever buys them in X years’ time. Futures Clearing and Settlements The activities that take place behind the scenes after a financial product has been traded. Most futures contracts are “offset” before settlement by the buyer or seller taking an opposite position in the same contract. Privately owned companies that launch on the stock exchange “float” an IPO. which don’t directly bring in revenues. More recently. Equity Capital Markets (ECM) Undertakes the origination. for example. An exchange-traded contract that represents an obligation to either buy or sell a specfic amount of a financial or physical commodity on a specified date (which can be months or years in the future) for a price set today but not paid until the settlement date.g.Glossary Banking terminology the top banks will expect you to know Debt Capital Markets (DCM) The division of a bank that solicits. or an exchange rate). bonds are also known as “fixed income” products. Initial Public Offering.. banks Goldman Sachs. Until then. The U. Because the amount of money paid annually is fixed at the start. In the first part (clearing).000 shares or more) or large dollar amount of bonds (e. Most of the work is largely IT-related or administrative. structures and executes bond deals and related product businesses. In the second part (settlements). Block Trade A trade that involves a large quantity of stock (e. Bonds Unlike equities. Front office employees include salespeople. bonds are a kind of debt. the products traded are delivered in return for payment. resulting in a profit or loss.

and then buy it back cheaply when prices have fallen. currencies or asset returns. which requires companies to document how they control internal processes. In a plain vanilla interest rate swap. Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). Congress in late 2008. bonds. Middle Office Positioned between the front and back office of a bank. It is calculated by dividing the current price of a stock with that company’s earnings per share. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) The federal agency that enforces securities laws and sets standards for disclosure about publicly traded securities. or subsequent issues of new shares by companies already floating on the stock exchange. Short Selling The practice of selling stock that you don’t own. The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq are secondary markets. Section 404 of the act. therefore. Structuring The process of assembling complex financial products. The process by which banks agree to buy any leftover shares in an IPO or other share issue. sell it expensively. boosted demand for accountants and internal auditors to produce a paper trail proving internal controls exist. fund managers and other professional investors. the middle office is concerned with risk management and the calculation of profit and loss. law intended to protect investors from companies and executives who issue false financial statements. President and confirmed by the Senate. a series of periodic payments based on different interest rates. Shares released during an IPO are sold on the primary market. The original legislation allotted $700 billion for the Treasury Department to purchase banks’ troubled financial assets. Pitchbook The research books that junior bankers (analysts) typically compile to help senior M&A bankers win business.www. and that also deals with members of the public who have bank accounts with it (known as “retail” investors). Universal Bank Securities All financial products that can be bought and sold. Later the acronym came to be used more generally. for instance. typically risk managers and accountants. Swap A popular statistic used to analyze whether the price of a stock is reasonable. On each payment date. government aid to financial institutions.” (doing a deal). Sarbanes-Oxley A 2002 U. as are newly released bonds. These include shares.efinancialcareers. Sell Side Refers to organizations that sell financial products to clients.com Libor An acronym for London Interbank Offered Rate. This can be advantageous when you borrow stock. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 . A contract in which two parties agree to exchange. to refer to a wider range of U. or swap. Banks charge an underwriting fee to cover this risk. the two amounts are netted and recipient of the higher rate is paid the difference by the other party. 95 Primary Market The financial market where investors buy brand new securities which haven’t been traded anywhere else previously. the most widely quoted short-term interest rate for international lending between banks. for example. and derivatives. for example. Origination bankers are senior bankers with strong client relationships. Citigroup and JPMorgan Chase are examples. It was created in 1934 and consists of five commissioners appointed by the U. People who work here are. Origination As opposed to “execution. for example. Investment banks are sell-side organizations. Underwriting Secondary Markets The markets in which existing financial products are exchanged between investors. such as bonds created from non-performing mortgage loans – hence the name.S. TARP A bank bailout program enacted by the U. A bank that deals with companies. including fund managers (buy side).S. one side agrees to pay a constant (“fixed”) rate on each payment date and the counterparty pays a variable (“floating”) rate that will change with market conditions.S. including mutual funds. “origination” is the word bankers use to describe the process of winning business in the first place.S.

Business publications and Web sites can provide some of the broad trends. just choices. The financial industry may be in the midst of dramatic change. corporate finance and regulatory control. professors. risk managers. Join a professional organization in your field. cfainstitute. Successful financial companies understand the need to invest in growing fields and have business plans in place to do so. Jacobs Executive Vice President Chief Marketing Officer NASDAQ OMX Drill Deep Once you identify the companies. Understand that your dream position is probably not available. This sea change brings with it enormous opportunity for students interested in a career in financial services.Many Paths to a Rewarding Career The financial services industry is going through a massive transformation. What positions are available? Who are the key individuals there? What do people that work there think? Is this a place you would want to spend eight to ten hours a day? Be disciplined with your research. Hard working. the career path may not be as straight as it was in the past. change or remove it. John L. Working in finance at a manufacturing company can be great experience to later move to a financial company. and there are no right or wrong jobs. Start with your college alumni association. you will need to demonstrate that you understand the industry and the company and why you are a good fit. A stint in an undesirable location can set you up for a better position later on. healthcare and education are just some of the industries poised for growth. Challenging career paths are open to those with ambition. Be Flexible Don’t hesitate to take a completely different path to reaching your ultimate goal.org) have national and local chapters that offer many educational and networking opportunities. Service organizations like Teach for America and AmeriCorps teach valuable skills that are transferable to the financial services industry. hard working. ambitious students can find a rewarding career in financial services. not seen since the 1930s. sales professionals and credit managers. Identify growth industries and the companies with . Attend events.org). Establish a profile on business networking sites. the spotlight was on the highly paid deal-making investment bankers who were compensated for short-term gains. Those entering the industry will have a once in a lifetime opportunity to learn the business from the ground up and to understand what went wrong during the boom years and how to fix it.aicpa. but one thing that remains the same is its strong focus on hiring smart. That knowledge base will serve students well as they advance in their careers and help shape the future direction of the industry.org) and the CFA Institute (www. Once you land the interview. networking is your job. Successful candidates share some common traits. talented individuals. There are many professions within financial services that exist in other sectors. and job seekers may need to take a few detours before reaching their final destination. Review your profile on Facebook and other social networking sites. Accepting a marketing position in a top-tier bank can be your foot in the door to a great career as a banker in the same company. If there is anything there you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to see. However. Network Until you land that job. and ask for advice. but students must also be prepared to cast a wide net and be flexible in the opportunities they consider. friends’ parents and casual acquaintances such as through your religious institution or gym. such as accountants. Small boutique companies or startups offer a more entrepreneurial experience that could prove valuable down the road. energy efficiency. but I find research analysts to be an often overlooked source of excellent information. During the boom years. Learning a new industry – even in a nonfinancial role – can be valuable preparation for a future position as an analyst or financial expert in that industry. so I suggest students do the following: plans to exploit that growth. keep on drilling. parents. many have student arms. Companies that are good investments also tend to be good employers. 96 Set Goals What is it you ultimately want to do with your life? What are the different paths you can take to get there? Identify several job functions that will give you experience.sifma. talent and a strong work ethic. the college career office. Both the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (www. Another good resource is the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (www. Careers in Financial Markets 2009-10 Identify Prospects Renewable technologies. Going forward the focus will be more on nuts and bolts banking.

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Careers in Financial Markets gives you the competitive edge with: tions to read and organizations to join eFinancialCareers is the leading global career site network for professionals working in the investment banking. and prepare better than the competition.95 . you need focus. $19. How are you going to stand out? A career in the financial markets is challenging in the best of times. job market news and analysis. The website provides job opportunities. This fifth edition of Careers in Financial Markets gives you an in-depth look at the current job market and provides practical and actionable advice you can’t get anywhere else. eFinancialCareers. more than ever.com includes a student-focused Campus Connection section to provide students and recent grads with further insight into their career options. be well-versed in the latest trends. hard work and dedication to succeed. you have to know the landscape. Now. salary surveys and career advice. Before you even go on your first interview. asset management and securities industries.It takes that something extra to make it in finance these days.

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