THEOKETICAL MECHANICS
AN INTRODUCTORY TREATISE
ON THE
PEINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS.
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FETTER LANE.
F. A.
Sc.
E..
.S.THEOEETICAL MECHANICS
AN INTEODUCTORY TREATISE
ON THE
PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS
WITH APPLICATIONS AND NUMEROUS EXAMPLES
BY
A.
LOVE. HONORARY FELLOW OF QUEEN's COLLEGE.
SECOND
EDITION. F.
D. OXFORD. FORMERLY FELLOW AND LECTURER OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE.
BEDLEIAN PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.E.A.
CAMBRIDGE
1906
:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
M.
H. CAMBRIDGE.
^ .
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.''
.z^^
0f^
CambnDge
:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY.A. M.
and which shall be in accordance with
modern ideas. He is not assumed to have read
330176
. absolute space. in order to ascertain what modification would be needed
to bring the
into
theory of Rational Mechanics founded by Newton harmony with the doctrine of the relativity of motion. and the results deduced from them. and absolute motion. and have extended the region of their
application. and some knowledge of Plane Coordinate Geometry.
dictum that
diction
^
all
motion
is
relative stands in
pronounced contra
with Newton's dynamical apparatus of absolute time. which is of the nature of a
j
gradual change in the point of view: there is less search for causes.EXTEACTS FROM THE PEEFACE TO THE
FIRST EDITION.
.
The purpose of this book is didactic it is meant to set before students an account of the principles of Mechanics. more inclination to regard the object to be attained as a
I
On another side there is an important respect in which modem writers have departed from the form of the Newtonian theory. The reader is supposed to have a slight acquaintance with the elements of
the Differential and Integral Calculus. The philosophical
precise formulation of observed facts. Later writers have developed principles analytically. and his achievements in this department constitute perhaps most enduring title to fame. but. It has been necessary to
reconsider in detail the principles. which shall be as precise as possible. Nevertheless we may trace a tendency in modern investigations.
nnHE
J
his
his
foundations of Mechanical Science were laid by Newton. in regard to the principles themselves. The class of students
for w^hom the book is intended may be described as beginners in Mathematical Analysis. they have acted the part of commentators.
. The apparatus of Cartesian Coordinates in three dimensions is described.
tion papers.
j
'
i
more helpful
to the students
j
i
In addition to the Examples in the text. Webb. A. in very small number.
j
The works which have been most
useful to
me
in
connexion
I
with matters of principle are Kirchhoff's Vorlesungen uber Mathematische Physik (Mechanik).
LOVE. The last should be in the hands of
all
j

'
students
who
desire to follow the history of dynamical ideas. R.
and Wolstenholme. may prove useful to teachers. as likely to be whose wants are in view. Routh. These Examples are for the most part taken from University and College ExaminaIt is
I
>
/
hoped that these
j
. others. large collections have been appended to some of the
Chapters. and to students occupied in revising their work. E.VI
PREFACE
Solid Geometry or Differential Equations. I am conscious of a deep obligation to the teaching of Mr R.
Cambridge. and Mach's Science of Mechanics. It not infrequently happens that analytical methods are preferred
to geometrical ones. some of which are wellknown theorems and are referred to in subsequent demonstrations. which I have not found in such papers. and the
solutions of the differential equations that occur are explained.
In
regard to methods for the treatment of particular questions. are taken from the wellknown collections
j

of Besant.
August. Pearson's Grammar of Science. 1897. H.
1906.
My
best thanks are due to
Mr
A.
September.
A. LOVE. of the nature of a rearrangement of the
^ the most
of the material. so that it may be hoped that few errors remain. JoUiffe
for his
in reading the proofs. E.
1
The main
objects in view in this rearrangement
to present the theory in a less abstract
have been on the one hand
fashion and on the other
hand
(
to avoid long
preliminary dis
cussions.
E.
H.
some
Articles have
been marked with
asterisk to indicate that they
may
with advantage be omitted
in a first reading.
student
The
collections of miscellaneous
I
1
teacher
who may be reading the book without the guidance of a is recommended to pay the greatest attention to the
Articles
!
unmarked
and to the unmarked \
ollections of
examples
kindness
inserted in the text.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
As
an
in the first edition.
rilHE
changes which have been made in this edition are. and all of these examples have now been verified or A corrected. for order part.
examples at the ends of most of the Chapters have been retained with a few changes.
Oxford.
.
.
28. 12. 14..
22 23 23 24
25
.
. .
Measurement of Acceleration Notation for velocities and accelerations Angular velocity and acceleration Relative coordinates and relative motion
Geometry of
relative
....
Choice of the timemeasuring j)rocess and of the frame of reference
3 5 6
CHAPTER
I.
Formal definition of velocity Measurement of velocity
20.
PAGE
Nature of the science Motion of a particle Measurement of time Determination of position
1
2.
19.
26.
.
Moment
of localized vector
20
20
21
21.. 11.
Frame
of reference
6. 15.
3.
27.
Lemma
Theorem
of
moments
.
1.CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
7 8
10.
23.
Displacement
Definition of a vector
9.
DISPLACEMENT. VELOCITY.
2 2
4.
Introductory
7
8.
5.
Examples of equivalent vectors Components and Resultant Composition of any number of vectors
Vectors equivalent to zero
9
10 13
14 15
Components of displacement
Velocity in a straight line
15
17
Velocity in general Localized vectors
18 19 19
18.
25..
.24
. 16.
motion
.
17. 22.
7. 13.
ART.
Acceleration
24. ACCELERATION.
PAGE
Gravity
Field of force
Rectilinear motion in a uniform field
27 27 27 28
3L
32.
44.
.
34.
40.
motion about a focus
Examples Inverse problem of central
Determination of central orbits in a given field Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely
as the square of the distance Additional examples of the determination of central orbits in
.
.
35.
.
.
Examples
Elliptic
42 42 43
orbits
47.
.
33
Examples Simple harmonic motion Composition of simple harmonic motions
Examples
Kepler's laws of planetary motion Equable description of areas
34 34
37 37
38 38
..
Examples
.
49.
Examples Motion in a curved path
Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve
.
..
42.
46. 37.
given fields
53.CONTENTS
IX
CHAPTER
II. 51.
Examples
Parabolic motion under gravity
29
• .
45 46
.
ART..
Newton's investigation Motion in a straight line with an acceleration to a point in the
49
55.
29.
57.
THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. .
50. .
50
51 51
56.
. 41. 48. 43.30
32
36. 39..
.
33. .47
48
52. 54..
Radial and transverse components of velocity and acceleration
39
41
41
Examples
Acceleration in central orbit
45. 38.
30.
Hne varying inversely as the square of the distance Examples
Field of the Earth's gravitation
.
52 53
Miscellaneous Examples
.
.
. 88. 87.
Impulse
.
. 85.
86.
III.
Examples Conical pendulum Examples
84
THEORY OP MOMENTUM. 73. 76.
PAGE
The
force of gravity Measure of force
67
60.
67.
72 72
72
64. 79. 90.
Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity Examples Kinetic energy and work Units of energy and work Power
Friction
.
80
81
Examples
Onesided constraint
77.
59.
74. 69.
62.
81.
66.. 89.
93 94 94 94 96
Forces which do no work
Conservative and nonconservative
Miscellaneous Examples
fields
94.
78.
84
85 85
86
Sudden changes of motion
Constancy of
momentum
of force.
65.
momentum and
. 84. momentum and kinetic reaction about an axis Constancy of moment of momentum
Moment
87
WORK AND ENERGY. 75.77
78
78
72.X
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ART.
Equations of motion
EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN SIMPLE CASES.
93.
70.
82 82 83
80.
80
.. 61. 91.
58..
Work done by
Calculation of
a variable force
88 89 90
work
Work
function
Potential function
90
91
Forces derived from a potential
Energy equation
Potential energy of a particle in a field of force
.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE.73
75
76
76
77
.
. 83. 92..
Motion on a rough plane Examples Atwood's machine
79
Examples
Simple circular pendulum executing small oscillations
.
71. 82..
Units of mass and force
Vectorial character of force
68 69 70
kinetic reaction
Examples
Definitions of
63.
68.
.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. 124.
109. 97.111 ....
103
104
104
104
106 106 107
100.
lY.
128
string
.
. 122.
Examples of motion under several central Disturbed elliptic motion
Tangential impulse
. 120.
.
Integration of the equations of motion
.
102.
117.113
113
113.. 108.
109 110
in terms of polar
Examples Examples of equations of motion expressed
coordinates
Ill
forces
.
109
106.
.
112.
126.
PAGE
Introductory
101
Formation of equations of motion
Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve] Polar coordinates in three dimensions
.135
136 136
.
Examples Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible Examples Oscillating pendulum Complete revolution
.
.
128 129 129
131 131
Limiting case
Examples Smooth plane tube rotating
Newton's revolving orbit
132
in its plane
132
133
125..
.
V.
Normal impulse Examples Miscellaneous Examples
. 110.
101..
104.. 119..
.
Examples Motion on a rough plane curve under gravity Examples Motion on a curve in general
134
.
111.
115..
. 96.115
115 116
CHAPTER
114.102
.
.
. .
101
.
Introductory Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces
127
.
Example
Motion of a body attached to a string or spring Examples The problem of central orbits Apses Examples
Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit
.
.
118. 127..
128. .
.
127
116.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES.
. 123.
107.
105.
95. 98.
.CONTENTS
xi
CHAPTER
ART. 121.
103. 99.
.
153.
.
Resultant kinetic reaction
Relative coordinates
173
174
175
Moment Moment
of
momentum
of kinetic reaction
Kinetic energy
175
175
.
.
Theory of Attractions Mean density of the Earth
Attraction within gravitating sphere
170
170
171
150.
145.
Direct impact of spheres Ballistic balance
166 166
167
142.
129.
140.
163.
168
.
137
130.
Examples Motion on a surface
138
in general
139
132.
162.
Examples
Equations of motion of a system of particles Law of internal action
Simplified forms of the equations of motion Motion of the centre of mass
.
VI..
.
Examples Motion in a
Examples
144
vertical plane
under gravity
145
147
.
160.
.
Miscellaneous Examples
. 143.
155. 157. 158. 131.
146.177
178
..
. . .
135.
Statement of the law of reaction
Massratio
167
Mass
Density
.. .
Introductory Centre of mass
172 172
Resultant
momentum
172
173
154.176
176
161. 159.
.
. . 139. 148.
.
151.
142
142
143
137. 138.148
CHAPTER
THE LAW OF REACTION.
.
Osculating plane of path
140
•
Examples
Motion in resisting medium
Eesistance proportional to the velocity Eesisted simple harmonic motion
141
134. 141.
149. . 156.
144.Xll
CONTENTS
PAGE
Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with a
vertical axis
ART.
133. 136.
152..168
169
Gravitation
147.
.
.
.
Examples
171
THEORY OP A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.
.
186
179.. 172. 189.
.
.
164.
184.
187.
momentum moment of momentum
Sudden changes of motion Work done by the force between two
.
168.
181..
.
178.
170...
.
Xlll
PAGE
Motion relative to the centre of mass Independence of translation and rotation
Conservation of Conservation of 178
.
190
191
185.
The problem The problem
. 169..
particles
.
180.
186.
Potential energy of a body Energy of a rigid body Potential energy of a stretched string Localization of potential energy
192
192
193 194
188.
Energy equation Kinetic energy produced by impulses
182
182
THE PROBLEM OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
.194
195
197
mass
in
contact with smooth
Miscellaneous Examples
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER
VI.
167.
178 178 179
179
180 180
181 181
Work
function
171.
.
Power Motion of a
String or surface
string or chain chain of negligible
.
202 203
(/)
(^)
System of localized vectors in a plane Reduction of a system of vectors localized in lines
204
205
.
Examples General problem of planetary motion
BODIES OF FINITE SIZE.
183
185
177..
{a)
(6)
(c)
Vector couple Equivalence of couples in the same plane
Parallel vectors
200 200
201
{d)
(e)
Equivalence of couples in parallel planes
Composition of couples
.
175.
190..CONTENTS
ART.
Theory of the motion of a body Motion of a rigid body
Transmissibility of force Forces between rigid bodies in contact
Friction
187
188
189
190
183. 182.
Potential energy Potential energy of gravitating system
174... .
165.
166.
176.
REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS.
173.
of
of
n bodies two bodies
183
.
.
.
191.
.
201.
208 208
209 210 210
Coefficient of restitution
195.
Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres Deduction of Newton's rule from a particular assumption Elastic systems General theory of sudden changes of motion Illustrative problems
.
211
211
.
223 225 225
227 228
212.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS.
.
.
214.
.
Introductory
Moment
of inertia
inei'tia
Theorems concerning moments of
Calculations of
218.
216.
.
194.
moments
of inertia
Examples
Velocity and
momentum
of rigid
body
243 244 245 246 248 249
.
Equilibrium Machines
221
Examples
Small oscillations
. . 197.
PAGE
Introductory
207
SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS.XIV
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ART. 220. 209.
. 219.
217.
207
.
219
208.
. 206.
.
Examples
Miscellaneous Examples
CHAPTER
''
VIII.
Direct impact of elastic spheres Generalized Newton's rule
199.
. 211.
Examples
Principles of energy
213.
196.
Examples
INITIAL MOTIONS. 205.
.
.
Nature of the action between impinging bodies. 210. 198.
200. Newton's experimental investigation
.
222 223
.
YII. 204.
.
203.
and momentum
.
Kir
215.
192.
193.
.212
212 215
202.
. .
. 207.
Nature of the problems
Method
Initial
for initial accelerations
Illustrative
problem
curvature
217 218 218 218
Examples
APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION.
255.292 . 229.
235.
IX.298
299
.
240. 225. 242.
241. 236.
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS. 244. 257.
Examples
Miscellaneous Examples
272
CHAPTER
RIGID BODIES
239.
Examples Initial motions and
Illustrative
290
initial
curvatures
291
247.
252. .
253.
226.
Examples
Illustrative problems. 222.
Impact of two solid bodies Impact of smooth bodies Impact of rough bodies Case of no sliding
285
Examples
Impulsive motion of connected systems
.
Impulsive motion Kinetic energy produced by impulses
266
267
Examples
Initial
268
.
motions
268
269
269
271
Small oscillations
Illustrative
problem
238.
253 255
(Note on motion of a train)
rolling
.
.
Examples
problem (Energy and momentum) Kinematical Note Examples.
227.
problem
. 231. 230.287
288
245. .
243.
256.
234.
249.294
294
295 296
297
250.
246.CONTENTS
ART.
254.
. •
Examples
Small oscillations
.
Examples Kinematic condition of
Examples
Stress in a rod
259 260
261
265
233.
problems
.
.
232. (Note on moments about a moving
Illustrative
.
255
228.
XV
PAGE
Kinetic reaction of rigid body
250
252
Examples
Equations of motion of rigid body Continuance of motion in two dimensions
Rigid pendulum
252 253
224.
.
221. .286 .
300
MOTION OF A STRING OR CHAIN.
248.
283 284
.
axis)
.
Inextensible chain Tension at a point of discontinuity
Illustrative
^^^
303
303
258.
Examples
Stabihty of steady motions
251.
223.
237.
XVI
ART. 269.
261.
.
259.
Examples Chain moving freely Chain moving freely Invariable form
Examples Initial motion Impulsive motion
in one plane.
270.
Constitution of bodies.. .
265.
Field of force.
263.
271.
"Energetic"
process
method.
336
. in one plane.
.
Examples
Miscellaneous Examples
. 272.
Mass.. 276.
PAGE
304
305
260.
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS..
275.
Conservation of energy.
342
motion
Motion of a pendulum
Foucault's
343 344
345 346
279.
Stress.
pendulum
Examples
CHAPTER
XI.
The law
of gravitation
.337
338
Gravity Variation of gravity with latitude
339
274.
Definition of force.
Kinematical equations Equations of motion
306 309 309 310
311
264.
280.313
313
CHAPTER
X.
312
. 266.
267. .
Mass and weighing Lunar deflexion of gravity Examples Motion of a free body near the Earth's
Initial
340
341
341
surface.
268.
.
Measurement and Units
.
262.
CONTENTS
Constrained motion of a chain under gravity
.
273.
.
. 277.
solar time
. .
Frame
of reference
and timemeasuring
347
APPENDIX. 278.
361
Index
365
. .
Newton's laws of motion.
Introductory Sidereal time and
336
mean
.
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH.
.
its
data are facts of
experience. so made are verified in experience.
1
. discovered by observation.
future events. the /validity of a theory of this kind is its consistency
logical theory. in
all
which
that
is
assumed
is
'
L." This principle
itself
—the
may
events take place in invariable The object of Natural Science is the description of sequences. with itself. and these laws are such that the
bodies.INTRODUCTION. In the process of formulation the Science acquires the character of an abstract
and predictions
suggested by exThe test of the all that is found is proved by reasoning. Its
object is the description of these motions in terms of the rules of invariable sequence which they obey. the facts of nature in terms of the rules of invariable sequence
be stated as follows
—Natural
which natural events are observed to obey." When any rule has been established by observation.
is occupied with a particular kind with the motions of material bodies. For this purpose
is necessary to introduce and define a notions suggested by observations of the it
number
motions
of abstract
of
actual
then possible to formulate laws according to which such motions take place.
of natural events. possibility of Natural Science depends on a principle which
derived from multitudes of particular experiences "Principle of the Uniformity of Nature. These rules of sequence. jperience.
The
is
principles are generalizations from experience.
The Science
of Mechanics
viz. it becomes possible to predict a certain kind of
abstract forms. suggest to our minds certain general notions in terms of which it is possible to state the rules in
Such abstract formulas for the rules of sequence which natural events obey we call the " Laws of Nature.
Mechanics
its
is
a Natural Science. and the corresponding Law formulated.
It is
future motions and positions of bodies can be deduced from them.
M.
1.
the
it is necessary to attend to two measurement of time. It will
be assumed here that some such preliminary study has been made*. 1893.llA'''''
''':'''
'
. in general. all parts of a
body have not the same motion.
as defining the position from time " body will be called a particle. Mechanics. We have said that our object is 2. The duration of the interval may be measured by the amount of any process which is
For the purposes of generally more important that time should be conceived as measurable than that it should be measured by an
effected continuously during the interval. and the simplification we make is to consider the motion of so small a portion of a body that the differences between the motions of its parts are unimportant. Chicago. We think then in
place of the motion of a point.
Motion of a particle. 1904. and something also of the processes of inductive reasoning by which these notions were reached.
Mach. Cambridge.
Mechanics
it
is
assigned process. Any instant of time is separated 3. and the determination of
Measurement of time. How small the portion must be in order that this may be the
case
arising
we cannot say beforehand.
of such a science ought to be partly experimental it ought also to be partly historical. Cox.
The study
notions of the theory. but we avoid the difficulty thus by regarding it as a geometrical point. The purpose of this book is to formulate the principles
and
to exemplify their application. The Science of Mechanics
(Transl
and by H. Something should be known of the kind of experiments from which were derived the abstract
. the description of the motions of bodies. from any other instant by an interval."
the
first
A
moving point considered
to time of a very small part of a
Motion may be defined as change of position taking place in
time.^
/''.
/'INTRODUCTION
test of its value is its ability to furnish rules
under which natural
events actually
fall.
i
* Historical accounts are given by E.
In regard to this definition
things:
position.
. The necessity for a simplification arises from the fact that.
lation).
NP
Any
(in the general sense). (See Fig. and we shall denote the measure of the time which elapses between two particular instants by the
letter
ty
then
Hs
a real positive
number (in the most general
it
sense
of the
4. 1.B. each of these lengths is represented by a number
.g.
1. and the unit in terms
of which this second. one of them.C to be four such points . means of a
1—2
.14]
POSITION
3
The process actually adopted for measuring time is the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. OCA." process
is
measured
is
called the
"mean
solar
In the course of this book we shall generally assume that time is measured in this way.
"
Determination of position. being taken as the unit of length. viz.
The
means its position relative to other points. relative to a set of points is not definite until the set includes
four points which do not all lie in one plane.
in if
I
then the lengths OM. particular length.
word "number") and the interval
denotes
"
is t
seconds.A. 0. Suppose 0.
position of a point Position of a point
and the three planes OBC. It is clear that
by the number of centimetres contained
is
OP
is
a diagonal of a parallelepiped and
that
OM. determine the position of P. in it. MN.) The with reference to this trihedral angle is position of a point determined as follows we draw parallel to 00 to meet the
P
:
—
PN
plane
AOB
in
Ny and we draw
NM
parallel to
OB
to
meet
OA
Fig. is chosen and called the
origin.
OAB
are the faces of
a trihedral angle having its vertex at 0. one centimetre. MNy
NP are three
/The position of a point
therefore determined by
edges no two of which are parallel. e.
z. planes divide
Fig.
letters
equal to this number with a opposite sides of the plane BOG. taken with certain signs. 2 are said to be "righthanded. called the coordinates of the point P.
Axes drawn and named as in Fig. To fix ideas we may think of the compartment in which x\ y.
the particular trihedral angle
OABG
1. 2.INTRODUCTION
parallelepiped whose edges are parallel to the lines of. 2 that a set of rectangular coordinate the space about a point into eight compartments." If the x and y are interchanged the axes are lefthanded. z are all
positive as being
*
bounded by two adjacent walls of a room and the
book. are
by the
number
of units of length in the length same side of the plane BOG. reference. y.
from Fig.
Fig. In most applications
of mathematics to physics righthanded axes are preferable to lefthanded axest.
It is generally preferable to take the set of lines of reference to be three lines at right angles to each other. and are denoted letters x. in the course of this
make
use of rectangular coordinates
only.
floor of
the
We
shall.
and the
planes that contain two of
It is clear
them
are coordinate planes'^. sets of
lines so chosen are called systems
of rectangular
axes. and
OM
is
when
P and A
are on the
minus sign when P and A are on and similarly for y and z. MN. then the faces of the trihedral angle are also at right angles to each other .
.
The lengths OM.
t In the course of this book the axes will be taken to be righthanded unless a statement to the contrary is made. The rule of signs is that x is equal to the
NP of
being one compartment. and one of whose diagonals is the line joining the origin to the point.
lines of reference three lines going out from thence to three stars. these
as origin the centre of the Sun. screw. the axes are righthanded. at right angles to it.
Or again we might take
would determine a frame of and as
.
of reference. and we can erect at
OA
determined can be
In practice we cannot mark a point but only a small part of a body.
line. or righthanded. determined.
Suppose
to
be the point. with respect to which the position of a point P can be OB. and the intersection of the floor with
the wall in front of us the axis of y. can draw on the plane a line a in 0. The three lines so a frame of reference. 3. and a plane through that
line. the horizontal plane at the
place . Again we might draw from the place lines
in the direction of
reference.
AOB
a plane through the
We
at right angles to meeting it perpendicular to the plane. for example we may take as origin a place on the Earth's surface.
OA
a line through the point.4.
The senses
3. or x) to the positive direction of the axis of
(or X. we have then a frame of reference. then at the place we can always determine a particular line. and 2. we have a particular plane.5]
room. OC.
Frame
To determine a frame of reference we require to be able to mark a point. An ordinary.
of rotation belonging to the three screws are
indicated in Fig. and. will be called a frame of reference. the vertical at the place. A triad of orthogonal lines OA. or y).
If
FRAME OF REFERENCE
we look towards one
left
5
name the
inteisection of the walls the axis of
wall with the other wall on the lefthand.
Fig. or in any other direction determined with reference to the points of the compass. a line through that point.
or
z) will
direction of the axis of
z
rotate in the sense of a line turning /rom the positive y (or 2. turned so as to travel in the positive direction of the
axis of
a:
(or
3/.
any three
visible stars.
5. the intersection of the floor
with the wall on our
the axis of x. on this x^lane we may mark the line which points to the North.
or a
cannonball. So long as these conditions are not violated. and we shall generally take one of these lines to be
When we are dealing with the motion the vertical at the place.
choice of a standard being in our power. we shall call it the standard
intervals are in the ratio of the measures of the
process. we shall generally take the frame of reference to be determined by lines which are fixed relatively to the Earth. or the Moon. or plane which occupies a fixed position relatively to the chosen frame of reference will be described as
A
"fixed.
The
have some relation to our daily life. and different
amounts of the process that take place in them.
are dealing with the motions of bodies near a place for example. the motion of a train. Of these one is selected as a timemeasurer.
in
Chapter XI. of the Earth.
point.b
INTRODUCTION
When we
on the Earth's surface.
The choice of a suitable frame of reference. Time may be measured by any process which
goes on continually. It is clear that processes which are uniform when
measured by one standard
may be variable when measured by another standard."
Processes which are not uniform are of the standard process are effected.
. In any interval of time many processes may be going on. and it is manifest that some motions which we wish to describe will be more simply describable when the choice is made We shall return to this matter in one way than when it is made in another.
effected in equal intervals of time. we are at liberty to choose a different reckoning of time for the purpose of simplifying the description of the motions of bodies. is in our power. in intervals in which equal amounts
said to be "variable. like the choice of the timemeasuring process. Choice of the timemeasuring process and of the frame of reference. or a Planet. that
"Uniform processes" are such that equal amounts of them are is. The choice of the mean solar second as a unit of time satisfies these conditions. or a pendulum. it is clearly desirable that it should be so made that a number of processes uncontrollable by us should be uniform or approximately uniform it is also clearly desirable that it should
."
6. or line. Equal intervals of time are those in which equal amounts of the process selected as timemeasurer take place. we shall generally take " " the frame of reference to be determined by means of the fixed
stars.
OR.
is
the magnitude
position. had a position has at some later instant a position Q relative to the same frame. and let a parallel line
be drawn through any other point.
Q.
and also how.
The
acceleration. through the study of the motions of falling bodies. " The point is said to have undergone a " change of position or a
displacement.CHAPTER
I. particular instant.
history of the Science of Mechanics shows how. two senses in which this line
described one.
is
The subsequent
entirely
.
the direction of the displacement.
is
P
Let the
line
PQ
be drawn. this number of the displacement. chiefly through the proposition called ''the parallelogram of forces. importance came to be attached to the notions of variable velocity and
7.
displacement precisely determined by this line we say that it is Let the line PQ drawn through P represented by this line. ACCELERATION.
for
instance through 0. be produced indefinitely both ways.
is
Of the
may be
the sense from
towards that point {R) which is the fourth corner of a parallelogram having OP. Then this line determines a particular direction this is
. PQ
as adjacent sides this is the sense of the displacement.
Displacement." the vectorial character of such quantities as force and acceleration came to be recognized.
DISPLACEMENT. The measure of the length of PQ is the number of units of length it
.
We
precise and formal definitions of some vector quantities and with some of the immediate consequences
shall
now be occupied with
of the definitions.
It is clear that the
.
Suppose that a point which. at any
with reference to any frame.
8. VELOCITY.
f'
4
contains.
and thus displacement belongs
matical quantities
9. ACCELERATION
[CHAP. From our complete idea of the line this quality must be abstracted before the vector is arrived at.
determined by (1) the previous position.
A
vector
may be
defined as a
directed quantity which obeys a certain rule of operation*.8
DISPLACEMENT. On the other
hand the vector is subjected by means
subject to a rule of operation to which a line can only be of an arbitrary convention. That
to
say. as in moving the point from to Q directly by the straight line PQ. or less than another but two displacements in
. direction. equal to. The sense of the line
is
indicated
when two
of its points are
named in the
line.
. (3) the sense in which the
line is
object of mathematical determination (1) a number
supposed drawn from one of
its points. described as
extension in space.
I. for one displacement can be greater than. are
clearly not equivalent to each other.
PK. and sense. and
K to Q by the
by
P to iT by
P
is
straight line KQ. The line possesses a quality. even
when they
are equal in
magnitude.
to the class of
mathe
known
as vectors or directed quantities. (3) the sense of the displacement. Then from any point a straight line can be drawn to represent the vectorf in magnitude. or in different senses.
By
a "directed quantity"
we mean an
reasoning which requires for its called the magnitude of the quantity. displacements represented
lines
are equivalent to the displacement represented by the line PQ. rotation about an axis is not a vector. which the vector may not have. P. (4) the magnitude of the displacement. (2) the direction of
the displacement. (2) the direction of a line called the direction of the quantity.
Let any particular length be taken as unit of length.
Further
it is
clear that exactly the
is
same change of
from
position
effected in
moving a point from
the straight line
PK. For example.
Definition of a vector.
diiferent directions. called
the sense of
the quantity.
KQ
Displacement is a quantity. although it is a directed quantity. t The line is not the vector.
order in which
they are arrived at by a point describing the
* The rule of operation is an essential part of the definition. VELOCITY.
C.
.
parallel.
vectors. vectors represented by AG.
This rule
follows
(1)
:
—
may be
divided into
two parts and
stated
as
Vectors represented by equal and parallel lines drawn
in like senses are equivalent.
we note
(i)
displacement of a
Examples of equivalent
lines.
Among
10.
Also the vector
or
^0 is
equivalent
to the vectors
AB.
or
AD. then the vectors represented by A'G' are equivalent.
and
BG are
equivalent vectors. G being
AC is
any points whatever. 7.810]
EQUIVALENT VECTORS
rule
is
9
The
subject
of mathematical operation to which vectors are a rule for replacing one vector by other vectors to
which
it is
(by definition) equivalent. AB. particle.
AB.
equivalent to the BG. as here defined. B. BG. and a parallelogram as adjacent sides.
Again
A. A'C
lines
are
equal and parallel
their ends can be joined by two
AA\
Fig.
'\i
A^ B. (ii) couple applied to a rigid body. AD.
from different points
(2)
The
vector represented by a line
vectors represented
by the
lines
AB. G' A' are not AG. the points A.
If
AG. DG. 6.
GG' which are equal and
equivalent.
BG
AD
Fig.
vector quantities. B.
G
D is
constructed having
are any three points.
.
11.
on. having
AG
a.
a polygon (plane or gauche)
is
constructed.
we compound the components
. .
I.
(See Fig. the vector represented by ^(7 is equivalent to the vectors
represented by AP.
9. (7 are
regarded as the
Fig.10
DISPLACEMENT. VELOCITY. and the single vector to which they are equivalent is called their resultant.)
Fig.
AG m AP. and
so
The statement the number of sides
of the
independent of
order in
of the polygon... DC.
PQ
can be replaced by
is
AQ. This is clear because by definition the vectors
AP. and which its corners are
taken. and having J.. 9.
AB. T as corners. 8. AQ
which meet
m
A. (7 as one diagonal.
The operation
ponent vectors
is
of deriving a resultant vector from given com
called composition.
first
[The taken more than once will be presently removed.
edges parallel to
vector
Then the
equivalent to the vectors represented by the edges
AB. ACCELERATION
Further
if
[CHAP.
its
restriction that
and last corners.s
one
side. if the polygon is a gauche quadrilateral
a parallelepiped can be constructed having BD. PQ.
Components and
resultant.] In particular. TO.
A
set of vectors equiva
lent to a single vector are called components. provided that the points A.
and having any points
Py Qy . no corner being taken more than once. no corner is to be
ABDG.
The case of this which is generally most useful is the case where the edges of the parallelepiped are the axes of reference relatively to which the positions of points are determined.
and z. e. any
vector parallel to a coordinate plane. can be resolved into components parallel to the axes of oo and y. not in the same components parallel to any three given lines
resolve a vector in one
plane.* 10. the plane of (a?.
In the former case we take
OP
to represent the vector.?/).
the directions of the component vectors are at right are called resolved parts of angles to each other the components the resultant vector in the corresponding directions.
Fig.
and
the
and draw at right angles to Ox.
When
Thus. and these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of these axes.g. 11]
COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS
. we particular directions resolve the vector in the given directions to obtain the components in those directions. any axes of sc.
to obtain the resultant
It is clear
from the constructions in the preceding
into
lines
article that
we can
components parallel to way which are in a plane to which the vector is any two given and again we can resolve the vector in one way into parallel.
if we take a threedimensional system of rectangular vector can be resolved into components parallel to the axes. then resolved parts of the vector parallel to the axes.
if
we take a system
of rectangular coordinate axes.10.
Again.
11
the operation of deriving components in from a given vector is called resolution. these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes of x
and
y. y.
PM
OM
MP represent the
If
R
is
.
the angles* magnitude of the vector represented by OP. and 6. VELOCITY. and these are
the projections of
OP
on the axes. and draw as opposite corners and with its
R
IVI
. Oy.
we take
OP
a parallelepiped with and faces parallel to the coordinate planes.
I. If is the magnitude of the
P
to represent the vector.
More
generally. between the lines OP and Ox. then the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes are numerically equal to the projections of OP on the axes. then R cos 6 and R cos <^ are the magnitudes of the resolved parts respectively.12
DISPLACEMENT. ACCELERATION
<f>
[CHAP.
let
OP be a line representing the vector. and sense.
(x. 13.
the plane oi
.. rectangular lines are given.
first
Composition of any number of vectors. As before.
from this rule that. in
. .e.
OPn be
vectors. OP 2.
by a revolving
r.
Consider
the case where
the vectors are
parallel to a plane.
Fig. the vector that is to say there is one and only one vector which has given
resolved parts parallel to three such lines.
traced out
Oy.
all
I. .
is the resolved part of the The vector represented by vector represented by OP at right angles to the line OA. the component parallel to the x axis is in the negative direction of that axis. in the first case. 14.6^.
the second case. are negative. when the magnitudes and signs of the resolved parts of a vector in the directions of three mutually
It is clear
is uniquely determinate.
line
turning about
from Ox towards
Let
Vn denote the magnitudes of the vectors. 12]
COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS
13
This rule determines the senses as well as the magnitudes of the resolved parts thus.. (supposed
ber. in the direction xO
produced.
and take it to be Let OPi. direction.
MP
12.
Draw
OA. and I. OP^. ie.
. y).
The construction
in the former of these cases
is
a construction
p
for the resolved parts of
a
vector parallel and perpendicular to a line.
PM at right
Then the
Fig. i.
. 6^ be the angles which the lines OP^. the angles
.
angles vector
to
is
equivalent to vectors represented by OM^ cos d and magnitudes of these are respectively
MP. OPn make with Ox.
where
the
R
is
the magnitude of the vector to be resolved. and
is
the
R
R sin 6. and OA a line
parallel
to
and perpendicular which the vector is to be
resolved.2.
.) in
lines representing the to be n in num
magnitude. and 6
its
angle between
direction
and OA. and let 61.11. . when cos 6.
Oy.
These two equations determine the magnitude R and the R is the numerical value of V (X^ + F^). the others. where
vector
X
Y=^rm. R. rn parallel to the lines Ox.r^
cos ^2
+
• • •
+ ^ n COS
Oy
6n
= X (7' COS
6).
is
When
the magnitude of
is
the resultant of any set of vectors
zero the set of vectors
said
to be equivalent to zero. VELOCITY.
as X. rm. Oz. Oy.Z'^).
The
resultant
the summations extending to all the vectors of is therefore a vector whose magnitude.
Then the vector represented by OPi may be replaced by
rj
vectors
for
cos $1 parallel to Ox. Z.
. n be the vectors. resolved parts parallel to the axes are X.
and such that the
line
and sense makes with the axes Ox. Thus two equal vectors parallel to the same line. and yjr is angle that one among the angles whose tangents are F/X for which the sine has the same sign as Fand the cosine has the same sign
i/r. ACCELERATION
[CHAP.
and
r^ sin 6i parallel to
Oy.
All the resolved parts parallel to vector parallel to Oi/ given by
are equivalent to a single
Y F = ri sin
^i
+ ra sin
^2
+
•
• •
+ ^»i sin
^„
= 2 (r sin 6). and the whole set of vectors is equivalent to a vector whose Oz.14
DISPLACEMENT. and similarly
All the resolved parts parallel to
vector
Ox
X parallel to X = COS Oi
7\
are equivalent to a single
Ox given by
4. Let ly m. 2^ cos ^ = X.
I.
the numerical value of VC^'^
it
+
Y^\. and call any one of these numbers r.
and
vector whose resolved parts parallel to Ox and Oy are the resultant of all the vectors.
in direction
13. Y/R. and in opposite senses. Let the magnitude of this vector be R. representing Oz angles whose cosines are XjR. and let its direction and sense be those of a line
The
X
F is
going out from
Then we have
and making an angle i/r with Ox. Then this
may be resolved into rl.
the
is
set. = %rl.
Consider the more general case where the vectors are not Let i\. Z/R.
II. Z=^rn. Oy."rn be the magnitudes of the parallel to a plane. Y.
Vectors equivalent to zero.
cosines of the angles which the line representing this vector in direction and sense makes with the axes Ox. r^. are equivalent to zero. and R sin '\jr=Y.
in which it describes the shorter length.
Again consider the case where the point moves in a straight line. are equivalent
to zero.
z be the
any particular instant with moving point reference to any particular frame.
at
. parallel to the axes. one of the lines of reference. In this case there will be equal intervals of time in which the point describes unequal lengths in the one of two equal intervals in which it describes the greater length we should say it was moving faster.
y. we should say it was moving more slowly.
Again vectors parallel and proportional to the sides of a closed polygon. y' — y. We have thus an idea of velocity of a point not moving uniformly.
For a point moving in a straight line we may define the average velocity in any interval of time to be the fraction
number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval
. and let s be the number of units of length it passes over in t units
of time. x y\ z' the coordinates of the point at a subsequent instant.
Then
it
may happen
that the two numbers s and
for
t
have
then
a constant ratio whatever
said to
number we take
and
t
The point
is
z
is
move uniformly
measure of
in the line. in the other.g.
in a point. and we seek to make it
number
. but the of imits of length passed over in any interval of time does not bear a constant ratio to the number of imits of time in the interval. a point moving in a straight line.
the fraction 
defined to
be
the
its
A
point moving uniformly
describes equal lengths in equal times. Velocity in a straight line. is equal to zero.1215]
DEFINITION OF VELOCITY
15
It is clear that the
sum
of a set of vectors equivalent to zero
of the resolved parts.
velocity. then X — X. with reference to the same frame.
This last statement enables us to do away with the restriction (Art.
(Cf.
coordinates of a
of a
vector quantity which
is
the displacement of the point. Art.
Components of displacement. and with senses determined by the order of the corners when a point travels round the polygon. 10) that in the resolution of a vector into components
parallel to the sides of
a polygon not more than two sides of the
polygon may meet
14.
precise. e. in any direction.
Let
x. z' — z are the components.)
Consider in the first place 15. 8.
When
the measure of the displacement of the point during the velocity is uniform it is measured by the
displacement in a unit of time.
any
instant. chosen as the origin of time.
We
might
in the
same way
define the velocity of a point at the last instant of an interval. we obtain a series of fractions.z
The number
s is
a function of the number
is
t. and taking for the measure of the interval a series of diminishing numbers. to bring it into connexion with the definition of variable velocity we say that the latter is measured by "the rate of displacement per unit of time.
Let
since
t
be the measure of the interval of time which has elapsed
some particular instant. and suppose that at the end of this interval the point has described a length s measured from some particular point in the line of its motion.
and the
as the
limit of the fraction just written
the
differential coefficient of s with respect to
t.
of the
moving point
The number
is
accordingly measured by
ds
j
s'
s
is
the interval t't. the interval of being diminished indefinitely.
The two limits are in general the same when they are different we call them the velocity just after the instant and the
. We say that the point is at s at time t. In the same — way suppose that it is at s' at time t'. which approach a limit
the interval
given and the
Taking the
first
ing value as the measure of the interval is indefinitely diminished.
I. and its average velocity in the interval it describes a length s'
s'
—s
is
'. However short an interval is taken for the unit of time the length described
in
and
measures the velocity in terms of it. If the unit of time were replaced by a smaller unit the displacement in it would be replaced by a shorter length. This limiting value is defined to be the velocity of the point at
the
first
instant of the interval. ACCELERATION
[CHAP. which has a definite value
not moving uniformly this fraction is a when the measure of
first instant of the interval is given. Then in the interval t' t — s.
velocity just before the instant respectively.
We
line at
inte7'val
can now define the velocity of a point moving in a straight
It is the limit of the average velocity in an time beginning or ending at the instant.
t ". When we wish to recall this fact."
it
.
number known The velocity
. and this length would measure the velocity in terms of the new unit of time. instant of the interval always the same.
When
the point
is
is
variable number.16
DISPLACEMENT. VELOCITY.
and let s' be the corresponding arc for time t'.
. in the sense of description of the path. of which the components parallel to the axes are
dz
)
dy
. Let s be the arc of the curve particular line.
Let these components be w —x.
when
it is
speed whether
its
independent of the time.
. called its path or The velocity is associated with this trajectory. y'
—
z. drawn in a definite sense. 16]
DEFINITION OF VELOCITY
17
but we must not attach to this phrase any other meaning than that which has just been explained. i.
the definition of
s
of the
Then
of the
From
we have the equation
Thus the magnitude
s is
of the velocity of the
moving point at time
^ is
^
. and the
component
velocities parallel to the axes are
dx
dt'
dy
dt*
dz
dt'
The
interval.
t
—. the point path is straight or curved.
where
the length of the arc of the path measured. the length of the chord joining the two positions is the magnitude vector whose components parallel to the axes are a^'w.
but the vector does not express the association of the velocity
with a particular line— the tangent to the path of the particle.
t
t
t
has a limit. The magnitude of the velocity of a point is often called its speed. As before x. t
.
t
^.e.
fractions —.—j — — — —
. z are functions of t.15. and is associated with a
definite straight line.
is
said to
move with uniform
It is manifest that the velocity of
many
dx
jt
}
a moving particle can be represented in respects by a vector.
— y.
measured from some particular point of the curve up to the position moving point at time ?. M. They are defined to be the component velocities parallel to the axes.
^ ^
L.
Velocity in general.
interval is indefinitely diminished. z' z. At any instant the point is moving along the tangent to a curve. y'y.
and.
Then each
of the
. and these limits are.
2
.
in a straight line it will have a interval f — t parallel to each
not moving component of displacement in any
is
When
the point
of the
three
z'
axes of reference. from some particular point of it to the position of the moving point at time t. the phrase means nothing but the limit of the fraction
number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval
when the
16. y. the rates of displacement per unit time parallel to the axes.
velocity at an instant is the limit of the average velocity in an This limit has a definite magnitude.
as above.
0M\ and a vector localized in the line OP. directions.
is
points or in the proper
localized at the proper In particular a vector localized at
a point
same magnitudes.
but which have relations to particular points or particular
a point is defined by its magnitude. L
so far con
Localized vectors. and senses as if it were unlocalized. ACCELERATION
[cHAP.
DISPLACEMENT. directions.
often important to consider have the properties of vectors. Oy.
vector localized at
A
—
There
is
in general no rule of equivalence for vectors localized
at different points.
called unlocalized vectors. in other respects.
provided that these components and resolved parts are localized at the same point. and senses are equivalent. and sense. VELOCITY. viz. provided
all
localized at points
that
components and resultants are
lines. also a vector localized in a line is equivalent to
components (or resolved parts) of the same magnitudes. and senses as if it were unlocalized. OK. and also by a point and by a rule of equivadirection.18
17. provided that these components and resolved parts are localized in lines which meet in a point on the line of the resultant. meeting
.
equivalent to components (or resolved parts) of the directions.
(ii)
Two
vectors localized in lines which
meet are
equivalent to a single vector localized in a line. 12) to vectors localized at and equivalent
may be
represented by lines OH.
Thus a vector
localized at
is
by a line OP^ and
represented (as in Fig.
A
vector localized in
line. Oz. they are equally well represented by lines drawn from any point and they have no
. with the
additional rules of equivalence.
All the constructions in the previous Articles apply to vectors and to vectors localized in lines.
But
it
is
quantities which.
The
vectors
we have
sidered have no relation to any particular point.
relation to
by
any particular they are equally well represented of all lines parallel to their direction. is equivalent to
vectors localized in any three lines parallel to Ox. having the same magnitude and sense. segments They may be
line.
a
is
line is
a vector localized at any point in
a particular
which
in the direction of the vector. two sets of vectors localized at the same point are lence.
lines. (i) Two vectors localized in the same line are equivalent if they have the same magnitude and the
same
sense.: equivalent if two sets of unlocalized vectors with the same magnitudes.
in particular the line in which it is localized is thereby determined.
that with which a point describes one unit of length uniformly in each unit of time.
the three classes of vectors
OK. applied example of a vector localized at a point (Chapter III). whose resolved part in any direction is the rate of displacement of the point in that direction
per unit of time. is a segment of that line.
representing it may be drawn from any point in a particular line.
vector localized at a point
is
single vector. or its dimension
symbol
LT^. pressing a length to a number expressing an It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the unit of time.1719]
in a point
LOCALIZED VECTORS
19
on OP.
equivalent to any parallel vector of line representing the
A vector
magnitude and
and
localized in a line is equivalent to any vector of equal The line like sense localized in the same line. and
T for
time.
Formal
velocity of a
definition of velocity.
2—2
. The differences between
expressed thus
:
—
may be
A
vector (un localized)
is
equal magnitude and like sense. OM.
19. minus one dimension in time. The number expressing a velocity is the ratio of a number ex
The
unit velocity
interval of time. We may now define the moving point to be a vector. localized in a line
through the position of the point.
The measure
of any par
ticular velocity
a
number
is
expressing the ratio of the velocity to
the unit velocity.
Measurement of
is
velocity.
Velocity
in length.
of vectors localized in lines
(ii)
force
applied to a particle
is
an
we may cite (i) velocity of a Force to a rigid body (Chapter VI). where
L
stands for length.
As examples
moving
particle. and having the magnitudes and senses of OH.
is
is
and
dimension accordingly said to be a quantity of one of.
18.
A
point.
The
line representing it
not equivalent to any other must be drawn from the
A
vector localized in a line
is
clearly determined
by
its
com
ponents parallel to three given lines and by one point of the line. Thus the vector may be drawn from any point.
21. ACCELERATION
[CHAP. velocity as a localized vector is that special significance is found to attach to a certain quantity called the "moment of the velocity. of such a vector about a point in the plane as follows
We
:
—
a line L' in the direction of the vector.
vector are the
same
as those of translation and rotation in an
is
ordinary righthanded screw.
:
and L' and choose a at right angles to the plane containing sense of description of this line .
Iiemxna.
rule of signs may also be stated thus Let a watch be in the plane of and L\ so that a line drawn from the placed back to the face is in the sense of L\ when the sense of the
The
vector
is
opposite to that of the motion of the hands the sign +.
where
R
the
magnitude of the
vector.
I. define the their directions parallel to the plane*.
of localized vector. the sign
+.
The perpendicular from
line of the vector
the line
ON.
The
moment about a point
of a vector
a point A is identical with the moment about of the resolved part of the vector at right angles to OA. otherwise it is —
is
. if the senses of L and the
. The reason for defining 20.
.
ON
The
magnitude
of
the
resolved part of the vector at right angles to is
^0
is
R sin 6."
Moment
We
shall attend at present to the cases of vectors localized in
lines that lie in a plane
and having
moment Draw
vector
is
and vectors localized at points in a plane. of the magnitude of the vector and the perpendicular The rule of signs is this Draw a line L through to L' from 0. VELOCITY. then. and
draw
ox^^
/
at right angles to the line of the vector. otherwise
:
it is
—
.20
DISPLACEMENT.
A more
general discussion will be given in Chapter III. so that if the localized in a line that line is L\ and if the vector is
localized at a point the line L' passes moment of the vector about a point
through the point. with a
certain sign.
15.
is
The
the product.
on the
is Fig. and
. Let 6 be the angle which the direction of the vector makes
localized at
with
the
line
AO.
it is
equal to
OA
sin 6.
the an»^le which the line
representing it makes with AO.2022]
MOMENTS
. R the
magnitude of the resultant.
the origin of the
^ j
of a particle
Fig.
moving
in the plane of (x.
when a vector
is
localized at a point (^1. its
is Xi
moment about
Y^

y^X^. 16.
we know
i^ sin <^
(Article 12) that
Fig. and
.O A sin 6 = i? sin 04 = moment about of resolved part
.
This result can be immediately extended to any number of vectors localized at a point. The sum (with proper signs) moments about a point of two vectors localized at a point to the moment of their resultant about 0. 17. y). or in a line
passing through this point.
22.
at right angles to
OA. y) is
. Then the magnitudes of the resolved parts at right
angles to
AO
Pa
sin ^2
»
are Pj sin 6i and Rsm<f>. y^) in
the plane of
(x.
of Pi
and Pg about
(9i
= OA (Pi sin + P2 sin O^) = OA Rsm<j> = moment of R about 0.
21
Now moment of R about = R ON = R.
parallel to the axes
of w and y.
of
the
is
A
Theorem of moments. equal
6i
Let Pi and Pg be the magnitudes of the vectors.
moment about
velocity 1^.
of
Now sum
moments
.
(9
.
specified
by
its
components
Xi and Yi
the origin
Fig. angles which the lines representing
and
6^
the
A
<f>
them drawn from make with AO.
17.
See
the
For
example.
= Pj sin ^i + Pg sin 62.
It follows that.
direction. z ~.e.
z
—.
v\
w
.
may
be.
ponents at time
limits
t'.
z
corresponding com.
(
^
^ Iy ^
?/
—
)
.
parallel to these axes at
When
time
t^
and
u'.
and
v its velocity
v'
the limit of the fraction
.
The acceleration of a point moving in a straight line is the This is a short rate of increase of its velocity per unit of time. as regards magnitude. it is said to
have a uniform accelera
provided that the velocity acquired in every interval has the
direction
same
and
sense.z
—— have
and
when the
—t
is
indefinitely diminished.— ^
—.
then the fractions
interval
t'
—.22
DISPLACEMENT.
t. w be component velocities reference (coordinate axes). a function of the number t.
where x and y are the coordinates of
its
position
at time
23. the moving point
is
said to have a variable acceleration.
A
point moving with a variable velocity. and sense.
t
is
the acceleration.
the acceleration
is
measured
dv
the point is not moving in a straight line it will in general have a variable velocity parallel to each of the lines of Let u.
.
When
the acceleration
is
not uniform. and its differential coefficient with
when
the interval
respect to
.
i.
When
increases
is moving in such a way that its velocity amounts in equal intervals of time.
. ACCELERATION
[CHAP. ~' z Z
—. or in words it is
the limit of the fraction
number
number
of units of velocity added in an interval of time of units of time in the interval
is
'
The number v is indefinitely diminished. VELOCITY. v.
I. however by equal
short the intervals
tion.
Uniform acceleration is determined.
relative to
any frame. of expressing the following definition way
:
—
Let V be the velocity of the point at time
at time t\ then its acceleration
is
t. by the velocity added in a unit of time.
the point
is
said to have an acceleration relative to
that frame.
t
— ——
V
t
when the
interval
t'
—tis
indefinitely diminished.
Acceleration.
r
at
is
. The values of velocities are deduced from a knowledge of the distances described in
different intervals of time.
q.
of time.
The measure
particular acceleration is the number expressing the ratio of the acceleration to the unit acceleration. shall therefore denote
We
the differential coefficient of any quantity q with regard to the
time
t
by placing a dot over the
let
oc. v.
m.
of any
Measurement of acceleration.
Notation for velocities
and accelerations. z
z. or its dimension symbol is LT~^.
The
to
vector which has these components parallel to the axes be the acceleration of the point.
The number expressing an acceleration is the expressing a velocity to a number expressing an
ratio of a
number
interval of time.
The
values of accelerations are deduced from a
knowledge of the values of
25. component velocities parallel to the axes are denoted
y.
let u. or in other words
defined
define
we
the acceleration
line
of a moving point to he the vector.
to the axes.
The unit
acceleration
is
that uniform acceleration with which
a moving point gains a unit of velocity in a unit of time. whose resolved part in any direction is the through
rate of increase of the velocity in that direction per unit
24.
It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the square of the unit of time.
be the coordinates of a moving point at time t. then its
V.2225]
these limits
DEFINITION OF ACCELERATION
are the differential coefficients ^ at
23
. By measuring angles we can
estimate intervals of time.
Now
then
its
if. The quantities which are measured directly are lengths and angles.
thus q stands for ^
.
be the component velocities of a point parallel component accelerations are denoted by
w.
by
X.
Acceleration is accordingly said to be a quantity of one dimension in length and of minus two dimensions in time.
velocities at different times. localized in a the point.
Again
ii.
Accelerations are not measured directly. using a clock or watch.
at
^
. for example.
.
We
have
so frequently to deal with differential coefficients of quantities with regard to the time that it is convenient to use for them an abbreviated notation.
.v = ~.
rr
it
is
convenient to write
for
for
at
them
so on. Suppose the line to make an angle 6 in radians) with the axis x at time t. and an angle (measured 6 { ^6 with the same axis at time t + ^t. called the angular acceleration of the line.
way
6
is
6.
thus
the quantities that corlet ^/.
coordinates of A'.
26.. Then A^ is the
coordinate plane of
measure of the angle turned through by the line in the interval measured by A^. w = at at
z respectively. x^. is called the angular velocity of the line.
I.
x. y. the position of
a?2
A
at time
. and f. z^ the coordinates of a second point B at the same time referred to the same axes.24
DISPLACEMENT. say
q. y.
Then f
. = Zl + TZ'2
\
J
.
Then x stands
^—
or ^ (77)
. z( be the
t'. the differential coefficient of 6 with respect to t
number. ACCE^iERATION
Since u
[CHAP. for example the line joining the positions at any time of two moving points. y^.
In the same
27.
we may write q
for 7^
as
we
write q for ^
. move so as always to be in the same plane with reference to
any frame. VELOCITY. following the analogy of the case
may
call
where q is x.
to
deal with any function
. and the limit of the ratio of these two numbers This is 6. Let a line.
Also. and q the accelera
tion with which q increases.
We
have
= ^1 + f = 2/1+^' = + ?• ^2
S"!
»
1
^^^
[
I
Let accented
respond to
letters
denote at time
t'
unaccented
letters at
time
t. ^ the coordinates of B at the same time referred to parallel axes through
A. Ang^ular velocity and acceleration.
1
Then
as before
= ^1 + g y^ = yx^v.
?. or z.
2^1
Relative
coordinates and relative motions. y^.
^ly
2/1. y).
Let
be the coordinates of a point
A
at time
t
referred to
axes with origin at 0.
and
In the same way when we have
of the time. 7.
To
fix
ideas
we
shall take the plane to
be the
{x.
— ^. we q the velocity with which q increases.
J"
are called the coordinates of
a^a 2/2
B
relative to A.
and acceleration of the point relative to axes drawn through the second point parallel to the axes of reference.f
.
in the first brackets on the right are the to the axes of the displacement of A.
B
relative to parallel axes
f—
or. and leads easily to results of some importance. and let A' be its position at time f. velocity.
Let A be the position at any time ^ of a point which moves relatively to a frame having its origin at 0.
2/2
= yi +
find
2/1
V.
we
^2
find
= ^1 + t = ^1 4. shall speak of displacement. °
(acceleration]
28.
The geometrical view
of
For shortness we
instructive. by differentiating equations (1) with
By
t
respect to
t. meaning thereby displacement.
I
5
relative to ^ parallel axes throusfh A.
= Zx +
?.
in the second brackets on the right are the comrelative to parallel axes with
B
Thus we have the
relative to axes at
result:
is
displacement of a point B compounded of the displacement of a
of
— The
point
A
relative to the
same axes and the displacement
through A.
dividing both members of each of the equations (2) by and passing to the limit when t' — t is indefinitely diminished.
These equations
may be
\
)
expressed in words as follows
relative to axes at
is
:
—
The
of the
\
\
.[ofA
of
relative to the
same axes and the
[accelerationj
]
.
4 = ii + t
z%
and by differentiating again we
00. and acceleration of a
point relative to a second point.
.
oi
B
compounded *
(acceleration
\
^. parallel
components
The terms
ponents of the displacement of origin at A. what is the same thing. . velocity.
^.J
The terms on the The terms
left
(2)
are the components parallel to the axes
of the displacement of B.
relative
Geometry of
motion
is
relative motion.2
3/2
=
+
V.
. \ ^/^2 = (^/^i)+(rr).2528]
RELATIVE MOTION
subtraction
25
By
we deduce
y2y2 = (yiyi)\{vv).
(accelerationj
Since the velocity of a point in any direction is the rate of increase of its displacement in that direction per unit of time. 18.26
DISPLACEMENT.
Join
to
A
is
the vector that must be
in order that the resultant
may
HK. ^.
.
Now the
Hence
HK
B
is
the resultant of
relative to A we must compound to obtain the displacement of with the reversed displacement of A. and since its acceleration in any direction is the rate of increase of its velocity in that direction per unit
of time.
\
oi
B relative to A
is
the
\
^
?.
we have the
\
. The resultant the displacement of is the required relative displacement. OK.
OH
OH
be the position at time the same frame. B relative to A in
HO.
Fig.
HK represents
vector
the displacement of
OK is compounded of OH^ HK. but the velocity and acceleration of B relative to A are to be regarded as localized in lines through B. VELOCITY. the vector represented by is the displacement of A.
^.
I.
(accelerationj
The compositions and
effected as
resolutions described in this Article are to be
the vectors involved were not localized.
^. and B' its position at time
Similarly let
parallel to
B
^
t'.
\
(accelerationj
(accelerationj
\
.
and
Then the
sense.
. \ oi (acceleration)
which must be compounded with the ^
resultant
A
m.
Then the displacement of B relative compounded with the displacement of A
be the displacement of B. order that the
may be
•'
the
\
.
\7
oi
A
reversed.
\
oi B. ACCELERATION
[CHAP.
B
In the same way the
''
\
.
.
rules
oi
:
—
The
of
\
B
\
relative to
A
is
the resultant of the
\
.
magnitude.
!
(accelerationj
(accelerationj
B and the
if
^
\
.
of a second point referred to
From
draw
BB\ and
in the
same sense
.
From draw equal and parallel to AA\ and in the same sense.
vector
Hence
direction.
the vector represented by
OK equal and OK is the
displacement of B.
the value of ^ in London is 981 '2.
29.
30."
For example.
THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. it is found that all
kinds of bodies
fall
to the
Earth with the same acceleration.
Gravity."
all
the " intensity of the " direction of the acceleration is the direction of the
is
and the
When
points
the intensity and direction of the field are the same at " the field is said to be uniform.
A
is
with a certain acceleration
nitude of the acceleration
region in which a free body moves " called a field of force." The magnitude of this acceleration depends to some extent on latitude . when bodies fall in the exhausted receiver of an air pump. When the centimetre is the unit of length. and let / be its
Let the
intensity. it is practically constant.
The
direction of this acceleration at
any place
is
the
"
vertical at the
place. The differences in the be
the presence of the air are eliminated.
Field of force." The magfield. When the effects due to
An unsupported body near the Earth's surface towards the Earth." and
by the letter g. when the foot is the unit of length the value is 322.
We call
it
the
"
acceleration due to gravity.
Rectilinear motion in a uniform field. but.
falls
generally " " " haviour of " light bodies and heavy bodies are to be traced to the buoyancy and resistance of the air. the neighbourhood of the Earth
is
a
field of force
" of which the intensity near the Earth is g. field call it the of the Earth's gravity." If we confine our attention to a small
We
part of the Earth's surface
31. in the neighbourhood of any place.CHAPTER
II.
we may regard the
field as
uniform."
field.
direction of the field be the axis of x. for instance. The fact that bodies fall to the Earth
we denote
it
with a constant acceleration was discovered by Galileo.
.
and u
position.
the velocity at time
f. we
find
u =
G.
Hence
v
= ii\.
with the conditions x
= Xq when ^=0. the average velocity in interval of time is the velocity at the middle of the interval.
Putting mined. where Hence v must be of the form ft + G.
In particular.
Prove that.
^
where G'
0.ift^.
having the function u+ft for its hence x must be of the form
G' iut
+ \ft^. when the acceleration is uniform.
=
we
find Xq
=
G'. so that
the constant
is
deter
Hence
that
x =XQ\ut\. and x=^u when ^ = 0.
x—
Xq. the velocity acquired in moving from rest over a distance s is V2/s.
its
velocity (parallel to the axis of x) in this
Then we
are given
x =/. This is described as the " velocity due to
falling
32.\ff. so
s
= ut + ^ft\
this equation
v
By elimination = u\ft.
.28
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP.
through
s
with an acceleration /. so that v is
we
are given
with the condition v
= u when ^=0.
having the constant / for its differential and the most general expression for
an arbitrary constant.
G
is
= 0.ft.
Obtain the formula
v'^
— u^ = 2fs by
multiplying both sides of the
equation
x=f
by
a.
t
or x
= u {ft
Again one function of
differential coefficient is ut
4. any
2.
particle moving in the field parallel to the axis of x has an acceleration /.
Putting
^
a function having this differential coefficient is ft + C.
t
Now
one function of
coefficient is the function ft.
t. Let Xq be the value of x at the initial position of
A
the particle. we find
of
t
between
and the equation
v''u'=
2fs.
II.
and
integrating."
Examples.
is
an arbitrary constant.
Writing v
for x.
If s is the distance described in the interval
s
\s.
1. so that the constant is determined.
with the conditions that when
^
x=V cos
OL. a velocity will be obtained which will have a limit when the number of segments is increased indefinitely. this
average velocity
is
equal to § of the final velocity.
y = Fsin
a. it undergoes no displacement parallel to this axis thus the particle moves in the plane {x. 3. near a place on the Earth's surface. y). and the sum of the velocities after describing those segments divided by their number. describes a parabola with a vertical axis. does not move vertically.
.
=
0. it has a component
33. and this limit may be called the average
velocity in the distance. 19.
Since the acceleration parallel to the axis z is always zero.3133]
MOTION UNDER GRAVITY
29
Let the distance s be divided into a great number of equal segi»ents.
F
in a
making an angle a with the axis
Fig.
We
have the equations
^
= 0.
Parabolic motion under gravity.
When
prove that the particle velocity in a horizontal direction.
has no velocity parallel to this axis. the particle does not acquire velocity parallel to this axis and.
We
Let the axis of y be drawn vertically upwards.
a particle moving in the field of the Earth's gravity.
Prov^e that. y) be the vertical plane through the initial direction of
motion. and let the plane (x.
when the
initial velocity is zero.
At time
direction
^
=
let
the velocity of the particle be
x. since
.
at
time
^=
it
.
and the particle has no velocity parallel to the axis y. x=Xq^ Fcosa. and after this it has a Its path velocity in the negative direction of the same axis. Previously to this it had a velocity
in the positive direction of the axis y. from the beginning of the motion. which
is
reached after an interval
(Fsina)/^.t\gt\
we have
F2sin2a
X
. and
take
t'
to
measure the time of moving from the vertex
A
to
any
point P we shall have — = 0.
2. J
'
T
is parallel
to the axis y.
F^ sin a cos a
'
F* sin^ a
g
^=^«+2^Galileo.
of this Article
was discovered by
Examples.
and y' —
at time
t'
= 0. and y=yo) 3?= Fsin a.
Eliminating
t
t. we find
^=.
and
^ = g.
Since x
Since
II.
we have
= Fcos a
.
and whose
at the point
^=^^+
The theorem
34. — y = —g.
at time
t'
= 0. If we refer the motion to parallel axes of x\ y' {y' being positive in the opposite sense to y) through the vertex A. Show that the height of the directrix above the starting point is V^jig.
= 0.
Thus.
y==yQ+V^ma.
y'
= \gt'^'
Eliminating
.
= 0.30
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. Integrating and determining the constants so that when ^=0.ro+ Fcosa. with rp—
^cos a. we have x = V cos a always.
therefore has a vertex. y vanishes.
t\
„
2F2cos2a
so that the path of the particle
is
a parabola with vertex at A»
We
yz=z
x=
might have deduced this result analytically from the equations J7=0. after an interval measured by (Fsin a)lg. and x
— 0. we have y = Fsin a ^^ after
an interval
t. —g.
0. =foSay.
. it is therefore moving parallel to the axis x.
2^L 2^ the equation of a parabola whose axis
vertex
is
v — Vq ^ ^^
\7r\
^^0 iVjr Fsmaflr^T

n ^ Fcosa =0. with
Hence
a?'
^
^'.
1.
Write down the length of the latus rectum of the above parabola.
To
find the range
point of projection.
Prove that.
Prove that the range in question
.
it.e\
the resolved velocities at time
t
Fsin {aB)\
are
6y
Fcos {a 6).]
through the point of projection
5.sin ^].33. show that the point
is
31
at a
If V is the velocity at
v^j'ig
distance
4. the range on an direction of projection bisects the angle
between the plane and the
8. when the velocity of projection
inclined plane is greatest
when the
vertical.
Resolve up the plane.
same as
F2
2^ ^cos*
[sin (2a
^).
and time of flight on an inclined plane through the Let 6 be the inclination of the plane to the horizon. [This is called the range on the horizontal plane through the point of projection. and at right angles to
are
The resolved accelerations
^sin^. [This is called the time of flight on the horizontal plane through the point of projection..gt sin
the distances described in time
plane are
t
Fsin {a~6).
Show
that.gt cos 6
.r
2F2cos2a.^gt^ sin
6.
gcosd
and that
this is the
^ (tan a tan 6\ ^ '
.
MOTION UNDER GRAVITY
any point of the path.
is
is given.
below the directrix.
it is
gcosB
The range
is
found by substituting this value for
is
t
in
Fif
cos {a — 6).
7.]
6.
parallel
and perpendicular
to the inclined
F^cos(a^)^^^2gin^.
if
a parabola
projection S^ its axis vertical.
the resolved initial velocities are
Fcos (a ..
Prove that the time until the particle is again in the horizontal plane is (2 Fsin a)lg.
Fig. 34]
3. VtBm{ae)\gf^coB0.
and
its
constructed having its focus at the point of vertex at a height F72^ above the point
.
^cos^. The time of flight is obtained by making the second of these equal
2 Fsin (g^)
to zero. 20.
Prove that the distance from the starting point of the point where the
particle strikes the horizontal through the starting point is ( F^ sin 2a)lg.
arid

[Clearly the point {x. The aggregate of these positions constitutes the path of the
35. When the motion of a treated as a particle. Prove that the greatest range on an inclined plane through the point of projection is equal to the distance through which the particle would fall during the time of flight. the path may be a
particle. the distance between the vertices of the two parabolas is ^gr^. things that can be observed are the positions of the particle at diflferent times. from one given point.
is
the envelope considered in Ex. Conversely we may set before ourselves the problem: Given the acceleration of the particle. that is to say the problem of determining the direction and intensity of the field of force.
Motion in a curved path. By the times of flight are inversely proportional to the velocities of the projectile when vertically over the middle point of AB. 33. Prove also that.
13.
II. cal problem of deducing the acceleration of the particle from the observations.]
^S*. and starting from a point S with given velocity T. Prove that the direction of projection must make with
A
the axis
x an
angle a which satisfies the equation
gx^ tan2a 2 V^x tan a + (2 V^y +gx^) = 0. y\ the axes of coordinates being the same as in Art. two directions in which the particle can be projected. in general. with given velocity. the intersection of the tangents at their positions at any instant describes a coaxial parabola as if under gravity.
Prove that. touch a paraboloid of revolution about the vertical through S
having its focus at such particles. Prove that 11.
of projection. then the parabolic path for which the range on a line through is greatest touches this parabola at the point where the line cuts it.
aS*
[From this it follows that all possible paths of particles moving with uniform acceleration g downwards. hence show that there are.
.
This paraboloid
is
the envelope of the trajectories of
9.
particle
moves under gravity from the highest point of a sphere of
it
radius
Prove that
cannot clear the sphere unless
its initial velocity
exceeds ^/Hgc). so as to pass through another given point.
Two particles describe the same parabola under gravity.
12. y)
must
lie
within the parabola 2V'^y+gx'^= V^/g^
8. to
and equal arcs may be In such cases we have the mathematicircle.]
which
10.
For example. particle is to be projected from the origin with a given velocity V 80 as to pass through a given point {x. in the different trajectories possible under gravity between two ix)ints A. is observed.
described in equal times.32
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP.
A
c. the body. if r is the interval
between the instants when they pass through the vertex.
1
— cos A0
A^
'
. Let a particle move in the plane of {x. and
L.
M
let
The
velocity at
Q
the direction of the tangent at the normal at P.cos A<^
2 sin2 f i Ai/)) V2 Aj>
V
A^
(A(^)2
A^
^'
zero. y).
between the tangent at P and the tangent at Q.
.
can be resolved into components v' cos A</) in P and v sin A^ in the direction of
Hence the
the limit of
acceleration in the direction of the tangent at
r^
— when
A^
P is
Now
A<
is
indefinitely diminished. v' the
velocity at
a neighbouring point Q. Let V be the velocity at any point P of the path.
M. Also let be the time taken by the particle to move from P to Q.
3
.
"aT"^
A and
T
1
AJL .3436]
MOTION IN A CURVED PATH
33
determine its path and its positions at different times.
we may
since v
is
s. and
A</)
the angle
QTA
Fig.
Hence the above
Since
we have
dv
dt
_dv ds_ ~
ds
dt
dv
ds
'
we may
write v
r
for
the component acceleration parallel to the
also write s for
it.
V cos A<^
— v_v' — v
.or v. The solutions of such problems are facilitated by a theorem of kinematics to which we proceed.
tangent. and As be the length of the arc PQ.
Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve. 21. at
(f>. 36.
limit is ^.
The
limits of the three factors of this expression are ^.
therefore
and
^=
— n^x. and the fixed point the Then we have x = a cos (nt + e)."
(nt
+ e).84
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP.
Examples. 3.
tare
is
P
or
P
.
A
circle of radius particle describing a
a with velocity v has an
acceleration v^/a along the radius directed inwards. drawn in the direction of the field. e are any harmonic motion. in any field of force. 1. at any point P.
Simple harmonic motion.
37.
38.
where p
is
Thus the acceleration drawn towards the centre of curvain the direction of the normal
the radius of curvature of the curve at P. the value of v'^/p at any point of the path is equal to the resolved part along the normal to the path of an acceleration equal to g. deduce the result that the path
a parabola. n. If the radius vector drawn from the centre to the particle turns through an angle 6 in time <.
II. of a particle describing a curved
jmth. way
that
its
line in such a
Appoint moving in a straight displacement from a fixed point at
time
t
can be expressed in the form
a cos
where a.
Let the straight line be the axis of oc. is said to
origin. Verify the result that.
^
~Kf Ks At
A0 A^ A5
v.
and that the horizontal component of the
is
velocity
constant.
1. the acceleration of the particle has components ad^ along the radius (directed towards the centre) and aB along the tangent in the sense
of increase of
0.
Again the acceleration
^ ^^"
is
in the direction of the
this is the
sin
normal at
P
the limit of
^ and
. is equal to that due to falling through one quarter of the chord of curvature at P.
have a "simple
real constants. in parabolic motion of a projectile under gravity.
same
'
as the limit of
.
.
Assuming
is
this result.
4.
v.
and the
limits of these factors in order are
. Interpret the formula v^/p for the normal component acceleration so as to show that the velocity. with an
acceleration equal to the intensity of the field at P.
2.
x = — fjLX.
= — a sin ^
^. a circle and.
= a cos 6..
NP
in
circle.
a positive constant.
we must have
Hence the point
angle 6
— a sin ^ & — a cos ^ x = — (y6 + xO^).
and
y. when the moving
. the motion
is
simple harmonic
motion.
Let time be measured from an instant when
i. 22.
= 0. and the
=t
aJ/jl.
^=
are the coordinates of P.
and with a as
point
circle
is
radius.
draw
P.
i:
=a sin 6.
Then
a.
one diameter of this
Fig. if the acceleration
connected with
the displacement by an equation of the form
x= —
where
/* is
/jLOC.3638]
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
shall
35
is
We
now show
that.
3—2
.
^^
/jl.
. describe
at
N on
With the origin as centre.
and
let
a
be the value of x at that instant.
Let the angle
xOP = 6. 6 = 0.
P describes
is
velocity of the radius vector
the circle uniformly. and 6^ =
.
By
hence
since
differentiating
we have
.
axis X. coinciding with the at right angles to this diameter to meet the Consider the motion of the point P. the angular uniform and equal to aJ/jl.
is periodic.
The
tude
is
is directed along xO. the constant A put ^ = 0.
osciUatory.
to
it
be observed that the whole motion
repeats itself after
to say.86
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP. at any X must be given by an equation of the form
To determine
= ^ cos {t\/ fi) + B sin {t^J^l). with the conditions a.
cos
(t\/fJL)
be expressed in the form
a. we know that. when ^=0. motions.
27r IS J.
Now
put
f
=
and we
find
Xo
= B ^JX.
The equation a? = a cos (< Vm + e) represents simple harmonic motion with period ^irj^Jfi.
t. that the complete solution must be of the form
X
and
this can
— a cos {(t — to) *J fi].
—
may be regarded as the type of toandfro. velocity of the point a •sjfi sin {t ^/fi).
that
Hence the solution of the equation x=—fix. x=0. It follows. by Xq and a velocity denoted by Xo'.
II.
Simple harmonic motion
.
is
It
is
. In this formula a is called the amplitude of the motion it is the greatest value of x.
Let the moving point have at time ^=0 a position denoted time t. is X X — Xo cos (t s/jj) + J. that intervals of time the period equal
. = ajo and x = i*o when ^ = 0.
and
its
magni
The above
of the equation process shows that the solution
X
— — flXf
with the conditions that. x=a.
The
a?coordiDate of the point
N at time
t is
given by
x = a cos {t slfi). we have
a?
Xq
= A. and e determines the phase of the motion. differentiate with respect to
sin {t y/fi)
=—A
/y/zt
+B
\//jl
cos
{t sjfi). by changing the epoch from which time is measured.sin {t ^Jii). is x=a cos (ts/fi).
=^
+ B sin (t \/fi). or Oscillatory motions can generally be described either as simple harmonic motions or as motions compounded of simple harmonic motions in different directions.
To determine the we have
x
constant B.
= major axis at the instant ^ 0. viz.
+ B sin (t \Jfi).
. y=C cos (t ^J^l) + D sin {t \/fj).ByY + (Ay .
is
Thus 26
time
t.Gxf =
so that the path of the
is
moving point is an ellipse whose centre the origin. and whose position with reference to the origin and axes is fixed.
1. then at this instant x and.
and
sin
(t
sjfjb).
(AD . and
t\/fL
the eccentric angle at
The point
40.
is
the minor axis. The whole motion is clearly periodic with period
27r
Let us change the axes to the principal axes of the ellipse. then at any time t x=Xq
initial conditions are
x=Xo cosh (« Va*) + 7^ sinh (t^ii).
eccentric angle in
creases uniformly with angular velocity
Examples.
and we deduce that x and y must be given by equations of the form
x=^A
where A.
cos
{t y/fi)
fi
G. and suppose the moving point to be at one extremity (x = a) of the = a.
ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT THE CENTRE
37
sider the case
Composition of simple harmonic motions.
conditions. and B^fi. where /z is positive.
the
acceleration in each case being directed towards the origin. and the and x=Xq when ^=0.
D are arbitrary constants depending on the initial A and C are the coordinates.
y
= bsm (t \Jfj).BG) sin (t ^/fi) = AyGx. Then we must have at
time
t
x
= aco8 (t Va^).
eliminating
t.By. when the equation
that
is x=iix.BGf. y = 0. B.
(AD. since the point is moving at right angles to the major axis.
We
have the equations x
= — fix.
Prove that.
therefore
moves so that
its
\/fi.
we
find
(Dx .3840]
39. Let y = b\//M at this instant. We conwhere the moving particle has a simple harmonic
motion of period
^
parallel to each of the axes of
x and
y. D \/
^
the resolved velocities at the instant
= 0. x = 0.
Solving the above equations for cos {t
aJ/jl)
we have
(ADBG) cos (t ^/^l) =Dx.
. A« the arc PP'. r the radius vector
B
F
OP. at distance r from the centre of the hyperbola is given by
v2=/Lir2
+ const.
. In Fig.
:
motions of the Planets could be very precisely described by means of the two laws
—
(i)
Every planet describes an
ellipse
having the Sun at a
to a Planet describes
focus. any fixed point on the curve.
23
Martu. p the perpendicular from on the tangent at P. Kepler* concluded that the
41.
and evaluate the constant. A^ the time of moving from P to P'. which were made by Tycho Brahe.
J
and evaluate the constant. the position of the particle at time t. v the velocity of the particle at P. prove..
Let P' be a point on the curve near to P. Ac
*
p..
II.tradita
GommentaHis de Motibus Stella
. 23 represents the fixed point.
^""""Tl^
^*^^^'' '^'^'''^"'''' nova. 3.
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
Prove that when the acceleration
is
[CHAP.
Equable description of areas.
— :r*)
for all values of x.
Kepler's laws of planetary motion. that
proportional to the distance the path
is
x*«=i(a*
4. by multiplying both sides of the equation by x and integrating.
In the hyperbolic motion of Example 2 prove that the velocity v 5.
(ii)
The
radius
drawn from the Sun
equal areas in equal times. 1609.
42.
directed from the origin and is an hyperbola.
series of observations of the Planets. From a long and more especially of Mars. In simple harmonic motion given by x=fjiX starting from ^=a.38
2. and suppose that a particle describes a plane curve in such a way that the radius
vector
drawn
in the
to
it
from a fixed
point
plane describes area
uniformly.
We
consider the
second of Kepler's laws.
elliptic
In the
distance r from the centre
motion of Article 39 prove that the velocity v at is given by
v^+fir^= const..
since this
is
xi/
— yx = h
y.
let
is
Radial and transverse components of velocity and Let a particle move in the plane of {x.
we have
(cf Article 22)
. and the condition that the radius vector describes area uniformly is expressed by saying that h or pv is constant.
In the motion discussed in Article 39 the ellipse is a central and the centre of the ellipse is the centre of force.
position at time t
It
6 and their differential
.
twice the rate of description of area." "centre of force.
to it from a fixed point describes area uniformly. to be the origin of coordinates and draw the axes of
in the plane of motion. conclude that. so that the radius vector
We
drawn
field of force.4043]
the chord
EQUABLE DESCRIPTION OF AREAS
3^ The area
PP\ q
the perpendicular from
is
to this chord. drawn from or towards the origin. in terms of
r." and the path of the particle is a "central
orbit.
6 be the polar coordinates of required to express.
pv =
and."
orbit. if a particle moves in a plane path.
or xy
— yx — 0. " field of force is described as the fixed point being the central.
of the triangle
POP'
J g Ac.
constant.
and therefore
x^y
X
y'
If follows that the direction of the acceleration is that of the
radius vector.
we have
(xy
.
43.

Hence the
\
rate of description of
this limit is
area
is
the limit oi \q
If therefore

or
^q t in
and
^ps or
\pv.
acceleration.
Now pv
we take
X and y
is the moment of the If therefore velocity about 0. it is in a and the direction of the field at any point is either
Such a directly towards or directly away from the fixed point.
we
write
pv
h
is
= h.
Kepler's second law of planetary motion may be interpreted move in a central field of force.yx) = 0.
in the statement that the Planets
the centre of force being in the Sun. y) and
its
r.
sin ^ = ^ =
(r cos 6)
= r cos ^.r^^ gi^
^^
we
find
.rO'cos
/. have therefore velocity.
= rd.
Let
have in
/i» fi
be the required components of acceleration. the components of the velocity in the direction of the radius vector and at
The senses are to be those in which r right angles to it.
We
like
manner
^
/i cos e
/.
We
Then x.
2rd cos 6 + rd cos 6
. Va
be the required components of velocity.
and 6
Fig. as in Fig. 24.40
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP.
Let
Vi.
=
j^(rsm
find
^2
e)
we
Vi
= r.
are the components parallel to the axes of x. sin
6. increase.
Vi8md\v^co8 d =^y
Solving these equations.
+/2 cos ^ = y =
^^
(r sin 6)
= r sin 6 +
Solving these equations. IL
coefficients
and acceleration
with respect to t.
= rsin
e {rd cose.2r^sin ^ r^'sin 6 . y y of the same
Vi
co^dv^^me = x =
j^
(r cos 0)
= rcos6r6 sin 0. 24.
Let / be the magnitude of the central acceleration at P.
Hence
—^f^. and let it be directed towards P.
44.
45.
— yx =ps. Fig.
Examples. a curve similar to C. Oy.rS. (Cf.)
centre of force 0. Acceleration in central orbit. p. 23 in
The
resolved part of the acceleration parallel to the normal at
Pis /p.
In a central orbit we have
3. and that any point dividing OP in a constant ratio describes.
1.yfe
may
also write this equation
f_^dp ^ dr'
p^
. 42. relatively to either of these sets of axes. it is not the accelera
radius vector
tion with
which the radius vector
increases. the perpendicular from on the tangent at P.
we
verify
the formulae of Differential Calculus
r^d =3cy
2. p denote the radius vector OP drawn from the
and the radius
Art.
From this equation and the equation vp = h we may eliminate and obtain the equation
Since p
=
r
r~
.
But
this resolved part of the acceleration is
—
P
. Let r.
Since the
moment
of the velocity about the origin is r.
describes a curve equal in
respects to C. relatively to parallel axes
through P.4345]
It is
ACCELERATION IN CENTRAL ORBIT
41
important to observe that the acceleration parallel to the
is the resolved part along the radius vector of the acceleration relative to the frame Ox.
A
point
P
describes a ciuve
C
relatively to axes through 0. of curvature of the path at P.
Prove
all
that. r
''
p
V.
Examples.
[CHAP.
In the same case show that the velocity at any point is proportional 2.
a being the radius
spiral is
x
Show
Show
that the central acceleration
its
when an equiangular
is
described as a central orbit about
6. and that 1CT is the length of this
T.]
4.
ellipse described as a central orbit about any point in its plane.
Points
move from a
position
P with
a velocity
V in
different directions
with an acceleration to a point C proportional to the distance. the elliptic trajectories described have the same director circle.
ellipse of semiaxes a. Prove that the trajectory in question touches at $ an ellipse having C as centre. and q is the perpendicular from on the
that. 25. the
acceleration is proportional to the radius vector.
Prove that
all
Let the tangent at P to one of the trajectories meet the director circle in and let Q.
semilatus rectum.
Fig.
47.
II. to the length of the diameter conjugate to the diameter through the point. h
focus S. e the I the
eccentricity. and P as one focus.
pole
proportional to
r~^.
3. be the point of contact of the other tangent to this trajectory drawn from T.
major axis of this
ellipse.
P
a
Show
that the central acceleration
when a
circle is described as
central orbit about a point on the circumference is %l?a?\r^^ of the circle.42
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
46. 41). for
an
P
P
polar of 0. the central acceleration at any point is proportional to r/g^ where r is the radius vector OP.
first
We
consider
now the
Let an
interpretation of the
of Kepler's laws (Art.
Elliptic
motion about a focus.
Let
/S'
be described as a central orbit about a be the second focus.
5.
L
when the
orbit is an ellipse described about the centre.
[This ellipse is the envelope of the trajectories of points starting from with the given velocity and moving about C with the given central acceleration.
Show
that.
.
"]
in
Example
2.
a parabola v^=2fxlr.4648]
ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT A FOCUS
43
Let
vectores
diculars
P be
any point on the ellipse let r and r be the radii drawn from S and /Sf' to P let p and p be the perpenand S' on the tangent at P let C be the centre. and
is
= ^^/1. we have h^ = id. The field is described as that of the
which the Planets move
Sun's gravitation.
^ r
.
.
Accordingly Kepler's first and second laws of planetary motion may be interpreted in the statement that the field of force in
is directed radially towards the Sun.
. ^SPY=^^ STY\ we have
rr'
¥ = al.
P
is
[From the formula
velocity.
and
CD
Then
p
the semidiameter conjugate to CP.
given by
/=
py
h'rah
CD' \brj
iCDy (m =
h^
a
h
r'l'
r" b'
Thus the
distance
r. from
.
=
r
Also since
= CD''.
if
any conic
is
described as a central orbit about a focus.
acceleration varies inversely as the square of the and. and when
an
v^
= n (2/r + 1/a).
2
]
Prove that in elliptic motion about a focus S the velocity at any point perpendicular and proportional to the radius vector from the other focus to the point TT.
(1
the acceleration
is /x/r^
towards the focus.
Prove that. and the intensity of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from the Sun.
1.
and therefore each of these
is
= Mz =
sJrr'
j^r^ GD
. /.
ellipse is
Prove that the velocity v at any point of the
given by the
equation
4
3. Prove that the velocity at P can be resolved into two constant components.
this circle is called the "circle of
no
4. pp =^h\ r^r'=2a.
Examples. if we write iijr^ for it.
= CD^/ah.
it is
Prove also that when the conic
hyperbola
2.
48. where SP produced meets a circle centre S and radius 2a.
Now
the acceleration.
>Si
. one at right angles to the radius vector SP. and the other at
right angles to the major axis.
= ab{(j) — e sin <^).
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
The
in which the ellipse is described periodic time ^ira^ 2irab
is
[CHAP.
h
is
be the time from
to P.
Then
curvilinear area ^*S'P= curvilinear area
^iVP.ug\e
Now
and
Hence
Let
t
curvilinear area
A NQ = sector ACQ.
+ cos^
•
.e sin <f)).
nt = <f)eam(f).
II.a^ sin cos <^). together from one end of the major axis one of them has an acceleration to a focus Sy and the other an acceleration to the centre C. be the eccentric angle of P. 26. ' '
„
$ = nt^2e sin nt approximately.
Fig. if e is small.
find the periodic time. SPN = ^ 6 sin <^ (ae . starting 7.
cos
J . since ht
twice the area described per
unit of time.
=lASP^
the vectorial angle.
curvilinear area
ASP=^ab
A
{(f>
.triangle
SFN
SPJV. Prove that.
Prove that
connected with
e
by the equation
. ^ = —.
"mean motion" and
is
Thus
«
The quantity V/*/« is known as the 80 that the time in question is given by
denoted by
n.triangle CQN
triangle
= \ {a^(f) . = y(</)esin<^).
=
(curvilinear area
ANQ).tna.
Let
<f)y
=lQCA
in the figure. then
(f)i<f)2=e sin
(f)^. then. as in Ex. if and
.1
.
<f}
5.
To find the time of describing any Draw the auxiliary circle AQA'.
_
6.44
5.
. ccosd' and 1 +
.
By
putting
<t>
= 2n we
is
.
arc of the ellipse.
that.
Two points describe the same ellipse in the same periodic time.
</>!
<^ are their eccentric angles at any instant.a cos
</>)
.
and
0.
. the velocity is directed line.
The
first
two constants of integration vanish because z and z
If the third also vanishes. and let the centre of force be force. 49]
8.
— yx= const.
make with
this line angles 6
6'
and
6'
such that
r sin B _r' sin
Inverse problem of central orbits. when the relative velocity of the points is along the line joining them..
xy—yx = 0.
We
Art.
xy
Hence. 54). and
the focal distances. and the particle moves in a straight motion (see omit. y'z
yz
zx — xz=0. the case of rectilinear
vanish
initially. chosen as initial instant. these equations can only
Hence z equal to zero.
yz'yz =
If xy — xy does as simultaneous equations to determine i and z. let a plane be drawn the tangent to the path of the particle and the centre of through Let this be the plane (x.
is
moves in always zero.
At any
Since the acceleration
is
directed along the radius vector
we
have
^ X
or
=^=?
y
z'
— zy—0. y). the tangents to the ellipses at the positions of the points meet the line of intersection of the planes in the same point.
We may
consider the equations
xz
— xz = Q. and that
about a
Two points describe common focus. and the particle
. In regard to the problem Given the field of force to find the orbit we prove a The path of a particle moving in general theorem as follows: a central field of force is in a plane through the centre of force and the radius vector drawn from the centre of force to the particle
49. Show that. the origin. y). along the radius vector. for the present.
zx
— xz —
const.48. the plane (x. by integration.
— zy=^ const. be satisfied by putting i and z not vanish.
INVERSE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS
45
ellipses of latera recta I and V in different planes the accelerations to the focus are equal when the distances are equal. Then at the initial instant z and i vanish. r and /.
:
—
—
^
describes equal areas in equal times.
instant.
always
half the
moment
of the velocity about the origin.
a c^stant. and
is
directed towards the
for 7. We have therefore the equation
dv
^dv
^^.
Since xy — yx^ or the moment of the velocity.
and then by
integration
we can
find the polar equation of the path.
"ds^^Ts
When /
form
is
(1>
a function of
r.
by Ex. 44.46
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
is is
[CHAP.
42 that
this rate.
this equation can
be integrated in the
^v'==Ajfdv.
where
il is
(2) to Art.
dv
the angle between the tangent and the radius vector drawn from the origin.
. v'd
we have
and we have
also.
Determination of central orbits in a given
component
of
The
tangential
the acceleration
of
a
particle
dv
describing any path can be expressed as
?. the tangential
component
is
— / 7
dv
. according
in Art.is the cosine of
origin.
whether constant or not.
7
(Art.
II. 36).
60. rate of description of area by the radius vector
constant. 43.
for
we saw
in Art.
When
the acceleration
is
of magnitude /.
field.
this equation
„
becomes
2
(duV
in
2A
rf
(3)
\de)^'=w^h4i^which
/ is
supposed to be expressed as a function of u
Bv
this equation
we can
express
^
as a function of u.
Now. the
constant
is
. 2
=k
_
h dv V^dd'
Hence we may write
'
^
^f^
dd
A
and equation
(2)
becomes
If
M
is
written for 
.
_+
d^u
. equal
to.
and
€
are arbitrary constants.
w = A cos (0 — e).
constant.
where
I
is
a. parabola or hyperbola according as the velocity
is less
at a distance r
than.
the orbits that can be described with central accelefi/r^
ration equal to
are included in the equation
in which e
= 1 + e cos (6 —
e).
j
.
and
conic
According to the results of Examples 1 and 2 in Art.
is
where
A
We
write
ejl for
A. When/=yL6t*2 equation (4) of Art. 50 becomes
51.
t
Then
the most general possible form for u
u==j{l + ecos{d
Hence
all
— e)}.4951]
It is often
DETEKMINATION OF CENTRAL ORBITS
more convenient
to eliminate
6.
47
by
differentiating
with respect to
A from equation (3) This process gives the
equation
Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance. possible orbits are conies having the origin is equal to 21 or 2h^lfjL.
The
the latus rectum
as a focus.
and
I
is
equal to
h^ffM. 38)
of this equation
is
of the form
(cf. the is an ellipse.
or greater than
f2a\^
(
—
.
To
integrate this equation
1
we put
then
w
satisfies the
equation
d^'w
The complete primitive
Art.
and
€ are arbitrary constants. 48..
==a 1
say.
If so as to write the above spiral.n\
Then
the possible orbits are of the form
u=A cosh {n6\a)
Putting a or
4.
/
is
any function of
r.
= ae**^ +be~ "^.
1.
50 gives
Hence prove that.
50 gives
dhi
_
fi
m^
There are three cases according as A2>^ =^ or </i.
When
we
have^2=^»
u = A6 + B.
A
and
«« that
Then
(2)
the possible orbits are of the form
h^=yL.48
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
52.
Additional Examples of the determination of central
If
orbits in given fields. put it equal to t^. where
B
are
=0 the orbit is a circle.
any
circle described
about the centre
is
a
possible orbit.
(1)
When
all
A2>fi.
spiral. as we see by choosing the constant
^
^
u = A{ea).
deduce the results
. To find all the orbits which can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance.
If
/ = fiu^ equation
(4) of Art.
1
^ is positive.
(3)
When
all
A^
< ^^ i _ ^^ is negative. when /* is positive. having the centre of force as centre.
2.
all
the possible orbits are ellipses
3.
u^A cos {ji6\a).
43. otherwise it is a hyperbolic arbitrary constants. put it equal to
or
tc
.
If
/= fir equation
(3) of Art.
[CHAP.
II.
6 equal to zero
we have an equiangular
dhi
Deduce the equation
_ f
~d6'''^'^~l^i
from the equation
^
5.
pV
From
the equations
which are obtained from the results of Art.
GPK we have OP PU=PU PG = PG
: :
:
Whence
PG^
0P=^^. or hyperbola according as
P$<.
<\PU.
is
semilatus rectum.
velocity
Now
Find
let
a point move from
P with
V in direction PT
and have an acceleration
/^/(distance)^ towards 5.
Hence
6^ is the foot of the normal.
*
PT
at P.
PK is
the
Since
SG
:
aS'P= eccentricity. 4
With S
having
in Art.
Lemma. or>4AS'P. can be described. Lib. Newton's investigation* of the orbit described by a point which moves from a given position P. when SP=^PU.
L.
PQ
M.52. we have when
SP>\PU. 3.
parabola.
Draw
U be the middle point of PQ. and
draw
UG parallel to PT.
K
Then by
similar triangles
UPG. SP
UO and GK
at right angles to SP meeting in and respectively. 17. a tangent P7^.
4
. and this conic is an ellipse. and only one. 53]
LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE
49
Newton^ s investigation.
Prop.
1. with a given velocity V. SG<SP. in a
given direction PT.
Now
and
axis
describe a conic with focus
*S'G'
to touch
P 2^ at
P.
Since a semicircle on
PU
a^a
diameter passes through G.
Q
in
PS produced
^
so that
SP'
4>
Then by Ex. the conic
is
determinate and unique.
S
Fig. We give here a version of 53.
as focus describe a conic touching for focal chord of curvature at P. 37.
PG and
OPU^
PK. or hyperbola according as
or
SP>. =. a focus S^ and the focal chord of curvature conic.
Let
=. 27. and has an acceleration directed towards a point S and varying inversely as the square of the distance
from
S. and the centre of curvature. PG at right angles to PT. SG = SP.
PQ
is
the chord of curvature of the
path in direction PS.
Given a point P. when SP<\PU.
and
Principia.
Thus the
conic
is
an
ellipse.
PQ^ one
parabola. Sect. SG>SP'.
Let a second point describe this conic as a central orbit about S.
Thus
Sh'a^ON
iV=
Hh^a^ON
OP'
{2a. and
circle. so that.0Ny
a ON'
.
draw
tion
NP
at right angles to
OA.
if
^
»
it is
an hyperbola
if
JPQ > SP
line
i.
the
point
N
will
have the acceleration named.
54. 4 of Art. and their accelerations are always the same when
their distances from
S
are the same. velocity. 47 that the starting with velocity V at two moving points have at starting the same position. they therefore describe the
same
orbit.
Let a point
when
de
On OA
its
as diameter
scribe a circle.e.
if F=^
>
p
.
By
Ex. 46
we have
. P.
II.e.50
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP. It follows from Art.e. and acceleration.
the
mo
of the point
P
on the
We
Fig.
shall
show
that.
it is
a parabola
if
^PQ = SP
i.
Motion in a straight
with an acceleration to a point in the line varying inversely as the square of
the distance.
starting from A. 28.
The
orbit in question
is
an
ellipse if
iPQ < SP
i.
and
let
G
be
and a
consider
its
radius. if
P
an
describes
the. circle with
acceleration
towards
0.
N move in a straight line OA.
if
P<^
^' =
.
acceleration of
P = pr^z:
where h
is
twice the rate at which
OP
describes areas about 0.
centre.
To
that
resolve in direction
:
AO
multiply by
ON OP=OP:
acceleration of
ON/OP
h^
amd observe
1
OA.
e.
is
It
is
consonant
with observations of
around the Earth
falling bodies to state that the field of force central. and the acceleration of a free body in
this field is directed towards the centre of the Earth.
we have
C= .~JtOb
Thus
^2= /2_1\
'^Xx
a)
t
Hence.
ai
triangle
OOP
thus
t=j(20 + sin2e).
when t=0. deduce the result in the text. then when ON^x.
1. be arrived at by integrating the
equation
x= — —^ with
the conditions that.
The same
results
may.
putting ^=0. of course. a^=2aj x=0.
Find the time of
falling to 0.
56.
Field of the Earth^s gravitation.
i.
describes areas uniformly we can terms of the time. iV^ will have an acceleration
fijx^
N
towards 0.
putting
^=2acos2^
in this.
OF
utilise the figure to express the position in
K
and
Let angle
AOP=d.
.
Multiplying both sides by x and integrating.
Examples. in a period of
4—2
.
we
shall
have
x
Since the radius vector
= — fl/o)^.
and
let t
be the time of going from
(9)2
A
to
Then
^„
ht
OP^
(2a cos
^
= twice the curvilinear area AOP = twice the sector AGP + twice the = 2al9 + a2sin2(9.
t
Thus the coordinate x and the time
terms of a parameter
55. observing that x diminishes as
increases.
are both expressed in
0.
The Moon
describes a nearly circular orbit about the Earth.
i:2_^^_(7^ where
we
find
C is
an arbitrary constant
.5356]
LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE
51
Hence if we take the point to start at a distance 2a from and put h^ = fia.
we have
jaaV
CiX
J
By
2.
will occupy us in Chapter X. and touches any of the trajectories
at the point where the line
drawn from
P to the
second focus of the trajectory
meets
2. if the
radius
is
is
60 times the Earth's radius (3980 miles).52
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP. and move with an acceleration directed towards a point ^S* and varying inversely as the square of the distance.
it.
Examples. and the period
32'1
in footsecond units. varies inversely as the square of
the distance. is an ellipse. and a the
Earth's radius.
There are other corrections of gravity at least as important as The most important. and that the intensity of this field.
A
2
X?
. a being the Earth's radiua
and
(Jijaf being neglected.
circular orbit of radius
R uniformly
in time
T
is
^^
and.
Show
if
that a gun at the sea level can
command
Ijn^ of the Earth's
the greatest height to which it can send a shot is 1/w of the Earth's radius. depending upon the
Earth's rotation.
1. this acceleration. which has S and P as foci. account.
surface
3.
57. this motion is nearly uniform. and the distance of the Moon from the Earth is about 60 times the radius of the Now the central acceleration of a particle describing a Earth. which start from a point P with velocity F.
For bodies in the neighbourhood of the Earth there
is
a
correction of gravity due to height above the Earth's surface.
.
II. when expressed
is
equal to ^w?rr approximately.
about 27 i days.
Prove that the time in which a particle
falls to
the Earth's surface
from a height A isf
—
j
(l+gJ
approximately.
The envelope
of the elliptic orbits described by particles.
Thus the Moon moves around the
if it
Earth in nearly the same way as
in the ratio 1
:
were under gravity diminished
(60)^
From
this result
we conclude
that the field of force around the
Earth extends to the Moon. like that of the field around the Sun. the acceleration due to gravity at a height h above the surface is
that here mentioned. 27^ days. If ^ is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface. variations of gravity due to altitude being taken into.
A straight line AB turns with uniform angular velocity about a point A.
A
hyperbola. particle moves in the plane of two rectangular axes so that the resolved parts of its velocity parallel to the axes are proportional to its distances measured in fixed senses from two other rectangular lines in the Prove that its path is an equiangular spiral or a rectangular plane.
R
is parallel
and proportional
RQ.53
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. horses are moving along concurrent lines.
. and a point P moves so that CP is always equal to a and turns with angular velocity to in the plane of the circle described by C.
Three horses in a field are at a certain moment at the angular points 3. retaining a constant length. and that
the time until they arrive at this position
8. v in two straight an angle a prove that the time from the position in which to that in which it is double its least value is
points
. Prove that the velocity of C is proportional to the intercept which BC makes on the
line
through
A
at right angles to
AC. is a. their distance is av/ V.
A
F
the arc described by
acceleration of
P
a.r^)}{R%
where
7.
1.
. in a straight line. point in the same tangent at P equal to from the beginning of the motion show that the
Q
is
PR is a
to
.
points
Two
any time the distance between them
At in straight lines in the same plane. with the least uniform velocity.
6.
Two
lines containing
AB is least
where
c is
A and B move with uniform velocities w. moves uniformly in a circle point radius at double the distance from the centre
. moves so that C is always in a certain straight line through A. Prove that
the angular velocity of
OP is _ ^ {to (R^ + a2 r2) +
move uniformly
co'
{R^ a^\. also of constant length. Prove that the time in which it is possible to cross a road of breadth c. of an equilateral triangle. Show that. moving with velocity F. u and v
are the resolved parts of F parallel and perpendicular to the direction of a. A point C describes a circle of radius r with angular velocity ©' about the centre 0. the distance AB when A crosses the path of B.
fU
a/
2. following at intervals a.^2 2uv cos a). Their motion relatively to a person driving along a road is in direction round the sides of the triangle (in the same sense) and
in
magnitude equal to the velocity of the carriage.
R
is
the length of OP.
5.
is
au/ V^. is
(.
_ Jdcu sin a/(w2 4.+ ).
Show
that the three
4. when they are nearest together. between a stream of omnibuses of breadth 6. and a second straight line BC. V is their relative velocity.
fixed parabola.
A
x
particle
moves
in the axis
origin.
one with uniform velocity. for a subsequent interval ^2 the acceleration is fix.
from the same point and move
along two straight
acceleration. starting from rest at x=a\ for from the beginning of the motion the acceleration is ^lx.b^). and at the end of this interval
16. %th seconds after any
12. Prove that it will come to rest at distance
A
a»J{a^h'^) in time rrc^j^fi^ and will oscillate between these distances.
the radius of curvature of
its
path.
.
an interval
moves along the axis ^.
Prove that when a particle moves along a plane curve the velocity of 9.
v.
x with acceleration Show that the time
ixjx^
towards the
of arriving at a
distance
is
\/(S)HV^\/63}15.
II.
Two
is
boats start off to race with velocities
accelerations/. particle moves in a straight line under a force tending to a fixed point in the line which. v\ and move with Prove that the length of the
course
^ivv'){vfv'f)l{JfY. Prove that
.
11. n^. and p rvlp^ V being the velocity of the particle. and starts from rest at distance a + ^{a^ .
BC ^CA +
V
— U
AB
1
— w
^ =0. «2) particular instant.
10.54
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP. starting
from
rest at
x=a.
Two
particles start simultaneously
lines.
prove that
(«2N/fi)
tan {tiJp) tauh
= 1. and always in the same direction form a triangle ABC the velocities are u along BC^ v along CA^ w along AB.
A
particle
tx
the particle
is
at the origin
./'. the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on the direction of motion is r its distance from the origin. prove that
moves with uniform acceleration along the tangent to its *3 ^^ *^he %. the result being a dead heat. is equal to ^/r^ .
after a time
t
a second body
projected vertically with velocity
{<v).
13. the other with uniform Prove that the line joining the particles at any time touches a
A particle
path and describes arcs «i. at distance r.
A body is projected vertically upwards
is
with velocity v
v'
.
If they
meet as
soon as possible
14.
Three tangents to the path of a particle whose acceleration is constant 17.b^fi/{r^a).
^
of projection
is
is projected from a point A with the least velocity as to pass through a point show that the velocity at .
must be Fsin
of view of the telescope. and that the highest point of the path is at a height ^cos*^a above A.
fired at
be
where
cos
sin {B
+ i) _ cos2^ sin ^
'
'
'
cos a sin (a \. where AB=l and makes an angle a with the vertical.
A heavy particle
V so
B
B
AB
heavy particle is projected from a point A so as to pass through B show that the least velocity with which this is possible is v/(2(7^)cos^a.
From a
fort
and a gun was
6.
is
the range on the horizontal and h the greatest height the ball
If a is the requisite elevation of a cannon for a mark on a target at a 22. Show that the . but the shot was observed to strike the water at a depression i'. placed in parallel vertical planes
with their highest points in a horizontal straight line at a height h above the
point of projection.
19.
particle is projected from a platform with velocity Fand elevation the platform is a telescope fixed at elevation a.
''{v/('J)V('4'))./3) cosec a. an elevation a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
18.
Prove that when a shot
elevation. Prove that the angular velocity of a projectile about the focus of path varies inversely as its distance from the focus. makes with the vertical. where 2/3 is the angle which
23.
24. the shot will strike the target at a distance tan a sin /3 on one side. horizontal range 72.
55
its
is projected from a gun at any angle of from the point of projection will appear to descend past a vertical target with uniform velocity. Show that to strike the buoy the elevation should
25. and its accelera(a
A cricketer in the long field has to judge a catch which he can secure 21. c?.
A
another point
. with equal ease at any height from the ground between k^ and Jc^ show that he must estimate his position within a length
.
cos^i sin i
A
rings. of
diameter
particle is to be projected so as just to pass through three equal at distances a apart. the shot as seen
^.
.
a buoy was observed at a depression i below the horizon. and ^tana (1 — cos/3) below the mark aimed at. The platform moves horizontally in the plane of the particle's motion. so as to keep the particle
20.
Prove that the elevation must be tan~^
——
.i')
26.
where 2^
attains.
A
On
always in the centre of the
field
original velocity of the telescope tion g cot a. and if the axis of the trunnions of the cannon is inclined to the horizontal at an angle )3. Ftan/3.
tan ^ = 2 tan y.b)
:
ija. prove that.F/^. the time of
flight varies as
'^CB.
[CHAP.
34. and C any given point on the line joining them. with a velocity u at an inclination y to the horizontal. if the elevation of the point of the path most distant from the inclined
inclination
plane
is y.
that the least possible
If A and 30. in the diflferent trajectories possible under gravity
B
between
A
and B.
A
. of the circumscribed and inscribed circles of the polygon. passing from one to the other is
.
32.66
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
27.
A man
strike a ball over the net so that
standing at a distance a from a net of height h wishes to it may fall to the ground within a distance
Prove that the square of the maximum which should be imparted to the ball increases in velocity harmonic progression as the height at which the ball is struck increases
6(< a) on
horizontal
the other side of the net. a.
in arithmetic progression. prove are the radii that the range on the plane is 2^{B^5li^r^ + 8r^)IR. if their inclinations to the horizontal are ^ and then ^47=0.
it
A man
so that
value of
Show alights at the centre of the circle. and that the time of y. with a relative velocity F. are two given points.
.
line
is
In any trajectory between two points A.
II.
33.
8in(/3~y). from a point in a plane of inclination a. greater than the least positive value of cos4 show that its path will cut two planes through the point of projection at right angles. B.J(a
29. and ^2 the time from that
31. A particle is projected with velocity V at any elevation. for different positions of the vertical plane of motion.
A
paiticle is
/3
projected with elevation a from a point on a plane of
in a vertical plane containing a line of Prove greatest slope. that. where ti the time from A to the vertical through C.
Show that. the intercept on a vertical through a point C on AB between C and the trajectory is ^gtit2. that.
from a point on a horizontal table so as to pass the four upper corners of a regular polygon of an even number of through and r If sides which stands in a vertical plane with one side on the table.
vertical to B. where I)
is
the point
in which the trajectory meets the vertical through C. such that 2^2 tan = ^3 tan y.
then tan a f. Fis given by V^ = v^+gy(a^+h^)h}. the greatest projection of the range on a horizontal line perpendicular to the line of
greatest slope
is
heavy particle starts.
ball
travelling round a circle of radius a with speed v throws a from his hand at a height h above the ground. and that for heights h and 2A these maximum horizontal velocities are in the
ratio . so long as the height does not exceed A(l+a/6). and that the greatest is ^B^{R^r^)/{r{2r^E% height of the particle above the polygon
A particle is projected
R
28.
37. so as to strike the latter at right
angles. If of their they are all equally elastic and impinge on a vertical wall the vertices subsequent paths also lie on an ellipse. and d the perpendicular
hill side.
Show
where
>/(2^A) is
inclination a to placed on a fort situated on a hill side of that the area commanded by it is 47rA(A + c^cosa)sec3a.
Particles are projected from the same point with equal velocities 41. suddenly diminished by onehalf. the points of contact will be simultaneous positions of the particles. the muzzle.
42.
sin20i^2) _Q^
Vi^
Vi^
V2^
Three particles are projected simultaneously from a given point in given directions. /Ssvertical plane with velocities i?i.
Two heavy particles are projected from a point with equal velocities.
A
shot
which
is in
43. prove that the vertices of their paths are on an ellipse. V2> the foci of their paths lie in a straight line if
%
sin202i33)
I
sin2(^3^i)
. if tangents are drawn to their paths from
any point
in the vertical line through the point of projection.
the
initial velocities
and
a. prove that the focus of the new trajectory nearer to the projectile by the distance f v^/^. and that the curvature of the
is
path
quadrupled. t' are the times taken by the particles to reach the other point where their paths
intersect. Two inclined planes intersect in a horizontal line and are inclined to the horizontal at angles a and ^.
^ the
initial elevations of these
two
particles.
is fired with velocity ^/{2gh) from the top of a mountain the form of a hemisphere of radius r. prove that. Prove that at elevations /3i.
show that the
velocity of projection
/3/v/
is
J{2ga) sin
{sin a
. t.
40. Show that the furthest are at a distance points of the mountain which can be reached by the shot (measured in a straight line) ry. Prove that after an interval of time t they form a triangle
39.f{r^4rh) from the point of projection. A number of particles are projected simultaneously from a point. and move under gravity. their directions of projection being in the same vertical plane.
and T^ show that paths:
T
tT\t'T' is
are the times taken to reach the highest points of the independent of the directions of projection.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
57
35.
distance of the gun from the
.sin /3 cos (a +/3)}.
is
is
If the velocity v at any point of the path of a projectile under gravity 36. show that the plane of the triangle will pass 2 uv sin (8 — a) ^ where u.
. A particle is projected from a point in the former. distant a from the intersection.
of area proportional to t^. /Sg. under gravity.velocity of the shot.
A
gun
is
the horizon. v are through the point of projection after a time 7. If the directions of projection of two of them are in the same vertical plane.
Three particles are projected from the same point in the same 38.
Prove that.
if all
the wateris to
fall
into the basin.
if
the sole
/
A particle is projected so as to enter in the direction of its length a 49. right angles
gun on the other
side of the wall is
provided that this expression
46. the sum of the inclinations of the directions of projection must be constant. the locus of the point of meeting is a parabola. the jet being at a height h above the centre of a circular basin. Prove that.
F
ball from a given point with a given velocity 80 as to strike a vertical wall above a horizontal line on the wall./w. in a plane perpendicular to the edge of the cliff. its radius
must not be
less
than
[2a{a + Jia^+h^)}]K
eff'ect of a wind on the motion of a projectile is in a horizontal direction. Find r so that the stones may strike each other. at h{>aga^lv^\ and a shot is fired with velocity v in the vertical plane Prove that the distance commanded by the to that of the wall.velocity being constant.
51. for a constant velocity of i^rojection and different directions of projection.
and
that.
is real. in which stands. towards which the ball may be directly projected lie within a circle of radius
the ball
is
elevation
must
F2 sin
47. smooth straight tube of small bore fixed at an angle of 45° to the horizon. if two heavy particles projected in the same vertical plane at the same instant from two given points with the same velocity meet.62) I {g sin (<9i + 62)}. iv^/tpgf and occurs when sin ^
.
jet in
Water
issues
from a fountain
such a manner that the velocity
of emission in a direction making an angle B with the vertical is JigacosecB). lie in a given plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle a. must
it
Prove that the part of the plane commanded
the muzzle.
A man
standing on the edge of a
cliff
throws a stone with given
velocity w.
A gun on which plane
it is
pointed. after an interval r he throws another stone from the
same spot with given velocity v at an angle ^n6 with the line of discharge of the first stone and in the same plane.
is
an
ellipse of eccentricity sin a. its paths before entering and after leaving the tube differ by ^2 times the
length of the tube. When
It is required to
throw a
projected in the vertical plane at right angles to the wall.
At a horizontal distance a from a gun there is a wall of height 46.
is
[CHAP. and show that the maximum value of r for different values of 6 is = 2.
mounted at a given spot so as to command the horizontal Its mounting is such that the direction.
48. Prove that. the locus of points in a to produce an acceleration horizontal plane which can just be reached with a given velocity v of projection is an ellipse of eccentricity //V(/^+5'^) and area nv*jj{f^+g^)/g^. at a given inclination to the horizon. the Prove that the points on the wall lie between ^i and 62.
(^1
.
50.
II.58
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
44. and Show that the latera recta of to pass out again at the other end of the tube. w being the vertical component of v.
:
58. a straight line passing through a point 0.
54. from that of the outer. particles are projected towards a point on the circumference with velocities varying as their distances from the Prove that at any instant the particles lie on a circle. Two particles describe concentric and coaxial ellipses about common centre with accelerations which are equal at equal distances.
If the acceleration of a particle is directed to a point S and varies inversely as the square of the distance.
Two particles are projected in parallel directions from two points in 53.
of motion describes a concentric ellipse as a central orbit about the centre. which tends a force varying as the distance.
centre. Two particles describe the same ellipse in the same time as a central Prove that the point of intersection of their directions orbit about the centre. Prove also that the angle between one of the directions of projection and PQ is the same as the angle between the other and PS. prove that there are two directions
59. and the particles start in opposite directions from corresponding Prove that the line joining them is of extremities of the transverse axes. arcs described in equal times. a point Y is taken in that the rate at which P and Y separate is
describes a rectangular hyperbola with an acceleration CP so that CP CT=a^.
Particles are projected
from points on a sphere of radius a with
acceleration to the centre equal to grja Prove that the part of the surface on which they fall is the smaller of the two segments into which the sphere is divided by a small circle
velocity slig^) at distance r. to the centre of 55.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
59
52.
v.
From all points on the circumference of a circle.cp(i^)*(i+^y
where 2a
is
the transverse axis.
A
particle
P
/x(7P from the centre C. Prove that the times which elapse in the two possible cases before the body reaches the major axis are to one another as 2 1. sum of the axes of one ellipse being equal to the difference of the axes of
the
the
the
other.
A body is describing an ellipse of eccentricity ^ under a force to the and when it is at one end of the latus rectum the centre of force is
suddenly transferred to the foot of the corresponding directrix.
in
which it can be projected from a point P with given velocity so as to pass through a point Q.
h.
56.
/i
oflf. and turns with uniform angular velocity. point. and each particle has an acceleration to equal to
Prove that all the tangents to the path of the inner cut (distance). prove
. with velocities proportional to their distances from 0.
.
constant length. and that the velocity of arrival at Q is the same for both.
and move with an
of radius
57.
and that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an
indefinitely great
number
of equidistant instants of time
is
a{l+^e^).
68. Prove that the angle which the line joining the particles
subtends at the focus
particle
65. and a
second particle describes the same ellipse in the same time with uniform angular velocity about the same focus.
ellipse
)
Prove that the greatest radial velocity of a particle describing^n '^ about a focus is
where 2a
64.
[CHAP.
that the
the normal at the point cut square of the part of
particle describes any from velocity acquired in moving
61. Q.
P
67. 2b
about a focus. is
27r
/2
_ V^\^
fi
'
y/(x\r
63. its magnitude being unaltered.
A
the line
prove that the total one point to another is in the direction of the pole of the chord joining the points. prove that the rate at which areas are described about the centre is inversely proportional to the distance from the focus.
the angle of projection
{
a rectangular hyperbola
is
coseci
69. V from a point where the distance is R.
A
an
ellipse of axes 2a.
66.
by a
is
particle projected with velocity
if
Prove that the central orbit described with acceleration /^/(distance)^. prove that the direction of motion at any point meets the directrix in a point. and
particle describes
T the
periodic time.60
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
60. e the eccentricity. where
e is the eccentricity.2tiR)lfM}. to the from a point distant r from the origin.
V Prove that the periodic time of a particle projected with velocity 62. When an hyperbola is described as a central orbit about a focus. ellipse having double contact with the old orbit and entirely within it. The particles start together from the farther apse.
II. and at any point of the and to vary as the Prove that the new orbit is an distance. whose velocity is inversely proportional to the abscissa of P.
is is
greatest
e
when the
angle described by the
first
coa~^{\{le^)^/e.
Prove
that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an indefinitely great number of instants corresponding to equal differences of vectorial angle is 6. and having an acceleration n/r^
origin. When a parabola is described as a central orbit about a focus.
particle describes
being the eccentricity. joining the focus to
conic about a focus
.
orbit the acceleration begins to be directed to the centre
about a focus.
A
an
ellipse as
a central orbit about a focus.
A
angular
an elliptic orbit about a focus prove particle describes as the at any point about the other focus varies inversely velocity
.
is
the major axis.
particle describes
ellipse
A
an
.
V^( V^B^ .
oflf
by the major
axis.
Find the position of the particle. and proceeds to describe a parabola. the orbit
is
would be a parabola.
T
A body is moving in a given hyperbola under the action of a force 72. and thereafter it varies inversely as the square of the distance. Prove that there is greater than ^/5 — 2. the axis of the parabola is at Prove that the eccentricity of the right angles to the axis of the ellipse. the force suddenly becomes repulsive find the position and magnitude of the axes of the new
.
Prove also that
is
the other focus neglected the angular velocity about
constant.
61
A particle describing an ellipse about a focus has its velocity suddenly
doubled and turned through a right angle.
ellipse is ^v/2. particle describes an ellipse about a focus S starting from the further end of the major axis.
approximately given by the equations
r
=a (1 . its magnitude being unaltered.
73. At the end of this time the centre of force is transferred without
A
altering its intensity to the other focus II. and the particle moves for a second interval under the action of the force to H.
a central orbit about a 75.
and show that the difference of the squares of the new and old orbits is proportional to >S'P.
orbit. particle is describing a circle of radius c as point distant c/^d from the centre. when possible. When the line joining this point to the circle the law of the particle subtends a right angle at the centre of the
acceleration suddenly changes. where e is the eccentricity of the first ellipse. and
SQTR
is
a parallelogram.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
70. the point in an elliptic orbit about a focus at the centre of force were transferred to the empty focus.
74. is ^19/8. when it arrives at any point P. but the magnitude of the acceleration does not change Prove that the major axis of the new elliptic orbit is discontinuously. and arrives at the end of the minor axis in time T.e cos nt+^e^^e^ cos 2nt).
no such point unless the eccentricity
under a force to a point
A
particle is describing a circle
S
on the
circumference.
71.
.
At a
point
P
on the
circle the force
changes to the inverse
square.
and the
an eUipse. tending to a focus S. QT is
drawn perpendicular to the tangent at P. 16c/5(v/3 and that its eccentricity
A
an
Prove that the focal radius and vectorial angle of a particle describing the nearer apse are ellipse of small eccentricity e at time t after passing
76.
T
and show that
interval
if
the centre of force were transferred back to
S after the second
the particle would begin to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {Zee^)/{l + e).
where 2a
is
the major axis and ^ir/n
if e^ is
the periodic time.
On FS produced a
point
Q
is
particle proceeds to describe taken so that SQ = §SP.
if
Find.
eccentricities of the
which.
is
6 = nt + 2e sin nt + ^e'^ sin 2nt. the law of the acceleration being unaltered.
Show
that the middle point of
TR
is
the centre of the
ellipse.
about a focus.
If the perihelion distance of a
comet
is
th
of the radius of the
earth's orbit.y={r.
Prove that the time of describing the smaller part of an elliptic orbit 77.
where a
is
the radius of the
circle.
supposed circular. and 2a
is
the major axis of the orbit. the direction of projection making an angle a with OA.
and two similar
expressions. and if ^j.
SR
of an elliptic orbit about a focus
determined. SQ. Prove that the particle will arrive at after a time
*
OA^ a— sin a cos a
s/(2u)
sin^ a
.1/91) years.
the comet's orbit being parabolic.
7^2)2
:
{T.
If the parabolic orbits of
two comets intersect the orbit of the earth.
84.
Prove that the
constant. where A
Show
is
that the ellipticity may be the area of the triangle FQRy
and
A' is the area of a triangle
whose sides are
2^{SQ.SE)amiQSR. T2. in the same two points.
II.sin 2<f)).62
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP.
78. cut off by a focal chord. is ^{a^/fx)(2<i> . ^2 are the times in which the comets move from one of these points to the other.
82. A particle is projected from A with velocity ^{^fiyOA^ and moves with an acceleration /i/(distance)5 directed to 0.
79. found from the equation 6a = aA'. + T.
+ r2dy
:
(r. earth's orbit for
show that the comet
will
remain within the
^(l + 2/n)V(l.
A
particle describes
a
circle as
a central orbit about a point 0. prove that
{h + ti)^ + (^1
80. and the distances of the points from the focus are ri. where 2a sin (f) is the chord of the auxiliary circle that corresponds to the focal chord.
sum
of the velocities at
any two points coUinear with
is
is described as a central orbit about a on the circumpoint the tangent to the circle meets the diameter through produced in Rj prove that the velocity of R is proportional to
83.
.
+ r^ + dr. Prove that
in the
(7^181.
S are
Three focal
radii
SP.
A circle
if
ference
. supposed circular. r2.^2)^ =
(
^ ^)
'
^^^^®
^ i^ ^ y®^^'
The times of passage of a particle between two points distant d apart two parabolic orbits that can be described about the same focus with the same law of acceleration are 7\. and the angles between them.
V(4a2r2)/r(2a2r2)2.
circle as a central orbit
Prove that the acceleration with which a particle P can describe a about a point S is inversely proportional to SP^ FF'^.
Prove that the acceleration at
F
is
proportional to GG^jRF^^
CG
being drawn parallel to
93. OP^. the corresponding velocities are in harmonic progression.
to the other is
. and if is the foot of the perpendicular from F on the major axis. where the axis meets a directrix. Prove that the acceleration is e^h?'XFI{lSM^). major axis prove that the acceleration at F varies as FL^jOF^ where L is the point of intersection of OF and the diameter conjugate to that passing
.
Prove that the accelerations with which the same
circle
can be
described as a central orbit about two points B.
In any diameter
SA'.
When
point in
its plane.
Any
conic whose centre
is
C
is
described as a central orbit about
any point R. p being with the curve . S' are taken such that Prove that. Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
85.
BF
to
meet the tangent at
F
in G.
where FF'
is
the chord through S.
92.
.
63
A
particle describes
point. and that the two circles cut at an angle a> given by
c2 sin
^ 0) = 2a V(c2
.S'A=SB\S'B=e.
91.
X
through F.
An ellipse is described as a central orbit about a point on the 90. being any point on the circle and SG being a straight line drawn from S parallel to to meet the tangent
:
F
BF
at
Fin
88.
87.
a particle describes an ellipse as a central orbit about any the sum of the reciprocals of the velocities at the extremities of any diameter is independent of the position of the point and varies as the periodic time. if F and are the velocities of the
a
AB
V
any point on the portion of the circle concave to S\ when the circle described about S and S' respectively. and if F= at A.«^ . prove also that the time the other point of intersection of
A
F
OF
of passing from one extremity of the ordinate through
§n/(2//x).
If points are taken on the orbit such that the squares of their distances from S are in arithmetic progression. then 1/Fe/F'
V
is constant.b^)
A particle describes an ellipse of latus rectum 21 about the point 89.
/ir/(r2
and when
+ 6^)3
towards a
velocity >J{^ijl)/c^ in a given at a certain point it begins to have an acceleration point S distant a from the line.
86.
on the
describes a parabola as a central orbit about a point particle axis.
particle at
is
circle as a central orbit about an eccentric of the circle points S. there are two positions of the point for which the subsequent orbit is a circle. if
€^>{a^ + b^). SF.
G. S in its plane in the same periodic time are in the ratio JSG^ RF^.
A
particle
is
moving with uniform
it is
straight line. where S is the focus corresponding to JT. prove that the acceleration is /i{l/OP}l/Ojo}3.
it strikes it at a distance Ul^\{^^ .
A particle describes an ellipse with acceleration A
parallel to a diameter.
The curve
initial
103.
100.
with
^n
r=a+ 6^ is described as a central orbit about the origin distance a and initial velocity F in a direction making an angle with the initial radius vector. and that.
Prove that the acceleration with which the curve
is
r=a sin n6
can be
described as a central orbit about the origin
proportional to
104 Prove that the curve r a ( 1 + ^ ^6 cos ^) is a central orbit about the origin for acceleration proportional to r~*f. an equiangular spiral whose pole is is described as a central orbit about any point prove that the acceleration at P is inversely proportional to OP. with an acceleration to a point on the axis distant c from the vertex. prove that its magnitude is proportional to the inverse fourth power of the radius of curvature at each point of the curve.
II. prove that the particle will proceed to
describe an hyperbola having the axes of the ellipse as asymptotes.
[CHAP. and at one end of one
acceleration
of the equiconjugate diameters the acceleration is suddenly changed in sense without being altered in magnitude.64
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
94.
If
aS'. latus rectum 4o.
97. SP^ sin3<^. particle moves with an acceleration \iy~^ towards the axis x^ starting from the point (0. Prove that the time tending of moving from the vertex to a point distant y from the axis is proportional
A
to
y+Ay^/««95.
V >
98.
99. h) with velocities U^ parallel to the axes of x.
A
Show
and pole
angle
^
that a particle can describe an equiangular spiral of angle a with an acceleration iijSP^ whose direction makes a constant with the tangent to the spiral provided that
S
tana=^(nl)tanj3. where r is the radius vector and p the perpendicular from the centre to the
tangent.
96. Find the formula for the acceleration.Vh) from the origin.Jar ~^
=
. particle describes a cycloid with an acceleration always perpendicular to the base.
101. Prove that it will not strike the axis x unless /a F^P.
102. Prove that the acceleration towards the centre of the fixed circle with which a particle can describe an epicycloid is proportional to r/p*.
particle describes a parabola. y. where is the angle which the radius vector SP makes with the tangent at P. in this case.
Show
that the acceleration must vary inversely as the cube of the ordinate of the conjugate diameter.
Prove that any conic can be described by a particle with an
always at right angles to the transverse axis and varying inversely as the cube of the distance from it. If a particle is describing an ellipse in this manner.
the line density p at any subsequent time t is given by
(i){p)
+ ht = ct){ppo/p). /'.
Prove that a body ejected from the Earth with velocity exceeding 111. and h twice the rate at which the radius vector describes areas.
L. and may leavev the solar system. if the line density at any time is constant and =po. M.
:
A
the
108.
rate of description of areas about 0.
described as a central orbit about a point 0. Another particle moves so that at any instant its distance (r) from >S' is equal to that of
first particle. Prove that. Show that the second particle has an acceleration to S less than that of the first particle by h^ cos^ ajr^. about the origin with areal velocity ^h.
+ /3/' A'2
'
where h and
(f>
h'
are constants.
prove that
2
sin2<^»
radii vectores.
and
110. Prove that the least velocity with which a body could be projected from the North Pole so as to meet the Earth's surface at the Equator is nearly 4i miles per second. seven miles per second will not in general return to the Earth. r
r'
is
the angle r or
If
and / are corresponding makes with the tangent. and the angular velocity of its radius vector is less than that of the first particle in the ratio sin a 1. the from on the tangent varies inversely
is
107. prove that the central acceleration is
2^2 (52« _
(^2n)
^ ^2«2/(^2n _
52«)2
.
If
any curve
is
velocity of the foot of the perpendicular as the chord of curvature through 0.
A series of particles are describing the same curve as a central orbit
about a point with an acceleration whose tangential component is h^/p^(f)' (p).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
65
If the curve r^" + b^'^\2a'^r^ cos n6 = is described as a central orbit 105.
/
is
the acceleration and
^h
the areal velocity in a central orbit
satisfies
about a point 0.
106. particle is describing a central orbit about a point S.
and
^h being the
from
109. prove that the angular acceleration a about
equation
the
where u
is
the reciprocal of the distance from 0.
112. and that the angle of elevation is 22^°.
If inverse curves with respect to
can be described as central
orbits about
with accelerations
^3/
A2
/.
p
the perpendicular
on the tangent.
5
.
g being
the force per unit
. whose centre moves with velocity i.
if
the distance of the sphere from the
•

V( ^^ .
stream of particles originally moving in a straight line with under the influence of a gravitating sphere of radius R.
113. if the direction of projection makes an angle 30° with the vertical. the time of
flight is
A
K/(3a/^)(tanV6 + v/i).66
MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE
[CHAP.2 Vv cos a + v^ + 2gE)
of the line of particles will fall upon the sphere. at the surface of the sphere. a length
it
an angle
a.
is
the Earth's radius and
g
is
the value of gravity at
its surface. portion of an ellipse whose axis major is f of the Earth's radius.
where a
114. in a straight line intersecting the line and
velocity
A
K
V
is
K
making with
line is
Prove that. particle is projected from the Earth's surface so as to describe a Prove that. originally very great.
II.
or its
:
. hanging vertically.CHAPTER
HI.
the body
little*.
supported even by a steel bar. The number so determined is independent of the latitude and longitude of the place where the and it is independent also.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE. the mean surface of the Earth. When the body is supported by a spring. so far as operation is performed observation can tell. analogous to
The operation of weighing a body in a common balance determines a certain quantity the number of pounds or grammes which the body weighs. the stretching of the spring. The body may.
ing the stretching of the steel bar. for example. as determined by the common
.
it. the spring is stretched
if
.
The stretching of a spring supporting a body can be measured when the weight of the body. ported near the Earth's surface.
We
*
A
steel
bar. and extended by the fraction 000007 of its length."
his muscles are
If the body is supported by a man carrythrown into a state of strain. rest upon a horizontal plane. is proportional to the weight so determined. or
spring.
approximately.
5—2
.
and. may therefore use this
balance. definite place on the Earth's surface {e. which is then the plane surface of
some other body. the bar is stretched a and the stretching of the bar can be observed by means of
is
suitable instruments.
at any is not too great. and the man has a sensation of muscular effort.
The force of gravity.g. in London).
it may be supported by a rope or a spiral In either case we should say that there was a force
acting upon it and counteracting the force of the Earth's field.
area one square inch. Consider a heavy body sup58.
depth below.
of
sectional
is
supporting a load of 1 ton. We should say that he exerted "force. of the altitude of the place above.
which cannot be weighed in a common balance.63
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. Force may be defined as a certain 59. We
denote the mass of a body by the letter m. and
it
would not measure that weight
t This
force is
sometimes called the " weight " of the body. and write
W^mg. or any suitable constant For a body multiple of it. (ii) to the local value of g.
The force of
the
Earth's gravity acting upon
a bodyf
is
measured by the product of the number of units of mass in the mass of the body and the number of units of acceleration in the local value of g.
to the local value of
g (the acceleration of a
"force" is based upon the muscular primitive notion of The measure of sensations of a man supporting a heavy body. A more general definition will be given in Chapter YI. and then the stretchiDg to determine the weight a spring balance. as determined stretching We are thus a common balance. e. In the particular case of a body supported upon a horizontal plane. a battleship.
each of these
The operation of weighing a body in a common balance teaches us how to assign to any body of sufficiently small bulk a definite constant quantity: the number of pounds or grammes
which the body weighs." The weight of body is said to be "weighed by the body. however great the weight may be. measure of the action which one body exerts upon another.
may be determined by adding the masses of the several each being determined by weighing in a common balance or parts. This definition of mass does not
the mass
cover such cases as the mass of the Earth. will be called the mass of the body. the
The spring is "ideal" in as much as the extension portional to the weight. determined by the spring balance.g.
The
force
which
is
suggested by the above considerations
is
the
a heavy body*.
by
led to
measure the force of the Earth's gravity as proportional to
factors.
III. This stretching of an ideal spring supporting is always proportional (i) to the weight.
of the body.
It is found to be proportional
free falling body). or Sun.
be damaged by a
correctly. We denote this force by W. " " by some equivalent method. This quantity.
suflficiently
•
is
An
supposed to be proactual spring would
heavy weight.
. is different in different
latitudes
and at
different altitudes. or Moon.
Measure of force.
5860]
MEASURE OF FORCE
69
force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to
an action of the body having the horizontal plane
surface
;
for part of its
this force is called the pressure of the plane
upon the
supported body.
In the case of a body supported by a rope or
spring, the force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to an action of the rope or spring; this force is called the The force of the Earth's gravity tension of the rope or spring.
acting upon a body is, in like manner, traced to a supposed action of the Earth upon the body.
In this
last case
is
we know that the
produce
in the
effect of
the action,
if
not
;
counteracted,
to
body a
certain acceleration
and the measure of the force is the product, as explained above, of the mass of the body and the acceleration which it produces.
In like manner, we may say that the effect of any force on a in the body, when not counteracted by other forces, is to produce body an acceleration, and the measure of the force is the product
of the measures of the
acts
upon a body of mass m, and we have the formula
mass and the acceleration. If a force it produces in it an acceleration
P
/,
60.
Units of mass and force.
In the
It is
units, the
gramme
is
the unit of mass.
system" of the onethousandth
"c.g.s.
part of the
mass of a certain lump of platinum known as the "Kilogramme des Archives," made by Borda, and kept in Paris.
It is the force which, is called the "dyne." a body of mass one gramme, produces in it an acceleacting upon ration of one centimetre per second per second.
The
unit of force
In the "footpoundsecond system," the pound is the unit of mass. It is the mass of a certain lump of platinum kept in the is called the Royal Exchequer in London. The unit of force " It is the force which, acting upon a body of mass one
poundal."
pound, produces in
second.
it
an acceleration of one foot per second per
In the "British engineers' system" the unit of force is the force of the Earth's gravity acting in London upon a body which
weighs a pound, when weighed in a common balance.
It is called
70
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
a "force of one pound."
The
unit of mass
is
the mass of a body
which weighs 322 pounds
in a
common
balance.
The mass
is
of
a body which weighs one pound in a
common
balance
^^
In this system, as in the others, the unit force, units of mass. in it an acceleration of one acting upon the unit mass, produces unit of length (one foot) per second per second.
In any system of units, force
is
mass, one dimension in length, and
a quantity of one dimension in — 2 dimensions in time. The
dimension symbol
is
MLT^^.
Vectorial character of force. In the cases which we 61. have examined so far, either there has been a single force acting " upon a body, which for definiteness we thought of as a particle," or else the forces acting upon the body have exactly counteracted
each other.
acceleration.
In the former case, the body moves with a certain In the latter case, it remains at rest. In the case
of a heavy body supported by the tension of a cord, we may regard the Earth's gravity as producing in it the acceleration g down
wards, and the tension of the cord as producing in it the acceleraIf we do this we are able to maintain in both tion g upwards.
cases the measure of force as the product of the
mass and the
acceleration that
is
produced by the
force.
Consider a body supported upon a plane horizontal surface. Let the surface be gradually tilted so that the plane becomes an inclined plane. It is found that the body will begin to slide*
down the plane when the plane
is tilted at an angle which exceeds a certain limiting angle. If the surfaces in contact are We highly polished the angle at which sliding begins is small.
might imagine the surfaces to be so smooth that sliding would
take place at any inclination however small. The acceleration with which the body slides down the plane is the resultant of the acceleration g in the direction of the downward vertical and some other acceleration,/. Let a be the inclination of the plane; then the acceleration g can be resolved into two components,
•
The body should have a
flat base.
A
solid sphere, or
any body with a curved
avoid for the present
surface, placed
on an inclined plane,
will generally roll.
We
the complication of rolling.
60, 61]
viz.:
COMPONENT FORCES AND RESULTANT FORCE
in
71
^sina
the direction
of a
line
of slope
drawn down
the plane, and gcosa at right angles to the plane. See Fig. 29. If the accelera
/ is directed at right angles to the plane its amount must be g cos a, in the sense opposite to one of the two components of g, as shown in Fig. 29, since the
tion
gsina
X
Fig. 29.
^o
cos
a
body moves on the plane, and so has no
.
acceleration at right angles to the plane. In this case, the acceleration with which the
the plane is g sin a is of amount mg cos
*,
a,
body slides down and the pressure of the plane on the body the mass of the body being m. This state
be
of things cannot be exactly realised in practice, but it can approximately realised when the surfaces are very smooth.
down the plane
resisted
In any actual case the acceleration with which the body slides is less than g sin a, and the motion is said to be
by
"friction."
For the present we
effect
shall
suppose that the
is
surfaces are so
smooth that the
of friction
negligible.
We
is
have learnt that the
the same
effect of the Earth's gravity on the body as that of two forces: one m^sin a producing acceleraline of
tion
down the
slope,
and the other
mg cos a
producing
acceleration at right angles to the plane. This result leads us to the conclusion that force, as a mathematical quantity, is to be regarded as a vector quantity, equivalent
to
"component
is
forces" in
the
same way
as
any other vector
quantity In particular,
equivalent to
components.
we
be regarded as what (Art. 17), the point at which the vector
see that force acting on a particle ought to we have called a "vector localized at a point"
is
localized being the
The line, drawn through the point, by position of the particle. which the vector is determined, is the "line of action" of the
force.
The
line of action of the force
are the direction
and the sense of the and sense of the acceleration which the
force
force
produces.
According to this statement any forces acting on a particle are equivalent to a single force, to be determined from the separate forces by the rules for the composition of vectors. This single
force
is
called the "resultant" of the forces acting on the particle.
*
This result was used by Galileo for the determination of
g.
72
62.
1.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
Examples^.
Find the time of descent of a particle down an inclined tube when friction is neglected and the particle starts from rest at a given point of
the tube.
2. Prove that the time of descent down all chords of a vertical circle, at its lowest point, starting at the highest point of the circle, or terminated
is
the same.
3.
*
Prove that the line of quickest descent from a point ^ to a curve, a vertical plane containing A, is the line from A to the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its highest point and to touch the curve. Prove also that the line of quickest descent from a curve
which
is in
to a point A is the line to A from the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its lowest point and to touch the curve.
4. Prove that each of the lines of quickest descent in Ex. 3 bisects the angle between the vertical and the normal to the curve at the point where Hence show that the line of quickest descent from one it meets the curve.
given curve to another in the same vertical plane bisects the angle between the normal at either end and the vertical.
6.
and moving on the plane without
63.
Prove that a particle projected in any manner on an inclined plane, friction, describes a parabola.
Definitions of
momentum and
kinetic reaction.
The momentum
V, is
of a particle of
mass m, moving with a velocity
a vector, localized in the line of the velocity, of which the sense is the same as that of the velocity, and the magnitude is the
product
7nv.
The kinetic reaction of a particle of mass m, moving with an acceleration /, is a vector, localized in the line of the acceleration, of which the sense is the same as that of the acceleration, and
the magnitude
is
the product mf.
The kinetic reaction of a particle is the same quantity as the rate of change of momentum of the particle per unit of time.
64.
Equations of motion.
kinetic
of force in Articles 58
— 61 leads to the following statement —
:
The
discussion of the nature
The
reaction
of a particle has
the
same magnitude,
direction
and
sense as the resultant force acting on the particle.
is
is to be regarded as a general principle which the facts stated in the previous discussion and suggested by other facts of like nature. In other words it is an induction
This statement
The
results in
Examples 2 and 3 were noted by
Galileo.
6265]
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
73
from experience. From the nature of the case it is not capable of mathematical proof The truth of it is only to be tested by the
comparison of results deduced from it with results of experiment. The statement is expressed analytically by certain equations,
which are called the "equations of motion" of the
are obtained
in
particle. They by equating the resolved part of the kinetic reaction
any direction
to the
sum
of the resolved parts of the forces
in that direction.
be the components parallel to the axes of x, y, z Let X, F, of the resultant force acting on the particle, or, what comes to the same thing, the sums of the resolved parts of the forces in the
directions of these axes.
X, y, z
Z
Let
m
be the mass of the
particle,
and
of
the coordinates of
its position at
time
t.
The equations
motion are
mx — X,
We
have had
equations of motion.
my =
F,
mz =
Z.
are really
several examples already of equations which
For example, the equations
^•=0,
'y
= g
in Art. 33 are really equations of motion.
As a further example,
force.
If
/
;
is
the intensity of the
consider the motion of a particle in a central field of field, and the centre of force is the origin,
and
if
the force
the origin
is an attraction, it is of amount and the equations of motion are
t
mf and
is
directed towards
mx= — mf 
,
my= mf, mz=  mf 
,
where r denotes distance fi'om the origin. Just as in Art. 49, these equations show that the motion takes place in a fixed plane. By means of the result of
Art. 43 the equations of motion, expressed in terms of polar coordinates in the plane, can be written
m(f rS^) =mf
m^j^
(r^)=0.
Equations of Motion in simple cases.
Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity. 65. The motion of a small ring on a very smooth wire, or of a small
spherical shot in a very smooth tube, can be discussed by treating the ring or shot as a particle constrained to describe a given curve, and supposing that the particle is subject not only to the
force of the field, but also to a force— the pressure of the curveWe take directed along the normal at any point of the curve.
74
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
is
[chap.
III.
the case where the curve
the
field is
a plane curve in a vertical plane, and We draw the that of the Earth's gravity at a place.
axis of y vertically upwards, and denote by s the arc of the curve measured from some fixed point of it up to the position of the
particle at the instant ^, and in the direction of increase of
by
s.
v
We
curve by R, and suppose that its If the pressure really acts of curvature. will be negative. found for
the velocity of the particle denote the pressure of the sense is towards the centre
outwards, the
value
R
Fig. 30.
In the lefthand figure (Fig. 30) are shown the components of the kinetic reaction along the tangent and normal. In the righthand figuie are shown the forces acting on the particleThe equations of motion, obtained by resolving the forces along
the tangent and normal, are dv
mv
T
= — mg sm
.
.
<f>,
m = R mg cos
v'^
r,
<j>.
Now
sin
</)
=
^
,
and the
first
of these equations becomes
dv
dv
This equation can be integrated in the form
^mv^
where
(^0, 2/o)
= — mgy {G,
C
is
a constant.
of the curve.
Let Vq be the velocity at some point Then C = ^mv^^ + mgy^, and the equation
can be written
J mv'
 i wV = mg (y^  y).
This equation can be partially interpreted in the statement that the velocity of a particle moving under gravity without
65, 66]
friction is
MOTION ON A SMOOTH CURVE
it
75
always the same when This result was found by Galileo.
comes back
to the
same
level.
If the particle starts with an assigned velocity from a given point of the curve, this equation determines the velocity in any
position
at
;
the equation ni—
= R— mg cos
(f>
determines the pressure
any point of the curve.
66.
1.
is a circle, the angle ^ of Fig. 30 is the angle which the radius of the circle drawn from the centre to the particle makes with the
Examples. When the curve
vertical
drawn downwards.
Prove that,
if
position in which <^=a, the velocity v in
y2
= ^ga (cos ^
any position  cos
a),
the particle starts from rest in a is given by the equation
where a
is
the radius of the
circle.
Find the pressure in any position. Find the greatest angle through which a person can oscillate in a swing, the ropes of which can support a tension equal to twice the person's
2.
weight.
3.
When
cycloid
under gravity, the vertex
a particle moves on a smooth of the
cycloid being at the lowest point, the equation of motion, by resolution along the
tangent in direction QP^
may be 5= — ^sin^,
written
s
to P,
being the arc measured from the vertex and 6 the angle which the normal OP
vertical.
makes with the
Now, by a known
property of the cycloid, s = 4asin^, where a is the radius of the generating circle, and thus the above equation becomes
Fig. 31.
4a
showing that the motion in
s is
Thus the time taken
is
to fall to the vertex
simple harmonic with period 27r ^Ji^a/g). from any point on the curve is
is tt
independent of the startingpoint, and in fact
[This property
^{a/g).
known
as the "Isochronism of the cycloid."]
4. Show that the time a train, if unresisted, takes to pass through a tunnel under a river in the form of an arc of an inverted cycloid of length 2s and height h cut off' by a horizontal line is
.J
/f2gh\
>J2g/i''''^"\v^+2ghJ'
where v
is
the velocity with which the train enters and leaves the tunnel.
particle.
The product
so obtained is the
work done.
We
resolve the
displacement into
and perpendicular to the line of action of the components The component parallel to this line (taken in the sense of force. The unit of work is the 68.S. the work done by a force of one dyne acting over one centimetre. with of length.76
67.
The quantity obtained the number of units of mass in the mass of a by multiplying half the square of the number of units of velocity in particle by the velocity of the particle is called the "kinetic energy" of the
Kinetic energy and work.
acting over one
In the British engineers' system the unit of work is the "footpound. which is a number of units
parallel
We multiply this number. system of units the unit of work is called the erg.
to
Units of energy and work. this sign.
In the
It
is
In
the
"footpoundal.
III.\ mvo' = mg {y.
The "work done" by a constant
is
a quantity which
is
force acting on a particle defined in terms of the force and the dis
placement of the
particle.
C. by the number of units of force in the measure of the
force. y^y. 
y)
:
can be expressed in words in the statement
The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal the work done by the force of gravity in that displacement. the work done by the force of gravity is the product of the force. The equation
imi."
footpoundsecondsystem the unit of work is the It is the work done by a force of one poundal
foot. and a certain sign. mg. and the distance through which the particle descends. It is equal to the work done in the latitude of
." It is the work done by a "force of one pound" acting over one foot. the kinetic energy acquired by a free body on which one unit of
work
is
done. work done by the unit force in a displacement of one unit of
The unit of kinetic energy is length in the direction of the force.
In the case of a particle moving under gravity. the force) has a certain magnitude.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.G.2
.
MUT~^.6770]
KINETIC ENERGY AND
in raising
WORK
77
London
pound
through one foot a body which weighs one
balance. and the friction motion."
The angle
i is
called the "angle of friction. the friction just prevents In this case ^ sin a =/. the pressure mg cos a at right angles to the plane. The acceleration of plane. the friction acts in the senseopposite to that of the velocity.
in a
common
In any system of units. work and kinetic energy are quantities of 1 dimension in mass. " This force is called the friction. and is equal to the product of ^ and the pressure. 2 dimensions in length. In the same case the pressure = mg cos i. when motion takes place." The angle of friction. and a third force which is of magnitude m/and acts up the lines of slope.
/a)
tani or
is
called the "coefficient of friction. or /=^sini. If 550 is one horse
power. body
We
and the pressure.
70. Let /be the
acceleration
up the
lines of slope
which must be compounded with
the acceleration ^sina down the lines of slope in order that the The forces resultant may be the actual acceleration of the body.
Whether the body moves up or down the plane.
For
Friction.
Power. is about to slide the friction is equal to the product of //. the body down the lines of slope is less than ^sina. = mg sin i. Hence the
ratio of the friction to the pressure
When a =
when motion
is
just about
write /^ for tan i. so that when the to take place is tan i.
is
An
agent which does one unit of work per
unit of time
said to be
footpounds of work are done per second the power
working up to a unit of power. i.
depend
upon the materials of the bodies in contact and the degree of polish of the surfaces. Consider a body sliding down an inclined Let a be the inclination of the plane.
It is
friction
found that.
."
The body
will not slide
down the plane
unless the inclination
a exceeds a certain angle i. the ratio of the This ratio (equal to to the pressure remains constant. Power is a quantity having the dimensions a more extended discussion see Chapter VI.
The dimension symbol
is
MUT~'^. and the
coefficient of friction. on the body are the force of gravity mg vertically downacting
wards.
69. and — 2 dimensions
in time.
to be inclined at
mx = mg sin a .78
71.F.
Motion on a rough plane.
III.
generally taken to be applicable to the The resistance to the motion is
taken to be proportional to the mass.
particle is projected with a given velocity up a line of slope of a rough iuclined plane.
2.R. and the acceleration is equal to
^ sin a
line. find the velocity with which the
A
particle
returns to the point of projection. and treat the body down a line of slope. The force by which the and kept in motion against the resistance
called the "pull of the engine.
Hence the
particle
moves down the
line of slope
with acceleration
— g sin a
fi
cos
a. Prove that the
.
1. going at full speed. and the friction is equal to in the sense opposite to that of the velocity.
We
shall take the plane
an angle a to the horizontal.
fimg
This
last result is
motion of a train on
train is set in motion
is
level rails.
we have
F=fiR. Supposing the inclination of the plane to be greater than the angle of friction.
where
= mg
cos
a.
Examples. the friction acts line. Draw the sliding on it as a particle moving The equations of motion are axis of X down a line of slope.
+ /x cos a
is
When
the body slides on a horizontal plane the pressure
equal to mg vertically upwards.
Also
F is
the friction and
R
the pressure. at a and comes to rest ^at the station. Find the height above the point of projection of the point at which it comes to rest." further in Chapter VIII.
A
I
carriage
is
distance
from a
station.
We
shall consider this force
When
placement.
there
is
is friction
displacement
less
the increment of kinetic energy in any than the work done by gravity in that dis
72.
slipped from an express train.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
When
down the
down the
the particle moves up a line of slope.
and the resistance of the road and the brake power per unit mass are equal to the components of gravity down uniform inclines of 1 in 71 and 1 in ^ respectively. x is negative.
Chapter VI).
. The forces acting on m are mg vertically downwards. 32. and T The kinetic reaction of m' is m"x vertically
of motion of m'
is
The equation
therefore
m'x
G.
3. and T
is mx vertically The kinetic reaction of vertically upwards. and
the pull of the engine being constant. and that the mass of the chain is negligible in comparison with the masses of the bodies (see
Fig. 1784. Then x is also the distance through which m' has ascended at time t. Let T be the tension of the chain. Cambridge. where the incline of the road is 1 in w.
on m' are m'g vertically downwards.
forces acting
vertically upwards.
rest of the train will then be at a distance
M and m being the masses of the whole train and of the carriage slipped.
*
= T — m'g.
Let m. Atwood.
73. If m has ascended and m' descended.7173]
ATWOODS MACHINE
Mll{M." We shall assume that the tension of the chain is the same throughout.
The
upwards.
is
tions of motion
afforded
Another simple example of equaby the problem
of two bodies attached to a string or chain which passes over a vertical pulley. This amounts to
assuming that there is no friction between the pulley and the chain.
Prove that the extra work required to take a train from one station to
I
stop at the next at a distance
in
an interval
t is
gf^
k I \Sin'^ n)\m'^ 71^ kj]
times the work required to run through without stopping. This
arrangement constitutes in principle the instrument called "At wood's machine. downwards. m be the masses of the bodies. x the distance through which m has descended at time t. The equation of motion of m is therefore
m
mx = mg — T.m) beyond
79
the station.
Atwood's machine^.
A
treatise
on the rectilinear motion and rotation of bodies.
When the bob is small and massive. approximates to that of a simple
circular
pendulum." suspended by a bar which can turn about a horizontal axis. the mass m consists mass m' and a small additional piece resting lightly upon it.
called
An
ordinary
pendulum
consists
of a
a "simple circular pendulum.
III.
3. with an acceleration
^ m {vi .
lighter
follows
that the heavier body descends. called the
"bob.
(See Chapter VIII. and the bar thin. in which the friction and the masses of the chain and
pulley are neglected.
By adding
the lefthand. and the
ascends. if m starts from a height h above the ring." massive body.
A
particle constrained to describe a circle in a vertical
is
plane.)
74. machine.
The work done by
Prove that the tension of the chain
is
2mm' .
2. and the most important correction is on account of the mass of the pulley.
Simple circular pendulum executing small
oscilla
tions. treated as a particle.
In Atwood's machine the smaller mass m'
of a rigid portion of
if after
passing through the ring
it falls
a distance ^ in the time
^2
^. As m descends it passes through a ring by which the additional Prove that.
we
find
(m + m!) x = (m —
It
mf)g. the motion
of the bob. Generally the pulley turns with the motion of the chain.
The
kinetic energy of the two bodies in the case of the simple Atwood's machine.<fm\m^
is rigid.'^. deduce the acceleration of either body. Assuming that the increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal to the work done by gravity.
is
^mx^ + ^m'a.Q'
The value
of
g
is
sometimes determined by means of Atwood's
Various corrections have to be applied to the result.
then
_ m+m'
^~2(mm')
A^'
the friction and the masses of the pulley and chain being neglected.
75.
members
of
these equations.80
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CBAP.
1. and also the righthand.
. without friction. and piece is lifted oflf.
Examples.
is
gravity mgx—m'gx.
of equilibrium.
rest is ir^JQ^jg).
When
the circle which passes through the particle makes an angle 6 with the vertical as in
Fig.7376]
SMALL OSCILLATIONS OF PENDULUM
denote the radius of the
circle
81
the radius of
We
by
I.
2."
pendulum which beats seconds is known as a "seconds' pendulum". in
it
it.
a position slightly different from the position falls to this position in the time i7r>^{l/g). The time from rest to position.
This equation shows that the motion in 6
is
simple harmonic
motion of period
27r \/{llg).
This
is
known
as the
time of a "beat.
(Cf. sin 6 may be replaced by 6.
to
passes through
and proceeds
move away from
it
on the other
side until its displacement is numerically equal to that at starting. the time of a complete oscillation of such a pendulum is two seconds. 33. 37). The length of the seconds' pendulum at a place
is
A
given by the equation
Pendulum experiments
mining the value of
76. then the length of the seconds pendukim there is 99*4] 3
centimetres. and we have the approximate equation
If 6 is very small
le^^gO. 38.
Prove that.
balloon ascends with constant acceleration and reaches a height of Show that a pendulum clock carried with it will gain
at the rate of 27*8 seconds per hour. and comes to rest after an interval JttVC^/^) from the equilibrium The motion is then reversed. the units being the centimetre and the second.
throughout the motion.
6
. the acceleration along the tangent to the circle is 16 (Ex. 1 of Art.)
The pendulum swings from
starts
side to side of the vertical.
If
it
from
rest.
Examples. approximately. may
We
write
down one equation
mid = —
of motion
in
the
same way as
in Art." the
period
2'ir*^(llg) is
the time of a "complete oscillation. M.
1.
afford the
most exact method of deter
g. if in London ^=981*17.
A
900 ft. in one minute. 65 in the form
mg sin 6.
L. Art.
This will happen if the pressure particle may leave the curve. This equation determines the point at which the particle leaves the curve.
makes with the
To make
<b
R
. such pendulum gains which loses n seconds in an hour.
pendulum
V.
78.
and not too
far
from the lowest generator.
III. prove that the square root of the true length of the seconds' pendulum is the harmonic mean between
^li and V^24.
until it strikes the curve again. whose plane i^ Find the period of its small oscillations
about the lowest point.
horizontal.
The bob
of a simple circular
is projected horizontally from Find limits between which V must lie in order that the suspending fibre may become slack.
horizontal.
If ^1 is the length of a slightly defective seconds' pendulum which n seconds in an hour. and I2 the length of another. A particle may be constrained to describe a circle by means of a thread of constant length attached to the centre of the circle.
on a smooth circular wire of radius a. 65.
Now
equation
the pressure
is
given.
vanish.
I is
the length of the pendulum. drawn in a definite sense.
Examples.
its
equilibrium position with a velocity
.82
3. of which the normal section is the curve and the generators are
circular cylinder.
Or
it
may
be outside such a cylinder.
attracted to the
with a horizontal force of intensity
Show
that the
time of a beat
is
where
5. and not too far from the highest In either case the constraint is "onesided.
More generally a particle may be constrained to describe a curve in a vertical plane by being inside a cylinder.
Onesided constraint.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP." and the generator. The particle then describes a parabola under gravity vanishes. or it may be inside a smooth
77.
A
bead
slides
inclined at an angle a to the vertical.
is
the angle which the tangent. according
to
Art.
1. and determine the position of the bob at the instant when the fibre becomes slack.
by the
R=mwhere
(j)
{
mg cos
<f>.
we must have
cos
=
99
where v' is known. n being small.
The bob
of a
cliflF
pendulum which
is
hung
close to the face of a cliff is
/.
particle is constrained to describe a circle by means of an inextensible thread. and a particle is projected along it in a vertical plane. tension
and the
directed
T
along the generator of towards the fixed point.
t
—
sin a
directed alonsf the °
circle
radius
centre.
the force
mg vertically dov^^nwards. In any position of
the particle the string lies along a generator of a right circular cone having its vertex at the fixed point. Prove that when it strikes the circle again the
A
thread makes an angle
3/3
with the same
vertical. and the vertex upwards.
CONICAL PENDULUM
83
cylinder whose section is a parabola is placed with its generators normal section vertical. attached to a fixed point on the vertical straight line which passes through the centre of the circle.
if
the velocity
is
the highest point. horizontally along the tangent of the circle.
79. Let 2a be the vertical angle of the cone and I the length of the
string. and horizontally along Neither the kinetic reaction nor the forces have any components in the third of these directions.
Prove that.
may describe
4. whose axis is horizontal.
Conical pendulum.
= mg —
I cos
a. radius of the circle.
when
that due to falling from the radius through it
Find the
the complete
least velocity of projection in order that the particle
circle.
Zsin
The radius of the circle is Let v be the velocity of the particle and T the tension of the The kinetic reaction of the string.
particle is ^
^—.
particle
of
the
towards
its
The
are
forces
acting on the
of gravity. and we therefore have the two equations
sin a
— T sm a. of the string. so as to move round
inside the cylinder. the axis of a
3.7679]
2. the particle leaves the circle makes with the vertical an angle cos~i §. Prove that if it leaves the parabola anywhere it does so at the point of projection.
A
A
smooth hollow
particle is projected from the lowest point of a vertical section of a circular cylinder.
the
cone
We
form
^^8* ^^•
the equations of motion by resolving vertically. and leaves the circle when the thread makes an angle /3 with the vertical drawn upwards.
horizontal.
I
6—2
.
a.
A
particle can be constrained to
describe a horizontal circle uniformly by the tension of a string or thread.
which is the change of momentum of the particle during the interval.
I
are given.The result is
the
mil
. h being the distance between the rails.
the axis of the
if
(gl(o^)^<l^c^.
mz= Z. when the motion is steady. components of velocity at the instant ^o. and ^o.
of the
2.
with respect to
both members of each of these equations be integS t over an interval from 4 to ^i. or the angle a when
V
and
80.84
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. the inclination can be inwards towards
circle.yi.
By
•
eliminating
T we
find the equation
I
sin^
a
^
cosa
This equation determines the velocity with which the circle can be described when I and a are given.
Impulse.
III.my^ =
Jto
Ydt.
A
may be treated as a conical pendulum. Prove that. The quantities in the righthand membeis of the same equations are the components of another
vector which
is
called the "impulse of the force" acting
on the
in
particle during the interval. takes the place of the tension of the string.
The equations can be expressed
. with Prove that to prevent the train from leaving the metals the velocity outer rail ought to be raised a height equal to hv^jpg above the inner. ii be
Vo.
and
let
my =
F.
train rounds a curve. in which the pressure directed at right angles to the plane of the rails. the inclination a of the suspending
thread to the vertical
is
given by the equation
to^{c
+ l sin a) =g tan
a. Zo
the components of velocity at the instant ^i.
Theory of Momentum.]
[The train
rails.
1. of
v.^^0 =
I
Xdt.
The point
of suspension of a simple
pendulum
of length
I is
carried
round in a horizontal circle of radius c with uniform angular velocity w.
Prove also that.
raz^
mZo=

'Zdt
Jto
The quantities in the lefthand members of these equations are the components of a vector.
81.
Examples.
Let the equations of motion of a particle
be written in the forms
mx = X.
which the radius of curvature is p. Let x^.
JU
myi
.
mii
— mzo = Z. Lt
Zdt = Z.
82. localized at the position of the particle.
tQ
members have
T
is
finite limits vfhen
= — ^t. Z. and
rf+ir
diminished indefinitely. to be
"
t\ at
impulse exerted on the particle at the instant the sudden change of motion takes place. Y.
Then the equations are — mi^o = X."
of action of the resultant force
momentum
at right angles to a fixed line.
which
Constancy of momentum.
Sudden changes of motion.
acting on the the resolved part of the
.
83.
:
may
and
also be written
(mx)
this equation may be expressed in words in the statement "The rate of increase of the momentum of a particle in any to the sum of the resolved parts in that direction direction is
—
equal
of all the forces which act
If the line
particle
is
upon the
particle. Let t' denote the instant at which the sudden change of motion takes place.
difficult
to
of
motion to
We may allow for the possibility of sudden changes of motion by supposing that the force acting on a particle becomes very great during a very short interval of time.o=
J
to
^dt.
Changes of motion of
is
bodies sometimes take place so rapidly that it observe the gradual transition from one state
another. in such a way that the impulse of the force has a finite limit when the interval is
diminished indefinitely. components parallel to the axes are X. In the equations of the
type
mil
the righthand
ti
— ma. in the direction of this line is constant.7983]
IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM
statement:
85
particle
words
in the
— The
change of
momentum of a
in any interval is equal to the impulse of the force acting on the
particle during the interval.
t'
and
= f + Jt.
ct'+^
We
write
Lt
Xdt = X.
We
the
"
of which the
define the vector. Lt
rf+ir
Ydt=Y. The
equations of motion of
the form
mx =
j
X
= X. myi — myo = miPj
F.
Through the point {x\ y'. the
resolved part of the momentum in any direction at right angles to the direction of the resultant impulse is unaltered. the rule of the righthanded screw.
Then
the force F'
at right angles to this
Hence the moment
length of the common the force at right angles to the axis.
The theorem of
Art.
Now
in its
the force be supposed to be applied at that point line of action at which the common perpendicular to the
let
line of action
and the
is
is
axis of z
meets the
line of action. Then the moment of F about the axis of z is defined to be the same as the moment of F' about P.
momentum and
kinetic reaction
Let the axis be the axis of z.
its
:
The rule of signs is that when the axis of z and the direction of F' are related like the directions of translation and rotation in an ordinary righthanded screw the sign is +. with a certain sign. 33).
III. Otherwise the
sign
is
—
. and consider a force at the point (x' y\ z'). we have the
equations*
x
and therefore we have
—x
__y
— y' ^z — z'
xYyX== x'Yy'X. If {x. of the perpendicular and the resolved part of
common
The
rule of signs
is. and X.
. cutting the axis of z in the point P.
If the velocity of a particle undergoes a sudden change. F. z') draw a plane.
So long as the magnitude.
about an
components parallel to the axes.
of force. the product. Z applied
.
We
had an example of
this in the parabolic
motion of pro
jectiles (Art.
as
before. the moment is independent of the point of application.86
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. z) is any point on the line. 22 gives for the
moment
of
F about
the
axis of z the expression
x'Yy'X. Resolve the force F into components Z parallel to the axis of z.
Moment
axis. and F' at right angles to this axis.
*
perpendicular.
These equations express the conditions that the projections on the axes of a segment of the line are proportional to the resolved parts of the force parallel to the axes. y.
84. line of action and sense of the force remain the same. Let F be the force.
mz = Z. z)y
yZzY. m {xy — yx). zXxZ. my=
F. the moment of the resultant about any axis
of the
component
is
the
sum
moments
of the components.
Let
z be the coordinates at time
^
of a particle which
is
subject to any forces. with sign. 35. ment of the vector about the
axis
L
is
a
certain
the product. m (zx — xz). or be localized at
a point in L' and have for direction the direction of L'. xYyX. m {zx — xz). F. of the re
solved part of the vector at
right angles to L. and let X. y.
X.
Z
be the components of the We have the equations
mx = X. y. applied at a point x. y. are respectively
{x. Z).8385]
MOMENT OF LOCALIZED VECTOR
87
This result leads to a general definition of the moment of a localized vector about an axis: Let the axis be a line L to which a certain sense is assigned. m {xy — yx\
85. resultant force parallel to the axes.
From what precedes
into
it is
clear that.
pendicular to
L
and U. z.
where
x.
Constancy of moment of momentum. and the length of the common perFig. and let the vector be localized
—
in
a line L'.
The moments
about the axes of
of a force {X.
The
rule of signs
is
the rule of the
righthanded screw.
t. F. y.
Resolve the vector into com
ponents parallel to
L
and at
The moright angles to L. or is the resultant of given vectors. The moments of the momentum of a particle
are
about the axes
m {yz — zy).
.
at time
z are the coordinates of the position of the particle The moments of the kinetic reaction of the particle
about the axes are
m {yz — zy). if the vector
is
resolved
any components.
. the moment of momentum of the particle about the axis is constant.
Work done by a variable
Let a partible move
along a curved path.
III. s^. as the particle
describes the polygon.88
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP..
If the velocity of a particle
moment
momentum
undergoes a sudden change the about any line which meets.
F
We
drawn in the
Let the arc between any two points A and of the curve be replaced by a polygon of n sides.. would be
Fi
. s„. the line of the resultant impulse is unaltered..[
Fn. and both members of the We have results."
same
axis of all
The equation may
also
be written
^ [m {xy yx)]=xYyX. its 5^(/c were F^ and the angle which its line of action makes magnitude
with the side were
6^. 6 the angle which the line of action of at any point of the curve makes with the tangent to the curve
at the point. Sn COS
0^. having all its vertices on the curve.
and now the lefthand member may be read as "The rate of increase of the moment of momentum of the particle about
the axis.
. or is parallel to such an axis. . s^."
If the line of action of the resultant
force acting
on the
particle meets a fixed axis.
Work and
86. If the force were the same at all points of any
B
F
of these sides. and subtract the by a?.
the work done by the force. or is
parallel to.
the second of these equations Multiply both members of first by y.
force..
5i
cos di
+ F^. 2. of which the arc measured from a fixed point to a variable point is denoted by s.
This equation
"
The moment
expressed in words in the statement of the kinetic reaction of a particle about an axis
may be
:
—
is
the moments about the equal to the sum of the forces acting on the particle.
Energy.
We
have had an example of this in central
of the
orbits. suppose this tangent to be sense in which the curve is described.. and.
m {xy — yx) — xY — yX. §2 cos 0. and let i^ be a force
acting on the particle.2+
. at any point on the side = 1.. w).
and
3^
»
•
•
•
would be ex
pressed in terms of
It
is
that the result.
A
and B.
F.
Th ^^
and thus we should have
to integrate an expression
of the form
dx
l{^fe^fe'%h'
between two fixed values of
6.
It is clear from the form of the expression that the work done by the resultant of any forces acting on a particle is equal to the sum of the works done by the separate forces. Y. that is to say it would different for different <)urves joining the same two points.
6. For the actual calculation of it would in general be necessary to know how to express the coordinates of a point of the curve in terms of some parameter. z). Z in terms of oo.
^dy
ydz
corresponding to the points
.
In this expression Z. . if it could be obtained.
y.
and therefore of
terms of
6. would be depend in general upon the curve.8587]
WORK DONE BY A FORCE
the
89
When
number
nnitely. and also to know the values of the components of
87.
/: A
If
X. say 0.
the points
A
and B.
Calculation of work.
Z are the
is
components of the force at any point
{oo.
clear
.
This expression represents the work done by the force upon the particle in the displacement from ^ to B along the curve.
and we could
also express 7^
. y.
7^
.
It is expressed
by
F cos dds.
this expression
the same as the lineintegral
taken along the curve from the point
A
to the point B. called the lineintegral of the of F'' along the arc of the curve between tangential component
and the lengths of
of sides of the polygon is increased indeall of them are diminished indefinitely.
the work
the force in terms of the position of the particle. z. " this expression tends to a limit.
6.
. Then at any point on the curve we could express X.
so that
then the work done
is
m [<^(^o). and take
l(Xdx+Ydy +
Zdz)
along any path drawn from the point J.
curve
Another example in which the work is independent of the is afforded by a constant force as we saw in Art. the sense of the tangent being that in which the
curve would be described by a particle starting from A.
III.
Work
function.
88.
When
the work
is
independent of the path.
which
is
a function of the distance r from a fixed point. so that a work
"
function exists.
Potential function. to a point P.<^(n)]
It
depends on
Vq
and
rj.90
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
In the case where the force
is
[CHAP. we the integral
may
choose arbitrarily a fixed point A. the forces are said to be
conservative. be the indefinite integral of f{r). mf{r). The work done by the force of the field in the displacement of a
.
but
is
the same for any two curves joining the points
A
and B.
Let
in a field of force."
89.
When
the work
is
independent of
the path.
a central attractive force. 6 the angle which the direction of the field at any point makes with the tangent to the curve
any point. is a function of the coordinates of P. s the arc of a curve measured from A. This function
The
is
result
the work
is equal function. 67.
and the work
done
is
where
r^
and
<\)
i\
Now
let
(r)
are the distances of A and B from the fixed point.
we denote by
In the case of a particle moving the intensity of the field at
/
be an arbitrary fixed point in the field. the
is
tangential component of the force
— mf{r)
7
.
A
at the point. The value of the work function at any point to the work done by the forces upon the particle as the particle moves along any path from the chosen fixed point to the
P
A
assigned point P.
.
In the case of a central
field. A
f
. cos 6 . which is the value potential of the integral
•JB
we
A
I.
is
or
mV. Forces derived fi'om a potential.
we take the
is
point
A
distance. mZ be the components of the force of a field acting on a particle of mass m.
we may draw
field.
cos Q ds.8790]
WOEK FUNCTION AND POTENTIAL
91
particle of mass a variable point
m along the curve from P is m /. potential at a point is
then the
90.ds. and the resultant of {X.
replace the point by any other fixed point P. Z) is the intensity of the field. Let V be the potential of the field.
and the function
defined to be the value of the potential function " " at is called the potential
V
a point. so that the direction of the vector (X. supposed
conservative. Let mX. It is the lineintegral of the tangential component of the force of the field (estimated by its intensity) taken along any curve joining the chosen point A to the variable point P.
The
potential function
then given
by the equation
or the potential at any point is the product of the constant and the reciprocal of the distance of the point from the centre
/jl
of force.
In the case of a uniform
field of intensity g.
the axis z in the direction opposite to that of the — gz. Y.
. mY. Z) is the direction of the field. the function is increased by a constant. Y.
I
the chosen point
A
to
If the force of the field is conservative.
The
If
potential function vanishes at the point
A. this expression is equal to the value of the work function at we write it
P
.
of which the intensity at a
is
distance r from the centre of force
at an
infinite
^
.
mV(P)
Then V(P)
at the point P.
z). so that the line PP' is parallel to the Then we have axis of x. in the limit. Y.
of course.92
Let
(x + Bw.
^
'
therefore.
and
if
a work function
U exists.
^ and
V{x\Bx.
same
as the value of the integral
p /.y.
This
is.y\hy.V (x.
Hence we have
X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz =V{x + Bx.
If.
Y\ Z\
the greatest and least values of X.
{x.z + Bz) . PP\ which are such that
Z
"^
p /:
{Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) = X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz. y.
P
be any point
z\Bz).
result
:
The
may be
—
the field (estimated
adopting a different notation. z). the partial differential coefficients of a function of the coordinates. is equal to the per rate of increase of the potential per unit of length in that direction.
when P' moves up
dx
to P. F. y. Z the components parallel to the axes of the force acting on a particle.
The
difference
V(r)V(P)
is
the
value of
r (Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) . in any direction.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. z). we denote by X.
and P' any neighbouring point
y¥By.V{x.z)
Bx.1
and
this is the
{Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz).
In
like
manner we should
find
'
F=^ zJ— dy
'
dz
The force of interpreted in the statement unit of mass). Let By and Bz be zero."
.y.
III.
(Xdx+Ydy + Zdz)
taken along the straight line drawn from
P to P\
intermediate between
that occur on the line
Now
there exist some values X'.
'
we have
*
^^dU dx
When
is
Y^dU
dy
^^dU dz
'
the components of force are. the force
said to be
"
derived from a potential. a fundamental theorem of Integral Calculus. as here.
^mvo^ =
J
A
{Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz\
where
at
P
v and v^ are the values of the velocity of the particle and A.90. y.Zz. my =
:
Y.
results. Energy equation. viz.
The equation can be expressed
in words in the statement
is
:
—
The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement the work done by the forces in that displacement.
Let
s
A
of
it
to a variable point
denote the arc of the path measured from a fixed point We multiply both sides of of it. and add the hand members. z respectively. Multiply the lefthand and hand members of the equations of motion
•
mx = X.
:
and this equation can be expressed in words in the statement The rate of increase of the kinetic energy of a particle is equal
to
—
the rate at
which work
is
done by the forces acting on the
particle.
and
this expression represents the the forces. and the integral is a lineintegral taken along
the path.
It
becomes
and we hence
find the equation
^mv^
.
P
the equation just written by
r
.
m (xx \yy
\
zz)
is
^[hm(x'
The sum
+ f\z%
is
where the quantity differentiated
particle at time t
the kinetic energy of the
of the righthand
members
is
Xx+7y\. 91]
ENERGY EQUATION
93
right
91.
7'ate
at which
work
is
done by
Hence we have the equation
^[im(x'
+ fhz')] = Xx\Yy + Zz'.
equal to
.
mz = Z
The sum
of the
left
by x.
40.
to
invent
analytical
let
servative
For example.
."
potential energy of a body. and Art." In forming the energy equation we may always omit such forces from the calculation.iservative. is the work that would be done by the force of the field upon a particle
92. 48. treated as a particle.
on a fixed curve or
94."
had several examples of energy equations. and is the mass of the particle
field of
The
m
body. 60 and the special results in Art. 40. Ex. in the case of simple harmonic motion we have the result in Art.
When
a particle moves
forming part of the surface of a body. and member of the equation last written is
U
^(P)?7(^). In the paramotion of projectiles we have the result in Art. 3.
All fields
of force which are found in nature are co. 3. in the the Earth's gravity is mgz. where z is the height of the above some chosen fixed level.
expressions for nonconthe force at a distance r
radius vector
from a fixed point be always directed at right angles to the drawn from the point. Ex. 1 and 2."
is
P
by any path to the chosen fixed
called the ''potential energy of the particle
The energy equation can be written
"
Kinetic Energy
+ Potential Energy = const. with its sign changed. and be equal to /zr and let
.
93.
" Forces which do no work are frequently called constraints. Ex. andwehave
Jmy^
C/'(P)
"
= const. Ex.
When
function.
We have already
Potential energy of a particle in a field of force. the righthand
denotes the work the forces are conservative.
surface. for it is always directed at right angles to the path.
Forces which do no work.
It
easy
fields. in the case of central orbits we have the result in equation (2) of Art.
III. function at a point P. the pressure of the curve or surface does no work . 4.
The work
which moves from the point point A.
This quantity
in the field.
Conservative and nonconservative
is
fields.
We
bolic
call this
equation the
energy equation.94
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. 34.
It
an external body. a " perpetual motion " is meant a selfacting machine which continuIn the above example the particle. In natural systems. once started. but also the potential is a oneforce derived from
"valued function.
.
easily to be equal to the product
and the area of the curve. In general there are forces of the nature of friction which have the effect that. A tan^(2//^) an amount of work equal to "lirA would be done in displacing a particle round any curve surrounding the axis We may express the restriction to which this example of z.
It
is
to
be observed that a function
U may exist
dz
'
which
is
such
that the force {X. a potential. F. For this reason an ordinary machine.
with the same
initial velocity. when periodic motions are performed without friction.9194]
CONSERVATIVE FORCES
95
a particle be guided by a "constraint" to describe. in a conservative field.
it
could be used to drive
perpetual motion.
In a con
servative field the
round any Now if U were of the form closed curve whatever vanishes. might yield up its increment of kinetic energy by striking against
"
By
would then start always from the same initial position Its motion would be periodic. when the initial position is recovered. and subject to natural forces.
work done
in displacing a particle
not only is the points by saying that. and yet it would transfer kinetic energy to an external body. under the
action of the force." The statement that natural fields of force are conservative is included
in the statement that there cannot be a perpetual motion. the kinetic energy is diminished. does not go on for ever. there can be no increment of kinetic energy available for transfer to an external body. a plane closed curve containing the point. after each circuit of ally performs work. the curve. Z) satisfies the equations
' ^
dx
dy
and yet the
field of force
may
not be conservative. Hence every time that the particle moves round the curve it acquires an increment of kinetic
such a system could be devised a machine. but gradually comes to rest.
The work done can be shown
of
2yu. We should then have a
If
energy expressed by this product.
and that the time down any intermediate chord is less. and that.
An ellipse is placed with its minor axis vertical.
3. and a particle interior surface.
Show
that
when two curves
lie
in the
same
intersect. a is the sum of the radii.
4. and k the vertical height of the centre of the former circle above that of the latter. the straight line of quickest descent
. and a second curve is drawn Prove that. passes through the hole. Prove that the 7. Prove that the time of sliding down the latus rectum is the same as that of sliding down the chord drawn from the upper end of the latus rectum to the vertex.
has a small hole at
starts
down a chord from the
Prove
then moves
its lowest point .
A spherical shell
freely.
line
from
between their centres. a point on one vertical circle to another in the same plane is
V{2(c2a2)/^(a+A)}.FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. Prove that the time down the chord of quickest descent from the focus to the curve is V(2a^^sec3^/3). the vertex being the highest point of the axis.
Any
oflf
curve
point. Determine the normal chord of quickest descent when there is no such point.
5.
A parabola is placed in a vertical plane with
its
vertex
downwards and
the vertical at an angle ^.
its axis inclined to
6. and find the radius and position of such a sphere. equal cutting if the second curve now receives a certain vertical displacement.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. at any instant before or after passing through
the hole.
vertical plane and do not from one to the other is such that the normals and the vertical lines through its extremities form a rhombus and further that the centres of curvature at the extremities cannot lie on the segments of the normals included between the verticals. normal chord of quickest descent from the curve to the major axis is that drawn from a point at which the line joining the foci subtends a right angle when there is such a point.
Prove that the time of quickest descent along a straight 1. distances along the normals to the first curve.
A
parabola
is
placed in a vertical plane with its axis inclined to the
vertical at
an angle cos~^§. the time of quickest descent from one curve to the other is independent of the starting
2. the locus of the positions of the particle for different chords of •descent is a sphere.
III.
.
where
c is the distance
is drawn in a vertical plane.
weight of driver. and brake power produces a friction equal to onefifth of the pressure. and another constant value while it is running at full speed.
Two
I
vertical at a distance 2Z
equal parabolas of latus rectum 2? are placed with their axes from each other and with the vertex of the lower at
below the vertex of the higher.xj{h?la) — 2h^ = 0.
mass
m runs from rest at one
station to stop at the next
The full speed is F.
If in
acceleration possible
L. and no work
at full speed. cycloid is placed with its axis vertical and base upwards. the pull of the engine having one constant value while the train is getting up speed.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
97
8..
and another constant value while it is running at full speed prove that the average rate at which the engine works in starting the train is
. and particles starting from various points of the base run down chords of quickest descent to the curve. train starts from rest at one station and stops at the next.
7
.
12. and 2h
A
describing
the vertical height through which a particle would fall freely in the time of . conductor and passengers =35 cwt.
M. Prove that
a depth
line of quickest descent
hjl
= sec
</)
sec^
2</>
= 2^2 cosec ^ sec
2</)
cos ( rr
+ 20)
. average speed of the train.
A train of
I.. where a is the radius of the it. then x^
generating
9. The from the higher to the lower is of length h and makes an angle (^ with the vertical. and the average speed is v.
circle. the convexities being opposed. Prove that the work done by the engine in getting up speed exceeds that done by the brake
in stopping the train
during the whole journey. if x is the length of such a chord.
^Tf.. Prove that.horse omnibus which maintains an average speed of 6 miles an hour without exceeding 7^ miles an hour and slows down to 1 foot per second every hundred yards to
of
= pick up or set down—given the following data weight of 'bus 25 cwt. show that the greater weight cannot be much less than six times the smaller. and that the least
13. The resistance of the rails when the brake is not applied is u Vjlg of the weight of the train. The
brake
horses
is
—
supposed to be applied to one wheel only. each horse of a two. The pull of the engine has one constant value while the train is getting up
at a distance
speed.2A>2/Vi/4
A

11. weight two horses = 30 cwt.
is ^5'n/2.
10.
by (F/y — 1) times the work done by the resistance F and v being respectively the full speed and the
It is required to find in horsepower the average rate of
working
of. and when the brake is applied it is u' Vjlg of the weight of the train.
and in pounds weight the pull exerted by.
is
done by the
when going
to one quarter of the
an Atwood's machine the chain can only support a tension equal sum of the weights at its two ends.
and that the successive amplitudes form a diminishing geometric progression
of which the ratio
is
will is a mass which distributed over the circumference of the pulley the same effect on the motion as the inertia of the actual mechanism. it
under gravity alone. 17. and the axis of each of its normal sections is horizontal.
. which Prove that passes through extremities of major axes of the normal sections. and
period
yiK ^')).
It starts
projected along the circumference of a smooth vertical from the lowest point and leaves the circle before
reaching the highest point. and if the initial velocity is
v/[agr{2+V(3V3)}]. if the coefficient of restitution between the circle and the particle is unity. particle slides under gravity on a smooth parabola whose axis is inclined to the vertical.
a parabola of equal latus rectum. that the of an excursion of amplitude a is
Atwood's machine.
are attached to the chain of an
up and down through two fixed horizontal so that each time one of them passes up through a ring it lifts a bar of rings mass m.
prove that the
paths
lie
on a straight hne whose
inclination to the vertical is tan~i(V5)16. Prove that.
A particle is
circle of radius a. produce
where
/i
15.
A series
particles slide
down the
of vertical circles touch at their highest points. and smooth arcs with the velocity due to falhng from the highest
foci of the free
point
.
Two
equal bodies. Prove that.98
14.
the particle after striking the circle will retrace
its
former path. A particle is placed uix)n it at a height above the axial plane equal to the latus rectum prove that it will run off at the extremity of the latus rectum.
III. while at the same instant the other passes down through its ring and deposits on it a bar of equal mass. Prove. neglecting friction. particle moves on the outside of a smooth elliptic cylinder whose generators are horizontal.
19. if the particle leaves the first parabola at will do so at the point where the normal passes through the intersection
of the directrices of the two parabolas. each of mass
oscillate
J/. starting from rest on the highest generator. and is free to leave it and describe a different parabola
A
all.
it will
A
leave the cylinder at a point whose eccentric angle
e^ coB^(f)
is
given by the
equation
= 3 cos — %
<f)
where
e is
the eccentricity of the normal sections.
A smooth parabolic cyhnder is fixed with its generators horizontal.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
18. and will then describe
.
if. whichvertical. the angle of the spiral must be tani(^/~i tan 6). Show that a body cannot rest on the floor of the carriage unless the coefiicient of friction between the body and the floor exceeds. an equiangular spiral of angle a under the action of a force to the
pole.t
AP
P and
must lie on a AP. and next after that at time ^'TsJ{aa')l{{^la\^a')^g] or ^tt J{aa')l{{>Ja^Ja')]jg}. is
2V(i^r)sin(^±^)^
r
being the distance from the pole. describe
a
circle
under the action of the same
force. Show that they will next be at the same level after a time ^ir >J{aa')/{{y/a+^a')y/g}. if the track is tilted
up
25.
V(/^ + g"^ sin2 a)jg cos a. Prove also
that.
7—2
. is divided between the rails in the ratio grav^h gra\v^h^ and hence that the carriage will upset if v >J{gralh).
T is
the time of a complete oscillation in the tube. comes to a curve in the line.
particles
vertex. with their axes vertices downwards and at the same level. Si After a time t.r
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
20. Two particles start to describe the cycloids from points at the same level. and
F the force at the moment of impact.
22.
moving
in
Prove that the impulse necessary to make a particle of unit mass.
A
PQ
PQ
be a portion of an equiangular
circle
spiral.
A
2a
is
:
>
23. starting from rest at an arcdistance Sg from the Prove that the arcdistance from the vertex of the point where the
meet
27r^
/
//
1
1
2
27rA
where
21. starting from rest at an arcdistance from the vertex.
cycloids are placed in the same vertical plane. Prove that.
99
a smooth cycloidal tube with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. its speed increases at a constant rate /.
24.
railway carriage is travelling on a curve of radius r with velocity the distance between the rails and h is the height of the centre of Show that the weight of the carriage gravity of the carriage above the rails. in passing along must PQ.
Two
and their
ever
is less.
a and
a'
being the radii of the generating
circles.
A
the curve so that
train starts from rest on a level uniform curve. the pressure of the flanges of the wheels on the rails is constant.
and the pole of the
spiral
having its diameter equal to at an angle 6 so that the constant pressure vanishes. starting with a constant acceleration / from a point A of a railway.
and moves round
The outer
rail is
raised so that the floor of a carriage is inclined at an angle a to the horizon. and before the first particle has reached the a second
particle slides
A particle slides down
down the tube
is
vertex.
touching
&. locomotive.
V.
Prove that the new path is independent of the direction of projection.
29.100
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP. Find the position of the axis of the new orbit and show that its eccentricity
is
(e~^c). When the distance. Prove that the direction of to the ellipse an angle cot^e. and prove that the particle will proceed
SE
which makes
to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {26^/(1 +e^)}. moves under a force to a fixed point *S' varying inversely as the square of the PP is the chord through the other focus of the path. when its radius vector is half the latus rectum it receives a blow which makes it move towards the other focus with a momentum equal to that of the blow.
A particle of mass m is projected from a point P with velocity V and 27. Find the generated by the blow.
the kinetic energy is increased by wi V^RI{4a R) by a particle reaches being the distance SP and 2a the major axis of the tangential impulse. and when
it is
at
one end of the latus rectum
receives a blow which
confocal hyperbola. orbit.
A
Sy in
and when
direction
particle is describing an ellipse about a centre of force in one focus it is at the end of the further latus rectum it receives a blow
E
momentum
it move at right angles to SE.
makes it describe a the blow makes with the
the eccentricity of the
is
.
A particle is describing
it
an
ellipse
about a focus S.
P
—
R
28. where e tangent
ellipse.
III.
A particle is describing an ellipse of eccentricity e about a focus and 26.
It consists in equating the product of the mass of the particle and its resolved acceleration in any direction to the resolved part
described in Article
The equations thus of the force acting upon it in that direction.
The method
of
formation of the equations of motion has been 64.
Diversity can arise. in regard to the formation of the equations. or we may resolve along the radius vector from the origin to a particle. The lefthand member of arrived at are differential equations.CHAPTER
IVt.
asterisk (*)
marked with an
may be
omitted
reading.
member
is. a given function of geometrical quantities. and to constrained and resisted motions taking We confine our place under forces which are not all given.
Formation of equations of motion.
right angles particular cases are determined
+ Articles in this Chapter which are in a
first
by the circumstances. referring respectively to motions
We
under given forces.
.
Although
there are
many
cases in which equations of this kind can be
solved. This part of our subject divides itself into two main branches.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. there exists no general
method
for solving
them.
attention in the present Chapter to motions under given forces.
The
down
in previous
application of the principles which have been laid Chapters to the discussion of the motions of
particles in particular circumstances
is the part of our subject " shall devote usually described as Dynamics of a Particle. only from the choice of different directions in which
Thus we may
resolve parallel to the axes of reference. and in directions at right angles thereto. to resolve. or again we may resolve
at along the tangent to the path of a particle and in directions The most suitable directions to choose in thereto.
96. The righthand in general.
95." to it the two following Chapters. any equation contains differential coefficients of geometrical
quantities with respect to the time.
A.
^dh
If we multiply these component accelerations in order by the direction cosines of the tangent and add.
(^^j
(^^j
+(^j
the direction cosines of the principal normal directed towards the centre of
curvature are pr^t
P^i
PT2^
satisfying the relation
where p
. are satisfymg the relation
We
of a curve and
._ dx _+. ^.. . we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the principal normal directed towards the centre of curvature we thus find for this component the expression
.
*97.
Methods by which the components of acceleration in chosen directions can be expressed in terms of suitable geometrical quantities have been Further illustrations are given in the next exemplified in Arts.
'
dv d^x ^=. y.
dvr(dx\^ + (dyY
(dz\n
2
(dx d^x
^
dy d^y
. writing v for the speed. in the sense in which s dx dy dz . fdxV' ^.
v'^
. . PARTICLE
UNDER GIVEN FORCES
[CHAP.
•
. so that v stands for
.
and the direction cosines of the
d^x dz\
dhdy\
(dHdx
(d'^xdy
d^ydx\
We
recall also the relation j
ds ds^
y^
+ ^ ds
. "^UvJ^' Kdsd^^^dsdT^^d^d^)^
^^•
Again.r.
recall the facts that. if
s
.
We
have. increases.
the radius of circular curvature
(di^ydz
.
MOTWN^aF. we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the tangent to the curve in the sense in which s increases we thus find
. ds
In the expressions x.
^.
Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve.
dz
dh\
dv
^^
V^. 36 and 43. z are the rectangular coordinates of a point the arc measured from some particular point of the curve to the point (^.
IV.
is
. z for the component accelerations parallel to the axes we change the independent variable from t to s.f
ds^
+ ^ ds^ t^=0. + (dy\^ (dz\^ =1.
d fdx\ _ds cl /ds dx\ _ d dx\ f ^~df.. y. z\ the direction cosines of the tangent.
s.
^.
v*LU. i/.
for this
component the expression
.
two
Articles.102
. „ .~dt \dt)~dtds \di d^)~^dsyd^)
d^x
c^ that 80 k«4.__.
^d^Vdxd^xdy
d^y
dz
dhl
F/d'xy ^
fdW /dWl
.. if we multiply by the direction cosines of the principal normal and add..
„
dv dy
„^i
„
d^y
••
dv dz
.
9698]
EXPRESSIONS FOR COMPONENT ACCELERATIONS
103
and add,
we
Finally, if we multiply by the direction cosines of the binormal find no component acceleration parallel to the binormal.
Thus the
osculating plane of the curve,
acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve is in the and its resolved parts parallel to the
tangent
and principal normal are vr and
a plane curve.
—
,
exactly as in the case of a point describing
As
in that case, the expression for the former
v,
component
may
be replaced by
or
by
s.
^98.
Polar coordinates in three dimensions.
The
co
ordinates are r the distance from the origin, 6 the angle between the radius vector and the axis 2, ^ the angle between the plane containing the radius
vector and the axis z and a fixed plane drawn through the axis
z.
The plane containing the
"meridian plane," and the
the "meridian."
radius vector and the axis z will be called the
circle in
which this plane cuts a sphere
so that ar = rsin
r= const,
We denote distance from
the axis
z
by
or,
B.
In a plane parallel to the plane (.r, y), or and are plane polar coordinates ; in the meridian plane z and oj are Cartesian coordinates, and r and 6 are plane polar coordinates.
Hence the velocity {x^ y) parallel to the plane (^, y) is equivalent to at right angles to the axis z in the meridian plane, and ot^ at right angles to this plane ; and the velocity (i, y, z) is equivalent to (i, w) in the meridian plane and tzr0 at right angles to this plane. Also the velocity (i, w) in this
plane is equivalent to r along the radius vector and r6 along the tangent to the meridian. The components of velocity are therefore
f along the radius vector,
r6 along the tangent to the meridian,
w
r sin 64) at I'ight angles to the meridian plane.
The
and
accelerations
J (or^A) in
is
i?,
y
parallel to the axes x^
y
are equivalent to iisw^'^
—
ZET
at
and perpendicular
to the
meridian plane.
z, zs
Hence the
acceleration
equivalent to z parallel to the axis
 w^^
at right angles
to the axis z
and in the meridian plane,
"uH
r. {'^'^4>)
dt
^* ^^g^* angles to the
meridian plane.
Taking the components 2, ot, which are in the meridian plane and are these are equivalent to parallel and perpendicular to the axis z, we see that
rrB'^ along the radius vector and

the jii^^) along
tangent
to
the
meridian.
104
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES
 tc^^^ which
is in
[CHAP. IV.
We resolve the acceleration
 1«7^2 cos B.
r
the meridian plane and at
radius vector right angles to the axis s, into components parallel to the These components are  tiT(^2 gj^ ^ to the tangent to the meridian.
and ^nd
Hence the components of
acceleration are
 r&^  r sin^ 0^^ along the
f]
=
radius vector,

1
(r^B)
 r sin B
cos 6^"^ along the tangent to the meridian,
——
:
rainBdt
99.
lir (r2sin2^(f)) at right angles to ^ ° ^ ^^
the meridian plane. ^
ever there
Integration of the equations of motion. Whenis an energy equation (Art. 91) it is an integral of the
the particle moves in a straight line under conservative energy equation expresses the velocity in terms of the
is
equations of motion.
When
forces the
position; and the position at
any
Ex.
1
position, in Art. 55.
any time, or the time of reaching determined by integration. For an example see
When the particle does not move in a straight line other integrals of the equations are requisite before the position at any time can be determined. If there is an equation of constancy of
momentum
(Art. 83), or of
moment
of
momentum
(Art. 85), these
also are integrals of the equations of motion. These, with the energy equation, are sometimes sufficient to
combined
determine
the position at any time. Examples are afforded by the parabolic motion of projectiles and by elliptic motion about a focus.
100.
Example.
Deduce the result that the path of a particle moving freely under gravity is a parabola from the equation expressing the constancy of the horizontal component of momentum and the energy equation.
101.
Motion of a body attached to a string or spring.
Simple examples of Dynamics of a Particle are afforded by problems of the motion of a body attached to an extensible string
or spring. line of the
We
consider cases in which the particle
moves
in the
string or spring (supposed to be a straight line).
When
+
the mass of the string
which the mass
is
is
neglected f, and there
is
is
no
A
string of
neglected
often called a
«'
thread."
98101]
friction
FORCES PRODUCING SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
acting upon
VI.).
it,
105
it
the
tension
is
constant throughout
(Chapter
the length of a string can change there is a particular which corresponds to a state of zero tension. This state length is called the "natural state/' and the corresponding length the
When
"natural length."
Let
Iq
be the natural length,
I
the length in any state.
The
quantity
— lo)/lo {I
is
called the
"
extension."
The law
connecting the tension
and
the extension is that the
If e is the extension, the tension is proportional to the extension. This tension is equal to the product of e and a certain constant.
constant
If,
is
called the
"
modulus of
"
elasticity
of the string.
in the course of any motion of an extensible string, the
and string recovers its natural length, the tension becomes zero, " attached to the string is the string becomes slack." particle
A
then free from force exerted by the string until the length again comes to exceed the natural length.
A
string which exerts tension, but
is
never sensibly extended,
must be thought of as an ideal limit to which an extensible string modulus \ approaches when the extension e tends to zero, and the a way that the product Xe is the tends to become infinite, in such Such a string would be described as finite tension of the string.
"
inextensible."
A
spring,
an extensible the same multiple of the contraction
;
when extended, exerts tension in string when contracted, it exerts
the same
way
is
as
is
pressure which
 1)1 (lo
lo
as the tension
of
the extension.
end is fixed, and body attached to a spring, of which one moveable in the line of the spring, is subject to a force equal to " called the strength of the spring," and fix, where /a is a constant X is the displacement of the body from the position in which the When the length is increased by x has its natural
A
spring the force
pressure.
length.
is
tension;
when
it
is
diminished by x the force
is
a*
The
of the body, considered as equation of motion
is
particle of
mass m,
mx = — fix.
It follows that the
motion of the particle
is
simple harmonic
motion of period
2'ir\J{mjfi).
106
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
may
also be obtained
IV.
This result
by forming the energy equation.
For
the work done by the force in the displacement
x
is
I
or
it is
;
— \ixdx^
of the body, treated as a particle, is
\ma^.
 ^/Lur2 and the kinetic energy Hence the energy equation is
^^n^2 ^ ^^2
result that
— const.,
and the
x
is
of the form a cos {^^/(/i/m)+a} can He obtained by
integrating this equation.
102.
1.
Examples.
A
particle of
mass
r/i
thread, of natural length a
fixed points.
Prove that,
is attached to the middle point of an elastic and modulus X, which is stretched between two if no forces act on the particle other than the
tensions in the parts of the thread, it can oscillate in the line of the thread with a simple harmonic motion of period TrJimajX).
is attached to one end of an elastic thread, of 2. particle of mass The natural length a and modulus X, the other end of which is fixed. particle is displaced until the thread is of length « + 6, and is then let go.
A
m
Prove that,
if
no forces act on the particle except the tension of the thread,
a time 2f7r +
it
will return to the starting point after
2T)^/Y"
3.
Prove that,
if
elastic thread
and
let fall
a body is suddenly attached to an unstretched vertical under gravity, the greatest subsequent extension is
twice the statical extension of the thread
4.
when supporting the
body.
Prove that,
is
force
a spring is held compressed by a given force and the suddenly reversed, the greatest subsequent extension is three times
if
the initial contraction.
5. An elastic thread of natural length a has one end fixed, and a particle attached to the other end, the modulus of elasticity being n times the weight of the particle. The particle is at first held with the thread hanging
is
vertically and of length a', and is then let until it returns to its initial position is
go from
rest.
Show
that the time
2
(tt
 ^ + ^' + tan ^  tan
6')
Jiajng),
where
d, 0'
are acute angles given by
sec
«=
na'/a
w—1
,
sec^ 6'
=
sec'^
6  4n,
and
a' is
so great that real values of these angles exist.
103.
The problem
of central orbits.
some
detail
vestigated this problem in
in Arts.
49
—
We
52.
have already inWe found that
a particle moving under a central force directed to a fixed point, moves in a fixed plane which contains the centre of force and the tangent to the path
101104]
at
THE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS
instant.
107
any chosen
We
found that the equations of motion could
be expressed in the form
 d m (r  r^2) = _ m/, ^ 1 ^ {rH) =
where
m is the mass of the
is
particle,
taken to be an attraction.
We suppose
and / is the intensity of the field of force, that /is given as a function of r.
The energy equation
hn {r^ + rW^) = const. — m
j
fdr^
and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum about an the centre of force at right angles to the plane of motion is
axis through
mr^0=mh,
where A
is
a constant which represents twice the rate of description of area
vector.
by the radius
We
found that these equations lead to the equation
^ is a constant, pressed in terms of u.
where
u
is
written for 1/r, and / is now supposed to be exThis equation determines the path of the particle.
particle starts from a point at a distance a F, in a direction making an angle a
is
When / is
given,
and the
from the centre of
with a velocity with the radius vector, the value of h
force,
T5 )
Fa
sin
a.
The
initial
value of
+ M^ is
1 /a2
sin2 a, for it is the reciprocal of the
square of the perpendicular
from the origin of r upon the tangent to the path. the path takes the form
"^ "^
Hence the equation of
~
a2 sin2 a
[dej
V^a^ sin^ a J i u^
a
6,
When the path is known, so that u becomes a known function of time of describing any arc of the path is the value of the integral
u^ I.
the
d0 Va sin a
'
taken between limits for 6 which correspond to the ends of the
arc.
104.
Apses.
Au
apse
is
a point of a central orbit at which
the tangent is at right angles to the radius vector.
a theory concerning the distribution of the apses when the central acceleration is a singlevalued function of the on distance, i.e. for the case where the acceleration depends only
There
is
the distance and
is
distance. always the same at the same
108
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
Let
IV.
A
be an apse on a central orbit described about a point 0, / the central acceleration, supposed a
^
x'<
>T
singlevalued function of distance,
TAT'
a line through A at right angles to AO. Then a point starting from A at right angles to AO with a certain velocity
would describe the
velocity.
orbit.
Let
V
be this
V
p
in direction
If a point starts from with velocity or AT, and has the
A
AT
gg
acceleration /* towards 0, it describes the orbit so that two points starting from
;
A
two directions with the same velocity F and the same Since the two points have acceleration / describe the same orbit. the same acceleration at the same distance, the curves they describe are clearly equal and similar, and are symmetrically placed
in these
with respect to the line AO. Thus the orbit is symmetrical with respect to AO in such a way that chords drawn across
it
orbit
line
at right angles to on either side of
^0 are bisected by AO. The parts ^0 are therefore optical images
of the
in the
AO.
Now
let
the point start from A in direction AT, and let B be the next apse of the orbit that it passes through, also let A' be the next apse after B
BOA'
OB, passes through. Then the parts of the orbit are optical images in the line OB, and the angle is equal to the
that
it
A
AOB
angle A' OB, and the line J.0 is equal to the line A'O. In the same way the next
^ig 37.
apse the point passes through will be at a distance from equal to OB, and thus all the are at distances from apses equal
to either
OA or 0B\ these are called the apsidal distances, and the angle between consecutive apses in the order in which the
moving point passes through them
is
always equal to
AOB,
this
is
called the apsidal angle.
The theory
just explained
is
usually stated in the form
:
—
Thei^e are two apsidal distances
and one apsidal
angle.
104106]
APSES OF CENTRAL ORBITS
109
It is clear that the radius vector is a periodic function of the vectorial angle with period twice the apsidal angle.
105.
1.
Examples.
If the apsidal distances are equal the orbit is a circle described
about
its centre.
for (1) elliptic motion (3) all the orbits that
Write down the lengths of the apsidal distances and the apsidal angle about the centre, (2) elliptic motion about a focus, can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance.
2.
an
Explain the following paradox: Four real normals can be drawn to ellipse from a point within its evolute, and in Ex. 6 of Art. 46 we found
3.
;
—
the central acceleration to any point requisite for the description of an ellipse there are apparently in this case four apsidal distances and four apsidal
angles.
106.
Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit.
Let the
central acceleration be f{r) at distance r, then a circle of radius c described about its centre is a possible orbit with \h for rate of
describing area provided that
i
©/<•>•
or
h'=(ff{c).
Let us suppose the point to be at some instant near to the circle, and to be describing an orbit about the origin with moment
of
momentum
specified
by
this h.
is
The equation
of its path
d^
At the
precisely , c
_f{r)
u
is
instant in question
nearly equal to
;
if it
was
and
if
the point was moving at right angles to the
radius vector, the point would describe the circle of radius c. assume that it is always so near to the circle that the difiference
We
u
c
is
so small that
we may
neglect
its
square
;
the investigation
is
we
condition this assumption give will determine under what
justifiable.
Put u =  + a; and write
<^
(u) for /(r),
and a
for , so that
h?=(}>{a)la\
small enough so that the greatest value of x is A.
when
For
= u''.
will
be a periodic function of 6
i^
>
*^^ ^^^^^
nearly circular and
angle
/ /fo is tt/ . /
a<i>'{a)\
77^
Again. and by taking X will be as small as we please and the neglect of x^ will be
justified. and find the orbit
described by a point moving with the moment of momentum required for circular motion in a circle of radius c through a point near the circle.
107.110
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
IV.
.
In the former of these cases the circular motion
stable. so that x will very
it
is
soon be so great that its square can no longer be neglected.a).
Examples.^7M 9
W
is
positive
we may put
is
it
equal to
/c^
and
then the solution of the above equation
of the form
x
=A
cos {icB
4.
1. n = 3 prove that the circular orbit is unstable.
Then
d^
_ a^<l> (a + os)
1
<f>{a)
if a^ is
neglected.
A
In this case
with period
its apsidal
u.
if
Now
3
. whatever the number we agree to neglect may be.
if
3
r^ \ 9(a)
negative
we may put
is
it
equal to
—
/c^
and then the
solution of the above equation
of the form
and
clear that one of the terms increases in geometrical progression whether 6 increases or diminishes. In this case
the orbit tends to depart widely from the circular form. prove that the possible circular orbits are n<3 and unstable when w>3.
and therefore
27r /*
/]3
—?r7\\
—
j3
is
r. in
is
said to be
the latter unstable.
If /(r)=:r~" or <f>{u)
stable
2.
RADIAL AND TRANSVERSAL RESOLUTION
111
= r~* prove that the curve described with the moment of required for circular motion in a circle of radius c.
d
V
\do)
de^"" dO
where
d
dd
y^
stands for
.
4. in general h is variable.
particle
which moves in one plane are R. The equation of the can be found by eliminating h between the equations path
3.
moves under the action of forces to two fixed points A. When the radial and transverse components of force acting on a 1.
T. where r and r' are the
particle of
A
mass
m
.
the equation
of the path can be written in the form
dV_
.
2.
Examples of motion under several central
forces. m/x'/^^ respectively.
an energy equation
\m (r2 + r^e^) = m V+ const.
.
1. Examples of equations of motion expressed in terms of polar coordinates. the equations of
motion are
2.
r
^ + dd 506 du
t^
d
du
d
•
109. when the point of projection is near to or on this circle.106109]
3.""*.
When
the forces are derived from a potential.
Put 7^B — h^ u=r~^. A' of magnitudes m/i/r^. is either the circle r=c or one of the curves
If /(r)
momentum
r_cosh^4l ""
c
cosh
6^
'
r_cosh^l ~ c cosh ^ + 2
'
108. as in Ex.
When
the forces are derived from a potential
V we
have
R = m^:^ cr
and there
is
.
be described under the action of all the forces. Prove that a lemniscate rr' =c^^ where 2c is the distance between the points from which r and r' are measured.
is
must
4. '""'d^'^'^'ds'
Vk^ _J! Pic
point.
The
= a in cos 6
fi'
cos
6')
+ const.
/a'
IV. p the radius
of curvature
and ds the element of arc of the curve at the
dVK _ dVK J.
.
similarly
r^
j {r'H')
^. given plane curve can be described by a particle under central forces Prove that it can to each of n given points. Vk the velocity of the particle at any point when the curve is
.
2.
we have an equation of
Multiplying by the given form.
described under this force.
distances of the particle from A and A\ and \i.
6'
and
adding.
r.112
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. there is an integral equation of the form
that
/ir2^+/xy2^'= const. where x
/2
is
the angle
APA\
so that
_ (^2^) = ^V sin X = /*'« sin
.
fixed
Prove.t
6'. provided that the particle is
A
properly projected./xa sin 0. when the forces act separately. with the notation of Ex. and integrating.
Then we
are given that
J'J'Vk'
all
Now
velocity
the curve can be described under
the forces
if
there exists a
V
satisfying the
^
two equations
dV_ n dvK ds~V~d^'
by
I
V^npK
~P~V"^'
and
it is
clear that these are satisfied
V'^'S. and that the velocity is
constant and equal to
§K/(3/i).
A
particle of
mass
m
moves under the action
of forces to
two
1.. points of magnitudes my^r^ mii'r'.
3./ir' sin = .
This equation with the energy equation determines the motion.
= .Vk^
Thus the condition
be the
sum
that the kinetic energy when all the forces act of the kinetic energies when they act separately.
we have
Resolving at right angles to the radius vector
ni
_
_ (^^)_wi ^ sin X. and the form equations of motion possess an integral of
T^r'^B'
are constants.
centre
Let /k be the acceleration produced in the particle by the force to the (cth 0<t. can be described under the action of forces m^jr and w/*// directed to those points.
where a
is
the distance
A A'. r^ the distance of the point from Ok and p* the perpendicular from Ok on the tangent to the curve at the point.
eccentricity by
are determined
Tangential impulse. particle describes a plane orbit under the action of two central forces each varying inversely as the square of the distance. at a distance r
point describes a semiellipse.
111. each varying inversely as the square of the distance. and the angle in question by cr. describing an orbit about a focus S.
/2
1
L. r) equation of the orbit.
We
shall consider here
some examples of
elliptic
motion
dis
turbed by small impulses in lines which lie in the plane of the orbit. e. compounded of two. and / a constant. Although the Sun's gravitational attraction preponderates very greatly oyer the attractions between the Planets.
M. and a and b
are constants. Let a particle P. 2 of Art. directed towards
A
two points symmetrically situated
orbit. by Ex.
a
+
Sa the semiaxis major of the orbit imme
diately after the impulse.
velocity. 48.109111]
SEVERAL CENTRAL FORCES
113
5. The ellipses.
We
have. The
theory of the motion of the Planets presents us with the problem of determining a motion which. and its from the nearer focus. the eccentricities. receive a small tangential impulse elliptic Let be the distance of the increasing its velocity by Sv.
R
particle from
S
at the instant.
Disturbed
elliptic
motion.
8
.
The motion
of the Planets
about the Sun
does not take place exactly in accordance with
Kepler's Laws (Art. apart from relatively small forces.
A
tending to the nearer focus. and the other from the farther focus. Prove that its acceleration is 2a being the axis major.
by the lengths of the major axes. The ellipse described after the impulse is a little different from that described before. bounded by the axis minor. one
6.
/^/r^
the acceleration to
S when
the distance
is r.
110. having a given focus. these attractions are not entirely negligible. is €ts/{f{ar}lr{'2ar)]. the the plane of the orbit. 41). and the angles which the apse lines make with some fixed line in We denote the major axis by a. would be elliptic motion about a focus.
in a line perpendicular to the plane of the that the general (p. referred to the point where the line joining the centres of force meets the plane as origin. is of the form
Show
where
c is
the distance of either centre of force from the plane.
impulse. .
.
giving
Ba ~ = 2vBv approximately.
with
Ji'
= fil.
Again.
we have
fjL{l
+ Bl) = h'(l +
Bl
jj
. h
altered.
^
.114
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.^) a vBv
fjL
Bv]
=1
— e^Bv
e
a
\v^
ifjL
l"!
.
.2€aBe = 2a (1 .e
2Bv \Bv
/I
1\
Be
Further the angle 6 which
given by the equation l/R
SP makes with the axis major = 1 + e cos ^ and it is clear that Be = .
Hence
if
I
is
the semilatus rectum before the impulse. and if e becomes e + Be.e^) Bv (1
giving
or
(1.
giving
=
21
Bv — approximately.
I
is
hence
BllR
=
^(j^l^^esm6Bx^. 39.
if
+
of the velocity about S before the since the tangent to the path is unBh afterwards.B^.
vj
V
a]
1
.
I
+ Bl
afterwards.e^) Ba .
IV.
Now l = a(l — e^).
h
is
the
moment
we have
h
V
+ Bh _h
{
Bv
v'
giving
Fig.
.rdv sin Ofav.
= dv{r{e + cose) + lcose}/h.
For a small tangential impulse prove that
8e
= 2bv{e+cose)lv.p'')
.
Normal impulse. Then the resultant velocity is.
2. so that
sJ{R^
.
so that
. 8^= . 8—2
. or we
If
p
have
Bh==^{R'p^^)Bv.111113]
DISTURBED ELLIPTIC MOTION
115
If the particle is subject to a disturbing force producing a small tangential acceleration / we shall have
'
fjL
V
e\R
e
a
e sin
.
Hence
also
Bl = —
= 2hBh = 2pvBv fiBl
2aeBe.
fjLCie
Again.
Cfi.
and consequently a
is
is
unaltered.
For a small normal impulse prove that
8e=.
Suppose the particle to receive an
impulse imparting to it a velocity Bv in the direction of the normal outwards.^
l)
7 + ^ ^^^ ^^^•
producing a small
If the particle is subject to a disturbing force
normal acceleration
/ we have
^ ^^'"^^ =
«
= ^'
^
=
nfv
/2ae
l
— R\
^e'^^^'P'^
n:B'^^'
113.
8e
= ASv sin ^//x. = 2lf efl 0^ yc^
M
V
112. sin ^/ev. unaltered.
drzr
6tzr = 2S2.
Examples. to the first order.
1.2aeBelR =
(. then the value of h is increased by PYBv..
= 8v {2ae + r cos e)laev.
4. or Ba
=
0.
IjR = 1 + e cos 6.
= 8v sin 6 (I +r)leh. meeting it in F.
3.
For'a small radial impulse prove that
8a = 2a%Svsiu^/A.
the perpendicular from the focus S on the tangent at P.h8v cos 6/
dizr
For a small transversal impulse prove that
8e
da=2Sm2(Hecos^)/A.
IV.
7.
1. Prove that the acceleration with which the distance between the points increases is inversely
proportional to the cube of that distance.116
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. prove that
the acceleration at right angles to it varies as the hyperbolic sine of the angle between it and a fixed straight line.
the angle which the
tangent makes with a fixed straight
.
Relatively to a certain frame. and
<f>
the angle which the tangent to
its
path makes with
that of 0.
F
is
the velocity of P. and a second point a way that the line OP describes areas uniformly prove that the resolved part perpendicular to OP of the acceleration of P is 2 Vv sin (fyjOP^ where v
.
Kelatively to a certain frame a point
describes a straight line
describes a curve in such uniformly with velocity F. and find the path of either point relative to the other.
moving uniformly
.
6.
A
particle is describing
an involute of a given curve
.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
If the area covered
by the
line
AB
is
resolved part parallel to
perpendicular from
OA B on OA
of the velocity of
described uniformly. The motion of each of two points relative to a certain frame is uniform rectilinear motion.
prove that
{s\jr)
its
accelerations along the tangent
respectively.
and normal
to its path are
a/a
~
and 5^2
where
s is
the arc of the given curve.
A
particle is
moving
in a parabola
its
and at distance
r
from the focus
its velocity is
v
.
4. and a point B moves with an acceleration always directed to A. and the line joining the point to the position of the particle at any time is normal to the path of the particle prove that the path of the particle relative to the point is a conic.
5. prove that the is proportional to the
B
produced. and the straight paths intersect.
show that
and t j(
acceleration is
compounded of
—
4r dr^
— (v^r)
'
parallel to the axis
—
]
along the radius vector outwards.
2.
A
particle
moves with an acceleration always directed
to a point
in a straight line.
3.
line. a point A describes a circle (centre 0) uniformly.
A
particle
from a
fixed point
moves so that the angular velocity of the radius vector and the acceleration along it are both constant.
cosjB=0. and a> is the angular velocity of
..
usin
C^sin
a ~v8in B=ca)j A < Fsin B=ca>.xrf X {f^ . 2.
12. show that the component accelerations are
u + —.
i/r
if
the acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve
>//
makes an angle
with the principal normal.
w. r.yco . prove that the accelerations in the directions of the axes are
i. r have their 11. Oy revolve with uniform angular and the component velocities of a point {x.cu)'^. t.
u.
fixed lines containing
position of a point is given by the perpendiculars ^.
velocity are Ajx
if rectangular axes Ox. then the square of the distance of the point from the origin
Prove that. V.
AB
prove that
mcos^+?. V.
13. then tan
=^
V as
^
. where x^ 3/.ra) 
w^y. CB of a triangle are fixed in position.
co.
14.0)% and y + ^^o) + 2. UcosA+ Fcos B=. and the side of constant length c.=
d^\r
must
be
satisfied at
every point.
10. usual signification relative to rectangular axes.
9.
parallel to the axis of ^.x^)
'
n_r{rr
— xx){r'^ — x^) — {rx—xrf
{r^x'^f
~x
The position of a point is given by x. y. y) parallel to the axes and Bjy. The sides (7/1.
Prove that the component accelerations of a moving particle are and R perpendicular to the radius vector. If x^ y are the coordinates of a point referred to rectangular axes turning with angular velocity «.
AB
is
V.
directions
rj
are
(i
+ '7C0Sa)/sin''^a
and
(^
+ ^cosa)/sin2a.
V H
.
The
^.2yo) .
— x^) — {rx .
117
Prove that. where
X
y_rT{r^
.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
8.
. on two an angle a prove that the component velocities in the
.
w being component
velocities in the directions x^ y.
In the case of a plane curve the condition that the acceleration
directed to the
is
always
same point
is
that the equation sin^/rf7^ as
^
^
t.
. The velocities of A and B along CA and CB are u and the corresponding accelerations are U.
increases uniformly with the time.[uicx + vwy)lr\
r.
Prove that the period
is the same as that of a simple pendulum of length equal to the excess of the length of the thread in the position of equilibrium above its natural length. and the velocities in these directions are UiyV^] prove that the accelerations in the same directions are
The radii vectores from three fixed points to the position of a particle 18. the maximum is the greatest root of the equation
+ ^^sin2a = 0. it receives a blow.
»
and the two similar expressions. rj drawn to the instantaneous positions of Oxj Oi/.) 4. in which ^23) ^31 by the directions of {r^.
on a
circle
16. r^. which. prove that the component velocities UfV in these dii*ections are given by
« = (I f ^ cos a)/sin'^a + cor] /si na\
r = (.
X — <iiX cot a — <oy cosec a.
Two
o)
velocity
about
axes Ox^ Oy are inclined at an angle a and rotate with angular Show that the component velocities are 0. and the velocities in these directions are u^.
length
table.118
15.
Two
fixed points are taken
.
A
20.
them.
circle is
. 2^2? ^3. are n.
r. ^2. «i+««2C0Sa=ri. Prove that.
and any point on the
.w^/sin a )
'
and that the component accelerations fire u — (jiU cot a\oiV cosec a.
y + cay cot a + (ox cosec a. The radii vectores from two fixed points distant c apart to the position of a particle are ri.r3
the direction of the blow makes an angle a with the thread.
the other end of which
When
if
length of the thread during the motion
ar*2/. u^i prove where W2 + %cosa = r2.
^12
are the angles contained
19.^ cos a)/sin2a . particle is suspended from a point by an elastic thread and oscillates in the vertical line through the point of suspension. /•2.
A
?.
y
+ a)V cot a — (nu cosec a.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. ri) and (ri.^. the radii vectores r^ r^ containing an angle a that the component velocities in the directions of rx and ^2 are ^tj.
at distances
rj
^''O™
and that the component accelerations
in the
same
directions are
17.
particle
is
attached to one end of an elastic thread of natural
is fixed to a point on a smooth horizontal the particle is at rest on the table.
If the position of a point is defined by the perpendiculars . if directed along the thread would make the particle move to a maximum distance 21 from the fixed end. with the thread straight but unstretched.
.
IV. r^). prove that the accelerations in these directions are
wi
+ wi — + (
^
)
(W2 cos ^12
+ % cos ^13). ^s. {r^.
and the initial velocity ^fi/a at right angles to the radius vector.
25.aH^) and the particle is pro26.
29.
is
r=a (1 — 2 sin 6). each ring being at a distance from the fixed end of the thread which passes through it equal to the natural length of the thread.
from
prove that
it
describes the curve
r=a coshnO. determine the orbit. it describes
an
ellipse
about
its
position of equilibrium as centre.
moves in a nearly circular orbit with an acceleration a being the mean radius.
24. Prove that the path
?
= a3coth2^.
A
heavy particle
is
fastened to the free ends of a
number
of elastic
threads which passed through fixed smooth rings.
is
the
mean angular
velocity. and that the particle can describe the curve
A
r = a{4 — cos
22. the time until the jected from an apse at distance a with velocity Vm/«.
6).
A
particle
moving with a central
acceleration
fi{zc'^
+ 2au^)
starts
from a point at distance a from the origin in a direction making an angle with the velocity from infinity. show that the apsidal angle is
where
at
7ro)/V(3a>2j/). particle is attached to a fixed point by means of an elastic thread of natural length 3a.
If the central acceleration is /xw' the velocities at the
Vi^
two apsidal
distances satisfy the relation
+ V2'^=2h*lfi. the initial
distance a.
A
particle
fj. whose coefficient of elasticity is six times the weight of the particle. if the particle is projected in any
direction.
23.
If the central acceleration is 2/x {u^ .
A particle describes
a central orbit with acceleration
^[4(a/r)9 + (a/r)332(r/a)3]. Show (n cot 12) with the radius vector and
that the equation of the path
28.
i" a direction starting from a point for which r=a with velocity 3V(2«/a) is making an angle ^tt with the radius vector. the particle is projected horizontally with a velocity S^/i^ag).
A
tion fiu^in^+l^Ti^a^u^). verify that the angular velocity of the thread can be constant.^p(^i^a). Prove that. distance is r is
27. When the thread is at its natural length.
velocity
with acceleraparticle describes a central orbit about the origin starting from an apse at distance a with the
infinity
.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
119
21.
If the central
acceleration
is
fi[2(a^ + b'^)io^2a%^u^].
. and the particle
is vertically above the point of attachment.
under an attraction
^fi{nl) «»'
will an*ive at the centre in
3
>•»
+ Xr3. power of the distance (w>l). given by the equation
Prove that the
^=tanh32
.Un^J{{r
a)/a]. to the radius vector.
IV.
36.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.a)^ towards particle describes a central orbit the velocity from infinity at a distance c (which is starting with
greater than
path
is
a and less than 2a) at an angle 2cos\/(a/c).
35. a force tending to a fixed point and varying inversely as the nth power of the Prove that if n is not < 3 the particle will ultimately fall into the distance. if a possible orbit under a central force possible orbit under a central force (f){r) + \r~^ can be found. and the direction of projection makes an angle/? with the
2
Prove that the maximum distance is radius vector of length R.
A
the origin. where V is the potential. from a point where r=^a with velocity iJ{2fi)/a^ at an inclination starting Prove that its path is sini 4.
centre of force.la^r''^). Prove that.a)/a} .
R cosecws
is
/3
Prove that the time of describing any part of a central orbit
/.
with acceleration /i/(r .
A particle describes a central
l^ = av'3y(4r2a2).
C and
h are
(r) is
known.2r^a ~ ^)
starts from a point distant A a from the origin in direction making an angle tan ~* 27/125 with the radius vector with such velocity that the rate of descripShow that the equation of the orbit is tion of areas is k. a
In particular prove that a particle projected from an apse at distance a with velocity v/(X +/*)/«.120
30.
A particle is projected with velocity less than that from infinity under 33. and constants depending on the initial conditions.
31.V{2r2((7+F)A2}'
taken between appropriate limits.
1
^{{r
.
A particle moves under a central force varying inversely as the nth 34.
orbit with acceleration fi{r^ . when n>3j and that the particle goes to infinity if u= or <3. the velocity of projection is that due to a fall from rest at infinity.
A particle moving with a central acceleration 4^2 (2r ~ ^ — 3ra ~*.
(
w > 3).
time
.
projected from an apse on the initial line at distance c with velocity show that the next apsidal distance is c/(l+3ic). Prove that the apsidal distances are the real positive roots of the
Vq
equation for r
WV2/(Vsin2ar2)=^V.
prove that a
first integral
T=^fi2iHm20.
under a radial force
A particle moves in a plane
where
F and
a transverse
force
T
P=HU^ (3 + 5 cos 26). and a small increment of velocity Aw is given to it in the direction of motion.
40. if the increment of velocity imparted to the particle directed radially. the apsidal distances are approximately
a±Au
V{3/(a)+a/(a)}
39.
the work done by the central attractive force (per unit of mass) as the particle moves from the point of projection to any point at distance r from
where
W
is
the centre of force. Prove that the
A
apsidal distances of the disturbed orbit are
3/"
(a)
+ «/(«)
is
Prove also that.
^)2
Show
that the orbit
is
one of the conies given by the
= a + 6 cos 2 (6 + a).
equation (cu + cos
41.
38. from a point at distance ?*q in a direction making an angle a with the radius vector.
42.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
121
A particle moves under a central force and is projected with velocity 37.
A
particle
moves under a central
force
fi
{I
+ 8k cos 20)
/)'^
being
. particle is describing a circular orbit of radius a under a force to the centre producing an acceleration /(r) at distance r.
y/ifi/c)
A particle
moves under a central force proportional
to u^ {cu + cos $)~^
towards the centre.
of the differential equation of the path can be
expressed in the form

h^^Une'^ucosd^
f^[{sm3esme)'^2ucos3e~]^
= C.
A particle moves under the action of a central force P and a transverse
Prove that
disturbing force f(t).
where i^(0 = 1/(0 «^^
.
a sin d){rb sin 6) = ah. each force varying inversely as repulsive. If the force equal.
centres of force of equal strength.
provided that
^+__^^+=0.
field
IV.
it
must be
fir{n'/r^. particle describes a parabola under two forces.
IGmTT^
CO^
CP^_
45.
and
in
an arc of an
ellipse if
one force attracts and the other
49. each varying inversely as the square of the distance.
m
describes a circle (centre C) in period T under 44. one to each mass along the focal radius vector r is
_
1 rfy2
2r(2ar)
where 2a
47. particle of mass the action of a force to a fixed point S. prove that distance. functions of the If the law of force to one focus is /ir.
Verify that in a plane polar coordinates is
of force of which the potential referred to
a particle.
.
An
ellipse is described
focus. Show that a particle placed anywhere in the
Two
plane bisecting and ff are foci.
SB at
right angles will oscillate in a semiellipse of which
S"
48.
and numerically
square of the focal distance. and the other passing through the focus . A body is placed at rest in a plane through two fixed centres of force. one to each focus.
Show
that the force
j)er
unit of
ai>^
under the action of two forces.
is
4 dr
'
the major axis and v the velocity. to the
if
the particle starts from rest at the vertex. projected in the proper direction curve of the form
(r
. find the time
occupied in describing any arc of the curve. Prove that it will oscillate in an arc of an hyperbola if both
forces attract.
repels. particle describes an ellipse under two forces. at a point where the forces are equal. at the vertex.
A
to the other
46.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. Prove that the force at any point can be resolved into two directed to inverse points 0.
if
will describe a
with the velocity from infinity. one constant and parallel to the axis. and
is
repulsive. 0' in CS and equal
A
P
respectively to
16m7r2
CCPqP^
. the square of the distance.122
43. prove that the
A
latter force varies inversely as the
through the focus
constant force. one attractive and the other are placed at two points S and H.
52. c is the distance of the velocity about the line of centres.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
123
50.
r'. and a force [i (1/c^.
53. the force on unit mass at unit distance is increased
by the small
force
fraction .2
r'
r
^'
^^
to the nearer
•2_LZI—
(3rr'r'2)3'
(3r/r2)3'
and further poles respectively. rg are the distances ^jP. Prove that. r' from the point to the ends of the chord. prove that
where p denotes the perpendicular from the origin on the tangent.
and
particle moves under the action of a repulsive force \i{u^avF) from a fixed point.. if the motion does not take place in a fixed plane. Show that it describes the lemniscate. it describes a parabola of which the fixed point is the
focus.
COS^a the particle when moving
r
parallel to the chord. Determine the
forces. and a the angle between
51. >S'2
(n^) (^2^4) + ^'^ cot e^ cot ^2 = c (fii cos Bi + /i2 cos $2) + const.
.
If a curve is described
under a force
P
tending to the origin and
a normal force N. if it starts from rest at a point where the forces are equal. particle describes a circle under the action of forces. \\u being
A
the distance from the point.
where
the
^1. also show that the time from one end of the chord to
the other
is
a (7ra)cosa+sina
V
'
where F is the velocity of a the radius of the circle.
*S'i*S'2.
and h
is
55. and / from the further pole.
{rr'
A
= (P)
is projected from an apse of Bernouilli's Lemniscate the tangent with vefocity Vft/2c and moves under the action of along
particle
forces
. S^P. r being the distance from the nearer pole. Prove that the time taken in this revolution is less than the original period by the fraction
—
ST
of
itself.\<^y^) parallel to a fixed line.
A
and prove that the product of the component
velocities along r
and /
varies inversely as the length of the perpendicular from the position of the particle to the chord . Show that. where /j. tending to the extremities of a fixed chord. the
becomes less than its original value by the same amount.of itself
:
when the
particle is at the further apse. When a particle is at the nearer apse of an ellipse of eccentricity e described about the focus. $2
moment
are the angles S^S^P and S^S^P. there is an integral equation of the form
>S'i. which are to each other at any point inversely as the distances r.
A particle P moves under the action of two fixed centres of force producing accelerations /ij/ri^ and ^2/^2^ towards Si and *S'2.
54.
where n is great. ^y S^' xu 1
Prove that
—^pP^ —
.124
56. If. particle of force at unit distance
it
parts
of the force parallel
and
A
mass
.
m describes an
ellipse
about a focus.
.
^u
right angles to the major axis. Show
that the eccentricity e
is
increased or diminished
by

»J{\—e^) according to the direction of motion at the instant.t
1. receives a small radial impulse /i.
for elliptic motion.
where the
letters
have their usual meanings
A comet describes about the Sun an ellipse of eccentricity e nearly 61.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. without altering its Show that. the force ceases to 58. if the new orbit is a parabola.
is
2eg
the axis major. prove that the changes produced in the eccentricity and axis major are given by the equations
8e=28V^{l/fji). with moment of
at the nearer apse it line is turned through the angle
equal to h.
An
ellipse of eccentricity e
and latus rectum
2^ is described freely
about a focus.
If the velocity of a periodic
comet
is
suddenly increased near
its
aphelion by a small amount dV.
:
+
e
=l
—
a. it receives
describes an elliptic orbit about a fociis and.
8a = 2bV^{a^le)/^{l+e)}.th of its
axis.
IV.
4 cos^^B nearly. when at the a small impulse towaids the centre equal to
momentum. find the angle through which the apse line will have turned and the change of the eccentricity.
A particle
end of the minor
. and
e
the eccentricity of the orbit. at any point of an elliptic orbit about act for a given very short time.
59. body is revolving in an elliptic orbit with acceleration fi/r^ to a centre of force in one focus S.
57. and when at it receives impulsively a small
A
P
velocity 8v in the direction
PM
xu
•
•
the major axis will turn through the angle r
11
. and that the angle which the axis major of the orbit makes with the distance from the focus will be increased by
particle is at an extremity of the minor axis in a direction perpendicular to the plane of
V^a
where 2a
60.
liijeh. equal to unity.
62. prove that the eccentricity of the orbit will be diminished by ^ V^ae/fi.
/xwi
being the
when the
receives a small impulse m V the orbit. At a point where the radius vector makes an angle S with the apse line.
momentum
When
the particle
is
Prove that the apse
a focus. and show that they are
respectively proportional to the resolved peri^endicular to the apse line. the comet is instantaneously affected by a planet so that its
1 velocity is increased in the ratio w ti. direction.
if
the change takes place
when the
line
the radius vector
an end of the latus rectum. and the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the centre.
If the particle (of the last Example) is at an end of the latus rectum. to a second approximation. 65.
66. the rate of variation of the principal semiaxes are given by the equations
a
^
b
^
f
where v
is
the velocity and r the radius vector at the instant.
125
At
a point
P
is
of an ellipse.
. is at an end of the axis minor. to a first approximation. If.
show
that.
^
the angle which the
68. prove that the periodic time
increased in the ratio 1
particle is at
+ ^ —3
:
1. the eccentricity is diminished by a. is
where
H
is
the second focus. describing an elliptic orbit about a focus.
where
G
is
the foot of the normal. where I is the semilatus
rectum. the centre of force is suddenly moved a short to the tangent at P.
Also. the angle between the apse is altered by
(le2)2 2ea2
and
67. while the periodic time is unaltered.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
63. Defining the instantaneous orbit under a central force varying as the distance as that orbit which would be described if the resistance ceased to act.
64.
A
particle is describing
is
when the particle distance x parallel
through the angle
an ellipse under a force to a focus S. and tangent makes with SP. if at any point the resistance produces a retardation /. and
CB
the semiaxis minor. and. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance
is
k perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. Prove that the axis major is turned
sin
cf)
^7. but the axis major will be turned through an angle a^{e~^\).
sin {6 — 0). and the major axis is turned through an angle aajl. at P. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the particle.
If
when the
from the centre
particle (of the last Example) is at any point distant r offeree.
6 the angle which the normal makes with ISO. measured along the normal at $. the eccentricity e of the orbit will be unaltered. when a particle. Prove that at a point Q on the original ellipse the deviation of the new path. described under a force to a focus S^ the
direction of motion
deflected through a small angle ^ without alteration of magnitude. show that. Also prove that. the periodic time is increased by Za^a^l2P of its original
value.
particle When is at an end of the acceleration k^ (distance) directed to a point 0.g
where
fi
is
the central force on unit mass at unit distance.
.126
69. Show that the maxima of the rates
of variation of the principal semiaxes of the instantaneous ellipse are given
by the equations
d
h
_
±.
describes an ellipse under a central force producing an 70. axis major.
IV. motion in an ellipse whose centre is fixed and axis minor is constant and whose semiaxis major is variable according to the formula
a = OQ+ uk
['
.g
(X sin kt k sin \t) sec kt.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
acceleration
In the last Example there is a disturbance which produces a normal g instead of the resistance. begins to move along this axis with a simple harmonic motion
A
P
F
Show that the motion of P may be represented at any time by /isinX^.
We had an example in the friction between an inclined plane and a body placed upon it (Art. This work. unknown. It follows
that the work done by a resistance
is
with
its
sign changed. but there are other. and is at the same time subject to resistances.CHAPTER
Vt. the increment of the kinetic energy in any displacement is less than the work done by the force of the field by the work done against the resistances. "work done against the
resistance.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES.
" second main subdivision of Dynamics of a Particle" relates to motion of a particle in a given field of force when the
114.
is
called
the
always negative. pressure
R
We
equations for the case where the particle
t Articles in this Chapter which are
in a first reading.
Such forces may be constraints. Let v be the velocity the of the particle in the direction in which s increases. forces acting upon it. and shall write down the of the curve on the particle.
The
force of the field is not the only force acting on the particle. The
work.
115.
Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces. and component
A' the component along the normal inwards."
When a particle moves in a given field of force. 71). and its sense is always opposed to the sense of the velocity.
be constrained to move on a given smooth Let a particle of mass plane curve under the action of given forces in the plane. that is to say they may do no Another class of forces to be included in the discussion are known as resistances.
characteristics of a resistance are that its line of action
is always the line of the velocity of the particle on which it acts.
is
on the inside of
may
be omitted
marked with an
asterisk (*)
. Let s be the arc of the curve measured from some point of the curve up
m
Let S be the tangential to the position of the particle at time t of the forces in the direction in which s increases.
of motion of the bodies can be formed in the
Art. 77) the particle This happens when vanishes.
leave the curve. the sum of the lengths of the two portions is constant.
^mv''
=
I
Sds
)
+ const.
V. for any other velocity of projection.
shall
particles.
Prove that.
resolving along the tangent and normal equations of motion
By
we obtain the
dv mv Y.
the curve. if the string is in two portions.
Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible
suppose that the bodies may be treated as mass and extension of the string can be neglected.) throughout.
116.
We
that
the
which
it
does work on the two particles vanishes.
In forming the equations of
The equations manner explained in motion we take account of
is
the
condition
that the length of the string
constant.
When V is known from this equation.
^
^
m.= N\R
P
When
may be
the forces are conservative. separated by a ring or a peg.
may
R
Examples.=
ds
o. when the particle leaves the curve. and that the tension of the string is the same When this is the case the (See Chapter VI.
In the case of onesided constraint (Art. the second of the equations of motion determines the pressure B. when the curve is a free path under the given forces f«r proper velocity of projection. The equations for acts outwards can be obtained by changing the case in which
R
R
the sign of R. the
is
first
of these equations
It
has an integral.
117.
2. then. which written
identical with the energy equation. 73.128
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP.
For
example. and accordingly acts inwards. Prove that. for the sum of the rates at
string. the velocity is that due to falling under the force kept constant through one quarter of the chord
of curvature in the direction of the force. tension of the string does no work.
1. If
. the pressure varies as the curvature.
or an equation ot constancy of momentum. M.
Two
are connected by an inextensible thread particles of masses if.
The motion
of
a simple
or not.115119]
there
is
OSCILLATING PENDULUM
*
129
an energy equation.
m
the mass of the particle.
i/.
is
if
the
chosen fixed level from which
point.
Two
particles of
masses
circle
is nearly a with centre at a point 0. 92)
it is
is
mgl(lco8 6). The potential energy of the particle
is
the
field of
the earth's gravity (Art. so that J/ is at a fixed horizontal table.
measured
that of the lowest
Hence the energy equation can be written
^l6
= g cos 6 + const.
m are connected
by an inextensible thread
*119.
i^^
=
in showing that the pendulum oscillates between two positions at an angle a on the right and which it is inclined to the vertical
left sides
of the vertical.
position of the
To express the
L. and I the radius of the circle.
describes a curve whose polar equation
is
M
is
projected on the
ring
m reaches the
M
of the form
r=csec[^VW(Jf+m)}]. 75) can be determined by the energy equation. whether it executes small oscillations (Art.
pendulum. Prove that until table at right angles to the thread.
M describes on a smooth table a curve which
7rV{i(l+W^)}. and the particles are at rest.
2. and the thread passes through a small smooth hole at and supports m.
If the
pendulum
is
displaced initially so that 6
is
and
is let
go from this position.
pendulum
in terms of the time
9
. it is an integral of the
equations of motion. where vertical drawn downwards.
circular
Oscillating
pendulum.
m
distance c from the ring.
118. =
01. Prove that the apsidal angle of J/'s orbit is
of negligible
mass
.
Examples. or of moment of momentum.
f(sin^sin^). of negligible mass which passes through a small smooth ring on a smooth When the thread is just stretched.
1. the energy equation
^16^
or
= g (cos 6 — cos a).
Let 6 be the angle which the radius of the circle drawn through the position of the particle at time t makes with the The kinetic energy is ^ml^6^. or in length of the pendulum.
130
ty
MOTIONit
yjr
UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
position,
[CHAP. V.
since
was in the equilibrium
we introduce a new
variable
defined by the equation
sin
^
sin
i/r
= sin
^
,
increases from
to a, i/r with the further conditions that as 6 increases from to ^tt as ^ diminishes from a to 0, i/r increases
;
from i TT to
to f TT
Stt.
;
TT
;
as ^ diminishes from
to
to 0,
— a,
>/r
increases from
ir
and as 6 increases from
—a
is
With
these conventions there
increases from 7r to i/r one value of ^fr corresponding
to every instant in a complete period.
Now we
have
J ^ cos
^
=
^fr
sin
^
cos
yjr,
sin^

n
sin^
=
fi
sin^

n
cos^ ^/r,
^2 = 1 ^lsin2sin2irV
Hence the time
t
from the instant when the particle was
passing through the lowest point in the direction in which Q increases is given by the equation
'Sl'g).
^(lsin^lsin^V'
where the square root
complete period
is is
always to be taken positively.
The
a
4
/LP
IP
between
d±
and
sin
is
With the above
Elliptic
relation
t
t
i/r,
i/r
is
said to be an
Function of
sin
a/j, and
(^t
the relation
written
yjr
= sn
y/)
^mod
sin
.
)
The
function has a real period, and the integral
dyjr
.C
'y/(lsin^sin^^
is
one quarter of this period.
119121]
FINITE MOTION OF
PENDULUM
any time
t is
131
The
position of the
pendulum
at
determined by
the equation
sin
^
=
sin^sn
U
.
/'Ij
(mod
sin
^
If the constant in the Energy equation of Art. 119 is such that 6 never vanishes, it must be greater than g, and the velocity at the lowest point is greater than that due to falling from the highest point. Hence there will be
*120. Complete Revolution.
some
Let us suppose the velocity velocity at the highest point. at the highest point to be that due to falling through a height h
;
then, w^hen 6
= 7r
l^e^
=
2gh,
and
for
any other value of
il6'
= g(cose +
V
l+j\
+
2l^'''2j'
k'
*^
giving sin ^
21'
h
= sn
(t
a
/f)
i^od k), where
is
=
2l/{h
+ 21).
The period
of a complete revolution
/I
r^
d4>
*121.
Limiting case.
In the case where the pendulum
is
projected from the position of equilibrium with velocity equal to that due to falling from the highest point the equation can be
integrated by logarithms.
The constant
be chosen so that
fore is
in the energy equation of Art. 119
vanishes
when 6 =
7r,
must then and the equation there
^le^
= g {1 +
cos d),
which may be written
The time
of describing an angle
is
therefore
t,
where
9—2
132
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
It is to
[CHAP. V.
be noted that the particle approaches the highest not reach it in any finite time. point indefinitely, but does The same equations may be used to describe the motion of the
particle
which
starts
from a position indefinitely close to the
circle.
unstable position of equilibrium at the highest point of the
*122,
1.
Examples.
finite oscillation
is 2rr (1
Prove that the time of a
is
when the
fourth power of
a,
the angle of oscillation,
2.
neglected,
+ j^^a^) >J{l/g).
Prove that, in the limiting case of Art. 121,
e = 2ia.n^{i\nh{t^{ffll)}.
3.
Prove that,
if
a seconds' pendulum makes a complete
finite oscillation
in four seconds, the angle a is about 160°.
*123.
Smooth plane tube rotating
in its plane.
Let
in
a particle of mass tube rotate in
a point
it.
m
move
let
a
smooth plane tube, and
its
the
plane about rigidly connected with
Let OA be any particular radius vector of the tube, and
the angle which OA makes <^ with a fixed line in the plane of the tube. Then <f> is the angular
velocity of the tube.
Fig. 40.
We
shall
write
(o
for
<j>.
the position of the particle in the tube at time t. = 0. Then r and 6 are polar coordinates Let OP = r, and of referred to OA as initial line, and r and ^ + </> are polar
Let
P be
^AOF
P
coordinates of
P
referred to a fixed initial line.
Let p be the
radius of curvature of the tube at P.
Let V be the velocity of the particle relative to the tube. = s, v is s, the direction of v is that of the tangent Then, if arc to the tube, and the resolved parts of v along OP and at right
AP
angles to
OP
are r and rO.
Now
the resolved accelerations of the particle along
OP and at
right angles to
OP
are
and
1{^.(^4_^)).
121124]
REVOLVING ORBIT
133
These may be written
r
—
r dt (r2^)42r«
1^
+ ra)
w
are equivalent to v
v^lp
Of
these the terms independent of
dv
ds
along the tangent to the tube at normal to the tube.
P and
inwards along the
The terms containing 2(o as a factor are equivalent to 2cov inwards along the normal to the tube. This can be seen by considering that r along OP and rO transverse to OP are equivalent
that
to V along the tangent in the direction in which s increases, and we have, as multipliers of 2ft), the components of this result
ant turned through a right angle.
Now we
can resolve a vector in the direction
ponents along the tangent at
P
to the tube
OP into comand inwards along
p
is
dv 7) the normal by multiplying by 7 and V as
dicular from
to
,
where
the perpen
on the tangent; similarly
for a vector transverse
OP.
Hence
finally the accelerations resolved
along the tangent and
normal to the tube are
dv
V ^
v^
ft)"r
dr
y
ds
r^
ds
„
+ ft)»,
,
—
p
h
zwv
+ (o^p ^
dr
ds^
\
cor y
let the particle move in the tube under the action of forces in the plane of the tube whose resolved parts along the be the tangent and normal to the tube are S and N, and let
Now
R
pressure of the tube on the particle. are
Then the equations
of motion
m
v^
dv
V
T
dr
(o^r T
+
.
oyp
rn
+
^
2(ov
+
o
(o^p
+
dr
ds
(or
LP
*124.
Newton's Revolving
is
Orbit.
Suppose that the form
of the tube in Art. 123
a free path under a central force to 0.
134
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
(f>
[CHAP. V.
which is with an angular velocity Let the tube turn about to nd, where n is constant, and 6 is the angular always equal
velocity of the radius vector in the free path when the particle is at (r, 0). Then the path traced out by the particle is a free path under the original central force and an additional central force
which varies inversely as the cube of the distance.
Let
f
be the central acceleration in the free path, and ^h the
rate of description of areas.
Then we
are given
Now,
and
in the tube
<^
= nO^
so that
rr{d + (j>y = f^re^ (2n + n")
tube
particle in the revolving a free path with a central acceleration to made up of two one of them being /, and the other being inversely proporterms,
is
r^.
Hence the path traced out by the
tional to
This result
may be
stated in another form as follows
:
— Rela
tively to a certain frame a particle describes a central orbit about
particle relatively to the second frame is again a central orbit with the central acceleration increased an amount
the origin with central acceleration /; if a second frame with the same origin rotates about the origin relatively to the first frame, with an angular velocity always the same multiple of that of the radius vector in the said central orbit, the path of the
by
inversely proportional
to the cube of the distance.
n25.
1.
Examples.
particle
A
rotates uniformly about the pole, to the pole of the Prove spiral.
central force
form of an equiangular spiral which under the action of a central force that, if there is no pressure on the tube, the at distance r must be of the form Ar + Br^, where A and B
moves
in a tube in the
and
is
are constants.
2. Prove that motion which, relatively to any frame, can be described as motion in a central orbit with acceleration ^/(distance)3 towards the origin and moment of velocity h may be described, relatively to a different frame with the same origin, as uniform motion in a
straight line, provided h'^>fx.
124126]
MOTION ON A ROUGH CURVE
135
3. particle moves in a smooth plane tube, and is under a central force to a fixed point about which the tube rotates uniformly. Prove that, if the pressure is always zero, the central force is
A
m [rco2 + 2ro)
where
(Ji
 r^a>)/p^ + {h — r^a))^p~^dpjdr],
m is the mass
of the particle,
mh
is its
moment
of
momentum
about
the fixed point, w is the angular velocity of the tube, r is the radius vector, and p the perpendicular from the fixed point on the tangent to the tube at the position of the particle.
*126.
Motion on a rough plane curve under
is
When
a particle
constrained to describe
gravity. a plane curve in a
under gravity but there is motion as well as pressure on the curve we assume that the friction is times the pressure, where
vertical plane
frictional resistance to the
fju
/A is
the coefficient of friction.
The
friction
acts along the tangent to the curve in the sense opposite to that of the velocity.
The equations of motion take different forms in different circumstances. We shall
choose for investigation the case where the particle is on the outside of the curve, and
is
^^a, 41.
descending.
the curve be measured from some point of the increases in the sense of the velocity, and let <f) be the angle contained between the inwards normal and the downwards vertical. Then (p increases with s, and ds/d(l> (= p) is the
Let the arc
s of
curve so that
it
length of the radius of curvature.
Let V be the velocity of the particle, its mass, the pressure of the curve on the particle. The equations of motion are
m
R
mv
dv
j
„ = mg sm <p — /xMy
.
,
m — = mg cos — R
cf)
Eliminating
R
V
we obtain the equation
dv
^^ ds
v^ — — = g (sin <^ —
fjb
//<
cos
(^),
or
dv
~d^
—
/jbv^
= gp (sin
—
</>
/a
cos
<^).
136
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
This equation can be integrated after multiplication by the
factor
e^***,
in fact it
becomes
ri (iy^e'^'*"^)
= gpe^f"^ (sin
<^
<t>
 fi cos
</>),
d<p
so that
v»e2M«^
=
2g
I
pe'^*^ (sin
 /i cos <^) d<t> + const.,
a function of
<^,
an equation which determines
v as
and therefore
The velocity being gives the velocity at any point of the curve. determined, the second of the equations of motion gives the
pressure, and, just as in the case of a
smooth curve,
if i?
vanishes
the particle leaves the curve.
motion take different forms according as the outside the curve, and according as it is particle or descending. But in each case the equations can be ascending There is accordingly no definite integrated by the above method. expression for the velocity at any point of the curve in terms of
The equations
is
of
inside
or
the position, but the expressions obtained are different in the
different cases.
*127.
1.
Examples.
in
Write down the equations of motion in the three cases not investigated Art. 126 and the integrating factor in each case.
2.
sphere of radius
horizontally from the lowest point of a rough to this point after describing an arc aa, Prove that the initial velocity (a<^7r), coming to rest at the lowest point. is sin a ^{2ga {l+fi'^)/{l  g/x^)}, where /x is the coefficient of friction.
a,
A particle is projected
and returns
3. particle slides down a rough cycloid, whose base is horizontal and vertex downwards, starting from rest at a cusp and coming to rest at the
A
vertex.
4.
Prove that,
if
fi
is
the coefficient of friction, fi^e^'=\.
veitex
time
t
A ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire whose base is horizontal and downwards prove that during the ascent the direction of motion at makes with the horizontal an angle 0, given by the equation
;
^,{/*«"^sin(</> + 0}=sec2..*tane^i^(^^^^^
where
f is
the angle of friction.
*128.
Motion on a curve In general.
forces,
When
a particle
moves on a given curve under any
we take
m
for the
mass
of the particle, S for the tangential component of the resultant force of the field, iV for the component along the principal normal.
and R^ for the component of the
and
for
B
for the
pressure along the binormal in the same sense as B.
a vertical
Let the axis of revolution be the axis x {x being measured from the upwards).
Sds
and we can integrate the
form
in Art.
Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with
axis.
m=N+Rj P
=
When
first
smooth equation.
and
this result can
be expressed in the form change of kinetic energy = work done. in the same way as
the curve
is
B + R.
We
and V to be the
velocity. we shall obtain an equation giving the As in Art. and let the particle at time t be at distance y and be on a meridian curve of the surface in an axial plane axis. 115. Also we take Ri the component of the pressure along the principal normal towards the centre of curvature.
The
other two equations then determine the pressure. F is zero.
.
*129. R^. if we pressure.
When
the curve
is
rough we have to eliminate F. 126 the velocity in velocity in terms of the position. p to be the radius of curvature. in the
^mv^
=
I
+
const. R^ by
F^=^ti^{R^^
means of the equation
+ R.
is
so that the velocity
determined in terms of the position. for the friction.126129]
MOTION ON A CURVE
187
component along the binormal.^\
which expresses that the friction is proportional to the resultant There results a differential equation for v^ and.
increases to be that of
and we suppose the sense in which Then the equations of motion are
as
j
s
mv
= SF. on the way in which that position has any position depends partly
been reached. can integrate this equation. the curve is rough we take
Further
if
F
take s to be the arc of the curve from some point to the position of the particle at time t..
v.
1.
making an angle
of the
meridian
with a given axial plane. If 3/ IS the radius of the circle. V. which lie in
the tangent plane to the surface.
Then
meridian
section
is
it
is
is &. at right angles to each other.be the arc from some particular circular section to the
position of the particle. and the normal meets the axis of
revolution.
and the velocity along the tangent to the
clear that the velocity along the tangent to the circular
y^.
Fig.
Examples.
*130. or
we have
y^(f>
=
const. and let o. since the pressure of the surface on the particle acts along the normal to the surface.
that
in
is
y(f})
two
they determine the two components of velocity (cr and directions.
The equations which have been written down determine & and
(j). 42. the forces acting on the particle have no moment about this axis.
If the particle is properly projected it can describe a circle. Hence the moment of the momentum about the
axis
is
constant. while
the force of gravity acts in a line
parallel
to this axis.
Thus the energy equation
i (a^ + y^(j>'')
is
+gx = const.
makes with the
vertical.
the required velocity of
{gy tan
. and ^ the angle which the normal to the surface at
any point on the
projection
is
circle
/S)'.
Again.138
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
</>
[CHAP.
We
may imagine
the surface to be covered with a network of
curves belonging to distinct families.
2. if Iju is put for y. We shall see presently that the pressure is
field
determinate as soon as the velocity
is
known. Prove that.
p the radius of curvature
.
Motion on a surface in general.
ourselves to the simplest cases. and we may suppose the curves that meet in any point to cut at right angles. the projection of the path of the particle on a horizontal plane is given by an equation of the form
(^)'[l
where A
is
+ K/(«)P]+. part
We
Let
V
be the velocity of the
particle. and along the normal to the surface. Also the resultant friction
friction in the directions of the
meet at any
is equal in magnitude and the pressure.
fixed surface
move on a
under the action of given
Let a particle forces and the
pressure and friction of the surface. and the resultant friction has the same direction as the velocity but the opposite sense.
to the product of the coefficient of friction
We
have thus the means of writing down equations of motion
of the particle.
We
shall therefore confine
proceed to investigate a general expression for the resolved of the acceleration along the normal to the surface. We may
resolve the acceleration along the
same
lines.
will
When
the surface
is
rough there
be two components of
tangents to the two curves that point.
a constant.*2+/(«)=const. At any point we may resolve the force of the field into components along the tangents to the curves that meet in that point. but the process can in general be simplified by using methods of Kinematics and Analytical Dynamics which are
beyond the scope of the present work..
*131. where m
is
the
mass of the
particle. in such a way that at each point of the surface one curve of one family meets one curve of the other
family.129131]
MOTION ON A SURFACE
is
139
In this case the pressure of the surface
equal to
mg sec ^.
For a particle moving on a smooth surface in a conservative there will be an energy equation expressing the velocity in terms of the position. and x=f{u) is the equation of the meridian curve of the surface.
In Ex. Y.
Hence the acceleration along the normal to the surface is v^\p\ and the pressure is determined by resolving along the normal.
1 of Art. This suppose
section is not.
9
Also by a wellknown theorem we have p
=p
cos
</>.
The tangent to the path touches the surface.
.
we
We
take p to be the radius of curvature of the normal section of the surface through the tangent to the path. and we a normal section of the surface drawn through it.
.
A.
*132.
it
Osculating plane of path. it is therefore
^' — COS
Q).
130
stated that a particle may be projected along a horizontal tangent of a smooth surface of revolution whose axis is vertical
is
with such velocitv that
it
describes the circular section under
Fig.140
of
its
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
path.
[CHAP. the osculating plane of the path suppose that it makes an angle </> with this osculating plane. 43.
Since the normal to the surface
is
at right angles to the
tangent to the path the resolved part of the acceleration along
the normal to the surface is the resolved part in that direction of the acceleration along the principal normal to the path. in general.
and
R
the pressure. and Z GPQ = </>. It is almost obvious that if the velocity exceeds that requisite for description of the circle the path of the particle rises above the
circle.131133]
the action
MOTION ON A SURFACE
141
of gravity and the pressure of the surface.
1. and above that plane.
</>
point of projection. 131
to find the position of the osculating plane of the
path
for
any velocity of projection.
it
lies
n33. along
V
Hence
resolving along this line
we have
</>)
— mg cos (« — RsiiKJ)
where
= 0. 131.
y = PN = PG cos
taiKJ)
Hence
=gy/V^. with the notation
p'=PG.
Also
p
= PG cos
a.
This equation determines the position of the osculating plane of the path.
A
A particle moves on a rough
cylinder of radius a under no forces but
.
Now
the
if
tan
(j>
>
tan
a. resolving along
PN^ we have
(j))
m — cos (a —
where p
is
= R cos a.
otherwise
it falls
below the
circle. Let Z
Let
P be
PG
PN=y
P
GPN
When the particle is projected along the tangent to the there is initially no acceleration circular section with velocity a line in the meridian plane at right angles to PQ.
We may
use the result
of Art.
is
m
is
the mass of the particle.
tan
<
tan
a.
path
initially lies
the osculating plane of below the horizontal plane through the
or
if
V^< gy cot a. the normal to the surface at right angles to the axis of the ordinate of at P. Q the point where the osculating plane of the path = a.
the radius of curvature of the path.
<l).
Examples.
under no forces
particle moving on ca surface (smooth or rough) but the reaction of the surface describes a geodesic.
or
V^>gy cot a.
of Art.
2.
the point of projection. meets the axis. revolution.
Again.
Now.
— kz.
A hollow circular cylinder
vertical.
— k^.
Motion in Resisting Medium.
being
3. Resistance proportional to the Velocity. and fi>cot
ellipsoidal shell
a.
tlie coefficient
of friction.142
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP.
F in
it
a direction making an moves over an arc
~^
a/x
fi
cosec2 a log
(
1
+
/*
Vta
"
^
sin^ a).
.
where
4.
In
many
cases
it is
found that the observed facts can be approxiis
mately represented by the supposition that the resistance
proportional motion of a
to
the
velocity. starting with velocity angle a with the generators prove that in time t
. and first suppose the particle
to
move
vertically.
same
and the opposite
Problems of this kind are related to facts of observation in regard to the motions of bodies in the air and in other fluid media. y. Show that the osculating plane of the path is initially
above or below this section according as
v2> or <gab^ {¥lc^\)lsj{{a^c^)
134.
the reaction of the surface. V.
{a^h'^)].
We
consider cases
of the motion of a particle in a known field of force when.
135. and a particle is projected from one of the lower umbilics with velocity v along the tangent to the horizontal section within the ellipsoid.
is /x
the coefficient of friction.
where
/c
is
a constant.
made
to rotate uniformly with angular velocity
an angle a with the
parallel to the axis
rough on the inside. Since the velocity of a particle is a vector whose direction and sense are determined by the resolved parts x. 6.
Let the motion take place under gravity parallel to the negative direction of the axis y.fcy. there is exerted on the particle
a force proportional to a power of
direction as the velocity
its
velocity having the
sense.
c{a>b>c)
is
placed with the greatest axis vertical.
An
whose principal semiaxes are
a.v/{(/iHl)/(/i2tan2al)}. mi/
or
^
+
^+9 =
0. the resistance has
resolved parts
—
kx.
The equation
of motion
is
= mg. i. and is about its axis which makes Show that a particle can slide down a fixed line
of radius a
is
a>
with uniform velocity
aa. in addition to the force of the field.
this
is
true for instance for the
pendulum swinging
in air.
A.183136]
RESISTING MEDIUM
written for «r/m.
We
or
have the equation
mx = — mn^x — kx.
mx = — KXy = Ae""*/^. X \\x { v?x — 0.
X=
e^^*
where \
[A
cos
[t
sj^n"
.
If the particle continues to fall for a sufficiently long time the value of y will ultimately differ very little from —gmJK. equation which is practically the more important. the motion would be simple harmonic in period 27r/n. and with amplitude diminishing
. it is former case.
but
for the horizontal
motion we have an equation
giving
i.
Since x and y are known.
where
(7 is
a constant of integration.
136.\\% + B sin [t
slin"
.
a.
The equation
as to express
r/
last
written can easily be integrated again so
t.
is
This velocity
called the terminal velocity in the
medium.
as a function of
Again suppose that the particle is projected in any other than a vertical direction then the vertical motion is the same as before.
This equation can easily
as a function of t
t.\\%\
The motion may be roughly described as simple harmonic motion with period '±'K\\J{n^ — JX^). apart from the resistance.
.
be integrated again so as to express
determined.
143
e^^
where X we have
is
Multiplying by
and integrating.
The complete primitive of this is written for /c/m.
Consider the
case where. In the takes different forms according as v?> ox < ^X^.
where
^
is
a constant of integration. and the resistance is proportional to
the velocity. or the particle falls with a practically constant velocity when it has
been
falling for
some seconds. as functions of
the path can be
Resisted Simple Harmonic Motion.
Hence
y = Ce"^/'^ mgJK.
\^\n^ = Q. and a. are
fixed
T
the coordinates of the extremities of three consecutive semivibrations.
(ii)
in
its
subsequent motion
will
oscillate
about a
. starting with horizontal and vertical component velocities Wq. It rises to a height h and returns to the point of projection with velocity iv.
according to the exponential function e~^^^.
3. if is the period. ^0.
2.
E=t {uo . according to the formula
4. is fixed and the particle is held at a distance h{>a) below the fixed
A
point.
If in the
starts
from
rest in
where a and
/3
are the roots of the quadratic ^^. particle of unit mass is fastened to one end of an elastic thread of natural length a and modulus an^.
Thus the motion rapidly
Examples. (i)
it
will
begin to rise or
it
fall
according as
n2(6a)>or<^. when set
free. and the particle any displaced position. show that the range and time of flight t
A
R
are given by the equations
VoVi= gt. in a medium the resistance of which to the motion of the particle is 2k The other end of the thread (velocity).
medium. then the coordinate of the position of equilibrium and the time of vibration if there were no resistance are respectively
problem considered in Art.
particle is projected vertically upwards with velocity *' in a medium in which the resistance is proportional to the velocity. V. c. and that the amplitude falls off in geometric progression as the time
increases in
dies away.
5. it creeps asymptotically towards its position of equilibrium. h.
137.144
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. and returning to the horizontal plane through the point of projection with component velocities ^i .
1. proportional to the velocity. It will be observed that the period is lengthened by the resistance. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the velocity.
Prove also that R=UQVtl{y+V()\ where Fis the terminal velocity in the
A body performs rectilinear vibrations
under an attractive force to a
centre proportional to the distance in a medium whose resistance is Prove that. Prove that
A
where
V is
the terminal velocity in the medium. 136. X>2w.Wi)/(log Uq .
Prove that.log u^). Vi.
arithmetic progression.
Investigate the equations
A
which the
where h and
/x
are constants.
u^
= const.
g jcos"+i<^
and therefore also
in
an equation giving
L.
and we have
—
d(b
:^zr. (iii) the distances of successive positions of rest form a geometric series of ratio e""^*/"*.
where p
increases.
is
/>
the radius of curvature.
t.
terms of
</>.
10
. since the resistance
directed along the tangent.
This equation can be integrated when f{v)
1 n/c ^^\
=
aci.
*138.**.
and the above equation may be written
v^—^g cos
and thus. ^
.
u.
du
rrr
d<i>
=
vf(v)
where v
g
r
= u sec 6.f(v)
is
COSCJ).
M.= gcos<l>. — kK (iv) the interval between any two positions of rest is 7r/m.
Let mf{v) be the magnitude of the resistance when velocity is v. downwards under gravity and a resistance varying as the velocity. For law of resistance we can make some progress with the any equations of motion of a particle moving in a vertical plane under gravity. being the mass of
the
m
the particle.
where
<f>
the angle which the
direction
of
motion
at
time
t
^^'
'
makes with the horizontal and u
is
the horizontal velocity..
7. where m^=n^
A particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex 6. (r) in a medium of particle moves under a central force resistance varies as the velocity.
.
v. so that u — v cos </>. eliminating
(f>. then resolving horizontally
we have u = .
we
"^
get
.
is
Since
<^
diminishes as s
— ds/dcf). Again resolving along the normal to path. Prove that the time of falling from any point to the vertex is independent of the starting
point.136138]
point
RESISTING MEDIUM
145
from
which is at a distance a+g/n^ below the fixed point.
Motion in a vertical plane under gravity.
is
we have
.
Now
the equation
gives
t
=— I
sec ^dcft
{
const.
We
have. where the resistance proportional to the square of the velocity the velocity can be
KV^.
=
I
—
d(/)
+ const.
so that
t is
found in terms of
<^..
Now
hence
—{^f)^Ky^ = g. when the particle
descending we have. however..
y being measured upwards.
^
fC
.
we have
Multiplying by ^"y and integrating.
= .
particle are
and thus the time and the position of the in terms of a single parameter <^.
^fe^y =
giving
2/2


e^y
+ const.
dy
ds
j^
cos<l>.
.
Also the equations
.I— tan</>c?<^ + const.. V.
=
found in any position.
^ Ce~^y.
3/
=
v.146
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP.n^. measuring
y downwards.
y
or
= 9'cy\
^(hy')
giving
y^=z
+ 'cy' = g.
dx
^=
give us
a?
.
It is not
determined
generally
possible
to
vertical rectilinear
motion even
for
integrate the equation for the case here described where
f{v)
is
In the special case.
= CgiKy _ gj^^
is
Again.
when the
particle is ascending.
^=s.
and a resistance k ( velocity )2. it will first
come
to rest at a distance
6. s/{g/K).cos Oe^^^
where
I
is
the length of the pendulum.
paiticle is
A
ance varies as the square of the velocity.
Examples.
where
The bob of a simple pendulum moves under gravity in a medium of 4.
if
the particle
is let
fall
from
rest.
10—2
. and starts from the lowest point with such velocity that if it were unresisted the angle of oscillaProve that it comes to rest after describing an angle 6 which tion would be a. 139]
RESISTING
MEDIUM
147
is
As in the case of resistance proportional to the velocity.
A
particle of weight
W moves
in a
medium whose
resistance varies
is the resistance as the nth. there a terminal velocity. power of the velocity.
satisfies
the equation
(1
+ 4:<H^) cos a = 4<H^ . then the direction of motion makes an angle
F
when
W — = ncos^(f)
A
f
j
sec" + ^(/)c^0.
3.
"^139. particle of unit mass moves in a straight line under an attraction Prove that. which is practically attained when the particle has fallen through a considerable height. which the resistance per unit of mass is k (velocity)^.
projected vertically upwards in a medium whose resistProve that the interval that
is less
^lapses before it returns to the point of projection there were no resistance. (distance) to a point in the line.138. fi if it starts from rest at a distance a from the centre of force. Prove that.
2.2kI sin ^e^^W ^. if with the horizon.
acquires a velocity Utanhigt/U) and falls a distance where U is the terminal velocity in the medium.
1
.
C/'^^
then in time t it i log cosh (^^/C/').
than
it
would be
if
Prove also that.
148
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. Prove that PR is horizontal. and its initial velocity is such that if it were free its orbit would pass through the other
focus. the pressure at the lowest point will vanish if
I
= 4na^bl{a^ + 2nab +262). it
elliptic arc.
ellipse.
A
6.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. and QR is a diameter of this circle.
A
ring
is free
to
move on a smooth
elliptic
wire whose minor axis is
thread of natural length I and of modulus equal to n times the weight of the ring passes through the ring and has its extremities Prove that.
3. particle moves on a smooth curve in a vertical plane. and leaves the curve at P.
=75. 26 are the major and minor axes of the
5.
A particle
4.
A
particle
moves
in
^^2 + ^3
per unit of mass. if the constraint were removed at any point of would describe an orbit passing through the other focus. the pressure on the tube at proportional to
any point
will
be
p{^^i4H'
.
Prove that.
1.
arj
A particle is constrained to move
in
an
ellipse
about a centre of force
in one focus varying inversely as the square of the distance.
is projected horizontally from the lowest point of a smooth whose major axis 2a is vertical. Prove that the time of a complete revolution is
A
m
(m^D?
7—5
V
Q
'
^^^ *^^* *^® length of the
vertical axis of the curve is
—
7.
>v^{/a
an elliptic tube under a force to a focus equal to Prove that.
given by
p\r^^a^{lef
2. if it is projected from the nearer
the pressure
is
vertex with velocity
{l
+ e)/a (1 .
vertical. the form of the curve being such that the pressure on the curve is times always the weight of the particle.
smooth cycloid has its axis AB inclined to the vertical and its convexity upwards a particle begins to slide down the arc from A.
An
elastic
of the major axis. and moves under gravity along the concave side.
and l<2a.
where 2a.e^)]
. V.
the whole length of the curve being Tra
if
^

Prove that. if the ring falls from an extremity fixed to the foci of the wire.
its
path. Prove that it will leave the curve if the velocity of projection lies between »J{2ga) and •J{{ga (5 .
a particle moves in a smooth tube under the action
of forces tending to centres.
.e)}. the perpendicular from F on AB cuts at Q the circle on AB as diameter.
assumed constant.
Prove also that.
when
j
it
the amplitude of the vibration is a. the height of the line of zero velocity above of a
length pendulum the lowest point being 2acosec'*^a.
m is acted on by
and
In^ is large
. and the natural length of the thread subtends an angle ^tt at the centre. r and p is the radius of curvature.
if
of the suspending cord. where p is a large number. the modulus of elasticity is \yj^ of the weight
of the particle. which is constrained to move rod is attached to a cord passing over vertically. When the brakes are put on. The bob of a pendulum (weight W) is suspended by a cord from one end of an inextensible rod of negligible mass. if when the particle is in equilibrium it receives by an
impulse a downward velocity V{(2t
point.
A
smooth
circular tube of radius
a
is fixed
in a vertical plane. Prove being that due to falling from a horizontal line that. Prove that the period of small oscillations of the pendulum is the same as when the point of support
is at rest. Show that throughout the motion the two beads will always be at the same height.
^3 . the tension makes an angle d with the vertical.3) ag]^
it
will just reach the lowest
Two equal smooth circular tubes are fixed so as to touch at their 9. Prove that the train will come to rest after running about 385 yards. lowest points the same horizontal plane.
The bob
a horizontal
force
of a simple pendulum of length I and mass mpg cos nt.
is
p
is
the perpen
dicular from this centre on the tangent.
(Hcos2^)2
I
and remains
suspended from the roof of a railway carriage running uniformly at 30 miles an hour.
the distance from this centre.
bead moves on a smooth circular wire in a vertical plane its velocity 10. Prove that. the pendulum oscillates through an angle of 3".MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
where
is
149
j
the acceleration towards any one of the centres. the
vertical while the train is
A simple pendulum is
resistance being
13.
falling
from the highest point of the other circle. if / is the internal limiting point of the coaxal system of which the are members.
14. then any chord through / divides the circle and the line
A
HK
HK
wire into two parts which are described in equal times.
Prove that the time of a beat of a circular pendulum of length a to the time of complete revolution of oscillating through an angle 2a is equal a cosec^^a. and the other end of the a smooth pulley and supporting a body of weight W. their planes being at different inclinations two small heavy beads are projected at the same instant along these circles from their lowest points.
11.
and
contains a particle. is
2 (cos 6
cos ^
. above the circle.cos g)
"!
^*^\lfcos2^"^
12. the velocity of each bead being due to
.
8. which is attached to the highest point of the tube by an elastic thread inside the tube.
where a is the radius of the sphere.
smooth tube in the form of an of angle a at a distance 2d from the pole. in time or sec a c?^/V/i. generated by the rolling of a circle of radius 6 on a circle of radius a. Prove that it will descend through a vertical height which is a third proportional to the
. being attached by an elastic thread to a fixed point in the plane it starts from a position in which the thread has its natural length.
.
w
is
The point of support of a simple pendulum of length I and weight attached to a massless spring so that it can move to and fro in a
horizontal hne. then in time t the length of the arc cleared of rings will be
where
I is
the length of the cycloid. Prove that.
in a
it will
reach the pole
A cycloidal wire in a vertical
is
plane.Sx)la.
20. the thread being stretched throughout the motion. is at rest
equiangular spiral under the action of a force /x/(distance)2 towards the pole. prove that the time of vibration is
where
16. Show that the pendulum may two points distant a from the lowest point with an amplitude ^. and the modulus of elasticity is twice the weight of the ring. Prove that a hypocycloid.
Prove that.
From a
point fixed on
A ring slides on a smooth wire bent into the form of a curve in 17.
summit.
is
fi.
oscillate about either of compared with g.
sliding
down a smooth
it
spherical hill from rest at the
a plumbline is suspended in a tube which is always held perpendicular to the surface of the hill at the point of contact Prove that the tension of the cord.
A particle.
18. a vertical plane.
natural length of the thread and the increase of its length when in the lowest position. of unit mass. if the constraint at the cusps is removed.150
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP.
W is the weight required to stretch the spring a length
A
platform
is
I. the period of small oscillation of the fibre in the position of equilibrium. descended a distance x measured vertically. with its axis vertical
and vertex
upwards
completely occupied by equal small smooth rings.
^=2/p. Prove that. where
COS a = 2ln^l{gp^). V. Prove that the period of oscillation is independent of the amplitude.
19.
and that the time of an
oscillation is
where the force per unit of mass at unit distance
21.
22. is w{a. when the platform has of the platform.
if
extensible.
the suspending fibre of a simple pendulum is slightly is that due to the stretched length
A particle moves
in a
smooth tube
in the
form of a catenary being
attracted to the directrix with a force proportional to the distance from the directrix.
15. is isochronous for a force varying as the distance
from the centre of the
fixed circle. and w is the weight of the lead.
Two
particles of
masses
P and Q lie
near to each other on a smooth
horizontal table. the particle of greater
mass
m will at once pull the other off the plane if
21. passes through the slit and supports a particle of mass Km.
slit is
cut in the bottom of the groove. if each portion of the thread makes an angle /3 with the corresponding
plane. A is projected along the table at right angles to AC. if AC=kI.
nlj {!
+ <). Show that. and are held on two inclined planes each of angle a placed back to back with their highest points beneath the centre of the pulley. under gravity diminished in the ratio V(l + k^ + 2k cos a) 1 k.
the ratio of the modulus of the string to the weight of the particle. and if n is the ratio of the masses of B and A. being connected by a thread on which is a ring of mass hanging just over the edge of the table.
B are connected by a thread of length I which passes through a small hole C in a smooth horizontal table. a being the angle which the connecting
:
+
thread subtends at the centre. passes over two small smooth pegs A and B.
26. and 1/(1 +k).
25.
Two
particles of masses m.
masses
Two
particles of
m and Km
are connected
by a thread which
passes over the top of a smooth circle.
reach the table
if
the velocity of projection
is less
than that due to
falling
through a height
28.
m'/m<2 tan a tan i3 . m' are attached to the ends of a thread
passing over a pulley. is with axis vertical and vertex downwards. Prove that it falls with acceleration
R
^(l/P+l/0^(l/P+l/$+4/i2).
24. and contains two elastic placed threads of natural length I fastened at one end of each to the cusps and at their other ends to a particle.1. thread of length I. The suspended particle is held displaced in
A straight smooth groove is cut in a A m
horizontal table. and is let go. on which A moves. the particles lying on the circle. Prove that.
Find the time also when
x>^a 
1.
Two
particles
A. Prove that its path is part of an ellipse of semiaxes I.
An
M and m. attached at one end to a shot of mass resting in the groove.
151
cycloidal tube. where
x<Aa —
l^
it will
reach the vertex in time
I
where n
ve
is
8wa + ^. the major
axis being vertical. of which the radius of the generating circle is a. and supports B. Show that the motion of from its position of equilibrium will be the same as that
m
of a free particle starting from the top of the circle.
. If the particle is moved a distance x from
A
the vertex.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
23. and is then let go. which are at a distance
a apart and in a horizontal line. B cannot
27. and a straight
the vertical plane containing the slit with the string straight. point of
endless thread of length
on which are threaded beads of masses
AB
The hghter bead m is raised to the middle Show that the beads will just meet if
(M+m)IM=2^{l/{l\a)}.
29.
smooth pulley the smaller {m) hangs vertically and the other (J/) moves in a smooth circular groove on a fixed plane of inclination a to the vertical. Prove that the horizontal pressure on the groove when the first particle is at an extremity of the minor axis vanishes if
2a3 .
Two particles of masses J/. which passes through a smooth ring fixed at the focus of the parabola and carries.
where 2a and 26 are the principal axes.
is
A
moves from
rest at
an extremity of the major axis of a
smooth
elliptic groove of axes 2a. The system starts from rest in a A and B form a square position in which the threads and the radii through with C vertically below the centre. and
the
foci. V. R and R\ on the groove when
Prove that.
is
the focal distance of the bead and 4a the latus rectum of the
Two smooth straight horizontal nonintersecting wires are fixed at 35.
is
if V^<ah'^gl{e{Za^'2. when A and B meet.
. Prove that after the thread becomes tight the motion is oscillatory and of period 27r
{l^(P)/{av'^bu).AaW + 463 = 0. 25 cut in a horizontal table. connected by an inextensible thread of length l.. m are connected by a cord passing over a 31.a^h
. Prove that.
B each of mass m slide on a circular wire of radius a and are connected with a third particle C of mass m! by two threads each equal to the radius.
velocity of either of
them
is
V{(2V2)a^(l+m7m)}. To the bead is attached a thread.
. if it makes complete revolutions. a weight 2c/{el).
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. the radius of the groove must
not exceed
hmM cos al{m^ — M^ cos^ a).
moves in a smooth elliptic groove on a attached to two threads which pass through holes at and each thread supports a body of weight W.
where r
parabola.
e is
the eccentricity of the ellipse. which passes through a small hole at the centre of the ellipse and
supports a particle of equal mass.
M
a point close to the highest point of the groove without initial velocity. Prove that the tension T of the thread at any stage of the motion is given by an equation of the form
fixed in
A smooth parabolic wire.
on which is a smooth bead of weight w. Two small rings of equal right angles to each other at a distance d apart.
(eTw) (er—a)2= const.h'^)]^
the particle
at the ends of the axes are connected
by the equation
RIP ~ R'a (3a2 _ 262) =6 Wa%e^. One of the bodies is
particle of weight
is
W
pulled downwards with velocity Ve
axis.152
30. the starts from highest point of the groove being vertically under the pulley. and
they are projected with velocities u and v from points at distances a and 6 from the shortest distance between the wires. at its other end. and
34.
A
horizontal table.
particle
where h
32. mass. the
Two
particles A^
fixed in a vertical plane. is a horizontal plane.
the height of the pulley above the highest point of the groove.
when the
particle is at
an end of the minor
the threads do not become slack. Prove that. being attached to a thread. and that in this case the horizontal pressures. slide on the wires.
33.
the lengths of the pieces being a and a!. Initially OF=OQ.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
36.
the same as
if
they
One end
of a thread of length
I is
attached to the highest point of a
fixed horizontal circular cylinder of radius a. of equal mass. the time of describing any one of which
42.
Particles of masses i/and m are attached to the ends of a thread.
:
~
m'J
7^
r'^
Prove also that the other apsidal distances
will be equal if
mV^=3a' + a
:
3a + a'.
/
the distances from the ring.
Two
a smooth
particles of equal mass.. Q.. if l^'^tra^ the thread will become slack before the particle comes to rest. and that it will
then have turned through an angle whose circular measure
7r
is
+ ^a/^ + 7r(a/Z)2 + f(ff + O(«/0' +
. are connected by a fine string which passes through a small hole in a smooth inclined plane (inclination a). Show that. throughout the motion.
Two
particles P. the tension of the cord varies ively. Q.
inversely as OP. OQP respectProve that.
its
Prove that
the polar equation of
40. the velocity of each had been unconnected throughout the motion. and the particles are projected with
38. if right angles to the string with velocities v and v'
.
(!
+
'')
^2 +
^^'
where
k is the ratio
(mass of
Q mass
:
of P). The thread is initially straight and
the particle of mass
m is projected at right angles to the thread. at the Initially the thread is just extended and in two straight pieces meeting
The particles are projected at ring. particle attached to the other end is dropped from a position in which the thread is straight and horizontal
A
and
at right angles to the axis of the cylinder.sin a cos ^ + sin a sin B{1 + k)
^'
^
=0. the 39.
by a thread of length
a.
particles P. and lies on a smooth horizontal plane.. slide
equal velocities along the external bisectors of the angles OPQ.
of the particles is set in prove that each of them
is '2.7ra/v.
T
tension at any time and
r.
masses
wi. Q hangs moves on the inclined plane.
equal beads connected by a massless rigid rod are placed one being at the highest point.
on a smooth endless cord OP^. former being within a smooth fixed horizontal tube and the latter on a smooth table in the horizontal plane of the tube. is the Prove that..
<
— 6 j.
.
path
is
of the form r cos
m'. and
Two
P
equation of P's path is
sin 6 sin
ad
K
. when
is
the other reaches the lowest point./'Trr \~^'
Two
particles.
37. then
m
mv^
41. Show that the differential vertically. lie
on
One
. connected table with the thread just straight.
153
Two
on a
vertical circular wire.which passes through a small smooth ring at 0. Prove that.
on a smooth horizontal table are con
nected by a thread passing through a small smooth ring fixed in the table.
motion at right angles to the thread with velocity v describes a series of cycloids.
and the
particle starts
if
arc of a rough circle (/x = ^) fixed in a.
it will
Prove that.
cycloid
down a rough cycloid whose axis is vertical and Prove that the time of reaching a certain point on the
independent of the starting point. of
[CHAP.
and m\ are connected by a thread which masses a hole at the vertex of a smooth right circular cone having its passes through The particle of mass m! hangs vertically. and that the ring will ultimately come to rest at a point within a length 2/iO? of the rod.
if slightly
disturbed.
A
particle slides
down the
6
is
vertical plane.
rest at a point close to that point of a
A particle starts from
is
rough
cycloidal arc (vertex uppermost) at which it could rest in hmiting equilibrium. and the particle is projected from A along the tube with velocity v.
/x
is
the coefficient of friction.
the particle will oscillate.
the angle which the radius vector through the
velocity
is
makes with the horizontal when the
sin ^
a
maximum. if it starts from the lowest point with velocity
A
. Prove that the time of oscillation is the same as if the rod were smooth. Prove that.
particle
Prove that.
45. The point A is the foot of the perpendicular from C on
the tube.
49.
A
is
particle slides
vertex downwards. where a is the least positive angle which satisfies the equation
Prove also that. axis vertical and vertex uppermost.154
43.
friction being
move on a long straight rough rod. and if the tangent at the starting point makes with the horizontal an angle greater than a. from rest at an end of the horizontal
diameter. particle of unit mass moves in a rough straight tube action of a central repulsive force from a point C of magnitude X/r at a distance r from C.
velocity
is
kK^^9)
(sin
^e+cos^c).
perform small oscillations in time
2^
V/[ \Zg
c{m'+m)
{m'
1
'
. then
= Jcos^ + e~^. Show that the velocity at a point at which the tangent makes an angle <^
with the horizon
2 J{ag) sin
(<^
f ). where d is the distance of the rod from the centre of
44. if X is the angle of friction.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
Two
particles.
A
ring can
force.
under the 46.
sin(aX) = e(*+^)*'^"^sin2X. Prove that it comes to rest when the radius vector from C makes with CA an
angle 6 satisfying the equation
A
AB
/i^logsec^ = y2/^.m cos a) sin
a)
2a being the vertical angle of the cone.
and that the
particle leaves the cycloid
e is
when the
48. ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. V. as the distance.
m
and
m
describes a circle of radius c on the cone.
where
47. the coefficient of under an attraction to a fixed point (not on the rod) varying /*. where
the angle of friction.
being referred to fixed axes. and /
the rate of increase of V. and a heavy particle slides down it.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
Uq.
_ ^^^ ^^^2 (^ + g)^
t is
where a
is
the radius of the generating circle and
if it
the angle of
friction.
Prove also that.
during
its
starts
from a cusp with velocity
Vq. to rest at its lowest point.
50. yjr the angle between OP and the tangent. a.
A point P moves along a plane curve which rotates in its plane about
with uniform angular velocity
o).
a{e^t*''^l)/{iiV)^
rough wire in the form of an equiangular spiral whose angle is placed in a vertical plane.is the curvature of the curve at P. the pressure between the particle and the wire
54.
.2 Vra> sin y(r)^
\fA)
yjr
(
where r is the length OP.
A
particle on a plane is
it. its velocity u when its direction of motion horizontal is given by
is
155
<f>
inclined at an angle
to the
^^2= (^^2 + 4^^ sin2^) e2«/>
tan
. and moves under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface.
a point
Prove that the curvature of
its
path
is
V{(r
V+ 2a>)(V+r(o sin + r(o(Va> sin /cos ylr+r<o^) 72 + rW 4. Prove that at the starting point the coming tangent makes with the horizon an angle 2tan~i/i. its velocity
v
descent
v'^
is
given by
= {Vo^ + 4ag C0s2 e) e(*2'^)tane _ ^^^ ^^^2 ^^ _ g). particle is projected from a point on the lowest generator of a rough horizontal cylinder of radius « with velocity Fat right angles to the generator. Show that.
the plane at the
equation
— = V(r2a2)+cosi. V the velocity of P relative to the curve. and a being the least distance of the
r
and
particle
53. Prove that the path of the particle is given by the
52. if CP=30C and the particle just vanishes when revolutions.
wire whose centre particle P is free to move on a smooth circular with constant angular velocity in the plane of the wire about a fixed makes complete point 0.1 ) sin
</>
+ 3/x cos = 2/i. and that the velocity is greatest when the angle <f) which the direction of motion makes with the
cot~^2fi
is
A
horizon
is
given by the equation
(2/bt2
.
from the axis of rotation.
A
Prove that it returns to the point of projection after a time where fi is the coefficient of friction.
A
C revolves
CP
makes with 00 an angle sec'^B.
51.
moving with constant velocity V relative to same time turning round a fixed axis perpendicular to it with angular velocity a>.
. V.
.(a + c cos ^)}.
56. Prove that the particle will move on the ellipse as if under
a force to the centre varying as the distance. Prove that through a point on the diameter passing through arc bounded by a chord through the centre of the time of describing any
rotation is constant..156
65. Prove that a particle can remain at an extremity of the axis major.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. and.
59. and.
A smooth horizontal circular wire rotates uniformly about a point in
Prove that the motion of a bead on the wire will be the same
its plane.
A particle
made
tube
is
is at rest in a smooth horizontal circular tube. The rods are made to revolve
uniformly in their plane. and when it is at a distance r from this centre it comes under the influence of a small disturbing force directed to the same point and varying Prove that the effect is the same as if inversely as the cube of the distance.
61. the tube is suddenly set in rotation
with uniform angular velocity >/{^gl{(i + b)}. with angular Prove that throughout the motion velocity a>.
A body is
describing an ellipse of semiaxes a. ^2 are the distances of the beads
mi
(ri2
A
smooth
elliptic
tube rotates about a vertical axis through
its
centre perpendicular to its plane with uniform angular vislocity co.
A
particle can
move
in a
smooth
tube which can turn about
centre in a vertical plane.
its
— e^)/ea)j where
elliptic
e is
the eccentricity. b about a centre of
gravitation.
Two small beads of masses rrii m2 slide along two smooth straight 58.
the body described under the original force an orbit which at the same time
rotated (with the body) round the centre of force with angular velocity n times the angular velocity of the body. When the bead has moved a distance aO on the wire. if slightly
disturbed. and r^. the major axis being vertical and the particle being at rest at the highest point. where 2a and 26 are the axes of the ellipse.
where e is from the intersection of the wires at any time.ri2a)2) + m^ {r^ . the wire is suddenly stopped.
as that of the bob of a simple pendulum. Prove
the wire
made
to rotate with uniform angular velocity
that the bead will subsequently
a>
move with
velocity
y (a^ + c2 + 2ac cos ^) . and the to rotate with uniform angular velocity about a vertical axis
the particle.
. where m is a small constant such that the semiaxes of this new free orbit are equal to those of the original one reduced by fractions inh^jr^ and n{\ + b'^/r^) of themselves. and the beads are connected by an elastic thread of natural length c and modulus X.
57. rods which intersect at an angle a.
A bead
is initially
.
at rest on a
is
smooth
circular wire of radius
a
in a
a>
horizontal plane about an axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through a point on the diameter through the bead at a distance c from the centre.rgW) +Xe2/c = const. will oscillate in a period 27r V(l
60. the extension of the thread. about their point of intersection.
if a particle starts axis of the cone with angular velocity Q.
aflr
^ ^ sec a smhd).
=
. rest at the vertex. w. Prove that the particle makes at least one complete revolution round the axis if
/3
^aa)^lg>[{7r
+ 2y) sin 7 + 2 cos y] sin ^ cot a cosec^ a.
Prove that. a the inclination and fi the coefficient of friction. (>a) to the vertical. touching the circular tube at the lowest point.
A smooth helical tube of pitch a has its axis inclined at an angle 66.
is
where
67.
the radius of the cylinder on which the helix lies. The tube is made to turn about its axis with uniform angular velocity a.
Show
also that the pressure is constant
and makes with the principal
normal to the path a constant angle
tan
1
(I sin a/^(cos2 „
_ ^032 ^)
^
where 2a
is
the angle of the cone.
tj=^cl "^
ta. fcosh ^ (Qi sin a cos ^) Q2sm2acosi3^
^
1].n
a fi cosh (f)
^>
where a
is
of the helix to the horizon.
ay/fiseca.
A
h sec^ /3.
65. While one particle oscillates in a smooth circular tube of radius a in a vertical plane through an arc of height h. the groove from rest at the vertex show that the time of descending through a vertical height k is equal to the time of falling freely through a height
. with velocity due to
a height 2a above the lowest point. it will in time t describe along the tube a distance
from
^ . provided that the length of one turn
of the helix is equal to the circumference of the circular tube.
and a
is
the radius of the helix.
ds
d(f)
sec^acoshd)
.
Prove that
the velocity v after describing an arc
y2
given by the equations
. ^
68.
cut on the surface of a right circular cone and vertex upwards in such a manner that the tangent
A small smooth groove is
is vertical
whose axis
is
particle slides down always inclined to the vertical at the same angle ^3.?^^° r.
sin 7 = tan a cot
^3.
.
. the axis of the cone being vertical The tube is made to rotate uniformly about the and the vertex
uppermost. another particle circulates in a smooth helical tube described on the cylinder of diameter h whose axis is
horizontal.
A
particle moves on a
helical wire
s is
whose axis
is vertical.
lie
A
smooth tube
bent so as to
on a cone of vertical angle 2a and
to cut the generators at a constant angle ^.
.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
157
62.
moves
sphere of radius
angular velocity
in a smooth tube in the form of a loxodrome on a while the tube turns uniformly about the polar axis with The particle is projected from a point in the equatoreal
. Prove that the two particles can move so as always to be at the same level.
A
and radius a under a
Show that the pressure
is
cannot vanish unless the greatest velocity of the particle
64.
A
particle
a.
63. particle slides on a smooth helix of angle a force to a fixed point on the axis equal to /x (distance). and a particle rests in the tube.
158
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that the particle will be to the tube. plane with velocity aa> relative at an angular distance 6 from the equatoreal plane after a time  log (sec $ + tan 6)} /a, {sec a
and that the pressure on the tube
2maa>2
in this position is
(1
+sin a) cos 6,
a the angle of the loxodrome.
m being the mass of the particle and
A particle is fastened to one end of a thread of length I, the other 69. the particle end being fixed to the top of a smooth sphere of radius a describes a horizontal circle with angular velocity a>, and the length of the thread in contact with the sphere is aa. Prove that
;
a>^=g cot al{a sin a + (/ aa) cos a}. A bead can slide on a rough straight wire which is rotating with 70. uniform angular velocity o) about a fixed vertical axis intersecting it, and a Prove that, for the ring to is the inclination of the wire to the horizontal.
be in relative equilibrium,
distance apart
is
^
it
must
lie
between two points on the wire whose
^0)"
sec a {tan (a + X)
— tan (a — X)},
where X
71.
is
the angle of friction.
small ring can slide on a smooth plane cmved wire which rotates with angular velocity cd about a vertical axis in its plane. Find the form of the curve in order that the ring may be in relative equilibrium at any point. Prove that, if the angular velocity is increased to a>\ the ring will still
A
be in relative equilibrium if the wire is rough and the coefl&cient of friction between it and the ring is not less than \ (w'/to — w/o)').
A rod of length 2a rotates in a horizontal plane about one of its 72. ends with uniform angular velocity a. The ends of a thread of length 2/ are attached to the ends of the rod, and a bead can slide on the thread. Prove that, when the motion is steady and the bead is at a distance a\x from
the axis, the acceleration towards the axis
is
its
uniform angular velocity about Prove that a particle cannot rest in the tube anywhere except at the lowest point unless the angular velocity a> of the tube exceeds J{gla\ where a is the radius of the generating circle, and that, when
73.
A smooth cycloidal tube rotates with
is vertical.
base which
exceeds this value, there are two positions of relative equilibrium, the <k> arcdistances of which from the vertex of the cycloid are
2a>V[2a^<»^±2a ^,'{a^(o'^g^)']. in a smooth circular tube of radius a which rotates about a fixed vertical diameter with angular velocity o. Prove that, if 6 is the angular distance of the particle from the lowest point, and if initially it is at rest relative to the tube with the value a for 6 where a cos ^a = ^{gla\ then at any subsequent time t
74.
A particle moves
cot iO
= cot ^a cosh (at sin ^a).
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
159
a
is constrained to remain on the surface of 75. particle of mass sphere of radius a, and is attached to a fixed point of the sphere by a Prove that, if slightly extensible thread of natural length aa and modulus X.
A
m
the particle is projected at right angles to the unstretched thread with velocity V the greatest subsequent elongation is '2.a\~'^mv^cota.
76.
A
particle is projected
smooth cone whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. path when the cone is developed into a plane is the same
particle
77.
horizontally on the interior surface of a Prove that its
as the path of a
under the action of a constant force to a
fixed point.
A
particle
moves on a smooth cone under a
force to the vertex
varying inversely as the square of the distance. Prove that, if the cone is developed into a plane, the path will be a conic having one focus at the vertex
of the cone.
on a right circular cone with a motion can be integrated without elliptic functions, the particle must be below the vertex, and that its distance r from the vertex at time t is given by an equation of the form
where 2a
79.
is
78. particle moves under gravity vertical axis. Show that, if the equations of
A
= 2g cos a{r Tq) {rirf the vertical angle of the cone.
particle
(r
+ 2ro)»,
circular cone of vertical
A
moves on the
inside of a
smooth
angle 2a under a force to the vertex varying inversely as the square of the It is projected from an apse at a distance c from the axis with distance.
Prove that the polar velocity ^^6 of that requisite for circular motion. equation of the projection of the path on a plane perpendicular to the axis is
3c jr =2 + cos (B sin
a),
that the time from one apse to the next is tt (2c cosec a)^/<^fi, and that the pressure is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the vertex.
80.
A
of a right circular cone, whose axis
initial velocity
surface particle is projected horizontally along the smooth inner is vertical and vertex downwards, the
being ^{2ghl(n^ + n)}, where k
its
is
the
is
initial
height above the
vertex. vertex.
Prove that the lowest point of
path
at a height h/n above the
81. right circular cone of vertical angle 2a is placed with one generator vertical and vertex upwards. From a point on the generator of least slope a particle is projected horizontally and at right angles to the generator with velocity v. Prove that it will just skim the surface of the cone without pressure if the distance of the point of projection from the vertex is
A
^v^ cosec^ a/g.
horizontally from a fixed point on the interior surface of a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. Prove that when it is again moving horizontally its velocity is independent of the velocity of projection.
82.
A particle is projected
160
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that, when a body of mass m moves under gravity on a smooth 83. sphere of unit radius, the osculating plane of the path makes an angle t&n~^ (gh/mt^) with the normal, h being the moment of momentum about the vertical diameter and v the velocity, the osculating plane always cutting the vertical diameter below the centre.
84.
A
particle
moves on the inner surface
of a
smooth bowl
in the
form
of a paraboloid of latus rectum 4a with axis vertical and vertex downwards, being projected along the surface in the horizontal plane through the focus
with velocity J{^iiag).
i8
Prove that the
initial
radius of curvature of the path
2>v/2na/V(lfw2).
85. particle moves inside a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards, being projected from the level of the
A
focus with velocity due to a height A in a direction making an angle ^tt with the meridian. Prove that, if I is the latus rectum, the initial radius
of curvature of the path
is
—^ cos tan~i7.
5
oh
the path of a particle moving on a right circular cone cuts the generators at an angle x^ ^^e acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
86.
Prove that,
if
where v
sin x), v^ {dxjds + r the velocity, and r the distance from the vertex. If the axis of the cone is vertical, and the vertex upwards, and
1
~
is
if
the
velocity is that leaves the cone,
due to
falling
from the vertex, prove that, when the particle
2 8in2;^ = tan2a,
2a being the vertical angle of the cone. What happens when tan^a 2 ? A particle moves on a smooth surface of revolution. The velocity is 87. V at a point where the normal terminated by the axis of revolution is of length
v, and this normal makes an angle 6 with the axis prove that, if ds is the element of arc of the path, and x the angle at which it cuts the meridian, the acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
;
>
sin
^'^(dx
X cot ^\
88. particle describes a rhumb line on a sphere in such a way that the longitude increases uniformly prove that the resultant acceleration varies as the cosine of the latitude, and that its direction makes with the
;
A
normal an angle equal to the
89.
latitude.
rhumb line on a smooth sphere under a force that the force varies inversely as the fourth power of the distance from the axis and directly as the distance from the diametral
particle describes a
parallel to its axis.
A
Show
plane perpendicular to the axis.
90. particle of unit mass moves on a smooth sphere under two central attractive forces \ilr^r^^ and tijr^ri^ in the distances rj, r^ of the point from the ends of a fixed diameter. Prove that, if the velocity at starting is that due to falling from an infinite distance, the on the is a rhumb line.
A
path
sphere
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
161
91. particle is placed at rest on the smooth inner surface of a vertical circular cylinder, which rotates with uniform angular velocity at about the
A
generator which is initially furthest from the particle. Prove that the pressure vanishes when the particle has descended a distance
92. particle is attached by a thread of length a to a point of a rough fixed plane inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to the angle of friction
A
between the particle and the plane. The particle is projected down the plane at right angles to the thread, which is initially straight and horizontal. Prove that it comes to rest at the lowest point of its path if the square of the initial
velocity is {n
93.

2)figa/^{l +ix^), where
/a
is
the coefficient of friction.
its axis
A rough hollow circular cylinder is made to rotate uniformly about which is horizontal, and a particle within it is projected from the lowest point in a direction contrary to that of the motion of the neighbouring
parts of the cylinder with such velocity that it comes to rest at an end of the horizontal diameter. Prove that, provided the angular velocity is great enough, the next position of instantaneous rest is given by the least positive root of the equation
3/x {e^f"^
 cos e) = (2^2 _ 1
)
sin ^,
being the angle between the axial planes through the two positions of instantaneous rest, and n the coefficient of friction.
94. particle is projected horizontally with velocity V along the interior surface of a rough vertical circular cylinder. Prove that, at a point where the path cuts the generator at an angle ^, the velocity v is given by the
A
equation
agjv^
= sin^
{ag/ V^ +
2ft
log (cot
(f)
+ cosec ^)}
,
and the azimuthal angle and the
I
vertical descent are respectively
— d(b
^9
&nd
I
— cot d) ad).
9
J'i>
J<f>
right circular cone of particle vertical angle 2a under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface. It is projected at a distance r from the vertex with velocity perpendicular to the generator. Show that, when its path crosses a generator
95.
A
moves on the surface of a rough
V
at an angle x^ the velocity is Ve~'^^^^'^^^^\
and the time
to that point is
^P''g^C0taC0SXcosec2;^C^;t,
fi
being the coefficient of friction.
96.
A particle is projected vertically
is
upwards
in a
medium
in
resistance
k
(velocity)^.
If
u
is
the initial velocity and
is
T the
which the whole time
of motion prove that ^k{2ujg
L.
 T)
positive
and increases as k
increases.
M.
11
162
97.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
in
A
particle is projected vertically
is
upwards in a medium
if U,
which
the resistance
^
(velocity )2.
Prove that,
V are
the velocities with
which the particle leaves and returns to the point of projection,
_i
98.
JL_J_
a:
A
particle falls
from rest under gravity through a distance
;
in a
as the square of the velocity v is the velocity the particle, V the terminal velocity, and Vq the velocity that acquired by would be acquired by falling through a distance x in vacuo ; prove that
medium whose resistance varies
i;2/V =
99.
l^o7^' + 2^V/^*2:^V/F«+...
and when
its
A
is
Earth with velocity
surface
that, if z
upwards from the surface of the is v and its height above the Prove z the resistance is Kv'^l{a\z), where a is the Earth's radius. is always small compared with a, the velocity V with which it
particle is projected vertically
w,
velocity
returns to the point of projection
is
approximately given by the equation
variations of gravity with height being taken into account.
100.
A particle is projected
is
vertically
upwards
:
in a
medium
in which the
kg (velocity)^. Prove that it returns to the point of projection with kinetic energy diminished in the ratio 1 1+^ F^, where F is the velocity
resistance
of projection.
Prove that in the same medium the angle B between the asymptotes of the complete trajectory of a projectile is given by the equation
IJ^lw^
= cot $ cosec 6 + sinh ~
w
^
cot
B,
where Via the terminal velocity and
horizontally.
101.
the velocity
when the
projectile
moves
A
particle
moves under gravity
proportional to the velocity.
in a medium whose resistance Prove that the range on a horizontal plane
is
is
a maximum, for given velocity of projection, when the angle of elevation at first and the angle of descent at last are complementary.
A particle is projected up a plane of inclination a under gravity and 102. a resistance proportional to the velocity. The direction of projection makes an angle /3 with the vertical, the range i2 is a maximum and t is the time of
flight.
Prove that,
if
U
is
the terminal velocity and
F
the velocity of
projection, then
(i) (ii)
(iii)
l+(F/£7)sec^=exp.(5r«C^),
UV{C
+
Fcos/3)/(
UV^ sin /3/( F+
(7 cos /3)
F+ £/cos/3)=^(i2sina+ =gR cos a.
Ut\
103. particle of unit attraction equal to {fi'^ K^)r
A
+
when
mass describes a plane curve under a central it is at a distance r from the origin, in a
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
medium whose
time
t
163
its
resistance is 2k (velocity).
e «
Prove that
coordinates at
are
 ** " "^
+ cos /i^ + {ya
{^0 cos
/i^
1
/i
(wo
1
/i
( vo
+ K^o) sin fit}^ + kt/q) sin ^^},
•^o>
yo being its initial coordinates
and
Wq) ^o its initial velocities.
104. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the square of the velocity, and u and v are the magnitudes of its velocity at the two instants when its direction of motion makes an angle ^tt with the
A
horizontal.
Prove that, when
it is
moving
horizontally, its velocity is
105.
Defining the instantaneous parabola of a projectile in a
medium
whose resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity as that which would be described if the resistance ceased to act, prove that its latus rectum diminishes at a rate which varies as v^ cos^ 6, where 6 is the inclination to the horizon of the direction of motion at the point where the velocity is v. Prove also that the axis of the parabola moves towards or from the point of
projection according as the projectile is ascending or descending.
106.
Show
that the horizontal and vertical coordinates
in a
^,
y
of a particle
moving under gravity
medium whose
dx^
V* cos^
resistance
is
R satisfy the equation
'
V being the velocity
107.
and
^
the inclination of the tangent to the horizontal.
t,
Prove that the time
the horizontal abscissa x^ and the vertical
ordinate y, at a point where the tangent of the inclination of the velocity to the horizon is jt?, of a trajectory in a medium whose resistance varies as the
nth.
power of the
velocity, are given
by
where
P=
{'^
il+p^)~^ dp,
J p
denoting the terminal velocity in the medium, and a the tangent of the inclination to the horizon at the origin, the point of infinite velocity,
is small, and equal to Prove that the period is unaltered, but that in each semi vibration the amplitude is diminished by ^ko^, where a
w
108.
A
particle in a
medium whose
resistance
K (velocity )2, is executing small vibrations.
is
the original amplitude.
109.
of
medium of which the resistance per unit Prove that, when powers of the arc above the first are neglected, the period is the same as in the absence of resistance, but the time of descent exceeds that of ascent by  ko >J{l^lg), where a is the angular
oscillates in a
A pendulum
mass
is k
(velocity )2,
amplitude of the descent, and
I is
the length of the pendulum.
11—2
164
110.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that in a resisting medium a particle can describe a circle a under the action of a force to a point on the circumference the resistance being varying inversely as the fourth power of the distance, to r~^J{a^r^) when the distance is r. proportional
of diameter
111.
A
;
under a force
retarded
in a resisting medium particle describes an equiangular spiral to the pole, and the rate of description of areas is uniformly
F
prove that
are constants, and find the law of resistance.
resistance of a
where X and
112.
ft
The
medium
is kV^\
in it
by a
particle of unit
mass under a central attraction
prove that the orbit described /x/r^ will be an
equiangular spiral if the velocity of projection is that in a circle at the same distance, and the angle of projection is cos~i (2fi/c).
particle acted on by a central force and moving in a resisting which the resistance is k (velocity )2 describes an equiangular whose pole is the centre of force ; prove that the force is proportional spiral
113.
A
medium
j^Q
in
^SgStrseca^ where a
is
the angle of the spiral.
114. particle of unit mass moves in a resisting medium, of resistance at any point is R, under the action of a radial force
A
which the and a
F
transversal force G.
Prove, with the usual notation of central
orbits, that
de
,, fd'^u
^^
^
~
w3
\
u'^ds'
\
f
„Gdu\
V
115.
A
in a
medium
moves in a field of force having a potential particle of mass in which the resistance is k times the velocity. Prove that, if
t,
m
D is the quantity of energy dissipated in time
TT H
dt
{D F)= const. m^
'
If the resistance is k (velocity )2,
and
if
ds
is
the element of arc of the
path of the
particle,
then
^ + m^
ds
?^(/)_F) = const.
116. smooth straight tube rotates in one plane with uniform angular velocity a about a fixed end, and a particle moves within it under a resistance equal to k times the square of the relative velocity. Prove that, if the particle
is
A
projected so as to
come
to rest at the fixed end, the relative velocity at
is
a distance r from that end
^V2a)»cV(e^'''*2Krl).
particle is suspended so as to oscillate in a cycloid whose vertex is at the lowest point, and starts at a distance a from that point measmed 117.
A
along the curve.
Prove that,
if
the
medium
in
which
it
moves gives a small
and the distance of the starting point from the vertex measured along the curve is c .
A
m
where u
is
the velocity of projection. then before it next comes to rest energy approximately equal to fxa of the original energy will have been
dissipated. at any point of the path and show that. moves under equal constant forces m/ along particle of mass the tangent and normal to its path.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
165
resistance < (velocity )2 per unit of mass.
forces are equal at equal distances. particle moves in a medium in which the resistance at any point varies as the density of the medium at the point and as the square of the velocity of the particle.
.
120. and the resistance is mfv^/k^ when the Prove that the intrinsic equation of the path is velocity ia»y. and the particle describes an ellipse under the action
A
of
two forces to the
foci
w = l.c)/gc}y
A
2a being the length of the
axis. particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex upwards in a medium whose resistance is (2c) "^ (velocity)'^ per unit of mass. and the
find the density of the
medium
varying inversely as the nth power of the distance . the density varies as the acceleration with which the particle would move if constrained to describe
the same ellipse under the same forces but without resistance. prove that the time to the cusp is >^{8a (4a .
118. if
.
119.
This line must be that joining the centres.
in opposite senses. 45). Elementary Dynamics of Particles and Solids.
after
Fig. it is
in the sense from
m
W
m
. when the cords
are vertical. The spheres will come into contact if their centres
are
moving
is
the other
sense.
Direct impact of spheres. The velocities of the spheres immediately
fall.
and the
line
The
distance
between the fixed points is equal to the sum of the One sphere is then raised. the spheres are in contact of centres is horizontal (see Fig. the cord attached
it
to
height
let
being kept taut.
the
impact are measured by observing the
rise. London.
towards m'.
An instrument by which experiments of the kind just considered may be maxie is called a " ballistic balance. M. 45.
i. Lib.
Let the centres of two
spheres move in the same line. Let U be the velocity of the centre of the sphere m before impact.
*
The
W.CHAPTER
VI.. It
known
is
^
then
At the instant of impact its velocity is J{2gH).
m
found that
m{uU)=^m'{U'u'). and moving towards it.
Ballistic balance. When velocities of proper arrangements are made for measuring the velocities. until its centre is at a above the equilibrium position. determined by weighing them in a common balance. or if one of them is at rest." In principle it comes to this*
:
—
The two spheres are suspended from two fixed points at the same level by cords. in the same sense and let u and u be the and m' in the same sense after impact. the velocity of the centre of before impact. m be the masses of the spheres. and.
See Principia.
141. Let m. 1890.
'Axiomata sive leges motus.'
.
140. or if they are moving in the same
and one overtakes the other.
radii. Experimental investigations of the kind referred to in the text were made by Newton.
THE LAW OF REACTION.
heights to which the centres
actual construction and method of using the instrument are described by Ricks.
This abstract statement
may be
experience. altered or stopped.
any two bodies treated as
particles. The statement may be made more precise when the bodies are replaced by particles.
This result enables us to assign
for
any two
particles.
results
The proof
it
of its truth
regarded as an induction from is found in the agreement of
"
deduced from
is
with results of experiment. 140
may
be expressed
in the form
"H^lT'm'
and
this result
:
— {u— U) _m'
generalized. each body exerts force on the other. or for
ratio. and the forces have opposite senses. 140
may be written m'u' — m U' = — (mu .
The impulses
The
result is generalized in the statement
:
— In any action between
by which the motion of either is set up."
143. the very short time of the impact.
The
result
stated in Art. a perfectly definite
. with its sign the measure of the change of momentum of the These changes of momentum are produced. The lefthand member is the measure of the " change of momen
tum"
of the sphere m'\
is
changed.140143]
142.
sphere m. by forces which the spheres exert one on the other.
The statement
because
it
frequently called the
Law
of Reaction
"
"
was
briefly expressed
by Newton in the phrase
action
and reaction are equal and opposite. This result leads us to conclude that the forces also are equal and opposite.
form
:
—
is
The magnitude of the force exerted by one particle on another equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by the second particle on the firsts the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles.m U). and these forces are equal and opposite.
The
result of Art. and then it takes the
bodies. in
the
In any action between particles the changes of velocity are
inversely proportional to the masses. The result can be stated in the form
:
the righthand member.
Massratio.
statement
—
may be
and made
precise. during
—
of these forces are equal and opposite.
THE NOTION OF MASS
167
Statement of the
Law
of Reaction.
the ratio of the masses of the
This statement enables us to assign masses to bodies without weighing them in a common balance. as a matter of the same as the ratio that is determined by the operation of
mass by means of mutual action
weighing.
Density.
which may be called the
particles produces in
massratio. to set the in motion.
Since
we
body
alteration in the velocity of a moving body.show in Chapter X. When the mean density of all parts of the body is the same. VI.
is
so weighed.
It is clear that the definition of
is
more
shall general and more fundamental than that by means of weighing.
Mass.
The
fraction
number of units of mass in the mass of a body number of units of volume in the volume of the body
mean density of the body. Whenever two bodies can be
is
treated as particles." otherwise
it
"
heterogeneous.
144.
the massratio of the particles
bodie. applications of force are required."
.
any two particles is the inverse ratio of the accelerations which. the
massratio
is
f
:
f.
145. or to bring it to rest. that the determination of masses by weighing is a
We
particular case of the determination
by means of mutual
action.168
THE LAW OF REACTION
"
[CHAP.s. by their mutual action.
Whenever the bodies can be
masses that
feet.
This tendency
called
there are no forces which produce changes " inertia." The impulse of the force
required to produce any assigned change of motion in a body is proportional to the mass of the body. Thus the mass of the body provides a measure of its inertia. This result leads us to recognize a tendency in bodies to maintain an esta
To produce any
blished state of motion
when
is
of motion."
If the force
them
accelerations
/
between the and /' respectively. it is customary to state that the quantity of matter in a body is equal to the mass of the body. the ratio of the
determined by the mutual action is. either produces in the
The massratio
of
other. In the same way we may define the mean density of any portion of a body.
is
the
"
"
the body
is
is
said to be
"
homogeneous. .
are accustomed to estimate the qiiantity of matter in a body by weighing the body." or
"
uniform.
If the intensity of the field of
the same for
the Sun's gravitation is denoted by /^/(distancey. describing orbits about the Sun. 5).
The densities of sensibly homogeneous substances in assigned circumstances are physical constants. 48. 1619.
Density
is
a physical quantity of dimensions 1 in mass and
—
3 in length."
. the centimetre and the gramme being the units of length and mass.
The
result is
sometimes called Kepler's "third law
of planetary motion. are proportional to the cubes of the major axes of the orbits.
to
We
where 8 denotes the mass of the Sun and 7 is a constant independent of the masses. is then expressed by the formula
*
Harmonices Mundi. was noted by Kepler*. The force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. we may define the density a point as the limit to which the mean density of a volume containing the point tends when the volume is indefinitely diminished."^.
fi is
be the mass of the Earth. or by the Earth on the Sun. that is to say.143146]
THE NOTION OF MASS
169
at
In the case of a heterogeneous body. and they are proportional to the masses of the bodies. Ex. and the force of the are proportional to the masses of the Earth Planet's
gravitation. P that of any Planet.
146.
the intensity of the field of force at //.
Gravitation. we are led to take for fi the form 7^.
respectively.
The periodic time
is
of a particle describing
an
elliptic orbit
about a focus
Stt^^
^u. For example. r' the distances from the Sun to the Earth and the Planet respectThe forces of the Sun's gravitation.
and the Planet
should accordingly expect the be proportional to the mass of force of the Sun's gravitation the Sun. Thus the force of the Earth's gravitation. from the focus (Art. r. the quantity all the Planets. the density of pure water (at a temperature of 4° Centigrade and a barometric
pressure represented by 76 centimetres of mercury) is unity. Let
E
and the Planet
These thererespectively. are jxEIr"^ and ^Pjr'K fore are the magnitudes of the forces which the two bodies exert
on the Sun. acting on the Earth ively. The result that the unit distance
is
and
squares of the periodic times of the Planets.
where 2a
is
the major
axis of the orbit.
Then we
find that
the
mean
density p of the Earth
given by the equation
^
•
^nyR
C.
Theory of Attractions.170
THE LAW OF REACTION
Such
forces
[CHAP. Sect. Apart from the correction on account of the rotation of the Earth.
—1
in mass. act upon each other with forces according to the law of gravitation.g. by
a divided
scale). From our present point of view.
—2
in time. this quantity is the acceleration of a free body at the surface.
is
We
denote
it
by
g'.
(665)108 in c. Principia.
each of which
acted
would arise if bodies were made up of small parts. 3 in length. By these observations also the value The best determination gives for y the value of y can be determined.
148. or spheres of which the material is arranged in concentric spherical strata of constant density.G. VI. even at a moderate distance.
it
is
" constant of called the
It is of dimensions. i. where of the Earth.
In consequence of the result
last stated.
it is
the same as g. Lib. Soc. R. and the particles of a body.
by means of which the calculation is effected is the Theory of Attractions. xii.s. a knowledge of the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun (365 days)
enables us to determine the mass of the Sun. and if the m were an attraction of amount
*
r^
The law of gravitation states that this formula expresses the law of force between particles (taken to be small parts of bodies) at all distances which can be measured by ordinary means {e. may be treated as a particle. the resultant force The theory acting on a particle of any one of the bodies may be calculated.
. to be yEjR^. units^. and those of other bodies. and accounts of it will be found in books on Statics. Proc.
147.
are led to take the intensity of the field of the Earth's is the mass gravitation.
and at
verified
all
greater distances. When a body is regarded
as
made up
of particles."
y
is
a physical constant
. if these particles
upon each other with forces in the lines joining their force between two particles of masses m and positions. Now if we take
E
R
R
to be the radius of the Earth. the most important result of the theory is that homogeneous spheres. attract an external particle as if their masses
were condensed at their centres t.
Mean
we
density of the Earth.
The quantity
gravitation. and denotes distance from its centre. t The result is due to Newton. vol. London.
The law can be
by actual observation of the gravitational force
between bodies at the Earth's surface. V. Boys. 56 (1894).
Since the intensity of the field of the Sun's gravitation is yAS'/(distance)2.
and when ^ = a. or about h\ times the density of water. this
we determine
g' (cf.]
the distinction between g' and
*
C.
equation gives us p when y is known.146150]
If
GRAVITATING SPHERE
if
17 1
we
ignore the distinction between g' and g. been determined* to be 5*527. and suppose the particle to
from rest at a distance h{>a) from the centre.
2.. [Neglect
g. the time of vibration
is is
increased or diminished according as the mean density of the siuface rock greater or less than twothirds of the Earth's mean density. on taking a pendulum down a mine. the tunnel its acceleration becomes ^rrypx at a distance x from the centre.
and.
1.
Attraction within gravitating sphere.
It is a
known
result in the
Theory of Attractions that a homogeneous shell bounded by concentric spherical surfaces exerts no attraction at any point within its
inner surface. it will have a velocity given by
start
iS:^
=
i^pa=(liy
tunnel to be bored through the centre of the sphere When the particle passes into in the direction of motion of the particle. V. loc.). so long as a?>a.
for the velocity
and the constant is determined from the expression given above
at the instant of entering the tube. or
X.
Prove that.
Chapter
149.
It follows that the attraction at
sphere
is
a point within a homogeneous gravitating that of the concentric sphere which passes through the point.v^ at a distance a. the attraction of the Earth upon an internal particle at a distance r from its centre would be gfrja^ where g' is the attraction at the surface. X from the centre is given by the equation
Ji2 ^ 1 7ryp^2
The
velocity at a distance
_ const. Thus the law of gravitation avails for the determination of the mass and the mean density The mean density (in grammes per cubic centimetre) has of the Earth. cit.
If the Earth were a homogeneous sphere of radius a. It will move directly towards the centre with an acceleration ^nypa^/.
150. Boys.
Consider the motion of a particle under the action of a uniform fixed gravitating sphere. from the centre.
Examples.
Now
suppose a
fine
and it moves with a simple harmonic motion. find the time of passing through the tunnel.
Prove that the velocity at the centre
is
V{7rypa2(3_2a/6)}. taking b = a.
. of density p and radius a.
The momenta
of the particles of a system are a system of
vectors localized in lines.
Theory of a system of
151. z) at time t."
The
. and others from the actions exerted upon particles within the system by particles outside the
of particles
system.
z be the coordinates at
. y.
Let
x. of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are mi.
and
let
the mass of the particle be determined by the equations y.
a point
{x.
of a particle at the point {w.
Resultant
momentum. together with
a vector couple. has been defined to be a vector. localized in a line through the point." localized in a line through any chosen point.
time
^
of a particle of the system. y.
Much
of theoretical
Mechanics has been developed from the theory of the motion of such a system of particles. This point " defined to be the " centre of mass of the system of particles.
Centre of mass. z)
2(?7i3/)
'
m
'
'^~
X^)
2m
l(mz)
'^~
2m
Im
'
where the summations extend to all the particles.
particles. The law of gravitation avails for the determination of the masses of the system as well
as for the determination of the motions.
153. which
is
a
"
moment
of
momentum.
On
is
centre of gravity account of the relation between
"
"
inertia (Art.
152. which
is
mz. which can be treated as particles moving under their mutual attractions. In general we shall suppose that each under particle of the system has an assigned mass. The momentum
of
mass m.
some of which are taken
within the
to arise from the
mutual actions
system. my.
their Satellites afford
The Sun and the Planets with
an
example of a system of bodies.
vectors (see
The general theory of the reduction of a system of localized Appendix to this Chapter) shows that the momenta of
the particles of a system are equivalent to a " resultant momentum. and moves
forces. 144) it
sometimes called the "centre of
We
shall
denote
it
by the letter G."
of mass coincides with the
defined in books on Statics.172
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAR
VI.
is
The centre
mass and
inertia.
where the summations extend to
the particles.
Now we have x%m = S
{mx).151155]
resolved
MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION
parts in the directions of the are
173
axes of the resultant
momentum
S
(mi).
The resultant momentum Relative coordinates. of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system.
all
2
{mz).
kinetic reactions of a system of particles are equivalent resultant kinetic reaction.
Now
x% (m) = 2
{mx). mz.
we
Hence the
resultant kinetic reaction
is
the same as the kinetic
reaction of the particle G {i. 155." Then we have of the system of particles of the particle G.
momentum
Resultant kinetic reaction.
S
{mz). which is a " moment of kinetic
to a
"
The
reaction.
We
is
call this fictitious particle
the result that the resultant
equal to the
154. For most purposes it is
simplest to take the point either at the origin of coordinates. my. y. and
moving
so as to
be always at the centre of mass of the system of
particles. of mass equal to the sum of the masses of the particles.
.
by dififerentiatiDg the equations such as find such equations as x% (m) = X {mx). of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are
m^. localized in a line through the point.
S
{my). z) at time t. and a vector couple. which is at the point {x. has been defined as a vector.
are the resolved parts
The lefthand members of these equations
parallel to the axes of the momentum of a fictitious particle. to a resultant and a vector couple.
The
kinetic reaction
of a particle of mass m. z^m = ^mz.
momentum
the "particle (r. or kinetic reactions. S
(my).e. but the vector couples depend upon the position of the point."
The components
parallel to the axes of the resultant kinetic
reaction of a system of particles are
S {mx). placed at the centre of mass of the system.
and moving with
it).
y^m — 2 (my)." localized in a line through any chosen point. and resultant kinetic reaction are independent of the chosen point which is used in reducing the system of momenta.
These are the momenta
to
parallel axes through G.
Xy
an arbitrary fixed point.. 2(m/) = 0..
Moment of Momentum.
This expression
is
equal to
2 [m {{y + y') {i + z') {z + z') (y + y')}l
and
this reduces to
{yz
..
2(m^') =
0.
are the coordinates of a point relative to the centre
From
and
it
the definition of
S(ma. and put yy z to be the x^x + x'.
mz..zy) 2 (m) + S [m {y'z' . z
we have
= 0.."
. or the
momenta
in
the
motion
:
words
is
—The moment of momentum
relative to 6r.. and the second term is the moment about an axis drawn through G parallel to the axis x of
first
the system of
relative
"
momenta mx. S(m/) = 0. It may be called the " resultant moment of
momentum
sultant
at the centre of
mass
"
and
its
axis
"
the axis of re
moment
of
momentum.
156.
The moment
of
momentum
of the system about the axis
x
is
^\m{yzzy)\
See Appendix to this Chapter."
Its
components are
X[m{y'zz'y')\... We shall coordinates of the centre of mass.
"
Moment of momentum"
is
often called "angular
momentum.
the couple is the moment of momentum in the motion relative to the centre of mass.. together with the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G about
a parallel axis through G.174
which
take
is
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. or at the centre of mass.')
x. y = y + y\ z^z\z\
z'
Then x\ y\
of mass.. y.')
= 0."
We may
therefore state our result in the
of a system about any axis
equal to the moment of momentum of the particle G. When the momenta of a system of particles are reduced to a
resultant
momentum
at the centre of
mass and a vector couple. VI.
follows that
5:(mi.
my'.zy')\
The
of the
term of this expression is the moment about the axis x momentum of the particle G. The sum of the moments momenta of the particles of the system about any axis is of £he the moment of momentum of the system about the axis.
1.zy)\
or
^
S [m {yz . m' move in any manner.
159. and v the velocity of one particle relative to the other.
.
i
(^2
+ ^2
2)
^m\^t [m {x^ + y'^ + z%
:
We may
state this result in words
—The kinetic energy of a
G
together
system of particles is the kinetic energy of the particle with the kinetic energy in the motion relative to G. y.
sum
of the
lm{d^
kinetic energy of a system of particles is the It is the quantity kinetic energies of the particles.
When the kinetic reactions of a system of particles are reduced to a resultant kinetic reaction at the centre of mass and a vector
couple.
158.
The
iX[m(^2 +
This expression
is
^2_^i2)].
The sum
iP
the
moments
of the kinetic reactions about the axis
is
2 [m {yz .zy')\
Hence the sum
fixed axis
is
of the
moments
of the kinetic reactions about any
of the kinetic reaction of the particle G about the axis together with the moment of kinetic reaction in the motion
relative to
moment the moment
equal to the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the of momentum about the same axis. and this is equal to
G
about a parallel axis through G.
Examples.zy) X (m) + S [m {y'z' .
Kinetic energy.
V is
the velocity
of the centre of mass.
is
For a
particle of
mass
m at (x. z) it is
+ f + z^. The kinetic energy of a particle half the product of its mass and the square of its velocity.zy)\
and this can be expressed in the form
{yz
.
equal to
_.
The
kinetic energy
is
\{m\m')V^\
——
.
Two
particles of
masses m.
MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION
175
of
Moment
of kinetic
reaction.
fV^.155159]
157. the couple is the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the resultant moment of momentum at the centre of mass.
VI. is velocity. x^.
We
shall write as the type of
such equations
mx^X^X\ my=Y+Y'.
. and the suin of the moments about any internal forces between the particles of a system
are identically zero. ^{xT yX')==0.
In the same case. and type of the internal forces.
Z)
(X\
F'. sum of the moments about any axis of two equal and opposite forces acting in the same line vanishes. 2/2.
The equations of motion of this particle are = Fi + F/. 2:(r)=o. 160 the result
may be
written
i(Z')=o.
In the notation of Art.em. l. mz = Z + Z\
Then {X. plane containing
and the axis of resultant
mm' jDv.
161. Fj.
Law
all the
parts parallel
axis. z^ may
ma ^2
= X2 + Z2'. y^. if p is the perpendicular from the position of one the other in the direction of the relative particle to the line drawn through of momentum at the centre of mass.
The mutual
consists of
action between any two particles of the system two equal and opposite forces acting upon the two
The sum of the particles in the line joining their positions. ?7ii2/i
at
f
Z^. l{zX'xZ')=0. m\m^ moment of momentum
.
7?i2
Similarly the equations of motion of a second particle of mass be written (.
Y. Z( the sums of the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the forces exerted on the
same
particle
by the remaining
particles of the syst. I'he sum of the resolved any aocis.
muz^
= Z^\.
to
of
of internal action. Z') is the
is the type of the external forces. F/. z^ its coordinates at time t.176
2. X/.Zi. m^z^ = ^i mii?i = Xi + X/.{yZ'zY')=0. Zi.
5:(zo = o. Z^ the sums of the resolved parts on this particle by parallel to the axes of the forces exerted
particles not forming part of the system.
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP.
^22/2
=
F2
+
F2'. resolved parts of these two forces parallel to any axis' vanishes. Let Wi be the mass of one particle of the system.^2. Equations of motion of a system of particles. the resultant moment
is at right angles to the the particles and the line of the relative velocity.
The moment
of a force about an axis
is
the same at whatever
Hence the point in its line of action the force may be applied.
160.
1743.
tions
Again multiplying the ^'equations by the ys and the yequs. .
d'alembert's principle
Simplified
177
forms of the equations of motion.
This result. we find such results as
X {mx)t^t.
By
integrating both
members
of the equations such as
^ (mx) = 2X
initial
with respect to the time.by the zs.
Adding the lefthand members of all the ajequations of motion. the kinetic reactions and the external forces are two equivalent systems of localized vectors.
12
. It is known as
D'Alembert's Principle. we form
the equation
2[m(2/22y)]
In like manner we have
= 2(yZ^F).
of the resolved parts in any direction of the kinetic reactions of a system of particles is equal to the sum of the
The sum
resolved parts of the external forces in the
(2)
The sum
of a
of the
moments about any
axis of the kinetic
reactions
moments
The
system of particles is equal to the sum of the of the external forces about the same axis.
In
like
manner we have
X(m2/)=2F.
= S (a^F— yX). and remembering that ^(yZ' — zY^) = 0. and X [m {ayy —
Our equations may be
(1)
yx)]
stated in words
:
—
same
direction.
result
may
also be briefly stated in the form
:
— When the
external forces are regarded as localized in their lines of action. in
ft. = X
or. we obtain the equation S (mx) = SX.X {mx)t^t.159162]
162.
words:
is
—The
Jt.
M. between limits which correspond to the and final instants of any interval.
change of
momentum
of the system in any
direction
equal to the sum of the impulses of the external forces resolved in that direction. and t(mz) = 2Z.
Xdt.
L. in a slightly different form. was first stated by D'Alembert in his Traite de Dynamique. and remembering that IX' = 0.
2 [m {zx — xz)] — X {zX — xZ).
line. equations such as 2 [m {yz The lefthand member of the equation just written becomes
164. of
mass equal to the mass of the system. Hence the rate
of increase (per unit of time) of the resolved part of the resultant momentum of the system parallel to that line is zero... VI.
of the
about any line through G.
particle..
165.zy) Im] + t{m (y'z .
When
the resultant
external force on a system has no resolved part parallel to a particular line. relative to the centre of mass is determined
motion of the centre of mass. or the resolved
part of the resultant
momentum
mass
parallel to the line is constant.
.
and the righthand member becomes
The terms in we thus have such equations
[ylZ'zXY] + X(y'ZzY).
166.
like
'ilm^^Z. the sum of the resolved parts of the kinetic reactions of the particles parallel to that line is zero.
we
see that
xl^m^lX.
sum
moments
of
the results of the last two Articles
centre of mass
is
Independence of translation and rotation.
[(yz
.
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. square brackets in the two members
as
are equal. parallel to the
velocity of the centre of
is
of the
constant.
pm=2F.
In such a case the resolved part.178
163. In the — zy)] = 2 (yZ—zY) put x = x\a)'. under the action of the vector resultant of all the forces applied to the system.
Motion of the centre of mass.
Since the resultant
kinetic reaction of a system is the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system placed at the centre of
mass and moving with
so that the centre of
it.. From we see that the motion of the
determined by the external forces independently and the motion
independently of the
of any motion relative to the centre of mass.
Conservation of
Momentum.
and
These can be stated in words
of time) of the
:
—The rate of increase (per unit
in the
moment
of
momentum
motion relative to G. is equal to the the external forces about the same line.z'y')]. mass moves
a
Motion relative to the centre of mass.
•
in
drawn
Sudden changes of motion. relative to the centre of mass is constant.
instant respectively.
Hence we have the
equations
2[m(ic5)] =
2X.=o
Xdt==X.
These equations can be expressed
words in the statements
:
—
The change of momentum of the particle G in any (1) direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external
impulses in that direction.
the
sum
of the
moments
of the external forces about an
a fixed direction through the centre of mass. that act on a particle m and..
momentum
of the
When
axis.
Lt.
and
X
(yZ'
— zY').
Let x and ^ be the resolved parts parallel to the axis X of the velocity of m just after the instant t and just before this
are
finite.163168]
167. but that the impulses of
168.
12—2
.
. let X' he the sum of the resolved parts parallel to the axis x of all the forces.. When moments of the external forces about any fixed the sum of the moments of the kinetic reactions vanishes. 82 suppose that and X' do not remain finite at time and X' are finite.
in
X[m{y{zt}. As in Art..
vanish.. the moment of momentum about that axis in the motion vanishes. as in Art.?) = ^ + ^^
Now
it
follows from the law of internal action (Art. 160.)}] = t(yZzY)..
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
179
the
axis
sum
Conservation of moment of momentum. and the moment of system about the axis is constant. external and internal.
of the
about that axis vanishes..(yi.
161)
that XX'.=o
Xdt = X..
X X
X
defined by the equations
Lt.
Then we have the equation
to the axes
In like manner the impulsive changes of velocity parallel y and z will be determined by equations which may be
written
m (i .
.
X
\
.. or that and X\ t.
no work is done by the force between them but if the distance varies.x^ {x^ .
moment of momentum of the system the sum of the moments of the external
Work done by
2/i.
If
.^.y +
Also
let
.
time particles at
the force between two particles. impulses about that
169.
Let
a?i.z^\
Fr.
r
^^yi^y^ ^ ^^^^^^. y^. x^. take this force to be repulsive.
^1
and
t.
about any axis is equal to axis.
Work
all
done by
flinction. the internal force does work.y.x.z^ (ii .z^\
the magnitude of the force between them. The components axes of the forces exerted on the particles 1 and 2 parallel to the
for definiteness..
The work done
in
any displacement
is
the value of the integral
\Frdt or [Fdr.x^
I
(yi
.3/2) + («i .^
'
F^_i:ii3 r
'
and
2^^::i^i r
r
i^^^\
r
first force
The
rate (per unit of time) at
which the
r
does work
is
^^^v. We form as in Art. z^ denote the coordinates of the two and r the distance between them.
r
force does
and the rate at which the second
jF
work
r
is
r
X^
+ Jf
r
2/2 ^
+
P
2^2
Hence the sum of the
rates at
which the two
forces
do work
is
F
r
or
[(a?i
.
taken between limits which correspond to the positions of the
particles before
and after the displacement. .
the distance between the particles remains unaltered throughout the motion. so that
(yi
r^^{x.2/2) (yi . VI.y + {z.
F denote
respectively are
F^^izJ^
r
'
^ y^^y^ r
py_i:zy. 86 the work the forces acting on any particle of a system as the
.130
(2)
THE LAW OF REACTION
The change
of the
[CHAP. and.
170.
the initial positions being This function is the " work function. it is a function of the coordinates of the final positions. is called the potential
. in the position A. can possess potential energy." prescribed."
It is important to observe that the work done by the internal forces may not in general be omitted from the sum."
a work function exists the system
is
said to be "con
The work function in any position sign changed is the work that would be done by the to the standard forces if the system passed from the position It is defined to be the Potential Energy of the system position. as its particles pass from any set of positions to a prescribed standard set of positions.
171.
this expression has the
When
the
initial
and
final positions of
We
"
refer to the prescribed initial positions as constituting the
standard position. m' is an attraction ymm'/r^.
same value for all paths joining the particles.e.
energy of the system in the former set of positions.168172]
particles
ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
181
time t
move from their positions at time ^o to their positions at The expression for the sum of the works of all the forces
all
acting on
the particles
may be
written
where the summation extends to
all
the particles.
When
the
between two particles of masses m.
Potential Energy.
/
.
only con
servative systems. is said to be
:
—
a conservative system and the work done by the forces of such a system.
force
Potential energy of gravitating system. the work done in a displacement by which the distance r between them changes from ro to r^ is
^i
mm
.
For the sake of precision we present our previous statements A system in which the work done by all in the following form the forces on all the particles.
A
with
its
A
Only systems
for
which a work function
exists.
i. as they pass from one set of positions to another. is independent of the paths of the particles.
172.
When
servative.
mx = X
we form the equation
of which the lefthand
From the X'
\
equations of the type
member may be
written
We
deduce the result that the rate of increase (per unit of
time) of the kinetic energy of the system is equal to the rate at which work is done by all the forces internal and external. and
consequently
we deduce the
the forces.

potential energy
= const.
Art.
Hence
in
a gravitating system the work done in any displacement
is
/mm'
where the summation extends to
If
all
mm'\
the pairs of particles.
we choose the standard
are infinite.
Z the
sums of the resolved parts
parallel to the axes of the
.
result that the increment of kinetic
is
energy in
any displacement
equal to the
sum
of the works
done by
all
When a work function exists this result gives us an integral of the equations of motion. z be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the velocity of the particle of mass just after an impulse.
173.
any other
Energy equation. and this integral can be written in
the form
kinetic energy
174. y.
y„m'(ii). f 97. \ the similar resolved parts of the velocity just before the impulse.182
and
this is
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. 168 let x.
X. VI.
m
. the value of the
work function
position to be that in which all the distances in any other position is
and the potential energy
in this position
is
„wim'
The negative sign indicates that there is less potential energy in state than there is in the state of infinite difiusion.
F.
As
in
Kinetic Energy produced by Impulses.
just as the internal
forces
may
not be omitted from the energy equation of Art.i^)] _ \^ [m (f + ^^ + fO] = JS [m {x .
. 57—63. The mathe
matical problem of integrating the equations of motion of such a system of particles. Principia. and
176. just before
the impulses
and
the arithmetic
to
the velocities. It is required to show that the relative motion is parallel to a fixed plane.
i.
The principle of the conservation of momentum shows that the centre of mass of the two particles moves uniformly in a The accelerations of the particles.
as the
known
"
"
Bodies*.
The Problem
of
Two
to
determine the periodic time when the orbits are
elliptic. in their directions. and the velocity straight line.
of the particles
means of which they are
and just
after the impulsive actions.
Props. X\ Y\ Z' the sums of the similar resolved parts of the internal impulses.172176]
THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES
183
external impulses applied to m. Two particles which attract each other according to the law of gravitation are projected in any manner. xi." The only one of these problems which has been solved completely is the problem of two bodies. supposed to be n in number.
The Problem of the Solar System.two similar terms]. Lib. and that the relative orbits are conies. 173. the change of kinetic energy produced by impulses
sum of the products of all
applied.
175.
It is very important to notice that the internal impulses may not be omitted from the equation here obtained.j) (i? + f ) + two similar terms]
=S
\{X \^')\{x\\)\.
The problem
of n bodies.
*
The Problem
of
Two
Bodies was solved by Newton.To = JS [m {x" ^f^." The particular cases of two and
three bodies are
problem of two bodies and the " problem of three bodies.
As we have already
ex
plained. the bodies of the Solar system can be treated as a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation.
is the
Thus.
We
Also
have such equations as
T . is known as the "problem of n bodies.
Sect. T and T^ the kinetic energies of the system just after and just before the impulses.
Then the acceleration of each particle is in the line joining it to the origin. VI. Thus either particle describes
+
.
The equations
last written
show that the acceleration of m^
relative to w^. m^.184
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. are unaltered.
let
rj.
»»2
Fig. = rj + r^.
these equations become
^(^^)=«
and
it is
r
motion of m^ would lead
clear that the equations of
us to the same two equations. is 'yim^ m^jr'^. if
we
refer
them
to
a frame whose axes are parallel to those of the original frame of reference. be the distance between the particles at time t The force between them is ym^m^lr^
Then the equations
of motion of mj.
each particle therefore takes place in this plane. 6 the angle which
the line joining them makes with any fixed line in the plane of motion. We shall
suppose this to be done.
Now
particles.
of either relative to the other. and that there is no transverse acceleration. or of m. are
Since
i\
= m^rl{7n^ + m^. 46. and whose origin is at the centre of mass. also let r. and the velocities of the particles are localized in lines which lie in a plane containing the origin the motion of
.
G
r^
be the centre of mass.^ relative to m^. m^ the masses of the their distances from G at time t.
' cos a < =
or
> 2y
('/ni
+ '(fii^\R.
+ ma)}
'
Examples. a'. parabola. a Planet. neglecting the mutual attractions of the Planets.
If the particles are projected with velocities
v. P.
and the time required
is
I
C
J^cLc.
t.
and
J
mx
m\m
is
of the system
^
\m + m'J
\m+m'/
^
m+m'
The potential was c as standard
energy. and radii a.2=2y(m +
wi')(^j. and. 172)
ymm \c~x)'
Hence the energy equation
is
i.
5 of Art.
E
states that [Kepler's Third Law of Planetary motion quoted in Art. is (see Art.y2
^
y'2
_ 2^2. and the Earth and 2. is the sum of the greatest and least distances between the particles. the major axis of the Planet's orbit is h times that of the Earth's orbit. and its periodic time is n years prove.
denote the masses of the Sun.
. 48. position. this orbit
is
a conic
Further. 177]
THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES
185
a central orbit about the other with acceleration varying inversely
as the square of the distance. Kepler's law is approximately correct because S is or E^ great compared with
P
3. wi'. >S'. its major axis.
.
Two
We may
suppose the centre of mass to be at
rest. measured from the position in which the distance rt. required to find the time until they are in contact. or hyperbola according as
.
to
fall
it is
gravitating spheres of masses m. equal to
27r*^{y (mi
177.
by
Art. 146 7^=1<^ approximately.
and the periodic time
is. 2a. that
. are allowed together from a position in which their centres are at a distance c.176. 51.
v'
in directions con
taining an angle a from points whose distance apart is R^ prove that the relative orbit is an ellipse. described about a focus.
1.
and take x
for the
distance beween the centres of the spheres at time are equal in magnitude to
vr^x
Then
their velocities
m^m
Hence the kinetic energy
2
. when the orbit is an ellipse.
by Ex.
which the centre of mass of E and
M
H
is
the rate at
M
Prove that.
Conservation of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the velocity of the centre of mass in any direction is constant. masses m. so that the three are always gravitation
M
in a fixed plane. if two bodies of masses E and 5.
projection.
It would be outside the scope of this book to explain how these special circumstances can be utilized for the piupose of integrating approximately
refer to
the equations of motion of the bodies of the Solar system. 18891896.
describes area about E^ and where h is the rate at which describes area about S. General problem of Planetary motion. would. Tisserand's Trait4de
M^canique
celeste^ tt.
S{E^MfH^{S^E\M)EMh=QO\\^t. The most recent comprehensive
treatise is F. (2) that all the orbits are nearly circular. so far.
shall
an angle Q such that
a\a'
= c cos^^. the equation becomes
178. been obtained. we
have
for the
required time
c^(^ + sin^co3^)
V{2y(m+m')}
Two gravitating spheres. and that the direction of the relative velocity will ultimately be turned through an angle 2tani{F2c?/y(m+m')}. For this we must books on gravitational Astronomy.. But there are a number of circumstances which conduce to the possibility of deducing from this law such an approximate account of the motions in question as shall be
sufficiently exact to agree
Among
these
we may mention
with observation over a long period of time. then
{E^ Mf H^ EMh =const. pass each other at a minimum distance
4.186
If then
THE LAW OF REACTION
we
find
[CHAP.
Even
complete description of the motion. and that of a fixed body of mass ^. im!^ moving freely with relative in the absence of gravitation. The principle of the Conservation of Moment of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the moment of momentum of the
system about any axis drawn in a fixed direction through the centre of mass is constant. and all but those of a few Satellites lie nearly in one plane.
Paris. The energy equation also is an integral of the equations
of motion. VI. velocity V when at a great distance apart.
1—4. (1) that the mass of the Sun is great com
pared with that of the other bodies.
are hy^^erbolic.
in the case of three particles these integrals do not suffice for a Except in particular circumstances of
no other
first
integral has.
Thus we cannot deduce from the law
of gravitation an exact account of
the motions of the bodies forming the Solar system. even the mass of Jupiter being less than ic'su*^ P^^ of that of the Sun.
if all
three bodies are free. move under their mutual Prove that. Prove that the relative orbits d.
In the general
case of a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation we know The principle of the seven first integrals of the equations of motion.
.
in any compartment. to be equal to the product of the volume of the compartment and the density of the body in the neighbourhood. When the is a or chain. momentum is that of a particle.
is
suppose that the particles move under the actions of forces obeying the law of reaction.177179]
MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL
187
Bodies of finite
size.
The momentum
of a
body
is
equivalent to a certain resultant
momentum and a certain moment of momentum. For example. are equivalent to a single force directed more along this line. the motion of the body is determined when the motions of all the particles are known. when the body
regarded as rigid. This force is the tension of the chain. If the body is divided in imagination into a very large number of very small compartments. 152.
179. axis through the centre of mass moment of momentum about any
. we assume that they are adjusted so that the distance between any two particles is invariable.
A
general discussion will be given in Chapter XI. but we assume that they are adjusted so as to secure the satisfaction of certain conditions. We deal with the motion of a body in the same way as with the motion of a system of particles. we assume that the forces between parbody string
is
ticles situated on the two sides of a plane. and a particle
supposed to be placed in each compartment. as determined in books on Statics.
same
In general we do not attempt to determine the forces between the particles.
The centre of mass of a body is found by a limiting process from the formulae of Art. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. It coincides with the centre of
gravity of the body. drawn at right angles to the line of the chain. of mass equal
The
to the
resultant
mass of
The the body.
We
We
adjust the masses of the particles so that the
sum
of the
masses of those particles which are in any part of the body shall be equal to the mass of that part of the body. Theory of the motion of a body. This comes to the
thing as taking the mass of a particle.
the
sum
of the
moments about that
axis of the
momenta
of
the particles relative to the centre of mass.
Like statements hold
for the kinetic reaction. The
gravitational attractions between particles within the surface and " *' external forces acting on the part particles outside it are also
within the surface. If the work done " can be specified by a " work function there is an energy equation. and the moment of kinetic reaction
about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about the same axis. which is an integral of the equations of motion. way that no apparent change of size or shape takes To represent the motions of such place in any part of them. bodies by those of systems of particles we subject the internal
180.
"
equations of motion of any part of the body are formed The forces exerted upon this part of the body
across the surface
are
now
external
"
which separates it from the rest of the body forces acting on the part in question. of mass equal to the mass of the body.
Solid bodies often move rigid body.
VI.
The rate (per unit of time) at which the kinetic energy of a body increases is equal to the sum of the rates at which work is done by all the forces external and internal."
motion of a rigid body is determined when the motion of three of its particles is determined. together with the kinetic
energy of the motion relative to the centre of mass.
in such a
forces
Motion of a
between the hypothetical particles to the condition that the distance between any two of the particles is to be maintained
invariable.
The system The
of particles subjected to this condition
is
said to
represent a "rigid body. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it.
The
kinetic enei^gy of the
body
is
equal to the kinetic energy
of a particle.
The equations of motion of the body express the statements that the resolved part of the resultant kinetic reaction in any direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external forces in the same direction. For the three particles
.
The
in the
same way.188
is
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP.
the motion of determined by that of a fictitious particle.
The
position of a point depends on three quantities. since the line may make any angle depends
with one of the axes. it is manifest that the internal relative motion of the parts of the body or system would be altered by transferring the point of application of a force from one the force. The forces do not enter into the equations in any other way. relative to another.
rigid
body
Transmissibility of force. The equations of motion of this particle are the same as if all the forces acting on the body were applied at the centre of mass.
181. and the plane through it parallel to that axis may make any angle with a coordinate plane. but not upon their points of application.
In the cases of a deformable body and a system of isolated particles. particle to another in the line of action of
. placed at the centre of mass and
moving with it.
Hence the forces may be supposed to act at any points in their lines of action without altering the motion of the body.
part of a
Now the equations of motion of the body involve the external forces by containing the sums of the resolved parts of these forces in assigned directions and the sums of the moments of these forces about assigned axes. This requires
the determination of the positions of the origin of the frame F^ of one of its lines of reference. and of a plane through that line. F. but these two
The position of a plane through a line depends on one quantity. which may be taken to be the angle it makes with the plane drawn through the line parallel to one
angles determine the line. the coordinates of the point.
The resolved parts and moments in question depend upon the lines of action of the forces.
To determine the positions of all the particles of a rigid body relative to a frame is therefore the same thing as determining the position of one frame.
When
the body
is
a rigid body moves without rotation. The position of a line through a point on two quantities. The motion of every is known when the motion of any part of it is known. directions and senses being
unaltered.179181]
MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL
all
189
the par
determine a frame of reference relatively to which ticles of the body have invariable positions.
of a rigid
body
relative
Thus the positions of all the particles to a frame are determined when six
quantities such as those specified are given. their magnitudes. of mass
equal to the mass of the body.
of the axes of reference. or of any part of the body.
The particle of .
which one of the bodies A exerts upon the other B at the point of contact can be resolved into components along The normal comand perpendicular to the common normal.
opposite. relative to A.190
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. B.
In general. and the sum of the at which it does work on the two is zero. and
at P. the parts in contact have the same velocity in the direction of the normal. and the pressures acting upon the two bodies are equal and
. particle of of contact.
let
Let
P be
A. VI.4 at similarly for the particle of at P.
Forces between rigid bodies in contact.
182.
The
two rigid bodies may be regarded as touching at a single point.
The
to
is
parallel at P. contact. and
R
denote the pressure and
is
the point of contact of two bodies F the friction.
manner there
The
condition of continued contact
is
that the relative velocity
just described is localized in a line in the tangent plane at P. the pressure does (positive or negative)
rates (per unit of time)
work on both bodies. relative to B.
Each of the bodies
regarded as having a particle at P. relative to axes of
P
B
will
have a certain velocity."
In the system of two bodies in contact the pressure does no work for. and the tangential component the "pressure" of on B. The resultant of the pressure and
A
A
friction is often called the
"
total reaction.
The
force
ponent
is
is
the "friction" oi
on J5.
183.
.
Friction. and the action between the two bodies (apart from their mutual gravitation) may be regarded as consisting of a pair of equal and opposite forces applied at the point
surfaces of
of contact. or that the resolved part of this velocity in the direction of the
common normal
vanishes. so long as the bodies remain in contact. considered as a point of
A
velocity of the particle the axes of reference
drawn through the
B
the velocity of the point A. This result
is
We
sometimes called the Principle of the transmissihility offorce. In like
is an equal and opposite velocity of the point of considered as a point of B.
conclude that a force acting on a rigid body may be regarded as a vector localized in a line instead of a vector localized at a point.
.
The constant
fju
is
called the coefficient
of
friction.
Potential energy of a body. Further the work done by those components of the internal forces. necessary that the coefficient of friction should exceed generally
a certain number depending on the circumstances of the case. 160 do the external forces X. F.181184]
PRESSUKE AND FRICTION BETWEEN BODIES
law of Friction
is
191
The
at
first
that the friction acting upon
•!
p
[
P
is
opposite in sense to the velocity of the point of contact.
the motion
is
In order that rolling may take place it described as rolling. and this work
184. portion
represents what
may
be called
"
internal potential energy.
When
is
the relative velocity above described
is zero.
described as a motion of sliding or slipping."
. corresponding to this work function. A motion of two bodies in contact which is not one of pure rolling
is
direction of friction
to prevent slipping.
always negative.
made
Z
in
specified any displacement and this work work function. and this work may
. and regarded of Art.
For a body under the
as gravitational attractions of other bodies.
^ fiR. which represent the mutual gravitation of the function. may be stated in the form
:
— Friction tends
F= fiR.
When the motion is one of rolling.
considered as a point of \d\
relative to
j
.
. of the potential energy. by a relation of inequality a constant depending only on the materials of which
are connected
F
the bodies are composed.
The second law of
pressure
Friction
is
that the friction
F
and the
R
is
where
yu.
When
the motion
is
one of
is
sliding. parts of the body.
the friction does work on
the system. up of particles. When
The
rule for the
When
slipping takes place
the bodies are sufficiently rough to prevent slipping throughout the motion they are sometimes said to be perfectly rough. but it may do (positive or negative) work on each of the bodies and then the sum of the rates (per unit of time) at which it does work on the two is zero. is also specified by means of a work The other internal forces may also do work. the friction does no work on the system of two bodies.
is
work means of a by
When this is the case the also be specified by a work function.
so that its length is ^o (1 + e).
is the mass of the body. and we may also regard the portion as free from the action of any other external forces. and the other attached to a body.
The
rate at which the terminal tension does
.
Potential energy of a stretched string. For the purpose of calculating the
potential energy we may regard this portion as having one end fixed.
In such a case the potential energy is divisible into three potential energy of the body in the field of the external parts
:
attraction. Its tension is Xe. and let its extension be e.
and internal potential energy.192
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. a portion of the string of natural length l^.
kinetic energy of the body and the potential energy of the body in the field of external force are variable quantities. or with resisting media such as the air and the forces exerted upon the rigid body by bodies with which it is in contact may do work which is not specified by a work
.
Energy of a
rigid body. For the body may be in contact with other rigid bodies. where X is the modulus of elasticity. Now let the string be
extended further. potential energy of the
mutual gravitation of the parts
field
of the body.
body in the
of the Earth's gravity is
The
potential energy of a
represented by the expression
where
m
denotes the mass of any of the hypothetical particles. and
z is
the
height of that particle above a fixed level.
The
The equations of motion of a rigid body do not always possess an integral in the form of an energy equation.
This expression
is
equal to
M
z is
the height of
its
centre of
mass
185. 169 that the internal forces
between the
particles of a rigid
body never do any work.
function. Consider 186. or with deformable bodies such as elastic strings.
Mg'z. which exerts upon it
a tension Xe.
It follows
from the result
of Art. VI. and where above the fixed level.
The potential energy of the mutual gravitation of the parts of a rigid body and the internal potential energy of the body can both be taken to be zero by choosing the actual state of
aggregation of the body as the
"
standard
"
state.
a portion of a stretched string. so much being located in each piece. may therefore say that the energy is located in the The amount located in any string.184187]
POTENTIAL ENERGY OF STRETCHED STRING
.
Localization of Potential Energy. s + As be what these lengths become when the string is stretched. in such a way that the amount so assigned corresponds to the
state of that piece. Sq+^^o that of a slightly longer portion. 184).
is
^\lo€^. Then we define the extension at the point corresponding to Sq to be
.
A similar
tracted
(cf. can think of this e denoting the extension at any point of the piece. moving end.ASn
If this is denoted
by
c.
the potential energy of any portion between s^a
and
SQ
=b
is
b
i:
The potential energy of a gravitating system and the potential energy of a stretched string are two examples of the potential energy that arises from internal forces between the parts of a system.
L. as an amount of internal
Hence the potential energy of potential energy (Art.
We
piece can be expressed as ^Xe^ per unit of length (in the natural state).
187. which is of natural length Iq. Then the work done by the internal forces together with that done by the external It follows that the work done forces vanishes.
193
work (per unit of time) is Xe l^i.
We may regard the string as being extended so slowly that no sensible kinetic energy is imparted to it.
let Sq
any portion measured from one end.
result holds for a spring. with changed sign.
As . and let s. M.
when
its
extension
is
e. in the same way as kinetic energy
We
is
possessed by a moving body. In the case of the string are able to assign a certain amount of the potential energy to each piece the string.
Lidt
integral is taken between limits which correspond to the values and e of the extension.
we
of
But the two cases present a marked difierence.
whether extended or conbe the natural length
Art. by the internal
forces is
—^\lo6\ Since this amount depends only on the initial and final states we can regard it. and its value is ^Xloe.
is
When
of
the string
not stretched uniformly. Hence the work done
from
its
l^^e is the velocity of the in the extension of the string
for
natural length to the length 1^(1
+ e)
is
/
The
Xe.
13
. 101). energy as possessed hy the piece of string.
of the velocity of the particle on which it acts.
rate at which the
work
is
done. in the case of a heavy body near the Earth's surface we cannot locate the energy in the body.
interval bears a definite ratio to the
.
is
Corresponding to each force between particles of the two systems there a certain power measured by the product of the magnitude of the force
and the resolved part. energy can be localized. in its direction. independently We cannot. and so on. the limit of the ratio of the number of units of mass in the mass of any portion to the number
. Power. When the chain is not uniform.194
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. or by the product of the magnitude of the velocity of the particle and the resolved part. in any machine performing mechanical work. per unit of time and the machine is said to be "working up to a j)ower" measured by the
. or in the Earth. the chain is uniform.
is is
The
number of units of work done in any number of units of time in the interval
short.
188.
In the case of the gravitating system we are not able to assign a certain of the potential energy to any part of the system in such a way that to changes in the state of that changes of the energy so assigned correspond of changes in the position of the part relative to other part. the thickness of the chain. when the interval the rate at which work
indefinitely
being done
per unit of time.
. another portion in another part of the system. the energy of the system aS" is increased. in any way that shall be completely satisfactory. in its direction. this ratio has a limit.
Thus.
The
poicer of a
time at which the
first
system acting on another system is the rate per unit of system does work upon the second.
In general
much
of the
work
is
done
against friction. In general we neglect 189.
which
is
and. and an equal amount of work done. When the mass of any portion is
proportional to the length of the portion. When work is done by the action of a system S upon a system S' the forces exerted by the particles of >S' upon the particles of In cases where the *S" do work in the displacements of the particles of *S".
We
have to think of
it
as possessed hy the system. VI. and that
of
S
diminished. For instance. some portion of the energy in one part of the system. by a quantity equal to the
amount
of
work so done. of the force exerted upon it either of these products measures the rate at which the force does work.
Motion of a string or chain. locate parts.
of all these powers
is
the power of the
first
system acting on the
The power can be measured equally by the rate at which work is done upon the second system or by the rate at which the first system does work. a certain amount of energy is expended.
The sum
second. not by the
bodies composing the system. or in any definite proportion some of it in the body and some
amount
in the Earth. but suppose that the mass of any finite length of it is finite.
and then passing to a limit by increasing the number of particles.
resolve the acceleration of any hypothetical particle of the chain in the direction of the tangent to this curve at the denote the resolved part of occupied by the particle.
The force between two taken to be equal to the tension of the
and diminishing the lengths of the small portions of the chain.
is
neighbouring particles chain at the corresponding point. and
the pressure and friction of any curve or surface with which the chain is in contact.
and
if
is
m
is
the linedensity
of the chain in the neighbourhood. and let the mass of the particle be the supposed mass of that length of the chain. This force is the tension of the chain.
If a (geometrical) plane is at right angles at
drawn
to cut the line of the chain
any point.
If
any of the short lengths
is
As. when the chain is in a field of force. Let each of the hypothetical particles act upon its next neighbours with a force adjusted in
number
accordance with the law of reaction.
tensions in the two directions from the particle to its in general different. when the length is diminished indefinitely. but the difference
The other
forces of the
forces acting on the hypothetical particles are the field.
and denote by
F
the force of the
field
per unit
13—2
.
The
two next neighbours are
tends to zero with As. The chain lies in a curve drawn on the
surface.
m^s
the mass of the cor
responding particle. or the
linedensity.
point the acceleration by /. the two parts of the chain which are separated by this plane act one oq the other with a force directed along the line of the chain at the point. The motion of the chain is determined by forming the equations of motion of any particle.
indefinitely.
190.187190]
MOTION OF A CHAIN
195
of units of length in the length of the portion.
We
We
We
resolve the force of the field in the
same
direction. In each length let a particle be to be placed.
Let the chain be divided in imagination into a very large of very short lengths. String or chain of negligible mass in contact with smooth surface. is the mass per unit of length.
Hence we conclude
if
the mass of the chain
may be
neglected.
holds also for
any portion of the chain which is in The form of the argument shows any portion which is free.
j^
dT
is
mf=mF\^.
hypothetical particle is to the curve at the point.=^T
and ^.F\T^ cos
''
+ Tj cos <^i
As
.
(t>.
As
is
The
limiting form of this equation
J. the tension
constant.= vr. VI.
=
0.
Resolve along the tangent to the curve for the motion of the
hypothetical particle./= mAs .
is
nearly the same as ^
= 0.
T^
= T.
If
m
is
very small this equation
that.
of mass in that direction.
The
that
it
result is proved for
contact with a smooth surface.196
THE LAW OF REACTION The
[CHAP.
.
We
have
</)2
m^s . 0i and <f)^ the angles which their lines In the limit of action make with the tangent to the curve.
pressure of the surface on the directed at right angles to the tangent
Let T be the tension of the chain at the point and let Tj and Tg be the forces acting between the hypothetical particle and its two next neighbours.
.
distance. bursts with an explosion which generates velocity v in each fragment directly outwards from the centre of the shell.4).
mass being at
Prove that.
when
its
centre
length
8F3yi2/(F46KV + 2. at a distance
m
gravitation.
A body. of mass km.
?h<S}m
e'
Two
each other
gravitating particles of masses m. by The bodies attract each other according to the law of line with velocity tc.
1. the eccentricity e' of
the subsequent relative orbit
is
given by the equation
(1+^)
4. describes an ellipse of eccentricity e and axis 3. the particles also attract each other with a different force varying as the distance between them prove that the orbit of either particle relative to the other is an ellipse and the periodic time is 2Tr/s^{fi + 2fjL').
and
that. thin spherical shell of small radius. major 2a under the action of a fixed gravitating body of mass m. and a smaller body of mass moving in the same is r.
rest. m' are describing relatively to their centre of elliptic orbits of eccentricity e and axis major 2a. Two particles are under the action of forces tending to a fixed point and varying as the distance from that point. Prove that.
A
body of mass
M
followed. if v is small. if m is let go when the distance between the bodies is B. Prove that the fragments all pass through the line AO within a
force
and. the force being the same at the same distance in each case .
2. Prove that the smaller body will overtake the other after a
5. the eccentricity m' is given by the equation
of the orbit subsequently described by
.
time
/
r
\f
7rjy(l ?g2)hcosi?g
\l
+ iv)
"V{7(^+^)}
.
if
is
suddenly fixed when the particles
are at a distance R. moving without rotation.. the
stream of fragments
will
form a complete ring
after a time approximately equal to ^ttR/v./2 (m\m) fi
^
w + »i'le'2\
am
moving
_
'\R
is
/2 s^ le^ Jr=^ \R
1
a
in a straight line with velocity U. fi and /x' denoting the forces on unit mass respectively at unit
. describes a circle of radius with velocity V about a gravitating centre of
A
.
R
is at a point A.197
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
VI. comes to rest at successive of is a succession of cycloids and that path cusps after equal intervals of time.
If three bodies of
/'23>
attractions
Psiy
masses Wj.
Two
gravitating paFticles.')/(! + 0. The particle A is projected towards the centre of the triangle w^ith velocity c^fx.
v is the relative velocity at the instant of the change. so that after any time t the distance is rf w.
a
v/(3. subject only to their mutual A25 remain at constant distances from one another. and m.
Prove that the three particles being set free at the instant of projection. If V is the relative velocity.
squares of u and
10. and m receives an impulse m V towards m'. relatively to the centre of mass. and the directions
of projection are at right angles to PQ. being projected in the
Two
P
P
P
same manner as
before.
M
is
where
9. Q are projected from points equidistant on opposite sides of a third particle S. a and a' being their distances
from the centre of mass. those
P23
WI2P31
distances are in the ratios
7711
:
:
msPi2
Three equal particles A. m2. W3.
M
M
orbit
and m the relative In a system of two gravitating bodies of masses an ellipse of semiaxes a and h. e its eccentricity. e' those of the relative orbit of and *S' (in the absence of §). whose distance
is r. are placed at the comers of an equilateral triangle of side 2a.)""
•Jia^Ho'Y
. are 2a and 2a'.)/(!
11. initially In a system of two gravitating bodies. masses m. and the line joining the
particles is in
advance of the position it would have occupied if the steady motion had not been disturbed by the angle ^ obtain the equation
.
equal particles P. (1 . ?«'. with a velocity due to their distance under the attraction of *S^ only. are describing relatively to each other under their mutual gravitation..^0)0 = 3&)^ (r0 + 2a) z<) . projected with velocity ^{y{M\m)ld} at right angles to the line
M
M
Prove that the joining the bodies.198
6. d being the distance between the bodies. prove that the two bodies proceed to describe. All three particles are gravitating.
and
m
is
is at rest. parabolas whose latera recta
7..
THE LAW OF REACTION
Two
[CHAP.
2w . if the mass of the second body could be suddenly doubled. B. and a small general disturbance in the plane of motion is communicated to the system.
are describing circles
uniformly about their common centre of gravity with angular velocity o). the eccentricity of the new orbit would be
8. G attracting each other with a force proportional to the distance and equal to /x per unit mass at unit distance. the other
12. If h is the conjugate axis of the orbit described by either or Q. then b
= 2b\ and + e) = i(l .const.
circular orbits
bodies.
^
being neglected. and 6'. particles will first be in a straight line after a time
1
sm^
. Prove that.
.
Prove that their centre mass either remains at rest or moves in a straight line with a velocity which diminishes in geometric progression as the time increases in arithmetic
of
progression.
15.
describes the circle with uniform angular velocity
w under
the attraction of the spheroid. 2& are the principal axes of
where p is the density of the cylinder.
if it
= l.
Two
particles
move
in a
portional to the
attraction. Ay.h)j{b {a + 6)}.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
13.
ring moves on a rough eUiptic wire. the resistance under the action
of which of their
is
pro
mutual
which is any function of their distance. Cz are the components of attraction of the spheroid at a
point
17. then
a)2=(Ja2_(7c2)/a2^
where Ax. particle placed at an end of the major axis of a normal section of a uniform gravitating elliptic cylinder of infinite length is slightly disturbed in the plane of the section.
2a. 6.
/i
199
Two
particles.
{x. and a = (ab)/(a\b). one moves for a time \trlsJix before the other starts. y. they move in the same as the projections of the two extremities of a diameter of a circle
line
upon a straight
14. attraction of a thin uniform gravitating rod of mass
A
M
Prove that. while they are
:
that. the velocity v of
projection
is
given by the equation
V''
= 4yMiJ. if
manner
approaching the point of intersection of the tubes.
on which the
circle rolls uniformly.
16. and that. of semiaxes a.a

[^
e~^e
{a
+ byj Ol^acosd + a^' Jol
where
fi
is
the coefficient of friction. and that its velocity v when at a distance y from the major axis of the section is given by the equation
v^
= ^iirypy^ a {a.
a
A
particle is projected along a circular section of the surface of
{x^\y'^)la^\z^lc^
a
smooth uniform oblate spheroid given by the equation
Prove that. if it is projected from an end of the minor axis and comes to rest at the end of the major axis through which it first passes.
mass and the
velocity. z). Prove that it can move round in contact with
A
the cylinder. under the in the line of foci.
medium.
.
each of unit mass. are placed in two rough straight intersecting tubes at right angles to each other and the friction is equal to the pressure on each tube
prove they are initially at unequal distances from the point of intersection. and normal section. attracting each other with a force
(distance).
L at
The sum
this line
right angles to the plane of the couple.
Two
and having opposite
"
couple. briefly. are equivalent to zero.
REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS..
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER
YI.
The
lines in
are localized. so long as the chosen sense of the line L remains
of
the same. and may be stated as follows If the line meets one of the vectors." or. form a " vector couple.
Equivalence of couples in the same plane. and be locaHzed in
the lines
AD.
Let this be
ABCD
Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P. CB.
and
rotation of a righthanded screw.200
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. and choose a of the moments (with their proper signs) of the
two vectors about
sign. in opposite senses.
whatever line
This
L is always the same. and the sense of the line
localized. rule of signs is the rule of the righthanded screw. 47). VI.
moment
is
called
the axis of the couple. a
Draw any
sense for this
line
line. of which the magnitude is the magnitude of the of the couple. being
parallel lines. of equal moments.
a
vector (unlocalized).
. CD. are said to
equal vectors. and the direction and sense are those of the line Z.
Its
magnitude
the product of the measure of either vector of the couple and the measure of the perpendicular distance between the lines in which the vectors are
Its sign is determined when the sense of the line is chosen. localized in parallel lines.
L
The
:
—
L
L
and that of the other vector are related
like the senses of translation
is
}.
(a)
Vector couple.
We
shall
prove that two couples in the same
plane. and let the
*^^* ^^
vectors of the other couple be of magnitude Q. both in magnitude and in L we take. and be localized in the lines AB.
is
sum
moments
is
the moment of the couple.
We shall obtain
by
(6)
the result that a couple can be represented in
all
respects
this unlocalized vector.
which the vectors two pairs of form a parallelogram."
senses.
it is

.
(Fig.
When
the sense of the line
L
is
such that the
moment
is positive. the sign
otherwise.
A. in it and Q. d the distance
between the
When P and Q
are in like senses.APP. localized in the line of and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude Q
P
P
P.
Now
the vectors
P and Q localized
in the lines
AB. and propor
Also the vectors
P and
Q
localized in the lines
to those lines.
The two
vectors
P and Q are equivalent
aq
to
a single vector
P + Q in
R = Pt0
Fig. localized in the line of P. let
Q
be the greater. and having the opposite sense to P. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line. one of which is the line of P. 48.
lines.
Parallel vectors.
Q
are equivalent to zero. and having the sense of P. CB.
Then the
vectors P and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude P+Q.
of the parallelogram
is
of magnitude equal to the
moment
Hence
AD represents
Q
in magnitude.
When P and Q
are in unlike senses.
Let the unit of length be so chosen that
AB represents P in
Then the area
of the couple. AD. and a couple of
moment
Qd. and proportional CA and propor.
AC.
localized in parallel lines.
See
.
This theorem shows that a couple
the same plane having the same
(c)
may moment and
Q be
be replaced by any other couple in
sense.
CD. Replace the couple of moment Qd by two vectors. localized in parallel lines. 49. and a couple of moment Qd.
See Fig.
Fig. and
proportional
to those lines.
It follows that the set of four vectors P. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line. and let the sense of the vector in this line be opposite to that of P.
Introduce two
Then the vectors vectors each of magnitude Q into the line of action of P. The sense of this vector is CA. and the sense of the vector it lies between the lines of
P
P
P+Q
is
that of
P or
Q. 48. each of magnitude
P\Q. 49. The sense of this vector is AC. The line of the other vector is at a distance from the line of which is equal to Qd/{P+Q). let two vectors each of magnitude
Q
be
introduced in the line of the vector
P
and
in opposite senses.]
SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS
201
magnitude.
this line.
Let P.
B
any points on these
the magnitudes of two vectors lines. See Fig.
P and
Q.
and
be localized in the lines A'D\ C'B'. CD. 52. and be localized in the AB. Fig.202
Fig. and the moment of the resultant about any axis is equal to the sum of the
moments
(d)
of the
components about the same
axis.
THE LAW OF REACTION
Replace the couple of
[chap. are equivalent to a resultant vector localized in a parallel line.
moment Qd by two
one of which
is
vectors each of magnitude
the line of P. 50.
other vector
it lies
.
QP
localized in parallel lines. See Fig. and The two vectors the sense of the vector QP in it is that of Q. and let the vectors of the other couple be of magnitude ^.P in this line.
and
is at a distance from the line of P which is equal to Qd/{QP) on the side of the line of Q which is remote from the line of P. when they are not equal and opposite. 51 P and Q are equivalent to a single vector Q.
R=QP
Fig. VI.
Equivalence of couples in parallel planes.
. 50.
We
shall
prove that two couples in parallel planes having equal moments and opposite
senses are equivalent to zero:
lines
Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P.
Hence two vectors localized in parallel lines.
Fig. 51. and let the The line of the sense of the vector in this line be the same as that of P.
and Q.
its
vectors
We
will
can take these vectors also to be of magnitude P. B'A' are equivalent
line
to a
vector of magnitude vector is M'M. and have the senses indicated by the order of the
letters.
This theorem shows that a couple
may
be replaced by any couple of the
same moment
(e)
in
any
parallel plane.
pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of
6".
.A pp. and then the other be localized in a certain line FF in the plane of the second couple. D'.
Q
are equivalent
to zero.
the other be localized in
localized in
one of Replace the couple in the other plane by a couple having BA in the sense BA.
Also parallel vectors
P
localized in lines
CD. are equivalent to a vector of magnitude joining the middle points of AD' and BC.
Th^
sense of this
It follows that the set of four vectors P. and
the line CD.
Through
the couple
AB and CD draw a
in the points
A\ B\
These two pairs of planes with the planes of the two couples form a
parallelepiped. B^ C.
Now parallel vectors localized in lines AB.
p
P
B
Fig. These vectors are both of
magnitude P.
Composition of couples.
let
Let the two vectors be of magnitude P. indicated.
Replace the couple Q in its plane by an equivalent couple consisting of vectors localized in the lines B'A' and i/C".
2P localized
in the
same
MM'.]
Through
the couple
SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS
203
A'D and B'C draw
P
Q
a pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of in the points A^ D.
P
DC\
and having the senses
localized in the line
2P
MM'
is
The sense
of this vector
MM'.
Let the planes of two couples meet in the line AB. 53.
P.
one of Replace the couple in one plane by any couple having
localized in
its
vectors
AB iu
the sense AB.
and let Through
in a line
there be two vectors each of magnitude and of opposite senses localized in this line.
AB
represent
F
in magnitude.
Any given system of vectors in a plane can in this way be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line passing in the plane.204
Let
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. See Fig. each of magnitude R. See Fig. and their areas are These areas are in the ratios
Hence
if
sides will be parallel
we turn the triangle BCE through a right angle in and proportional to the axes of the couples. replace G by two localized vectors.
It follows from the preceding theorems that a couple can be regarded as an unlocalized vector represented by its axis. CE. localized in lines through 0.
be the resultant of the vectors at 0.
figures
are seen to be equivalent to a single couple. and sense of a line E'C^is the axis of the resultant of two component couples. the sense of the first is B'C\ and the sense of the resultant is E'C. of the lengths of BC. and having the same senses as those vectors. CDFE
proportional to the moments of the couples. where is the magnitude of any one of the original vectors.
and
its axis is
This couple has a definite 0. Let a vector of A B. BE. and the other in a parallel lirfe at a distance GjR from 0.
in a plane. FE. the axes
of the components having the magnitudes. E. Then the system of vectors is
F
equivalent to a vector localized in the line through parallel to AB. together with a couple of moment Fp. where
p
is
the distance of
AB from
sense. p the perpendicular on its line from 0. and the sign of each term is determinate. B draw CD and EF in the points
whose
named
C. This is the vector law. and senses of two lines E'B' and B'C. The whole system is then equivalent to this last vector.
its
plane its Let B'C'E'
be the new triangle. of magnitude F. F.
Thus the axis of a couple which has the magnitude.
are rectangles. direction. and let be any point not in the draw a line parallel to AB. and G the moment of the R is not zero. />. 53. perpendicular to the plane A OB.
ABCD^ ABEF. and are localized in the lines CZ>. 55. together with a through a chosen point
Fie 54
The resultant vector is the resultant of vectors couple. if E'B' represents the axis of the second couple in sense. one localized in the line of R through and in the sense opposite to R. It is clear that. equal and parallel to the given The vectors.
F
couple.
Then the two couples
The
vectors are of magnitude P. VI.
planes at right angles to
AB
cutting the lines
and through the points A.
axis of the couple is perpendicular to the plane and its moment is 2 ( ± Fp). directions.
(f)
System of localized vectors
any magnitude
F be localized
line
AB.
Let
R
If
. and having the sense of the original vector in A B.
56.
{g)
Reduction of a system of vectors localized in
origin 0. equivalent to a couple. The magnitudes of these components are Z. the other
equivalent to zero.
The
where the system
single vector.
the other
is
same magnitude and
line. z the Introduce a pair coordinates of a point on the line in which it is localized. and x^ y.
be the
Take any
and any rectangular axes of
x. localized in the same
^p
yIq. are determinate and unique.
Thus any system
lying in a plane
is
of vectors localized
in
lines
equivalent to a single vector localized in a line lying in the plane.'^X
Y<
Fig.
.
Let X. or to a couple whose axis is perpendicular to the plane. or
_
o/f
a couple.
Z
resolved parts parallel to the axes of one of the vectors. 55. or to zero. of equal and opposite vectors localized in a line through parallel to the line
and resolve them into components localized in the axes. of the sense. y.
z.APP.
(2)
When
is
the other
equivalent to a couple.
is
If
R and G
are both zero the system
equivalent
to zero. of the same
one system
sense. in the cases is equivalent to a single vector.
^Y
. or the couple. 7.
The
conditions of equivalence of two systems of
:
vectors localized in lines lying in a plane are these (1) When one system is equivalent to a single vector. The original vector is thus
of this vector. Z.
equivalent to a single vector.
lines.
(3)
is
magnitude and
is
When
one system
is
equivalent to zero.]
If
SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS
205
R
is
zero the whole system
is
equivalent to the couple G. T.
respectively. z are the coordinates of any point on the The resultant vector. the axes. is independent of the position of the origin.
xYyX
Hence any system of vectors localized in lines can be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line through the origin. and x.206
THE LAW OF REACTION
[CHAP. . together with a couple. whose resolved parts parallel to the axes of coordinates are SA".. F.
Z
. equivalent to component couples about the axes. takes different
values for different origins. 2 Y^ 2Z. but the vector couple.
Cf. y..
components are '^X. Art..
localized in the axes. and by three couples about replaced by vectors X... whose moments are 2. whose moments are
Z
yZzY.
VI.. {yZzY\ 2 {zXxZ\
2 {xYyX\ where A'. Y^ are the resolved parts of any one of the original vectors parallel to the axes. of which the components are "^{yZzY)^ . of which the line in which that vector is localized. 84. zXxZ.
Sudden Changes of Motion.
.
if
one body
is
smeared over with
soot. no deformation can take place.
of the great difficulties of our subject is the integration of the differential equations of motion of a system of bodies.
When
two bodies
come
into contact
at a point of each. and initial motions. the other. but there are a number of cases in which all the desired
One
Such cases information can be obtained without any integration. There are numberless cases in which the deformation is permanent. or the
motions which ensue upon release from constraint. Now it is clear that. methods and theories relating to general classes of problems which can be solved by the principles laid down in previous
Chapters.CHAPTER YIL
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS.
Nature of the action between impinging
collide. Further. It is clear therefore that during the impact the bodies undergo deformation. but a little observation shows that. and problems in which the principles of energy and momentum supply all the first integrals of the equations
of motion. after separation. There are other Such cases cases in which the method of integration is known.
show a sooty patch. at first their surfaces
bodies.
include small oscillations.
will
and accordingly we
circumstances
if
be unable to give an account of the we treat the bodies as rigid.
192. properties
. they must be in contact over a finite area for example.
of
We propose in this Chapter to bring together a number 191. On the other hand. there are others in which the recovery of form is practically complete. before separation.
shall
the problem
of calculating the deformation from the elastic of the bodies is generally beyond our power. if the bodies are rigid. include sudden changes of motion.
166. The number the " coeflficient of restitution.
VII.
upon the materials
of
which the spheres
To express this result.
that this ratio depends
are made.
effects produced in two bodies have recourse to special experiments
Newton^s experimental Investigation.
193. and that the magnitude of the velocity of separation bears to the He found velocity of approach a ratio which is less than unity. then
uu' = e{UU').
He
found that the relative velocity of the two
spheres after impact was oppositely directed to that before impact. the temperature that.
has been abundantly proved that the of this kind is of the nature of
We must therefore expect that in impulsive changes of motion some mechanical energy will be transformed into heat.
The con
Loc." For very hard elastic as glass
solids.
ante.
where
e is
a positive
number
less
than unity. such as wool or putty.
Nor have we
far to
seek for the form of energy that
is
developed
in compensation for the apparent loss. u and u' their velocities in the same line and in the same
sense after impact.
we
shall find that
one inevitable result of every impulsive action
between parts of a system is a loss of kinetic energy in the system. Coefficient of restitution. It is a fact of observation when one body strikes against another.
of both
is
raised. before impact. e is little different
it
from unity
. p. and in the same sense.
Newton
made an
elaborate series of experiments* on the impact of spheres which come into contact when their centres are moving in the line
joining them.
e is called
194. and this apparent loss of energy can frequently be calculated.208
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP. In order to formulate in a simple and
manner the mechanical
collision it is necessary to
general
by and subsidiary hypotheses.
zero.
and
it
production of thermal effects a transformation of energy.
. let U and U' be the velocities of the two spheres in the line of centres.
for
very soft
approaches nexion between e and the elasticity of the impinging bodies has " led to its being sometimes called the coefficient of elasticity." but we avoid this phrase because it is sometimes used a different
(in
*
materials.
such
and
ivory.
cit.
Direct impact of elastic spheres. u.
mu + mii! —mJJ\''m!lJ'.
m+m
.
. R is in the regarded as the impulse of a force acting on the sphere direction opposite to that of U.192195]
IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES
Elasticity. Let the masses m' let the velocities of their centres just
.
viz. of course. We shall
speak of such materials as being
"
"
without restitution
"
and
"
of
perfect restitution respectively.
and the equation of constancy of momentum of the system. to be underof as having imperfect restitution. m m
\ \ /
\
^
+
The
kinetic energy lost in the
impact
is
(im U^ + ^m' U'^) . viz. C/'^and just after impact. just as the coefficient of friction between two bodies depends on the materials and degree of polish of both. ordinary materials we shall speak " It is.u'){U' + u').
both the materials.
This expression accords with the result of Art._ { m'
Let
.
u. u'
For the determination of
Newton's experimental
we have the equation given by
result.
which
is
that
from the
centre
m
to
the centre of the sphere m'."
stood that any such phrase refers to an action between two bodies The coefficient e depends on of the same or different materials. these velocities suppose all the velocities being parallel to the line of centres.me) U' + m{\ m+m
^
e)U
be the impulsive pressure between the spheres. Then we have
R
m
R = m{uU) = m\u'U') = {l + e)^^^^^{UU').
We
to be estimated in the
of the sphere
same
sense.
before impact be U. 174.
of the spheres be m.u){JJ+u)^\rd{JJ' .
14
. u.
or
^R[{U+u){U' + u')l
L. Materials for which e is zero or unity may be regarded as ideal limits to which some bodies approach.{\mv? + \w!u!%
or
\m{TJ.
Hence we
find
(mm'e)f7 + m'(l+e)0'' u= .
209
meaning) in the Theory of
For a
like reason
we avoid
the phrase "coefficient of resilience" which has also been sometimes used.
195. M.
of masses m.
the expression for the kinetic energy lost becomes
and.
The
generalized Newton's rule gives the equation
uxC^eiTJU'). Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres.
Hence the resolved part
of the
directed along the line momentum of either
is
impact.
where
e is the coefficient
of restitution.
The spheres being smooth. after
—e
:
1.
velocities of
V be the resolved m in the line of
centres and at right angles thereto before impact. 7n'. v
and u\
v'
be
for
corresponding velocities
m
^857.
we
find that this is equal to
i m + mJ.
V
corresponding
velocities
of
m. impinge.
sphere at right angles to the line of centres have therefore the equations
unaltered by the
We
v^y.
197. resolved along the two impinging common normal to their surfaces at these points.
Let
Let U.
196.
For the purpose of
in which the circumstances applications to problems of collision are less simple than in the case of direct impact of spheres we
state
result
:
—
the
following
generalization
of
Newton's experimental
and before impact.
when we
substitute for R. of the points of bodies that come into contact. v'^y.(le^)(UUy.
mm
Generalized Newton's rule.
there
is
is
no
friction
between
them. and
let u. are in the ratio
The
relative velocities. two smooth uniform spheres.
and
rn
after impact. and the pressure between them
of centres.210
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
In virtue of the equation
[CHAP. VII.
. U'.
195199]
IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES
211
and the equation of constancy of momentum
of centres
is
parallel to the line
mu + m'u' = mU \m' U'. The quantities by the impact.
199.
and
this is
Newton's
rule. The Hence the
kinetic energy after impact can be expressed in a
kinetic energy lost in the impact
is
If we assume that the kinetic energy lost is proportional to the square of the relative velocity of approach." The kinetic energy before impact is equal to
W
W
of
Cf. so that at the beginning of a motion which is
14—2
.
is
The impulsive pressure between the spheres same way as in Art. we have the result that w has a constant
ra.
1.
The method
followed in applying the above
rule
to treat the impact as instantaneous. It cannot however give an exact account of the eflfects of impact elastic systems.
similar form. rj the components of the velocity of 7n relative to m' parallel to the same directions. rj are unaltered
be changed into w by the impact. Ex. Deduction of Newton's rule firom a particular assumption.tio
to
IF. Let and ^v are the " relative velocity of approach " and the " relative velocity separation. v denote the components
of velocity of the centre of mass of the two spheres parallel to the line of centres and at right angles to this line. Art.
Solving these equations we find
^ {mm'e)U+m'{l+e)T]'
m\m'
. Then w. and the impinging bodies as rigid both before and after it. 195 to be
found in the
m+m
and the kinetic energy
Article to be
lost is
^
found in the same way as in that
mm'
^
m+m
^
^
^
198.me)U' + m (l\e)U
is
Hence the
velocity of each sphere after impact
determined. In such systems no internal forces are developed except after wme deformation has taken place. let w. 159.
*
_ {m'. This method is adequate for the discussion of many
is
in questions. v.
Blastic systems. In the motion before impact. IF.
lie
nearly in contact
impiiiges directly
third hall of equal size
and mass
the ball
so that the line joining its centre
C to A
makes with
the line
CAB. if sin
S>{1 .
VII.e)/(l +e).
a
direction
coeffixiient
Prove
that.
. proposition that the method founded on Newton's result is of the nature of a compromise.
statement that an elastic system in the action of elastic strings
altered suddenly.212
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. capable
200.
ucos<f)v=eu'coa6.
balls. ^w0. the changes of momentum are a system of vectors equivalent to the impulses that produce them.
whose centres are
A and B. The direction of v m AB. of supporting an impulsive tension.
by means of some problems. and for each rigid body in such a system. The general method of treating such changes of motion depends simply on
repeated applications of the principle that for every particle in a connected system. 213).
and the equations given by Newton's Rule ii'w=eV.
u'cos$ = ucos(j> + v.
of
momentum
u'ainO=usincf>.
AB an angle
of in
e
A
will start
making with
AB
C
an angle tan~^{2{le)'^ tanO]. which continue to act as long as there
is
any deformation.
So
far
General theory of sudden changes of motion.
suddenly produced some part of the system yields at once. but there are many other changes of motion which take place so rapidly that it is con
venient to regard them as suddenly produced. an inextensible string is regarded as it (cf.
is
that of V. then just after A strikes B. after A strikes it.
Illustrative problems.
Two equal smooth on a smooth tahle^ and a
on J.
:
It is now clear A71 elastic system cannot support an impulse. Art. We shall illustrate the
application of this principle
201. we have been confining our attention to the impulsive
action between
impinging bodies. after a finite time a finite deformation is produced.
the direction of
its velocity
B
We have the equations
V=u' + w. and is opposed by finite elastic forces. Suppose the direction of u to make an angle <^ with AB. v the velocity of the direction of iC makes an angle 6 with AB. Let
Let
w
be
its velocity after
striking
A
. There is no motion of the body immediately after the impulse is exactly the same as if the string were not attached to On the other hand. the time of the action in which the elasticity of the bodies is concerned being
—
This statement
may
conveniently be
summed up
in the
An example of the cannot support an impulse will be found attached to rigid bodies whose motion is impulsive tension in such a string. and starts to move with a finite velocity.
halls.
before striking
being the
of restitution for either pair of
the velocity of
Let
V be
A
.
since the impact
is direct. and the
treated as negligible.
I.
CA.
Fis
localized in
w
u
u' be the velocity of A immediately after C strikes it.
58. We thus find that t2=eti. at the end of
ginning of the motion
the nth impact.wa. impact.. ^n
be the times of
on.199201]
whence
SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION
2w=V(le). the motion of the particle parallel to the plane is determined by the same equation as if there were no impacts.6).^gti^ cos ^ = 0. between the
and second.
provided that there
is
is
no second impact
The
i
(1
condition for this
u cos
(cf)
. The
Fsin {a'6)—gti cos ^ or .... e being the
particle.j from the plane. Immediately after the impact the velocity at right angles to the plane becomes eFsin {a 6) a.
.
is
Hence
^i
+ ^2+..
A
particle
is
projected with velocity
it
V from
the foot
plane of inclination 6 in a direction making an angle a with
{a>6).
(f)
= {I e)ic' cos 0.
off as stated. ts^et^..e) w' cos2 +
sin
le
it'
sin^
^>YTr ^''
of a smooth fixed
the horizon
it
which leads to
II.
^>(1 e)/(l +e).
coejfficient
at right angles restitution between the plane and the of
plane n times striking
Since the velocity parallel to the plane is unaltered by impact. ^2) .
between
or
Thus A moves A and C.
Find
the condition that
may stnke
the
at the nth impact.
flight before the first
ti is
6) — gt sin 6. thus at the end of any interval t from the beginning
of the motion the velocity parallel to the plane
is
Fcos
{a
Let
first
^1.Fsin {a.
2u'=V{l + e\
2ic
213
cos
.e)>iv.. and so
Then
given by
Vti sin {a
6).H^n» —^ le
till
gcosO
^^
—\
is
the interval from the besupposition.
By
.
and
tand)=:^ le
Fig.
velocity perpendicular to the plane
and thus
at time
ti
^i
= 2 Fsin (a — B)/g cos 3..
Whence
IV.
The impulse between the spheres
acts in the line of centres so that the
direction of motion of m'
is
unaltered.
B
of equal mass are connected hy a rigid rod
oj
negligible mass^ and a third equal particle C is tied to a point of the rod at distances a.
v'. Find the velocity of immediately after the string becomes tight. b from the two ends.
By
the generalized Newton's Rule
we have
v'— %sina=ey.
III. or this interval is Fees (a — ^)/^ sin ^. The required condition is therefore
tan^ = 2tan(a^)(le«)/(le).
.
Let
its
velocity after impact be
There is an impulsive tension in the thread and the sphere m is constrained to describe a circle about the fixed end. 60.
be
its
angles to the thread tion of momentum
Fig.
P
C
Let V be the velocity of
C
immediately after the string becomes
tight.214
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. Find the velocity with
m
which
m
begins to move.
'0
AVhua
i
^r+ato
Fig. C is projected mth velocity u perpendicular to AB.
this interval the velocity parallel to the plane vanishes.
velocity.
It
therefore starts to
move
Let
at right
ii
angles to the thread. 59.
Kesolving for the system at right we have the equa
mu^mv sma=wivsma. A smooth sphere of mass is tied to a fixed point hy an inextensihle thready and another sphei'e of mass in' impinges directly on it with velocity v in a direction making an acute angle a with the thread.
VII.
wi'sina(l + e) + m' sin^ a
m
Two
particles A.
i 2 a^ + b^+ab
+ 52 —
^»
Examples.
a)
m being the mass of either particle.201202]
SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION
its
is
215
is
The
Since the impulse on C is along the string velocity with which P starts to move
direction of motion
v along the string.
unaltered. Thus A starts with velocity ?.
The equation
of
momentum parallel to the string is mv + m{v + a(a)\m{v — h(a)='inu.
the former must be projected in a direction making an angle
with the
line (of length c) joining the
two
centres. So starts with velocity
P
A
+
B
vhat.e)}.
connected by the equation
cot 6 cot {ae) = 2
y{l 
e»)
.
e is
[In these examples
1.
the coefiBcient of restitution between two bodies. If a ball is projected from a point on one of the sides of length b to strike all
The
four sides in succession and continually retrace its path. and the last impact is direct.
Prove that.
is
divided at the point of projection.e2
.
1.
Let 0) be the angular velocity with which the rod begins to turn. The and the velocity of velocity of A is compounded of the velocity of relative to P.
Eliminating
a>
we
find
a^+b^
or
v=202.
The equation
of
giving
= (6a)v/(a2+62).(1 .
1
a2
orx^r.
A 4.
3. in order to produce the greatest deviation in the direction of a smooth billiard ball of diameter a by impact on another equal ball at rest. show that the angle of projection with the side is given by ae cot 6 = c + ec\ where c and c' are
the parts into which the side
2.e^)}l{e^ (1 . aa>.]
sides of a rectangular billiard table are of lengths a and b.
. Prove that e^ e^ e l. particle is projected from a point at the foot of one of two smooth parallel vertical walls so that after three reflexions it may return to the point of projection. projected from the foot of an inclined plane and returns to the point of projection after several rebounds.
moment
of momentum about P is ma (v + aa) — mb (v — ba) = 0. the inclination 3 of the plane and the angle of projection a are
particle is
. if it takes r more leaps in coming down than in going up. and that
A
+ + =
the vertical heights of the three points of impact are in the ratios
e2
:
1
. one of which is at right angles to the plane prove that.
of equal mass i/. of mass «i.216
6. Three equal particles are attached to the ends and middle point of a rod of negligible mass. Three equal spheres are projected simultaneously from the corners of an equilateral triangle with equal velocities towards the centre of the triangle. is moving on a smooth horizontal table with uniform speed in a circle. and meet near the centre.
direction
this
particle is projected from the foot of a plane of inclination y in a making an angle ^ with the normal to the plane. if the coefficient of restitution between the plane and the hemisphere is zero.
If there is restitution between the particles and the second one is describand t in the two ing the same circle as the first. the height through which the sphere must have fallen if the hemisphere is stopped dead is V2 {2MemY
. of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley.e) cos a tan ^. prove that the tensions
M
T
threads after impact are connected with their values Tq and by the equation
^o
before impact
bucket and a counterpoise. An impulsive attraction acts between the centres of two spheres If v is which are approaching each other so as to generate kinetic energy
K
. for the particle to be on the horizontal through the point plane. and strikes the hemisphere on the side towards which it is moving.e") tan y = (1 .
10. if the two thread. and one of the end ones is struck by a blow so that it Prove that the magnitudes of the starts to move at right angles to the rod. Show that. of projection when it meets the plane for the nth. connected by a chain 9. find the time that elapses before the ball ceases to rebound.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. and show that the whole distance descended by the bucket during this interval is
4meh/{{2M+m){ley}. /3.
velocities of the particles at starting are in the ratios
5:2:1. and a ball. on a plane with which its base is in contact a sphere of smaller mass m is dropped vertically. just balance each other. Prove that they return to the corners with velocities
diminished in the ratio
e
:
I. time. in a plane through normal making an angle a with the line of greatest slope on the inclined
A
Prove that. y must
satisfy the equation
(1
. the tension of the thread is diminished in the ratio
i//(J/+m). the angles a. and strikes another particle of mass m at rest.
'
M
2g
\l+efm^
A particle of mass 8.
A smooth uniform hemisphere of mass is sliding with velocity V 7. is dropped into the centre of the bucket fi*om a height h
A
above
it .
VII. particles adhere. being attached to the centre by an inextensible Show that.
11. so that the line joining their centres makes an angle 7r/4 with the vertical. and that between the sphere and the hemisphere is e.
6.
Two
small bodies of equal mass are attached to the ends of a rod
of negligible mass . the accelerations have been found there is generally no difficulty in determining the initial values of the reactions of
of the system
is
. since the resolved acceleration along the normal to the path is the product of the square of the
The
The problem
This remark enables us resultant velocity and the curvature. easily to determine the initial curvature of the path of a particle
when
its
motion
is
changed suddenly. the rod is supported at its centre and is turning uniformly. and 6. & the angles which the directions of the relative velocity.
supports. then
sin« =
sin^'y(l
+
^.
M
is
the harmonic
mean
of the masses.202203]
INITIAL MOTIONS
217
their relative velocity before the impulse. before and after. and that at a particular instant some one of the constraints ceases to be applied
.).
Initial Motions. so that each of the bodies is describing a horizontal circle. or internal actions between different bodies and the determination of the unknown reactions
object.
.
our second
senses of the accelerations with which a conservative moves away from a position of instantaneous rest can system sometimes be determined by help of the observation that the motion must be one by which the potential energy is diminished.
We
suppose that a system
held in some definite position in a field of force.
of determining the curvature of the path of a whose velocity is not zero offers no difficulty when the particle velocity and acceleration are known.
203.
is struck by a vertical blow equal in magnitude to twice Prove that the direction of motion of each of the bodies is
instantaneously deflected through half a right angle.
where
12. make with the line of
centres. This is evident since the kinetic energy must be increased above the value (zero) which it has in the position of rest. Our first object in such a case is to determine the
accelerations with
When
which the parts of the system begin to move.
is
Nature of the problems.
then the system begins to move. each particle of it with a certain acceleration. when
one of the bodies
its
momentum.
purposely choose one of a somewhat complicated character in order to illustrate the various details of the method.
D are equal and
Fig.
It
is
always
possible to determine expressions for the accelerations of all the points of a connected system in terms of a small number of
independent accelerations. BP are
. /i at right angles to
angular velocity vanishes.
and
It is required to
find
From
the symmetry of the system the accelerations oi A.
Also the acceleration of
Q
Let/.
We
distances on
Illustrative Problem . C. 61.
Method
for initial accelerations. (2) that every composition and resolution may be effected by taking the
the accelerations can be found.218
204.
and those of P.
hoi^izontal. so that all
The expression of the initial accelerations in the proposed manner is facilitated by observing (1) that the velocity of every particle initially vanishes.
describes a circle. Again. and there is always the same number of equations of motion free from unknown reactions.B. relative to . as the relative AP. and three other equal and similar
rings P.D are at equal a smooth fixed horizontal rod.
R are attached hy pairs
C\
(C.1 is made up of a tangential acceleration and a normal acceleration proportional to the square of the angular velocity
Now
P
P
/
of
AP. Q. The be better understood after the study of an example.C. so are those of B. R. since the threads AP.
J5
along the smooth horizontal rod./' be the accelerations of J.
opposite. we have.
205. and thus the acceleration of relatively to A. D).
Since the
initial
acceleration.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP.
is vertical. at right angles to AP.
make
the
the acceleration
same angle a with the of each Hng.
of equal inextensihle threads
is
rings {A. Four equal rings A.
VII.
position
of the
will
method
system to be that from which it starts.
The system
to the pairs of held so that all the threads initially
is let go. B)y {B.
relative
y
Yis. and w the initial angular
velocity of the thread.
velocity
thus the acceleration of
describing a circle of radius m'll{m\m') with angular along the thread is m'l(o^l{m + m').
moves
unifoiTnly on the table
with velocity
{7nu
— m'v)l{m\m').
Then G
V_^a.
Let
u^ V
be the initial velocities of the particles. the horizontal acceleration of Q vanishes.
The
to
acceleration of
and the acceleration of m
G is that of a particle
w
. and
m
.
and resolving
vertically for
mf'=={T^T^^C0Ba.
\m iff) cot a = .
f
4 cos 2a
=
f =
cos 2a
q sin 2a
12 — 11 cos 2a + cos2 2a*
•
206.
>^"
Let
G
be the centre of mass
of the two particles. m(/+/') = (r2ri)cosa.204206]
INITIAL MOTIONS
219
thus
is always vertically under the middle point oi equal.2 Tg sin a + mg.. It is required to find the initial
curvatures of their paths. T^.
.
Thus the
P
/'cot a downwards.
T^i. particle
and
Ii. and acceleration f^ of Q relative to B given by the equation
/2sina=/'.
Now
we have
let
m be the mass of
each. T^^
we have
.. then
U\V
—
l(a. the particle its horizontal acceleration is \ (/+/')•
P
AB
and
Hence
giving
M/+/') =//i
/i sin a
sin a.(2). 62. mf cot a = 7\
(1)
.
we have
cos
a^m (f /+i/').
=^ (//')•
we have
therefore the
Again.
accelerations of the particles are expressed in terms of / and /' and Q are ^ (//') cot a and in particular the vertical accelerations of
.
7^3
cos
a=m f (/+/')
.
. T^ the tensions in the
/*.
/' cot a + 3 (/+/') tan a =5r
whence
.( From the set of equations
T^ cos a = mf.i
P and Q we have + Ta) sin a + mg.
As an example
of initial curvatures
:
when
the motion does not start from rest we take the following problem
Two particles of masses m.{l). G
vanishes.
(//') cot a + (5/+/') tan a = 2^.
Initial curvature.
Then
resolving horizontally for J. m!
connected hy an inextensihle thread of length
I
are placed on a smooth table with the thread straight^ and are projected at right angles to the thread in opposite senses.
threads as shown in the figure.
and
B
m/=riCosa.
on substituting for
^2.
and from
(2).
T.
and the ends of the thread are attached to equal small smooth rings which can slide on a horizontal rod.
. Three particles A. Prove that. Supposing the string to be destroyed in any manner. when B impinges directly on an obstacle. horizontal and equal to I.
u'^
m
its
path. prove that the tension in the
A
remaining thread
3. (ii) the tension in the lowest part of the thread is to what it was in equilibrium in the ratio mf mncot^y + 7n\ where in is the mass of a particle and m' the mass of a ring. Bj C of equal masses are attached at the ends and middle point of a thread so that AB = BC=a.
Hence. and the particles are moving at right angles to the thread.
1. while B consists of a vessel
Two
is
chains
full
of
water in which
a cork attached to the bottom by a string. which is straight. if there is perfect restitution.
of an
Examples.
^
such that
cot
<\)
= tan a + 2 cot a. if the portion the tension of I {.
of a thread
Particles of equal mass are attached to the points of trisection C.
Three small equal rings rest on a smooth vertical circular wire at the corners of an equilateral triangle with one side vertical. particle is supported by equal threads inclined at the same angle a to the horizontal. if the
vertical thread is cut through. Prove that.
:
4. and the system is suspended by its ends from
D
is
? (1 + 2 sin a) apart in a horizontal line.
207. the tension in the other thread is instantly
diminished in the ratio 3
6. and the rings are let go.220
this
is
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP.
:
6. with the same velocities. the uppermost being connected with the other two by inextensible threads. of length 3^. bodies A and B of equal weight are suspended from the Atwood's machine.cos^ \^ instantly changed in the ratio 2 cos^ a
ACDB B distant AC
CD
a.
the acceleration of
VII.
is
suddenly changed in the ratio 2sin2a
:
1. so that points A. One thread being cut. determine the sense in which A begins to move.
if
p
is
the
_ ~
m'l
p
giving
llp
m + m'\
/u\v\^
'
I
J
= m'{u + vf/{(m + m') lu^].
DB
is cut.
curvature of the path of m'
is
In like manner the
initial
m{u+vfl{{m\m')lv'^]. of the thread Prove that.
A set of '2n equal particles are attached at equal intervals to
a thread.
initial radius of
along the normal to curvature of the path of m. The rings are initially held in such a position that the lowest part of the thread is horizontal and the highest parts make equal angles y with the horizontal. A is rigid.
2.
:
that the initial direction of motion of
D
is
inclined to the vertical at
and an
angle
4. the radii of curvature of the paths which A and C begin to
describe are equal to ^a. Prove that in the initial motion (i) the acceleration of each particle is vertical.
Y')
y
\{Z\.'
In forming the expression
for the rate at
or the expression for the virtual
is done. of equal mass.
while
P is
not moved. P is projected on the table at right angles to the thread with velocity v prove that the initial radius of curvature Prove also that.
kinetic energy (per unit of time)
is
equal to the rate at which
work
is
done (Art.
which work
and
is
called the
'
Principle of Virtual
Work
'
or of
'
Virtual
Velocities. are connected by a thread of length I 8. or
we have the
—
right
is done when a system passes through a with any velocity vanishes.206208]
APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION
221
and ?ii/. The possible positions of equilibrium of a system are distinguished from other positions by the condition that. and let the system pass through a position of equi
librium with any velocities denoted typically by x\ y' z. 173)
is
S [m {xx' + yy' + ^•^')] = S [(X + X') ^' + ( F +
Since. of masses 7.
. Equilibrium. P being at a distance c from the hole and Q. the
lefthand
member
at
of this equation vanishes. the the particle initial radius of curvature of its path is a (1 + ^ sin^ a). the
initial radius of
curvature of ^'s
Applications of the Energy Equation.
by hypothesis. if Q is projected horizontally of P's path is 2cv^l{v'^\cg). if the system is at rest in an equilibrium position. Q. position of equilibrium This result is usually stated in a form involving infinitesimals. if is projected on the table at right angles to the thread. so
that
all
the velocities vanish there. work. The equation which expresses the result that the rate of change of
.
208. the accelerations also vanish
there. and the other end is fixed to a point on a smooth table on which the particles rest. Prove that. 160.
with velocity path is
v. the velocities must be such
which work
.
nM
Two particles P.
Hence the
result
:
hand member
The rate
also vanishes. point of a thread distant a from one end and to that end. which passes through a small hole in a smooth table.
Now
let
the equations of motion be taken in the forms
of Art. hanging vertically. are attached respectively to a Two particles. the position
is
one of equilibrium. the thread
M
— being in two straight pieces containing an obtuse angle tt a.Z')
z'].
if there are any resistances which depend upon velocities.
any position is The equilibrium positions of a conservative system are positions in which the potential energy is stationary.
those
209.
then
••••
dW dW.
which
satisfy these equations
determine
the positions of equilibrium. Further.
Machines.. <j).
<f).
In
all
or "mechanical
powers" the positions of
the socalled "simple machines" all the parts can be
expressed in terms of a single variable.
is
a work function W. dW + W==W^"^80 *
If the position is one of equilibrium.
:
—
Since the potential energy of the system in we have the result W. we should have to begin by solving the equations
determine which among the various sets a true maximum or a true minimum. .. and consequently the The potential energy is determined in terms of a single variable.
If we sought the positions in which TT is a maximum or minimum.
such resistances do
not affect the positions of equilibrium..
the position of the system.. Hence we have the equations
and the values
of ^. this vanishes for all values of ^. the rate at which work
is
is
dW done is —
i—
If TT
a function of any quantities which define
0.
as are compatible with the connexions of the system..
.
When
there
.
whether
it is
a true
maximum
minimum
or not..222
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP.
. and
vanish with the velocities.. in which In the positions
to
and then proceed
of solutions
make
W
de
'
•••
we should say
or
that
W
is
stationary.
condition that the potential energy is stationary in the position of equilibrium becomes a relation between the masses of two moving
.
VII. say
.
the rate at which these resistances
for manifestly
would do work
is to
be omitted. ^..
descend with acceleration
F
Prove that the centre of mass of F' and
W
will
g ( WF' . Atwood's machine [Ex. if it has been chosen in any
is 6o.
210.
of the simple circular can always choose to vanish in for.
geometrical quantity
as in the case
pendulum
(Article 119). move vertically.
In any machine without friction and inertia a body of weight 2.
Thus
V can
be expressed as a
. and a body whose mass is equal to that of the greater body is suddenly attached to that body. in the subsequent
motion. Prove that the acceleration with which it moves is agl{2a\b).
but does not vanish
Also the potential energy vanishes with 6.
or that the term of the
first
order
missing from the series
for V.208211]
parts: the
EQUILIBRIUM AND SMALL OSCILLATIONS
223
is
"power" and the "weight.
Small oscillations.
and the
inertia
of the machine being neglected. of the system
slightly displaced from a position of
We confine
is
our attention to cases where any position determined by assigning the value of a single
6.
a and
b being the radii of the wheel
and the axle
respectively.
the velocity of each particle of the system can be exin terms of 6 and 0. the principle of virtual work shows that
is
dV vanishes
^n
do
with
0.
A may
depend upon
6.
In any conservative system in which the positions of all the parts can be expressed in terms of a single variable. Again. These bodies are replaced by bodies of weights F' and W\ which.W'Ffli W^F' + W'F^)
211. the equation
in
of energy determines the whole motion.
is
We
have to consider the small
motion of a system which
equilibrium. 74]. if the standard is the position of Thus F is a function of 6 position equilibrium.
1. supports a body of weight Tf. 1 of Art.
We
had an example
Examples.
(
W+
F')."
This result
w^orked
out in books on Statics.
Two
bodies are supported in equilibrium on a wheel and axle. and the kinetic energy is thus of pressed
Now
T
the form ^A6^ where with e.
V
which may be expanded in powers of 6 and the series contains no term independent of 6. both hanging by vertical cords.
the position of equilibrium other way so that its value in the position of equilibrium then — Oq can be used instead of 6.
We
.
and more generally we may say that. the motion in
where
A
Thus. is true for all conservative
systems. quantities have the same sign.
positive since otherwise the expression
Now A
must be
could not represent an amount of kinetic energy.
beginning with the term in 6'^.
^AO^ Hence there are
^ = 0.
. here proved for a special class of cases.00=^0.
first
we
and C have their values for ^ = 0.
process which has been adopted shows that we might have reduced the expression for T by substituting zero for ^ in ^. and the expression for V might have been taken to be simply the
The
term of the series which contains d'\ These simplifications might have been made before differentiating the energy equation.224
series
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP. V=^Cd^. the motion can be small enough for the approximation to be valid otherwise it soon becomes so large that we cannot simplify the equation of motion by neglecting 0\ In
. oscillations in a real period if (7 is positive. where (7 is a function of 6 which is finite when ^ = 0. and thus
The value
of
(7
for
^=
is
the value of
77^
for
conditions that
the conditions for a real period of oscillation are the same as the may have a minimum value in the position of
V
equilibrium.
The equation
of energy accordingly
is
and on differentiating we have
Omitting small quantities of an order higher than the have Ae\.
the former case the equilibrium
is
stable
and
in the latter unstable. If we
express the kinetic energy correctly to the second order of small quantities in the form ^A 6\ and the potential energy also correctly
to the second order
of small quantities in the form ^06'^. when 6 is sufficiently small.
is
if
these two
simple harmonic
with period
2'7r
^(A/G).
We
energy
learn that in a position of stable equilibrium the potential
is
a minimum*. VII. the
* This result.
If the period is real.
Principles of
Energy and Momentum.
is
and the
if the fixed points in Ex. if it is slightly displaced parallel to the line joining the fixed ends of the threads. and an inextensible cord passing
A
and m. Prove that the over the pulley carries at its ends bodies of masses time of a small oscillation in which the pulley moves vertically is
47r
M
^{Mma/{M+m) X}.
Examples. and then the quantity gAjC is the length of a
simple pendulum which oscillates in the same time as the system.
Two
free to slide
mass are
rings of masses m. We
in
marked that there are numerous cases
momentum supply all the first
L.2mm' cos
a).
2. Prove that. It is called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system.J{aMP{M>rP)lg (4P2
_ M^f). and length I.
213. 3 are at a distance 2c apart. particle is displaced vertically.
Prove that.
212. A is mP and G is mgly simple pendulum of mass so that
m
AjC^ljg. One end of an inextensible thread is attached to a fixed point A^ and the thread passes over a small pulley B fixed at the same height as A and at a distance 2a from it and supports a body of mass P. pulley of negligible mass is hung from a fixed point by an elastic cord of modulus X and natural length a.
4.
3.
have rewhich the principles of energy and integrals of the equations of motion of a system.211213]
SMALL OSCILLATIONS
225
In the case of a period of the small oscillations is 27r \/{AIG). and hangs in equilibrium at a depth h with each thread of length I.
. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is
A
hl^{la)l{Ph^a).
15
. the rod
subtending an angle a at the centre. can ring of mass
A
slide
on the thread and the system is in equilibrium with Prove that the time of a small oscillation is
477
M M between A and B.

5. m' connected by a rigid rod of negligible on a smooth vertical circular wire of radius a. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system is
{m + m') aji^iw? + w'^ 4. the length of the equivalent simple
pendulum
hl^{la)l{pc^a).
M.
1. particle is suspended from two fixed points at the same level by equal elastic threads of natural length «.
In any other case we may compare the motion with that of a simple pendulum.
m + m
. Let ^ be the increase in the in the line of the string.
of mass moves on the table with uniform velocity u.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
suffice to
[CHAP.
—
increase until
it
. and of its hy an elastic string of negligible mass.
The
potential energy
is
„
.
Let
m
velocity with which until it is extended. when a collision
takes place. There is no tension in the string and thus at first m' has no velocity. these values are attained at the meantime the string contracts to its natural length a.
Whenever the
string is unstretched
we have
JC—+V.
In any case the description
of the subsequent motion involves nothing new.
When x vanishes the string has its greatest a+ V^{mm'al{m\rii')X\. and the velocity of m' continues to
.
Thus the energy equation
2m\m
showing that the motion in x
is
2m + m
is
2a
2
simple harmonic motion of period
27r
sj{mm'al{m^m')\}. are connected
When the stnng is straight. then the velocities of the particles are
The
centre
= mVI{m+m'). and continues to do so until it attains its greatest length this happens at the end of a quarter of the period of the simple harmonic motion.
u+
m + m'
'
m + m'
'
Hence the kmetic energy °''
is
x^ ^ (m + m ) w42^ '2.
same
instant
in the
has the value 2mV/{m+m'). .
The subsequent motion depends on the
motion
is
coefficient of restitution.
be the mass of the particle struck.^^ so long as x
positive. V the m begins to move. length of the string at time t.
which it attains at the instant in question. and at this instant the The velocity of m continues to diminish particles have equal velocities u. and X the modulus of elasticity. and m' moves in the same direction from rest with gradually increasing velocity the string begins to extend. VII. one of the particles is struck by a bloic in the line of the string and away from the other particle. The particles then move with the velocities they have attained until m' overtakes ?/i.
so long as
x remains
positive. m' that of the other.226
and thus
position.
determine the velocities of the parts of the system in any
To
iUustrate these principles further
particles A and
we take the
following problem
:
Two
B.
. determine the subsequent motion. and this happens at the end of half a period from the beginning of the motion. natural length.
:
length
We can thus describe the whole motion m moves oflf with velocity V which gradually diminishes.
If this is unity.
a being the natural
length of the string. placed on a smooth horizontal
table. the relative
reversed.
——
is
. until it is reduced to V{mm')l{m + m').
the velocity of the jjarticle when the thread has its natural length is that due to
c^/a.
5. if wi2 is held.
that
when
held fixed m^ makes
thread.
M placed on a smooth
if
the muzzle velocity
2F2
g
2.
4. and the thread is stretched to a length a + c.
if
Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to an inextensible when the thread is straight. Suddenly the lower thread breaks.
A shot of
mass
m
is fired
horizontal plane and elevated at of the shot is F. and it is observed that the shell jumps up
. in a horizontal line passing over the
A
•centre of
if the
mass of the plank. which
natural length «. the range is
'
from a gun of mass an angle a. the particle jumps up to the highest point of the shell and adheres there.
ENERGY AND MOMENTUM
227
Examples. Prove that the wedge moves with acceleration
on a smooth
A
M
^
3. the two end ones are projected with
equal velocities in the same sense at right angles to the thread. mi
are connected
?i
by a spring of such strength
complete vibrations per second.
15—2
. Prove that. point by an inextensible thread and the shell rests on a horizontal plane. if both are free. and two particles of masses m and m! move on the faces. Prove that.
equal to the weight of the particle.213. particle is attached by an elastic thread of natural length a to a point of a smooth plank which is free to slide on a horizontal table. Prove that.
1.
attached to the highest point by an elastic thread of stretched to length a +6'. Prove that. wii will make n \/(wi2Mi)) and that. the vibrations in all cases
being in the line of the spring.
through a height
A
spherical shell of radius
is
a and mass
m
contains a particle of the
eame mass. and. and the modulus of elasticity of
is
the thread
relative to the plank
falling
6.
/3) {m cos a + m' cos ^) {m+ m') JM\. being connected by an inextensible thread which passes over a smooth pulley at the summit.
Prove that the modulus of elasticity of the upper
What
7. and the system is let go from rest. plank and particle have equal masses.
a
external forces produce
momentum
in the
system as a whole
?
+ h^
Three equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length so that the middle one is at distances a and b from the other two.
l
(l + m/J/)tana + (l + m/JI/)2tan2a'
smooth wedge of mass whose base angles are a and /3 is placed table. the velocity of each of the end particles (at right angles to the part of the thread which is attached to it) at the instant when they impinge is \ <JS of their initial velocity. they will make n J{{mi^m^jmi} vibrations per second.m { m') — {m cos a\m' cos ^)2
{m sin a ^ m' sin
'
Two bodies of masses
nii is
?«i. 214]
214. and is also attached to the lowest
through a height thread is
h. there are no external forces.
one of them ^ is on a smooth table and the other is just over the edge.
A third equal ball impinges
on them. Find the velocities
I
.
Two equal balls of radius a lie in contact on a smooth table.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
:
prove that the ratio of the velocities which either ball will receive according as it is struck first or second is 4 3 . Vll.
Two spheres of equal radius and of masses XiWi and X2m are lying in 4.
(ii)
{'^ViV2){vi
+ V2)l8g
that the heights at which they take place are alternately and (3^1 + ^2) (^i'^2)/8^j (i") that the velocities of the
balls at the impacts are equal
and opposite and alternately 4(^1 — ^2) and
i(^i + «'2). and prove (i) that in the subsequent motion the tension of the thread is always half the weight of either particle. the tensions in the two parts of the thread are altered in the ratios 2a + 6 3a
:
and
2b\a
:
36.
Two equal
its
balls lie in contact
on a
table. and when its velocity is Vo a second ball is projected from the same point with velocity Vi . if the middle particle is set free.
moving along a line nearly coinciding \vith a horizontal Assuming that the periods of the impacts do not overlap. and 2.
3. Prove that.228
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
is
[CHAP. are struck simultaneously by a ball of radius c moving in the direction of the horizontal common tangent at the point of contact prove that.
if
the coefficient of restitution
is
^c2(a + c)2/a3(2a+c).
ball is projected vertically with velocity Vi from a point in a rigid 1. assuming the restitution in each impact to be ijerfect. where e is the coefficient of restitution.
Two equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length 8. the impinging ball will be reduced to rest
. third sphere of the same radius contact on a smooth horizontal plane.e.
of the particles immediately after they have become free of the table.
it
The middle one
held fixed and the other two describe circles about
with
the same uniform angular velocity so that the two portions of the thread are always in a straight line.
centre
common
tangent. the thread being straight and at right angles to the edge. falls freely. and (ii) that the initial radius of curvature
of the path of
A
immediately after
it
leaves the table
is
^^ ^^51. with its centre in the vertical plane containing and of mass
A
m
. i)rove (i) that the time between successive impacts of the two
A
balls is Vi/g. there
being no external forces. if all the balls are of the same material. horizontal plane.
prove that the velocity produced in the sphere of mass XiWi is
where v
is
V V3 (1 + 2X2)/(1 +4X1 + 4X2+12X1X2). . then DC. the angle of
the ball
A
is
to cannon off
B
on to
impact at
B
must
lie
between
^irrtani ^
where
7. (1
it
will
have described a length
A
vertical. then again.
A
is e.
Prove that. n
are any integers and 2a
is
the major axis. Prove that. Assuming that there is no restitution in any of the impacts.
S
= sin~i Ad\a. so as to strike them simultaneously. if the coplane. then AD. .
2 F^ sin ajg cos^ a
9.tan"! "
^.
C.
that
it is
Show
possible to project a small elastic ball inside a regular
polygon of n sides so as to describe a regular polygon of the same number of sides. Prove that. and the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the plane
. and if e is a root of any equation
.ij .
BCD
AB
BC
AB
:
6.
smooth tube of equal mass.
a ball is From one comer J. of a rectangular billiard table A 5.^—
and j^+S^tt . prove that.\^ c2rtsm(Z?+8)
•
—
'. the coefficient of restitution in
each impact being unity. Initially the smaller is in contact with a fixed horizontal Prove that. efficient of restitution for each impact is e. if e is the coefficient of restitution.
each of radius d. their centres
forming a triangle ABC'.
Three smooth
billiard balls of perfect restitution. Prove that the distance travelled through by the tube when the particle has made (*i + l) impacts is + a(l — e")/(e'*e'*'^^) or a (1 .
e is
the coefficient of restitution. projected in a direction making an angle a with the side first the side BC.
10. and
impact. which is on a smooth table. and prove that the ratio of the sides of the two polygons is
where
8.
rest
if
on a smooth
table. where m.
ball is projected
with velocity Ffrom a point of a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal the direction of projection is at right angles to the plane. Two unequal particles are attached to a thread which passes over a smooth pulley. AD=e^ cot a\\\e^.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
229
the centres of the other two.
hollow elliptic cylinder stands on a horizontal plane with its axis From the focus of a horizontal section a particle is projected in a
horizontal direction with velocity v.e" 1) according as n is even or odd.c)^ along the plane. it strikes . and then returns to A.
A
particle is projected inside a
closed at both ends
and
lies
"*"
2a being the length of the tube. the height of the section above the table is '^m^ga^jn^v^. the velocity of the falling sphere just before impact.
^ c2d8mB
— .e** i)/(e" . before ceasing to bound.
e
the coefficient of restitution for each
11. and the other at a height k above the plane. if it returns to the point of projection.
another attached to the ascending weight W. of mass m. describing a circle with velocity u.
M
m).
Two
of masses
M. A fifth equal sphere running along tangent strikes the first two symmetrically so that the threads become tight. Prove that. and a ball of the same radius. and are attached by equal threads two other equal spheres at rest. The fragments continue to move in the original line of motion of the shell.
vmm' (1 4e) cos^ al{Mm' ^m^a + m
Two balls are attached by inextensible threads to fixed points.
strikes the ball
m
so that the line of centres (m'. so that the line of centres makes an angle a with
the thread attached to
wi. Two equal spheres are in contact.
is
weight
W
attached to P. Prove that the velocity of the impinging sphere is diminished
lies in
this
common
in the ratio
13.
Prove that. Prove that the initial velocities of m' and m" are in
the ratio
m + m" m + m'. one of them.
12. and thereby breaks the shell into two fragments whose masses are in the ratio mi'. impinges on the other. moving parallel to the thread with
velocity
v.
m
and of equal
radii.
balls.
Weights
A
weight
W
is
P and W equilibrate on a wheel and
axle of negligible mass.m.
where
e is
the coeflicient of restitution.230
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP.
and the threads cross each other at right
angles. after the lapse of one second. where v
mass immediately before
to
its first
the velocity of the particle of greater impact on the plane. the velocity of the ascending weight 2 Tf
gb{2ab)/ia'^ + ah + 2b'''). m)
(Jl/. and 14. The lines of the threads pass through the centres of the spheres to which they are attached and make angles of 30' with that common tangent to the first two at their point of contact which
the plane of the four centres. if e is the costarts with velocity
{M\m\m')].
7.
e is
the coefficient of restitution between the
An internal explosion velocity V. lie on a smooth table with the thread straight.
of the form e"2e +
l=0
with
?i
integi'al. and.
where
15. of mass m'. and of mass m'. VII.
Prove that m'
will start to describe a circle
oim sin a cos a (1
+ <?)/(?«
with velocity cos^ a + m' sin^ a). a being the radius of the wheel. and the particle m is struck by a blow in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the threads so that both threads are jerked.
makes an
acute angle a with the line of centres
efficient of restitution
between
on
and
m'.12e
balls
:
19. after the
is
lapse of another second. at rest. and b the radius of the axle. of energy.
is
the system will come to rest after
a time 2h(l+e)/v (le).
connected by an
inextensible thread.
17..
The
particles are placed
attached by inextensible threads to particles on a smooth table with the
threads in two perpendicular straight lines. Prove that their
generates an
A shell of mass Jfis moving with
amount
E
velocities are
16.
A
particle of
mass
w
is
of masses m' and m".
:
.
find
when the threads become
is
tight. if an impulse is applied to one of the end particles in the direction of the thread attached to it.
impulsive tension
that. being attached to the point of promaking Prove that the jection by an inextensible thread of length T^ cosec^ ^/2^. Four particles of equal masses are tied at equal intervals to a thread. where
2a
is
the acute angle of the rhombus. and the impulse were applied
tangentially.
M
when the thread becomes
immediately after the
tight is JfFcos^ 6 cosec 6y and of motion. change
19. so as to start to
BC
move down
this line with velocity F. and the system is placed on a smooth table so as to form part of a regular polygon whose angles are each na. Prove that the sides of the rhombus begin to turn with angular velocity 2w sin a/a (1 42 sin^ a). li A is struck by a blow along the line of greatest slope. the two
24.
Two
equal rigid rods
particles. the line being below the level of A. kinetic energy imparted to the system. BC oi negligible masses carry four equal and at the middle points of the rods. (7 of equal mass are placed on a smooth plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. Four equal particles are attached at the corners of a rhombus formed of four threads each of length a .
21.
.
lower rings being at the ends of the horizontal diameter. the tension is Mg (12 sin* 6). attached &t A.
intervals to a thread
Four small smooth rings of equal mass are attached at equal and rest on a circular wire in a vertical plane. Prove that the magnitudes of the velocities of the particles are in the ratios 9:2:2:1.
AB. and B.
C
being freely hinged at
i5. Prove that. and the system is moving on a horizontal
plane with uniform velocity u in the direction of the longer diagonal AC^ when the end A of that diagonal is suddenly fixed. The radius of the wire is onethird of the length of the thread.
Three particles of equal mass are attached at equal intervals to a system being at rest. one of the extreme Prove that the particles is struck by a blow at right angles to the rod. the
:
22.
231
A particle of mass is projected with velocity V in a direction an angle 6 with the horizontal. The rods and laid out straight. in the ratio cos2a
+ 4sin2a:
cos2a + 2 sin^a.
and
prove that the velocity of
A
immediately afterwards
F/(3
2
sin2 a)
+ ^gh sin a/ F.
20. the kinetic energy generated is greater than it would be if the particles were constrained to move in a circular groove.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
18. when the other extreme particle is fixed. Three particles J. and the rod turns about it. and the rings are at the four upper cornel's of a regular hexagon inscribed in the circle. B.
rigid rod of negligible mass. the end A is struck with an
impulse at right angles to the rods. is less than it would be if the system were free in the ratio 24 25. and. C are connected with by threads of length h sec a which make equal angles a with the line of greatest
A
slope through A on opposite sides of it.
23.
m' held in a vertical plane so that with the vertical. B oi masses w.m"^] ~AMmm'm''^ + {m + m!) /i^
'
where
/x2
= 2wi'2 m"^ + 2m"2 m^ + 2wi2 m'2 . the as the highest point of the wire. about the radius. the tension of^the thread immediately becomes M{ism a 4. to one end of a rigid horizontal arm of length c.
26.
25. so as to 30.
A
B
thread
it
attached to
at
ABC is fixed at J.
28.
wire.
cut between one of the extreme particles and one of the middle in the horizontal part is suddenly diminished in the
Particles of masses
which rests
cylinder of
in a vertical plane
mass M.
v. Prove will begin to move in a direction that. Prove that the tension of the chain
A
m
immediately becomes m {g \.
velocity
B
Prove that. which is free to rotate about a fixed vertical axis passing through its other end.
is
m {m + m') g cos a/(w + m' sin^
held at rest in a vertical plane.232
thread
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
is
[CHAP. make angles a and fi with the vertical. rests in equilibrium on a smooth horizontal attached to three particles of masses m. VII. if the cord supporting m" is cut.
A particle P. The
m
^
{m + m!) {M\m
sin^ a
+ m'
sin'^ fi)
.m'^ . when the system is released. if the wire is set free. which passes over the
is
. Prove that. if A is projected at right angles io will begin to ascend or descend according as
iii!lm<i or
AC
with
>sina + v2/^a. and the system is
AB
and
BC make
and
when
C
acute angles a and a 4/3 are let go.
29.sin 3) + (wi sin a + m'sin /3) {1 cos (a +3)}
. sphere of mass hangs by a chain.
AB
/3). m\ m" by cords which table. { Initially
AC
BC
is vertical. being supported by an inextensible thread.m"\
Two particles A.
M
making with
CP
an angle _ J /A (m ~ m') {{m \.
. being pass over smooth pulleys at points A^ B. on the surface of a smooth horizontal circular The cylinder can slide on a horizontal plane. passes through a smooth ring C at the top of a smooth plane of inclination a = a) is along a line of greatest slope. m' are connected by a thread.
ones.m')^ . the initial tension of
has particles of masses m. and to the horizontal. which pass through the particles. of length h and negligible mass. The arm is seized and made to rotate with angular velocity Q. the tension ratio 5:9.mini!
(cos a cos
*
/S)^
of mass J/. Cat the edge of the table. and B and C. which 27.
A
circular wire of mass
M
m
and is secured to a fixed point in the plane of the wire at the same level Prove that.Q!^ c^ jh). Prove that. rests and a particle of mass touch at its lowest point a smooth table against it. and that the plane through the chain and the radius from the centre of the sphere to the point of attachment starts to rotate with angular velocity \Q.m* .
and m' are fastened to the ends of a thread. system is initially held at rest so that the radii of the circular section.
34.2. The suffixes indicate the order in which the pulleys are slung.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
pressure of the particle upon
it
233
is
m^g sin^ a/ {M+ 4m sin^^a). if Ti.
the angle
RQS
is
right
.„ and n corresponding counterpoises. and
33.2.
velocity V. C. T^ are the tensions in the cords. Initially m is held at the level of the fixed end. If the uppermost particle A is held.
. one end of which is fixed.
is
immediately diminished by an amount the angular distance of the particle
31.
A
with the
vertical. line of greatest slope.
bead of mass m' can slide on a thread.cos i3)/a (m + Mk.. where a
from the highest point of the wire..Each pulley and its coimterpoise are suspended by a cord passing over the preceding pulley. of masses m^. and AB.. Two equal particles connected by an inextensible thread lie on a smooth table with the thread straight prove that. mo.
the length of QS. B. and the particles B and are released. m. . while the other end carries a particle of mass m.
.M&m 2/3). prove that the downward acceleration of the p^^ moveable pulley is
2
. •• Hn. make angles a with on
AC
AD
^C
opposite sides of it.
of its path
is
twice the length of the thread. the initial radius of curvatiue
. . I) of equal mass. if the mass of each pulley (m) is to the mass of each counterpoise (fi) as 5 3. are placed on a smooth plane of inclination a(<^7r) to the horizontal.
Prove that the
the particle is projected parallel to initial tension in PQ is
/3
M
QR
with
Mm 72 (sin
where a
is
.
Prove that. prove that the tension in each of the lower threads is
D
instantly diminished in the ratio
(l2sin2a)/(H2sin2a).4m cos'^ a).
plane. so that is a. Prove that. and the two parts of the thread make equal angles a
32. fj.
if
the particle
m
is
released. of masses [ii. The highest cord (connecting mi and m) passes over a fixed pulley. connected by equal threads.
{Tp^Jmp+Tp_i/mp_{) = Tp{llmp + llfji^ + 4/mp_i) further.. Initially the angle PQR is obtuse and equal to ^. and no
cord passes over the lowest pulley w„. the initial tension
initial acceleration of
in the thread is
mm'g co8a/(m' + 4m cos^ a). The pulleys are simultaneously set free.
:
32n/> +
l_5
35. Four particles A. T.
and the
the
bead m'
is
g {m' + 2 w cos^ a)l{m' 4.
One end of a thread PQ is fixed to a point P on a smooth horizontal and the other end Q is attached to a small smooth ring of mass m which rests on the plane another thiead passes through the ring and is fixed at one end to a point R of the plane while its other end iS carries a particle of mass M. There is a system of n moveable pulleys. if one of them is projected on the table at right angles to the thread.
a thread which passes secured to a point on a Initially the two portions
M
Prove that the
initial
radius of curvature of the path of
m is
a(H4mi/'icos2^a). The extreme particles are projected at right angles to the thread with velocities u.
A window is supported by two cords passing over pulleys in the 42. p. if are the masses. q
curvatures of the paths of
B
and
C
are
. B.
. and is connected with counterpoises each equal to half the weight of the window.q ^^ m) v^
the other end
A particle of mass m is attached to one end of
through a bead of mass
M and
is
smooth horizontal table on which the whole rests. and m is projected at right angles to this portion. and projected horizontally with velocity w.
(/A
yiU^I{{yL\\)Vj^
and that the
initial
radius of curvature of
J5's
+ 1)^. If A is on the point of motion. the radius of curvature
it
leaves the table
is
{mkm'Y (m + ??i')2 + 2m'2
Two particles J. the initial curvature of its path is {pjOA ~ q/OB)/(p + q + m). Prove that. framework of the window (which it loosely fits). b the lengths of the threads.
{p + m ) v^/b +pu^/a
(p \.
AC
and
the system
placed in a line on a smooth table. A rests on a rough 39.
38. of the thread are straight and contain an obtuse angle a. if particle of mass m is attached to a point
. horizontal table (coefficient of friction = /x) and hangs vertically at a disis tance I below the edge of the table.234
36. if of the path of wi immediately after
by a thread of length a at right angles to the system starts from rest. B on a 37.
where a
is
the height and b the breadth of the window.
A small
mass
ring of
on' is
mass
m rests on a smooth
it
particle of
if
connected with
m' is projected in a direction at right at a distance a from m. the initial 771.
(q+7n) ijfifa f qv^lb
{p\q+'m)u^
41. and a.
m
is projected horizontally at right angles to the thread. smooth table particles of masses p and q are attached to the ends. Show that the coefficient of friction between the window and the framework is
«(^3/)/6(^+/).
C
are connected by two threads
Three particles A.
straight wire. One cord breaks and the window descends with acceleration /. and another by a thread of length a. the initial radius of curvature of the path
a{m\'m')lm. Prove that. are connected by a fine string . show that A will begin to move with
B
B
B
an acceleration
path will be
40. the portion between m and being of length a. and a between A and B. Prove that.
A
particle of
mass
m
on a smooth table
is
joined to a particle of
mass m' hanging
just over the edge
the edge.
is
AB. Prove that. VII. v.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP. angles to the wire from a point on it
is
An inextensible thread passes through two smooth rings A.
.
fMH. on^. if the shafts
are in a horizontal plane with the tops of the wheels.
46.2/i (J/+ m)}.
If for
bodies of masses
one of the bodies a pulley of negligible mass is substituted. Show that. the weight of the vehicle exclusive of the axle and wheels is TF. the horse is working at a rate Wvr sin \l>J{c^ .
f)
^^^''''^^
twowheeled vehicle is being drawn along a level road with velocity the wheels (radius c) are connected by an axle (radius r) fixed to them.
A particle of
mass
M
is
attached to a cord. Prove that the acceleration of 31
is on a smooth table.
A
mass
is
vertically over the middle point of the axle. which is applied tangentially to its rim for a certain time and then ceases. and
The cord passes over the edge
of the table
carrying another cord to the ends of attached.
.
and prove that the acceleratioa
01 the T)ulley is
. round which passes a cord connecting two masses P.
An
H units of work per second.
from
rest is
engine
is
pulling a
If
train. and its centre of
V
. the greatest
2hM^gH/{Mgf
.
rim. the spaces described
47. are is
+ rn^ 4mi m^ (M+m) (Wi + 7712) + 4?«i
{lYii
I
m
??l2
bodies hang by a cord over a fixed pulley inertia of the pulley is neglected.
P
49.
its
the mass of the wheel being regarded as condensed uniformly on
44.
M
is
and works at a constant power doing the the mass of the whole train and
F
resistance (supposed constant).
H
ir^v
^^°
~ Mv\
.r^ sin'^ X). and supports a pulley.
Two
:
show that. which hang freely.
48. The wheel is driven by a constant force.
Im'm
a. For one of the moving bodies in an Atwood's machine a pulley is substituted. find the mass of the single body in
order that m'
„
. if the bucket just comes to rest at
/i
Mm
the top of the shaft
rate of working
is
t
seconds after the beginning of the motion. which bodies of masses mi.
Show
that. Q.
at rest
if initially so. if the ratio F: Q lies between 3 and ^.
mass of the other moving body may be found which will keep either and that these values are in the ratio SPQ: 3QP. prove that the time of generating velocity v
\w
45.
runs
is
may
In an Atwood's machine the groove in the pulley in which the chain cut to that depth at which it is found that the inertia of the pulley be divided equally between the moving bodies. and m and m' slung over it. Prove that. and Q is the weight
. of mass m. where X is the angle of friction between the
axle
and
its bearings. if the by the bodies in
successive equal intervals of time are in arithmetic progression.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
235
A bucket of mass raised from the bottom of a shaft of depth 43. certain values
of the
or
Q
stationary.
may remain
. by means of a cord which is wound on a wheel of mass m.
m \p)l{Am' f m +p).2.
mass
m'.
equal masses P. P' will des:.
54. P' are connected by a cord passing over a and to them are attached equal masses Q. Two pulleys each of mass 8m hang at the ends of a chain of negligible mass which passes over a fixed pulley a similar chain passes over each of the two suspended pulleys and carries at its ends bodies of mass 2m.
prove that
F:F' = (2P+^)2:4P(P+^). Prove that. Prove that an additional weight R will
P
produce acceleration Rg/{2P+2Q\R+ W).
. and the initial subsequent velocity when Q' reaches the plane just before
V
Q
rises.cend with acceleration /. Q' are in motion from the plane and Q' caught by it almost simultaneously. Bodies of masses mi and ra^ are hung over J/ by a cord. mo are hung over M'. the moveable pulley will remain at rest if its mass is twice the harmonic mean of the other two masses. and bodies are attached to its ends. and that the velocity of one of the ascending bodies is five times
. Q' by cords.
52. A mass m is now removed from one of the bodies and attached to one of those which hang over the other pulley prove that the acceleration of each pulley is y^^. Q.
A
is
a body of mass
chain
chain of negligible mass passes over a fixed pulley i5.i')l{M+ M' + 2. .W)} = 2^g{2''{P'P)+W'all
Tf}. and supports m at one end and a pulley C of mass p at the other. and P.
of
A
body of weight
P
balances a body of weight
W in
that system of
Prove that.236
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP.
the pulleys being of equal weight.
that of the other.
g {M+ 2/i . are substituted.
Q is raised Initially Q lies on a horizontal plane. passes over Prove that the acceleration of the pulley
and supports a body of
is
g (2m' . Prove that either pulley
M
moves with acceleration
where fi is m/ and 7712'.
55.
53.x + 2fi'). of weights P' and such that
W
/{22«P'+fP + i(2'^ + l)(2"P.
50. A similar
(7.
W
is
the weight of the
Two
smooth
pulley. and bodies of masses m/. where
pulley. A chain of negligible mass passes over two fixed pulleys and under a moveable pulley.
51. Two pulleys of masses and M' are connected by a cord passing over a fixed pulley. P'. Prove also that the two descending bodies move with the same velocity. If Fis the initial subsequent velocity of P. if all the parts of the chain are vertical.
. if bodies pulleys in which each pulley hangs by a separate cord. the harmonic mean of mi and 7)12 and fi is the harmonic mean
.
fastened to a point A below B. VIL
required to be added to overcome the friction of the axle when equal weights are hung at the ends of the chain.M' . P' when Q rises just before Q' reaches the plane.
at a distance 2a sin a 57. /3 is the
two portions of the string to the i)lane when the particles are together. of the same radius.
suspended by the ends A. Prove
F
that the period of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is the same as that for a simj)le pendulum of length a tan a. to a thread. 61. and of radius a.
Two equal particles of mass Psin a are attached. A particle is attached to the middle point of an elastic thread whose 62. of
masses mi. and a that of the plane to the horizon.
m^. D E from
two points at the same level. Prove
that the length of the equivalent simple of the system is
pendulum
of the small oscillations
(mi + WI2 + ^3) a/s. BC. Prove that. apart.
The
distance
ends are attached to two points in the same horizontal plane. the period of the small oscillations
is
the same as for a simple
pendulum
of length
sin a sin
sin^
^ sin (a — /3) cos (a .mi wig}.m^ m^ m^m^.. are attached. if receives a small vertical dis
DE
M
placement.
of a thread
AE
of length 4«. and small equal rings rest on the rods at the middle points of AB.jS)
a cos a + sin^ /3 cos /3
is placed at the centre of a smooth circular cords are attached to the particle and pass over n smooth pulleys placed symmetrically round the circumference. Show that the time of a small oscillation of the
59. to the ends of which particles of mass The thi*ead is hung over two pegs distant 2a apart in a horizontal line.
m are attached to the points B. if there are no external forces.
where
m is the mass of each ring and E is the modulus of elasticity. which can move in a smooth circular tube.
system
is
n [a (??
+ 2)lgnY.
Three particles of masses m. and they rest on a smooth inclined plane so that the two parts of the string are nearly in a vertical plane.
Two equal particles are connected by a string of length 21.
m^.
. Prove that i/'tana= (i/'+2m)tan^. and each cord supports a mass M.
58. The portions AB. /3. are symmetrically attached
to a circular wire. /3. being attached to A by equal elastic threads of natural length I. when they are slightly displaced and the motion is regarded as taking place in a vertical
inclination of the
plane. and connected together by an inextensible thread passing through a fixed smooth ring at the middle point of BC. of negligible mass. AC.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
56.
and
rest
C. CDj are each of length a and make with the horizontal angles a. the period of the small oscillations is
2Tr
^{2almlE {pa U)}. passes over a small fixed pulley. a respectively./{mi^ + mi ^m^. the length of the equivalent simple
I
pendulum
is
cot
^ cosec j3 cosec a. and if
one of the rings
is slightly
displaced.
A
particle of
mass
M
horizontal table of radius a
. M. and that.
237
Three
particles. fixed in a vertical plane.
A triangle ABC is formed of equal smooth rods each of length 2a. which 60. Prove that.
which
falls vertically
with velocity v
smooth and spherical.
68.
to 2a
between the points and the unstretched length of the thread are each equal and.
move with
the same
velocity v in the same direction in this medium is placed a body of any form and such that all the particles impinging on it adhere.
A
number
of uniformly distributed particles
. Prove that its radius will vary harmonically
A
about a mean length
27rXc/(27rX
is
— w/xc). (1)
m
m
m
aside a distance h from the position of equilibrium. the middle ring and the centre of mass of the other two will oscillate in a period other two relatively to each other in period 4iTl^{5fi). Show that.
if this
condition
not satisfied
Three small equal rings are fitted on three smooth rods. in the form of a circle.
simple pendulum of length
a(2V22)/(2V2l).
?
What
happens
64. 63.
first
without disturbing m^ and.
time. fia 27rls/{Sfx). and the
parallel
being the attraction at distance
65. is held in rain and the umbrella itself is drawn
. is under the action of a force fi (distance) per unit mass directed from its centre. in the position of equilibrium. the system performs small oscillations . one being midway between the other two. directed from the centre of the fixed circle and equal to /x times the distance.
uniform elastic ring. and its inner surface is constrained to roll on the outer surface of a fixed circle of radius a. fixed point.
VII.238
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP. is held slightly pulled being above J/ . Prove that the period of
circular
A
small oscillations of the hoop will be
h+c
a
66.
provided that 2nX>mfxc. and the distance between neighbouring rods being a. being let go. Prove that the time of a small oscillation is the same as for a
. and. which are and in the same plane.
a. of mass m. modulus X. and are placed so that the line joining any two of them is nearly perpendicular to the rods.
and u
its velocity. if the rings attract each other according to the law of gravitation. and natural length 27rc. Prove that.
Iha \J c^
Two
vertically from a
are attached to a thread which hangs particles of masses Jf.
rigidly attached to
hoop of negligible mass and of radius h carries a particle it at a point distant c from its centre.
then M{vit) will remain
An
umbrella. (2) J/ is held slightly pulled aside a
distance
k^
small oscillations. the two parts of the thread contain a right angle. the system performs Prove that the angular motion of the lower thread in the
case will be the
same as that
of the upper thread in the second case
if
67. being let go. (6>a). whose surface
is
. if J/ is the
mass of the body at any
constant. under the action of a repulsive force.
thread OAB. and are connected by an elastic thread of modulus X.
m
one of
is placed on a smooth table. where X is the modulus of elasticity of the thread.
never
less
than a right angle. and lie on a smooth table with the thread
fixed. the two extreme ones are projected in
. m' are placed close together on a smooth 73. send a 32 lb. the angle
OAB is
line. when the thread
like
Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread is straight.V3)
yards.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
vertically
239
downwards with velocity V(<v). which The ]3asses round a smooth peg in the plane. that they will come to rest at the same time and that their distance a. and is the harmonic mean between the masses of the particles.
if
the gun
is
moveable on a smooth horizontal plane. when
half that of A.
. Prove that the average pressure per unit area of the rain falling on the umbrella at a point whose distance from the highest point is ^ is jt? cos^ 6 (v — V)'^lv% where p is the average
pressure per unit area of the rain falling on a fixed horizontal plane. shot over a range of 1600 yards.
portions of
same velocity v at right angles to the thread.
Prove particles are projected away from the peg with equal momenta.
two
Find the charge of powder required with an elevation of 15° to 74. and is of its natural length a. then the range is
6400?i/(4w
that
+ 2 .
Two
particles A. there are no external forces. in the subsequent motion.
is
Prove that. where ic and v are their initial
velocities. and
is
if
the weight of the gun is n times that of the shot. and that.part will then be {7n'^m') J{auvl\{m{m')}.
Prove that. and a smooth ball of mass M' is placed in contact with the wall and with one face of the
71. so that straight and the end
right angles to
Bof masses 2m and m are attached to an inextensible OA = AB.
length of the thread during the subsequent motion is 2a. with equilateral wedge of mass lower edges in contact with a smooth vertical wall. ball will descend with acceleration
Prove that the
72.
l/V(l+2sin2^) of
70.
and. while the charge just found.
OAB
is
again a straight
the velocity of B
Two particles of masses m.
directions with the
if
Prove that. the angular velocity of the the thread when they have turned through an angle 6 is
its initial value.
69. One Prove that. and are initially at rest at a distance a apart. the velocity of projection is ^{SaX/Sm).
The
particle
B
is
projected on the table at
AB. if the greatest particle is projected at right angles to the thread. being given that the initial velocity is 1600 feet per second when the charge is half the weight of the shot.
Two
particles
on a smooth table are connected by an
elastic thread
of natural length a.
An
M
its
wedge. so that motion ensues without rotation of the wedge. horizontal plane.
The truck is made to slide on a smooth horizontal plane by a massless horizontal chain.
A gun is suspended freely at an inclination a to the horizontal by 75. and a shot whose mass is Ijii of that of the gun is fired from it. are placed on a railway truck of mass M' tons which runs on a smooth level tons is fired from the gun parallel to the projectile of mass railway. which the particle is allowed to fall down the tube. Prove that the range on a horizontal plane through the muzzle is 4n (1 +7i) Atana. Motion ensues for a time ^.
is
and the
total length of recoil of the
gun carriage on the truck
iqm{M'{qR)MR)l[R{M\'M'){{M+m) QmR]]
79. tons. Prove that the path of the particle is a parabola of latus rectum
after
2M'^{MifM'^m)gt^l{{M+M'\mY\M'^f. is horizontal. together of mass 78.
M
Prove that the pressure of the particle
contact
is
m
on the plane with which
. and if the resistance to
sliding
weight of
between the gun carriage and the truck is constant and equal to the R tons.
A
M
A
m
rails. if the
gun
is
fixed to the carriage. comes to the edge of the wedge. VII. moving on the table in a vertical plane which contains the centre of mass of the wedge and a line of greatest slope on its inclined face. if there is no restitution between the wedge and the sphere. if the
powder gas exerts
a uniform thrust equal to the weight of Q tons on the shot and gun. 76. which passes over a fixed
smooth pulley and supports a body of mass M'.240
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
[CHAP. on which there is a particle of mass m. lasting till the shot has traversed the bore. where h is the height through which the gun rises in the recoil. the sphere will ascend through a vertical height
M
hM^ cos2 a[{{M + m) ( J/'+ m sin2 a)}
where h
is
. and a small sphere of mass 7n.
A wedge of mass and angle a rests on a smooth horizontal table.
it is
in
MM'mgl{MM' + (if+ M') {m + M') tan2 «}
Prove
also
that the total weight exceeds the pressure on the fixed
horizontal plane
{( J/4
by
M') {M' + m)2 g sin2 a}/{( J/+ M') {M' + m) sin2 a + MM' cos2 a}. a length I feet. two equal parallel vertical cords in a vertical plane containing the axis of the gun.
smooth bore gun and carriage.
plane. then the velocity imparted to the shot is
Q^J\^Mgll{m (m + M)
Q — m^R]'\
feet per second.
Show
that.
In a truck of mass
M
is
fixed a fine vertical tube inside
which
is
fastened a particle of mass m. Prove that.
the height to which the velocity of the sphere before reaching the
wedge
77.
A wedge of angle a and mass is free to move on a fixed horizontal Another wedge of angle a and of mass M' is laid upon it so that its upper surface.
.
feet. The surfaces are all smooth and the motion takes place in a vertical plane. and if the wedge is high
enough.
is
due.
sin
83.
: :
that. 3 sin a + cosec a. the position of equilibrium is defined by the equation
4 (sin ^ .
:
:
Two
84.
m
has fallen through
m'
and m'
is
at a distance
3^
from
the edge.
if
the length of the thread
= 2gs — Xs2 (m + m')lmm'L
z
Also. one point of which and the particles are describing circles of radii a and h about this point. and if the backing against which is inelastic. horizontal plane over a smooth sphere of radius c. The force necessary to compress a buffer carriage through the full extent I is equal to the weight of a mass m.
81.
if
at time
t.
.
where a
(
is
the least angle which satisfies the equation
a) (cos a
V^ — Sgl sin
provided that V^/gl is less than curvature of the path immediately afterwards.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
80.
One extreme
about
it
Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread. so that the thread is straight. the ratio of the final velocities of the
Mv>J{2mM'ffl{l + M'IM)}:Mv + y/{2mMgl{l\MIM')}.
241
of mass J/".
a)2
(
1
+ sin a) = tan^ ^
(
1
.6) 26. a. Prove that. joined by an elastic thread of at the are placed on a smooth table with X. r. and the other two are describing circles particle A is held fixed with the same angular velocity.
equal particles are connected by a thread.
carriages
is
if
the buffers are driven
v exceeds this limit.
85.
is fixed
. then
«2
Prove that.sin of.x) + mz= \mgt^. if the thread is suddenly released. and lie on a rough horizontal plane (coefficient of One of the paiticles is projected vertically upwards with velocity friction /*). at any time is ? + s. impinges on a of mass M' at rest. Two particles each of mass m are connected by a rod of negligible mass and of length I.
An elastic circular ring of radius c sin a is placed unstretched in a 82. the tensions in the two portions of the thread are diminished in the ratios 1 3 and 1 2.
L. so that the thread is always straight.
+ sin a) = figl.
Two
particles of
masses
natural length I and modulus edge and m' at a distance I in
and m'. Assuming that
A railway carriage
is
the compression
proportional to the force. the tensions in the two portions are altered in the ratios (a + 6) 2a and (a +. Prove
. M. if the particle A is let go. Prove that. prove that the buffers will not be
if
completely compressed
Prove also that. Find
/x
also the radius of
16
. line perpendicular to the edge. if it just slips over the sphere. The particle
m
m
m
is then just pushed over the edge. prove that the other particle will begin to move when the rod makes with
the plane an angle
a. prove that
(l
. moving with velocity v. with the same angular velocity.
where a
is
the least positive root of the
equation tana = a+7r. and the system.
In a smooth table are two small holes A^ B Sit a. Show that.
88.
the distance through which
M
oscillates will
.
M will oscillate to and fro through a distance 2a tan
J^ = 2Mmag (tan a . distance 2a apart 91. 88 prove that the period of oscillation when the shell is free is less than it would be if the shell were held fixed in the ratio
l:^{l + \lk).
to
move
In Ex.242
86. rests on the table at the middle point of AB. being a particle of mass connected with a particle of mass hanging beneath the table by two inextensible threads.sin g
cos a
[cos2a+^(lsina)2]^
l+^a^~i cos2a(lsina)'
87.
but
if
where tan ^3
is positive. supported by springs of equal length and strength. in the motion which ensues after the system the plane.
MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
Two
particles.
l^
[CHAP. the
t
time
until the shell again strikes the plane is the smallest positive root of
the equation
(l
+ <2)sin7i^ = (l
e)nt.
each of mass m. the shell will strike the plane again after an interval of time equal to half the
period of free oscillation. Prove that. 87 the spherical shell is of mass 1cm and the particle of Prove that the shell will or will not strike the plane again
according as /:< or
> 1+2 cos a.
mass m. are connected by an inextensible passing over a smooth pulley at the top of a smooth plane on which one of the particles rests at a distance a from the
is free
top {a<l). if the coefl&cient of restitution between the shell and the plane is unity. the tension of the thread is constant and equal to
of
\mgal~^ cos^ a
after it leaves the plane is
1
(1
.
if
J^>2M'mag tan a.
M
m
A blow Jia applied to M
a. passing through the holes.
In Ex.
Prove that. which are attached at opposite ends of a diameter . VII.
thread of length
of inclination
a.tan /3)
a.
90. each of length a(lfseca).
. imperfect restitution (coefficient e) between the shell and the plane. strikes directly a fixed plane. spherical shell contains a particle of equal mass. all parts of which are moving in the line
A
of the springs with the same velocity. 87 the particle and the shell have equal masses but there 89.t
right angles to
AB.sin a). Prove that. if '^•nln is the period of the free oscillations of the systera.
be
— 2a^{(sec a sec ^3) (sec a sec /3 + 2)}
.
is
In Ex.
particle
and that the radius of curvature of the path of the upper
immediately
.
and the angle which a line of the body drawn through that particle.
Then the
position of the plane
is
and the position of the line is determined by the which it makes with a fixed line in the plane." or "in one plane.
line of particles.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS.
In this CKapter we propose to discuss the motion of 215."
Now we
saw
in Art. and moving
in the plane of its motion. make an angle 6 at time t with a line fixed in the plane.
16—2
. y). In the case now under discussion we may take the line and plane in question to be
parallel to the plane {x. Then this angle is increasing at
t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk
in a
first
one plane. fixed
(*)
may be omitted
reading.
In such a case the x and y of a particle of the
body vary with the time. and parallel to the plane. for example the plane {x. for instance angle
invariable
. and of a plane of particles passing through that line. of the position of the rigid body (moving in two dimensions) requires the determination of three numbers.
We
can
now
see
in
what
meant by the angular
Let one
velocity of a
rigid body moving in the body. but the z of each particle remains constant throughout the motion.
180
that to determine the position of a rigid body it is requisite and sufficient to determine the positions of a particle of the body. representing the
determined by
coordinates of the position of one of the particles.
the axis of x\
further. a rigid body in cases where every particle of the body moves parallel to a fixed plane. The motion is said to be "in
two dimensions. of
a line of particles passing through that particle.CHAPTER
Vlllt.
makes with a
is
fixed line. y) of a frame
of reference. the position of the chosen
its
particle
is
Thus the determination coordinates x and y.
Now the second line of particles makes an angle ^ + a with the fixed line. enters into the expressions for the kinetic energy
of
We
. and this is the angular plane velocity of the rigid body. very small in all their dimensions.
These expressions become
(o\\\p{x^\2/2)
dxdydz.
line. and pass to a limit by diminishing the volumes inThe process will be exemplified in Art.
to the plane. and this angle also increases at
thus see that every line of particles parallel to the 6. Hence particle its moment of momentum about the axis is mr^ay.
Moment
of Inertia.
It follows that the
moment
of
momentum
of the rigid body
about the axis
is
and the kinetic energy
is
the summations referring to
all
the particles. 218. and its kinetic
energy
is ^mr^co^. that is into a very large
volume integrals taken through the volume to say we must divide the volume of the
number of volumes. definitely.
about an axis with angular velocity o). multiply the value of p {a^ + y"^) at a point in one of these volumes by this volume. turns with the same angular velocity.
Then
this
describing a circle of radius r with velocity ro). L^et a particle of a body at a distance r from the
is
Consider a rigid body turning be the mass of
m
axis.
a rate
We
216.
[CHAP.
/9
at a point {x. for if it were to change the body
would be deformed.
the axis of rotation
being the axis of
The
body
integrals are
of the body.
VIII. sum the products for all the
volumes.
The multiplier moment of inertia
presently that
it
&> and Jw^ in these expressions is called the shall see of the body about the axis.
and
for a
\(jiy^\\\p {x^
+ y^) dxdydz.
z)^
body of density
z.244
a rate
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
6.
Let any other line of particles be drawn also parallel and let a be the angle which it makes with the first Then a is invariable. y.
The quantity 2 (mxy) is known as the product of inertia with respect to the axes of x and y (in two dimensions).
and
it will
therefore be sufficient
to consider axes in different directions through the origin. the moments of inertia about the axes of x and y are respectively 2my'^ and 2mj. and thus
for the
the
moment
of inertia about the line
2m {y co^6x sin 6f = sin^ 62 {mx^) + cos^ O2 {my^) .
The expression
moment
of inertia about a perpendicular line
would be
cos2
B2 {mx"^) + sin2 d2my'^ + 2 sin ^ cos 62 {mxy). of any form.
III. y. is the sum of those about any two rectangular axes in the plane which meet in any point on the first axis. m its mass.
the theorem stated.215217]
MOMENTS OF INERTIA
245
and moment of
rotation
is
momentum
of a rotating body.
and the distribution of density within
217. ^'.
Let
^.
We
can always choose the axes of
(^. z
X. y. y) from
this line is
is
— ^ sin ^ h^ cos ^. if the axes are taken to be those oi z. 2m2f=0.2 sin ^ cos 62mxy.
For
we can use Theorem
I. x.
I. y.\ and the moment of inertia about the axis of 2 is 2m {x^+y'^). z
the coordinates of the centre of mass. The distance of any point {x.
For.
The
of inertia of a system about any axis is equal to the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centre of mass together with the moment of inertia about the original axis of the whole mass placed at the
moment
centre of mass. about any axis perpendicular to its plane.
it.
is
2m (x^+f) = 2m (af^+y'^) + (^ +y^) 2m.
Theorems concerning Moments of
Inertia.
be the coordinates of any particle of the system.
y) so that this quantity 2 {mxy)
. Let 6 be the angle which any line makes with the axis x. For new axes obtained by turning
through an angle 6
it
has the value
_ (cos2^ sin2 6) 2 {mxy) + sin 6 cos 6 {2 (m/) 2 {mx^)).
The moment
on the shape of the body. y. relative to the centre of mass.
of inertia of a body about an axis depends only its situation with reference to the axis. zf those of the particle m
Then
x=x{a/^
y=y^y\
z
— z + z'A
2maf=0y 2m^=0.
The moment
To compare the moments
parallel axes
of inertia of a lamina about different axes
in its plane.}
Now
So
2m^2 = 2m (^ + j/)^ = x^2m + 2nu/^ + 2x2mjf
2my^=p2m+lmi/'\
Hence
which
II. whether the axis of
fixed or not.
of inertia of a plane lamina.
=2 (wx^).
In the case of a body of any shape. Then the moment of inertia about a line through the origin making an angle 6 with the axis x is
Jcos^^ + ^sin'^^. The quantity k for any body as the radius of gyration of that body about that axis. the same principal axes at the centre of mass. ring. r the The mass of the part between
if
Therefore. be the moment of inertia about the axis x.
For a circular ring of Uniform.
218.
two plane systems are momental equivalents if they have the same mass.
The
directions of the principal axes vary with the point chosen
as origin. Radius of gyration of a body. the moment of inertia of the ring about its axis would be the same as the moment of
inertia of the
body about the axis
is
and any axis
II.
I. they have the same moment of inertia about any axis perpendicular to the plane.
ellipse whose equation is Ax'^\By^ = Gon^t. If two plane systems in the same plane have the same mass. =2 {my'^).
vanishes. then the moment of inertia about any diameter of it is inversely proportional
If
an
to the square of the length of that diameter.
When
this is
done the axes of x and y are called Principal axes
of the lamina. mass m and radius a.
IV. the moment of inertia about the axis is ma'^. the two systems have by Theorem III. since every element of the mass can be taken to be at the same distance a from the axis.
known
in question. they have the same
moment
of inertia about
any
axis in or perpendicular to the plane.246
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. in the first place.
moment of inertia about the axis y.
Such systems are described as momental
It is clear that
equivalents.
distance of any section from the middle point. the same moment of inertia about any axis lying in the plane and passing through the
common
inertia
centre of mass. and of mass m. be the
Now let the axes of x and y be principal axes of the lamina at the origin.
Calculations of
moments
of inertia.
the thickness of the rod
is
.
For. and of very small section.
Uniform rod.
ellipse
This
ellipse is
known
as the
of
inertia. the same centre of mass. by Theorem I. and 2a its length. if
. and the same moments of inertia about these principal axes. they have the same moment of about any other axis in the plane. and by Theorem II.
Let ^.
VIII. is drawn on the lamina.
the
the mass of the body were condensed uniformly upon the ring. and if their moments of inertia about any three assigned axes in the plane are equal. and 5.
Let
m be the
2a
br. we can always express moment of inertia about any axis in the form mJc\ where k represents the length of a line and thus we see that k is the radius of a ring such that. and the same centre of mass.
mass of the rod.
218]
MOMENTS OF INERTIA
247
disregarded.
.
is
The moment
of inertia of the sphere about
any diameter
therefore
where w. next
point within one of the small volumes
to multiply the value of r^ for a by this volume.
which
is ^wa^. and the distances from the centre of all the
lie
points in this volume
between r and
r
+ br.z^)
is
dxdy dz
or
\\\\'r^ dxdydz. Uniform sphere. then to sum the
all
products so formed.
where the integrations are taken through the volume of the sphere.
radius of gyration of the rod
Circular disk.
of the sphere that
/
I
\x^dxdydz=
i
j
\y^dxdydz=
\
j
Iz^dxdydz.
to divide the sphere into a very
large
To evaluate this integral we have first number of very small volumes. and let the origin of coordinates be the centre of the sphere. According to the general formula of Art.
each of these integrals
l\
\
Hence
is
equal to
\{x^+y^\.
= ^irpa^. p the (constant) density of the material.
centre at right angles to its plane
„
is
r2
.
Hence the required
integral
j
I
\r^dxdydz= r
r^. and r {x^ y^ z) from the centre.
/:
Ta2
^Trrdr.217.
is
the mass of the sphere. 47rr'''ci?r=—
^. Let a be the radius of the sphere. Hence the moment of inertia of the disk about an axis drawn
through
its
The mass per unit of area of a uniform thin circular m is m/na^ The area of the narrow ring contained All the circles of radii r and r+8r is 2ir (r + ^dr) 8r.
The radius
of gyration of the disk about this axis is a/^2.
disk of radius a and mass
between two concentric particles in such a ring are at distances from the centre which lie between r and r+8r. the moment of inertia about right angles to the rod is
an axis through the middle point at
The
III.
is
a/^d.
Now
r\br is 47r{r2
the volume contained between two concentric spheres of radii r and + r5rf ^(Sr)2}gr. and finally to pass to a limit by diminishing
the small
volumes
indefinitely.
IV.
where the integration
denotes the distance of the point
taken through the volume of the sphere. 216 we must integrate Now it follows from the symmetry '\x'^\y'^) through the volume of the sphere.
[It can be shown that the same formula holds for any axis drawn through
7. f(aH62).]
. Prove that a momental equivalent of a uniform triangular lamina 6. This is the same thing as an integration over the area of a circle of unit
Hence prove that the moments of inertia of a imiform thin elliptic lamina of semiaxes a. II. each onethird of its mass.
2.
To evaluate
is
the integral
1
1
x^dxdy taken over the area within an ellipse
\.
5.
Prove that the moment of inertia of a uniform cube of mass m and an axis through its centre parallel to an edge or at right angles to an edge is fma^.
and
\7na?. 218. y.
area of a circle of radius a.
To
find the value of
ix^dxdydz taken through the volume of the
ellipsoid.
Examples. We
get
a^bcjjj$^d^dr}dC.h^
radius. of Art. where m.
which
given by the equation x^la^{y^lh^ =
change the variables by putting
I
x=a^. 218 the result
is
4 —
15
tt. h and mass m about its principal axes are \w.
consists of three particles.
Hence evaluate the
integral
I
ix^dxdy taken over the
circle. z are
I (62+^2).
1. = ^npabc.248
219.
Prove that the moments of inertia of a uniform rectangular lamina of
mass
m and sides 2a. 217 and IV. placed at the middle points of its sides.
is
half the radius.)
4.
:
Prove that a momental equivalent of a thin rod of mass m consists of three particles one of mass pn at the middle point.
change the variables by putting
x=a^. of Art.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.
An
ellipsoid is given
/ /
by an equation of the form
x^/a^ +y^/b^ + z^/c^
— l. Prove that the radius of gyration of a circular disk about a diameter 3. y = bT]. (c2+a2). the origin being at the centre of the (Cf.
We
have to find the value of a^b
l^^d^drf.
side 2a about
the centre of the cube.
Hence prove that the moments of inertia of the ellipsoid (supposed to be of uniform density />) about the axes of x. of Art. and one of mass }m at
each of the ends.
VIII.
where the
integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality $^+r]'^1^l.
According to IV. is the mass of the ellipsoid. 26 about axes through its centre parallel to its edges are
Jm6^ and ^ma^. where the integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality This is the same thing as an integration through the volume ^2 + ^2_j_^2^ 1_
of a sphere of unit radius. z = c^.
y=br).
makes parallel to the axes are wy' and wx.
. and
x'. since the line
P
G
GP
GP
with the axis x an angle whose cosine
is
is
x'jr
and whose sine
y'jr.
Fig. where M.
equal to Mu. =Sm. 63. and let u and v be resolved parts of the velocity of G
Let
G
parallel to the axes
x and
line
y. r
its
distance from G. body parallel to the axis x
Then the
is
resultant
Sm {u — (oy'). and the velocity of is rw relative to at right angles to the resolved parts of this relative velocity . 220]
220.
MOMENTUM OF
Velocity and
RIGID BODY
249
Momentum
of rigid body.
be the centre of mass of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. Similarly the momentum of the body parallel to the axis y is Mv.
m be
momentum
which
is
of the
the mass of the particle at P.
Let
P
be any other particle of the
coordinates relative to
body.219.
Hence the resolved
velocities of
P parallel
v
to the axes are
u—
Let
(oy
and
+
cox. y' its
G
at time t
Then the
GP
—
is
turning with the angular velocity
ft) of the rigid body. is the mass of the body.
221.
The moment of momentum about any parallel axis is the moment about that axis of the momentum of the whole mass
placed at the centre of mass and moving with it together with the moment Mk^co (Art. and has resolved parts Mu. or frequently "the instantaneous centre. With the notation of the last Article. The resultant is localized in a line
is
through G.
(oy'y
is the kinetic energy of the whole mass. so that the motion of the body at the
a motion of rotation about an axis through this point perpendicular to the plane of motion.W).
The formulae for the velocity of a point show that at each instant the point whose coordinates relative to G are — vjw and ujco has zero velocity. 156). moving with the centre of mass. the point moves relatively to 6^ in a circle of radius r with angular velocity equal to (a at time t its acceleration relative to G may therefore be resolved into rw at
P
.250
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
resultant
[CHAP.
Thus the
momentum
of the bod}?^
is
the same as the
momentum
of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with it.
Again." The fact that the motion of a rigid plane figure in its plane is equivalent to rotation about a point is of importance in
many
geometrical investigations.)
The moment
of
momentum
of the
body about an axis through
is
the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion
which
is
equal
%m {x' (v + cox') — y' {u — coy')}y to wSm (x'^ + y'^) or to Mk^co. Mv in the two chosen directions. Kinetic Reaction of rigid body. where
k
is
the radius
of gyration about the axis.
.
VIII. 158). Thus the momentum of the rigid
body
specified by the resultant and couple of a system of vectors localized in lines. 153. (Art. and the moment of the couple is Mk^a). The point is called the
instant
is
instantaneous centre of no velocity. together with the kinetic energy of the rotation about the centre of mass (Art. the kinetic energy of the body
is
^Im {(u which
+ {v + (ox'Y] = iif(M2 + v^ + A.
The
kinetic reactions
may be
reduced to a resultant kinetic
reaction localized in a line through the centre of mass and a The resultant in question has resolved parts parallel to couple. (Art.
and
this is Mk^oa. of the acceleration of to the axes are parallel
P
u
— my' —
(o'^x\
and v
+ wx —
ay^y'.
and
2m
{i)
+ wx —
to^y'). 64.
The moment
of the kinetic reactions about
any
axis perpen
dicular to the plane of motion is the moment about that axis of the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the
body.
Fig. moving with the centre of mass. together with the of the couple Mk^m.)
moment
.220. and rm^ along PO.
the axes which are
and these
^m {u — my' — (o^x') are Mu and Mi).d)x' — co^y') — y'{ii— coy — wV)}. 157.
The couple is the moment of the kinetic reactions about a line through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion
this
. 221]
KINETIC REACTION OF RIGID BODY
251
Hence the resolved parts right angles to GP.
moment
is
2m [x' (v 4.
. The coordinates of the instantaneous centre
to axes through the centre of moment in question is
0)
/ being — vjat and
uja) referred
mass
G
parallel to the axes of reference.
The equations
of motion express the conditions that the kinetic reactions and the external forces may be equivalent systems of vectors.
two
particles.
The
show that
formulae for the acceleration of any point of the body at each instant there is a point which has zero
acceleration.
is
[This circle
4. the
— mv + —mu\mK^ai.
at the instantaneous
223.
Examples.
is
it
to /.
their paths lie
Prove that those particles which at any instant are at inflexions on on a circle.
When the point / is fixed in the body this can be replaced by Ka. in general.
222.
K for
the
I.
and
V is
the resultant velocity of the particle.
[It follows that this centre
can be constructed
if
we know the
directions
of motion of
2.
Equations of motion of rigid body.]
Calculation of the
moment
of the kinetic reactions about the instan
taneous centre (of no velocity). such that B = and write
a>.
called the " circle of inflexions. at any instant.
centre (of no velocity)
Prove that. 217.
1.
O)
The
r=IG.
Prove that.
This point
It is of
is
called the instantaneous centre of no
much
less
importance than the instantaneous
centre of no velocity.(^ir^co^j
+ mk'^co^
we take an angle 6
result obtained
l^{^^(F + r2)a>2}.
and the
may
be written
j^ da {^K(o^).252
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. that particle which is at a cusp on its path.
acceleration.
moment
of
inertia about the instantaneous centre /."]
the circle of inflexions
Prove that the curvature of the path of any particle which is not on is ay^p^j V^ where p"^ is the power with respect to the
circle of the position of the particle. Other cases in which this formula can be used are noted in Arts. VIII.
is
5. 235 and 236 infra.
3.
w
is
the angular velocity of the body.
velocity of G is rm at right angles to the line joining or we have u'^\v^=r'^(x>^.
where
Hence the above
or
If
j. then
K=m{k^ + r^) by
of Art. the normal to the path of every particle passes through the instantaneous centre (of no velocity).
Q be the resolved
parts of the force in the directions in which the acceleration of the centre of mass was resolved.
M
force at its centre of
Let the forces acting on the body be reduced to a resultant mass and a couple. Let P. This class includes all the cases in which the body is symmetrical with respect to a plane and the forces
applied to it are directed along lines lying in that plane.
t Ch. or. « the aagular velocity of the body. and for solving them in general. more generally.
In particular we have
and the equations of motion of the body can always be written in
this form. Q. If however
is au equation of energy. or an equation of conservation of momentum. /a the resolved accelerations Let of the centre of mass in any two directions at right angles to each other in the plane of motion. which at some instant
moving
in
two dimensions
parallel to a certain plane.
arises
Continuance of motion in tw^o dimensions. the equations arrived at are differential equations. continues to move parallel to that plane or will general answer to presently be found to be moving in a different manner.
A
this question in which the
cannot be given here. as the system P.
224.
. and let be the couple.221225]
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
253
be the mass of the body /i. Huygens was the first to solve the problem of the motion of the pendulum. such equations are first
the circumstances are such that there
integrals of the equations of motion. His work. N.
N
Then the system of vectors expressed by Mf^. The
is
question
whether a body. and of axes about which to take moments. about a fixed horizontal axis is known as a "compound pendulum"
225. was first published in 1673. but it is clear that there is a class of cases motion in two dimensions persists. As in the case of Dynamics of a
no rules can be given
Particle. Mk(6 has the same resolved part in any direction. and the same moment about any axis.
A heavy body free to rotate Rigid Pendulum f. and the principles which he invoked were among the considerations which ultimately led to the establishment of the Theory of Energy.
In the formation of equations of motion diversity can arise from the choice of directions in which to resolve. Mf^. De horologio oscillatorlo. when the forces can be reduced to a single resultant in the plane of symmetry and a couple about an axis perpendicular to that plane.
VIII.
Let
M be
the mass of the body.
to distinguish it from the simple discussed in Arts. 6 the angle which GS makes with
Let
the vertical at time t Then the whole motion takes place in the vertical plane which passes through G and is at right
Fig.
A
rigid
pendulum.
A
the
"
The
point in the line SG at this distance from S is known as centre of oscillation.
Examples. 119.254
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
" "
[CHAP.
angles to the axis. and the position of the pendulum at any time depends only
on the angle
6. axis.
.
and the kinetic
The
potential energy of the
is
body
in the field of the earth's
gravitation
Mgh{\co%d\
the standard position being the equilibrium position. is hung up so that it can oscillate in the same vertical plane as before." distance between these centres is the " length of the equi
valent simple pendulum. 95 and 119.
Let
GS = h. 65." S is called the " centre of suspension.
G
perpendicular to the plane of
The
energy
velocity of the centre of
is
mass
is
hO.
2. k
its
radius of
gyration about an axis through motion.
for
which
S and
are respectively a centre of
suspension and the corresponding centre of oscillation.
Hence the energy equation can be written
iM{h''
+ k') &" = Mgh cos 6 + const.
pendulum
whose motion was
G be the centre of mass of the GS the perpendicular from G to the body. but with as centre of suspension instead of S prove that S will be the centre of oscillation.
A
uniform rod moves with
its
ends on a smooth circular wire fixed in
."
226.
1.
Comparing
length
{k^
see that the motion
this equation with that obtained in Art. we is the same as that of a simple pendulum of
+ ¥)lh.
the kinetic energy
is
and the work done
is
(m . if the pendulums are
fastened together in the position of equilibrium. 6 the angle through which it has turned up to time t.m') gx.
>
<
Two
rigid
pendulums of masses and
I.
if it
PENDULUM
255
the length of the equivalent simple
subtends an angle of 120° at the centre.
4. compound pendulum consists of a rod.
The
A. which
Fig.
circle.
Illustrative Problems.
or that the rope slides over
resistance
it
without frictional
and without setting it in motion. which can turn about a fixed horizontal axis.225227]
a vertical plane.
227.
We exemplify the
application of the
partially working out some problems. It will now be most convenient. to suppose the pulley to be so rough that the particles of the rope and the pulley in contact move with the same velocity along the
tangents to the pulley.
A
or twice according as the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is the distance of the centre of gravity of the bob from the axis of rotation.
Now let
Ic
M be the mass of the pulley.
and m' turn about the same horimass and of oscillation from Prove that.
radius of gyration about its axis.
.
its
Let
m m
and m' be the masses of the bodies
at
tached to the rope. and a spherical bob. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the compoimd body will be {mhl + m'h'l')l{mh + m' h'). To avoid having to take account of the motion of the pulley in our preliminary notice of Atwood's machine (Art. Then x = a6. The most important matters to be illustrated are actions between two rigid bodies whether smooth or rough.
Other matters
subsidiary interest are the kinematical expression of velocities and accelerations in terms of a small number of independent geometrical quantities.
m
zontal axis.
I. which can slide on the rod. Prove that the period of oscillation will be prolonged by sliding the bob up or down.
The mass
of the rope being neglected. and x the distance through has fallen at time t. 32
[his). We shall consider Atwood's machine. 73) we assumed the pulley to be perfectly smooth. and the expression of the effects of the
principles that have been laid
down by
inertia of a rigid
body by means of the moment of
inertia. a
its radius. and the calculation of resultant
of
stresses. Inertia of machines.
RIGID
Prove that. pendulum is equal to the radius of the
3. in order to get some idea of the way in which the motion of the pulley
affects the result. A'
distances of the centres of
the axis are
V respectively. the expression of kinematical conditions.
we may eliminate
F fron^
two of our
equations.
mk^o) =
G — Fa.
reactions. on the aw. obtained by resolving horizontally and and taking moments about the centre. 66.
Fig. G the applied couple. the sense of a> is the same as that of G. v the velocity its centre moves.256
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
is
[CHAP. point
m
F
Let
o>
with which
be the angular velocity with which the wheel turns.
motion hy couple. if the motion In the same case starts from rest. and obtain the equation
m{k^ + a^)d> = 0.
Let a be the radius of the wheel. Let a wheel. and written down the equations.
Wheel
set in
. and then the friction
<
acts in the sense shown. The sense of a is the same as that of G and therefore.mg. be in contact with rough horizontal ground set in motion by a couple about its axis. are
vertically
mv = Fj
= R.
its
mass
is
neglected)
by ^Mk^ja^.m') gx + const.
We have drawn the figiue. the plane of which is and let the wheel be vertical.
.
so that the energy equation
I?
\M 2 i^ + ^ w + m') i^ = (m .
. When v slips on the plane in the sense opposite to that of v. k the radius ot gyration about the axis.
(
Thus the
acceleration with which
m descends is
m + m'+Mk^la^
It appears that the effect of the inertia of the pulley is equivalent to an increase of each of the masses in the simple problem (where the pulley is
regarded as smooth and
II.
VIII. the mass. the friction and R the pressure at the of contact with the ground.
and the
right
The equations of motion.
The lefthand figure is the diagram of the kinetic hand figure is the diagram of the applied forces. the point of contact supposition that v does not exceed aw.
If v
= a(Oj
so that the wheel rolls.
In order that this motion may take place it is necessary that Gal{{k^+a^)mg] should not exceed the coefficient of friction. if the friction is great enough.
so that v=aa)j
Hence «
is positive. Ball. on eliminating F^
wheel
rolls. the wheel starts to roll. The condition for the
production of the motion is the existence of a source of internal energy. This is the " force " which sets the train in motion. 1 of Art. or the friction is too small.
in the sense opposite to that
if
shown
The motion
will be
one of rolling
Pk^l{mg{k^\a^)} is less than
the coefficient of friction. II. Again let the wheel of No. and III. 214. The direction of the friction at the point of contact is that of the motion of the train as in No. R. III.
Experimental Mechanics. 2nd Edition. are necessary to the successful action of the animal or machine. which can be transformed into work done by the couple acting on the driving wheel.
The motion
of a wheel of
any coach or truck attached to the train
is
of
the character considered in No. or
the centre of the wheel moves
Fig. (Cf.
FjR
or
conclude that. motion by a horizontal force P applied at its centre in its plane. such as the friction in this problem. 83.
17
. has already been illustrated in simple cases in Ex. mk^a=Fa.227]
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS
257
F=Gaj{k^\a^\ which is positive. II. so that the friction acts in the sense in which the centre of the wheel moves (the sense shown in Fig. we have the equations of motion
in
mv = P+F.
in the coupling is a the frictions at the points
It appears that the "pull of the engine" (Art. and of contact of the wheels with the rails act as resistances. the wheel slips or " skids " on the rail but. All
the characteristic motions of machines and of living creatures are examples of the same principles. 71) is really the friction of the rails on the driving wheel.)
M. II. The way in which a source of internal energy may result in the
production of motion. S. and keeps it in motion against the resistances.
we
have. be set III.
The problems of Nos. but the working out of the details is in general a matter
of difficulty. the wheel will begin to roll along the road.
. The external forces.
which
The
in
friction in this case acts in the sense opposite to that in
P
acts. If this couple is too great.
L. With the same notation as before. 207 and Ex.
{i.
and equal
to
Pk^Kk^ + a^). 1888. 66).e. through the agency of external forces. and that the friction at the point of contact is the horizontal force which produces the horizontal momentum. 66).
If the
= Rmg. pp.
and
F
is
negative. if the ground is sufficiently rough.
84.
The tension
horizontal force setting the vehicle in motion. illustrate the forces that affect the motion of a railicay train. The machinery is so contrived that a couple is exerted on the driving wheel of the locomotive.
We
Wheel set in motion hy force. 6 of Art. London.
Voa^/k^ in the same sense as before. Then so long as aQ)>U the friction in the same sense.
Taking moments about the point of contact we have
MV
ifaFifFw = 0. See Fig. and we have
U
F
MU=F. At this instant the lowest point has velocity aatQ.
VIII.
The
particles on the lowest generator have velocity and therefore has the opposite sense. Rolling and sliding. take the problem presented by a uniform and radius a which is set rolling and sliding on a rough cylinder of mass horizontal plane.
the
The system of kinetic reactions reduces to horizontally through the centre of mass. 67. the friction is still finite and in the same sense as before. and at this instant o has the value
(OQaFo/F. and a velocity of the centre in the opposite sense begins to be
generated.
F
Resolving horizontally
we have
MV=F.258
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.a F= Fa>o .
velocity
Hence
F is
negative and
to
is
also negative.
Now
let
F
be the friction between the cylinder and the plane.
F+awin
the sense of F. the angular velocity being initially such that the points on the lowest generator have the greatest velocity. We shall proceed with the case where Fo<(iDoF/a.a Fo
.
M
We
Fig. Then there must come an instant at which F vanishes.a Fq.
on
The
F
diminishes and the angular velocity
Foj
also diminishes
according to the equation
. where h is the radius of gyration about the axis of the cylinder. and a couple J/Fd) in the sense of w.
be the velocity in the sense At any later stage of the motion let acts opposite to Vq.
the velocity of the axis. 67. in the sense of F.
IV. 68.
where Fq and wq are the values of F and w in the beginning of the motion.
where
F is positive.
Let
V be
and
<a
the angular velocity at time
t.
.
whence
MaU+MPi> = 0j
I
U increases
and
eo
diminishes according to the equation
a t^+ Fo) = Fo)o . senses being those shown in Fig.
Thereafter the
Fig. if the
when the engine
only action between an axle and its bearings is a frictional couple varying as the angular velocity of the axle. the constantly equal to y^Mg.
228. 68. Prove that.
has two pairs of wheels of radius a engine of mass such that the moment of inertia of either pair with its axle about its axis of
rotation
is
A locomotive
A.
It is to
friction is
be noticed that.
Examples.
In the problem just considered prove that the time from the beginning
is ^
of the motion until the motion becomes uniform
2.227. the angle 6 which the radius through it makes with the vertical is given by the
its axis
A homogeneous
which
is
M
horizontal.
a^ +
—B —
j^
^
. if both pairs of wheels bite at once
starts.
ixg
and radius a is free to turn about cylinder of mass is placed upon it close and a particle of mass to the highest generator.
4^2)^
this instant the cylinder is rolling
on the plane.
17—2'
.
m
equation
^i
{{M+ 6m) cos 6 — 47n} = if sin 6.
/x
is
the coefficient of friction between the particle and the cylinder. Prove also that.
circular
A uniform thin
its
about
centre with angular velocity co is gently placed on a rough plane of inclination a equal to the angle of friction between the hoop and the plane
so that the sense of rotation is that for which the slipping at the point of contact is down a line of greatest slope. when the particle begins to slip. in this problem.
\g sin a. the friction between one of the forward wheels and the line capable of being called into play must not be less than \ G {A\Ma'^)la {2A+Ma^). Prove that the hoop will remain
stationary for a time aa>lg sin a before descending with acceleration
4.
hoop of radius a spinning in a
vertical plane
where
3.
M
The engine
exerts a couple
G
on the forward
axle. the final friction called into play between
either forward wheel
and the
line is G/Aa. where ft is the coefficient of friction
between the cylinder and the plane.
Prove
that. 228]
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS
equal to aw the value of either
is
259
When U becomes
and at
a(Fa>oaFo)/(a2
cylinder rolls on the plane uniformly.
1. so long as the cylinder slips.
Consider the following
cylinder of radius b rolls on a cylinder of radius a.
V
the horizontal
velocity of m. angles
The
The
F
B is
A
is
b(o
at right. is therefore compounded of this velocity and V velocity of horizontally.
uniform sphere rolls down a rough plane of inclination a to the Prove that the acceleration of its centre is fg sin a.
B
A
B
(Fig.
(considered as a point of velocity of to AB._
and
{a
+ b) 6^ in BA.
The
condition of rolling
is
that the particles of
m
and m' that are at
circles.
A
horizontal.
(2).
Q
AB
m
The condition that
m rolls on the plane is
V=aQ.
F
have the same velocity along the
common
tangent to the two
We therefore have
{a + b)0\ba)= aQ.
Fig.
the accele
+ b)d
at right angles to AB.
(Fig.
.)
(considered as a point of m') relative to velocity of to AB. 69.
Since
ration of
we have introduced the value
of
B describes a circle relative to A B relative to A is compounded
with angular velocity
of {a
6. horizontal plane. and that the
a. in the sense of (a 46) 6. angles
P
m) relative to
aQ
at right.260
5. and the. o> the angular velocity of m'.
problem
:
—
Kinematic condition of
rolling.
.
ratio of the friction to the pressure is f tan
*229. 6 the angle which makes with the vertical. k and k' the radii of gyration of and m' about their axes.(1). but in the opposite sense. 69. 70)
In the diagram of accelerations V from equation (1). which rolls on a It is required to determine the motion.
A
Let
m
and m' be the masses.
This gives us the diagram.
relative to is {a + b)6 at right The velocity of angles to AB.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.
A and B
the centres.
the angular velocity of m. VIII.
228—230]
Now. and there then remain two unknown quantities in terms of which the motion can be completely expressed by solving the equations that are obtained by substituting from (2) in (3) and (4).
2. there equation of the form
an integral
maQ.
ILLUSTRATIVE PKOBLEMS
261
form the equations of motion.
Two
first
integrals of these equations can be obtained
. (1 \k^la?)\m' {aQ. and if it rocks without slipping. 70.
plane. {a + b) 6 cos 6 .
one of them
is
the
energy equation..a)k"^lb} = const. if it is displaced in a vertical
. 6] + m'k^'^a} m'{aifh)d{aith + a cos 6) + m' (a + h) 6^ a sin 6=. take moments about We have
P
for
m\ and
(3).
iai^e'
Fig.
is
Prove that.
1. so as to remain in contact with the cylinder.m'g {a + h) sin 6)'"^
''
One of the quantities co and G can be eliminated by means of equation (2). the angle 6 which it makes with the horizontal at time t is given
by the equation
\ ( xV V. + m' ail {a + {a {h) cos.
and that 6 and 6 are connected by an equation of the form i{a + b) 6^ [(1 +k'yb^) m' (cos 6 k"^lb^f\{m (1 +F/a2) 4.
Examples.+ aW)
e^
^ga (cos ^ + ^ sin ^) = const.^' (1 +/&'2/&2)] 4.
m'h{a + h)'e\m'atlhco^6\m'Jcf'^m=m'gh^V[\6
and
\ mk^Q +ma'^Q.
*230. in the problem just considered.
pendulum
for small oscillations is
and the length
of the equivalent simple
.
A
its
a with
uniform rod of length I rests on a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius middle point at the top prove that.^ cos 6
= const..
about
to
for the system.
about an
the mass of the ball. Initially all the impulsive axis through its centre.
Deduce the condition that the
the
roller. Prove that the acceleration of the
centre of the reel
about
of the
4.
5.
ball
may
roll quite
round the interior of
6. and a homogeneous sphere rolls in the cavity.V] =
and
^o of ^
for the initial values find the value of Sq.
h of the roller. cube containing a spherical cavity slides without friction plane of inclination a.
Prove
Fig. and the axis of the reel being horizontal. the uppermost point of the 3.
A ball is at rest in a cylindrical
garden
.262
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.V^) +m F2/(6 . Prove also that the value of in any position is
R
R
mg (Y.
reel.
m
Hence obtain the equation
mk'^a)o
— ma{{b — a)0o. the unwound part of the thread being vertical.ma {ha)'6= mga sin ^.cos ^ .
is
(i)
that
the
an
gular velocity of the roller
F/6.
A thread unwinds from a reel of radius a. VIII.
Let k be the radius of gyration of the
ball.
its axis. thread being held fixed. forces acting on the ball pass through the point of contact.
is ga?\{a^\lc^\ where h is the radius of gyration of the reel and that the tension of the thread is F/(F + a2) of the weight
A
thread passes over a smooth peg and unwinds
itself
from two
cylindrical reels freely suspended from it and having their axes horizontal.
(ii)
that the angular velocity
(a
of the ball
is
Y\a
— {b — a) d/a.a). Prove that each reel descends with uniform acceleration.
supposed uniform.
71.
when the
roller is seized
ball. and
Obtain the equations of motion
mk^d>
. and therefore the moment of momentum of the ball about any axis through this point is zero
initially.
and made
to roll uniformly on a level walk
to find the
motion of the
assuming that it does not slip on the roller.a).
where
is
is the pressure of the roller on the ball. B
the angle which the line of centres makes with the vertical.
coq
of
co
Prove also that
coq
vanishes. Prove that the motion in 6 the same as that of a simple pendulum of length (6 .
m{ha)6^ = R — mg cos 6.
A
down a
Prove
.
roller.
V
the velocity of the
roller.
Let a be the radius of
the
ball.
6 is rough.
8.\ra¥ sin e
+ {M+ m) cos a sin {B .
Finally obtain the equation
^
7. if
is
the
angular velocity of the disk.L^'^^
contact makes with the
vertical. obtain the equations of
motion by resolving for the system down the plane and at right angles to it and taking moments for the sphere about its point of contact with the cavity. and a.
.
and the instantaneous
a>
centre of rotation of the disk
at the point of contact. the motion is determined by the equation
3c<j>^
of
cos* ^(f>=g (3
+ cos
(f))
sin2 ^0. and
M and
m
for the
for the distance described
by the cube
masses of the cube and sphere.
^
the disk describes a curve
parallel to the given curve
and at a distance
is
c
from
it. where a b is the radius of the sphere. the value of 6 at time
is
the angle of given by the
equation
1/7
9
1^ ^{5 (^+ ^) ^^^
€
— m cos 6 cos {B . and between it and the cube. when the plane of Ex.
{f
{M+ m)m cos^ 6] ^2 _ [M\. in time t. p the
^^~x\
radius of
X
\
.m) cos a cos 6 gl{a .
and that the disk leaves the cycloid when cos
=f
.230]
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS
263
that the angle 6. the radius whose generating circle is c and whose vertex is highest.
the radius of gyration of the disk about its centre of mass.
Let c be the radius of
the disc.
Motion of a circular disk
rolling
on a given curve under gravity.6) = const. when the disk is uniform and rolls outside a cycloid. is connected with the angular velocity o) of the
sphere by the equation (ah)6 = ba.e) gj{a — b) = 0. Investigate the corresponding equation when the curve is concave to the disk. between the normal to the plane and the common normal to the sphere and the cavity. its centre of figure. taking
is
the radius of the cavity.
Velocity of centre = coi = (p + c)
Hence obtain the equation of energy
^{p + cY{l+k^le^)^^=g
where k
is
j {p
+ c)sm(}>d(f).
e is
t
friction
Prove that.
The
centre of
p.
curvature of the curve at
this point. the angle which the normal at the point of
/
I
\
\.
Further.ij\
6'^']
.
we have
<j>.
supposed to coincide with
circle is
Prove that the disk can roll inside a cycloid the radius of whose generating a and whose vertex is lowest so that the angular velocity (p is uniform
and equal to
Prove that. so that.
The lines of action of the two latter forces meet in /.
The system
actions
is
of kinetic re
Fig.e) + ma^ cos /3 cos e ^^
^
'
where a
its axis.
.
Prove that the
M (F +
(a
c)
a2) cos
(/3
.
To determine
Let
AB
he the rod.
zontal plane. is
always at a distance a from 0.264
9.
VIII. and show that the rod leaves the wall when cos ^ =  cos a. Jc its radius of gyration about the particle and e the angle of friction between it and
spheres are in contact. and the lower slides on a hori
M
the plane. If then we take moments about / the pressures do not
'
O having components maO
enter into the equation.
in 6 is the
same
as that of a simple pendu
By resolving horizontally and vertically find the pressures at A and B.f ) + m cos ^ sin 
slides.
A
uniform rod
slides in a vertical plane
between a smooth
the motion. 9 are both rough. its mass. with the same e.
Hence prove that the motion lum of length a.
is
m the mass of
Two smooth
the radius of the wheel.
the line of greatest slope down which the particle system descends with uniform acceleration Msin a cos (/3 . the horizontal pressure at A.
12. 2a
its length. which is the middle point of AB. which slides on the plane.2e).oB^ sin 26 =^ sin {6 . and the thread makes an angle ^ with
11.
m
its
mass. The instantaneous centre / is
the intersection of the horizontal
through A and the vertical through B. and is connected with the centre of the wheel by a thread the whole motion takes place in a vertical plane.
When
angle of friction
the plane and the wall of Ex. and
the end
A move
horizon
vertically in contact with the
. dragging a particle of mass m.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. 73.
let
vertical
wall and a smooth horizontal plane. The forces acting on the rod are its weight at G. prove that the value of 6 at time t is given by the equation
a(^ + cos 2e) B .
therefore equivalent to a resultant kinetic reaction
at
and maO^ perpendicular to OG and along GO. and the vertical pressure at B. and a couple mk^d in the sense of increase of the angle 6 which the rod BA makes with the vertical BI. rolls down a rough plane of inclination a.
.i
wall and the end
tally in contact
B
with the plane. a being the initial
value of
10. whose centre of gravity is at its centre. so that
the centre of mass G. and the figure OBIA is a rectangle.
6.
A wheel.
the two parts of the rod exerted across
. a and h the radii.
we express x
terms of
and
6. and thus the horizontal velocity of
Gis
XBy
equating this to zero
M+m {a + b)0 cos
in
3. the spheres separate when
3
M+m cos^^J)=2cosa.
neither acquires any
angular velocity.
its length.
is
—ctg sin
6.
it
2a
we have.
— a^2 =g (cos 6 cos
a). then the distance of G from the centre of Jf is m {a\b)/{M+m).. for there is no resultant
force
horizontal
on the system. As an example of the resultant force between two parts of a body we consider the case A^
of a rigid uniform rod swinging as a pendulum about one end. since the radius of gyration about the centre of mass is a/v/3. 8=^ a initially. and prove that.
If the
tem
starts
the centre of mass
G
descends vertically.
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS
265
m be the
masses.
njT
*231. Let x be the distance of the centre of the lower sphere (if) from the vertical through the centre of mass at time t. 75.
the amplitude of the
oscil
Now
consider the action between
Fig.
the vertical at time
t.
Hence prove that the equation
of energy can be put in the form
K
cos ^
\e^ C0S2^)^2 +
COS ^ = const.
If
m
is
the mass of the rod.
Further.230.
if
Find the pressure between the spheres in any position.
makes
. Stress in a rod.
6 the angle which with the vertical at time ^. 231]
Let
centres
J/. 6 the angle which the line of
makes with
whole sysfrom rest.'^8
^a^ =
and
where a
lations. since all the forces acting on
either
sphere
its
pass
^^'
through
centre.
We may
suppose the action of
AP
on
BP
reduced to a force at
P
and a
couple.
let u. U. Sy angular velocity.
and by these equations T. Art.sin 0.
or
^mg sin
6
J^^
.
The momentum
a resultant
of the
body was shown to be equivalent
to
momentum
localized in a line
mass. S. Impulsive motion. VI. We apply the theory of sudden changes of motion of any system (Ch.266
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Let
[CHAP.
a section distant 2x from the free end. 168) and the theory of the momentum of a rigid body (Art.x) 6 = S— mg .
P be the
centroid of this section.
232. and by taking moments about P. and equal to the momentum body moving with the centre of mass. V
be the resolved velocities of the centre of mass in the
. 6 and known.
the resolved velocities of Let be the mass of the body. and
m
V
H
.{2a .\x(^ax)6\~ (^\ — — G — mgx sin 6.
m. couple G. senses of T. VIII. of amount equal to the product of the angular velocity of the body
through the centre of of the whole mass of the
and the moment of mass perpendicular
ineytia about an axis through the centre of to the plane of motion. and the and at right angles to it. while its centre describes a circle of radius 2a xyi ith the same It moves in this way under the action of the forces T. 220). and a shearcall the couple G.
AP
is
then reducible to a force at
P
S. and we may resolve the force into a tension T in the rod.
We have three equations of impulsive motion expressing that the change of momentum of the body is equivalent to the impulses exerted upon it. In particular the couple G resisting bending is
6^
being
imgsme^{ax).
\
m . we obtain the equations of motion of BP in the form
By
resolving along
AB
m(2ax)6^=T'mgGOfie. in the opposite senses to those shown. together with a couple. and G^ to be those shown in the figure. and G are completely determined.
its middle point. turning with angular Now — velocity 6.
BP
the weight mgxja vertically downwards through
couple G. S. The action of
We
BP
on
having components T. and suppose the ing force S at right angles to it.
and a
is a rigid uniform rod of mass mxja. the centre of mass in two directions (at right angles to each other) the angular velocity before impact in the plane of motion.
U.
More
whose resolved
mk' (co
. m(v — V). of
The impulses exerted on the body can be expressed as a single impulse at any origin and an impulsive couple.
mk'{oyD.
The equations
of impulsive motion are
m{vV) = tY.
u.
Kinetic energy produced by impulses. of the vector — U) and parts. are m{u
is
m (v — V)
equal to the resolved part.
—
moment
N. the resolved part.n) =^ K
generally.. m{vV)=Y.
267
also
directions after impact.
F. together with a couple N.231—233]
same two
let
SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION
and « the angular velocity
.
k be the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion. V.
The equations of impulsive motion express the equivalence of the two systems of vectors.
corresponding quantities just after. in the specified directions. in the plane of motion. just before the impulses act. Let the 233. are
X and
X. and H its angular velocity. body move in one plane. be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the
Y
impulse applied to the body at any point whose coordinates relative to the centre of mass are w.
if
whose resolved parts
the impulses are reduced to an impulse at the centre in the specified directions are
X
and F. we can take the equations of impulsive motion to be
m{uU) = X.
. is equal to the about the same axis of the vector system determined by
determined
hym(u — U). of the vector whose resolved parts.). in the same direction. whose — U) and resolved parts in the two specified directions are {ii
m
m{v — V)\
moment
together with a couple. in the specified directions. 0)
Let X.
The change of momentum of the system can be expressed as a vector localized in a line through the centre of mass.)
= t\xYyX). Let m be the mass of the body. V resolved velocities of its centre of mass parallel to the axes of reference. and the moment about any axis of the vector system
mk^((o D.
F.
Thus
of mass. in any direction. y.
Prove that the angular velocity of the body is suddenly diminished in the ratio F c^+k\
2. the diameter may be so chosen that the disk is reduced to rest.
:
3. It follows that the internal impulses between the parts of a rigid body. it would be if the other
for
A free rigid body is rotating about an axis through its centre of mass. when a parallel axis at a distance c becomes fixed. the point of it which is distant onethird of
struck at one end by an impulse at right is free.
Now
energy
is
the theorem of Art. it begins to turn about
its
is
and that the
kinetic energy generated end were fixed in the ratio 4 3.
An
when
elliptic disk
PP'.268
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Multiply these equations in order by
[CHAP. which the radius of gyration is ^.
to the proper expression of the kinetic reaction of The kinetic reactions are equivalent as we saw in
.
must be paid
a rigid body. Find the impulse at and the angular suddenly
is
P
P
velocity about P.
Then we have
of this equation
The righthand member
is
the
sum
of the
products of the external impulses and the arithmetic means of the velocities of their points of application resolved in their directions
before and after. if the rod angles to its length.
No new method
—
.
1.
Examples.
A
uniform rod of length 2a and mass
m
is
constrained to
move with
ends on two smooth fixed straight wires which intersect at right angles.
internal
234. and prove that. 203
235. Tq
that before. and is set in motion by an impulse of magnitude mV.
and
let
The
the kinetic energy of the body after the impulses. contribute nothing to this sum.
required for the the same kind as solution of problems concerning rigid bodies of 206 but attention those which were considered in Arts.
P
is
of a diameter rotating in its plane about one end fixed.
:
greater than
length from the other end.
A
uniform rod at rest
is
Prove that. 174 asserts that the change of kinetic equal to the value of the like sum for all the impulses
and external. if the eccentricity exceeds v'f. Prove that the
kinetic energy generated is '^V^p^Ja^ where p is the perpendicular from the intersection of the fixed wires on a line parallel to the line of the im
pulse and such that the centre of mass
is
midway between the two
is
parallels.
Initial motions.
PP
its
4. which undergoes a sudden change of motion.
VIII.
where inertia about an axis drawn through the instantaneous centre
K
at right angles to the plane of motion.
displaced position. 221 to a resultant kinetic reaction and a couple is the same as that of a particle of mass
equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with the acceleration of the centre of mass. the most important matter to attend to is the expression of the potential energy correctly to the second order of the small
quantity 6 by which
position
is specified.
Then
6
is
the angular
.
When
the method of Art. 211
is
applied. Ex. so also in the case of small
oscillations. oscillations
. a the angle which each of them makes with A'B' a position of equilibrium of the rod.
AB the horizontal
be the two wires. 6 the angle between
AB
and A'B'.
Let OA^
OB
the horizontal.
Illustrative problem.233
— 287]
IMPULSES. This position is. The the kinetic reaction about the instantaneous centre
correctly to the first order in the displacement
moment
is
of
expressed
by the formula
K(D.
slide with its ends
A
uniform rod can
on two smooth straight wires which
It is re
are equally inclined to the horizontal and fixed in a vertical plane. 3 of Art. If we take moments about the instantaneous centre in the position
of equilibrium the equation
is nugatory. Cf. of the body at one instant during the period course.
where the
letters
is
have the same meanings as in Art.
269
resultant kinetic reaction
and the Art. at an instant when the velocity vanishes. it is
sometimes convenient to form an equation of motion by taking moments about the instantaneous centre.
237. quired to find the oscillations about the horizontal position. and at any other instant during the period the
instantaneous centre
is
in
method which
is
now
effective is to
a slightly different position. acceleration.
Sometimes
it is
convenient to form an equation of motion by
taking moments about the instantaneous centre. initial motions. It is then to be remarked that.
Small oscillations. The take moments about the
instantaneous centre in a displaced position.
sufficient for the
This approximation
purpose of forming the
equation of oscillatory motion. the is the moment of moment of kinetic reaction is Kco.
and
c6
is
the angular
236. 222. 235. occupied by of oscillation.
the displacement
from the equilibrium
As
in the case of initial motions.
The instantaneous
centre
in
any position
the point of intersection of perpendiculars to OA.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
and 6 the angular acceleration of the
is
[CHAP.
We
denote by
/.
VIII.
The
and the
forces acting on the rod are its weight and the pressures at its ends. and thus the moment of the weight about
/' is
.
The righthand member is — mga6 tan a.
Now OF
diameter of a
circle of
which A'B'
is
the circumference.mg {ir —
:
let
GG').
rod. and thus
OF
is
a chord subtending an angle tt . 2a be the length of the rod.
. and same as that of a simple pendulum of length
therefore the motion in 6
is
the
acota(^ + cot2a). is a lines of action of the pressures pass through /'. GG'=IGe = ae cot a. We find //' = BB' sec a = IBB sec a = a$ cosec a sec a. Also GG' being ultimately at right angles to IG is horizontal.
OB
drawn from the ends
of the rod. O' the corresponding positions of the centre of mass.
The moment
of the kinetic reaction about /'
its
is
m(Ff /'(?'2)
its
6. /'
the positions of the
instantaneous centre corresponding to AB and A'B\ and by G.
Hence we have the equation
of
moments
Now
m{P + IG^)e=mg{irGG').
With
sufficient
approximation we
may
put
IG
for I'G'.270
velocity.2a at of constant length and //' is therefore
ultimately at right angles to 01 and horizontal.
where
m is
the mass of the rod and k
radius of gyration about
centre of mass.
and the equation becomes ma^ (^ + cot^ a)S=— mgaS (sec a cosec a — cot a).
if one cord is three equal vertical cords attached to its corners.
make equal angles a with the vertical. the ends of the rod are at points where the radius of curvature of the meridian curve is p and the normal makes an angle a with the vertical. one to either end of the rod. so that the cords
one cord
is cut. cords are attached.
{a^
+ d{abf}/{b^ac). A uniform rod of length 2a rests in a horizontal position in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical .
4.
b{bc)
:
(62
+ 3c2). Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for
Ex. uniform triangular lamina is supported in a horizontal position by Prove that.
.
Into the top of a smooth fixed sphere of radius a is fitted a smooth uniform rod of length 26 rests on the sphere with its upper end constrained to remain on the vertical rod. Prove that the length of
the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations in the vertical plane through the equilibrium position of the rod is
^ap cos a
(1
+ 2 cos^ a) /{a — p sin^ a). the centre of mass being at a
3.
5. if the constraint the pressure on the sphere is instantly diminished in the ratio
distance
is
removed.
A
c from the point of contact.
1.
A
small oscillations in the vertical plane through the cords
is
^al cos a
{1
+ 2 cos^ a)f{a + 1 sin^ a).
2.
X^rovided that this expression is positive.
uniform rod of length 2a passes through a smooth ring.
angular accelerations of the remaining cord and the rod
are in the ratio
a sin
a
:
3^ cos^ a.
A
vertical rod.
if
mg cos a/
and that the
initial
(
1
+ 3 cos^ a). if c denotes the radius of curvature of the meridian position.
1.
INITIAL MOTIONS
AND OSCILLATIONS
271
Examples. and the other to a fixed
A uniform
m
point. which is above the lowest point of a smooth bowl in the form of a The rod rests in a vertical surface of revolution whose axis is vertical.
is positive.
uniform rod of length 2a is supported in the way explained in the distance between the fixed points of attachment of the cords being 2 (a r^ sin a). cut.237.
A
fixed at a height b
curve at the lowest point.
is supported in a horizontal rod of length 2a and mass The ends of the position by two equal inextensible cords each of length I. Prove that. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for
small oscillations
is
ic
provided that this expression
6. Prove that. 238]
238. the tension in the other immediately becomes
Prove that. the tension in each of the others is instantly halved.
R is the radius of the circle circumscribing the triangle.
A
A
its plane. straight rod moves in any manner in its plane.
is
one end of which can turn about a smooth hinge.
A uniform triangular lamina ABC is constrained to move
Prove that the motion
plane with its corners on a fixed circle.
A
M
. when the horizontal component of the pressure on the hinge is a maximum. of mass and radius a.
it can oscillate Prove that the
length of the equivalent simple pendulum
(62
+ c2) ..
A uniform triangular lamina ABC is supported
own plane (which
i {3
is vertical)
is
so that
in its
about the angle A. the directions of motion of all its particles are tangents to a parabola. n are the numbers 1.
The pendulum
of a clock consists of a rod with a moveable bob clamped
the position of the centre of mass of the bob on the central line of the rod being adjustable. ^i = l4ni/1440. Prove that the directions of motion
of all the points of the rope. and each of the sums contains three terms obtained by putting 1. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum when the clock keeps correct time is 2 [xiW {ejej)]/2 [xi (eje^^)i
where I. as that of a simple pendulum of length
the same
^ (1 — 2 cos A cos B cos C)f. 3 in cyclical order..
of all other points on this circle are
Prove that.
3.272
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. Prove that. which moves in any manner in that the rope remains tight.
of
mass of the bob from the
axis of suspension
when the
clock gains
?ii. 7?2j
%
minutes a day respectively. are tangents to a conic.
1. . find the pressure on the axis in any position
9. 2.
If
any
circle is
drawn through the instantaneous centre of no
acceler
ation. the vertical comof the weight of the rod. if Xi^ x^^ X3 are the distances of the centre
to
it. Given the angular velocity a of the sphere in the lowest position.
A thin uniform rod.
4. that their planes contain an angle 2a and are placed on a rough horizontal Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is plane.
. from a horizontal position.a2}/V {2 (62 + c2) . Prove that.a2}. prove that the accelerations directed to a common point. 2. are firmly joined together so 7. oscillates under gravity about a fixed horizontal tangent as axis.
fall
allowed to
^
uniform sphere.J{\ — 8 cos A cos B cos C\
where
6.
VIII. ponent is
8. instant. ^a cos a cosec2 a (1 + 3 cos^ a). so
rope passes round a rough pulley.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 3
successively for
I. which are in contact with the pulley at any instant.
in a veitical
is
6. each of radius a.. m. at any 2.
Two circular rings.
uniform sphere is placed on the highest generator of a rough Prove that. the line of the resultant pressure will be at right angles to the line drawn from the centre to the point of contact of the sphere with the axis if a)^=^gi/a.
A system consisting of a rough uniform circular wire of mass i/.
11. stands open at right angles to the length of the smooth) train when the train starts with an acceleration/.
18
. which has its hinges (supposed towards the engine. and equal
of a railway carriage. in a position of instantaneous rest. find its previous velocity if the block just turns over.2 sin a = lO/x. the horizontal and vertical pressures on the hinge when the angle which the plane through the hinge and the centre of mass of the block makes with the horizontal has the values sin~i § and
sin^ijj respectively.
vanish
Prove that.
particle. displaced.
A
an angle a satisfying the equation
17/i cos
a . and that the total pressure is a to ^Mffy/f^^ when the angle is sin~i§^. 15. If the truck is suddenly stopped. the
m
masses of the lamina and the
14. if slightly which is fixed with its axis horizontal.
and which
particle is placed on a rough plane lamina which is initially horiis free to turn about a horizontal axis through its centre of
mass.
M. and find the time that elapses before it begins to roll. the lower edge of the front face being hinged to the floor of the truck.
Show
that the particle will begin to slip
when
the plane has turned
through an angle
tan
fji

i{/x^«V (^«^ + 9^c^)} >
to the axis. A uniform rectangular block.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
273
and prove that.
L. of mass M.
minimum.
10. and made to move horizontally parallel to its length with given uniform
A
Prove that the cylinder will at first slide and afterwards roll on the velocity. 2a the length of the lamina perpendicular from that axis. solid homogeneous cylinder is placed on a truck. stands on a railway truck with two faces perpendicular to the direction of motion.
where
/x
is
the coefficient of
friction. and M.
13. and a straight uniform rod of mass m. in this case. whose ends can slide on the wire. with its axis perpendicular to the length of the truck. and k the radius of gyration about a through the centre of mass.
12. c the distance of the particle
being the coefficient of friction. the sphere will roll on the cylinder until the plane through the centre of the sphere and the axis of the cylinder makes with the vertical
cylinder. and the truck is suddenly started. Prove that the door closes
in time
The door
^
is
^
"w^j
J
o
J{^^)
'
^^^^ ^^ angular velocity ^{2afl{a^+k%
where 2a
vertical axis
the breadth of the door. truck.
A
zontal.
a)/ny
root of the equation
sin y
20.
{m . according as the coefficient of friction between the hemisphere and the plane is greater or less than
25wiac/{26
{M+m) a^\40mc^}
.
A
Prove that the angle between the normals at the coefficient of friction. if ttQ velocity of the element and m the mass of a unit of area.
.
uniform circular ring moves on a rough curve under no forces. where jx is the coefficient
A
M
. the corresponding velocities
equation
(3^2
u.274
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. and a particle of mass m is placed on the base at a distance c from the
M
Prove that the hemisphere begins to roll or slide on the plane centre. if initially the rod has an angular velocity Q about the centre. A homogeneous solid hemisphere. Prove that. where y is the least positive
. Prove that if neither of the expressions
{M+ m) sin^ a + SJIfcos^ a ±
is
/x
sin a cos a
{m . where V is the Prove that. the 17. and 0)0 are the initial velocity of the centre of mass and angular velocity of
16. with a smooth base. and.
+ sin a = 7fxg (y + a)l2bn^. of mass and radius a.
flat circular
is
A
table which
the disk.
moves in one plane under no forces. The ring is projected from a point A of the curve. is placed with its vertex lowest on a rough horizontal plane. if /x the coefficient of friction <^bn^lg. the rod will
come
to rest relatively to the wire after a time
(
^^4.
A
and
B is
fi^
log
2. and that the whole system will come to rest after a time M'V/fig (M+M') from the beginning of the motion. on a rough horizontal plane the plank is suddenly set in motion along its length with velocity V.aWy= (u^co)/{uo^<oo).aW)y{Suo^ . while the wire is at rest.m)
[{M+ m) sin^ g + 3 Jf cos^^ a + fi^m sin^ a ~ 2/x'^ Jf sin^ a]
fxmQ [{M'\. so that its displacement at time ^ is 6 cos ni. and begins to roll at a point B. curvature of the curve being everywhere less than that of the ring. the rod subtending an angle 2a at the centre of the wire.
where
/x
is
18. Prove that the sphere will first slide and then roll on the plank. plane .
which
is
of friction at each of the places of contact. the changes from rolling to sliding take place at times
where r is a positive integer and a is the least positive root of the equation cos a = 7/i^/26n2 prove also that the changes from sliding to rolling (except the first) take place at times {r7r\y)l7i.
«
at
any subsequent time
satisfy the
. VIII.
A homogeneous sphere of radius a is initially at rest on a horizontal 19.
uniform sphere of mass rests on a rough plank of mass M'.ZM)
negative (/x being the coefficient of friction).m) sin''^ a + 3i/ cos^ a]
disk of radius a is projected on a rough horizontal such that the friction on an element a is c Vhna. and the plane is made to move backwards and forwards horizontally.
plane on which
Show
cf>
that
it
will
. about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane of projection.
and
<f)
is
radius of gyration about the axis.
(j)
k^l{a^+k^)}
^ TTsin ^. in which the mass of the handle may be neglected. the
roller.
weight of the
24.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
275
A board of mass J/ rests on a table. and on Prove that.cos a). j2 _ 2ab cos 6) =gb (cos 6 .(l become uniform.2
if it oscillates. Prove that.
On the top of a fixed smooth sphere rests a fine uniform ring with 26.
axes of the
cylinders. or if M<m[lb\l]a/haybk)/{a^hk^)]. and a sphere of mass m is set in 21.
^^
^\
A
reel of
mass
M and
coefficient of friction. it will
its
18—2
. if the ring is slightly displaced. r2 are put on a rough table. and its diameter subtends an angle 2a at the centre of the sphere.
/T7
^\
I ft
. centre in the vertical diameter. and the friction
.
W are the radius. if either
the
fx<mb/{Mm)a.
then be
^
22. under certain conditions. /* being the is coiled on the reel so as to lie on a
The free end of the cylinder of radius b{<a) and coaxal with the reel. thread is carried in a vertical line over a smooth peg at a height k above the centre of the reel and supports a body of mass m. thread will be unwound from the reel. and that the
V=)
velocity of the board will
.
not
roll
unless
P { sin a sin + cos a cos
where
a.
A circular cylinder of radius a whose centre of inertia is
its axis rolls
is
at a distance
b from
angular motion
on a horizontal plane.
Prove that after a time
+
the motion will
(raa)/. Prove that.
23. The coefficient of friction between the board and the sphere is /a. system can start from rest and move so that each cylinder rolls on the table with the constant acceleration
Two rough
them
is
where
Mg sin 2a/{mi (1 +^iW) + Wg (1 +^27^2^) + 4i/ cos^ a} = (ri''r2)/o?. pulled with a force P in a direction making an angle a with the horizontal
it rests.
is
A garden roller.x<. given by an equation of the form
(y{. motion on the upper surface of the board so that the vertical plane containing the direction of projection of its centre passes through the centre of mass of the board the velocity of projection is V and the sphere has an angular velocity Q.
Fine thread
radius a rests on a rough floor. and the the angle of friction between it and the ground. k.
25. the placed a rough plank. its
^^2
+ cj2 4.
cylinders of radii r^.
between the board and the table
is
neglected. Prove that. and d is the initial distance between the sina
.
as it leaves the rods. a uniform sphere of mass horizontal line. and are at right angles.
Two
a.
F2>^a(V2 + i\/202). in a horizontal line and move placed
Prove that the angular motion of in the vertical plane through the pegs.
(2a2 + 3c2~3ac)(4c~a). roll with their axes horizontal down a rough plane of Show that their acceleration down the plane is
f^rsm.
A
uniform rod. The rod is set in motion so that its ends remain on the sphere and make complete revolutions in a vertical Prove that. distant c apart. each of mass m and length 2«.
VIII. are free to turn about their middle points.]
27. and
Two
M
radius c
is
gently placed upon
Prove that. down which the disk moves in a vertical plane through a line of greatest sloj^e.
band of tension
inclination
equal cylinders of mass wi.3 cos B). bound together by a light elastic T..
An elastic thread of modulus X is wound round the smooth rim of a 30.
it
of the sphere. if 9M{a^ + c^y^ = have half the velocity which it would have had after
at the point where their ends meet. and the other to the top of a smooth fixed plane of inclination a to the horizontal. one end being fastened to the rim. and a the radius plane. over two smooth pegs. Initially the thread has its natural length I and is entirely wound on the rim of the disk which is at rest at the top. the right angle on the semicircle which it describes is given by one of the
equations
<. homogeneous circular disk of mass m. — 2m{a^ G^}^. the length of the equivalent simple
pendulum
29. The rods are firmly fixed at one extremity of each.
Two uniform rods of equal length a sl% and of equal mass. if V is the initial velocity of the centre. Prove that
at any time
t
before the thread
is
entirely
unwound the tension
is
^mg sin a sin^ {^ t ij{3\/lm)}.f)2
(I a2
_
is
(j^Q
cos ^0 + c2)
+ ^g {a cos ^(f>c cos
(f>)
= const.
and. which is the line of contact of the straight portion of the thread with the plane.
[Assume that the pressure between the sphere and the ring acts only at the highest and lowest points of the ring.
is
of such length
that
subtends a right angle at the centre.
if
the motion
is
a small oscillation.
31.276
first
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
begin to leave the sphere when is given by the equation
sin {6
its
[CHAP. lying at rest in a smooth sphere.
equal uniform rods.
plane has turned through an angle
which
+ a) sin a = 2 cos^ a (2 . are 28. which are fixed at a distance 2a apart in a The rods being horizontal. the sphere will.
falling freely
them
through the
same
height.
\
mg sin a
/i
being the coefficient of friction between the cylinders
.
uniform rod of mass has one extremity fastened by a pivot to the centre of a uniform circular disk of mass M.
{{M. Prove that the couple resisting bending is greatest at a point P determined by the condition that the centre of mass of the part FB is the centre of oscillation of the pendulum.
the forces which maintain the rotation being applied to the part
AC
oi the
35.
. and of the road.
^3
being an angle depending on the nature
A rod AB. is at rest on a of mass and a heavy straight rail. and a the body of the waggon. with its length in contact with the cylinder.
M
m
mF
radius of each pair of wheels. denoting the mass the mass. the mass
m
centres being in a vertical plane at right angles to the wall.
. prove that the accelera
tion is
(J/ + 2m)8in(ai3) {M+ 2m) cos /3 + 2m¥Ja^ ^'
of the
the centre of mass being midway between the wheels. of mass m and length 2a. which rolls on a horizontal
A
m
The plane.
A homogeneous
sphere. of and radius b{<a). which is vertical. rotates in its plane. from the diameter AB. plane of the wall is at right angles to the plane containing the disk and the
rod. Prove that the inclination of the vertical in the ensuing motion (supposed to be in a vertical plane)
the equation
the
given by
\6^
sin'2^)a2
+
where a
[^(1+ is the initial value of
^^ (^—4^acos^yj=5ra(cosacos^). whose density varies in any manner.
smooth horizontal plane
is
placed so as to rest
and radius c. of
mass
M and radius
plane in contact with a vertical wall . with uniform angular velocity a> about the fixed point A. A waggon runs down a road inclined at an angle a to the horizon.
6.
A semicircular wire A CB^ whose line density varies as the distance 34.
= a.m) sin^ 6 + 3m sin ^} = 4m V («&)•
A smooth circular cylinder. rests
the system starting from rest in a position in which
36. the moment of inertia. is placed in contact with it and the wall. and the road is crushed uniformly by the wheels.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
277
32. is swung as a 33. and to have
rail to
is
M
one extremity on the ground. Prove that. and a second homogeneous sphere. Prove that the stress couple at the middle point C of the arc AB vanishes when AB is vertical if
a>
= V{(47r)^/(6~7r)a}. if all the surfaces are smooth. pendulum about a horizontal axis through A. the other extremity being in contact with a smooth vertical wall.
Prove that the inclination 6 of the rod to the vertical when
is
it
leaves
the wall
given by the equation cos^ d + Qm cos 6 
QM
4m
cos a
= 0. the spheres will separate when the line joining their centres makes with the horizontal an angle 6 which is given by the
equation
(a + b)
37.
on a horizontal
a.
The second cylinder is free mass m. Prove also that
^
is
42. if the cords attached to
A
and
B are of
lengths a and
a+X
respectively.
vertical
the handle
released.
will
be
where
the angle through which the diameter through the particle has turned in the same interval.
is
sin2 $) ^2 = (ijf +m) \ (if the greatest value of 0. and the particle is friction. if initially the hoop is at rest.
Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is (6a)(lf 7i)/?i.
then the angle turned through by the hoop in time
(vtja.
cords which are attached to
AB is
uniform rod swings in a vertical plane. A particle of mass m moves inside the shell.
is
garden roller stands at rest on a level path with the handle is pulled down into a horizontal position.
the
first
cylinder
is
of
inertia of the second about its axis is
MK^. and the moment of
. (cos 6
A circular cylinder. B in a horizontal line. is the mass of the handle.
A
.
and then
Prove that the angular motion of the handle about the
given by the equation
axis of the roller
where
its radius of gyration about its axis.
projected along
it
from the point furthest from the fixed
t
line
with velocity
y. mass from the axis. and the cords are not crossed. The
M
friction at the inner surface is neglected.
40. equal to the length of the rod. The outer surface of a uniform spherical shell of mass is of radius and the inner (concentric) surface is of radius h. and I the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of
is
R
K
M
its
m
the handle when the roller
41.
of radius
a and radius of gyration
k.
VIIT. h the distance of its centre of and mass.
to turn about its axis
. while the shell rolls on a horizontal plane. rolls
inside
a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius 6.
38.
a. Prove
A
that.
uniform circular hoop of radius a is so constrained that it can and a rolling in a horizontal plane on a fixed horizontal line particle whose mass is l/'X. of that of the hoop can slide on the hoop without Prove that. where n = a^/k^ + mb^lMK^ prove also that the pressure between the cylinders is proportional to the depth of the point of contact below a plane which is at a depth 2w6 cos a/( 1+3/1) below the fixed axis. where 2a is the
angle of oscillation. held at rest. being suspended by two its ends and to points A.cos a) (g/b). the radius of the roller.
.
+m
the angular distance 6 of given by the equation .
only
A
move by
.
is
held fixed. Prove that the plane through the axes moves like a simple pendulum of length
{ba){l+k^la^).278
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.8inylr)/{2\ +
l).
Show that
t is
the particle from the vertical diameter at time
where a
39.
hollow thin cylinder. when inclined to the vertical at an angle 6. the rough edge of a disk of mass m. a being the value of ^ in a position of rest. the centre of the tube will describe a
A
uniform sphere of mass
m
is
rolling
on the horizontal upper
surface of a wedge of mass i/". the radius of the wheel.
Prove also that. is maintained at rest in a horizontal position on a rough plane of inclination a . at a distance c from the fixed point.
prove that.
46. which is free to turn about a point fixed in it. if at time t the wedge has slipped a length x along the plane.„
———^r. and radius of gyration k about its centre.+ a' + r'^. and not being nearly equal to a right angle. and MK^ its moment of inertia about
its
48. 43. the angular velocity of the cord attached to A. and the whole motion to take place in a vertical plane.
A uniform
rest in
fallen. Prove that in the subsequent motion the distance r of the point of contact from the fixed point
rest
satisfies
A
the equation
{MK^ + mr^){l\.
from
at
rod has its lower end on a smooth table and is released any position.
the
horizontal plane. and an insect of
A
.k^a^) r^ = {MK^ + mc^) {k". whose under surface slides without friction on a fixed plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal.r=sseca=
7
7
(i/"m)sina ^ . at the instant when the centre reaches the is one quarter of the weight of the rod. and the sphere has rolled a length s along the surface of the wedge.
A wheel can turn freely about 47. then
. Assuming the system to move from rest.
If a particle is
table. touches. trochoid. is suddenly communicated to the rod so that the disk also is set in motion. is greater than it would be if \ were zero by
X (g/2a^)'^ (cos 6 — cos a)2 (tan^ 6 
i sec 6 sec a)
approximately. and
edge
is
the
rough enough to prevent slipping. The system being at on a smooth horizontal plane.gtK
^„
.
pressure on the table
45. show that with constant velocity
V
he cannot ever get to the highest point of the rim unless
V is
at least as
where a
is
2y/{ga {nia^jMK^) (1 \'mayMK^)}.c^)£l\ where MK"^ is the moment of inertia of the rod about the fixed point. radius a. m is at rest at the lowest point. where h is the height through which the centre has
44.
uniform rod. an angular velocity Q.^\ . Show that the velocity of its centre on arriving the table is V(f ^A).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
where X
279
is small.
moving in a circular tube held at rest on a smooth and the tube is let go. of radius a and mass M. If the
the rim of the wheel
great as
a horizontal axis
and a
fly of
mass
walk along fly suddenly starts off" to relative to the rim.
10ab/{a^ + ¥\
is
the point of impact
be so chosen that the particle
reduced to
rest.a)} + ag (cos a .
The
velocity F.
Prove that.
A rigid
ABGD^ formed
table. b
A particle of mass m impinges directly on a smooth uniform spheroid
of mass
M and semiaxes
may
the spheroid being at
if
rest. then AB will just rise to coincidence with a wire if the impulse is such as would impart to a mass equal to that of the disk a velocity
§V{«5'(42v/2)}. uniform circular disk is supported in a vertical plane by two cords attached to the ends of a diameter.
lies
{1
. the
angle through which the square turns
*''""'
\/i4
50. the tension of the other is diminished in the ratio 2 sin^ a 1 f 2 sin^ a. An insect. which is horizontal the cords are equally inclined to the horizontal at an angle a.cos {B . Prove that. OB at right angles to each other in a vertical plane and equally inclined to the vertical.
of four uniform rods each of length 2«.
51.a) sin a.
a.
VIII.
m is at rest in the cylinder on the line
up the cylinder with
of contact with the plane.
A
uniform rigid semicircular wire
is
rotating in its
own plane about
a hinge at one end. find the velocity produced by an
slide
impulse applied along the lowest edge CD.
and no energy being
lost in the impact.
and can turn freely about one angular point A^ which is fixed. BC=4:a. starts from the corner B to crawl along the rod BC with uniform velocity V
on a smooth horizontal
relative to the rod.
. in any time
is
t
before the insect reaches C. Prove that. Prove that the impulsive
stress couple is greatest at a point
(f). which are attached to its corners and to the corners of a similar fixed triangle in a horizontal plane the plane through any two cords makes an
54.
Prove that.a.
A
. if one is cut.
whose angular distance from the hinge
is
where
52.
:
A
uniform equilateral triangular board is suspended by three equal cords. and is suddenly brought to rest by an impulse applied at the other end along the tangent at that end. whose mass is equal to that of either rod.
53. if the relative velocity is maintained and the cylinder rolls uphill. The lamina being in a position of equilibrium with AB horizontal. Prove that. and the cylinder is released at the same instant. then it will come to instantaneous rest when the
insect starts to crawl
angle which the radius through the insect makes with the vertical the equation
is
given by
72
49.280
mass
MOTION OF A KIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP.
(f)
tan
^<j)
= l.cos
square
^)
= (1 + Mjm) ag {6 .
. if AB = '2.
5
of a uniform rectangular lamina
on two smooth fixed rigid wires OA.
(¥\/^)A BCD
are free to
The corners ^.
1
< Mjm < 6 .
about a position of equilibrium in
which the vertex
A
of the triangle
APQ
is
upwards. rests with its vertex downwards between two a distance 2c apart in a horizontal plane. Prove that.
The lower end of a uniform rod of length a slides on an inextensible 57.
sphere resting on a horizontal plane is divided into a very large of segments by planes through the vertical diameter.4c
aiii^ a. Find the pressure on the remaining when it is smooth. if one of the cords tensions in the remaining two are diminished in the ratio
Ssin'^a
:
281
is
cut. Through
each
line.
peg
(1)
hangs in a vertical plane on two pegs which are in and the line joining the pegs subtends an angle 2a at the One peg is suddenly removed. Prove that. such that AG bisects the angle BAG.
the equilibrium
rr
is stable. if the band is cut. and is kept in shape by a band round the horizontal great circle.
and radius of gyration k about an
angles to
if
axis through its centre of inertia at right
rough parallel
rails at
of figure. (4c
. (2) when it is rough.
Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum
^a. the pegs. Prove
that.3A tan a)]. the pressure on the plane is diminished by the fraction 4577^/2048 of
A
number
itself. are two narrow straight slits BA^ AC. and the upper end of the rod slides on a fixed smooth vertical rod which bisects the line joining the two fixed points. vertical
angle 2a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
angle a with the horizontal. one of the cusps being at the highest point of the circumscribing circle
(radius
is
3a).
1
:
A
are in the ratio
56.
the period of the small oscillations about
it is
v/[{16F sin2 a
+
(3A sin a
. thread of length 2a whose ends are fixed to two points distant 2 >J(a^ .
slit
passes a fixed peg. Prove that. being in the same horizontal Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the lamina in its own
plane. Q.
60.4c cos af]lg sin a cos a
. and prove that these pressures
circular ring
line. The extremities of a uniform rod of length 4a slide without friction on the circumference of a threecusped hypocycloid whose plane is vertical. P.
is
\/ g^inAjAPQ^AG^sm^AY
where k
is
the radius of gyration of the lamina about a line through
G
perpendicular to its plane. In a heavy plane lamina.
the time of a small oscillation about the vertical position
is
of equilibrium
2v/27ra/v/{3^(26a)}.
(1
+ j tan^a)^.
a horizontal
centre.
59. if 26
> a. whose centre of gravity is 6*.h^) apart in a horizontal line.
A
uniform
its axis
solid right circular
cone of height
h.
55.
58. the
2 \.
solid circular cylinder. angles with the. Find the position of stable equilibrium. is laid on its curved surface on a rough horizontal plane. 26. Prove that. if the wheels are symmetrically placed between
the pegs. and d the diameter of the cylinder. are connected.
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS
[CHAP. radius a. Two particles.282
61.
.
of the centres of the wheels by cords which pass over smooth pegs in the line of centres. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is
where F=fc2. one to each
62.
Two
k about
its axis. then the ratio of the longest and shortest generators is
l\4. if the wire is rough enough to
prevent slipping. and prove that. bounded by two planes making given 63. VIII. and slightly displaced by rolling on the plane. the time of a small
oscillation is
where 26 + c
is
the distance between the pegs. if I is the length of
A
the equivalent simple pendulum for a small oscillation.
A
form of an
ellipse of axes 2a. and radius of gyration are rigidly connected by an axle of length c and run on a horizontal plane.
uniform sphere of radius c is placed on a horizontal wire in the Prove that. and d^ = c^¥. axis.d\lM. each of mass m.
equal wheels each of mass J/.
Impact of two
To
investigate
the
motion of solid bodies which
are in contact.
pp. 195 in Ch. t S. 2nd ed. Further Poisson supposed that the impulse of the pressure between the bodies during the period of restitution bears to the impulse of the pressure during the period of compression the ratio e. vii. 273 et seq. 102).m' U\
between the bodies
'
is
^rn(uU)
^
or
^'^^.{UU').
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS.
uu'=0. on the supposition that there is no restitution.
Let us apply this method to the problem of the direct impact of two With the notation of Art.
This hypothesis leads to the following rule for solving the First solve the problem on the supposition problem of impact that there is no restitution.
collide. and find the impulsive pressure
:
—
between the bodies. Poisson. Traite de Mecanique. ^ m
•\m
* This Chapter may be omitted in a first reading. but the deformation that occurs must be taken into account (Art.
and the impulsive pressure
jffo
mu + m'v! =mU\. Paris 1833.
the restitution of form takes place. are
spheres.
.
Multiply this pressure by
{\\e). D.
Now
solve the problem again on the supposition that the impulsive pressure has the value so determined.
t.
Poissonf introduced a certain
hypothesis as to the motion which takes place while the bodies In this short interval of time the bodies may not
be regarded as rigid. Poisson supposed that this interval could be divided into two periods during the first period the bodies are undergoing compression during the second period
:
.CHAPTEE IX ^.
RIGID BODIES
239.
2.. the equations of the problem. which is the coefficient
of restitution.
solid bodies.
P
is
at the
same
instant.
fixed line in a
Let
m
and m' be the masses of the bodies.
components and
v^(a{^x) after impact. as acting on m.
m
ordinates of the centre of
mass of
m
and
.
m! at the instant of Also suppose
the negative sense of the axis of
x
Fig.
Let the
in this direction.
In the case of the direct impact of smooth spheres the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as the results that can be deduced from Newton's experimental
show in like manner that.^)
before impact.
the velocity system of
corresponding quantities after impact.
Let two rigid bodies moving in
the same plane come into contact at a point P.{r\y\ u — (o{t] —y\
F+ Q (^ .{UU'){l+e).
We may
friction is not great
240.. considered as a point of m^ has
U—Q. Suppose the bodies to be smooth at P.
m' {u'.U'){l
+ e\
and the values of u and u' which are found from these equations are the same as those found in Art. the sense of R
(Fig. whether smooth or rough.
axis of
^ be taken
y being any
Q.r'. and let accented letters denote similar quantities for m'.
y' those of
impact. 195.
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
The equations
between the bodies
[CHAP. be coordinates of that.
The
direction of
R is
the
common normal
at
P to the two
surfaces. w. Also let x.
. 77. the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as those that can be deduced from the "generalized Newton's rule" stated in Art. We shall show that this result holds for the impact of any two bodies. and let ^.
The
velocity of P. . V.
Impact of smooth bodies. provided that the
result.
We
sition that the impulsive pressure
of the problem. in the case of the oblique impact of smooth spheres (Art. Let R be the impulsive pressure between the bodies at P. are
m{uU)=^^^. 196. on the suppois {l{e)Ro. y be the cobefore impact. the axis of perpendicular direction. 77).
enough
to prevent sliding. IX.U') = ^^.
at
U.{U.284
RIGID BODIES
multiply this by (1+e).
v. 197).
when there is sliding at the points that come into contact. viz. m{vV)=F\
and
mJc^{a>Q)=={^x)F+{7)y)R
m'iu'U') = R. the friction and the pressure having a constant ratio.
The equations obtained by
m'
{u'

U')
= R.1/\
are the radii of gyration of the bodies about the axes in
On
substituting for u^ u\ w. as in the case of smooth bodies.
241. when there is sliding at the point of contact. The impulsive action between two rough bodies which come into contact. has
JJ'
— Q.
we
find
and
this equation
{l+e) times what
it
shows that the impulsive pressure with any value of would be if e were zero.x')
'^'
before impact.'
o)'
{r}
—y'\
V + Q' (^ . are
m{uU)=.l m'k'^<o' Q') = {^a/) F{ri y') R j
^
^'
j
^^^'
.y')}.V) = 0. considered as a point of m'.
shall show that.
u' —
(77
— 3'')?
+ «'
(^

^') after
impact.239241]
The
THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT
285
components and
velocity of P. obtained by resolving
parallel to the axis of ^. is assumed to be expressible by means of an impulsive pressure. we have the equations of impulsive
F
motion
m{uU)^R. and an impulsive friction tending to resist sliding.
The equations
of impulsive motion of the
two bodies. and taking Writing the same notation as in the last Article.
for the impulsive friction at the point of contact. the rule deduced from Poisson's hypothesis is equivalent to the
We
generalized Newton's rule.Q) = i?
(77
y\
m'k"^
(o)'
a')=R{q. for the impulsive action between rough bodies.
e is
The
result of this Article can be expressed in the statement that the
generalized Newton's rule and the rule derived from Poisson's hypothesis are equivalent for any two smooth bodies moving in one plane. m'iv'V')=:F.
m'
{v'
.
is
The equation provided by the
ua){T} y) m' + co'
generalized Newton's Eule
{q
accordingly
(Vy)= e{U.
kf
(o)
.R.
We
shall
relative velocity to be the
suppose the geometrical condition as regards the same as in the case of smooth bodies.
resolving parallel to the axis of y are
m (y 
F) = 0.Q
y) U' + Q' {r).
The equations of moments about axes through the centres of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion are
mF
where k and
question.
a>'
in the equation containing
e. the coefficient of friction. the
generalized Newton's rule. Impact of rough bodies.
(4).
242.nd the equation provided
(3). IX. the result which would be •obtained from Poisson's hypothesis is not in general the same as that which
R
would be obtained from the generalized Newton's
rule. and thus proves the equivalence of the two rules.
<»'. viz.
equations
(5)
we can form two equations
for
R and
_\m
mj
mk^
mk^ J mk^ mk^ _ J = (l+e)[UQ{rjy)U' + Q'{r]y%
It is clear that the solution of these equations will give
•consisting of
an expression for R two terms.
The
first
of these equations expresses the condition that there
no
in
relative velocity of sliding at the instant of impact.{rjy)U' + Q.
u\
v.
v + (o{$a. v'.
o). (2).2/)/^^'
in
which either
V+Q{^x).
by the generalized Newton's Rule
by elimination of
an
Uo.
is
is.V'Q'{^x')=0.y). (2).
viz.286
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. The efifects of the elasticity of the bodies cannot be so simple as in the previous cases*.
7^.. but instead of equation (3) we have the condition that there is no
sliding. Case of no sliding.
the motion must depend largely on accidental
any
practical interest because
circumstances.'{r^y')]..
(5). + (^ . Then equations (1).^') in y')lm'k'^=o. 241 are still valid.
•equation for R.>{rjy)u' + <^'(r^y')=e{UQ.
. (4) of Art.
We may obtain a provisional solution by assuming that the generalized Newton's rule holds good. one of them having (1+e) as a factor and the other
not containing that factor.
Since is not in general proportional to 1+e.
From
these equations
we
obtain. or that the
*
impact
which there
Poisson himself did not suppose his hypothesis to be applicable to cases in The question is not really of is sufficient friction to prevent sliding.{^).
From
F.
Also we have the equation of sliding friction
F=i^R
«.) = v' + (o'{^x')
(1).
= (l+«)[£^a(>.
The
or
results
would however be the same in any case
(I ^)iv. viz. shows that R contains (1+e) as a factor and is otherwise This equation independent of e.
u. When the bodies are sufl&ciently rough to prevent sliding the problem is more complicated.U'+a'{n !/')].
the cushion being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding.
A
impact
is
to that of the sphere before impact in the ratio
1
:l
+ (m/m')(l + f62/«2).
A ball spinning about a vertical axis moves on a smooth table. strikes a smooth horizontal Prove that.
Examples. impinges directly on a smooth uniform cube of side 2a and mass m'. the line of motion of the sphere being at a distance b from the centre of mass of the Prove that. of mass w. the angular velocity of the rod immediately after impact is a maximum if the rod before impact makes with the horizontal an angle cos "^1/^3. moving
l''at
in its plane without rotation
right angles to a fixed plane.
uniform sphere of radius a and mass wi. then
to turn about a pivot at its centre.
A
circular disk of
mass
M and radius
a
c
impinges on a rod of mass
m
and length 2a which
is free
of impact is distant h from of the centre of the disk
after collision.
where k
is
the radius of gyration of the disk about
its
centre of mass.
1. falling without rotation.
of
it
at the
A disk
any form.
there were no friction according as the lowest point of is moving forward or backward. strikes the plane so that the distances of the centre of mass from the point of impact and from the
and with velocity
plane are r and p.
6. the centre moving directly towards the cushion. the kinetic energy lost in the cube. if B is the angle of reflexion. 3. Prove that.
uniform rod. if the direction of motion
makes angles
and
/3
with the rod before and
2 (3i/62 + ona^) tan
^3
= 3 (3 Jf 6^ _ ema^) tan a.
.
243.241243]
THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT
287
an obvious sense." The second is satisfied if r^=^y=y\ that is if the normal at the point of contact passes through the centres of mass of the two It is also bodies. impinges on a vertical cushion. satisfied if r}=^y and ^=x\ which would be the case if one bodj is a sphere or a circular disk and the other is a thin rod. moving without rotation.
2. and the point the pivot. Prove that. the impulsive pressure is
is sufficiently
rough to prevent
mF(lfe)(F+i?2)/(F + r2). Prove that the sphere will rebound at an angle greater or
A
moving
less
than
if
instant of impact
4. Prove that. "direct.
A
sphere whose centre of mass coincides with its centre of figure is in a vertical plane and rotating about an axis perpendicular to that plane when it strikes against a horizontal plane which is sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. if the plane sliding. and 5. if there is no restitution. as it would if the bodies are spheres or circular disks.
the edges in contact being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding.
plane. for all values of the coefficient of restitution. the kinetic energy is diminished
in the ratio
10 + 14 tan2 ^
:
lOe
2
+ 49 tan2
<9.
h\b{u + x\y)lhy'] + a[{^h\a)u^ax]=0. the last being struck.
I
Subtracting the second and third we get. 78.
k6. on simplifying this and the second by using the
first. and
fca.288
244.
its length.
Let
P
be the impulse applied at the end A. and we resolve for the whole system at right
angles to the rods.
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP.
26. although some of the unknown reactions must be introduced. CD.
for the rod
CD.
body separately.
+a[(2c + 26 + a)w^a^]=0.
and
(2b
+ a)x + by = 0. for.
c{u+x+2y + %z) + 2b{u+x+y) + 2au = 0.
It is required to
find how they begin
to
Let 2a.
In
illus
tration of the application of the equations of impulsive motion to systems of rigid bodies with invariable connexions we take the
In the first it will be observed that we do following problems.
We take
and about A
moments about G
for the three rods. Then the system of velocities velocity of the centre of mass of the first. not need to introduce explicitly the reactions between the connected
The second illustrates the choice of equations.
is
as
shown
in the figure. and
let
PA
vA
Fig. c[c{u^x\2y^z)\cz\ + h{{'ilc + h){u+x+y)\hy'\
Kc{u\x + ^y+z)\Kh{u'rX\y)\Kau
\
\
1
= P.
and.
u the xla^ yjh^ zJG be the angular velocities with which they begin to move. 2c
be the lengths of the rods.
we
get
x{a + 4b + 2c)+y{dc + 3b)+zc=0.
Impulsive motion of connected systems. kc
the masses of the rods. IX. on dividing by
c. it is unnecessary
bodies.
Three uniform rods of masses proportional to their lengths are freely jointed together and laid out straight^ and one of the end rods is struck at the
free end at right angles to move. about B for the rods BC.
to form equations for each
I.
.
We thus
obtain the equations
\
u\x=0.
m the mass of each rod. opposite sides have the same angular velocities. R' in the same directions. These impulses act in opposite
senses on the two rods which meet at a hinge.
The
figure
shows the senses
19
M.
L. and let v be the velocity of the centre of mass. 79. Then the velocities of the centres of mass of the rods and their
angular velocities are as shown. in which we take them to act on the rod CD. it. Let these
angular velocities be o) and (n' . and the lines
joining the middle points of opposite sides are of constant length 2a and turn with the angular velocities of the sides to which they are parallel. X
AB containing
the distance of the point struck from the middle point of the side the impulse.
DAB.
.
Now
hinge at
let
parallel to
BC and R at right angles
D
the impulsive reaction of the hinge at G be resolved into S to BC^ and the impulsive reaction of the into <S". Since the figure is always a parallelogram.
F
corners is set in motion by
rhombus formed of four equal uniform rods freely jointed at the an impidse applied to one rod at right angles to it.
P
The centre of mass of the system is the point of intersection of the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides.
Let 2a be the length of each side of the rhombus
A
ABCBj
a the angle
v+aujk
Fig.244]
SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION
289
Hence we have
IC
X
y
^
II. To find how the rhombus begins to inove.
we can form three equations containing
R
CD at right angles to BC. a) = ^F:vlma% a>=%P cos ajma.j
Again.
Examples.
ma2 ((o + a)') = P{x + a
cos
)
a).
1. on elimination of
and R' by resolving for and AD about B and
R and
R'.
square framework A BCD is formed of uniform rods freely jointed at B. prove that.
We
thus obtain
4mv = P. and taking moments for BC A respectively. v=iFlm.
we get
Hence
245.
Two equal uniform rods freely hinged at a common end are laid out 2.
is
f
(1
+ 6)
(
V/a) sin a/(l
+ 3 sin^ a). and the system falling in
a vertical plane with velocity V strikes against a fixed horizontal plane. if yl^ is struck by a blow at A in the direction DA. Taking a to be the angle which each rod makes with the vertical and assuming
no
restitution. Cf and D. IX. m \{v — aco) a cos a — \ o^in'^ = — '^aR.
BAC
ACin
the direction of
AB are in the ratio 2
:
7. (ii) the angular velocity of each rod after the impulse is f ( V/a) sin a/(l + 3 sin^ a). the initial velocity of A ia
A
79 times that of D.
3. Prove that the kinetic energy generated is greater than it
would be
if
the rods were firmly fastened together so as to form a single rigid
:
body
in the ratio 7
4.
impulse
5. straight. the angular velocity of each rod after the
4. m \{v + a<ji) acosa — ^a2&)']= — 2aR\
from which. and AC is struck at C by an impulse in a direction Prove that the velocities of the centres of mass oi AB and parallel to AB.
.
the impulsive action at either of the hinges in the horizontal diagonal makes with the horizontal an angle tan~i {(3 cos^ w^l) cot a]
In Example 3. and one end of one of them is struck by an impulse at right angles to their length. (iii) the impulsive action between the two
rods
upper rods
is to
the
momentum
of the system before impact in the ratio
'
sin a (3 cos^ a
(iv)
1)
:
8 cos a
(1
+ 3 sin^ a).
is
prove that
(i)
the impulsive action between the two upper
directed horizontally.
We
direction of the impulse
form two equations of motion by resolving for the system in the and by taking moments about the centre of mass.
Two
equal rods
AB.
.aa') = R + R'. the ends at A being in contact but free. if the coefficient of restitution between the rhombus and the ground is e. We thus obtain m {v cos a .290
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a rhombus of side 2a with one diagonal vertical.
V cos a = ^a(o'.
AC freely jointed
at
A
are at rest with the angle
a right angle. Prove that.
for that
Let position. and. and for every geometrical quantity the value that it has
in the initial position. those used in Art. and find the angular
centre with angular velocity
becomes suddenly
velocity of the sides of length 2a. in the results. 205. Now the geometrical for these quantities in the initial position..)
On
differentiating
be the form of one of the equations we have
Reducing in the way that has been explained we obtain
19—2
. of lengths 2a and 26 and m and m'. substitute for every first differential coefficient of a geometrical quantity the value 0... down the geometrical equations which hold between the coordinates If we differentiate these equations of the points in any position. there will be certain values ^o. Thus if X. (f).
this is the
When
twice with respect to the time...
x =f(0.
It
may however happen
that such methods are difficult of
case we may begin by writing application.244246]
6.. . y are the coordinates of any particle whose acceleration is required..
246.
initial accelerations of
we
shall obtain the relations
between the
the various geometrical quantities involved.
The
kinetic
reactions of the parts of a connected system of particles and rigid bodies caa always be expressed in terms of a finite number of
geometrical quantities which are unconnected by any geometrical This can usually be effected by methods similar to equations.
Initial
motions and
initial
curvatures. is rotating in its plane about its
fixed. we can obtain.
n when a point in one of the sides of length 2a Prove that the angular velocity of the sides of length 2b instantly becomes ^?i (3m+w')/(3??i + 2m'). freely hinged together. </>.
define the position of the system. <^o.
INITIAL MOTIONS
291
masses
A rectangle formed of four uniform rods.
• •
•
equations provide the means of expressing the x and y of the particle in any position in terms of the values of 6. are a series of geometrical quantities which
. and ^.
</>.
6. + m2ae^ ^b cos {d + ^1 (i«^ + ^«^) ^ + ^2«'<^ {a + ib sin (S + + amn{B\(f))}^b(j)m2acos {B+(f)) ^b<j>^ m2^^b^(j>m2{^b = \miga cos 6 + m2g {a cos 6\^b sin 0). 80.292
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
initial
[CHAP. 6 are freely hinged at B. TX.
BC
of masses
mi. and arranged as a process of approximation for expressing the values of or.
vertical at time
t. A complicated problem has been chosen intentionally.
Wa'*"
Now
denote the values of 8/ 3/
a^'a<^'
this process
when 6 —
=
(f)
(j>(.
= = approximation ac ^ooot^.
and
6q. and about
A
for the system.
It will
247. y ^yof^.
wi2
and
AB
A
in
is
AB
horizoTiial
and
BC
vertical.
By taking moments about obtain the two equations
wi2 (j^^
B
for
BC.
It is required to determine the initial curvature
of
the
path of any point of BC. and
BC an
angle
with the
Fig.
^o
denote the
values of x. Let AB make an angle 6 with the horizontal. and it will at the same time be seen how simplifications may at times suggest themselves.
a
can turn about lengths a.
be easier to understand how this process is carried out after studying its application to a particular problem..
</>)
(f>)}
cf))
. and since
the centre of mass of
BC
is
diagram of accelerations
describes a circle of radius \h relative to B.
can be carried further.
where
^o. y. .
Two uniform
rods
AB.. and The system starts from rest in a position in which vertical plane. 80. as We have in fact as a first series in ascending powers of the time.^n2gb sin <^..m^aJd^^h cos (^ + <^) = .
we
+ I'g^^) ^ ~ m2a6\h sin (^ + .
Since
B describes a circle
of radius
a about A. the that shown in Fig. From such series we can deduce the
paths of
all
initial
curvatures of the
the particles.
Illustrative problem.
In fact.
. This shows that 0o Qiust be zero.=^
=^ (zWTem. if 0o^^ is finite the equation
see that
t..
t
and observing that cos^ = l^
t
+
— .d\
rcoacf)... ^ = 0. Again. taking as origin the initial position of B. so that the terms would be respectively of orders 1.
y = asm...246. ^0 were finite..+i:^^^„.
cf>)
293
we have
Adding the equations.
.
3. and taking x and y horizontal and vertical.
expanding these we have approximately
giving
^=_^^„.
it
we
power
of
in this series is the fourth. picking out the terms in <* in equation (2) we have
3«^
p
Now.^a'S sin
In the
initial position
+ (f))had^ cos {$ + (!))= ^ffaincj) ^=0.=^^„v(:2). by picking out the terms of order 2 in
to
.
the axes of
in the figure.)
. a)
9a /Zmi + 67712
gY
'
Again. we can write for the coordinates
of a point of
BC distant
r
from B^
cc= a(lcos^)+rsin(^. so that the
series for 6 begins
Going back now to equation (2).. (f) would be of order and 6 of order t^.. taking equation
see that the lowest
(1). 2.. it is clear that ^ contains no term in t^ but there is a term in f^. and we have
{B
(2).
and then
appears
from equation
(1)
that the lowest power of
in 6 is the fourth. <.^=0. 2.
also
0=
0^t
+ieot^+.
Now. <^ = 0.
t^. by Maclaurin's theorem. + 6m2a/?
In any position we have.
^ _o *^«^'
_ ^mi + 6m2 g ^'2m.
we
can be reduced.
0=
if
'(^Qt
+^4>ot^+. taking equation (2).
9a^„
«„^
giving
*„. and dividing out common
(?/ii
+ ^^) aO — \m^h<j) sin (d +
first
cf))
— ^^26^^ cos {B +
=gcos6{^mi+m2)
Also the
of the above equations is
^b(j)
(1). 247]
INITIAL
CURVATURES
factors.
turns round
middle point.
and D) in a symmetrical position with BC lowest and AB and CD equally inclined at angles a to the horiwhen the ends A and D are released.
is let go. if the system is released from freely about A.
4.
Two
first is fixed
end of the
the rods
equal uniform rods are freely jointed at common ends. in order to get an approximate equation to the path.
Illustrative problem.
. and the ends A and can slide on a smooth horizontal rod. IX.
The following problem illustrates the application of the of Art.
249.
Examples. We find
^^«></>o
61^1 + 27712
initial
6
480^'
is
correct as far as
t^^
and thus the
path
given by the approximate
equation
(y§6)3=60a6^(l+2m2/mi).
method
A uniform rod is supported
from
its
at
its
ends by two equal vertical cords suspended
flawed points. Three equal uniform rods are freely jointed at B and C so as to form three sides of a quadrilateral A BCD.
Small
oscillations.
and can turn
equal uniform rods AB. the other so that the rods can turn about it. when
the initial radius of curvature of the path of a particle distant r from the middle point is {a^jr) tan a.3 sin^a. remaining horizontal.
2.
we must expand
however. to a higher order.
the rod
Two
at B.
is
2a6/(3r

26) unless r = 6.294
RIGID BODIES
far as
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
t^.
Prove that. and this end is let go. r=§6.
and with
Prove that. and the other end
is
of the second
held at the
same
level as the fixed
end of the
first. 211. Prove that the initial angular accelerations of the rods are in the ratio
6 .
initial
a horizontal position. the pressures at A
1 lsin'^a
:
and
D are changed in the ratio
A
5
.
is
which are correct as
Hence the
initial
path of the point
ap
proximately a parabola
and the radius of curvature of the path
If.
so that
equal angles a with the horizontal.
middle
It is required to find the small oscillation in tvkich the point moves vertically and the rod.
[CHAP. BC each of length a are freely jointed Prove that.
uniform rod of length 2a
is
held at an inclination a to the horiits
zontal in contact with a
smooth peg at
middle point. The system is initially held (by means of horizontal
D
forces applied at
A
horizontal.
1.
248.3 cos 2a
:
make
9 cos 2a 
8.
zontal.
3. the
radius of curvature of the path of
(7 is
fa.
Hence we have
this equation
shows that when
z
and
6 are small z=^{a^ll) &^ to the second order.
cos2a)/(l
+ 2 cos^a).
Examples. the angle through which the rod has turned in the same
the length of either cord.
M the mass of the
roller alone.
.
1.
Hence.
with sufl&cient
\ma^\
and the potential energy
is.
this cone of rods is placed in equilibrium over a smooth sphere so that the angle of the cone is 2a.
if
m
is
the mass of the rod. and I the length of
m
the equivalent simple pendulum for the oscillations of the handle when the roller is held fixed.
h
its
radius
of gyration about its axis.
the kinetic energy
is.
in 6 is therefore the
same as
for small oscillations of
a simple
of length \l.
oscillations of the handle of
Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small a garden roller rolling on a horizontal walk is
where a
is
the radius of the
roller.
A
number
at a
common end and
of equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely jointed arranged at equal intervals like the ribs of an umbrella. for small vertical oscillations of the joint. Prove that.
B
AM
position of the corresponding cord is 2a sin ^0.
with sufficient approximation. 81.
mgz.
is
the kinetic energy in any position
\m{z^^\aW\
and the
potential energy
is
Fig.
the lowest position being the standard position. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is
and
\a cos a (1+3
2. h the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the roller. z the dis
The depth of either end A or below the corresponding point of — support is I Zf and the distance or BA^ of an end from the equilibrium
time. tance through which the middle point has risen at time t.
\mg{a^ll)6\
The motion
pendulum
250. and I = to the first order. the mass of the handle.
Now. in the small
approximation.247250]
SMALL OSCILLATIONS
I
295
Let 2a be the length of the rod.
oscillations.
eay" +^sin(9 = 3^ sin^ 6 a
.
wish to discover the condition that motion in a horizontal
a.
<f>
the
angle
contained
between the plane through the particle and the vertical diameter and a fixed plane through the same diameter.)
.
(1).
principles of energy and momentum may frequently be applied to problems concerning the stability of steady motions. <^
We
have
so that the energy equation
may
be written
const.
we obtain the equation
/ix
„sin^acos^ Q n r.
Now
^
=
when 6 — a.
it
octahedron is regular and Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small vertical oscillations of the lowest point is f (^— ^o)? where I and ^o
by an
elastic thread.
3.
The energy equation
is
\raa^ {e''\^ixi^e^^)^mga (1 cos 6)
= const. and four other like rods are similarly jointed the other ends of the rods are then jointed in pairs so as to form eight edges of an octahedron.
We
circle. 79. Four equal uniform rods are freely jointed so as to have a common extremity. Art.
Let be the angle which the radius vector from the centre of the sphere to the particle makes with the downw^ards vertical at time ty a the radius of the
sphere..
Differentiating with respect to the time
V
.
251.
and the equation of constancy of
momentum
diameter
is
about
the
vertical
^^*
ma^ sin^ ^<^ = const.
the steady motion is possible if o) is so adjusted that This gives us the condition
aa)^
= ^seca.
Stability of steady motions.296
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. One of the joints where four rods meet is fixed and the other is attached to
. sin^ 6 = (o sin'^ a. that is a particle moving under gravity on the surface of a sphere so as to describe a
The
horizontal circle. so that in equilibrium the
the thread vertical.(2).
. IX.
are the equilibrium length and the natural length of the thread.
(Cf. We shall illustrate the method by considering the steady motion of a spherical pendulum.
^=
with angular velocity o) may be possible.
250252]
STABILITY OF STEADY MOTIONS
is
297
nearly
angular ma^cofim^a about the vertical diameter. expand the terms
~
.
we may put ^ = a + %.. its period of oscillation
7rV{(r2
+ 4a2)/2^a}.
252.
.^
and
reject powers of
above the
first.
1.
^
"^
'^a
showing that the particle oscillates about the state of steady motion in a period equal to that of a simple pendulum of length
a cos a/(l
+ 3 cos^ a). and that.
results in Art.
orl
.
is
the latus rectum.
is
disturbed.
is
The steady motion
path
is
is
stable if cos a
positive. or to depart widely from it. In the position of relative equilibrium the radius of the circle drawn through the ring makes an angle a with the vertical. the possible steady motion would take place along a slightly different circle . 106. Prove that.
A
particle describes a horizontal circle of radius r
is vertical
boloid of revolution whose axis
if it is slightly
on a smooth paraand vertex downwards. c being the radius of the circle.
If the angular
is
^ote. where co is given by (2). Find the angular velocity with which the wire rotates. in a nearly horizontal direction.
projection)
momentum
(as well as the direction
and point of
slightly altered. and prove that the
a vertical chord distant c from the centre
length of the equivalent simple
A circular wire of radius a and of
pendulum
a)/(c
for small oscillations of the ring is
a cos a{c{a sin
+ a sin a (1 + 3 cos^a)}.
. with an
momentum
near the
tion (1). Supposing it to remain circle
equal
If the particle is projected from a point for which 6 to a. but the period of oscillation would be un
changed. oscillations take place in time
2.
. or the circular
below the centre of the sphere.
where 4a
4. 251 to show that the motion of a particle describing a circular orbit under a force /(r) directed to the centre is stable if [3 + Deduce the c/'(c)//(c)] is positive. then either it tends to remain always very near the = a.
3.
negligible
.
mass rotates freely about a small heavy ring can slide on the wire without friction.
%+%
d
j^
^ \^ sin e
(g
.
Utilize the
method of Art.(0^ sin^ a + Scos^a
cos a
cos 6^
^^^.
pendulum
Prove that the steady motion with angular velocity w of a conical of length I is stable.
Examples. if a small disturbance is made.
We
of equathus find
0.
circle.
and I is the radius when the ring is unstrained. Illustrative problem.
Its resolved parts along
and
perpendicular to
AB are accordingly
l{6\x)^mx and aB \.
X rotates Prove
that. which the thread makes with the
I
line
the length of the thread. particle motion when there are no forces. and.
Fig.
if the wire is made to rotate uniformly. and.RIGID BODIES
Prove also that.
is
the same as before.
253. the period of the small oscillations about the state of steady
motion
is
V{27r^am/X(4a30}.1 {6 ^x) cob X'
Now
and
ratio of the
m
G is always at the point dividing in the masses of the particle and the rod. IX. since ^P makes an angle 6+x ^'^^^ a line fixed in the plane of motion. x the angle of the rod produced at time t. if a is the radius in steady motion.
Consider
first
the motion of the particle
P
relative to the centre of
mass
M
of the rod
AB.
[In the second case energy is expended in keeping up the angular velocity of the wire.
M
to
M
is
the resultant of these two velocities. the velocity The velocity of P relative of P relative to B is l{B+x) perpendicular to BP.
small oscillations
is
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP.
find the
Let 2a be the length of the rod. In further illustration of the principles Energy and Momentum consider the following problem
:
of
A
uniform rod and a particle are connected hy an inextensihle thread
is
attached to one end of the rod^ the system
is
laid out straight^
It is required to
and
the
projected at right angles to the thread. 83.]
An
elastic circular ring of
its
mass
its
m and
modulus of
elasticity
uniformly in
own plane about
centre under no external forces.
equilibrium
5. Then the velocity of B relative to is aB at right angles to AB. and an equation of motion of the ring must be formed by The angular velocity in relative resolving along the tangent to the circle. the period of the same as for a simple pendulum of length
a cos a{c\(i sin d)\{c + a sin^a). if these masses are jo relative to O has components respectively.
Let 6 be the angle which AB makes at time t with its initial direction. the velocity of
the centre of mass
MP
M
4^(^ + x)sinx and
^{ad + l{e\x)co^x]
.
P
y the coordinates
of the particle referred to fixed
.
Hence the moment of momentum
in the motion relative to
6^ is
or
^aa^e+^[{a + lcoax)(^ + {^ + C'COBx)l{0 + x)].252254]
ENERGY AND MOMENTUM
AB. then the initial values of the moment of momentum and kinetic energy in the motion relative to G are
{a{l)Vmpl{m\p) and \V^mpl{m>rp). It is sometimes convenient in calculating the velocities of points in a connected system to use the coordinates of a In the point referred to axes which do not retain the same directions.^ {O+x)
cos x]
Now the centre of mass moves with uniform velocity in a straight line and thus the kinetic energy of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is constant. Kinematical Note. Also the kinetic energy of the system and its moment of momentum about any fixed axis are constants.
Hence throughout the motion we have the equations \{\^mlp)aW +a^(aZcosx) + ^(^+x)(^ + «cosx) = (a + 0^>l
l{\\mlp)a^^ + aW+l'^{6+xf\^aie{e + x)ooBX=
V^
^
254.
motion relative to
also twice the kinetic energy in the
G
is
^a2^2 + _^?£_ [a2^2+^2 (^+^)2 + 2a. When we wish to calculate the velocity of a point in this way we have to attend
M
M
to the fact that the component velocities parallel to the moving axes are not the differential coefficients (with respect to the time) of the coordinates referred to the same axes. y' referred to rectangular axes rotating in their own plane about the origin . and
the velocity of
299
along and perpendicular to
F
relative
to
G
has
components
^
m\p
in the
l{e+x)smx and ^^ "^ '^ m+p
{ae + 1(6 + x) cos x}
same
directions. and the moment about any fixed axis of the momentum of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is also constant.
. 253 we might have obtained the velocity of P relative to by taking as axes lines through along and perpendicular to AB.
Consider the motion of a particle whose coordinates at time t are x'. Hence the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G and the kinetic energy in the same relative motion are constants. let be the angle which the axis of x' makes with a fixed axis of x in the
plane at time U and ^.
problem of Art.
Let V be the velocity with which the particle was initially projected at right angles to the thread .
IX.300
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. BG^
move
in one plane
We may use the figure and notation of Art. and to the expression there given for the kinetic energy in the motion relative to O the term ^pl^{0+x)^.
v=y'{x'^.
255. The energy equation and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum determine the motion. to find the motion. taking P to be the middle point of BC.^ and ^sin. 253. 3 are the resolved parallel to the axes of x\ y\ then parts of the acceleration of a — u — oiV and ^ = v\a)ii.
is
y = vcos(f) + usin(f). and writing m and p for the masses of AB and BC and 2a and 21 for their lengths.{^''2/'4>) sin 0.
rectangular axes of x and y.
Two uniform
. to the moving axes of the velocity of the
are
y'
x'. Also let u^ v be component velocities of the particle parallel to the axes of x' and y'.
We have
whence
Also
x = of cos — 7/ sin y = y' cos ^ + ^ sin 0. and the
M
coordinates of
velocities of
P are a + ^cos.
We may
P
dicular to
In the problem of Art.
</>.
Article for the
. J
x=ucos(f)
find
— vsm(f).
Hence we
u=x'—y'<j).
prove in precisely the same way that. y'
— toy' and
+ (nof. x = {x'—y'<p)cos(j){^'+x'^)8m(f).
1.'\
(f>
(f). if we write co for and the resolved parts parallel particle whose coordinates are
cd
the angular velocity of the moving axes.
w Now. 84. Then the angular velocity of the moving axes is B. we take axes through along and perpenA B. 253.
Examples. We have to add to the expression given in that
moment of momentum in the motion relative to G the term ipl^{B+x).^.
y={y'+x'4>) cos (fi 4. From these the component P relative to M which were obtained otherwise in that Article
might be deduced.
rods
under no forces
it is
freely jointed at B. if a. required
AB.
Fig.
or of the system. On the other hand may be a maximum or a minimum at the instant t.
Art.
other point 0' this instant is
At the instant t\ B coincides with some and. and the rings are so thin they may be regarded as in the same plane. uniform straight tube of length 2a contains a particle of equal mass. the axis is
moving body. Prove that the angle 6.
so that their planes are parallel.
2. the pivot
is
struck by a blow perpen
dicular to the line of centres. the
momentum of moment of the
is
BC
about
it is
at the instant
t. 255]
Note. which either radius through the pivot makes with its initial direction at any subsequent time.254.
In reference to this discussion
it
should be observed that. about at the instant t is denoted by A. the velocity of the particle relative to the tube when it leaves
A
it is
aa)v/. the particle being close to the middle point. does not involve the constancy of h.
.
Since
is
a fixed
t is
kinetic reaction of
H
If
BC
. If the moment of
B
momentum
of BC^ say.
Kh
i't^f) I
t
This
is
not equal to
H because
h! is
not equal to
H'
. so that the centre of mass of the system starts to move with velocity V.
3.
h'
being the
moment
of
momentum
about
0'. 157). The system being at rest on a smooth table
with the pivot in the line of centres.
. and. if there are no external forces.
It is
ENERGY AND momeJntum
important to observe that the
301
of
moment
momentum
of either
is not constant.
equal circular rings. is given
by the equation
^2(F + a2sin2^)^2=F2a2. the tube is started to rotate about that point with angular velocity o). although the hne of action of rod.
about
at the instant
(cf. then we are taking moments about a which the moving line coincides at an instant.
a geometrical line which is always a If the axis about which we take moments is defined by some
axis.
fixed axis with
Two
about
its centre. each of radius a and radius of gyration k are freely pivoted together at a point of their circumferences. Let be any fixed point in the plane of motion.
and H' the moment of momentum about
The instantaneous vanishing of t'. about the resultant force acting on either rod passes through B. the moment of the kinetic reaction of about is not equal to A. H' the
R
moment
of
point. if the moment of momentum of BC about B (or 0') at A'. when we take
moments about an
" fixed "
line of a
line.
B
coincides with
at the instant
and
H vanishes
.
h
is
identical with
H at this instant.. but the instantaneous vanishing of does not involve the
same instant
^
0. To see this consider
B
BG
B
the meaning of h. that
to say
hm
f'f=0
H'H
tt
. and let be the moment of momentum of BC about at the instant ?.
i. then what we mean by h is
at this instant. Prove that. at the
H
H
constancy of H.
rhombus of side 2a and the system rotates about one diagonal.
An
elliptic
its
tube of latus rectum
eccentricity
inertia
/ about
major
axis. and carries a particle of mass
is
moment
is free
m
to
a smooth plane perpendicular to the axis.
2?. if at any subsequent time the particle is at a
groove
cut in
its
surface so as to
make with
A
m
distance r from the vertex and the cone has turned through an angle r and 6 are connected by the equation (/+wc2sin2a)e2^'^"''^°^^
0. while the cylinder is free The particle is projected on the plane at right to rotate about the axis. which of mass m which is
e.
horizontal threads are attached to a circular cylinder of negligible axis is vertical. its
attached to the particle struck
r^
length r at time
t
is
given by the
= + 2aVt + ^V^fi.
major
end of the major axis nearest the centre of force. Hence prove that
^2
. Prove that the length subsequent time is given by the equation
r of the straight portion at
any
where
c is
the
initial
(/+ ma2) r^p = {/+ m {r^ + a^. and prove that the period of the small oscillations about this state of steady
motion
is
the same as for a simple
pendulum
of length
^acosa(l+3sin2a)/(l+3cos2a). are coiled in opposite directions round it. if the initial length of the straight portion of the thread
is c.
and a smooth
where M^I/a^. is rotating freely
about
its
is fixed.
its axis.
A cone of vertical angle 2a is free to turn about its axis.
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. and carryequal particles which are initially at rest on two smooth horizontal planes. Find the angular velocity in the steady motion in which each rod makes an angle a with the vertical.
its axis.
.
where / is the moment of inertia of the cone about
7.
Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a 8. if the particle is slightly displaced.
equation
with velocity V and its thread begins to unwind from the cylinder. IX.c2)} a'^ V\ value of r.
=(/+mr2 sin2a).
attracted to one focus
with angular velocity Q.
is
the generators an angle /3. provided that
Sin = 2fi7)ie{l/7nP + llI). moves in the groove. angles to the thread with velocity V so that the thread tends to wind up
move on
round the cylinder. and contains a particle by a force /xm/(distance)2 and is initially at rest at the
and moment of axis.
c'^
the cylinder being free to turn about
5. One of the particles is struck at right angles to its thread so that it starts
Two
mass whose
oflf
Prove that.% it will come to rest relatively to the tube at an end of the nearer latus rectum. Prove that. and if fjie{l+ey<PQ. the highest point of the rhombus being fixed and the
lowest being free to slide on the diagonal.c2 = 2a Vt + VH'^ml{M+ m).
6. which is fixed in a vertical position. and starts at a distance c from particle of mass the vertex.302
4. Prove that.
A
thread
of inertia
/
attached to a rigid cylinder of radius a and which about it^ axis.
Art. the condition takes the form The velocity of a particle.
It is
important to observe that discontinuous motions such as
are considered here in general involve dissipation of energy. supposed to pass during a very short interval particle
from one state of motion to the other. Hence we have the
approximate equation
Tt:d=^mxM
which passes over into the exact equation
. The tension at the place where the motion changes is then to be determined by the principle that the increase of momentum of a system in any interval is equal to
the impulse of the force which acts upon it during that interval. and moves so as to be in contact with a given curve. and the mass of the hypothetical particle is to be taken to be the mass of the part
chain which changes its motion during the interval.
258.)
of
the
problems.
m
During a very short interval A^ a length of the chain which can be taken to be i'Ai is set in motion with velocity x^ and the impulse of the force by which it is set in motion can be taken to be TM. This principle is illustrated in the following (Cf.
257. coiled up.
It
often
happens that two parts of a chain move in different ways.
line.
It is required to find the motion.
256. 162. When the chain forms
a curve.
When
a chain moves in a straight
the condition of inextensibility is that all the particles of it have at any instant the same velocity.
At any time t let x be the length which has fallen over the edge.
. This principle is to be applied to a hypothetical (Art. and that portions of the chain are continually transferred from the
part that is moving in one way to the part that is moving in the other way.255258]
MOVING chain
803
Motion of a string or chain.
Tension at a point of discontinuity. T the There is no tension in the part tension at the edge in the falling portion.
I.) of the chain. 189. Let be the mass per unit length of the chain.
Illustrative Problems.
A
chain
is coiled
at the edge of a table with one
end just hanging
over. is the same for all the particles.
Inextensible chain.x^
T=mx^. resolved
:
—
along the tangent to the curve at the position of the particle.
^
this is
dv
.inx^.
falling portion is free from tension.
We
shall suppose the chain to be in a
rough tube.
</>
.
T=inigH\
at
Thus the motion and the tension
259. so that the line of it is a given curve.
.
x = hgt. one
end of which
is
held fixed.
i?.
Integrating.
any time are determined. T the tension ^ at its lower end.
A
chain.
is
initially held with the other
€nd
close to the fixed end.
Let 2^ be the length of the chain. so that
2x=\gt'^. for which 5. Between P and P' we may
(/). IX. m the mass per unit length.304
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
is
[CHAP. </> the angle which the normal to the curve at
P
P
makes with the vertical. We shall take this curve to be in a vertical plane.
Let s be the distance. During a very short interval At a length approximately equal to ^gt At passes from motion with velocity gt to rest.r
under gravity. Hence we have the exact equation
. measured along the curve. which is approximately equal to TAt. 85. Let P' be a point near to P. we have
This equation gives the velocity of the
falling portion
when
its
length
is x.
and observing.2)
= 2^A2. or in a groove cut on a rough surface.
The time
until the length is
[^
^
is
dx
_
/Ox
The potential energy lost while the free end falls through x is \mgx\ and the kinetic energy gained is ^mxv^ or ^mgx^ and the amount of energy dissipated in the same time is ^mgx^.
The equation
Writing v for
of motion of the falling portion
therefore
mxx = mxg . destroys an amount of momentum which is approximately equal to hmgH^At.r2i.
B):
P
Fig. l{x the length of the part that has come to rest at time t.
The
and the
free
end has
fallen
through
2. that
v
and x vanish together.
Constrained motion of a chain under gravity. + A</>. p the radius of curvature of the xmrfe at P. become 5 + As.
and
the other
end
is
then
let
go.
„
or
^^(. so that an impulse. of a point of the g^urve from a fixed point.
II.
. and the tension can
be found by substituting
tension
is
for v in the
known the
pressure at
equation (1). the velocity v can be determined by means of the energy equation. and fi is the
R
coefficient of friction. and passing exact equations of motion
mi)
the limit. 86. M. which we may take to be directed along the tangents
the pressure of the curve.
(2). We
regard
the
particle
take.
(
1.
is
smooth we omit fxR from the
further.
A
L.
sin
<^
+ (jT + AT) cos A^T — /jlRAs.
and
lies in
uniform chain of length a is laid out straight on a smooth table.
form equations of motion by resolving along the tangent and normal at P.
which we may
Fig.
mAs .
P
equation.
t)
= mgAs
. of this particle. to
approximabe directed along the tangent to the curve at P. One end is put just
20
.= mgAs
. with sufficient
may
as
moving under the tensions T and T+AT.
cos
+ (Th. When the any point can be found from the
equation
260. which we may
tion. We denote the pressure and friction by RAs and is the pressure per unit of fjuRAs. The equations are
We
mAs
. take to be directed along the tangent at P. the ends of the chain are free. so that length. a line at right angles to the edge of the table.258260]
MOVING CHAIN
805 Let v be the velocity
imagine a hypothetical particle of mass mAs.AT) sin A</) — RAs.
at
P and P\
and the
friction.
P
If the curve
If.
'to
On dividing by As.
Examples. which we may take to be directed along the normal at P.
we have the
= mg sin <^ + dT j
A'P
(1)>
m — = mq cos
v'^
T
(i>\
R
first
(2).
over the edge. IX. The end A is released.
uniform chain is held with its highest point on the highest generator 6. and that this happens when the radius drawn through the upper end makes with the vertical an angle </> given by the equation
lies. Let A be
that of any the position on this curve of a chosen particle. Prove that the chain becomes straight after an interval equal to threequarters of that in which A fell to B.
4. the pressure on the table as the coil is formed increases from 2h W/l to (2^ + 3^) W/l. if the upper end is let go. the thread slips over the pulley with uniform
. A to P. and let s be the arc of the curve measured from other particle. Kinematical equations. Two uniform chains whose masses per unit of length are mi and m2 are joined by a thread passing over a fixed smooth pulley.
Chain moving freely in one plane. At any instant the chain forms a curve. subtending an angle /3 at the centre of the circular section on which it
Prove that.
A uniform chain of length I and weight W is suspended by one end 2.
A
it
J^ cos {<f) + ^) = sin /3 f sin
261. of a smooth horizontal circular cylinder. and the other end is at a height h above a smooth table. Prove that.
acceleration
g {s^m^ .
Prove that. Initially the chains are held up in coils and they are released simultaneously without
Prove that.306
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. the velocity of the
chain as the last element leaves the table
is »J{ag). if the edge of the table is rounded off. the lower end is the first part of to leave the cylinder. and at the instant when it passes B the end B is also released. A uniform chain AB is held with its lower end fixed at B and its 3. when the chain is let go. greatest slope of a smooth plane of inclination a to the horizontal so that it just reaches to the bottom of the plane where there is a small smooth
A
W
off. If the chain is inextensible we may regard 5 as a
P
parameter specifying the particle which
is
at
the point
P
at
. the tension at the bottom of the plane is
when a length x has run
W{\&ma)x{lx)IP.sin
(</>
+^).s!mo)l{s!'nh + \/^2). pulley over which it can run off. until one of the chains causing any finite impulse in the thread has become entirely uncoiled. Prove that. and lies on the cylinder in a vertical plane.
and that the portions of the chains which have become straight increase during the interval with uniform accelerations
^g^m^lis/mi + ^m^) and 2g^mil{>Jmi\^m2). upper end J^ at a vertical distance above B equal to the length of the chain. so that the part of the chain which has run off at any time is vertical.
is placed on a line of uniform chain of length I and weight 5.
.
to
of
is
r)fh
be such that. 87. s and independent variables.
otherwise.260. From these equations we have
d^y
t
being
_ d<f> dx d^^dsds'
d^x
dy _ d¥~~dsds'
d(f>
20—2
.
without regard to sign.
s. i. s.)
is
The
absolute value of
^.
.
y be the coordinates of P.
is
^
positive.
(See Fig. of which u is directed along the tangent to the curve at P in the sense of increase of and v
at
t
v. Also let p be the radius of curvature of the curve at P.
. 261]
MOVING CHAIN
</>
307
time t
Let
drawn
in the sense of increase of
. the normal is drawn towards the left hand.
The sense
of the normal
is
taken
Fig.
it
is
negative. makes with a fixed axis of x
is estimated as the angle <^ through which a line with the axis of x must turn in the positive sense so as coinciding to coincide with the tangent.
in the plane
We resolve the velocity of the particle of the chain which is P at time into components u.
is
directed along the normal. if the curve is described in the sense of increase If this sense s. that of the normal drawn towards the centre of curvature. 87.e.
dx
in which the differential coefficients are partial.
be the angle which the tangent at P to the curve. of the position of the We have the equations particle specified by s at time t
Let
X.
_
__d
dy d^x
ds dsdt
j
dt
dydx dx dy\ d'^y dx d'^x dy '~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds^di~'d^di
_
6 /
dydx
dx dy\
d<f>
(dx
dx
dy dy\
~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds[dsdi'^dsFt)
. have the equation expressed in terms of u and v. combined with the statement that s and t are independent variables. IX.
Further the direction cosines of the normal drawn in the sense — nil and nX already chosen are
^
^
.
may be
We
(j))
^=—
or
d(j)
sin
^ ^ (cos
dx d^y
ds
^
'^'
+ cos
(/>
^ (sin 0). and also has components
— ^ parallel to the axes of coordinates.
with which the tangent to the curve
at the position of the particle specified by s is turning. We have therefore the ot dt
equations
_dxdx
Since
dydy
_ _dydx
the equation
0.
dx dy
(^) +(o^) =1» we have
dt\\ds}
^^(dy^^
Kds.
The angular
velocity
^
.308
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. expresses the condition of inextensibility
of the chain.
velocity of the particle specified by s at time t has comV in the stated directions.
which
is
the same as
dx d^x
ds dsdt
dy
d'^y
_
^
'
ds dsdt
or
9 fdx dx
dy dy\
ds dt)
d^x dx
ds^ dt
d^y dy
ds^ dt
_^
ds\ds dt
or
du
ds
dd)
^
OS
This equation.
The
ponents u and
.
the equations of motion are
fdu
dct>\
= dT ^
'^[Vt''dt)
^ ds^'^^'
^t^^y^fs^^
where
263. the particle We may then prove in the same way Sq and t as independent variables.
If the chain is extensible.
262.
Invariable form.
Equations of
motion.
form the equations of motion by resolving the kinetic reaction of a small element of the chain in the directions
We
of the tangent and normal to the curve which it instantaneously forms. and we may take particle F. but the chain moves along the curve. 254 in the forms
du
dt
d(b
dv
dd)
dt'
dt^
dt
is
The
resultant of the tensions at the ends of the element
obtained
in the
forces
same way as in Art.
it
portion of
that
is
P
as in the above Art.
and Sq is the natural length of the contained between a chosen particle A and any other is specified by the parameter Sq. Interesting cases of the motion of a chain which the shape of the curve formed by the chain is invariable. The component accelerations in these directions are
obtained by the method of Art.
Chain moving freely in one plane.261263]
or
MOVING CHAIN
309
~
dt
ds
ds'
The two equations
ds
ds
'
ds
ds
dt
are the kinematical conditions which
must be
satisfied at
all
points of the chain throughout the motion. that the following kinematical equations points of the chain
:
must hold at
all
where
e is
the extension of the chain at the particle P. If S and iV denote the component per unit mass applied to the chain in the directions of the
tangent and normal to the curve.
Note. In discussing such cases it conduces to
arise in
.
m denotes the mass per unit of length. 259.
Prove that
A uniform chain moves over two smooth
level
same
and
is
the portion between the rails can be a common catenary.
3.310
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. and.
The equations
motion of Art. uniform chain moves in a plane under no forces in such a way that the curve of the chain retains an invariable form which rotates about a fixed
A
point in the plane with uniform angular velocity w.
and that the tension
is
is the greater in the steady motion than in equilibrium by mvfi^ where mass per unit length of the chain.
s
= c tan
</>.
we have
u = w^
v = 0.
itself.
clearness to imagine the chain to be enclosed in a fine rigid tube. provided that the velocity of the chain along itself is s]{gh). 261. with the notation of Art.
The kinematical
conditions become
dw
so that the chain
^
d(b
deb
moves uniformly along
of
itself. and w is the velocity with which the chain
m
moves along
2. and its magnitude is
variable from point to point in accordance with the kinematical conditions.
1. The
velocity of any point of the tube is then determined as the velocity of a point of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. that the chain can move steadily in the form of a common catenary.
we show
Taking now the special case of a uniform chain moving under gravity.
.
where a and
h are constants. IX. and to move along the tube while the tube moves in its plane. of the shape in question. The direction of w is that of the tangent to the line of the tube at the point. Prove that the general (/?.
Examples. The velocity w is in this case the velocity of an element of the chain.
the curve retaining its position as well as its form. while the chain advances relatively to the curve with uniform velocity F. 262 are
(/>
satisfied
by
T= mgc sec + mw^^
the curve being the catenary
264. r)
equation of the curve must be of the form
(^ + 2F/a>)r2=ap + 6. Prove that any curve which is a form of equilibrium for a uniform chain under conservative forces is a form which the chain can retain when
moving uniformly along
itself
under the same
forces.
at the
parallel rails distant 2a apart transferred from a coil at a distance h vertically below one rail to a coil at a distance h^h vertically below the other. and the velocity of any element of
the chain will be found by compounding a certain velocity lu relative to the tube with the velocity of any point of the tube.
when the chain has fallen a vertical distance ma. the distance y of the lowest
5. if 0)2 = 4^/^.
A
fine
elliptic
its
velocity
a>
about
stable relative equilibrium with one end at the lowest point. C. Prove that. where I is the latus rectum of the ellipse.263265]
MOVING CHAIN
311
Prove that
is
4.
. if the end is set free.
265. and passes over a smooth peg B between A and C and in the same horizontal line with them.
a position which
Since
^^ vanishes
initially. and the points F and F' are never for
any
finite
time at
rest.
A uniform chain hangs in
is fixed to
point from the horizontal diameter during the the equation
first
part of the motion satisfies
where
I is
the length of the chain and 2c
is
the circumference of the
circle. two points A.
form.
is
When
the chain starts from rest in
not one of equilibrium the initial velocities are and the equations of motion are simplified by the omission of zero.
the result of differentiating
equation
.fxgll')}. B.
Initial
Motion. C being so close together that the parts of the chain between them may be considered vertical. uniform chain falls in a vertical plane under gravity. the points A.
determined by the equation
cot ^e tanh
/x
= tanh
(/x
sin
e
+ ^m cos a sin 2e). and contains a uniform chain whose length is equal to a quadrant of the ellipse.
tube is constrained to rotate with uniform angular major axis which is vertical.
A uniform chain of length 2L and mass 2Z/i has its ends attached to 6.
rough helical tube of pitch a and radius a is placed with its axis. its velocity is ^ {ag sec a sinh 2fi)j where /a is. and a uniform chain is placed within it. The system oscillates so that the threads are always stretched. At the same time the kinematic conditions are altered in d(l>/dt.
A
vertical. Elastic threads of natural lengths I and l' and moduluses X and X' are fastened to points P and F' of the chain on opposite sides of B and their other ends are fixed to points and 0' vertically below F and F'. the coefficient of friction between the tube and the chain being tan a cos e. Prove that. and portions hang vertically on both sides. the square of the angular velocity of the tangent at any element
A
7equilibrium over a smooth pulley one end the extremity of the vertical diameter. Prove that.
Prove that the time of a complete oscillation
27r sJ{Lll'txl{\l'
is
+ \'l . the chain will be in
7.
8.
The equations
is
of impulsive motion
of a chain which
suddenly
set in
by the method
of Art. 262. the equation of motion of an element at
the end. of the
If.
The conclusion
in such cases
must be that the chain becomes
slack at the
In such cases it is usually conend. and it may become slack throughout. In the case of a heavy chain with an end which moves on a smooth straight wire. at first. the acceleration of the extreme particle must be directed along the tangent to the curve. The equations are
ds
ds
.
IdT
.
enter into the solution of the equation we have to use the conditions which hold at the ends.
first
with respect to
multiplying the second
by ^ and subtracting. applied to an element.
We
motion are obtained at once have only to regard S and as
N
the resolved parts of an impulse. cannot be satisfied if the acceleration of the element is finite (not infinite) and the tension is finite (not zero). reckoned per unit of mass. and T as impulsive tension. found by resolving along the wire.312
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. to be finite. and to take the mass of the ring. or at other special points. for example.
Differentiating the
.
when the problem has been
without
limit.
Cases arise in which this method cannot be applied.
chain. not perpendicular to the tangent at the end. venient to suppose the end of the chain to be attached to a ring which can slide on the wire.
\
dt
m
ds
5.
We may
write the equations of motion in the form
du
^ ^ = o H m ^OS ct.
Impulsive Motion. IX. we obtain an equation
ds
\m
ds J
m p^
'
ds
ds
This equation serves to determine the initial tension at any To determine the arbitrary constants which point of the chain.
solved with this condition
we can
pass to the
case above described by supposing the
mass of the ring
to be diminished
266. one end of the chain is guided to move on a given curve.
A
vertical.
. the end of the rod which strikes the plane will leave it immediately after impact provided that the height through which the rod falls is greater than
1.
of
mass
Impulsive tensions Ta Tp are applied at the ends of a piece of chain hanging in the form of a common catenary with terminal tangents
M
inclined to the horizontal at angles a
and
/3. Prove that._.^66. obtaining an
equation for
T
in the form
ds
\m
ds )
mp^
solution of this equation subject to the given terminal conditions gives the impulsive tension at any point of the
chain.
Prove that the kinetic energy
generated
1 . 261 for a chain in continuous motion.
rod of length 2a is held in a position inclined at an angle a to the and is then let fall on a smooth horizontal plane.
M'
that of either ring. if the rings rings are initially held so that the tangents to the chain just below them make equal angles y with the horizontal.
267. if there is no restitution.
In the
initial
motion of a chain under gravity prove that the tension
a
satisfies
the equation
/I dT\
ds
T
mp^~
8»\m
2. 207.
[Cf.
Ex. where Mis the mass
:
of the chain.
<^
cos yl{cos y + y sin y).
. and we can eliminate u and v. 267]
MOVING CHAIN
conditions are the
313
The kinematical
same as those which were
obtained in Art.
8 and
In case no impulses are applied to the chain except at its ends. 2 are held fixed. 5 in Art. „ cos a 3^/3 008/3)2 ^ ^^ + ( Ta^ a—p
rr 9 a a\\ sm a COS a Tb^ am ^ COS ^)y.
and the chain
is
severed
at its vertex. the tension at the lowest point is changed in the ratio 2M' 2M'{Mcot^y.]
If the ends of the chain of Ex.
The
Examples. and
3. prove that the tension at a point where the tangent with the horizontal immediately becomes angle
makes an
^ Mgcf) sec
4.
1. 
)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
)
A uniform chain hangs under gravity with its ends attached to two which are free to slide on a smooth horizontal bar. Prove that.
^g a sec a cosec^ a (1
+3
sin'^
a)^.tan i3
z
^ M
f(^a V[
.
. and are let go.tan
is
a. iV vanish.
if the ring starts from rest in a position in which it is in contact with two obstacles.
given by the
equation
(1
.
is
A circular disk.
uniform ball moving without rotation with velocity F strikes the at an angle a with the vertical. if at the instant the angular velocity is o. and the velocity of the end of the spike at right angles to the spike is F. and the radius of the disk is less
is
than a cos
5. and kept moving in the vertical plane of the ball's motion with a uniform Prove that.cos a) sin2 a (14 .
sliding. Prove that the greatest of the axis above its equilibrium position diminish in geometrical heights
is less
A
progression. the ball will descend if the vertical velocity of the bat
plane
is vertical is
which
is
greater than
P^cosa(e + f tana).2a2^ .
tt/w. if there is no
slit
without jumping
is
72 . the condition that it should cross the
slit
sphere of radius a rolling on a rough table with velocity F comes Prove that.314
2.
3. its angular velocity
aa)2
o as
1
it
leaves the
(7i
+ l)th
obstacle is
given by
= 2^ sin a sin y cos* y
(
. and if
there
is
no
slipping. IX.
apart
circular cylinder rocks between two parallel rails whose distance than the diameter of the cylinder.
its
A
is
sphere (centre 0) with
centre of gravity at a point
O
distant c
from
dropped vertically upon a plane of inclination a to the horizontal
.
the angle subtended at the centre by two adjacent obstacles the ring touches both.
rolls
with
its
plane vertical
down a piano
which
of inclination
On
this plane there is a series of pointed obstacles
are equal and at equal distances from each other.
A
to a
of breadth h perpendicular to its path.
is
with n spikes projecting from it in its plane at equal projected with its plane vertical so as to strike a rough horizontal plane (zero restitution) in such a way that the line joining the point of contact to the centre makes an angle tt/ti with the vertical.2 sin2 tt/w)*" (Fco + a F) = 2^ ^{ag)
where a
the radius of the circle on which the ends of the spikes lie.10 sin2 a)\
cos a
where 6 = 2a sin a and
7. restitution.10 sin2 a)/(7 .cos*"
7)/( 1
— cos*
y). Show
angular intervals.
A
heavy ring of radius a
a. and are sufficiently high to prevent the ring from ever touching the plane. k is the radius of gyration about the end of a spike. and e being the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the ground the bat and the ground are supposed to be sufficiently
. Prove that.
1 Iga
> F2 + lO^a. the number of spikes which
strike the plane is the greatest integer in the value of
m that is
sin
7r/27i.
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP.
gravity being neglected.
where 2y
when
4.
that. velocity in a direction making a given angle with the horizontal.
rough to prevent
6. and subsequently meets a bat whose ground
A
and perpendicular to the plane of the ball's motion. after striking the bat.>
L^Qga (1
.
is
Prove that. ^2 impinge directly. the coefficient of restitution
beam balanced on a
being unity.
14. there being no restitution. The coefficient of restitution between the sphere and the board is e. the kinetic energy lost in the impact is
^m (1 . h^ about their centres. and e is the coefficient of restitution. J/2. plank of length 2a is turning about a horizontal axis through its centre of gravity. falls vertically and impinges with velocity V sphere of mass which is moving with velocity C^ on a horizontal against a board of mass table. and moment of inertia MK'^ about
spinning with angular velocity Q. /being the moment of inertia of the plank about its axis.
A
homogeneous sphere
is
allowed to
fall
on one end of a uniform
horizontal
horizontal axis through its centre of mass.
of
mass
A wedge of mass M is placed m is dropped upon it so that
on a
its
table.
a2. the inclination of the plank to the horizontal must never exceed a where / (tt f 2a) tan a = ma^.
1
if
there
is
no restitution. and strikes the other half.
. and a particle strikes the rising half.
1c
is
G
at'
8. and m the mass of the particle. the coefficient of restitution being unity. impinges normally on a rough rod of mass m.e2) V^+mMUy{7M+2m).
ball
ball is let fall upon a hoop. Prove that.
{M+m)K^Ql{{M+m) K^+ma^}. if the plane energy lost in the impact is to
:
that of the sphere before impact in the ratio
(le2)cos2a + (>J:2sin2a)/{F + (a + c)2}
1. spinning about their centres with angular velocities 12i.
and
radii of
gyration ki. Two rough circular disks of masses Mi.
A circular disk of mass J/.
and a uniform sphere
centre falls in a vertical plane
. if e is the coefficient of resti11.
13.
Prove
the coefficient of friction between the sphere and the board exceeds 2MU'/{'7M\2m) (1 + e) F.
tution.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
so that
is
315
G is
above
and
GO
is
normal to the plane. Prove that the sphere will not rebound unless the mass of the beam is at least three times as great as that of the ball. radii ai. the kinetic energy
impact
___F2___
2 1/Jfi + l/i/2
"^
2 1/J/i (1
(aiQi + a2Q2)^ + a^lki^) + l/ifa (1 + a^jlc^)
'
10. the relative velocity of the centres before
impact being
lost in
1
V. Prove that. Prove that the angular velocity immediately after impact is
its centre.
A
m
M
and the
that.
A
and a the inclination to the vertical of the radius passing through the point at which the ball strikes the hoop. if the
A
motion indefinitely repeats itself. about which it can turn freely in a vertical plane. 9.
12. of which the mass is 1/n of that of the the hoop is suspended from a point in its circumference. the kinetic
Prove that. radius a. the ball rebounds in a direction making with the horizontal an angle tan~i{(l + ^7i) tanaecota}.
where
the radius of gyration of the sphere about an axis through right angles to GO.
rough enough to prevent
sliding. rebounds.
if
friction
between the board and the table can be neglected.
Prove that the new angular velocity is {I—'mep^)ail{I+mp^). if there great enough to prevent sliding. if at the instant of
impact the rod
is
point of the rod which
turning about any point in the vertical line through that is distant a(l+Jsec2^) from the lower end. and the cube is at rest with
two faces horizontal. and there is perfect restitution. p the perpendicular from the centre of mass to the normal at the point of contact. and further that if 3^ cos d = aa)^lg the
subsequent impacts on the plane will take place at equal intervals of time
2^/0).
Two
triangle.
. Find the velocity v of the point of application of either blow resolved in its direction.
A
smooth uniform cube of side 2a and radius of gyration k about an
axis through its centre is free to turn about an axis which is horizontal and passes through the centres of two opposite faces. and prove that. smooth oval disk is rotating with angular velocity « on a smooth horizontal plane about its centre of mass.
Prove that the
initial velocity of
in direction
the ring
is
Racj{mc^ +
{M+m) F}. kinetic energy is diminished by the impact in the ratio
:
no
restitution. if /x is the coefficient of friction. The friction between the wedge table is negligible. An equal cube falls without rotation and with velocity F. assuming no
16. Prove that.
where 2a
point o{
its centre. c is the distance of the ring from the middle is the mass of the square and k its radius of gyration about
M
18.316
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. when it strikes a smooth rod of mass at the middle point of the rod.
the length of a side.
is
AB. but that between the wedge and the sphere is
is
Prove that. fixed axis and at a distance c from the vertical plane through it. which is fixed. so that they are pressed together and begin to slide one over the other. the
where a
is
(M+m)sin^a if+msin'^a + f (if+m). where I is the moment of inertia of
A
m
the disk about an axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane. They are struck at the same instant with equal blows F in opposite directions bisecting the common edge and one other edge of each. and strikes the upper face of the first cube along a line parallel to the Prove that.
and the
through the centre of mass of the wedge. IX.
equal rigid uniform laminae.
17.
15.
A
uniform rod of length 2a moving in a vertical plane
falls
on a
horizontal smooth plane so as to make with it an angle 6 at the instant of impact.
19. rest
the kinetic energy generated in the system
restitution. the angle which the face on which the sphere
is
dropped makes
with the horizontal.
is
(l/n^3)Py. the
angular velocity a and the vertical component of the velocity of the centre of mass will be immediately reversed. An impulse R is applied at C
DC.
and
e
the coefficient of restitution.
ABCD
A small smooth ring of mass m can slide on the side ^jB of a square formed of four rigidly connected rods. each in the shape of an equilateral with two edges in contact.
side is zero.
greatest possible angular velocity. Prove that the kinetic energy when b is free is to that when the further end of b is fixed in the ratio (4a + 36)(3a + 46)/12(a + 6)2.
Two uniform rods AB^ BC hinged together at B are moving about 21. formed of three equal uniform rods hinged at 23. their ends. for that side to acquire the
24. the point of impact
must be
at a distance
a{(36 + a)/(36 + 3a)}^ from its centre.
freely jointed at
lengths 2a and 26 are cut from the same uniform rod of mass one end of each. with no motion relative to each other. being at the moment a right angle. when the middle point of one of the
Prove that the initial angular velocity of that front sides is suddenly fixed. the impulsive stresses at the upper and lower hinges will be in the ratio ^13 1. the kinetic energy of the resulting motion at right angles to
they are jointed at 5. Prove that.
An equilateral triangle. sides
2a and
2b. the angular velocity imparted to the first cube is c F(l + e)l{c^ + \a^a^ sin 2a). if after impact the
ABC
relative
22.
the point must be the hinge. Prove that. of length 4a cos a.
Two
uniform rods AB. m!
. is held in a vertical plane with one side horizontal and the opposite corner downwards.
A
rectangle.
motion of the rods
is initially zero. when a side of length 2a impinges on a small rough peg (zero restitution). when a point in one of the rods is suddenly fixed.I m' cos2 a).
.
Two
and
line. is moving with velocity v in the direction of one of its diagonals. is moving without rotation on a smooth horizontal plane. and that of the adjacent sides is f (v/a) sin a.
BC
of masses w. smoothly hinged at the ends. if after falling through any height the middle
point of the highest rod is suddenly stopped.
F
20. Prove also that the rectangle cannot begin to rotate as a rigid body unless the direction of motion before impact
makes with the impinging
side
_^
an angle greater than
^^"^
a{3b+af{3b + 3af
6 (26
+ 3a)
•
25.
lie
on a smooth table
inclined to each other at
an angle a
turns on a pivot fixed to the table. m + 4m'
BC
at its middle point on the proper
side to give constraint the kinetic energy is
. Prove that. and the end A If ^ 5 is struck at the middle by a blow
is
P
AB
If there is a
smooth peg touching
^ P2/(. The rods being at rest in a straight
M
an impulse MVis applied at the free end of a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
if e is
317
the coefficient of restitution and a the angle which the lower face of the falling cube makes with the horizontal. the middle point of ^Cas instantaneous centre of rotation.
:
formed of four uniform rods of the same material and section.
A
rhombus. formed of four equal uniform rods each of length 2a
freely jointed at common extremities.
u.. and that.1)"P 22« sin2« (
^
.c)/{c sin 4a b sin 2a). they can be the edges of a cube..
is
if
the thread
is
severed.
28. .
Twelve equal rods each of length 2a are so jointed together that 26. ©2. .
is
where b
is
the equilibrium length of each cord.
Any number
Prove that the metrically a smooth fixed sphere of radius c (no restitution). and ©i.
set of (27i + l) equal rods OA. angular velocity with which each rod begins to turn is V (c cos a '' a sin^ a)/(§ a^ sin^ a + c^ cot^ a — ac sin 2a). . length 2a are freely jointed at 0. the kinetic energy is ^M(^aW+'U^).318
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. the initial angular
acceleration of either rod
(8a2c
. then u is reduced in the ratio
prove that.
equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely hinged at one and their other extremities are connected by an inextensible thread extremity.
Six equal uniform rods each of mass m are freely jointed and are 31..
if
u
is
l/(l
+ ^Vcosec2^). kept in the form of a regular hexagon by a thread joining two opposite comers. The thread that jo descends with initial acceleration
then destroyed.
where
30. . Prove that = 0)2 cosec 2a = =  uja. are the initial angular velocities communicated to the rods on each side of OA in order.
An
and are
F
impulse exerted at the hinge at the further end of the n^^ rod
is
.h{h.
the velocity of the centre of mass.
infinite number of equal uniform rods are loosely jointed together.
.
=P/{(2?^
1)
m]. the to the highest point of the disk. each of mass m and 29. inclined at an angle a to the vertical and attached Prove that. and lie in one plane so that any two neighacts bouring rods are inclined at an angle a. in a straight line and at rest when a blow is struck at the free end Prove that the of the extreme rod in a direction perpendicular to its length. OB.
and a
particle of
is
mass p
is
attached
to the middle point of the lowest rod.1^) gl{% aW + 32aV/^2 _ 8a2c^)..
is
the initial velocity of OA. The system rests on two smooth pegs distant 2c apart in a
horizontal line.
Prove
(9m + 3/))^/(10m + 3p).
of equal uniform rods are jointed together so as to have a common extremity and placed symmetrically so as to be generators of a cone of vertical angle 2a . 0)1 cosec a
. and the framework moves symmetrically through a configuration in which each rod makes an angle 6 with the vertical
. of length 21. the system Mling with velocity V strikes sym27. 00. if the frame strikes the ground when ^ = 0. IX.
A
initial radius of
curvature of the path of the centre of the disk 3 cos a.
Two
Prove that. where if is the mass of the framework. if one of the cords is cut. The hexagon is in a vertical plane with the highest rod fixed and
horizontal
and the thread
also horizontal. =27r/(2n + l). uniform circular disk is symmetrically suspended by two elastic cords of natural length c. an impulse
A
P
along OA.
32.
(1 . m' and lengths 2a.
Four uniform rods.
its
A uniform rod
W
A
about a point distant x from the equation
x^
its
middle point. of
which the side AB is in the horizontal plane. string attached to C in a position in which AB.2??i cos^ a}. and is let go.
initial
angular acceleration of each of the horizontal rods
is
gc{a + h)l{c\a + h)+a'{la + h)}.
uniform rods AB. force P. of masses m. and the angle C in the hinge.
Prove that the
initial
(3J/+m) g cos a/{3 {M\m) . large enough to produce motion. where x
1 Pa^lfi
is
the positive root of
. masses are proportional to their lengths.
. is suddenly applied at one end perpendicularly to the length of the rod. and tension of each chain is equal to
I (if +m)
is
then
let go.4m' cos2 (a . BC. a distance c from its middle point.2P//X W) a\v 
W= 0.{m + Zm')
plane with
of length 2a and weight rests on a rough horizontal horizontal pressure on the plane uniformly distributed. and is initially held in a horizontal Prove that the position so that the figure is a rectangle. Prove that the rod begins to turn
36. hinged along a line in itself one side.
thin uniform rectangular plank of mass is suspended from four points in the same horizontal plane by four parallel chains of equal length and negligible mass attached to the corners.
Two
the vertical.B).
. and prove that it starts to move in a direction making with the vertical an angle whose
tangent
is
^ tan A tan
B tan ^{A.
.
319
A
parallel to
thin uniform rectangular board. 26.^) h' J^.
A
M
mass mass
is on the plank with its axis parallel to an edge and its centre of The whole system is drawn aside vertically over that of the plank. whose 34.
if
the string
is
cut./3)
a'
^^^
. are The end A is fixed and the system is supported by a freely jointed at B.
Prove that. BC make angles a and /3 with
35.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
33. are freely jointed so as to form a One of the rods of length 2a is free to turn about a pivot at parallelogram. the initial angular accelerations
of
AB and BC are
I (w
+ 2m') sin a — 2«i' sin ^ cos {a — ^)g
Y" {m + 3m')
.4w' cos^ (a . in the vertical plane at right angles to the axis of the cylinder till the chains
m
make an angle a with the vertical.2 (m + 2m') sin a cos {afi) (*^^ + ^'^^') sin ^ g ' .
and
/M
is
the coefficient of friction. Find the initial vertical and horizontal accelerations of C. and a uniform cylinder of
37. so that the cross section of the board made by a vertical plane perpendicular to the hinge forms two sides of a triangle ABC. two of length 2a and two of length 26. is opened out to any angle and placed on a smooth
horizontal plane.
when the rods
are let go.
series of 2/1 equal uniform rods.RIGID BODIES
or
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
— mfi sin a cos a}.
then in the
initial
7^0
motion
(Jl/+wi)
= mucosa. r2„=0. each of mass ?n. each the highest rod is horizontal vertical rod being lower than the preceding
.
B\
C being determined by the equations
X2 + 2Xo=0. where 6 = log (a/^). if the supports are simultaneously removed.
+
1
sech log (tanh" ^ 6)].
J J/" ( J/"+ m) g cos a/{ J/ + wi sin^ a
/*
according as
the coefficient of friction
is
greater or less than
in a horizontal plane with uniform 38.
A
particle of
mass
M rests
on a smooth
table.
and
is
connected
with a particle of mass m by an inextensible thread passing through a hole in the table. of the nature of friction and proportional to the relative angular velocity. Close round it moves a ring of mass The ring carries a rotating about its centre with angular velocity v{<(o). each of length 2a and radius of gyration k about its centre of mass.i/)/(«ic2 +joa2) . massless smooth spoke along a radius.
disk and the ring. are hinged 39.
40. Prove that. the distance of the bead from the centre. if m is released from rest in a position in which its coordinates are a. and radius c angular velocity a>.
a (i/"+ m) ro>^ = Zmg"^ sin^a. together and held so that they are alternately horizontal and vertical.
V=ro*^3ai9o^
yo'^
= «^o*''+6>=o<^o
.4x^2 [X (o) . and their values after a short time t
will
be
and
1/
+ ^\ (o) .
^2n=0. if a slight continuous action now begins between the centre.v)l{mc^ ^pa?)] [^jMc^ + l/(wc2 \pa^)\
is
where X^
the frictional couple
when the
relative angular velocity is
6. the horizontal component X^r and the vertical component Y2r of the initial action between the 2rth and the (2r + l)th rods are given by
X^r^B {b + ^sl^Y + C (52V6r.
A
and can turn
freely
round
its
end which
is fixed. the free end begins to move with acceleration
chain
is
A
^ [1 +()"
41.
Prove that. circular disk (mass M) rotates
m
/Li/(distance)2. will at first increase. and the angular velocity of the ring.
spoke under the action of a force to the centre of the ring equal to and the bead is in relative equilibrium at a distance a from the Prove that. IX.
formed of n equal symmetrical rods.
[CHAP.
Also prove that the
initial
radius of curvature of the path of
m is
where
i?o=>'oj yo=«*<^o. a referred to the hole as origin and the vertical as polar
initial line. Prove that. a^^''=g^ sin a cos a (i/'+ Zm)\{M\ m). 2F2 + 16ro5m5r=0. a^y=— ^sina. r2r=5'(5 + 2V6r+^''(52V6n
the constants By C. and a bead of mass p can move on the
A
(M+m) tan a/(3J/'+m). One end is fixed and the whole is supported in a horizontal line.
Prove that.
44. axis of the cylinder a with the horizon. the cylinder being homogeneous and of radius a.. and the board mass is j)laced on a smooth table. Prove that. .
system being in equilibrium the string
of curvature of the path of
is cut. the initial radius of curvature of the path
of
D
is
i§ AB.
on a horizontal plane which is rough enough and the handle is so held that the plane through the and the centre of mass of the handle makes an angle
that.
+ a20)2 +
.
46. if the
its
handle
is let go.
A
M
when the plank
is let go.
L. <Bn ^^ one plane. wg. if the mass of the sphere initially a horizontal straight line. The rods fall
rest. and c is the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the cylinder. 26 and masses Ay B are freely hinged common extremity and the other extremity of A is fixed. and MK^ the moment of inertia of the cylinder about its axis.
where
(nl) M{K^ + a^)= ma^.
the initial radius of curvature of the path of the
centre of the sphere is 216^/(5 . CB and a sphere The system is free to of diameter BC equal to the length of either rod.
2ah {A +BYI{aA'^+h{2A
45. .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
42. The rod is held so as to make an angle a with the vertical. and is let go.
at a
Two uniform rods of lengths 2a.
A garden roller is at rest
Show
to prevent slipping . and is the moment of inertia of the plank about the axis.
from a horizontal position of
of the further extremity of
Prove that the
initial radius of
cmvature
B is
+ Bf}. and the end B of the attached to A by an inexteusible string of length Aa/^'S. if one end is fixed.
Mab
Two
is
4(7 is free to
rod
CB
rods A C. .
321
of a uniform rod of length 2a and mass m is freely jointed at the centre of mass of the board. turn about J. . is
the initial radius of
curvature of the path described by
centre of inertia
cn~^ (sin2 a + n^ cos^ a) *. m its mass.11^). Prove that the initial radius of curvature of the
One end
to a board of
M
path of
43.
M.
Show
that the initial radius
5
is
a
—4
/413
^/
ir
'
A set of 71 equal rods are jointed together in one straight line and 47. .
+ a„a)„)2/(aiQ)i2 + agtog^ +
. the plank being held horizontal. have initial angular accelerations ©i. where 3={mb — Mc)l{mb + Ma). and a uniform sphere of mass m is placed on the plank at a distance h from the axis on the side remote from the centre of mass.. and ABCD being Prove that. the bodies being freely jointed at B and C. the initial radius of curvature of the path of the free end is
(aiwi
48.
21
.
system consists of two equal uniform rods AB.
its
middle point is a {JI/2 cos2a + ( if + w)2 sin2a} ^ /M(M+ m^.
is
A
equal to that of either rod. CB of equal length 2a are freely jointed at C the rod turn in a vertical plane about the point A. The
.
+ «w«n^).
is free to turn in a vertical plane about a rough plank of mass horizontal axis distant c from its centre of mass.
— Iq). is 51. and whose edges lie on a cone of
Prove that. where 1/^ sin a cos a/(r. IX. Prove (i) that.
A cubical framework of twelve rods. of which the mass per through the other. is
/
M and radius
a. suspended from a corner. each of length
pendulum
of length
^2 WajX.
Four equal uniform
rods.
. are freely comers are joined by two and of modulus X. then the time of an oscillation of small amplitude is
27r
^{I/Ta). and are set to vibrate symmetrically. each of radius a and moment of inertia / about its centre.
can turn freely about their centres at a distance b apart in a vertical Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the chain under gravity is
the pulleys being rough enough to prevent slipping.a) — sec a/p.
52. if small oscillations take place with the string vertical diagonal.
length §1 {I of the string.
which
line.
vertical. Prove that the period of the small oscillations in which
each element moves in a vertical plane
is
the same as for a simple
pendulum
of length I. and held in shape by an elastic string occuj^ying the Prove that. and the opposite similar elastic threads of equal uustretched lengths
2a and weight W.322
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. freely jointed at the corners. each rod swings about its position of equilibrium like a simple
60.
An
unit length is /i through one continuous half and stretched over two equal rough pulleys each of mass
endless flexible and inexteusible chain. if the system is laid on a smooth horizontal plane and the threads never become slack. as to rest on a smooth sphere with each of its planes inclined to the vertical
at an angle
A
lum
a[>sin~i (^ cos tt/ti)].
remaining
veitical.
Two
an axis through
equal spheres. Prove that. whose base is a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius a. if in equilibrium the tension of the thread is T.
number n of uniform isosceles triangular laminae are smoothly 49. p being the radius of curvature of the meridian curve at a point on the ring.
jointed so as to form a rhombus.
54. have their centres connected by an elastic thread
passing through holes in their surfaces. the length of the equivalent simple for its small oscillations is
pendu
^a cos a (1 48 cos2 a)/(l +2 cos^a). if the system is placed so vertical angle 2cot~iV(3+sin2 7r/w). jointed at a common vertex so as to form a pyramid. so that the spheres turn through equal angles about their centres and the thread remains in one plane. in the form of a circle of radius r. whose axis is vertical.
where
their period is the same as that of a simple pendulum of I and Iq are the equilibrium length and natural length
An
elastic circular ring of
which the radius when unstrained
is
a
rests
on a smooth surface of revolution. and a the inclination of the
=
normal to the
53.
its height.
X
Two
negligible
mass which
equal uniform balls are fixed to the ends of a rod J.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
and
(ii)
323
is its
is
that. slightly displaced.]
55. a
and
21 the
length of
the rod. p are
the radius of the cylinder. if sphere under no forces but the attraction of the sphere. Prove that the period of small oscillations is
A
m
A series of n infinitely long uniform circular cylinders.^ of is suspended by its middle point by means of a wire
of such torsional elasticity that the system makes a complete oscillation Two equal uniform spheres of in a horizontal plane in time T.
59. about radius a are fixed with their centres at C. and prove that the period of small
M
oscillation
about such a position
is
where is the pressure on the axis per unit of length.
then the period of a small oscillation of amplitude a
dd
a\/\\a) Jo
V(lisin2^)
[There are no forces besides the tension of the thread and the pressure between the spheres.
A uniform rod rests in equilibrium on a rough gravitating uniform 56. Prove that.
its radius.
the spheres
is
21—2
. it will oscillate in time
27r?(a2
+ ^2)l/ax/(3yTO). and the mass of the framework is neglected. and mass per unit of length. The attraction of the spheres alters the position of Prove that the density of equilibrium of the balls by a small distance x. prove that it will make small oscillations in a period
A
where
a. D so that AC and BD are each of length h and are in the same horizontal plane with AB and perpendicular to it on opposite sides.
uniform rod of length 2a moves in a smooth fixed tube under 57. at a point distant c from the action of a fixed gravitating particle of mass the tube. A. particle is placed on one of the plane faces of a uniform gravitating circular cylinder at a very small distance from the centre of the face . is ranged symmetrically round a rigid framework freely moveable about a fixed axis A^ the axis of each cylinder being parallel to A and at distance a from it. if the natural length of the thread is
2a and X
modulus of
elasticity. They are attracted by a similar gravitating fixed cylinder with a parallel axis at a distance h {>a) from A. each of radius c 58. and the density of
its
material. Find the positions of stable equilibrium.
where
m
is
the mass of the sphere.
A smooth circular wire is made to rotate uniformly about a vertical A bead of mass m can move on the wire. Show that the inclination a of the rod to the vertical when the particles
are
moving with uniform angular
velocity
<»
given by the equation
cos a = (m — m') g/ {(m + m') aH}.
A
the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium
is
where
^irsf{A a^ Ah'')l2Pg {P + = A
2gl^l(o^ {l^
c^). with angular velocity a> about a vertical axis.
A particle describes a horizontal circle in steady motion at a depth d 63.
A particle can move in a smooth plane tube which rotates uniformly 61. which is freely moveable about its middle point. Prove that. radius through the bead in steady motion makes with the vertical.
and the period of the small disturbed is the same as that
oscillations
when the steady motion
pendulum
^/).
is
slightly
of a simple
>//>
of length
aHj{a'^ cos2
64. and is attached to a
thread. if the tangent plane at any j)oint of revolution being vertical.
. the velocity is a cot yjr >J{gd)lh. below the centre of a smooth oblate spheroid of >axes 2a. if a is the angle which the circle and supports a body of mass m. 26.
+ 46^ sin^
describing a circle of radius r in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. which passes through a fixed smooth ring at the lowest point of the Prove that. if rotates about the vertical axis with angular velocity a. a the angle which the normal at this point makes with the vertical.324
60. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is
particle is
A
rp cos a/(r
+ 3p cos^ a sin a).
62.
65.
where p is the radius of curvature of the meridian curve and a the inclination of the normal to the vertical at any point on the horizontal circle. and a bead can slide on the thread Prove that. the circle makes an angle yj^ with the vertical. Prove that the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium is

A
p sin a
p sin a cos'
where p is the radius of curvature at the point of relative equilibrium. thread of length I has its ends attached to two points distant o the system apart on a vertical axis.
ZA'%
I
. IX.
diameter. if the particle is slightly disturbed. the steady
motion
is
stable or unstable according as
l6sin2a8sin3^a
is
negative or positive. the axis of Prove that.
Two particles of masses
m and m' are attached to the ends of a rigid rod
is
of negligible mass and of length 21. and a the distance of the point from the axis.
KIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP.
A
straight uniform rod passes through a ring on a
elastic thread
plane. velocity such that the steady motion is unstable. =sJ{ZglAD\ when each rod makes an angle a with
oscillation
ABJDC AB. and k tan a is the value of r at the apse. if the rod is rotating about its centre with an angular ring. and the whole system is Prove that rotating steadily about the vertical axis with angular velocity w. of natural length equal to § of the value which AD has when AB is inclined
to the vertical at an angle a. are the angles which
a radius of the circle subtends at the centres of
force.
made
uniform angular velocity
to rotate about a Prove that the lowest
horizontal position is stable if
69. and it is free to turn about a vertical axis through a point in the circumference of the cavity.
. if the system is started to rotate with angular velocity ©. and that the time of a small about the steady motion is
(7r/a>)V(H3sin2a). A circular disk of mass m and radius c{<a)
70. and an
(1 f F/r2) sin2
a=cosh2 (3
sin
a). Prove that.
Four equal uniform rods are
freely jointed so as to
form a rhombus
with a vertical spindle by means of a hinge at A.
.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
66. k is the radius of gjTation of the rod about its centre.
68.
radius of gyration of the circular disk about a vertical axis through its
A plane tube the equation of which is y'^=f{x) is turning freely 71.
where B is measured from the apse line. and of modulus of elasticity equal to twice the weight of a rod.
AC a. permitting free motion in the vertical plane BAC. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations about the
state of steady motion
is
g{ac)
ac'o>^
{c^
+ k^)I^Amk^a^
and k
is
/+m{F + (2ac)2}'
the
where /
centre.re connected
the vertical the system will move steadily. with angular velocity V(^/c). An elastic thread.
plane lamina of any form has in its surface a flat circular cavity ot radius a.
325
A
particle describes a circle uniformly
under the influence of two
centres of force which attract inversely as the square of the distance. which is vertical. joins A to D.
A
uniform rod of length 2b can slide with
its
ends on a smooth
vertical circular wire of radius vertical diameter with
a and the wire
is
<».
A
with a smooth face and a rough edge is in the cavity. about the axis of symmetry.
smooth horizontal whose natural length is equal to that of the rod has its ends fastened to the ends of the rod and its middle point fixed to the Prove that. then if it is slightly disturbed its centre will describe the curve whose polar equation is
67. where d.
is
the
moment
of inertia of the lamina about the axis. Prove that the motion is stable if 3cos^cos^<l.
and suspended by the middle point. if ^1.
the radius of curvature of the tube at the lowest point is greater than c.
One end
is
matter
constrained to
of a rigid uniform rod of length 2a formed of gravitating move uniformly in a circle of radius c with angular
at the centre velocity cd.
if
the bead moves relatively to the rod as
repelled from the middle point
with a force varying inversely as the cube of the distance.
72. if the thread is severed. Prove that the rod can move steadily projecting inwards
m
towards the centre.
where n
is
the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the thread to the weight
of the rod. then throughout the motion
A
M
make
at time
t
MimiOi + mJz) + 2?ni?W2
76. the reaction at the
is
hinge
instantaneously changed in the ratio */&
4.326
and a
if
RIGID BODIES
particle of
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. Prove that. {\ + cos2 B)^ + cos2 6) 0^ + (^ + sin2 6) 6^] + F= const.
74. if 6 is the the angle which the angle between the string and either rod at any time.
on a rod of negligible mass whose ends slide Prove that. IX. the particle will rise in the tube to a vertical height h which is the least
positive root of the equation
2lch = {I'lmch)f{h\
where / is the moment of inertia of the tube about the axis of symmetry.^2) = 0. by a blow in a line passing through the centre of mass of the system. and the system moves in one plane under no forces.
.
(7.{(J
77.
BG
m
and length 2a are
have their middle points joined by an elastic string.
Two
extremities A. if there are no external forces. and that this steady motion
'ym>a>^c(c2a)2.
(^1
+ 4) sin'^ ^ (^1 .
A bead is
free to slide
without friction on a fixed
circle. Prove
that. 7^2. string makes with a fixed line.
mass
m is
in the tube close to the lowest point. 62 are the angles which the radii to the particles with a fixed line on the table.
contains two 75.
a right angle.
Prove that. and the rod is attracted to a fixed particle of mass of the circle..
each of mass
Two
equal uniform rods
AB.
is
stable if
rod
If an elastic thread whose length is the same as that of a uniform attached to the rod at both ends.
is
cotH^cot<9 = 2?i. and V the potential energy of the stretched string. prove that the rod will sink until the parts of the thread are inclined to the horizon at an angle 6 which satisfies the equation
73. smooth rigid uniform circular tube of mass The tube is placed on a table and set in motion particles of masses mi. CB. are velocity about the angle Prove that. then throughout the motion
freely jointed at
B and
maP. hinged at B connected by a thread so that ACB
and having their
revolving in their
own plane with uniform angular
''
A
which
is
is fixed.
= const.
equal uniform rods AC.
Prove that. Prove that the distance r between the middle points when the system has turned through an angle 6 is given by the
equation
(^2
+
^.
± ^ sin a.
itself
A uniform rod of mass m and length 2a moves at right angles to on a smooth table. if the tube is struck by a horizontal blow. system starts from rest with the thread and rod in a horizontal position the velocity of the rod when its middle point has fallen through
of
.
of revolution is free to turn round its axis.
where
6 is a certain constant
depending on the masses and moments of inertia
of the rod and tube. when the particle has descended a depth velocity of the paraboloid is angular
/
h. Prove that.
its centre. disk of mass m! and radius a spinning freely about its centre. and impinges symmetrically on a uniform circular Prove that.
any
distance.
particle at a point
cos ^ j3 =
80. disk would have turned through an angle whose circular measure is
there
is
(m'
82. the limits of oscillation are given by
79. at one end horizontal diameter the other end of the thread is attached to one end rigid uniform rod of length a. and the line joining the particle to the centre at time t makes with the radius to B an angle j3. rests
is
through
groove of radius a
of mass if. if CB subtends at the centre an angle a.
One end
of a
The
find
.2)
+ 52
1^2
^(^gyi
=(^ + 52)2. being set in motion by an impulse directed at right angles to the tube when the distance between the middle points of the rod and tube is a.
is
'igha {(A +Ao) sin^
a— a cos^ a}
the latus rectum of the paraboloid and
/ is
its
moment
of inertia
its axis.
the
V {/+4wa(A + Ao)}{i+4ma(a+A+Ao)cos2a}'
where 4a
about
83. and the edge of the disk is rough enough to prevent the bodies will separate after an interval in which the unmolested slipping.
81. system moves under no external forces.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
327. whose plane is vertical.
A solid paraboloid
below the vertex. whose other end can slide on the wire. and that. and radius of gyration h about an axis on a smooth horizontal plane.
A uniform cube.
to a of a
an inextensible thread of length a is attached smooth circular wire of radius a. which and has a groove cut in its surface which makes a constant angle A particle of mass m is placed in the groove at a depth Aq a with the axis.
A smooth uniform tube contains a smooth uniform rod and the 78. and a smooth circular cut on the upper face and passes through the centre
.
A
smooth
circular tube
(7.
+ 3m)/(m' + m). the particle can oscillate about the point B furthest from J.
is vertical.
lying on a horizontal plane contains a and can turn about a point A of its circumference.
if
no restitution.
these ends being connected by six similar elastic threads in the sides
of the hexagon. Prove that the vertical velocity of its
centre in a position in which the radii to the two points of contact angles ^ with the horizontal is
sin a cos
89.
is its
where 2a and 26 are the principal axes of the tube._
m)l4ma\
rods. are freely jointed and placed on a smooth table in a straight line parallel to an edge.
Prove that the eccentric angle
is
<p
given by the equation
ra2
sin2(f. the elevation of the gun. and U.
is
<
or
> sin a cos a/(l — sin a)^. and the rods are inclined at an angle a to the vertical.
(f)
make
<s/{lOg
(a+c)
(1
.
velocity V.
Two rough
horizontal cylinders each of radius c are fixed with their
.sin (p)/{7 — 5 cos2 a
cos2
<^)}. p the pitch of the barrel. A particle is placed in a smooth elliptic tube of n times its mass at 87. so as to touch along a horizontal generator and to
Two
. k the radius of gyration of the shot. Initially all the threads have their natural lengths.
A particle of mass m is
Prove that.
equal right circular cones.328
of that face.
then
72 {F//)Hsin2a + Jf cos2a/(Jf+m)}=
^72 (1
+F/p2) {sin2a+i/'2 cos2a/(i/+ w)2^
where
m is the mass of the shot. A cord is attached
Two uniform
to the joint and passing over the edge of the table at right angles supports a body of mass l/n of that of either rod. and M is the mass of the gun and carriage. V the muzzle velocities of the shot when the carriage
a
A
is (1) fixed
and
(2)
allowed a free
recoil. and 6 the
angle turned through by the block in any time.
^2 = ^2
( j/_. are fixed with their axes horizontal. each of length 2a. Prove that the joint will or will not reach the plane according as the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of
each thread to the weight of each rod
86.
if
a0
is
with projected along the groove from the arc traversed by the particle.
+ 62cos2d>+
cL^a^b^)sm^4>
n. rifled gun is mounted on a carriage without wheels. each of vertical angle 2a. Prove that the angle 6 through
which either rod has turned at time
{2
t
is
given by the equation
+ w(l + 3sin2^)}a^2=3^sin^.
axes inclined to each other at an angle 2a and a uniform sphere of radius a rolls between them.
its
radius of
centre at right angles to
its plane.
Six equal uniform rods are freely jointed at a point and have 85.
where
84. their other ends at the corners of a regular hexagon on a smooth horizontal plane. IX. starting with its centre very nearly above the point of intersection of the highest generators.
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. and the tube is struck by a blow parallel to the minor axis so that it starts to move parallel to this axis with velocity V. and k
gyration about an axis through
88.
of the position of the particle at any time
an end of the major axis.
if
Prove that.
Initially the particle is at the highest point C of the tube.
A
homogeneous hemisphere of radius a and mass
M
falls
from
rest
.. the periods during which the two threads are respectively extended in the subsequent motion are
A
rhombus
thread
in the ratio (cos a)^
92.
. each of length
as to form a rhombus.
formed of four equal uniform rods each of length a. then
/I
the system
(l
18.'2)}. ^ l+3sm2a + — (cosacos<9)^— a '^ma
. and r is the distance
of the particle from that point. the greatest value of the angle
them
in the subsequent
motion
is
0)7/(0. one of its corners being fixed
. Prove that the angle 6 which the tube makes with the vertical when its angular velocity is a maximum and equal to co is
given by the equation ^{rnr^\I)<ii^^ingr(i? QXi%6\mg'^^\v?e = ^^ where /is the moment of inertia of the tube about its middle point.
show
that. and the opposite corners are joined by similar Prove that. if any rod makes an angle B with the vertical at time t after the impact. and the tube is set rotating with angular velocity G. if one elastic threads of natural lengths 2a cos a and 2a sin a.
A square
extremities.
where a
94.sin a)^ ~ sm a
.
:
(sin a)^.
is slightly extended and the rhombus left free. if the particle oscillates between C and B^ then
aO:^
{(
w + 1 ) C0s2 a + ^}
is
C0s2 a =5r (1
+ sin a) ( 1 + 2 cos^ a). and
. one of horizontal diagonal are joined
a and mass wi.
91. A sphere of radius a rolls between them. if angular velocities «. Prove that the height z of its centre above the plane of the axes satisfies the
equation
i^'l+^COt2a+^COt2a(^sec2a
+
^j=5r(2ro^).
and X
is
the modulus of the thread. Prove that. nm^ and the tube rotates freely about a vertical chord AB {^A above E) which subtends an angle 2a at the centre.
+ 6.
mass is placed in a smooth straight tube which can rotate in a vertical plane about its middle point.''^
ICOSI {f(o)95.
is
the initial value of
^. The rhombus is laid on a smooth horizontal table freely jointed together.
A particle of
m
Four equal
rods. are freely jointed so whose diagonals is vertical the ends of the by an elastic thread at its natural length.
.
'
sin^a 3X 6a.
falls through a height h to a horizontal plane (no restitution)."7^ o 9/1NZJ9 + 3sm2(9)^^ = —a^
•
.
A circular tube of mass m and radius a contains a particle of mass 90. is laid on a
formed of four similar uniform rods freely jointed at their smooth horizontal table.
93.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
329
have their vertices coincident.
o
•

.
to'
in the plane of the table are
communicated
between
to the rods that
meet at
this corner. Prove that.
'
(sin ^
9
^
^. and the system starts from rest with the tube horizontal.. with one angle equal to 2a.
:
B and D' strike the middle points of B'C and BC. each in the form of three sides of a square of side 2a. impinge so that lengths fa of the diameters of their bases in the plane through their
centres perpendicular to their bases come into contact.
equal rigid inelastic uniform hooks A BCD.330
with
that
its
its
RIGID BODIES
base
veitical
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
base
horizontal
[CHAP. equal and opposite velocities V in parallel lines.
its
Prove that the hemisphere will leave the plane immediately upon becoming vertical if 15 F>16V(a^). and
if
is
the initial value of
the line joining the centres at the instant of impact cuts the opposing faces at an angle ^tt. IX.
Two
^^
Show that they separate immediately after impact with the velocities of their centres of mass reduced in the ratio 9 53. and that. so long as they remain in contact.. moving at right angles to their bases with the same velocity V.r2
satisfies
the equation
+ §a2) (^^2 + 1^2)=
..
is
pressure on the plane
when
its
is
equal to
where V is the velocity with which
it
strikes the plane. then while the faces are in contact they slip with uniform relative velocity. and impinge so that the points
97. and separate after an interval (1 + J3) aj V
after turning through
Prove further that.
/84V19^l\ /8+^l9zl
V19 a
V19
. between their centres (measured parallel to their bases) at time t is given by the equations
80^2=.
where 2a
is
a side of either cube. and that the CD' will impinge upon A'B' and AB after an interval
sides
CD and
from the instant when
D
p V(44+^2) VJy/5 V(^2_5)«^ and D' were at rest relative to the hooks.19^2(^2_l)^
15
F^
8
.
18
V53 a
Two smooth rigid uniform hemispheres. move with equal velocities V in opposite directions parallel to or A'B'. show that. and impinge so that finite portions of opposing faces come into contact. the line joining their centres meets the opposing faces at
a distance x from the centres of the faces which
^2
(. . Prove that the distance a. then in the subsequent motion and D' will come to relative rest after
if
D
the sides
B'C and BC
D
moving over distances ^ {S — fJb) a on B'C and BC.
Prove that
the ends
and D' are provided with apparatus for clipping so that they can slide on these sides without friction. if 675 V^l{10247rag) is an the hemisphere will again strike the plane with its base vertical.
base
integer.
an angle
2^f{tanVf+tanVi}.^2)^
x. each of radius a and of equal 98. A'B'C'D'.Tq
72^^2 (^2 + ^2
_ ^.
Two equal homogeneous cubes are moving on a smooth table with 96. masses.
Prove
on to a smooth horizontal plane (no
restitution).
and is let drop on Prove that when half the chain is on the plane the pressure on
f of the weight of the chain.
and that the
maximum
velocity
is
acquired
when
2jcll=\og2. Prove that the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table
104.
A string without weight is soiled
mass
solid cylinder of
M and
round a rough horizontal uniform
is free
radius a which
to turn about its axis.
A
Prove that
at time
t is
down
is
ultimately acquires a finite terminal velocity F.
length ^ of a uniform chain of length l{Jc and mass ii{l\k) is coiled at the edge of a table and the length I hangs over the edge. Prove that the chains
be momentarily at rest when the length of the vertical portion reduced to ?^. and that the length of chain which has then run A log cosh ( Fjf/A). satisfies the equation
Mla6 = m{\gt^aBY. and a body of mass equal to that of a length I of the chain is fastened to one end and projected vertically upwards with the velocity due to falling through a height h prove that it will rise to a height
.
A
105. The chain then runs down under gravity. passing over the edge of the table. to one end of another coil of mass m^ per unit of length. great length of uniform chain is coiled at the edge of a horizontal platform. that its velocity (Vt/k).
A coil of
parts of the chains increase with uniform accelerations
^VW(V*^i+\/^2) and ^Vmi/(Vwii + \/wi2).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
99.
so long as neither
102. and the system
released from rest when a length I of one chain is vertical and the rest of that chain and the other chain are coiled on the table. Prove that if the second coil is let go the straight
. and one end is allowed to hang over until it just reaches another platform distant h below the first. through which the cylinder has turned after a time #.
is
is
is
uniform chain of length I is coiled at the edge of a table one end attached to a particle of mass equal to that of the chain.
moving with
velocity \ >J{^gl).
A quantity of uniform
{l'^il
+ Zh)fl.
is
uniform chain of length I is held by its upper end so that its at a height I above a fixed horizontal plane. where
will
I
is
log
m
a.
uniform chain of mass rrix per unit of length is placed on a smooth table and one end of it is joined by a thread. Prove that immediately after leaving the
A
table the particle is
101. before the chain
.
103.)}
= 2^:11. chain is coiled on a horizontal plane.
331
A
lower end
the plane.
it
Ftanh
106.
To
m
is fully
stretched.
the free extremity of the string is attached a uniform chain of mass and length I if the chain is gathered close up and then let go. which is held just at the edge. the plane
100. prove that the angle ^.
A
above a table has attached to
is
thread of length 2h — l passing over a smooth peg at a height h its ends two uniform chains. and the other end put over the edge of the table.
.
.
is
completely uncoiled.
sin a)] log (cot \a). on which a length a of a uniform chain of mass ml and length I is coiled .
the chain will be uncoiled at the end of a time sJ{Qal{giaxi\)]. y are
constants. the chain passes over the cylinder and has
its free end on a level with the table.
of a uniform chain of length I and mass is fixed to a horizontal platform of mass (2^l)m.
111. Prove that. the velocity of the bucket when there remains upon it a length y of chain is F.
are connected by a chain of negligible smooth pulley. if the system starts to move from rest. Find the acceleration of the pan when a length x of chain has fallen upon it. the amount of energy that will have been dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is ^mga^/l.
One end
m
the chain uncoils. and one end is allowed to slide down. Prove that the time of leaving the plane
is
J{llg
(1
.
109.
110. at any time t before the chain is completely uncoiled.
113. the end of the chain hanging initially just over the edge. A chain of length a is coiled up on a ledge at the top of a rough plane of inclination a to the horizontal.the edge of a table. Prove that. whose mass is fxl^ one end of which is attached to a fixed point just above the bottom of the bucket.332
107. the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is
mass
lf.^ = a+^j:\ye~^'^'^. the depth x of the platform satisfies an equation of the form a.
A
uniform chain
is
is vertical
and vertex upwards.
circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal on which lies a chain of length I
and and
one end of the chain is attached to a thread which passes over the /x Prove that. so long as the chain is wholly in
. and is coiled on the platform. A chain of length I slides from rest down a line of greatest slope on a smooth plane of inclination a to*the horizontal. if this end is slightly displaced downwards. Two scalepans each of mass are supported by a cord of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley.
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP. if the inclination of the plane is double the angle of friction (X). pulley. where a. the chain passes over a smooth fixed As the platform descends vertically.gl{dM^)/{M+f. Prove that. if all the chain is off cylinder and supports a body of mass M. where
Two
buckets each of mass
fixed
M
mass which passes over a
108.). Prove that. /3.
A
smooth
circular cylinder
is
fixed
with
its axis
horizontal
and
vertically over the edge of a table.
placed on the arc of a smooth cycloid whose axis Show that.
A
. the table before any of it reaches the cylinder. and a uniform chain of mass m and length I is held by its upper end above one of the scalepans so that it just reaches the pan.
smooth
vertically above.
112. and prove that the whole chain will have fallen upon it after an
M
interval
^{\l{4:M+m)IMg]. On the bottom of one of them lies a length I of uniform chain.
114. IX. rises vertically and passes over the pulley.
it will be moving with a velocity cylinder.
is
120. and
+ 6e^^)/(e^^l).
is
333
constant
the other end
let go. if i2.
A rough
circular cylinder of radius c is fixed with its axis vertical.
A
cone of vertical angle
surface so as to
/x
is /. and is a maximum at the middle point. ^ /m
is
a
. the time of a small
oscillation
A
about the position of relative equilibrium
(87r/i2)v/{2a2/(16a2_^2).
where
2a.
chain whose density varies uniformly from p at one end to 3p at is placed symmetrically on a small smooth pulley and is then Prove that it leaves the pulley with velocity ^is^f{lllg\ where 21 is its
A
length.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
contact with the cycloid.
smooth tube in the form of a cycloid generated by a circle of 119. and a piece of uniform chain of length 21 is in the tube.
121.
and a uniform chain lying on a smooth horizontal plane has a length c/3 in contact with the cylinder. and a fine smooth groove
I
cut on
its
make a constant
moves
A
uniform chain of mass
and length
angle /3 with the generators. when the free end of the length b reaches the of its length.
A
m
— point of the chain is ^mcos^ a{l^ a. radius a rotates uniformly about the base of the cycloid with angular velocity Prove that. and the tube rotates about that end with uniform angular velocity w in a horizontal
plane.
/(IF
where
/x
l^{lbf
1
?=c//x + (a
being the coefficient of friction.
A uniform
chain
falls in
a vertical plane with uniform acceleration
. uniform chain of mass bore in the form of an equiangular spiral which revolves in its plane about Prove that the tension at any its pole with uniform angular velocity &>.
and length 21 is in a tube of uniform 118.
one end being initially at the vertex. is free
is
to turn about its axis which
whose moment of inertia about its axis is vertical. the tension at any point of the chain throughout the motion. m the mass of a unit
of length of the
chain.
Show
that the length of the string in equilibrium tan 6 . where a is the angle of the and a^ the arcual distance of the point from the middle point of spiral
the chain. its end portions of lengths a and b being straight.
115. The free end of the length a is pulled by a constant force F in the direction Prove that. in the groove under gravity. Prove that.
6=a(o^ Y'
117. confined within a straight tube to one end of which it is fastened.^) co^/l. the chain is under no forces but the pressure of the tube.
{/cosec2a//x
+ ^?2cos2^}e2«8i"«cot^^^2+^^cos^ + Z2cos2^ + 7cosec2a//i.
An elastic string (modulus X. mass ma. unstretched length a) is 116. if 6 is the angle through which the cone has turned when the upper end is at a distance r from the
vertex.
and h can be found by eliminating a between the equations (^=2csinh~i (tan a)— 2a sin a. receives a
.
Prove that the
to the directrix is proportional to the curvature at the point. prove that the kinetic energy tangential impulses T applied at its ends
. while the chain advances along itself with a Prove velocity which at any instant is the same for all points of the chain. Prove that the impulsive tension at any point is
127. the initial normal velocities at the lowest point and at either end are in the ratio 1 cos 6.
/
retaining an invariable form. the other end being free.
A
the part between one pulley and the platform is vertical. the part below the pulleys is a catenary of parameter c.
6=^
128. and the chain hangs from the second pulley to a platform at a lower level A'.
125. c?.
pulleys rotating with angular velocity
that steady motion with this configuration is possible. whose centres are at a distance d apart in the same horizontal line . part of the chain is coiled up on a horizontal platform at a depth k below this
line. the vertical parts being between the
pulleys. considered as a function of the time t and of the arc s measured up to this point from some definite point of the chain.
124. and the chain hangs in the form of an arc of a circle subtending an angle
2^ (<7r) at the centre. A chain of variable density is in the form of an arc of a circle less than a semicircle and subtending an angle 2a at the centre. satisfies the two partial
differential equations
ds dsdt
dt
ds^
uniform flexible chain passes over two rough equal pulleys of 122. radius a. IX. if equal tangential impulses are applied at the ends.
A uniform chain lies in an arc of the curve r=ae^^ from ^ = to and receives a tangential impulse Tq at ^=0.
123. and the line density varies inversely as the square of the distance from the diameter The chain is set in motion by equal parallel to the chord joining the ends. the J{g{h — h')]la^ and that the relation
between
A=cseca + a cos a.
generated
is
^T^siu^ajM^ where
M
is
the mass of the chain.
An
endless uniform chain. lying in the form of a circle. Prove that. that the angle (f) which the tangent at any point of the chain makes with the
horizontal. angle with the tangent. prove that the curve is an equiangular spiral. The ends of a chain of variable density are held at the same level.
:
126.
Show
c.
A uniform chain
in motion
by an impulsive tension applied
lying in a curve on a smooth horizontal plane is set at one end in the direction of the
If the initial direction of motion of every element makes the same tangent.
chain hanging under gravity receives a tangential impulse initial velocity at any point in the direction parallel
A uniform
at one end.334
RIGID BODIES
AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS
[CHAP.
line so that the tangents at the
where
Prove also that the tension at the other
1
:
tan ^ = (1 +sin2 a + 2a tan a)/sin a cos a.
AF
P starts
= (6*'^. Prove that the whole will move without change of form parallel to the line which was vertical in the
129.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
335
point
tangential pluck at one point J. end is diminished in the ratio
1
+^a""i cot
a. which are to each other in the ratio of the tensions at the same points in the hanging chain.cos
j3)}]
. m begins to move with velocity
M~ V [(m' + pV) (sin a + sin ^) + pa {(a f
1
i3)
sin a + (cos a . the tangents at its and B making angles a and /3 with the horizontal the ends can slide
.
:
133.
two straight portions of lengths Z. where the tangent makes an angle ^ with the horizontal. and V to which m' is attached.
chain hangs under gravity in the form of a circle. is instantaneously changed in
the ratio
(0fa)sin/3
:
cos/3(a+3) sin/3.+ e2%
smooth table in the form would hang under gravity.
uniform flexible inextensible chain of density p rests on a smooth a part of its length is in contact with a smooth circular disk of radius a which lies on the plane. angles y with the vertical.
is
A heterogeneous
diminished in the ratio
^ y + cot y.
P
^
sinh(27r(9) sinh 27r
'
6 being the angle which subtends at the centre.2«)/(e^. that end starts to move in a direction making with the horizontal an angle ^.
where J!/'=m4m'+p^ + pZ'. where
tan(/.
. with the horizontal the tension at a point where the tangent makes an angle
132. and two impulsive tensions are applied at its extremities. if the chain is severed at its vertex. Prove that.
is
the length of the straight portion of chain
A uniform chain is suspended from two points in the same horizontal
.
.
A chain of
variable density is placed on a
it
of the curve in which
hanging chain. Prove that.
Prove that. the length of this part being a (a + ^) the remainder
130. the tension at a point P.
ends
A
chain of variable density hangs under gravity. if the wire supporting A is removed. V which touch the disk at the ends of the arc of contact and particles of masses m and m' are attached at the ends.
A
plane
is in
. if the wire supporting one end is removed. Prove also that to move in a direction making an angle ^ with the tangent. its ends being free to slide on two smooth straight wires which make equal Prove that.
A
on fixed wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends. when the disk is suddenly moved with velocity F in a direction making an angle a with the radius to the point at which the portion carrying m leaves the disk.
131. which gives it an impulsive tension T^ at that is prove that the impulsive tension at any point
.
ends make angles a with the horizontal and the ends can slide on fixed straight wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends.
.
by which any part of the Earth's surface moves relatively to the stars continually from West to East. Ex. 44).
The path and motion of the Sun relative to this frame are the same as the motion (in a planetary orbit) of the Earth.
268. what is geometrically the same thing. the sense polar of this axis and the sense of the rotation are related like the senses
angles
of translation and rotation of a righthanded screw. 3 of Art. The sense in which the Sun describes his orbit is the same as the sense in which any particular meridian plane of the Earth turns about the polar axis.
.
It
is
a fact of observation that there
stars
of the Earth
and the
The rotation is such that.
THE EOTATION OF THE EARTH.
269. relative to a frame whose origin is in the Sun and whose lines of reference go out thence to the same stars The Sun's path relative to this frame of Earth and (cf. Time measured
Time and Mean
by
is
this process is called "sidereal time. consider in the first place the motion of the Sun relative to
a frame whose origin is the centre of the Earth and whose lines of reference go out thence to stars so distant as to have no observable annual parallax. or. stars is very nearly the same as if his motion were an elliptic motion about a focus at the centre of the Earth. This process of been accepted as a " timemeasuring process. To explain this statement. if the is called a "sidereal day." has been regarded as taking place uniformly.
is a relative motion which every star moves relatively to by the Earth continually from East to West."
Now we have said (Article 3) that the process used for measuring time the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun.CHAPTER
Xt. that is to say the Sun is always
t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk
in a
first
(*)
may be
omitted
reading. This motion can be precisely described by saying that the Earth rotates about its The time in which the Earth turns through four right polar axis." axis is supposed to be drawn from South to North.
Sidereal
it
relative rotation has for ages
that
is
to say
Solar Time.
To define the
to the frame of Earth
measurement of time by the average rotation of the Earth
relative to the
Sun. Now it is to be observed that. The variability arises in the first place from the fact that the motion of the Sun in his path.
270.
of gravitation.
The
specification of the acceleration of the particle. We may
determine a frame of reference by taking the centre of the Earth as origin. we imagine a point to move (relatively to the frame of Earth and stars) in the Sun's path.
this rotation
and
relatively to this frame through an angle equal to 1/86400 of four right angles. The unit of time is the time in which the Earth rotates
mean
day
.e. relative
and stars. and the plane through this line and the polar axis as a plane of reference. and in the second place from the fact that the plane of the Sun's path is inclined to the equator.
to axes
If
we
refer the
motion
which rotate with the Earth the particle has no such
acceleration. and the stars make about
time in the orbit
366 J revolutions. this unit is the mean solar second. and the line of intersection of the plane of the orbit with the plane of the Earth's equator
(known as the line of nodes) has a small progressive motion in the opposite sense. M. Any particle of the body is describing a circle about a centre on this axis. and at such
a rate as always to coincide with the first point at the node corresponding to the Vernal Equinox. relatively to a frame fixed in the Earth. The elements of the in particular the apse line has a small elliptic orbit are not quite constant
. the Sun makes about 365^ revolutions round the Earth in a year.
progressive motion in the sense in which the orbit is described. and therefore has an acceleration
directed towards the centre of this circle. This second point is called the Mean Sun. and the periodic
is a year (technically a "tropical year"). Relatively
to this
frame the Earth rotates about
solar
its
polar axis in an interval called
a
can be used instead of the rotation relative to the stars as time.
When we
say that the
it
Earth
is
we imply that a body
at rest relative to
is
moving round the polar axis. with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth {i.
L. so that the time of describing any angle is a constant multiple of
the time in which the Earth turns through the same angle).268270]
MEAN SOLAR TIME
337
moving from stars which have a more westerly position towards stars which have a more easterly position in the plane of his path. depends upon the axes to which the motion is referred.
and therefore of the forces acting on the body. and at such a rate as always to coincide with the Sun at the nearer apse of his path
.measuring process.
The law
rotating. and time so measured is mean solar time. The Sun passes the line of nodes at the Equinoxes. but the time of revolution of the Sun is not a constant multiple of the time of revolution of the stars. the line joining the origin to the Mean Sun as a line of reference.
22
.
then we imagine a second point to move in the plane of the Earth's equator with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth. is much more nearly elliptic motion about a focus than uniform circular motion.
relative to such axes.
Let
p
denote the distance of a particle from the polar
axis.)
This acceleration
is
denote the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation.
Let/ denote the acceleration of the Earth's centre of mass referred
to the frame specified
by the centre of mass of the solar system and the "fixed" stars.
Gravity.
about the Sun and the rotation about the polar
271.
The
due
acceleration denoted
by ^. X. the law implies that a frame of to be specified. of a particle starting
as the "acceleration
from
rest. (Of Ch.
the law the origin and axes to which the motion is referred ought In other words.
axis. It may be precisely defined as the initial acceleration. is denoted by g.338
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH
[CHAP. For a complete statement of is referred to some axes or other. as determined by the law of Let The forces acting upon it are the force mf gravitation (Ch. so that 27r/n is the number of mean solar seconds in a sidereal
Let
H
day. treated as a is compounded particle. in a position near the Earth's
surface.
not identical with the acceleration produced The latter in the particle by the field of the Earth's gravitation. Vl). which is at rest relatively to the Earth." is specified by reference to axes fixed in the Earth. and described
to gravity. The acceleration of a body. due to the field in which the Earth moves. and a complete statement of the law reference
would involve the
specification of this frame of reference.
The law of gravitation is a statement concerning the forces It implies that the motion that act upon the particles of bodies. of the accelerations / and pVL^\ the acceleration pD? is directed towards the point where the polar axis cuts a plane drawn at right
angles to
it
through the position of the
particle. relative to
such axes.
When the law is applied to the motions of bodies within the Solar System an adequate frame of reference can be specified by the statements: (i) The origin is the centre of mass of the system. has been chosen.
Relatively to this frame the Earth as a whole has certain Of these the most conspicuous are the orbital motion motions.
be the mass of the body.
(ii)
The axes
are determined
by
stars so distant as to have
no
observable annual parallax. vi. the force mg' due to
m
.
is
W = mg in
Chapter
that.
In obtaining the relation the rotation of the Earth. Its kinetic reaction consists of vectors mf.
Let X be the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator.
direction of
it is
other words
is that of a plumbline at the place. The sense of TT is
W
The
kinetic reaction of the particle
is
compounded of mf
in
the direction of the acceleration the acceleration
/
and mpD. 274. = mg and the line of action of and mg'.
is
mpD? = mg' cos \—W cos
22—2
.)
We
/
The
upwards.
Consider a body at rest relative to the Earth. in the "vertical" at the place. The directions and senses of all these
vectors have been specified.
angle which the
equator.
339
which keeps the
the Earth's gravitational
aud a
force
W
particle in relative equilibrium. Hence is by mf
W
.
I.
W
directly opposed to that of the acceleration g. W.^ in the direction of
is
pHl
Hence the
resultant of
W
and mg'
equal to mpil^ in the
direction of the acceleration pD. It
as above. the relation
rotation. mpfl^.
now appears
ill we neglected when g is defined
unaffected by taking account of this
272.
Variation of gravity with latitude.270272]
GRAVITY AND GRAVITATION
field.
disregard in this statement the difference in the values of the intensity of the external field at the centre and surface of the Earth. pfl^ and g. and the forces acting upon the body are mf.
equation of motion by resolving parallel to the
The equation
I. The equation is
= mg' sin X — TT sin
Form an
direction of the acceleration pCl^. mg'. (See Art. Let I be the vertical at a place makes with the plane of the Then I is the (Astronomical) latitude of the place.\
If the particle is released.
Form an equation of motion by resolving in the direction of the polar axis. its initial acceleration is compounded The forces acting upon it are then those specified of/.
the line of action of the force mg' passes through the centre. by weighing them in a common balance. Now equal at the same place. approximately equal to This angle is called the "deviation of the plumbline. it is verified that the forces required to support them in equilibrium relative to the Earth are Hence the product mg is the same for both. is the ratio of the forces with which they are attracted by a gravitating body when they occupy. as position with respect to that body. / are known by observation and p is known in terms of I when the figure of the
Of the
is
Earth
known.
regarded as spherical. The assumptions enable us to account for the variation of g with
of the Earth.
latitude. But the ratio of two masses.340
Since
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH
[CHAP. When
two bodies are found
to be of
the same weight.
^
''
is a small fraction equal to yj^ nearly." Also g is approximately equal to
?
Now RD?lg — \ is a small
^^
r^E
^(1^i^cos^OWith the above assumptions as to the figure and constitution \ becomes the "geocentric" latitude of the place. and therefore sin I cos I radians.
and
g'. and we have
If the Earth
g'=^r^EIR\
p==Rcos\
where
R is the radius of the
sin
Earth.
Hence
(l\) ~ i^n^ _ sin X cos X g
'
^~^
_ ryE sin \
sin
I
. where I is the Astronomical latitude of the place. is the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator. angle.
There
is
a small correction to the formula for g on
account of the spheroidal figure of the Earth.
The determination
of the
mass of a body by weighing
it
in a
common
.
X
W = mg. and
E is
its
mass. 12.
The equations determine
is
X.
273.
determined by the law of gravitation. successively. we have
9'
^
sinZ
9 sinX
^
P^'
s\n{l
— \)
QX
quantities in these equations ^.
. It follows that the product mg'
: :
and X
is
the same for the two bodies. the same Hence the masses of the two bodies.
the ratio g ^' is sin X sin I.
Mass and weighing. and as made up of concentric spherical strata of equal density. as determined by the law of gravitation. are equal.
however."
The
direct
measurement of
this
effect
is
theoretical value can. as
Lunar de&exion of
field
gravity.
274.
homogeneous sphere. 1898. as above. be determined. Since the difference between / and /' arises mainly from the attraction of the Moon.
and that the deviation of the plumbline from the (geometrical)
tani{(^o^e) sin X cos X/(^o sin^Xl^^ cos^X)}. H.
sin2X4^g2
cos'^X).
is
This variation
most marked
in the case of the
Moon on
account of
its
comparatively small distance from the Earth.
Examples.
prove that in (geocentric) latitude X the value of ^
is
VW
3. on the basis of the law of gravitation. where \\m \\ the ratio of the values of g at the Poles and at the Equator. force compounded of m/'. and let denote the intensity at a point on the surface.
the Solar system. Darwin. 5 in Art.
In the above discussion we
have treated the external
the centre of mass
as uniform. as before.
The effect of this force is to make the direction of the plumbline at a place deviate slightly from the direction which it would take if /' were the same as /.
Cf. Planets. this effect is generally referred to as the "lunar
deflexion of gravity. 275.]
If the
[In these examples the Earth is regarded as a
1. in any latitude. The force which arises.272275]
balance
of
DEVIATION OF THE PLUMBLINE
341
may
mass by means of mutual was stated in Chapter vi. the intensity of the external field at the Earth's centre of mass. in the sense of
f
reversed. The Tides and kindred phenomena in London. in the sense of /'. from the difference between / and /'
is
the tidegenerating force. at least in so far as these depend upon the Moon. and m/. or as having the same intensity at of the Earth and at any point on its surface. is available for producing motion of the
body
m
relative to the
Earth.
.
extremely diflicult* Ex. Its intensity varies slightly from centre to surface. prove that. the plumbline would be parallel to the
polar axis.
The
The force which produces the lunar deflexion of gravity is the same as that which produces the tides.
Earth were to rotate so fast that bodies at the equator had no weight.
2.
275.
A
/
Let / denote.
vertical is
Prove that a pendulum which beats seconds at the Poles will lose
is
approximately 30m cos^^ beats per minute in latitude ?.
therefore be regarded as a particular case of the determination action.
If the acceleration
due to gravity at the Poles
is
g^ and at the Equator
^e.
The
Moon and
external field arises from the gravitational attractions of the Sun.
* See G.
i. Now. spherical. y + D.
of motion of the
m(x.
We
form
take the origin to be at the centre of the Earth. where a is the altitude of the
Moon
at the place of observation.
the equations of motion of the body referred to axes As in Art. we may take X to be constant. and 60 times the Earth's radius.
Then.
put x =
find
R cos X
I. 254. and we may
in the terms containing H^. the axis of z to be the polar axis (from South Pole to North Pole). using
equations (2) of Art. the component velocities of the body parallel to these axes are not x. By the results of Art.
the axis of x to be the intersection of the plane of the equator and the meridian plane near which the motion takes place. j mz
where \
is the angle which the radius of the Earth drawn through the body makes with the plane of the equator. y. prove that.n^x) = .
I m(y + 2nxn^y)=: 0.
Motion of a
first
free
body near the Earth's surface.
body are
]
z.
mass
m is travelling with
4mvQ. also we take the axis of y to be at right angles to this meridian plane and directed towards the East. X.
we
= — g cos 0. y + 2nx = = " 9 sin L z
X
—
2fly
.
Assuming that the mass
is
that the Moon's distance
of the Moon is ^^ of that of the Earth. = . and the component accelerations are
i. 272 we take the Earth to be fixed in the Earth.2 fly .(ymE/R^) sin \. a seconds' pendulum at the Earth's surface will be losing at a rate i^jjC^ sin^a. cos I approximately.
5. but
they are
xQy. This system is a
We
righthanded system.
and y =
0. as the body remains near a place.1) seconds per day.(ymE/E^) cos X. the positive
sense of the axis of x being from the centre to the meridian in question.
j^{xny)^n(y + nx).
Hence the equations
~{y + nx)}n(x~ny).342
4. owing to
the Moon's attraction. 272.
*276.
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH
[CHAP.x.
A
of latitude in latitude
the rails
uniform speed v along a parallel Prove that the difference between the pressures on when the train travels due East and when it travels due West is
train of
I.
so that
y'
we
= ngt'' cos I = ^ngfcosl y'
(3).
—
y.
these equations determine the motion of the body relative to the axes at the place of observation.
.
z
= 0. \ + 2n(ir'sin^ + i'cos0=0.
now. we have. without making any alteration.
Initial motion. and neglecting fl^y\
integration.\gt\
.
and we
is zero.
shall
The motion
first
suppose that the initial value of the coordinate ?/' is determined by equations (1) of Art. on
tuting in the second equation. we have
z =gt2ay'cosl
where
t is
(2). z
latitude and longitude near which the motion takes place.
Then the
initial velocities relative to
axes at the place of observation are given by the equations
x'
=
0.
We
thus obtain the equations
= 0. on integration.
y'
=
0. J
^'2n2/'sinZ
(1).
Substihave.
z
=^
z sin
x cos
I.
Suppose the body to
fall
from rest
the
relative to the Earth.
Integrating the
we have
(1).
X
where
and
= Xq / = Zo . 276.
Substituting in equations (1) and (2).
x'
axis of y\
and the
vertical
drawn upwards
I \
as
We
have
y'
= X sm I — z cos I. and neglecting terms of the same order as before.
x=2ny'sml
and integrating the third equation.
I
J
Xq
V are the initial values of x' and /. the horizontal
shall
We
drawn eastwards as
axis of /. \ y' z .275277]
Since
these
MOTION relative to the earth
343
equations contain only differential coefficients of with respect to the time. transform to the horizontal drawn southwards as axis of x'. y.
the time from the beginning of the motion. taking the origin as just explained.202/' cQsl^g. *277. suppose the origin to be on the Earth's surface in the
X. we may.
of these.
the eastward deviation in a
the East of the starting through a height h being
very approximately
nV(2/iV^)cosZ.
also vanish
z'^
Omitting we have
identically. and add.T (y'/L). \ = .
Now
the equations of motion are. I my' + 2mn {x' sin + z' cosl) mz — 2mVly cos / = — mg \T {L — ^')IL. and it what we have called g.y' sin ^ = .
Multiply the equations (2) in order by x\ i/'.
It appears that the
body
falls
a
little to
fall
point. On this assumption we
We
have approximately
z'
=
w
+ y")IL
(3).T {x'jL). . in the integral equation. 276. and the equation can be integrated. which is fixed relatively to the Earth. 276.
(Lz')IL. then the line of action of T makes with
the axes angles whose cosines are
^IL.
This result accords well with observed
*278.^mg {x'^ + y^)IL
(4). the origin being at the equilibrium position.
and we have the
relation
a)''
y'lL.
mx . The terms containing T vanish identically by (1).
Motion of a Pendulum. the terms containing
n
(3). J
I
(2).
y'.
.2mQ. z.
shall integrate these equations on the assumption that the pendulum makes small oscillations. X.
Let
x'. To the order of approximation here
adopted the vertical component of acceleration remains constant
throughout the motion.
facts.
Let a simple circular
pendulum of length L be free to move about its point of support. by Art.344
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH
[CHAP. and let T be the tension
of the suspending fibre.
z'
be the coordinates of the bob referred to the
system of axes described in Art. and substituting for / from
\m {x'^ + y'^) = const.
axes fixed on the Earth
is
In the beginning of the motion the acceleration relative to is directed vertically downwards.
+ y' + (Lzy = L'
(1).
the system is known as a
Since r can vanish. r2^ = 5r2nsin^.r^ {{g\L) +
H^ sin^ I]. \
^
These equations completely determine the motion.
If a is the amplitude of the simple harmonic motion. multiplying the first of equations (2) by second by x.
Foucault's Pendulum. y —r sin Q.^ml{x'^^y"')\GOn^t
(5).
r'
= Ar'(g/L). It is to be noticed that r and </> are polar coordinates referred to an initial line which rotates about the vertical from East to West with an
angular velocity Hsin^. adding.
is
showing that the horizontal motion in the plane of vibration simple harmonic motion of period 27r\/ (L/g).
Introducing polar coordinates in the horizontal plane given by
X =r cos 6.
^
and.
its
When
the
pendulum can
turn freely about
to pass through its Foucault's Pendulum.
To
start the
.
if
we put
have
+ n^sin^ =
<^
(6).
point of support and is set oscillating so as equilibrium position.
we
shall
r2
+ r2<^2 = (^ + 205 sin i) . so that the pendulum has no velocity in the plane of vibration when r = a. from equations (4) and (5) we obtain equations of the form
r2
+ r2^2 = ^r%/Z).
Hence the pendulum
oscillates so that its plane
of vibration turns round the vertical relatively to the Earth with
angular velocity
O sin
I
from East to West. we neglect ll^sin^^ in comparison with g/L. it follows by the second of equations (7) of the last Article that B must vanish.
if
The first of equations (7) of the last Article then becomes.277279]
MOTION relative to the earth
345
— y\ and the Again. it will not move as here described unless its angular velocity
relative to the
Earth
is 12
sin
I
from East to West. and thus (f> vanishes throughout the motion.
*279. and omitting the term in y'z\ we have on
integration
xy
y'x'
= D.
and the vertical plane through it makes an angle jS
with the meridian (East of South).
{^e) = n s/{Llg) sin I y{a^ . if the bob of a pendulum of length L is let go from a position of rest relative to the Earth when its displacement from its equilibrium position is a.
equation
its
path
is
given approximately by the
"i
(r/a)}. Prove that.
it
pendulum.
Examples. particle is observed to move. and a transverse acceleration 2a)r in the sense in
.346
THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH
it is
.
[CHAP.
facts. set going it moves like a simple pendulum of the
When
thus
same length
in a plane which turns about the vertical from East to angular velocity 11 sin Z. X.t (sin I cos ^ cos a + cos z = Vt {sin a + Qt cos I sin /3 cos a} — ^gt^.
2.
eastwards through
y.
3. Prove that after an interval t it will have
velocity
V
moved southwards through
where
^.r2)/r .
equilibrium position
not sufficient to hold
aside from its
it
must be projected
at right angles to the
vertical plane containing it with velocity aOsinZ.
which the
line turns.
>
)
approximately. therefore.
and upwards through
\
2.
West with
This result accords well with observed
^280.
/3}.cos
powers of L€^^lg above the first being neglected. with a simple harmonic motion of period ^irjn in a line.
projectile is projected
A
from a point on the Earth's surface with
at an elevation a in a vertical plane making an angle ^ with the meridian (East of South).
I
sin a)}
+ ^ Qgt^ cos
I. relatively to a certain frame.
1.
. which turns uniformly about the mean position of the particle in a plane fixed relatively to the
A
frame with angular velocity a> prove that the acceleration of the particle when at distance r from its mean position is compounded of a radial acceleration (w^ + q>^) r.
Q^i/
being neglected.
x= Vt cos a {cos ^ + Qt sin I sin y=Vt {cos a sin ^— Q.
and he was thus led to the notion of acceleration. availed for the description of the motions of the bodies
System equally with the motion of falling bodies near the Earth's surface.
We
:
give
Laws of Motion. which could be regarded as subject to no forces. the cardinal notion in his philosophy.
Newton found
by
of the Solar
that the notion of acceleration."
is
"compelled by
impressed forces to
change
is
Second Law.
existence of force with the production of acceleration. in the three celebrated
called
Axiomata
sive
thereto. and he made the idea of force.
Change
of
motion
"impressed moving force. w^hich he Leges Motus. and in the Scholia attached here a translation of the three Laws of
Motion
"First Law. and stated that the mass of a body is the quantity of matter which it contains. moved uniformly in a straight line and he was thus led to connect the
.
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF
DYNAMICS.
its state
of rest or of
as
it
uniform motion in a straight
"
except in so far
its state."
proportional to the in the direction in
. thus introduced
Galileo.
Galileo discovered by experiment that the velocity of a falling body is proportional to the time during which it has been falling.
Newton
also
introduced the
notion of mass. as that which produces acceleration. and takes place " which that force is impressed.
"
Every body remains in
line.CHAPTER
XI. as distinct
from
weight. He formulated his theory in a series
of definitions. He recognized in the motion of a body on a very smooth horizontal plane that a body.
1899.
.
Discussions of the principles of Mechanics will be found in the works cited 357 below. and as proportional to what
call momentum generated in a given interval. and an account of the
we now
scholia
balance."
The definitions preceding the laws introduce the notions of mass. the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles.
is
step in the formulation of the principles of Mechanics* the recognition of the vectorial character of such quantities
first
The
as velocity
and
acceleration. case of the second for.
for application. and also in H. 142).
and sense
kinetic reaction of a particle has the same magnitude as the resultant force acting on the particle
The magnitude
is
of the force exerted
another
equal to the
magnitude
by one particle on of the force exerted by the
second particle upon the first.
London.
They
are
The
direction
(Art. Hertz's Principles of Mechanics.
In the course of this book the theoretical aspect of the science
has been developed from two principles which are essentially the same as Newton's laws of motion. and of impressed moving force as an action on a body by which its state of motion is changed. but are expressed in a form that
is
more convenient
I. there is no
.
Reaction
is
[CHAP.
II.
determination of masses by direct experiment with the ballistic The latter is given as a verification of the Third Law. and the forces have
opposite senses (Art.
The statement that
is
velocity
is
a
vector
*
is
the proposition that
often called the
"
parallelogram
on
p.
"
"
always equal and opposite to action or the actions of two bodies one on the other are always equal
and oppositely directed. The attached to the laws contaii^ a demonstration of the theorem of the parallelogram of forces. 64). In Newton's particular principle was so subversive of current ideas
it
was necessary to state
explicitly.
time this
that
it
and the motion goes on unchanged. XI. if there is no impressed force.
These principles correspond precisely to the second and third The first law may be regarded as a particular of Newton's laws.348
"
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
Third Law.
.
change of motion. Translation.
step which has physical significance when we the existence of a field of force. say of a body anywhere in the Solar System. postulates and axioms." and he demonstrated
It is
the existence and nature of this
eflfect
conclusively.
frame.
of this latter process is very simple (see Art.
It is inferred
that there
is
some
action of the Earth
upon
bodies in
its
another. This hypothetical
this inference
When we draw
we go beyond the
facts.
The occurrence
of definite accelerations in definite places is a physical fact. instead of falling through into the air does not move in a ball thrown
rests
on the
. the notion of velocity as rate of displacement per unit of time. and free from contact with other bodies. given in many books as a " proof. no matter how its motion is started."
It is not a physical law. be legitimate. but the composition of a velocity relative to one frame with the The analytical formulation velocity of that frame relative to another frame.
We make
we
A
placed on a table
to the floor. The inference that some "action" or "force" produces them may. is valuable as an illustration but the process that of it illustrates is not the composition of two velocities relative to the same
. In Newton's hands the It was found to be possible to principle was carried further. The establishment recognize of this notion was one of the services rendered to science by
We
make a
body near the Earth's surface that it has such and such an acceleration. 27). which we now call the ''acceleration due to gravity.
neighbourhood. nor is it a
349
mathematical
proposition capable of mathematical proof from definitions." by means of the motion a ball in a moving tube. by action is called /orce. or may not.
The discussion. In our Chapter II it has not been introduced.FIELD OF FORCE
of velocities.
In so far as the analytical formulation of the facts is concerned it is unnecessary. In our Chapter IV it is introduced merely for the purpose of stating results in the same terms
as in subsequent Chapters.
Galileo. or of one body of the Solar System on which the acceleration is produced. but it is a definition arrived at by gradually
is
This notion increasing the precision of a notion already formed.
another step which has physical significance when that the motion of bodies in a field of force is recognize book modified when they are in contact with other bodies.
A
table.
He showed
that
we could say
of a free
hardly necessary to say that neither Galileo nor anyone else has ever Galileo found how to isolate the effect experimented upon a free body. that it had a definite acceleration.
Nevertheless it is to be noted that the pressure is just as much inferred from an observation about the motion of the bodies as the
action between gravitating bodies is inferred from the motions of these bodies. 138. We might. and proportional to a power of that velocity. due to the table. although it was from these sensations that the notion of such action grew up.
We
the method and results of Art.
We
that the existence of any action between bodies is verified by our muscular sensations. by a body hung on to it. for instance. XI. an acceleration directed along the tangent of its path. In like manner it is not
shall
if
make a mistake
we suppose
measure determined by the use of the spring balance under suitable conditions. nearly all the questions disChapters III and
Another point to be noted
V
cussed could be expressed without using the notion of force. or due to the air. whatever the magnitude and sense of the velocity may be. For example.350
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
[CHAP.
notion of mass
is irrelevant. 58).
The
result that.
we
We
of one body on another.
existence of pressure between bodies in contact seems obvious to
common sense.
parabolic path. in the sense opposite to the velocity. and
we
state
how
it is
to be measured. is proportional to the weight of the body (as determined by the common balance) is a fact about the elasticity of the
verified. We infer the
It
—
—
existence
of the
action from observed
It
"
"
accelerations
^
which we
also that
regard as produced by the actions.
We
define the
. should have
force.
would appear
are at liberty to define force in the way that we find most define it as a particular measure of the action convenient.
nor
is
its
(Art. the extension of the spring. in addition to the acceleration of a free body.
We
In the same parts of the science the have introduced it in Chapter III solely in
order that the statement of the results
may
take the same form as in the
subsequent parts of the theory.
would appear from this discussion that the action of one on another is a concept something conceived by us in body terms of which we describe the motions of bodies.
The
definition can be given in
most precise terms when the
body acted upon can be treated as a particle. is an action of some sort. in our (as well as in II and IV). Yet action at a distance appears to common sense to be absurd.
spring. but the trajectory
It does
whereby the acceleration that a
free
body would have
is
modified. whatever that tangent may be.
is that the notion of force is not really to the analytical formulation of those parts of the science in which necessary we pay attention to the motion of one body at a time.
is steeper in falling than in to be a legitimate inference that there appear rising.
When we
The
infer such action
we
assert the existence oi force. discuss the motion of a particle which moves in a given field of
and has.
been sketched in Art. corresponding
The
definition is incomplete until
we
state
what the nature
of the dependence of force upon direction is to be taken to be. acting on a particle.
result
is
the same seems to the present writer to be the central
fact of Mechanics. these changes of velocity are regarded
as produced
by mutual actions.
be regarded as verifications that the definition is. and in accordance with our concept of force.
In the second
place. in the first and we are place. The "proofs" and "verifications" given in most
books
fact. the mutual actions of the bodies and the Earth thus led to the massratio of two bodies.
From this point of view the " parallelogram of forces " becomes part of a conventional definition. The reciprocal of this ratio is the ratio of the masses of the two bodies.
There are two quite distinct
sets of circumstances in
which we
can observe accelerations or changes of velocity. have a ratio which is always the same so long as the bodies remain the same. and determine their massThe fact that the ratio by the method of the ballistic balance.
. as we begin to discuss the motions of several bodies forming a
connected system.FORCE AND MASS
351
magnitude of any force. this Law is equivalent to the statement that the accelerations.
may
convenient. as the ratio of their
.
As has been already pointed out.
weights when weighed in a
common
balance. the notions of force and mass are not essential to the analytical formulation of those parts of the
science in which
we study
the motion of one body at a time
They are essential as soon (the body being treated as a particle). which are produced in two
bodies by their mutual actions. we may let the bodies collide.
we must introduce the Law of Reaction. or of a particle.
The definition of what is meant by the
To do
this
force
"
remains incomplete until we explain " mass of a body. We may consider. as the product of the mass of the particle and the acceleration that is produced in it by the action.
in
As has
been explained
Chapter VI. define the force acting on a particle as a vector localized at
We
a
point. as a matter of One way in which the definition may be arrived at has
61.
1901 (" Geschaftliche Mitteilungen "). Appendix B. and the made up of forces
fact. and the problem of bringing the various conceptions into harmony with each other has not been
solved. It may be stated here that no new
of gravitation.
There
is
no reason
for thinking that it is incapable of solution '^. and J. to be adjusted so that the motion of the particles may represent the motions of the
bodies. 1902. Electric Waves. (2) that
an adequate abstract formulation of the rules the motions of the bodies of the Solar System. as
of particles.
It has
been already explained in Chapter VI how the masses of the hypo
thetical particles can be assigned. Cambridge. Leathem. 1905. H. both of
we introduce two subsidiary which were introduced by Newton the law
:
and the conception of a body as a system of We have already worked out in considerable detail particles. or a set of bodies. and of obeyed by matter in bulk under ordinary conditions. XI. Macdonald.
principle
is required for the more complete discussion of the motions of rigid bodies. when applied to bodies which may be treated as rigid. Accordingly this theory constitutes a science
torically
—
a logically valid and practically valuable method of representing observed facts by abstract formulas.
between
based.
" of the particles identifying the mechanical theory with the atoms and molecules of chemistry and the kinetic theory of gases.
as
a matter of historical
the two
conceptions upon which the existing science of Mechanics is They possess further the advantages. G. Cambridge. They have thus histhis theory provides
developed into a scheme which successfully coordinates an immense number of disconnected observations concerning matters of fact. (1) that it is possible
to found
upon them a
strictly logical
deductive theory.
The conception
conception of the
of bodies as
made up
mutual
are. or for the discussion of the motions of deformable solid bodies or of fluids. Volume and surface integrals
'
*
med
in Plnjsics. independent of the chemical and electrical conceptions .
. or with the electrons and corpuscles of modern physical
We
must be on our guard against
"
The mechanical conception of the constitution of bodies is speculation.
See the remarks on the 'Beneke Preisstiftung in Gottingen Nachrichten.352
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
[CHAP.
It appears to be desirable to explain how it may be possible for internal forces between the hypothetical particles of a body. the consequences of these principles. and cf.
actions of bodies.
In the course of this discussion
principles. M.
particles.
also are satisfied identically. of the particles. and so on. The \n{n — \) unknown quantities
are connected with the
known
quantities
by
3?i
equations. of bodies.
The Zn equations
in which mxXi
are of the form
and X\ are known. and
Fyi.STRESS
353
In the case of a free body. leaves
actually adopted involves a restriction upon the hypothem largely indeterminate.. each particle must have a suitable acceleration. between them are ^71 (n—1) quantities.
and the external
forces
We conclude that."
The masses
known.
2(yZ'2F)=0
But the equations
of the types
2wi? = 2 X. are those which the lines joining the particles make with the axis of ^. The
of the notion of stress. We regard the bodies which are thus in contact as forming a single "system of
bodies.
M. Thus the kinetic reactions of the particles can be regarded as known. and the external forces acting on them.
if ^21 is
the same as
Bxii
then ^^21=
— ^i2)
and therefore the equations of the types
2Z'=0.
where the angles ^12. the
infinite
\n{n—\)
quantities Fxi can be adjusted in an 3w.
if
the particles are sufl&ciently numerous..
Let the body.
These quantities are such that. and so they can be regarded as known.
23
.
Let there be n particles in the system. equations may be satisfied.. or actually to assign these forces.
2m {y'i zy) = {^Z. which are the
equations of motion of the particles. system
We
The method that
is
thetical forces. and F^i denotes the force exerted on the particle mi by the particle m2.
are satisfied.
+i^i„COS
^i„.z T)
l.
method involves the introduction
L. .
It appears that the forces between the hypothetical particles are largely This result offers no difficulty so long as we do not attempt
conclude that the motion of the body. nevertheless.. be replaced by a system of particles. can be represented by the motion of a system of particles. which. The Zn components of kinetic The magnitudes of the internal forces reaction can be regarded as given. the external forces are gravitational attractions
between the particles of the body and the particles of other bodies. since the accelerations are supposed to be adjusted correctly.
A body which is not free is in
all
contact with some other body.
X^
is
of the form
COS ^i2 + i^l3 cos ^13 f
. or system of bodies.
number
of
ways so that the
indeterminate. or the system of bodies. are
To make the motion of the particles represent the motion of the body.
the components of the average stress tend to definite finite limits. ^. and the sums of the moments about the
axes.
We
curve
C
Let S now denote any closed geometrical surface drawn in the body.
of a body. then these limits are the components of the "stress" " or the " traction across the plane at the point 0. ?7. r]\S^ (fS are the components of a vector quantity which is " " " " called the average traction across the area >S' of the average stress or
The
suppose that as the area S is diminished. Those which are due to the mutual gravitation between the particles below the plane and those above it have horizontal components and vertical components. and the sums of the components parallel to the axes.
.
the Earth's
Consider a body resting on a horizontal plane in the
Let the body be imagined to be divided into two parts by a horigravity. by contracting the towards the point 0.354
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
field of
[CHAP. and thus the internal forces between the two sets of particles must be regarded as consisting of other forces besides these
vertical
forces the centre of
attractions. Some of the lines of action of forces between neighbouring particles on the two sides of the plane cross the plane within the curve C. of the forces
which
>S^
arise
on the two sides of
are expressed
from actions between neighbouring particles by such formulae as
where the integration extends over the
surface. When we represent the body by a system of particles we may zontal plane.
quantities ^//S'. If these were all the internal mass of the particles which are above the plane would have an acceleration. the particles below the plane must be regarded as particles exerting upon those above the plane forces which. XI. Yy^ Zv the components of the stress or traction across the tangent plane
at
any point of >S^. Let sums of the components of these forces parallel to the axes.
Since the law of gravitation is assumed to hold for all distances that are measurable by ordinary means (Art 146). Xu.
suppose that none of the particles are in the plane. on the whole.. ^ denote the Then . and a plane surface be drawn through a point C of area S containing the point 0. ^ are the components of a vector quantity. does not move. We consider the forces
In general
let
draw on the plane a closed curve
thus exerted upon the particles which lie on a chosen side of the plane. but the
components are directed downwards. ?. Then the part of the body within aS' is to be regarded as a system of particles which move under forces. acting upon those particles which are above the plane.
plane. we must regard the additional forces as being exerted only between particles which are very near together. of which the vertical component would be different from Since the centre of mass of the zero and would be directed downwards. counteract the gravitational attractions.
Consider the forces
Those forces which
are due to the Earth's gravity act vertically downwards. which is called the
"resultant stress" or "resultant traction" across the area
>S'
of the plane.
writer to be the most natural when the science is based upon but Newton's laws of motion." Another energetic method difficulty in the way of the of formulation is the difficulty of giving any adequate account
23—2
. what
is
the same thing. They may be specified by the force per unit of area.
and
to develope the theory of Mechanics from the notions of mass and energy.
seen to be but an example of a general principle applicable to kinds of physical processes.
is
355
found to be
adequate
The stress across a plane at a point of a body is a measurable quantity which can sometimes be determined theoretically and in some cases measured The simplest examples are pressure in a fluid and tension in practically. It has been proposed also to discard the conception
of bodies as
of
is
force. and are proportional to the areas of the surfaces across which they act. which we call
"surface tractions. when these areas are small enough.
The
through a body.
made up of particles at the same time as the notion One difficulty in the way of this method of formulation
the difficulty of giving any account of the retained notion of In the Newtonian Mechanics we have.THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY
This specification of the internal forces by means of stress for the description of the motions of extended bodies. on the basis of the mass." They may be specified by the force per unit of volume. For theoretical purposes we
regard such forces as examples of a possible class of forces which we call " body forces." These forces act across surfaces. or any equivalent statements modern Physics would assign to the energy equation a much more important rdle. This tension is the resultant of the tractions across a plane which is normal to the line of the chain. a clear and definite meaning for the term " " " mass. or. a string or chain.
all
Attempts have been made
to discard the notion of force.
which they
of
all
Gravitational forces are proportional to the masses of the particles on The sum of the components. or
per unit of mass.
resultant traction across a portion of a geometrical plane. by the traction across a plane at a point.
In the course of this book the energy equation has been regarded as one of the first integrals of the equations of motion This mode of treatment appears to the of a conservative system.
small volume
the gravitational forces which act upon the part of a body within any is proportional to the volume.
The
introduction of the notion of stress carries with
:
between two classes of forces
— body forces
it
a distinction
and surface
tractions.
Law of Reaction. act. parallel to any fixed direction. The energy equation in Mechanics is
. This comes about through the doctrine of the conservation of energy. drawn is an example of another class of forces.
208.."
.356
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
[CHAP. </>'.. represent any set of velocities with which the system The result is due to might pass through the position denoted hy 0.
is
In some books they are called
•'
effective forces. ..
To explain this statement we consider the case in which the position of the system at any time can be expressed in terms of a finite number of independent geometrical quantities.
{it
in
CD

m
^'*
{a
©
"
St *'+••
'
which ^'.. or of work.
It appears from this discussion that.
of equilibrium of a system can be deduced from an equation of the form
2[(X+Z')^' + (r+F)y'+(^+^)0']=O. The masses that occur in this intermediate
method
The
of formulation are then regarded as coefficients in the expression for the kinetic energy. and the lefthand quadratic member of equation (A) can be expressed in the form
0.
we can obtain the equations
motion of the system without introducing any considerations of
forces
"
or
"
particles.. so all the equations of motion of the system can be deduced from an equation of motion of the form
(A) 2[m(^^'+J/y'+B0] = 2[(X+Z')i^' + (F+ r)^' + {Z+Z')z'l which may be obtained by the method of Art. . by taking the
notions of kinetic energy and work from the Newtonian system. in the Newtonian method.
as has been explained in Art. . of generalization of the principle of virtual work. an expression for the kinetic energy
we can find.
of potential energy.
(ji.
possibility of this intermediate
method depends upon an
analytical
transformation of the equations of motion. function of the corresponding velocities 0. <j>. Let these quantities be denoted by
Then the kinetic energy T can be expressed as a homogeneous. XI. represent what have been called in this book "kinetic reactions*" are expressible in terms of the kinetic energy. In the present state of science we may
make a compromise between
the two methods. This analytical transformation proceeds by way Just as all the equations."
choice
The formulation of the principles of Mechanics implies that is made of the frame of reference and of the timemeasuring
This statement remains true whether the formulation
*
process. The important result is that the terms of the equations of motion which.
..
Lagrange. (f). These difficulties may perhaps be overcome in the future. and destroying the scaffolding of forces and particles by which they are reached. as developed in accordance with the Newtonian method. 208.. if system. for any and an expression for
of
the rate at which work
**
is
done.
d. a view which seems to him to be logically defensible. A similar statement
holds for velocities. Neumann. Lib. 1900). Translation (Chicago.
For many theoretical purposes it is unnecessary to specify either the frame of reference or the timemeasuring process. rather
than to emphasize the divergence of this view from those held by others. 1882).
It
Thomson and
need hardly be said that the view adopted from Newton by Maxwell and by Tait. math. 30 (1902).
Natural
Philosophy. C. it has seemed to the present writer to be desirable to set forth.RELATIVITY OF MOTION
carried out in terms of mass
. reference
A
*
W. 1893). The Science of Mechanics. d. vi. 1. Teil. Voss in Ency. viz. Anding in Ency. differs from that stated in the text. Brit. 1 (Leipzig. or the law of gravitation. The Grammar of Science (London. Pearson." In regard to the general question of the relativity of motion.
What
comparatively easy to answer the slightly referencesystems are inadmissible ?
The answer
system of reference which satisfies the conditions of this " question and answer may be described as kinetic*. the place and the acceleration must be specified by reference to some frame or other. 1 (Leipzig. as clearly as may be.
Laws of
'
vol. Bd. K. Mach.
. Teil 2. Matter
and Motion (London. that we have knowledge of absolute direction but not of
Since the question
is
absolute position. iv. the Article by W. La science et Vhypothese (Paris. 1. it is sufficient to suppose that they have been chosen.
not of
practical importance. N.' and to the following more recent works
'
'
'
:
—
J. 1870). Wiss. Macaulay cited above and the Article by A. Art. describes what is here called a "kinetic frame" as a "Newtonian base. or the principle of the conservation of energy. Ueber die Principien der GalileiNewton' scht
Theorie (Leipzig. Macaulay. 1901). E. Thomson and
Tait. both for space and time. In regard to the reference system of Astronomy see the Article by E." A frame of
in Ency. and the specification of the acceleration involves also the use of some method or other of measuring time. H. Bd.
Art. 1905). Scholium attached to the Definitiones.
should be made to Newton's original argument in the Principia. But in any
problem concerning observable motions of actual bodies.). H. Poincar^. is specified. math. We may ask two questions:
(1)
How
is
?
specified
different
the system specified ? (2) How ought the system to be It is a little difficult to answer briefly either of these
questions. Maxwell. Wiss. 10th Edition. the description of the motion is incomplete until the reference system. a certain place has a certain acceleration.
in the Article
'
Motion. 1879). Part I (Cambridge.
C.
and
it
:
is
question is that no system ought to be admitted which conflicts with the principles of Mechanics. or in terms of kinetic and work for the two methods require the specification energy When we say that a particle at of accelerations and velocities. H.D.
357
and force.
and the answer. Such internal relative motions generally involve dissipation of energy * in a system.
may
consider the forces that can
of Earth
The system
and Moon. astronomers have shown that one of the inequalities in the motion of the Moon could be
explained by the supposition that such a gradual slackening in the speed of the Earth's rotation is taking place. in accordance with the
illustrate this question. Thus we cannot choose as a frame of reference axes fixed in the Earth." and time measured in accordance with the conditions will
be called
"
kinetic time.
with the fluid ocean on the Earth. and at the same time maintain the law of reaction. The change from the
geocentric astronomy of Ptolemy to the heliocentric astronomy of Copernicus may be regarded as an instance of the discarding of an
unsuitable frame of reference.
or. that sidereal time
is
not kinetic
* That is to say a change in the form of the energy by which less of it is rendered available.
time.
reference which satisfies the conditions will be called a " kinetic
frame. XI. for example. This result implies that the timemeasuring process is not the rotation of
the Earth. executes various internal relative motions.
in other words. and. to regard the Earth as exerting forces on other and the law of reaction states that these bodies exert on the Earth. On the basis of the law of gravitation and the principle of the conservation of energy. for they do not take place without friction."
the motion of the Earth. as. among which the tides are conspicuous.
To
concept of
bodies. therefore. but without fixing beforehand what the
timemeasuring process is to be.
As an
illustration of the restrictions limiting the choice of
the timemeasuring process we affect the rotation of the Earth.358
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
[CHAP. that the centre of mass of the
Earth has certain component accelerations. let us consider The principles of Mechanics require that the Earth should be regarded as a body having a certain mass and a certain centre of mass. We are
is
thus led to expect that the kinetic energy of the Earth's rotation being dissipated at a finite rate.
forces
force. or that the period of the
diurnal rotation (the length of the day) is gradually increasing. in the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. Observations of falling bodies and Astronomical observations lead us.
.
€_l
86400 2
•
It
we measure time by r instead
it
kinetic time so far as
of t. and we may
fashion
take the interval
t
to denote
t
sidereal days.
by means of the familiar process of changing the independent variable. Phil.
In regard to the measurement of time we have no natural " " fixed stars provide for the system of reference such as the but we can proceed in a different determination of direction
. as lines of reference. and to take. the quantity r measures has been necessary as yet to determine its
measure. Two estimates are 22 seconds per century and 8 3 seconds per century.
. that is to say time determined by the rotation of the Earth relative to the stars. Darwin). Nat. H. Let a new variable r be introduced by the equation
'^
^. Let t denote sidereal time.
is
usually stated in the form that the Earth losing at the rate of so many seconds in a
The processes by which we reach a kinetic frame of reference and a kinetic timemeasuring process are approximative. the instant of the occurrence of some assigned event. We may construct a
frame. lines drawn to
"
fixed
"
stars
which have no appreciable proper motion or annual
parallax. By means of the law of gravitation we can determine. It has proved to be sufficient to take this centre of mass as origin. to a certain order of approximation. See Thomson and Tait. measured from some particular epoch. Part II.SYSTEMS OF REFERENCE
359
The
century
result
is
as a timekeeper
*. We know that € is a very small fraction. t is. of which the origin
*
is
the centre of mass of the Sun. by means of three
The rate is variously estimated. It has
always proved to be possible to correct a choice previously made so as to harmonize the observations of the motions of actual
bodies with the principles of Mechanics.
During
this interval
the Earth turns through 27rt radians.
and the position
the masses of the bodies which compose the Solar System relative to these bodies of the centre of mass
of the system. Appendix G (contributed by G. of course.
This discussion suggests also a method by which we might dispense with " the " fixed stars in the choice of a frame of reference. Let the Earth as a timekeeper be losing at the rate of e seconds per day.
at right angles to the plane
This frame does not.
for drawn from the origin. continue to be a kinetic frame . is a
convention. This method has no practical value but it appears to have some theoretical interest.
We
do
this
when we
"
say that the
system of reference
what we have
called
kinetic. To achieve our object we must state.
. of course.
. sufficient
. We may take these lines arbitrarily we may draw two of them to the centres of mass of the Earth instance. but we can take it to coincide with a kinetic frame at some instant. for the
most
part. paid little attention to the question of systems of reference. be a proper origin for a kinetic frame. what our system of reference is.
rate. with. This interest will
of these two.360
lines
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES
[CHAP.
. there are gravitational forces acting between the bodies of the Solar System and the stars. and Jupiter. as precisely as we can. in a chosen sense. at any for our purpose."
we
explain
how a
kinetic frame can be found
and when and how kinetic
approximation
time can be determined. and the third. Then we are able to state that the relative the two frames is so small that it has not been detected by any
observations. it remains true that the centre of mass of the system cannot. determine the position of the kinetic frame at any time.
be more apparent if we reflect that.
Finally it must be said that the choice of a kinetic frame and of kinetic time. in the long run. and how actual bodies
move with
reference to
is
it. It will then move relatively to the kinetic frame. with origin at the centre of mass of the Solar
System. instead of any other frame and time. The frame which we now adopt. XI.
and we wish
to utilize the results that have
been accumulated
during three centuries by scientific investigators who. and the kinetic frame will move If the relative motion of the two frames were known. according to the law of universal gravitation. However small the forces which thus act upon the
bodies of our system may be.
We
have set out to describe the motions of bodies
.
may
be taken to coincide with a
motion of
some instant. we relatively to it. and axes pointing to fixed
kinetic frame at
stars. could determine the position of the kinetic frame in the system after a short interval of time and thus we might by a continued approximation.
is
congruence. the measure of the object in respect of
O)
When
that property
is
the rational fraction pjq. The standard must be an object which possesses the property in question. where equality of mass is by weighing to measure an interval of time we measure the angle this requires the division of turned through by the Earth in the interval an angle into a number of equal angles. or irrational) which is the measure of the object in respect of the property. The number is determined by the following
(a)
rules
:
—
each of which
the object can be divided into an integral number n of parts.
In the mathematical theory of measiuement the case where no rational measure the object may not be so simply dismissed. The mathematical theory of measurement rests on (a) the assumed possibility of dividing an object into an integral number of
parts which are identical in respect of some property.
When
the object and the standard can be divided into p and q parts respectively {p and q being integers). rational but not integral.APPENDIX. happen
fraction pjq can
but that. such that all the parts are identical in respect of the property in question. and (2) that in practice the integer q may be taken so large that an integer p may be found for which the fraction piq measures the object
within the limits of experimental error. we must suppose the segment divided into a number of equal segments.
Measurement.
MEASUREMENT AND
UNITS.
The measurement of an object in respect of any property requires (1) a unit or standard of comparison. It may that however great q is taken there is no corresponding number jo. is identical with the standard in respect of the property in the measure of the object in respect of that property is n. question. Thus. while the fraction pjq would measure an object somewhat smaller
.
The mode of referring to the standard must be such that it determines a positive number (integral. and (2) a mode of referring to the standard. and the test of equality of angles
division into a tested
. . where the test of equality of length is conto measure the mass of a body we must suppose it capable of gruence
. to measure the length of a segment of a line.
Here it is to be noted (1) that the rule (a) is the case of the rule O) for which q = \.
number of bodies of equal mass.
Every rational
numbers
all
—
—
that
number without exception falls into one or other of the two classes.
. or less than. between numbers expressing quantities are valid expressions of relations between the quantities. When the unit is stated or implied the number
A
expresses the quantity. We may in fact separate all rational
into two classes a "superior" class and an "inferior" class so the numbers in the superior class are too large to be the measure of the object. and the phrase "magnitude of an object" is thus coextensive in meaning with the word
"
it
quantity. we can think of as measurable in respect of any property. Thus. a certain number which has been arrived
at in another way. When the unit is stated the magnitude of (b) an object is precisely determined by its measure in terms of the unit.
. that we wish to measure the diagonal of a square whose side is the unit of length. expressing that a certain number which has been arrived at in one way is equal to. and masses.
Fundamental and derived Quantities.
Mathematical equations.362
APPENDIX
than that to be measured.
the
the
Suppose. the fraction {p + l)/q would measure an object somewhat greater than that to be measured. only if they hold good for all systems of units. and The "object" may be anything which this measure is always a number. and those whose squares are less than two. and this irrational number is
the required measure. The fundamental Physical (c) In Dynamics. for example. greater than. and inequalities.
pressing an interval of time force is measured by the product of a numbei and all th( expressing a mass and a number expressing an acceleration other magnitudes that occur are in similar ways dependent upon lengths
times.
Number and Quantity. is a numbei velocity is measured by a fraction of which the numerator
an interva" expressing a length and the denominator is a number expressing of time . We may separate all rational numbers
into
two classes— those whose squares are greater than two.
Mathematical equations. and inequalities. all the other quantities which occur are derived from these. acceleration is measured by a fraction of which the numeratoi is a number expressing a velocity and the denominator is a number ex. Every rational number without exception The separation between the two falls into one or other of the two classes. and thus the quantity is not identical with the number expressit."
The quantity does not change when the unit chosen to measure changes. as considered ic quantities are lengths. and all those in the inferior class are too small. times. as distinci from the numbers. and masses. are relations between numbers. classes is marked by the irrational number >/2. When this is the case the measure sought is an irrational number.
ing
is
number can express a quantity only when the unit of measurement stated or understood. and separation between them is marked by an irrational number which is
measure of the
object. this book.
[LY[T]^[MJ.
it is
that the period of oscillation of a pendulum can depend only on and the acceleration due to gravity.C.^j^.
If the units of length. and mass are changed so that the new units are respectively x.
j
J
j^pf^^. Thus.
The number expressing a derived quantity is. This will be made clear by the consideration of some examples.
The numbers
p. q dimensions in time. we can prove that proportional to the square root of the length. the measure of any quantity in terms of the new units is obtained from its measure in terms of the old units by
dividing by x^y^z^. a result by consideration of the dimensions of the quantities involved.
which expresses a quantity is said to be of If the unit of measurement is altered
so that the new unit is a certain multiple x of the old. in every case. and (7 is a homogeneous expression of some degree r in numbers expressing masses.
We give
here a
quantities that occur in
Dynamics and
[LYIT]^'
list showing the principal derived their dimension symbols. and r dimensions in mass. y^ z times the old. if
we assume
its
mass.
is
the dimension symbol of the
The condition that a mathematical equation or inequality between numbers expressing quantities may be a valid expression of a relation between the quantities is that every term in it must be of the same dimensions.
is
expressed
an interval of time
its
expression cannot involve any power of a
. We say that the quantity
is
of
p
We
express this shortly
dimensions in length. the number expressing the quantity in terms of the new unit is the quotient by x of the number expressing the quantity in terms of the old unit.
(e)
Physical Quantities. by saying that the dimension symbol of the quantity
is [Z]^[7^«[J/']*". B.
Kinetic
Energy
Power
Density [Z]3[J/]i. is a homogeneous expression of some degree
B
q in numbers expressing intervals of time.
q^
r
may
be positive or negative. or zero. time. Since the quantity to be
its length.rjni. Constant of Gravitation [LY[T]^\]ir[\
We can frequently determine the form of (/) Method of Dimensions. where [Z]p[7^«[J/]'*
quantity.f^. ^^p^^.
Velocity Acceleration
[^P[^"^
Moment
of
Impulsive Couple Reaction
Kinetic
Momentumj l j l j l j [ipryi. of which ^ is a homogeneous expression of some degree p in numbers expressing lengths.MEASUREMENT AND UNITS
{d)
363
DimeTisions. integral
or fractional.
"
A number
one " dimension
in that quantity. the product of three numbers A.
In any piece of mathematical reasoning where the numbers represent quantities all the terms in each equation must be of the same dimensions. product yp has dimension symbol [7^]"^ and thus (o^lyp is a number (angles being measured in radians) the ellipticity being a number. Now g has dimension symbol [Z']^[^]~^ and therefore \lijg
.
of
(o^lyp. to take another example.
.
The method of dimensions supplies also a useful means of verification. numerical multiple of J{lly). hence the only way in which the expression of the period can contain the length I of the pendulum is by being proThis argument would prove that the period is a portional to its square root. and the constant of gravitation y. consider the
ellipticity of the
rotation w. Again. and we have assumed that no mass but the mass of the body can enter into the expression the period is therefore independent of the mass of the body. the
Earth supposed to depend on the angular velocity of The density p. must be a function
mean
.
has dimension symbol [^^[^]~i.364
APPENDIX
mass.
keeper. 135 . Tension motion of. 107 Areas. Instantaneous.
39. 207. 195. E. 70. three dimensions. as a time.
Attractions. 255
D'Alembert's Principle. Eotation of the. 291 .
of..
. 52 Equations of motion. 169
of. 188
252
. 305. 177 Darwin. 41 . 3950.
of a chain. 253. 244
Apses. 106 Centre. 309
Lagrange's^
Coordinates. 182 Energy and momentum. 171
Earth. 252 Cycloid.
105
\
Central
forces. Theory of. 168
Descent.
. of trajectories. the. 42
of
two bodies. C. 69
components
15
1
257 348
Ballistic balance. 187. 175 . 191 Conservation of.
127. 24. uniform. 217 . 104.
motion
Elliptic motion. 76. 225.
Displacement. 352 Boys. 174 Angular velocity. 336 motion relative to the. along normal to plane
. 102. 102 .
Energy equation. Internal. 181 .
Acceleration.
363
. Definition of.
of
Energy. Eighthanded. Kinetic. 73. 104 Collision. 359
Elasticity. of a system of particles. 166.
from
94
certain
conditions. 200204 Cox. 27. 19. 23.. Potential. 2
ferred to polar coordinates in three dimensions. Polar. 4. 113
269
. Mean density of the. relative
to rotating frame. 283
Conic. Measurement of. 72 Dimensions. 187.
355. 33
Couples. initial. 42. 127. 32.
of a rigid body. 170
Axes. 39. 172. initial.INDEX. 194. along normal to surface.
. 136 Curvature.
Bodies. 342346. 176 of a
. 254 of. Definition
82. of path of a particle of a rigid body. Line of quickest. 103 . 49 Constraint. 303 Conservative forces. Correction for
inertia of pulley. 358
Dissipation
of.
The numbers
refer to pages. 72. 298 Envelopes. 140. motion of
a particle under. 93. 303.
106
. 77.
onesided.
296. 246
Ball. 359
Density. 79 . 22 .
.
173.
disturbed. Constitution of. isochronism of. 75
Anding.
. Eectangular. 7 Dyne.
body in general. 23 . 183. 40 .
364
Modulus
.
j
mass. 170 .
73. 94. radial and transversal. 111
Central orbits.
356
.
ellipticity of the. 90.
128
Eelative. central. of a particle. 111.. H. motion on a tortuous. 342
Curve. 94..
Theory
of. 357
Angular momentum. S. of oscillation. 355 . 181 .
!
under several. 300.
Construction
of. 219. Principal. H. 38 Atwood's macMne. G.. 250. E. 187.
. along principal normal of tortuous curve. Equable description of. v.
of. motion on a plane. 341. 170. 32. 4. 103
Polar in
curve. re
24. Cliain. 211.
177
of.
on
elastic system. 189
of. 338.
effect of. 71
Effective. 69
Massratio. 352 Line of action. 105
.
at a point. 93.
G3rration. Force of. Theory
361
20. 170. 170 Work done by. 72 a system of particles. 5. of localized vector. M.
Internal.
217. E.. W.
Con176. of path of particle. 250 .
Law
of. 85.
. 209 Kinetic frame and kinetic time. K.
of a particle. 43. 86
of
Momenta! equivalents. 246
of particles. 356
sliding.
172. 169.366
EquiUbrium. 23
I. 357
Newton. 23.
. Centre
of. impulsive. 179. &c. 183.
212
Impulsive motion. Free motion
Gravitation. 356 Laws of motion. 190
. 72.
268. 175
. 2.
355
. 27.. 192 . 285 Frame of reference. 68.
of Kinetic reaction. 357
.
.
.
311. 30..
49. 68.
OsciUation. radius of.. 139 in rolling and
. 349
Footpound. 71. 244 Ellipse of. 168 . 71 of. 182. of a particle.
191 136
.
43.
181
.
340. 337 .
Kepler. Notion of. 72
. 357 Macdonald. . 103. C.
140
Parabolic motion. on plane. 73. 179. 104 341
. 33.
External. lost in collision.
80. 208 Hertz.
C. Determination of.
Kinematic formula. 168. 68.
J. 70. 75. H. 6771.
Macaulay. 84.
176
Body. 77 Huygens. 269. 27. Ch. 294 Osculating plane. .
momentum. 135.
on curve.
See Collision
internal. 306 Kinetic energy.
90.
Lagrange.. 343 . 47. 173 of a rigid body. 27. Central. 252
. 77. 349
.. Moment of. change of. 183 Gravity. 39. Circle of. 267 . for velocities. 80. 175. 357
of. 106.
Conical. 352 Mach. 171
.
Foucault's pendulum. 76. Definition of. 351. 347. 300
Pearson. 104
Initial
motion. 249
Conservation
Heat. 76.
68.
MaxweU. L. 129. 18 of forces. Moment of.
Impulse. 345
Friction.
183.
J. 167
. J.
Particle. G.
Measurement
Galileo. 357 Machines. 351 of velocities. generated in collision. 39. 347. 253
Impact. 246 Inflexions. 69.
291. Constant of. 249.
about a moving
of a system
. 187
Gramme. 170.
356
Coefficient of. 246 Moment.
129
. 221
Erg. 208. 71. 181 Motion of two bodies under. 102.
Corrections
of. of localized vectors.
52. Kesultant.
Horsepower. 257 Mass. 76
INDEX
Kinematic conditions.
Extension. Simple.
193
Field of force. H. 111
servative.
Transmissibility
Forces. of a rigid body.. 301
87.
Momentum. 172. 338.. H.. 95
Pendulum. 339. 29.
188
.
50
101
Path. 351 Primitive notion
. 223.
Change
of. 357 Perpetual motion. 260.
Neumann.
178
.
under.. 2
.
Parallelogram. 76. 17
38.
. 174
. 78 on surface. 348
84. 76
Force. .
256259. 222.
343
Inverse square. 68 Work done by. Notion of.
357
Notation. See Sudden changes of motion Inertia. 250. 167.
Measurement. 347 Leathem. 349
of. .
Dynamics
of a. J. 36. 350 Vectorial character of. 133. 77.
. 182 produced by impulses.
Law of..
. 169
17.
. 51
.
axis.
3
Potential. 351. 249 143.
. 221. 69 Power. 29. of gravitating system. Moment of. 193
due to gravity. 209. 258.
Weight. 265
.
.
String. of string in contact
of.
Surface. Motion on a. 192 of stretched string or spring.
Thomson and
Thread.
of internal
180
^
.
Work
function. 171
. 208. Impact of. 70.
Translation and Rotation. 17
Quantity. 70 Pound. 336
Velocity. 191. 104 . F. 253 of. 113. A. 76.
of. 139
. of tion of..
Planetary motion. 134
system
.
Simple. S. of bodies in contact.
CAMBRIDGE
:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY. Determination of. 181 . Localization of.
Pull.
Resisting medium. 135.
167.
equilibrium. 257 of matter. 8 Composition and Resolution of. 24.. 147
.
Reaction. 303
. 186 Traction.
Eevolving. 69 Poundal. 90. 283 Rigid body. 31. 217 Relative motion. 188 Energy in two dimensions.
of power. 195 initial.
Rolling.
Unit. 145
. 3
.
244
. 170. 192
. Resisted. 193 of Stability.
131
. 190. 364
Speed.
of velocity. 95 Potential energy. Definition
forces. 34 ComposiProduction of. 357
Screw. 1519 terminal. 81 of oscillating system. of circular orbit. 243. 10 . 20. 143.
Foucault's. Definition of. 357. 69 . Motion on
a.
of the Earth. 91
.. 38
Uniformity of Nature. 5. 283. 355 Train.
104 Motion of two bodies connected by a. 195. 17
Spheres. of rigid body. 178
Range. on a surface.
Spring. 110 . Mean solar. 210.
Law
1
. 224. 25. 190. 41.
Potential function one
in a rod. 37
. 132. AT
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 181
.
of a projectile. 336 Tisserand. 260 Rotation. coefficient of. 23 force. 166.
M. Surface. 355 at a place of discontinuity. 350 on a curve.
of
of
76
. 74. 258
dimensions. 286 Position. 183 Projectile. 86 Second.
88
.
. 186 Plumbline. 257
Trajectory. righthanded. 68
Work. 224
.
. of frame.
200206
. 342
•
acceleration. 128. H. 69. 18 .
135
Virtual work. 191. 19 of mass. 77.
. 78. 169.A. Measurement of. 194 Pressure. 86 . 362
.INDEX
83
. Localized.
of a locomotive.. 105 . motion of a. 81 Simple harmonic motion.
Equivalent
. 340 Poincar^.
valued. Reduction of a
. 180. of time. 38.
Resistance. Potential energy of. 141 127.
Tension. 168
Time. of work. Potential energy of. 94. found by method of
Rigid. 253
Sliding. Independence of. 353
.
296
Stress.
of rigid body. 69 . 357 Poisson. 283 Attraction of. 337 Seconds' pendulum.
of. 225 Period 345
. 20. D. 134. 137. of. .
of steady motion. of a string or chain.
. 104
Tait.
Rough
curve. 143
. 339. 305 Problem of two bodies.
144
Tycho Brahe. 187 Motion of. 356
Voss. 187. 359
.
with surface. 193 . 183. 192 Force of one. 127
77
Vectors. Definition of.
367
pendulum. 2. 142 Restitution.
.
.
.
.
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