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THEOKETICAL MECHANICS
AN INTRODUCTORY TREATISE
ON THE
PEINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS.
Hotttion: ©laafloto: FETTER LANE. ^tiu lorfe: G. Ltd. E. PUTNAM'S SONS. Manager. WELLINGTON STREET. CO. 50.G. A. BROCKHAUS. CLAY. ILetpjig: F. F. P..'] . IBambaxi antJ Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND [All rights reserved. C.CAMBKIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE.
FORMERLY FELLOW AND LECTURER OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE. OXFORD. E. M.Sc. CAMBRIDGE 1906 : AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. HONORARY FELLOW OF QUEEN's COLLEGE. H.THEOEETICAL MECHANICS AN INTEODUCTORY TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS WITH APPLICATIONS AND NUMEROUS EXAMPLES BY A. CAMBRIDGE. F..E. BEDLEIAN PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.A. SECOND EDITION. . D. LOVE.S.
z^^ 0f^ CambnDge : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. M.'' . ^ .A.
dictum that diction ^ all motion is relative stands in pronounced contra with Newton's dynamical apparatus of absolute time. and the results deduced from them. Nevertheless we may trace a tendency in modern investigations. but. and absolute motion. He is not assumed to have read 330176 . more inclination to regard the object to be attained as a I On another side there is an important respect in which modem writers have departed from the form of the Newtonian theory. and some knowledge of Plane Coordinate Geometry. and have extended the region of their application. which is of the nature of a j gradual change in the point of view: there is less search for causes. . which shall be as precise as possible. The class of students for w^hom the book is intended may be described as beginners in Mathematical Analysis. in order to ascertain what modification would be needed to bring the into theory of Rational Mechanics founded by Newton harmony with the doctrine of the relativity of motion. and which shall be in accordance with modern ideas. nnHE J his his foundations of Mechanical Science were laid by Newton. Later writers have developed principles analytically. The reader is supposed to have a slight acquaintance with the elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus.EXTEACTS FROM THE PEEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. absolute space. and his achievements in this department constitute perhaps most enduring title to fame. The philosophical precise formulation of observed facts. in regard to the principles themselves. It has been necessary to reconsider in detail the principles. they have acted the part of commentators. The purpose of this book is didactic it is meant to set before students an account of the principles of Mechanics.
It not infrequently happens that analytical methods are preferred to geometrical ones.VI PREFACE Solid Geometry or Differential Equations. j ' i more helpful to the students j i In addition to the Examples in the text. Pearson's Grammar of Science. large collections have been appended to some of the Chapters. which I have not found in such papers. some of which are wellknown theorems and are referred to in subsequent demonstrations. and Wolstenholme. A. Webb. . tion papers. H. Cambridge. 1897. are taken from the wellknown collections j  of Besant. Routh. These Examples are for the most part taken from University and College ExaminaIt is I > / hoped that these j . and the solutions of the differential equations that occur are explained. and Mach's Science of Mechanics. R. In regard to methods for the treatment of particular questions. in very small number. E. August. others. j The works which have been most useful to me in connexion I with matters of principle are Kirchhoff's Vorlesungen uber Mathematische Physik (Mechanik). LOVE. as likely to be whose wants are in view. I am conscious of a deep obligation to the teaching of Mr R. and to students occupied in revising their work. The last should be in the hands of all j  ' students who desire to follow the history of dynamical ideas. may prove useful to teachers. The apparatus of Cartesian Coordinates in three dimensions is described.
As an in the first edition. E. rilHE changes which have been made in this edition are. 1 The main objects in view in this rearrangement to present the theory in a less abstract have been on the one hand fashion and on the other hand ( to avoid long preliminary dis cussions. student The collections of miscellaneous I 1 teacher who may be reading the book without the guidance of a is recommended to pay the greatest attention to the Articles ! unmarked and to the unmarked \ ollections of examples kindness inserted in the text. for order part. so that it may be hoped that few errors remain. A. 1906. of the nature of a rearrangement of the ^ the most of the material. E. some Articles have been marked with asterisk to indicate that they may with advantage be omitted in a first reading. H. and all of these examples have now been verified or A corrected. JoUiffe for his in reading the proofs. . Oxford. LOVE. September. My best thanks are due to Mr A. examples at the ends of most of the Chapters have been retained with a few changes.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
16. 7. 1. 28..24 . 26. Introductory 7 8. 13. Lemma Theorem of moments . VELOCITY.. 2 2 4. 7 8 10. Formal definition of velocity Measurement of velocity 20. . ACCELERATION. 12... ART. . 17. Moment of localized vector 20 20 21 21. DISPLACEMENT. Frame of reference 6. Choice of the timemeasuring j)rocess and of the frame of reference 3 5 6 CHAPTER I. 22. Examples of equivalent vectors Components and Resultant Composition of any number of vectors Vectors equivalent to zero 9 10 13 14 15 Components of displacement Velocity in a straight line 15 17 Velocity in general Localized vectors 18 19 19 18. . 22 23 23 24 25 .CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. Displacement Definition of a vector 9. Acceleration 24. 25. 15. 11. 27. motion . 23. Measurement of Acceleration Notation for velocities and accelerations Angular velocity and acceleration Relative coordinates and relative motion Geometry of relative . PAGE Nature of the science Motion of a particle Measurement of time Determination of position 1 2. 3. . 14... 19.. 5.
. . 57.. 29. . . Examples Motion in a curved path Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve . . 35. given fields 53.47 48 52. 40. . 46. . Examples Parabolic motion under gravity 29 • .. 45 46 . 38. 51. PAGE Gravity Field of force Rectilinear motion in a uniform field 27 27 27 28 3L 32. THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. 54. 33. Newton's investigation Motion in a straight line with an acceleration to a point in the 49 55. .30 32 36.. 33 Examples Simple harmonic motion Composition of simple harmonic motions Examples Kepler's laws of planetary motion Equable description of areas 34 34 37 37 38 38 . 34. 49. 50. Radial and transverse components of velocity and acceleration 39 41 41 Examples Acceleration in central orbit 45. 30. Examples Elliptic 42 42 43 orbits 47. .CONTENTS IX CHAPTER II. 39.. 37. 48. . 50 51 51 56. . 41. 52 53 Miscellaneous Examples . Examples . ART. 43. 44. Hne varying inversely as the square of the distance Examples Field of the Earth's gravitation .. . 42. motion about a focus Examples Inverse problem of central Determination of central orbits in a given field Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance Additional examples of the determination of central orbits in .
Equations of motion EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN SIMPLE CASES. Impulse . 82. 86..X CONTENTS CHAPTER ART. 89. 66. 76. 61. Units of mass and force Vectorial character of force 68 69 70 kinetic reaction Examples Definitions of 63. . 81... Examples Conical pendulum Examples 84 THEORY OP MOMENTUM. 78. 93. PAGE The force of gravity Measure of force 67 60.73 75 76 76 77 . 73. momentum and kinetic reaction about an axis Constancy of moment of momentum Moment 87 WORK AND ENERGY. 82 82 83 80. 92. Work done by Calculation of a variable force 88 89 90 work Work function Potential function 90 91 Forces derived from a potential Energy equation Potential energy of a particle in a field of force . FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE. 69. 79.. 90. 71. 59. Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity Examples Kinetic energy and work Units of energy and work Power Friction . momentum and . 87. III. 62. 70. 65. Motion on a rough plane Examples Atwood's machine 79 Examples Simple circular pendulum executing small oscillations . 58. 74. . 84 85 85 86 Sudden changes of motion Constancy of momentum of force. 75. . 88. 72 72 72 64. 83. 68. 91.. 80 81 Examples Onesided constraint 77. 80 .. 84. 93 94 94 94 96 Forces which do no work Conservative and nonconservative Miscellaneous Examples fields 94.77 78 78 72. 67. 85.
. . . Integration of the equations of motion . 127. 128 129 129 131 131 Limiting case Examples Smooth plane tube rotating Newton's revolving orbit 132 in its plane 132 133 125. 96. 101. 105. . PAGE Introductory 101 Formation of equations of motion Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve] Polar coordinates in three dimensions . 111. 97. 128 string .CONTENTS xi CHAPTER ART. . lY. 124.. Normal impulse Examples Miscellaneous Examples . 128. 103 104 104 104 106 106 107 100. 123.. . 120. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. 115. 103. . 99.102 . 117. . 122. 102. . V. 108.. . 109 106. Introductory Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces 127 .. 95. 109 110 in terms of polar Examples Examples of equations of motion expressed coordinates Ill forces .. . . .113 113 113. Example Motion of a body attached to a string or spring Examples The problem of central orbits Apses Examples Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit . MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES. . Examples Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible Examples Oscillating pendulum Complete revolution .. 104. 112. 107.. . Examples of motion under several central Disturbed elliptic motion Tangential impulse .. . 126.. 119. 110.115 115 116 CHAPTER 114. 121.111 . 127 116. 101 . 98.. 118.135 136 136 . 109. Examples Motion on a rough plane curve under gravity Examples Motion on a curve in general 134 .
146. 156. . Introductory Centre of mass 172 172 Resultant momentum 172 173 154.. .. . . 148. 153.148 CHAPTER THE LAW OF REACTION. 139. 155. Statement of the law of reaction Massratio 167 Mass Density .177 178 . Resultant kinetic reaction Relative coordinates 173 174 175 Moment Moment of momentum of kinetic reaction Kinetic energy 175 175 . Examples Motion on a surface 138 in general 139 132.176 176 161. 141. 159.. 152. Direct impact of spheres Ballistic balance 166 166 167 142. Miscellaneous Examples . 138.. 151. Examples Equations of motion of a system of particles Law of internal action Simplified forms of the equations of motion Motion of the centre of mass . Theory of Attractions Mean density of the Earth Attraction within gravitating sphere 170 170 171 150. VI. Examples 171 THEORY OP A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES. 162. . 144. . . 168 . . 140. 149. 136. 158. . 163. . 131. . 143. 142 142 143 137.168 169 Gravitation 147. 145. . . 160. Examples Motion in a Examples 144 vertical plane under gravity 145 147 . . . 129. 137 130.Xll CONTENTS PAGE Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with a vertical axis ART. . 157. 133. Osculating plane of path 140 • Examples Motion in resisting medium Eesistance proportional to the velocity Eesisted simple harmonic motion 141 134. . 135. .
Potential energy of a body Energy of a rigid body Potential energy of a stretched string Localization of potential energy 192 192 193 194 188. Potential energy Potential energy of gravitating system 174. 168. 170.194 195 197 mass in contact with smooth Miscellaneous Examples APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VI. Theory of the motion of a body Motion of a rigid body Transmissibility of force Forces between rigid bodies in contact Friction 187 188 189 190 183.. 178. 202 203 (/) (^) System of localized vectors in a plane Reduction of a system of vectors localized in lines 204 205 . of of n bodies two bodies 183 . . Examples General problem of planetary motion BODIES OF FINITE SIZE. 164. 180.. . . REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS. 165. 176. particles .. 190. momentum moment of momentum Sudden changes of motion Work done by the force between two . 169. 189. Energy equation Kinetic energy produced by impulses 182 182 THE PROBLEM OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 186 179.. 187.. . 181. . 190 191 185.. 184. . 167. . 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 Work function 171. 183 185 177. 166. 172. 186. The problem The problem . Xlll PAGE Motion relative to the centre of mass Independence of translation and rotation Conservation of Conservation of 178 . 182... 173. {a) (6) (c) Vector couple Equivalence of couples in the same plane Parallel vectors 200 200 201 {d) (e) Equivalence of couples in parallel planes Composition of couples . Power Motion of a String or surface string or chain chain of negligible . . 175..CONTENTS ART.
211. 210. . PAGE Introductory 207 SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION. . . 197. YII. 223 225 225 227 228 212. . 207 . 196. Kir 215.XIV CONTENTS CHAPTER ART. 209. . 191. 222 223 . 217. Examples Miscellaneous Examples CHAPTER '' VIII. . . . 203. 219 208. Equilibrium Machines 221 Examples Small oscillations . MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS. 206. 216. . 200. . 211 211 . . . Introductory Moment of inertia inei'tia Theorems concerning moments of Calculations of 218. . Nature of the action between impinging bodies. 207. 192. . 219. .212 212 215 202. Direct impact of elastic spheres Generalized Newton's rule 199. moments of inertia Examples Velocity and momentum of rigid body 243 244 245 246 248 249 . Nature of the problems Method Initial for initial accelerations Illustrative problem curvature 217 218 218 218 Examples APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION. 204. . . 201. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS. 214. Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres Deduction of Newton's rule from a particular assumption Elastic systems General theory of sudden changes of motion Illustrative problems . 193. . and momentum . 220. Examples INITIAL MOTIONS. 194. 198. Newton's experimental investigation . 208 208 209 210 210 Coefficient of restitution 195. Examples Principles of energy 213. 205.
(Note on moments about a moving Illustrative . 232. . 222. 283 284 . 253 255 (Note on motion of a train) rolling . 254. Examples Kinematic condition of Examples Stress in a rod 259 260 261 265 233. IX. 241. 234. 223. 255 228. 237. motions 268 269 269 271 Small oscillations Illustrative problem 238. XV PAGE Kinetic reaction of rigid body 250 252 Examples Equations of motion of rigid body Continuance of motion in two dimensions Rigid pendulum 252 253 224. 256. . axis) .294 294 295 296 297 250. 235. Inextensible chain Tension at a point of discontinuity Illustrative ^^^ 303 303 258. . 225. problems . 242. . problem . Examples Stabihty of steady motions 251. 243. . .CONTENTS ART. • Examples Small oscillations . 229. 221. 230. 236. 248.292 . 300 MOTION OF A STRING OR CHAIN.298 299 . 246. Impulsive motion Kinetic energy produced by impulses 266 267 Examples Initial 268 . 249. AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS. 240. Examples Miscellaneous Examples 272 CHAPTER RIGID BODIES 239. 253. Examples Illustrative problems. 255. 257.286 . 231. . 244. 226. 227. 252. Impact of two solid bodies Impact of smooth bodies Impact of rough bodies Case of no sliding 285 Examples Impulsive motion of connected systems . Examples Initial motions and Illustrative 290 initial curvatures 291 247. Examples problem (Energy and momentum) Kinematical Note Examples.287 288 245.
337 338 Gravity Variation of gravity with latitude 339 274. PAGE 304 305 260. 361 Index 365 . 273. Mass. Examples Chain moving freely Chain moving freely Invariable form Examples Initial motion Impulsive motion in one plane. . 263. Mass and weighing Lunar deflexion of gravity Examples Motion of a free body near the Earth's Initial 340 341 341 surface. 262. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS.313 313 CHAPTER X. 272. . "Energetic" process method. 261. Kinematical equations Equations of motion 306 309 309 310 311 264. Field of force. 312 . CONTENTS Constrained motion of a chain under gravity . 277.. 278. solar time . 266. . Introductory Sidereal time and 336 mean . Stress. . 280. 265. . . 269.. . pendulum Examples CHAPTER XI. 275. . Frame of reference and timemeasuring 347 APPENDIX. . . 336 . Examples Miscellaneous Examples . THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH. 268. 342 motion Motion of a pendulum Foucault's 343 344 345 346 279. 267. Constitution of bodies.. Newton's laws of motion. Measurement and Units . 270. Definition of force. in one plane. 276. 259.XVI ART. The law of gravitation . Conservation of energy. 271.
so made are verified in experience. discovered by observation. These rules of sequence. Mechanics its is a Natural Science. 1 . It is future motions and positions of bodies can be deduced from them. The is principles are generalizations from experience. Its object is the description of these motions in terms of the rules of invariable sequence which they obey. and the corresponding Law formulated.INTRODUCTION. its data are facts of experience. suggest to our minds certain general notions in terms of which it is possible to state the rules in Such abstract formulas for the rules of sequence which natural events obey we call the " Laws of Nature. In the process of formulation the Science acquires the character of an abstract and predictions suggested by exThe test of the all that is found is proved by reasoning. possibility of Natural Science depends on a principle which derived from multitudes of particular experiences "Principle of the Uniformity of Nature. jperience. with itself. For this purpose is necessary to introduce and define a notions suggested by observations of the it number motions of abstract of actual then possible to formulate laws according to which such motions take place. the facts of nature in terms of the rules of invariable sequence be stated as follows —Natural which natural events are observed to obey." This principle itself —the may events take place in invariable The object of Natural Science is the description of sequences." When any rule has been established by observation. the /validity of a theory of this kind is its consistency logical theory. and these laws are such that the bodies. of natural events. 1. is occupied with a particular kind with the motions of material bodies. M. future events. it becomes possible to predict a certain kind of abstract forms. in all which that is assumed is ' L. The Science of Mechanics viz.
from any other instant by an interval. It will be assumed here that some such preliminary study has been made*. but we avoid the difficulty thus by regarding it as a geometrical point. the description of the motions of bodies. Cambridge. Cox. . Mechanics.^ /''. and the simplification we make is to consider the motion of so small a portion of a body that the differences between the motions of its parts are unimportant. 1904. the it is necessary to attend to two measurement of time. of such a science ought to be partly experimental it ought also to be partly historical. We think then in place of the motion of a point. lation). Chicago. In regard to this definition things: position. Any instant of time is separated 3. We have said that our object is 2.llA''''' ''':''' ' . Something should be known of the kind of experiments from which were derived the abstract . as defining the position from time " body will be called a particle. and the determination of Measurement of time. i * Historical accounts are given by E." the first A moving point considered to time of a very small part of a Motion may be defined as change of position taking place in time. and something also of the processes of inductive reasoning by which these notions were reached. The necessity for a simplification arises from the fact that. Motion of a particle. in general. The Science of Mechanics (Transl and by H. The study notions of the theory. Mach. How small the portion must be in order that this may be the case arising we cannot say beforehand. /'INTRODUCTION test of its value is its ability to furnish rules under which natural events actually fall. Mechanics it is assigned process. The purpose of this book is to formulate the principles and to exemplify their application. all parts of a body have not the same motion. 1893. The duration of the interval may be measured by the amount of any process which is For the purposes of generally more important that time should be conceived as measurable than that it should be measured by an effected continuously during the interval.
in it. (See Fig. and we shall denote the measure of the time which elapses between two particular instants by the letter ty then Hs a real positive number (in the most general it sense of the 4. in if I then the lengths OM. MNy NP are three /The position of a point therefore determined by edges no two of which are parallel. is chosen and called the origin. OCA. NP Any (in the general sense). 1. 0.B.C to be four such points . viz. OAB are the faces of a trihedral angle having its vertex at 0. being taken as the unit of length.g. e. and the unit in terms of which this second. It is clear that by the number of centimetres contained is OP is a diagonal of a parallelepiped and that OM." process is measured is called the "mean solar In the course of this book we shall generally assume that time is measured in this way. 1. MN. one centimetre. particular length. determine the position of P. Suppose 0. one of them. position of a point Position of a point and the three planes OBC.) The with reference to this trihedral angle is position of a point determined as follows we draw parallel to 00 to meet the P : — PN plane AOB in Ny and we draw NM parallel to OB to meet OA Fig. word "number") and the interval denotes " is t seconds. relative to a set of points is not definite until the set includes four points which do not all lie in one plane.A. " Determination of position. means of a 1—2 .14] POSITION 3 The process actually adopted for measuring time is the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. The means its position relative to other points. each of these lengths is represented by a number .
INTRODUCTION parallelepiped whose edges are parallel to the lines of. and are denoted letters x. It is generally preferable to take the set of lines of reference to be three lines at right angles to each other." If the x and y are interchanged the axes are lefthanded. . 2 that a set of rectangular coordinate the space about a point into eight compartments. then the faces of the trihedral angle are also at right angles to each other . floor of the We shall. and the planes that contain two of It is clear them are coordinate planes'^. called the coordinates of the point P. z are all positive as being * bounded by two adjacent walls of a room and the book. letters equal to this number with a opposite sides of the plane BOG. Axes drawn and named as in Fig. To fix ideas we may think of the compartment in which x\ y. the particular trihedral angle OABG 1. 2 are said to be "righthanded. Fig. are by the number of units of length in the length same side of the plane BOG. taken with certain signs. t In the course of this book the axes will be taken to be righthanded unless a statement to the contrary is made. The lengths OM. 2. MN. z. planes divide Fig. In most applications of mathematics to physics righthanded axes are preferable to lefthanded axest. The rule of signs is that x is equal to the NP of being one compartment. in the course of this make use of rectangular coordinates only. from Fig. and OM is when P and A are on the minus sign when P and A are on and similarly for y and z. sets of lines so chosen are called systems of rectangular axes. y. reference. and one of whose diagonals is the line joining the origin to the point.
If FRAME OF REFERENCE we look towards one left 5 name the inteisection of the walls the axis of wall with the other wall on the lefthand. or in any other direction determined with reference to the points of the compass. or y). and a plane through that line. at right angles to it. and the intersection of the floor with the wall in front of us the axis of y. we have a particular plane. The three lines so a frame of reference. screw.4. line. Again we might draw from the place lines in the direction of reference. a line through that point. for example we may take as origin a place on the Earth's surface. Frame To determine a frame of reference we require to be able to mark a point. will be called a frame of reference. and 2. AOB a plane through the We at right angles to meeting it perpendicular to the plane. A triad of orthogonal lines OA. these as origin the centre of the Sun. determined. turned so as to travel in the positive direction of the axis of a: (or 3/. on this x^lane we may mark the line which points to the North. the horizontal plane at the place . and. An ordinary. OA a line through the point. Fig. lines of reference three lines going out from thence to three stars. of reference. or righthanded. Suppose to be the point. then at the place we can always determine a particular line. can draw on the plane a line a in 0. the axes are righthanded. and we can erect at OA determined can be In practice we cannot mark a point but only a small part of a body. or x) to the positive direction of the axis of (or X. OC. any three visible stars. 5. of rotation belonging to the three screws are indicated in Fig. The senses 3. Or again we might take would determine a frame of and as . the intersection of the floor with the wall on our the axis of x. 3. the vertical at the place. or z) will direction of the axis of z rotate in the sense of a line turning /rom the positive y (or 2.5] room. we have then a frame of reference. with respect to which the position of a point P can be OB.
in Chapter XI. the motion of a train. The have some relation to our daily life. effected in equal intervals of time. Choice of the timemeasuring process and of the frame of reference. and it is manifest that some motions which we wish to describe will be more simply describable when the choice is made We shall return to this matter in one way than when it is made in another. that "Uniform processes" are such that equal amounts of them are is. or the Moon." 6. it is clearly desirable that it should be so made that a number of processes uncontrollable by us should be uniform or approximately uniform it is also clearly desirable that it should . of the Earth. are dealing with the motions of bodies near a place for example. or line. we are at liberty to choose a different reckoning of time for the purpose of simplifying the description of the motions of bodies. and we shall generally take one of these lines to be When we are dealing with the motion the vertical at the place. Time may be measured by any process which goes on continually. in intervals in which equal amounts said to be "variable. It is clear that processes which are uniform when measured by one standard may be variable when measured by another standard. choice of a standard being in our power. like the choice of the timemeasuring process. or a cannonball. we shall generally take " " the frame of reference to be determined by means of the fixed stars. we shall call it the standard intervals are in the ratio of the measures of the process. Of these one is selected as a timemeasurer. or a Planet. The choice of a suitable frame of reference. point. and different amounts of the process that take place in them." Processes which are not uniform are of the standard process are effected. or plane which occupies a fixed position relatively to the chosen frame of reference will be described as A "fixed. Equal intervals of time are those in which equal amounts of the process selected as timemeasurer take place. So long as these conditions are not violated.b INTRODUCTION When we on the Earth's surface. . In any interval of time many processes may be going on. or a pendulum. we shall generally take the frame of reference to be determined by lines which are fixed relatively to the Earth. is in our power. The choice of the mean solar second as a unit of time satisfies these conditions.
importance came to be attached to the notions of variable velocity and 7. " The point is said to have undergone a " change of position or a displacement. is P Let the line PQ be drawn. had a position has at some later instant a position Q relative to the same frame. We precise and formal definitions of some vector quantities and with some of the immediate consequences shall now be occupied with of the definitions. OR. Q. chiefly through the proposition called ''the parallelogram of forces. The acceleration.CHAPTER I. history of the Science of Mechanics shows how. VELOCITY. particular instant. f' 4 contains. through the study of the motions of falling bodies. the direction of the displacement. DISPLACEMENT. two senses in which this line described one. is Of the may be the sense from towards that point {R) which is the fourth corner of a parallelogram having OP. is the magnitude position. be produced indefinitely both ways. ACCELERATION. The measure of the length of PQ is the number of units of length it . is The subsequent entirely . 8. at any with reference to any frame. Then this line determines a particular direction this is . and also how. displacement precisely determined by this line we say that it is Let the line PQ drawn through P represented by this line. PQ as adjacent sides this is the sense of the displacement." the vectorial character of such quantities as force and acceleration came to be recognized. for instance through 0. and let a parallel line be drawn through any other point. this number of the displacement. It is clear that the . Suppose that a point which. Displacement.
which the vector may not have. Further it is clear that exactly the is same change of from position effected in moving a point from the straight line PK. or less than another but two displacements in . PK. . P. On the other hand the vector is subjected by means subject to a rule of operation to which a line can only be of an arbitrary convention. although it is a directed quantity. t The line is not the vector. and thus displacement belongs matical quantities 9. (2) the direction of a line called the direction of the quantity. I. even when they are equal in magnitude. rotation about an axis is not a vector. or in different senses. determined by (1) the previous position. diiferent directions. order in which they are arrived at by a point describing the * The rule of operation is an essential part of the definition. (4) the magnitude of the displacement. Then from any point a straight line can be drawn to represent the vectorf in magnitude. for one displacement can be greater than. direction. For example. From our complete idea of the line this quality must be abstracted before the vector is arrived at. (3) the sense in which the line is object of mathematical determination (1) a number supposed drawn from one of its points. KQ Displacement is a quantity. described as extension in space. as in moving the point from to Q directly by the straight line PQ. A vector may be defined as a directed quantity which obeys a certain rule of operation*. displacements represented lines are equivalent to the displacement represented by the line PQ. VELOCITY. equal to. Definition of a vector. and sense. That to say. ACCELERATION [CHAP. Let any particular length be taken as unit of length. are clearly not equivalent to each other. (3) the sense of the displacement. to the class of mathe known as vectors or directed quantities. called the sense of the quantity. The sense of the line is indicated when two of its points are named in the line. The line possesses a quality. and K to Q by the by P to iT by P is straight line KQ. (2) the direction of the displacement.8 DISPLACEMENT. By a "directed quantity" we mean an reasoning which requires for its called the magnitude of the quantity.
AD. we note (i) displacement of a Examples of equivalent lines. vector quantities. 7. as here defined. particle. GG' which are equal and equivalent. G' A' are not AG. and BG are equivalent vectors. Among 10. parallel. A'C lines are equal and parallel their ends can be joined by two AA\ Fig. C. BG AD Fig. If AG. B. Again A. 6. G D is constructed having are any three points. . Also the vector or ^0 is equivalent to the vectors AB. BG. DG.810] EQUIVALENT VECTORS rule is 9 The subject of mathematical operation to which vectors are a rule for replacing one vector by other vectors to which it is (by definition) equivalent. AB. or AD. equivalent to the BG. G being AC is any points whatever. from different points (2) The vector represented by a line vectors represented by the lines AB. vectors represented by AG. and a parallelogram as adjacent sides. '\i A^ B. This rule follows (1) : — may be divided into two parts and stated as Vectors represented by equal and parallel lines drawn in like senses are equivalent. AB. B. (ii) couple applied to a rigid body. vectors. then the vectors represented by A'G' are equivalent. the points A.
and the single vector to which they are equivalent is called their resultant.. VELOCITY. no corner being taken more than once. DC. and so The statement the number of sides of the independent of order in of the polygon. . and which its corners are taken. 9. and having any points Py Qy . its restriction that and last corners. T as corners. ACCELERATION Further if [CHAP.] In particular. (7 are regarded as the Fig. first [The taken more than once will be presently removed.) Fig. PQ.s one side.. This is clear because by definition the vectors AP. AB. edges parallel to vector Then the equivalent to the vectors represented by the edges AB. having AG a. the vector represented by ^(7 is equivalent to the vectors represented by AP. no corner is to be ABDG. (7 as one diagonal. TO. I. AQ which meet m A.. The case of this which is generally most useful is the case where the edges of the parallelepiped are the axes of reference relatively to which the positions of points are determined.. AG m AP. A set of vectors equiva lent to a single vector are called components. if the polygon is a gauche quadrilateral a parallelepiped can be constructed having BD. 11. The operation ponent vectors is of deriving a resultant vector from given com called composition. Components and resultant. 9. provided that the points A. 8. PQ can be replaced by is AQ. and having J. a polygon (plane or gauche) is constructed.10 DISPLACEMENT. on. (See Fig. we compound the components .
if we take a threedimensional system of rectangular vector can be resolved into components parallel to the axes. and z. In the former case we take OP to represent the vector. PM OM MP represent the If R is . and the and draw at right angles to Ox.?/). any axes of sc. e.* 10. not in the same components parallel to any three given lines resolve a vector in one plane. these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes of x and y. any vector parallel to a coordinate plane. can be resolved into components parallel to the axes of oo and y. 11 the operation of deriving components in from a given vector is called resolution.g. Again. if we take a system of rectangular coordinate axes. we particular directions resolve the vector in the given directions to obtain the components in those directions. the directions of the component vectors are at right are called resolved parts of angles to each other the components the resultant vector in the corresponding directions. When Thus. to obtain the resultant It is clear from the constructions in the preceding into lines article that we can components parallel to way which are in a plane to which the vector is any two given and again we can resolve the vector in one way into parallel. 11] COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS . Fig. and these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of these axes. y.10. then resolved parts of the vector parallel to the axes. the plane of (a?.
If is the magnitude of the P to represent the vector. VELOCITY. ACCELERATION <f> [CHAP. Oy. between the lines OP and Ox.12 DISPLACEMENT. I. More generally. then R cos 6 and R cos <^ are the magnitudes of the resolved parts respectively. the angles* magnitude of the vector represented by OP. and draw as opposite corners and with its R IVI . then the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes are numerically equal to the projections of OP on the axes. and these are the projections of OP on the axes. and 6. we take OP a parallelepiped with and faces parallel to the coordinate planes.
rectangular lines are given. and take it to be Let OPi. let OP be a line representing the vector. and is the R R sin 6.e. and let 61.2. where the R is the magnitude of the vector to be resolved. in . The construction in the former of these cases is a construction p for the resolved parts of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line. OPn be vectors. . by a revolving r. As before. OP^. . when the magnitudes and signs of the resolved parts of a vector in the directions of three mutually It is clear is uniquely determinate. 13. i. direction. first Composition of any number of vectors. is the resolved part of the The vector represented by vector represented by OP at right angles to the line OA. the second case. (supposed ber. in the direction xO produced. ie. . . from this rule that. OPn make with Ox. OP 2. the plane oi . in the first case.11. traced out Oy.) in lines representing the to be n in num magnitude.. and sense. and 6 its angle between direction and OA. y). the vector that is to say there is one and only one vector which has given resolved parts parallel to three such lines. the angles . . PM at right Then the Fig. 14. angles vector to is equivalent to vectors represented by OM^ cos d and magnitudes of these are respectively MP. all I.6^. Fig. 6^ be the angles which the lines OP^. when cos 6. MP 12. the component parallel to the x axis is in the negative direction of that axis. line turning about from Ox towards Let Vn denote the magnitudes of the vectors. Draw OA. . Consider the case where the vectors are parallel to a plane. and OA a line parallel to and perpendicular which the vector is to be resolved. (x. are negative.. 12] COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS 13 This rule determines the senses as well as the magnitudes of the resolved parts thus. and I.
Oy. rm. and R sin '\jr=Y. All the resolved parts parallel to vector parallel to Oi/ given by are equivalent to a single Y F = ri sin ^i + ra sin ^2 + • • • + ^»i sin ^„ = 2 (r sin 6). I. II. Y/R. are equivalent to zero. and such that the line and sense makes with the axes Ox."rn be the magnitudes of the parallel to a plane. ACCELERATION [CHAP. Y. resolved parts parallel to the axes are X. Thus two equal vectors parallel to the same line. Oy. Then the vector represented by OPi may be replaced by rj vectors for cos $1 parallel to Ox. where vector X Y=^rm. as X. r^. = %rl. and yjr is angle that one among the angles whose tangents are F/X for which the sine has the same sign as Fand the cosine has the same sign i/r.14 DISPLACEMENT. Oz. rn parallel to the lines Ox. Then this may be resolved into rl. and call any one of these numbers r.r^ cos ^2 + • • • + ^ n COS Oy 6n = X (7' COS 6). cosines of the angles which the line representing this vector in direction and sense makes with the axes Ox. . the is set. and similarly All the resolved parts parallel to vector Ox X parallel to X = COS Oi 7\ are equivalent to a single Ox given by 4. the others. Z/R. The resultant the summations extending to all the vectors of is therefore a vector whose magnitude. 2^ cos ^ = X. These two equations determine the magnitude R and the R is the numerical value of V (X^ + F^). and in opposite senses. n be the vectors. VELOCITY. Let the magnitude of this vector be R. Oy.Z'^). Consider the more general case where the vectors are not Let i\. and r^ sin 6i parallel to Oy. Vectors equivalent to zero. Z. in direction 13. and let its direction and sense be those of a line The X F is going out from Then we have and making an angle i/r with Ox. is When the magnitude of is the resultant of any set of vectors zero the set of vectors said to be equivalent to zero. and vector whose resolved parts parallel to Ox and Oy are the resultant of all the vectors. Let ly m. and the whole set of vectors is equivalent to a vector whose Oz. representing Oz angles whose cosines are XjR. Z=^rn. the numerical value of VC^'^ it + Y^\. R.
x y\ z' the coordinates of the point at a subsequent instant. 10) that in the resolution of a vector into components parallel to the sides of a polygon not more than two sides of the polygon may meet 14. in the other. y. z be the any particular instant with moving point reference to any particular frame. 8. a point moving in a straight line. Velocity in a straight line. For a point moving in a straight line we may define the average velocity in any interval of time to be the fraction number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval . velocity. one of the lines of reference. coordinates of a of a vector quantity which is the displacement of the point. in which it describes the shorter length.1215] DEFINITION OF VELOCITY 15 It is clear that the sum of a set of vectors equivalent to zero of the resolved parts. but the of imits of length passed over in any interval of time does not bear a constant ratio to the number of imits of time in the interval. We have thus an idea of velocity of a point not moving uniformly. is equal to zero. Again vectors parallel and proportional to the sides of a closed polygon. y' — y. z' — z are the components. at . in any direction.) Consider in the first place 15. with reference to the same frame. This last statement enables us to do away with the restriction (Art. in a point. and we seek to make it number . Let x. and with senses determined by the order of the corners when a point travels round the polygon. parallel to the axes. are equivalent to zero. Art. we should say it was moving more slowly. and let s be the number of units of length it passes over in t units of time. e. In this case there will be equal intervals of time in which the point describes unequal lengths in the one of two equal intervals in which it describes the greater length we should say it was moving faster. Again consider the case where the point moves in a straight line. then X — X. (Cf. Then it may happen that the two numbers s and for t have then a constant ratio whatever said to number we take and t The point is z is move uniformly measure of in the line. precise.g. Components of displacement. the fraction  defined to be the its A point moving uniformly describes equal lengths in equal times.
which has a definite value not moving uniformly this fraction is a when the measure of first instant of the interval is given. ACCELERATION [CHAP.z The number s is a function of the number is t. In the same — way suppose that it is at s' at time t'. The two limits are in general the same when they are different we call them the velocity just after the instant and the . If the unit of time were replaced by a smaller unit the displacement in it would be replaced by a shorter length. VELOCITY. of the moving point The number is accordingly measured by ds j s' s is the interval t't. and the as the limit of the fraction just written the differential coefficient of s with respect to t. and taking for the measure of the interval a series of diminishing numbers. When the measure of the displacement of the point during the velocity is uniform it is measured by the displacement in a unit of time. When we wish to recall this fact." it . the interval of being diminished indefinitely. chosen as the origin of time. Then in the interval t' t — s. number known The velocity . instant of the interval always the same. I. This limiting value is defined to be the velocity of the point at the first instant of the interval.16 DISPLACEMENT. and its average velocity in the interval it describes a length s' s' —s is '. t ". and this length would measure the velocity in terms of the new unit of time. and suppose that at the end of this interval the point has described a length s measured from some particular point in the line of its motion. any instant. which approach a limit the interval given and the Taking the first ing value as the measure of the interval is indefinitely diminished. We line at inte7'val can now define the velocity of a point moving in a straight It is the limit of the average velocity in an time beginning or ending at the instant. we obtain a series of fractions. to bring it into connexion with the definition of variable velocity we say that the latter is measured by "the rate of displacement per unit of time. We might in the same way define the velocity of a point at the last instant of an interval. However short an interval is taken for the unit of time the length described in and measures the velocity in terms of it. We say that the point is at s at time t. Let since t be the measure of the interval of time which has elapsed some particular instant. When the point is is variable number. velocity just before the instant respectively.
. the point path is straight or curved. They are defined to be the component velocities parallel to the axes. called its path or The velocity is associated with this trajectory. the phrase means nothing but the limit of the fraction number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval when the 16. as above. where the length of the arc of the path measured. y'y. y' — z. but the vector does not express the association of the velocity with a particular line— the tangent to the path of the particle. As before x. M. Let these components be w —x. Then each of the . 16] DEFINITION OF VELOCITY 17 but we must not attach to this phrase any other meaning than that which has just been explained. . Velocity in general. the definition of s of the Then of the From we have the equation Thus the magnitude s is of the velocity of the moving point at time ^ is ^ . 2 . At any instant the point is moving along the tangent to a curve. and these limits are. ^ ^ L. y.—j — — — — . — y. z are functions of t. fractions —. in a straight line it will have a interval f — t parallel to each not moving component of displacement in any is When the point of the three z' axes of reference. velocity at an instant is the limit of the average velocity in an This limit has a definite magnitude. the length of the chord joining the two positions is the magnitude vector whose components parallel to the axes are a^'w. t ^. i. and let s' be the corresponding arc for time t'. and. in the sense of description of the path.15. z' z. t t t has a limit. t .e. Let s be the arc of the curve particular line. The magnitude of the velocity of a point is often called its speed. drawn in a definite sense. is said to move with uniform It is manifest that the velocity of many dx jt } a moving particle can be represented in respects by a vector. of which the components parallel to the axes are dz ) dy . measured from some particular point of the curve up to the position moving point at time ?. the rates of displacement per unit time parallel to the axes. when it is speed whether its independent of the time. interval is indefinitely diminished. t —. and is associated with a definite straight line. and the component velocities parallel to the axes are dx dt' dy dt* dz dt' The interval. from some particular point of it to the position of the moving point at time t.
relation to by any particular they are equally well represented of all lines parallel to their direction. called unlocalized vectors. is points or in the proper localized at the proper In particular a vector localized at a point same magnitudes. But it is quantities which. L so far con Localized vectors.: equivalent if two sets of unlocalized vectors with the same magnitudes. ACCELERATION [cHAP. and senses as if it were unlocalized. is equivalent to vectors localized in any three lines parallel to Ox. meeting . viz. in other respects. a is line is a vector localized at any point in a particular which in the direction of the vector. DISPLACEMENT. with the additional rules of equivalence. provided all localized at points that components and resultants are lines. they are equally well represented by lines drawn from any point and they have no .18 17. but which have relations to particular points or particular a point is defined by its magnitude. All the constructions in the previous Articles apply to vectors and to vectors localized in lines. and senses as if it were unlocalized. A vector localized in line. directions. VELOCITY. Thus a vector localized at is by a line OP^ and represented (as in Fig. two sets of vectors localized at the same point are lence. (ii) Two vectors localized in lines which meet are equivalent to a single vector localized in a line. and sense. (i) Two vectors localized in the same line are equivalent if they have the same magnitude and the same sense. 12) to vectors localized at and equivalent may be represented by lines OH. The vectors we have sidered have no relation to any particular point. OK. provided that these components and resolved parts are localized at the same point. Oy. and also by a point and by a rule of equivadirection. and senses are equivalent. provided that these components and resolved parts are localized in lines which meet in a point on the line of the resultant. vector localized at A — There is in general no rule of equivalence for vectors localized at different points. equivalent to components (or resolved parts) of the directions. also a vector localized in a line is equivalent to components (or resolved parts) of the same magnitudes. often important to consider have the properties of vectors. having the same magnitude and sense. 0M\ and a vector localized in the line OP. segments They may be line. Oz. lines. directions.
that with which a point describes one unit of length uniformly in each unit of time. whose resolved part in any direction is the rate of displacement of the point in that direction per unit of time. is a segment of that line. vector localized at a point is single vector. and T for time. 19.1719] in a point LOCALIZED VECTORS 19 on OP. The measure of any par ticular velocity a number is expressing the ratio of the velocity to the unit velocity. 2—2 . or its dimension symbol LT^. The number expressing a velocity is the ratio of a number ex The unit velocity interval of time. The differences between expressed thus : — may be A vector (un localized) is equal magnitude and like sense. localized in a line through the position of the point. Formal velocity of a definition of velocity. where L stands for length. applied example of a vector localized at a point (Chapter III). The line representing it not equivalent to any other must be drawn from the A vector localized in a line is clearly determined by its com ponents parallel to three given lines and by one point of the line. and having the magnitudes and senses of OH. in particular the line in which it is localized is thereby determined. We may now define the moving point to be a vector. representing it may be drawn from any point in a particular line. pressing a length to a number expressing an It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the unit of time. the three classes of vectors OK. A point. As examples moving particle. is is and dimension accordingly said to be a quantity of one of. 18. Measurement of is velocity. of vectors localized in lines (ii) force applied to a particle is an we may cite (i) velocity of a Force to a rigid body (Chapter VI). equivalent to any parallel vector of line representing the A vector magnitude and and localized in a line is equivalent to any vector of equal The line like sense localized in the same line. Velocity in length. Thus the vector may be drawn from any point. OM. minus one dimension in time.
VELOCITY. otherwise : it is — . The moment about a point of a vector a point A is identical with the moment about of the resolved part of the vector at right angles to OA. on the is Fig. A more general discussion will be given in Chapter III. of localized vector. The reason for defining 20. and draw ox^^ / at right angles to the line of the vector. so that if the localized in a line that line is L\ and if the vector is localized at a point the line L' passes moment of the vector about a point through the point. where R the magnitude of the vector. and . rule of signs may also be stated thus Let a watch be in the plane of and L\ so that a line drawn from the placed back to the face is in the sense of L\ when the sense of the The vector is opposite to that of the motion of the hands the sign +. ." Moment We shall attend at present to the cases of vectors localized in lines that lie in a plane and having moment Draw vector is and vectors localized at points in a plane. then. 21. : and L' and choose a at right angles to the plane containing sense of description of this line . ACCELERATION [CHAP. velocity as a localized vector is that special significance is found to attach to a certain quantity called the "moment of the velocity. define the their directions parallel to the plane*. The perpendicular from line of the vector the line ON.20 DISPLACEMENT. 15. is The the product. if the senses of L and the . I. otherwise it is — is . it is equal to OA sin 6. vector are the same as those of translation and rotation in an is ordinary righthanded screw. of the magnitude of the vector and the perpendicular The rule of signs is this Draw a line L through to L' from 0. of such a vector about a point in the plane as follows We : — a line L' in the direction of the vector. the sign +. with a certain sign. ON The magnitude of the resolved part of the vector at right angles to is ^0 is R sin 6. Iiemxna. Let 6 be the angle which the direction of the vector makes localized at with the line AO.
21 Now moment of R about = R ON = R. its is Xi moment about Y^  y^X^. when a vector is localized at a point (^1. R the magnitude of the resultant. The sum (with proper signs) moments about a point of two vectors localized at a point to the moment of their resultant about 0. See the For example. moment about velocity 1^. at right angles to OA. of the is A Theorem of moments. y). the an»^le which the line representing it makes with AO. This result can be immediately extended to any number of vectors localized at a point. or in a line passing through this point. 17. 16. angles which the lines representing and 6^ the A <f> them drawn from make with AO. It follows that.O A sin 6 = i? sin 04 = moment about of resolved part . of Now sum moments . parallel to the axes of w and y. Then the magnitudes of the resolved parts at right angles to AO Pa sin ^2 » are Pj sin 6i and Rsm<f>. we know i^ sin <^ (Article 12) that Fig. y^) in the plane of (x. 22. equal 6i Let Pi and Pg be the magnitudes of the vectors.2022] MOMENTS . (9 . = Pj sin ^i + Pg sin 62. of Pi and Pg about (9i = OA (Pi sin + P2 sin O^) = OA Rsm<j> = moment of R about 0. specified by its components Xi and Yi the origin Fig. 17. the origin of the ^ j of a particle Fig. moving in the plane of (x. and . y) is .
Uniform acceleration is determined. I. a function of the number t. direction. When increases is moving in such a way that its velocity amounts in equal intervals of time.z —— have and when the —t is indefinitely diminished. by the velocity added in a unit of time. and its differential coefficient with when the interval respect to . . When the acceleration is not uniform. VELOCITY. as regards magnitude.— ^ —. ponents at time limits t'. of expressing the following definition way : — Let V be the velocity of the point at time at time t\ then its acceleration is t. relative to any frame. . parallel to these axes at When time t^ and u'. the point is said to have an acceleration relative to that frame. or in words it is the limit of the fraction number number of units of velocity added in an interval of time of units of time in the interval is ' The number v is indefinitely diminished. the moving point is said to have a variable acceleration.22 DISPLACEMENT. then the fractions interval t' —. and v its velocity v' the limit of the fraction . z —. Acceleration.e. A point moving with a variable velocity. ~' z Z —. it is said to have a uniform accelera provided that the velocity acquired in every interval has the direction same and sense. and sense. v. t — —— V t when the interval t' —tis indefinitely diminished. t. where x and y are the coordinates of its position at time 23. may be. t is the acceleration. z corresponding com. ACCELERATION [CHAP. i. w be component velocities reference (coordinate axes). the acceleration is measured dv the point is not moving in a straight line it will in general have a variable velocity parallel to each of the lines of Let u. z ~. ( ^ ^ Iy ^ ?/ — ) . v\ w . however by equal short the intervals tion. The acceleration of a point moving in a straight line is the This is a short rate of increase of its velocity per unit of time.
localized in a the point. by X.2225] these limits DEFINITION OF ACCELERATION are the differential coefficients ^ at 23 . component velocities parallel to the axes are denoted y. The unit acceleration is that uniform acceleration with which a moving point gains a unit of velocity in a unit of time. We have so frequently to deal with differential coefficients of quantities with regard to the time that it is convenient to use for them an abbreviated notation. let u. velocities at different times. Now then its if. . Again ii. or its dimension symbol is LT~^. using a clock or watch. thus q stands for ^ . be the coordinates of a moving point at time t. for example. then its V. shall therefore denote We the differential coefficient of any quantity q with regard to the time t by placing a dot over the let oc. The values of velocities are deduced from a knowledge of the distances described in different intervals of time. By measuring angles we can estimate intervals of time. whose resolved part in any direction is the through rate of increase of the velocity in that direction per unit 24. of time. be the component velocities of a point parallel component accelerations are denoted by w. The to vector which has these components parallel to the axes be the acceleration of the point. of any Measurement of acceleration. The values of accelerations are deduced from a knowledge of the values of 25. Accelerations are not measured directly. r at is . The quantities which are measured directly are lengths and angles. z z. Notation for velocities and accelerations. at ^ . The number expressing an acceleration is the expressing a velocity to a number expressing an ratio of a number interval of time. q. m. v. Acceleration is accordingly said to be a quantity of one dimension in length and of minus two dimensions in time. It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the square of the unit of time. or in other words defined define we the acceleration line of a moving point to he the vector. to the axes. The measure particular acceleration is the number expressing the ratio of the acceleration to the unit acceleration.
the differential coefficient of 6 with respect to t number. Then f . x^. the position of a?2 A at time . 7. way 6 is 6.. ^ the coordinates of B at the same time referred to parallel axes through A. rr it is convenient to write for for at them so on. we q the velocity with which q increases. x. Suppose the line to make an angle 6 in radians) with the axis x at time t.v = ~. Then A^ is the coordinate plane of measure of the angle turned through by the line in the interval measured by A^. move so as always to be in the same plane with reference to any frame. y^. z^ the coordinates of a second point B at the same time referred to the same axes. ^ly 2/1. for example the line joining the positions at any time of two moving points. ?. 1 Then as before = ^1 + g y^ = yx^v. VELOCITY. In the same 27. and an angle (measured 6 { ^6 with the same axis at time t + ^t. thus the quantities that corlet ^/.. = Zl + TZ'2 \ J . and q the accelera tion with which q increases. Also. or z. z( be the t'. say q.24 DISPLACEMENT. Then x stands ^— or ^ (77) . coordinates of A'. called the angular acceleration of the line. and In the same way when we have of the time. ACCE^iERATION Since u [CHAP. y). 2^1 Relative coordinates and relative motions. y. is called the angular velocity of the line. To fix ideas we shall take the plane to be the {x. 26. — ^. following the analogy of the case may call where q is x. y. we may write q for 7^ as we write q for ^ . We have = ^1 + f = 2/1+^' = + ?• ^2 S"! » 1 ^^^ [ I Let accented respond to letters denote at time t' unaccented letters at time t. J" are called the coordinates of a^a 2/2 B relative to A. Ang^ular velocity and acceleration. w = at at z respectively. y^. I. to deal with any function . and the limit of the ratio of these two numbers This is 6. Let a line. Let be the coordinates of a point A at time t referred to axes with origin at 0. and f.
f . by differentiating equations (1) with By t respect to t. The geometrical view of For shortness we instructive. and acceleration of the point relative to axes drawn through the second point parallel to the axes of reference. velocity. 2/2 = yi + find 2/1 V. B relative to parallel axes f— or. relative Geometry of motion is relative motion. Let A be the position at any time ^ of a point which moves relatively to a frame having its origin at 0. dividing both members of each of the equations (2) by and passing to the limit when t' — t is indefinitely diminished. = Zx + ?. .J The terms on the The terms left (2) are the components parallel to the axes of the displacement of B.[ofA of relative to the same axes and the [accelerationj ] . parallel components The terms ponents of the displacement of origin at A.2 3/2 = + V. velocity.2528] RELATIVE MOTION subtraction 25 By we deduce y2y2 = (yiyi)\{vv). . oi B compounded * (acceleration \ ^. I 5 relative to ^ parallel axes throusfh A. These equations may be \ ) expressed in words as follows relative to axes at is : — The of the \ \ . in the second brackets on the right are the comrelative to parallel axes with B Thus we have the relative to axes at result: is displacement of a point B compounded of the displacement of a of — The point A relative to the same axes and the displacement through A. and leads easily to results of some importance. what is the same thing. ° (acceleration] 28. \ ^/^2 = (^/^i)+(rr). and acceleration of a point relative to a second point. we ^2 find = ^1 + t = ^1 4. in the first brackets on the right are the to the axes of the displacement of A. 4 = ii + t z% and by differentiating again we 00. shall speak of displacement. ^. and let A' be its position at time f. . meaning thereby displacement.
^. HK represents vector the displacement of OK is compounded of OH^ HK. and Then the sense. magnitude. Join to A is the vector that must be in order that the resultant may HK. vector Hence direction. (accelerationj The compositions and effected as resolutions described in this Article are to be the vectors involved were not localized. but the velocity and acceleration of B relative to A are to be regarded as localized in lines through B. I.26 DISPLACEMENT. the vector represented by is the displacement of A. \ oi B. order that the may be •' the \ . (accelerationj Since the velocity of a point in any direction is the rate of increase of its displacement in that direction per unit of time. 18. \7 oi A reversed. and since its acceleration in any direction is the rate of increase of its velocity in that direction per unit of time. rules oi : — The of \ B \ relative to A is the resultant of the \ . OH OH be the position at time the same frame. and B' its position at time Similarly let parallel to B ^ t'. of a second point referred to From draw BB\ and in the same sense . The resultant the displacement of is the required relative displacement. ACCELERATION [CHAP. we have the \ . ^. VELOCITY. Now the Hence HK B is the resultant of relative to A we must compound to obtain the displacement of with the reversed displacement of A. Fig. B In the same way the '' \ . \ oi (acceleration) which must be compounded with the ^ resultant A m. From draw equal and parallel to AA\ and in the same sense. Then the displacement of B relative compounded with the displacement of A be the displacement of B. \ (accelerationj (accelerationj \ . B relative to A in HO. . OK. \ oi B relative to A is the \ ^ ?. . ^. . the vector represented by OK equal and OK is the displacement of B. ! (accelerationj (accelerationj B and the if ^ \ .
" all the " intensity of the " direction of the acceleration is the direction of the is and the When points the intensity and direction of the field are the same at " the field is said to be uniform. The differences in the be the presence of the air are eliminated. Rectilinear motion in a uniform field. it is found that all kinds of bodies fall to the Earth with the same acceleration." For example. Gravity. When the centimetre is the unit of length. falls generally " " " haviour of " light bodies and heavy bodies are to be traced to the buoyancy and resistance of the air. but. and let / be its Let the intensity. it is practically constant. A is with a certain acceleration nitude of the acceleration region in which a free body moves " called a field of force. field call it the of the Earth's gravity. 30. when bodies fall in the exhausted receiver of an air pump." and by the letter g. . Field of force." If we confine our attention to a small We part of the Earth's surface 31. direction of the field be the axis of x.CHAPTER II. We call it the " acceleration due to gravity. When the effects due to An unsupported body near the Earth's surface towards the Earth. THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. 29. the neighbourhood of the Earth is a field of force " of which the intensity near the Earth is g. we may regard the field as uniform. for instance. in the neighbourhood of any place." The magnitude of this acceleration depends to some extent on latitude . when the foot is the unit of length the value is 322. The direction of this acceleration at any place is the " vertical at the place." The magfield. The fact that bodies fall to the Earth we denote it with a constant acceleration was discovered by Galileo. the value of ^ in London is 981 '2." field.
t or x = u {ft Again one function of differential coefficient is ut 4. having the function u+ft for its hence x must be of the form G' iut + \ft^. any 2. through s with an acceleration /. Obtain the formula v'^ — u^ = 2fs by multiplying both sides of the equation x=f by a. when the acceleration is uniform. we find of t between and the equation v''u'= 2fs. so s = ut + ^ft\ this equation v By elimination = u\ft. II. Writing v for x. t Now one function of coefficient is the function ft. In particular. If s is the distance described in the interval s \s." Examples. This is described as the " velocity due to falling 32. its velocity (parallel to the axis of x) in this Then we are given x =/. and integrating. . so that v is we are given with the condition v = u when ^=0. 1. is an arbitrary constant. where Hence v must be of the form ft + G. the average velocity in interval of time is the velocity at the middle of the interval. ^ where G' 0. t. Putting mined. we find u = G. and u position.ft.\ff. = we find Xq = G'.28 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. the velocity at time f. x— Xq. so that the constant is deter Hence that x =XQ\ut\. having the constant / for its differential and the most general expression for an arbitrary constant. with the conditions x = Xq when ^=0. and x=^u when ^ = 0. so that the constant is determined. Prove that. particle moving in the field parallel to the axis of x has an acceleration /. the velocity acquired in moving from rest over a distance s is V2/s. Hence v = ii\.ift^. Let Xq be the value of x at the initial position of A the particle. G is = 0. Putting ^ a function having this differential coefficient is ft + C.
y). it has a component 33. when the initial velocity is zero. When prove that the particle velocity in a horizontal direction. Parabolic motion under gravity. Since the acceleration parallel to the axis z is always zero. has no velocity parallel to this axis. y = Fsin a. and let the plane (x. 3. and the sum of the velocities after describing those segments divided by their number. and this limit may be called the average velocity in the distance. = 0. describes a parabola with a vertical axis. y) be the vertical plane through the initial direction of motion. 19. it undergoes no displacement parallel to this axis thus the particle moves in the plane {x. .3133] MOTION UNDER GRAVITY 29 Let the distance s be divided into a great number of equal segi»ents. does not move vertically. at time ^= it . Prov^e that. We have the equations ^ = 0. a velocity will be obtained which will have a limit when the number of segments is increased indefinitely. We Let the axis of y be drawn vertically upwards. At time direction ^ = let the velocity of the particle be x. a particle moving in the field of the Earth's gravity. near a place on the Earth's surface. this average velocity is equal to § of the final velocity. since . F in a making an angle a with the axis Fig. the particle does not acquire velocity parallel to this axis and. with the conditions that when ^ x=V cos OL.
we find ^=. =foSay. y vanishes. 2^L 2^ the equation of a parabola whose axis vertex is v — Vq ^ ^^ \7r\ ^^0 iVjr Fsmaflr^T  n ^ Fcosa =0.ro+ Fcosa. 0. x=Xq^ Fcosa. it is therefore moving parallel to the axis x. Thus. and the particle has no velocity parallel to the axis y. 1. of this Article was discovered by Examples. — y = —g. and take t' to measure the time of moving from the vertex A to any point P we shall have — = 0.30 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. and y=yo) 3?= Fsin a. from the beginning of the motion. F^ sin a cos a ' F* sin^ a g ^=^«+2^Galileo. and ^ = g. If we refer the motion to parallel axes of x\ y' {y' being positive in the opposite sense to y) through the vertex A. 2. and x — 0. Eliminating t t. y==yQ+V^ma. = 0. —g. after an interval measured by (Fsin a)lg. with Hence a?' ^ ^'. we have x = V cos a always. = 0. and after this it has a Its path velocity in the negative direction of the same axis. and y' — at time t' = 0. Show that the height of the directrix above the starting point is V^jig. J ' T is parallel to the axis y. we have y = Fsin a ^^ after an interval t. t\ „ 2F2cos2a so that the path of the particle is a parabola with vertex at A» We yz=z x= might have deduced this result analytically from the equations J7=0. at time t' = 0. we have = Fcos a . with rp— ^cos a. and whose at the point ^=^^+ The theorem 34. y' = \gt'^' Eliminating . Previously to this it had a velocity in the positive direction of the axis y. Write down the length of the latus rectum of the above parabola. Since x Since II.t\gt\ we have F2sin2a X . therefore has a vertex. Integrating and determining the constants so that when ^=0. which is reached after an interval (Fsina)/^. .
Prove that the range in question . parallel and perpendicular to the inclined F^cos(a^)^^^2gin^.. VtBm{ae)\gf^coB0. same as F2 2^ ^cos* [sin (2a ^). and its constructed having its focus at the point of vertex at a height F72^ above the point . 20. and at right angles to are The resolved accelerations ^sin^.sin ^]. Show that. Prove that the time until the particle is again in the horizontal plane is (2 Fsin a)lg. when the velocity of projection inclined plane is greatest when the vertical.gt cos 6 . MOTION UNDER GRAVITY any point of the path.e\ the resolved velocities at time t Fsin {aB)\ are 6y Fcos {a 6). it is gcosB The range is found by substituting this value for is t in Fif cos {a — 6). ^cos^. show that the point is 31 at a If V is the velocity at v^j'ig distance 4. 34] 3.r 2F2cos2a. Resolve up the plane.] through the point of projection 5.33.] 6. below the directrix. 7. is is given. [This is called the range on the horizontal plane through the point of projection. it. [This is called the time of flight on the horizontal plane through the point of projection. Prove that the distance from the starting point of the point where the particle strikes the horizontal through the starting point is ( F^ sin 2a)lg. The time of flight is obtained by making the second of these equal 2 Fsin (g^) to zero. To find the range point of projection. the resolved initial velocities are Fcos (a .gt sin the distances described in time plane are t Fsin {a~6).. and time of flight on an inclined plane through the Let 6 be the inclination of the plane to the horizon.^gt^ sin 6. gcosd and that this is the ^ (tan a tan 6\ ^ ' . Prove that. Fig. if a parabola projection S^ its axis vertical. the range on an direction of projection bisects the angle between the plane and the 8.
to and equal arcs may be In such cases we have the mathematicircle. particle is to be projected from the origin with a given velocity V 80 as to pass through a given point {x. The aggregate of these positions constitutes the path of the 35. Prove that 11. in general. the distance between the vertices of the two parabolas is ^gr^. from one given point. is observed.32 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. Prove that. if r is the interval between the instants when they pass through the vertex. two directions in which the particle can be projected. cal problem of deducing the acceleration of the particle from the observations. arid  [Clearly the point {x. Prove that the direction of projection must make with A the axis x an angle a which satisfies the equation gx^ tan2a 2 V^x tan a + (2 V^y +gx^) = 0. This paraboloid is the envelope of the trajectories of 9. . so as to pass through another given point. II. particle moves under gravity from the highest point of a sphere of it radius Prove that cannot clear the sphere unless its initial velocity exceeds ^/Hgc). things that can be observed are the positions of the particle at diflferent times. then the parabolic path for which the range on a line through is greatest touches this parabola at the point where the line cuts it. y) must lie within the parabola 2V'^y+gx'^= V^/g^ 8.] which 10. and starting from a point S with given velocity T. Prove also that. y\ the axes of coordinates being the same as in Art. Motion in a curved path. When the motion of a treated as a particle. the intersection of the tangents at their positions at any instant describes a coaxial parabola as if under gravity. the path may be a particle. Two particles describe the same parabola under gravity. of projection. the body.] ^S*. is the envelope considered in Ex. with given velocity. Prove that the greatest range on an inclined plane through the point of projection is equal to the distance through which the particle would fall during the time of flight. For example. that is to say the problem of determining the direction and intensity of the field of force. 12. touch a paraboloid of revolution about the vertical through S having its focus at such particles. described in equal times. 13. A c. By the times of flight are inversely proportional to the velocities of the projectile when vertically over the middle point of AB. in the different trajectories possible under gravity between two ix)ints A. aS* [From this it follows that all possible paths of particles moving with uniform acceleration g downwards. Conversely we may set before ourselves the problem: Given the acceleration of the particle. 33. hence show that there are.
36. and L. The solutions of such problems are facilitated by a theorem of kinematics to which we proceed. 21. between the tangent at P and the tangent at Q. Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve. M let The velocity at Q the direction of the tangent at the normal at P. . y). "aT"^ A and T 1 AJL .or v. we may since v is s.3436] MOTION IN A CURVED PATH 33 determine its path and its positions at different times. can be resolved into components v' cos A</) in P and v sin A^ in the direction of Hence the the limit of acceleration in the direction of the tangent at r^ — when A^ P is Now A< is indefinitely diminished. The limits of the three factors of this expression are ^. Also let be the time taken by the particle to move from P to Q. 3 . Hence the above Since we have dv dt _dv ds_ ~ ds dt dv ds ' we may write v r for the component acceleration parallel to the also write s for it. M. Let V be the velocity at any point P of the path. limit is ^. tangent. and As be the length of the arc PQ. v' the velocity at a neighbouring point Q.1 — cos A0 A^ ' . Let a particle move in the plane of {x. at (f>. and A</) the angle QTA Fig.cos A<^ 2 sin2 f i Ai/)) V2 Aj> V A^ (A(^)2 A^ ^' zero. V cos A<^ — v_v' — v .
where p is Thus the acceleration drawn towards the centre of curvain the direction of the normal the radius of curvature of the curve at P. Interpret the formula v^/p for the normal component acceleration so as to show that the velocity. in parabolic motion of a projectile under gravity. tare is P or P . is equal to that due to falling through one quarter of the chord of curvature at P. 38. e are any harmonic motion. at any point P. II. Let the straight line be the axis of oc. and that the horizontal component of the is velocity constant. Again the acceleration ^ ^^" is in the direction of the this is the sin normal at P the limit of ^ and . of a particle describing a curved jmth. . the acceleration of the particle has components ad^ along the radius (directed towards the centre) and aB along the tangent in the sense of increase of 0. Verify the result that.84 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. way that its line in such a Appoint moving in a straight displacement from a fixed point at time t can be expressed in the form a cos where a. 4. and the limits of these factors in order are . 3. deduce the result that the path a parabola. Examples. A circle of radius particle describing a a with velocity v has an acceleration v^/a along the radius directed inwards. 1. in any field of force. 2. with an acceleration equal to the intensity of the field at P. same ' as the limit of . 37. v. drawn in the direction of the field. ^ ~Kf Ks At A0 A^ A5 v. Simple harmonic motion. 1. and the fixed point the Then we have x = a cos (nt + e). the value of v'^/p at any point of the path is equal to the resolved part along the normal to the path of an acceleration equal to g. n. is said to origin. therefore and ^= — n^x." (nt + e). Assuming is this result. If the radius vector drawn from the centre to the particle turns through an angle 6 in time <. have a "simple real constants.
we must have Hence the point angle 6 — a sin ^ & — a cos ^ x = — (y6 + xO^). when the moving . . and 6^ = . if the acceleration connected with the displacement by an equation of the form x= — where /* is /jLOC. 22. and the =t aJ/jl. and let a be the value of x at that instant. axis X. = — a sin ^ ^. P describes is velocity of the radius vector the circle uniformly. Let time be measured from an instant when i. = 0. ^= are the coordinates of P. draw P. Let the angle xOP = 6.3638] SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION shall 35 is We now show that. a positive constant. the angular uniform and equal to aJ/jl. one diameter of this Fig. 6 = 0. NP in circle. a circle and. coinciding with the at right angles to this diameter to meet the Consider the motion of the point P. the motion is simple harmonic motion. describe at N on With the origin as centre. x = — fjLX. = a cos 6.. By hence since differentiating we have . 3—2 . ^^ /jl. i: =a sin 6. Then a. and y. and with a as point circle is radius.
In this formula a is called the amplitude of the motion it is the greatest value of x. It follows. To determine the we have x constant B. is x=a cos (ts/fi). The tude is is directed along xO. velocity of the point a •sjfi sin {t ^/fi). we have a? Xq = A. is It is . = ajo and x = i*o when ^ = 0. motions. or Oscillatory motions can generally be described either as simple harmonic motions or as motions compounded of simple harmonic motions in different directions. Simple harmonic motion . that the complete solution must be of the form X and this can — a cos {(t — to) *J fi]. the constant A put ^ = 0.sin {t ^Jii). t. we know that. Let the moving point have at time ^=0 a position denoted time t. II. is periodic. The a?coordiDate of the point N at time t is given by x = a cos {t slfi). — may be regarded as the type of toandfro. that Hence the solution of the equation x=—fix. at any X must be given by an equation of the form To determine = ^ cos {t\/ fi) + B sin {t^J^l). 27r IS J. that intervals of time the period equal . The equation a? = a cos (< Vm + e) represents simple harmonic motion with period ^irj^Jfi. Now put f = and we find Xo = B ^JX. osciUatory. by Xq and a velocity denoted by Xo'. with the conditions a. to it be observed that the whole motion repeats itself after to say. and its magni The above of the equation process shows that the solution X — — flXf with the conditions that. when ^=0.86 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. differentiate with respect to sin {t y/fi) =—A /y/zt +B \//jl cos {t sjfi). by changing the epoch from which time is measured. x=0. x=a. =^ + B sin (t \/fi). cos (t\/fJL) be expressed in the form a. is X X — Xo cos (t s/jj) + J. and e determines the phase of the motion.
Let y = b\//M at this instant. and sin (t sjfjb). Solving the above equations for cos {t aJ/jl) we have (ADBG) cos (t ^/^l) =Dx. (AD . and B^fi. and t\/fL the eccentric angle at The point 40. + B sin (t \Jfi). conditions.ByY + (Ay .BGf. Then we must have at time t x = aco8 (t Va^). since the point is moving at right angles to the major axis. D \/ ^ the resolved velocities at the instant = 0. B. we find (Dx . where /z is positive. x = 0. and we deduce that x and y must be given by equations of the form x=^A where A. y = bsm (t \Jfj). eliminating t.BG) sin (t ^/fi) = AyGx. viz. We have the equations x = — fix.3840] 39. and the and x=Xq when ^=0. ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT THE CENTRE 37 sider the case Composition of simple harmonic motions. then at any time t x=Xq initial conditions are x=Xo cosh (« Va*) + 7^ sinh (t^ii). when the equation that is x=iix. then at this instant x and. is the minor axis. the acceleration in each case being directed towards the origin. is Thus 26 time t. (AD. We conwhere the moving particle has a simple harmonic motion of period ^ parallel to each of the axes of x and y. = major axis at the instant ^ 0. 1. therefore moves so that its \/fi. and suppose the moving point to be at one extremity (x = a) of the = a. Prove that. D are arbitrary constants depending on the initial A and C are the coordinates. eccentric angle in creases uniformly with angular velocity Examples.Gxf = so that the path of the is moving point is an ellipse whose centre the origin. The whole motion is clearly periodic with period 27r Let us change the axes to the principal axes of the ellipse. y = 0. and whose position with reference to the origin and axes is fixed.By. y=C cos (t ^J^l) + D sin {t \/fj). . cos {t y/fi) fi G.
Equable description of areas.tradita GommentaHis de Motibus Stella . In the hyperbolic motion of Example 2 prove that the velocity v 5. — :r*) for all values of x. which were made by Tycho Brahe. J and evaluate the constant.. (ii) The radius drawn from the Sun equal areas in equal times. p the perpendicular from on the tangent at P. by multiplying both sides of the equation by x and integrating. 42. the position of the particle at time t. elliptic In the distance r from the centre motion of Article 39 prove that the velocity v at is given by v^+fir^= const. II. A« the arc PP'.. series of observations of the Planets. . In simple harmonic motion given by x=fjiX starting from ^=a. that proportional to the distance the path is x*«=i(a* 4. 3. Ac * p. at distance r from the centre of the hyperbola is given by v2=/Lir2 + const. prove. v the velocity of the particle at P. and suppose that a particle describes a plane curve in such a way that the radius vector drawn in the to it from a fixed point plane describes area uniformly. MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE Prove that when the acceleration is [CHAP.38 2. We consider the second of Kepler's laws. directed from the origin and is an hyperbola. 23 represents the fixed point. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. : motions of the Planets could be very precisely described by means of the two laws — (i) Every planet describes an ellipse having the Sun at a to a Planet describes focus. In Fig. 23 Martu. Let P' be a point on the curve near to P. ^""""Tl^ ^*^^^'' '^'^'''^"'''' nova. A^ the time of moving from P to P'. and evaluate the constant.. any fixed point on the curve.. 1609. r the radius vector B F OP. From a long and more especially of Mars. Kepler* concluded that the 41.
6 be the polar coordinates of required to express. or xy — yx — 0. to it from a fixed point describes area uniformly. so that the radius vector We drawn field of force. " field of force is described as the fixed point being the central. drawn from or towards the origin. in terms of r." "centre of force. to be the origin of coordinates and draw the axes of in the plane of motion. In the motion discussed in Article 39 the ellipse is a central and the centre of the ellipse is the centre of force. let is Radial and transverse components of velocity and Let a particle move in the plane of {x.  Hence the \ rate of description of this limit is area is the limit oi \q If therefore  or ^q t in and ^ps or \pv. conclude that. of the triangle POP' J g Ac. in the statement that the Planets the centre of force being in the Sun. and the condition that the radius vector describes area uniformly is expressed by saying that h or pv is constant.4043] the chord EQUABLE DESCRIPTION OF AREAS 3^ The area PP\ q the perpendicular from is to this chord. and therefore x^y X y' If follows that the direction of the acceleration is that of the radius vector. since this is xi/ — yx = h y. Kepler's second law of planetary motion may be interpreted move in a central field of force. if a particle moves in a plane path. Now pv we take X and y is the moment of the If therefore velocity about 0. it is in a and the direction of the field at any point is either Such a directly towards or directly away from the fixed point. we have (xy . we write pv h is = h. twice the rate of description of area. acceleration. we have (cf Article 22) ." and the path of the particle is a "central orbit. pv = and. constant. position at time t It 6 and their differential . 43. y) and its r.yx) = 0." orbit.
2r^sin ^ r^'sin 6 . 24. IL coefficients and acceleration with respect to t. 24. sin ^ = ^ = (r cos 6) = r cos ^. have therefore velocity. and 6 Fig. = j^(rsm find ^2 e) we Vi = r. the components of the velocity in the direction of the radius vector and at The senses are to be those in which r right angles to it.r^^ gi^ ^^ we find . as in Fig. Let have in /i» fi be the required components of acceleration. are the components parallel to the axes of x. We like manner ^ /i cos e /. Let Vi. Va be the required components of velocity. = rsin e {rd cose. 2rd cos 6 + rd cos 6 . y y of the same Vi co^dv^^me = x = j^ (r cos 0) = rcos6r6 sin 0.rO'cos /. Vi8md\v^co8 d =^y Solving these equations. increase. sin 6. We Then x.40 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. +/2 cos ^ = y = ^^ (r sin 6) = r sin 6 + Solving these equations. = rd.
Fig. and let it be directed towards P. Hence —^f^.rS. Let / be the magnitude of the central acceleration at P. Since the moment of the velocity about the origin is r. it is not the accelera radius vector tion with which the radius vector increases. the perpendicular from on the tangent at P. — yx =ps. of curvature of the path at P. and that any point dividing OP in a constant ratio describes. Prove all that. Acceleration in central orbit. we verify the formulae of Differential Calculus r^d =3cy 2. From this equation and the equation vp = h we may eliminate and obtain the equation Since p = r r~ .4345] It is ACCELERATION IN CENTRAL ORBIT 41 important to observe that the acceleration parallel to the is the resolved part along the radius vector of the acceleration relative to the frame Ox. Examples. 42. A point P describes a ciuve C relatively to axes through 0. r '' p V. p. p denote the radius vector OP drawn from the and the radius Art. Oy. 45. But this resolved part of the acceleration is — P . relatively to parallel axes through P. In a central orbit we have 3. Let r. a curve similar to C. 1.yfe may also write this equation f_^dp ^ dr' p^ . 44. relatively to either of these sets of axes. (Cf. 23 in The resolved part of the acceleration parallel to the normal at Pis /p. describes a curve equal in respects to C.) centre of force 0.
first We consider now the Let an interpretation of the of Kepler's laws (Art. ellipse described as a central orbit about any point in its plane. Points move from a position P with a velocity V in different directions with an acceleration to a point C proportional to the distance. h focus S. ellipse of semiaxes a. e the I the eccentricity. [CHAP. P a Show that the central acceleration when a circle is described as central orbit about a point on the circumference is %l?a?\r^^ of the circle. Examples. Prove that the trajectory in question touches at $ an ellipse having C as centre. the central acceleration at any point is proportional to r/g^ where r is the radius vector OP. II. Show that. to the length of the diameter conjugate to the diameter through the point. and P as one focus.42 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 46. [This ellipse is the envelope of the trajectories of points starting from with the given velocity and moving about C with the given central acceleration. Elliptic motion about a focus. . a being the radius spiral is x Show Show that the central acceleration its when an equiangular is described as a central orbit about 6. the acceleration is proportional to the radius vector. 41). 25. 47. In the same case show that the velocity at any point is proportional 2. and q is the perpendicular from on the that. and that 1CT is the length of this T. be the point of contact of the other tangent to this trajectory drawn from T. Let /S' be described as a central orbit about a be the second focus. Fig.] 4. the elliptic trajectories described have the same director circle. for an P P polar of 0. 5. Prove that all Let the tangent at P to one of the trajectories meet the director circle in and let Q. pole proportional to r~^. semilatus rectum. major axis of this ellipse. 3. L when the orbit is an ellipse described about the centre.
and therefore each of these is = Mz = sJrr' j^r^ GD . ellipse is Prove that the velocity v at any point of the given by the equation 4 3. this circle is called the "circle of no 4. . given by /= py h'rah CD' \brj iCDy (m = h^ a h r'l' r" b' Thus the distance r. where SP produced meets a circle centre S and radius 2a. Accordingly Kepler's first and second laws of planetary motion may be interpreted in the statement that the field of force in is directed radially towards the Sun. ^SPY=^^ STY\ we have rr' ¥ = al. = CD^/ah. if we write iijr^ for it.4648] ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT A FOCUS 43 Let vectores diculars P be any point on the ellipse let r and r be the radii drawn from S and /Sf' to P let p and p be the perpenand S' on the tangent at P let C be the centre. The field is described as that of the which the Planets move Sun's gravitation. ^ r . Prove that the velocity at P can be resolved into two constant components. a parabola v^=2fxlr. and the intensity of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from the Sun. Prove that. Examples. >Si . 2 ] Prove that in elliptic motion about a focus S the velocity at any point perpendicular and proportional to the radius vector from the other focus to the point TT."] in Example 2. pp =^h\ r^r'=2a. from . acceleration varies inversely as the square of the and. and is = ^^/1. P is [From the formula velocity. it is Prove also that when the conic hyperbola 2. if any conic is described as a central orbit about a focus. and CD Then p the semidiameter conjugate to CP. 48. and when an v^ = n (2/r + 1/a). . 1. Now the acceleration. and the other at right angles to the major axis. (1 the acceleration is /x/r^ towards the focus. = r Also since = CD''. /. one at right angles to the radius vector SP. we have h^ = id.
' ' „ $ = nt^2e sin nt approximately. . that. II. ^ = —. Two points describe the same ellipse in the same periodic time. MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE The in which the ellipse is described periodic time ^ira^ 2irab is [CHAP. Let <f)y =lQCA in the figure.1 .e sin <f)). nt = <f)eam(f). Then curvilinear area ^*S'P= curvilinear area ^iVP.triangle CQN triangle = \ {a^(f) . arc of the ellipse. together from one end of the major axis one of them has an acceleration to a focus Sy and the other an acceleration to the centre C. By putting <t> = 2n we is . cos J . h is be the time from to P.a^ sin cos <^). 26. Fig. + cos^ • . Prove that connected with e by the equation . and 0. be the eccentric angle of P. find the periodic time. = y(</)esin<^).triangle SFN SPJV. as in Ex. =lASP^ the vectorial angle. then. <f} 5. = (curvilinear area ANQ). To find the time of describing any Draw the auxiliary circle AQA'. _ 6.44 5. = ab{(j) — e sin <^). SPN = ^ 6 sin <^ (ae .tna. </>! <^ are their eccentric angles at any instant. starting 7.a cos </>) . "mean motion" and is Thus « The quantity V/*/« is known as the 80 that the time in question is given by denoted by n.ug\e Now and Hence Let t curvilinear area A NQ = sector ACQ. since ht twice the area described per unit of time. if e is small. Prove that. then (f)i<f)2=e sin (f)^. if and . ccosd' and 1 + . curvilinear area ASP=^ab A {(f> .
We may consider the equations xz — xz = Q. : — — ^ describes equal areas in equal times. when the relative velocity of the points is along the line joining them. We Art. chosen as initial instant.. and the particle . — zy=^ const. and the focal distances. 54). make with this line angles 6 6' and 6' such that r sin B _r' sin Inverse problem of central orbits. zx — xz — const. and that about a Two points describe common focus. is moves in always zero. for the present. the tangents to the ellipses at the positions of the points meet the line of intersection of the planes in the same point. xy Hence. y'z yz zx — xz=0. 49] 8. Then at the initial instant z and i vanish. INVERSE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS 45 ellipses of latera recta I and V in different planes the accelerations to the focus are equal when the distances are equal. be satisfied by putting i and z not vanish. In regard to the problem Given the field of force to find the orbit we prove a The path of a particle moving in general theorem as follows: a central field of force is in a plane through the centre of force and the radius vector drawn from the centre of force to the particle 49. yz'yz = If xy — xy does as simultaneous equations to determine i and z. xy—yx = 0. y). and the particle moves in a straight motion (see omit. Show that. and let the centre of force be force. by integration. instant. the velocity is directed line. r and /. let a plane be drawn the tangent to the path of the particle and the centre of through Let this be the plane (x. the plane (x. the case of rectilinear vanish initially. these equations can only Hence z equal to zero. The first two constants of integration vanish because z and z If the third also vanishes. — yx= const.48. y). At any Since the acceleration is directed along the radius vector we have ^ X or =^=? y z' — zy—0.. along the radius vector. the origin.
and then by integration we can find the polar equation of the path. a c^stant. whether constant or not. and is directed towards the for 7. dv the angle between the tangent and the radius vector drawn from the origin. 2 =k _ h dv V^dd' Hence we may write ' ^ ^f^ dd A and equation (2) becomes If M is written for  . this equation „ becomes 2 (duV in 2A rf (3) \de)^'=w^h4i^which / is supposed to be expressed as a function of u Bv this equation we can express ^ as a function of u. v'd we have and we have also. the constant is . Since xy — yx^ or the moment of the velocity. this equation can be integrated in the ^v'==Ajfdv. for we saw in Art. always half the moment of the velocity about the origin. by Ex. where il is (2) to Art. II. 44. Now. field. When the acceleration is of magnitude /. 36). Determination of central orbits in a given component of The tangential the acceleration of a particle dv describing any path can be expressed as ?. 42 that this rate. according in Art. 60.is the cosine of origin. 43. 7 (Art. We have therefore the equation dv ^dv ^^. "ds^^Ts When / form is (1> a function of r. . the tangential component is — / 7 dv .46 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE is is [CHAP. rate of description of area by the radius vector constant.
the orbits that can be described with central accelefi/r^ ration equal to are included in the equation in which e = 1 + e cos (6 — e). _+ d^u . where I is a. The the latus rectum as a focus. the is an ellipse. 48. 47 by differentiating with respect to A from equation (3) This process gives the equation Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance.4951] It is often DETEKMINATION OF CENTRAL ORBITS more convenient to eliminate 6. When/=yL6t*2 equation (4) of Art. is where A We write ejl for A. and conic According to the results of Examples 1 and 2 in Art. ==a 1 say. or greater than f2a\^ ( — . possible orbits are conies having the origin is equal to 21 or 2h^lfjL. parabola or hyperbola according as the velocity is less at a distance r than. and € are arbitrary constants. t Then the most general possible form for u u==j{l + ecos{d Hence all — e)}. To integrate this equation 1 we put then w satisfies the equation d^'w The complete primitive Art. equal to.. 38) of this equation is of the form (cf. and € are arbitrary constants. w = A cos (0 — e). 50 becomes 51. and I is equal to h^ffM. j . constant.
otherwise it is a hyperbolic arbitrary constants. [CHAP. deduce the results . 2.48 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 52. having the centre of force as centre. any circle described about the centre is a possible orbit. If /= fir equation (3) of Art. 6 equal to zero we have an equiangular dhi Deduce the equation _ f ~d6'''^'^~l^i from the equation ^ 5. A and «« that Then (2) the possible orbits are of the form h^=yL. 50 gives Hence prove that. II. If / = fiu^ equation (4) of Art. 50 gives dhi _ fi m^ There are three cases according as A2>^ =^ or </i. put it equal to or tc . When we have^2=^» u = A6 + B. as we see by choosing the constant ^ ^ u = A{ea). u^A cos {ji6\a). Additional Examples of the determination of central If orbits in given fields. where B are =0 the orbit is a circle. pV From the equations which are obtained from the results of Art. when /* is positive. (1) When all A2>fi. 43. / is any function of r. 1. To find all the orbits which can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance. (3) When all A^ < ^^ i _ ^^ is negative. spiral.n\ Then the possible orbits are of the form u=A cosh {n6\a) Putting a or 4. If so as to write the above spiral. 1 ^ is positive. all the possible orbits are ellipses 3. put it equal to t^. = ae**^ +be~ "^.
PQ is the chord of curvature of the path in direction PS. Lib. 53] LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE 49 Newton^ s investigation. PQ M. S Fig. <\PU. 27. 37. Sect. K Then by similar triangles UPG. when SP<\PU. Now and axis describe a conic with focus *S'G' to touch P 2^ at P. the conic is determinate and unique. and only one. 4 With S having in Art. a focus S^ and the focal chord of curvature conic. =. and Principia. PK is the Since SG : aS'P= eccentricity. can be described. Draw U be the middle point of PQ. as focus describe a conic touching for focal chord of curvature at P. velocity Now Find let a point move from P with V in direction PT and have an acceleration /^/(distance)^ towards 5. Prop. and this conic is an ellipse.52. Let =. or hyperbola according as P$<. parabola. SP UO and GK at right angles to SP meeting in and respectively. SG = SP. L. in a given direction PT. and has an acceleration directed towards a point S and varying inversely as the square of the distance from S. Newton's investigation* of the orbit described by a point which moves from a given position P. * PT at P. and the centre of curvature. PQ^ one parabola. is semilatus rectum. We give here a version of 53. GPK we have OP PU=PU PG = PG : : : Whence PG^ 0P=^^. 1. Thus the conic is an ellipse. Given a point P. Lemma. Q in PS produced ^ so that SP' 4> Then by Ex. 3. when SP=^PU. Hence 6^ is the foot of the normal. SG<SP. we have when SP>\PU. and draw UG parallel to PT. or>4AS'P. SG>SP'. 17. PG at right angles to PT. a tangent P7^. Since a semicircle on PU a^a diameter passes through G. 4 . PG and OPU^ PK. or hyperbola according as or SP>. with a given velocity V.
velocity. the point N will have the acceleration named. P. The orbit in question is an ellipse if iPQ < SP i. Let a point when de On OA its as diameter scribe a circle. 54. if P an describes the. draw tion NP at right angles to OA. shall show that. To that resolve in direction : AO multiply by ON OP=OP: acceleration of ON/OP h^ amd observe 1 OA. if F=^ > p .e.e. and acceleration. Motion in a straight with an acceleration to a point in the line varying inversely as the square of the distance. so that. it is a parabola if ^PQ = SP i. 47 that the starting with velocity V at two moving points have at starting the same position. if ^ » it is an hyperbola if JPQ > SP line i. By Ex. II. 4 of Art. 28. and their accelerations are always the same when their distances from S are the same. they therefore describe the same orbit.50 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. circle with acceleration towards 0. centre. and circle.e. if P<^ ^' = . Let a second point describe this conic as a central orbit about S. acceleration of P = pr^z: where h is twice the rate at which OP describes areas about 0.0Ny a ON' . It follows from Art. Thus Sh'a^ON iV= Hh^a^ON OP' {2a. 46 we have . N move in a straight line OA. and let G be and a consider its radius. the mo of the point P on the We Fig. starting from A.
of course. i:2_^^_(7^ where we find C is an arbitrary constant . ai triangle OOP thus t=j(20 + sin2e). i. 56. observing that x diminishes as increases. Field of the Earth^s gravitation. a^=2aj x=0. The Moon describes a nearly circular orbit about the Earth. t Thus the coordinate x and the time terms of a parameter 55. deduce the result in the text. we shall have x Since the radius vector = — fl/o)^. in a period of 4—2 . 1. we have jaaV CiX J By 2. be arrived at by integrating the equation x= — —^ with the conditions that. putting ^=0. Multiplying both sides by x and integrating. putting ^=2acos2^ in this. then when ON^x.e. and the acceleration of a free body in this field is directed towards the centre of the Earth. Find the time of falling to 0. iV^ will have an acceleration fijx^ N towards 0.5356] LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE 51 Hence if we take the point to start at a distance 2a from and put h^ = fia. . and let t be the time of going from (9)2 A to Then ^„ ht OP^ (2a cos ^ = twice the curvilinear area AOP = twice the sector AGP + twice the = 2al9 + a2sin2(9. Examples. OF utilise the figure to express the position in K and Let angle AOP=d. describes areas uniformly we can terms of the time.~JtOb Thus ^2= /2_1\ '^Xx a) t Hence. The same results may. when t=0. we have C= . are both expressed in 0. is It is consonant with observations of around the Earth falling bodies to state that the field of force central.
will occupy us in Chapter X. if the radius is is 60 times the Earth's radius (3980 miles). surface 3. Show if that a gun at the sea level can command Ijn^ of the Earth's the greatest height to which it can send a shot is 1/w of the Earth's radius. Prove that the time in which a particle falls to the Earth's surface from a height A isf — j (l+gJ approximately. a being the Earth's radiua and (Jijaf being neglected. which has S and P as foci. and the period 32'1 in footsecond units. about 27 i days.52 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. . 1. the acceleration due to gravity at a height h above the surface is that here mentioned. when expressed is equal to ^w?rr approximately. account. which start from a point P with velocity F. A 2 X? . There are other corrections of gravity at least as important as The most important. Thus the Moon moves around the if it Earth in nearly the same way as in the ratio 1 : were under gravity diminished (60)^ From this result we conclude that the field of force around the Earth extends to the Moon. For bodies in the neighbourhood of the Earth there is a correction of gravity due to height above the Earth's surface. variations of gravity due to altitude being taken into. is an ellipse. this motion is nearly uniform. If ^ is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface. and the distance of the Moon from the Earth is about 60 times the radius of the Now the central acceleration of a particle describing a Earth. 27^ days. 57. varies inversely as the square of the distance. and touches any of the trajectories at the point where the line drawn from P to the second focus of the trajectory meets 2. Examples. and move with an acceleration directed towards a point ^S* and varying inversely as the square of the distance. and that the intensity of this field. and a the Earth's radius. circular orbit of radius R uniformly in time T is ^^ and. The envelope of the elliptic orbits described by particles. like that of the field around the Sun. depending upon the Earth's rotation. this acceleration. it. II.
fU a/ 2. is a. their distance is av/ V. is (. _ Jdcu sin a/(w2 4. . A point C describes a circle of radius r with angular velocity ©' about the centre 0. between a stream of omnibuses of breadth 6. 5. V is their relative velocity.^2 2uv cos a).r^)}{R% where 7. points Two any time the distance between them At in straight lines in the same plane. moving with velocity F. Show that. the distance AB when A crosses the path of B. moves uniformly in a circle point radius at double the distance from the centre . with the least uniform velocity. and a point P moves so that CP is always equal to a and turns with angular velocity to in the plane of the circle described by C. Three horses in a field are at a certain moment at the angular points 3. R is the length of OP. 1. retaining a constant length. particle moves in the plane of two rectangular axes so that the resolved parts of its velocity parallel to the axes are proportional to its distances measured in fixed senses from two other rectangular lines in the Prove that its path is an equiangular spiral or a rectangular plane. A F the arc described by acceleration of P a. moves so that C is always in a certain straight line through A. in a straight line. and a second straight line BC.53 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. A straight line AB turns with uniform angular velocity about a point A. is au/ V^. . R is parallel and proportional RQ. following at intervals a. 6. also of constant length. u and v are the resolved parts of F parallel and perpendicular to the direction of a.+ ). v in two straight an angle a prove that the time from the position in which to that in which it is double its least value is points . Prove that the angular velocity of OP is _ ^ {to (R^ + a2 r2) + move uniformly co' {R^ a^\. horses are moving along concurrent lines. A hyperbola. Their motion relatively to a person driving along a road is in direction round the sides of the triangle (in the same sense) and in magnitude equal to the velocity of the carriage. and that the time until they arrive at this position 8. point in the same tangent at P equal to from the beginning of the motion show that the Q is PR is a to . Show that the three 4. Prove that the velocity of C is proportional to the intercept which BC makes on the line through A at right angles to AC. Two lines containing AB is least where c is A and B move with uniform velocities w. when they are nearest together. Prove that the time in which it is possible to cross a road of breadth c. of an equilateral triangle.
II. Two particles start simultaneously lines. from the same point and move along two straight acceleration. x with acceleration Show that the time ixjx^ towards the of arriving at a distance is \/(S)HV^\/63}15. Prove that . the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on the direction of motion is r its distance from the origin. after a time t a second body projected vertically with velocity {<v). and p rvlp^ V being the velocity of the particle.b^). and starts from rest at distance a + ^{a^ . the result being a dead heat. prove that («2N/fi) tan {tiJp) tauh = 1. «2) particular instant. for a subsequent interval ^2 the acceleration is fix. is equal to ^/r^ . 13. the radius of curvature of its path. 10.54 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. fixed parabola. Prove that it will come to rest at distance A a»J{a^h'^) in time rrc^j^fi^ and will oscillate between these distances. one with uniform velocity. Two is boats start off to race with velocities accelerations/./'. particle moves in a straight line under a force tending to a fixed point in the line which. and at the end of this interval 16. %th seconds after any 12. an interval moves along the axis ^. A particle tx the particle is at the origin . . 11. If they meet as soon as possible 14. BC ^CA + V — U AB 1 — w ^ =0. Three tangents to the path of a particle whose acceleration is constant 17. the other with uniform Prove that the line joining the particles at any time touches a A particle path and describes arcs «i. at distance r. A body is projected vertically upwards is with velocity v v' . n^. A x particle moves in the axis origin. starting from rest at x=a. v\ and move with Prove that the length of the course ^ivv'){vfv'f)l{JfY. starting from rest at x=a\ for from the beginning of the motion the acceleration is ^lx. v. prove that moves with uniform acceleration along the tangent to its *3 ^^ *^he %. Prove that when a particle moves along a plane curve the velocity of 9.b^fi/{r^a). and always in the same direction form a triangle ABC the velocities are u along BC^ v along CA^ w along AB.
where 2/3 is the angle which 23. horizontal range 72. ''{v/('J)V('4')). with equal ease at any height from the ground between k^ and Jc^ show that he must estimate his position within a length . ^ of projection is is projected from a point A with the least velocity as to pass through a point show that the velocity at . the shot as seen ^. makes with the vertical. A another point . a buoy was observed at a depression i below the horizon. Prove that the angular velocity of a projectile about the focus of path varies inversely as its distance from the focus. . 55 its is projected from a gun at any angle of from the point of projection will appear to descend past a vertical target with uniform velocity. From a fort and a gun was 6. and that the highest point of the path is at a height ^cos*^a above A. and ^tana (1 — cos/3) below the mark aimed at. Show that the . where AB=l and makes an angle a with the vertical. Ftan/3. so as to keep the particle 20. placed in parallel vertical planes with their highest points in a horizontal straight line at a height h above the point of projection.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 18. c?. is the range on the horizontal and h the greatest height the ball If a is the requisite elevation of a cannon for a mark on a target at a 22. Prove that when a shot elevation. A On always in the centre of the field original velocity of the telescope tion g cot a. an elevation a. and its accelera(a A cricketer in the long field has to judge a catch which he can secure 21. of diameter particle is to be projected so as just to pass through three equal at distances a apart. and if the axis of the trunnions of the cannon is inclined to the horizontal at an angle )3. Show that to strike the buoy the elevation should 25. particle is projected from a platform with velocity Fand elevation the platform is a telescope fixed at elevation a./3) cosec a. cos^i sin i A rings. but the shot was observed to strike the water at a depression i'. must be Fsin of view of the telescope. The platform moves horizontally in the plane of the particle's motion. 19. 24. the shot will strike the target at a distance tan a sin /3 on one side. Prove that the elevation must be tan~^ —— . where 2^ attains. A heavy particle V so B B AB heavy particle is projected from a point A so as to pass through B show that the least velocity with which this is possible is v/(2(7^)cos^a. fired at be where cos sin {B + i) _ cos2^ sin ^ ' ' ' cos a sin (a \.i') 26.
ball travelling round a circle of radius a with speed v throws a from his hand at a height h above the ground. are two given points. II. it A man so that value of Show alights at the centre of the circle. from a point in a plane of inclination a.b) : ija. the time of flight varies as '^CB. with a relative velocity F. so long as the height does not exceed A(l+a/6). 8in(/3~y).tan ^ = 2 tan y. for different positions of the vertical plane of motion. and ^2 the time from that 31. greater than the least positive value of cos4 show that its path will cut two planes through the point of projection at right angles.J(a 29. and that the greatest is ^B^{R^r^)/{r{2r^E% height of the particle above the polygon A particle is projected R 28. if their inclinations to the horizontal are ^ and then ^47=0. A paiticle is /3 projected with elevation a from a point on a plane of in a vertical plane containing a line of Prove greatest slope. the intercept on a vertical through a point C on AB between C and the trajectory is ^gtit2. such that 2^2 tan = ^3 tan y. from a point on a horizontal table so as to pass the four upper corners of a regular polygon of an even number of through and r If sides which stands in a vertical plane with one side on the table. the greatest projection of the range on a horizontal line perpendicular to the line of greatest slope is heavy particle starts. prove are the radii that the range on the plane is 2^{B^5li^r^ + 8r^)IR.F/^. vertical to B. then tan a f. of the circumscribed and inscribed circles of the polygon. and C any given point on the line joining them. with a velocity u at an inclination y to the horizontal. passing from one to the other is . [CHAP.66 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 27. line is In any trajectory between two points A. that the least possible If A and 30. that. where ti the time from A to the vertical through C. 33. and that for heights h and 2A these maximum horizontal velocities are in the ratio . B. if the elevation of the point of the path most distant from the inclined inclination plane is y. in the diflferent trajectories possible under gravity B between A and B. that. Fis given by V^ = v^+gy(a^+h^)h}. in arithmetic progression. and that the time of y. where I) is the point in which the trajectory meets the vertical through C. 32. prove that. a. . 34. A particle is projected with velocity V at any elevation. Show that. A . A man strike a ball over the net so that standing at a distance a from a net of height h wishes to it may fall to the ground within a distance Prove that the square of the maximum which should be imparted to the ball increases in velocity harmonic progression as the height at which the ball is struck increases 6(< a) on horizontal the other side of the net.
and that the curvature of the is path quadrupled. is fired with velocity ^/{2gh) from the top of a mountain the form of a hemisphere of radius r. Two heavy particles are projected from a point with equal velocities. show that the velocity of projection /3/v/ is J{2ga) sin {sin a . under gravity.f{r^4rh) from the point of projection. . Two inclined planes intersect in a horizontal line and are inclined to the horizontal at angles a and ^. their directions of projection being in the same vertical plane. Prove that at elevations /3i. Particles are projected from the same point with equal velocities 41. A shot which is in 43. A particle is projected from a point in the former. 42. Show that the furthest are at a distance points of the mountain which can be reached by the shot (measured in a straight line) ry. /Ssvertical plane with velocities i?i. prove that the vertices of their paths are on an ellipse. the points of contact will be simultaneous positions of the particles. A number of particles are projected simultaneously from a point. and move under gravity.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 57 35. If of their they are all equally elastic and impinge on a vertical wall the vertices subsequent paths also lie on an ellipse.velocity of the shot. distant a from the intersection. Three particles are projected from the same point in the same 38. sin20i^2) _Q^ Vi^ Vi^ V2^ Three particles are projected simultaneously from a given point in given directions. the initial velocities and a. prove that. Prove that after an interval of time t they form a triangle 39. so as to strike the latter at right angles. t' are the times taken by the particles to reach the other point where their paths intersect. v are through the point of projection after a time 7. is is If the velocity v at any point of the path of a projectile under gravity 36.sin /3 cos (a +/3)}. A gun is the horizon. suddenly diminished by onehalf. t. Show where >/(2^A) is inclination a to placed on a fort situated on a hill side of that the area commanded by it is 47rA(A + c^cosa)sec3a. prove that the focus of the new trajectory nearer to the projectile by the distance f v^/^. 40. and T^ show that paths: T tT\t'T' is are the times taken to reach the highest points of the independent of the directions of projection. ^ the initial elevations of these two particles. distance of the gun from the . the muzzle. if tangents are drawn to their paths from any point in the vertical line through the point of projection. /Sg. V2> the foci of their paths lie in a straight line if % sin202i33) I sin2(^3^i) . and d the perpendicular hill side. 37. show that the plane of the triangle will pass 2 uv sin (8 — a) ^ where u. If the directions of projection of two of them are in the same vertical plane. of area proportional to t^.
must it Prove that the part of the plane commanded the muzzle. the jet being at a height h above the centre of a circular basin. Prove that. in a plane perpendicular to the edge of the cliff. at a given inclination to the horizon. (^1 . at h{>aga^lv^\ and a shot is fired with velocity v in the vertical plane Prove that the distance commanded by the to that of the wall. Prove that. for a constant velocity of i^rojection and different directions of projection. and that. and show that the maximum value of r for different values of 6 is = 2. if all the wateris to fall into the basin.62) I {g sin (<9i + 62)}. is [CHAP.velocity being constant. if two heavy particles projected in the same vertical plane at the same instant from two given points with the same velocity meet. the Prove that the points on the wall lie between ^i and 62. is real. the locus of points in a to produce an acceleration horizontal plane which can just be reached with a given velocity v of projection is an ellipse of eccentricity //V(/^+5'^) and area nv*jj{f^+g^)/g^. A gun on which plane it is pointed. if the sole / A particle is projected so as to enter in the direction of its length a 49. 51. right angles gun on the other side of the wall is provided that this expression 46. is an ellipse of eccentricity sin a. Find r so that the stones may strike each other. II. in which stands. lie in a given plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle a. its paths before entering and after leaving the tube differ by ^2 times the length of the tube. F ball from a given point with a given velocity 80 as to strike a vertical wall above a horizontal line on the wall. after an interval r he throws another stone from the same spot with given velocity v at an angle ^n6 with the line of discharge of the first stone and in the same plane./w. smooth straight tube of small bore fixed at an angle of 45° to the horizon. When It is required to throw a projected in the vertical plane at right angles to the wall. towards which the ball may be directly projected lie within a circle of radius the ball is elevation must F2 sin 47. iv^/tpgf and occurs when sin ^ . 48. and Show that the latera recta of to pass out again at the other end of the tube. the locus of the point of meeting is a parabola. Prove that. At a horizontal distance a from a gun there is a wall of height 46. w being the vertical component of v.58 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 44. jet in Water issues from a fountain such a manner that the velocity of emission in a direction making an angle B with the vertical is JigacosecB). its radius must not be less than [2a{a + Jia^+h^)}]K eff'ect of a wind on the motion of a projectile is in a horizontal direction. mounted at a given spot so as to command the horizontal Its mounting is such that the direction. the sum of the inclinations of the directions of projection must be constant. 50. A man standing on the edge of a cliff throws a stone with given velocity w.
to the centre of 55. which tends a force varying as the distance.cp(i^)*(i+^y where 2a is the transverse axis. prove . /i oflf. a straight line passing through a point 0. Two particles are projected in parallel directions from two points in 53. Prove also that the angle between one of the directions of projection and PQ is the same as the angle between the other and PS. A body is describing an ellipse of eccentricity ^ under a force to the and when it is at one end of the latus rectum the centre of force is suddenly transferred to the foot of the corresponding directrix. and the particles start in opposite directions from corresponding Prove that the line joining them is of extremities of the transverse axes. constant length. sum of the axes of one ellipse being equal to the difference of the axes of the the the other. a point Y is taken in that the rate at which P and Y separate is describes a rectangular hyperbola with an acceleration CP so that CP CT=a^. prove that there are two directions 59. of motion describes a concentric ellipse as a central orbit about the centre. with velocities proportional to their distances from 0. and each particle has an acceleration to equal to Prove that all the tangents to the path of the inner cut (distance). in which it can be projected from a point P with given velocity so as to pass through a point Q. If the acceleration of a particle is directed to a point S and varies inversely as the square of the distance. Two particles describe the same ellipse in the same time as a central Prove that the point of intersection of their directions orbit about the centre. : 58. Two particles describe concentric and coaxial ellipses about common centre with accelerations which are equal at equal distances. point. 54. . v. and that the velocity of arrival at Q is the same for both.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 59 52. From all points on the circumference of a circle. A particle P /x(7P from the centre C. 56. particles are projected towards a point on the circumference with velocities varying as their distances from the Prove that at any instant the particles lie on a circle. Particles are projected from points on a sphere of radius a with acceleration to the centre equal to grja Prove that the part of the surface on which they fall is the smaller of the two segments into which the sphere is divided by a small circle velocity slig^) at distance r. h. and turns with uniform angular velocity. Prove that the times which elapse in the two possible cases before the body reaches the major axis are to one another as 2 1. arcs described in equal times. and move with an of radius 57. from that of the outer. centre.
Prove that the angle which the line joining the particles subtends at the focus particle 65.60 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 60. that the the normal at the point cut square of the part of particle describes any from velocity acquired in moving 61. and at any point of the and to vary as the Prove that the new orbit is an distance. its magnitude being unaltered. and particle describes T the periodic time. and having an acceleration n/r^ origin. 66. oflf by the major axis. The particles start together from the farther apse. A the line prove that the total one point to another is in the direction of the pole of the chord joining the points. prove that the direction of motion at any point meets the directrix in a point. When a parabola is described as a central orbit about a focus. Q. When an hyperbola is described as a central orbit about a focus. and that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an indefinitely great number of equidistant instants of time is a{l+^e^). particle describes being the eccentricity. orbit the acceleration begins to be directed to the centre about a focus. to the from a point distant r from the origin. 2b about a focus. Prove that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an indefinitely great number of instants corresponding to equal differences of vectorial angle is 6. joining the focus to conic about a focus . V^( V^B^ . ellipse ) Prove that the greatest radial velocity of a particle describing^n '^ about a focus is where 2a 64. and a second particle describes the same ellipse in the same time with uniform angular velocity about the same focus.2tiR)lfM}. A an ellipse as a central orbit about a focus. V Prove that the periodic time of a particle projected with velocity 62. where e is the eccentricity. by a is particle projected with velocity if Prove that the central orbit described with acceleration /^/(distance)^. is 27r /2 _ V^\^ fi ' y/(x\r 63. P 67. is the major axis. e the eccentricity. A angular an elliptic orbit about a focus prove particle describes as the at any point about the other focus varies inversely velocity . II. the angle of projection { a rectangular hyperbola is coseci 69. prove that the rate at which areas are described about the centre is inversely proportional to the distance from the focus. A an ellipse of axes 2a. ellipse having double contact with the old orbit and entirely within it. whose velocity is inversely proportional to the abscissa of P. particle describes ellipse A an . [CHAP. V from a point where the distance is R. 68. is is greatest e when the angle described by the first coa~^{\{le^)^/e.
ellipse is ^v/2. When the line joining this point to the circle the law of the particle subtends a right angle at the centre of the acceleration suddenly changes. and proceeds to describe a parabola. the orbit is would be a parabola. and the an eUipse. a central orbit about a 75. orbit. T and show that interval if the centre of force were transferred back to S after the second the particle would begin to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {Zee^)/{l + e). is ^19/8. and SQTR is a parallelogram. the axis of the parabola is at Prove that the eccentricity of the right angles to the axis of the ellipse. the force suddenly becomes repulsive find the position and magnitude of the axes of the new . where e is the eccentricity of the first ellipse. 74.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 70. 73. and the particle moves for a second interval under the action of the force to H. if Find. eccentricities of the which.e cos nt+^e^^e^ cos 2nt). Show that the middle point of TR is the centre of the ellipse. Prove also that is the other focus neglected the angular velocity about constant. the point in an elliptic orbit about a focus at the centre of force were transferred to the empty focus. when possible. and show that the difference of the squares of the new and old orbits is proportional to >S'P. 16c/5(v/3 and that its eccentricity A an Prove that the focal radius and vectorial angle of a particle describing the nearer apse are ellipse of small eccentricity e at time t after passing 76. T A body is moving in a given hyperbola under the action of a force 72. is 6 = nt + 2e sin nt + ^e'^ sin 2nt. Prove that there is greater than ^/5 — 2. but the magnitude of the acceleration does not change Prove that the major axis of the new elliptic orbit is discontinuously. the law of the acceleration being unaltered. Find the position of the particle. particle describes an ellipse about a focus S starting from the further end of the major axis. when it arrives at any point P. and thereafter it varies inversely as the square of the distance. and arrives at the end of the minor axis in time T. On FS produced a point Q is particle proceeds to describe taken so that SQ = §SP. approximately given by the equations r =a (1 . At the end of this time the centre of force is transferred without A altering its intensity to the other focus II. where 2a is the major axis and ^ir/n if e^ is the periodic time. particle is describing a circle of radius c as point distant c/^d from the centre. QT is drawn perpendicular to the tangent at P. 61 A particle describing an ellipse about a focus has its velocity suddenly doubled and turned through a right angle. its magnitude being unaltered. 71. no such point unless the eccentricity under a force to a point A particle is describing a circle S on the circumference. . At a point P on the circle the force changes to the inverse square. tending to a focus S.
SE)amiQSR. prove that {h + ti)^ + (^1 80. If the perihelion distance of a comet is th of the radius of the earth's orbit. 82. supposed circular. found from the equation 6a = aA'. SR of an elliptic orbit about a focus determined. about a focus. II. A particle describes a circle as a central orbit about a point 0. where 2a sin (f) is the chord of the auxiliary circle that corresponds to the focal chord. V(4a2r2)/r(2a2r2)2. sum of the velocities at any two points coUinear with is is described as a central orbit about a on the circumpoint the tangent to the circle meets the diameter through produced in Rj prove that the velocity of R is proportional to 83. supposed circular. Prove that the time of describing the smaller part of an elliptic orbit 77. ^2 are the times in which the comets move from one of these points to the other. 84. + T.1/91) years. where A Show is that the ellipticity may be the area of the triangle FQRy and A' is the area of a triangle whose sides are 2^{SQ. and 2a is the major axis of the orbit. + r2dy : (r. A particle is projected from A with velocity ^{^fiyOA^ and moves with an acceleration /i/(distance)5 directed to 0. r2. the direction of projection making an angle a with OA. 7^2)2 : {T. earth's orbit for show that the comet will remain within the ^(l + 2/n)V(l. the comet's orbit being parabolic. Prove that the constant.^2)^ = ( ^ ^) ' ^^^^® ^ i^ ^ y®^^' The times of passage of a particle between two points distant d apart two parabolic orbits that can be described about the same focus with the same law of acceleration are 7\. + r^ + dr. and if ^j. Prove that the particle will arrive at after a time * OA^ a— sin a cos a s/(2u) sin^ a . 78.sin 2<f)). and the distances of the points from the focus are ri. . is ^{a^/fx)(2<i> . If the parabolic orbits of two comets intersect the orbit of the earth. SQ.y={r. Prove that in the (7^181. and the angles between them. and two similar expressions. 79.62 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. A circle if ference . T2. cut off by a focal chord. where a is the radius of the circle. in the same two points. S are Three focal radii SP.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 85. to the other is . SF. S in its plane in the same periodic time are in the ratio JSG^ RF^. if €^>{a^ + b^). where the axis meets a directrix. . /ir/(r2 and when + 6^)3 towards a velocity >J{^ijl)/c^ in a given at a certain point it begins to have an acceleration point S distant a from the line. and if F= at A. OP^. 63 A particle describes point. 91.«^ . being any point on the circle and SG being a straight line drawn from S parallel to to meet the tangent : F BF at Fin 88. and that the two circles cut at an angle a> given by c2 sin ^ 0) = 2a V(c2 . G. X through F. if F and are the velocities of the a AB V any point on the portion of the circle concave to S\ when the circle described about S and S' respectively. Prove that the accelerations with which the same circle can be described as a central orbit about two points B. prove also that the time the other point of intersection of A F OF of passing from one extremity of the ordinate through §n/(2//x). In any diameter SA'. When point in its plane. the corresponding velocities are in harmonic progression. on the describes a parabola as a central orbit about a point particle axis. where S is the focus corresponding to JT. where FF' is the chord through S. a particle describes an ellipse as a central orbit about any the sum of the reciprocals of the velocities at the extremities of any diameter is independent of the position of the point and varies as the periodic time. major axis prove that the acceleration at F varies as FL^jOF^ where L is the point of intersection of OF and the diameter conjugate to that passing . circle as a central orbit Prove that the acceleration with which a particle P can describe a about a point S is inversely proportional to SP^ FF'^. Prove that the acceleration at F is proportional to GG^jRF^^ CG being drawn parallel to 93. An ellipse is described as a central orbit about a point on the 90. BF to meet the tangent at F in G.b^) A particle describes an ellipse of latus rectum 21 about the point 89. If points are taken on the orbit such that the squares of their distances from S are in arithmetic progression. prove that the acceleration is /i{l/OP}l/Ojo}3. Any conic whose centre is C is described as a central orbit about any point R. 86. p being with the curve . there are two positions of the point for which the subsequent orbit is a circle. S' are taken such that Prove that. 92. Prove that the acceleration is e^h?'XFI{lSM^). then 1/Fe/F' V is constant.S'A=SB\S'B=e. particle at is circle as a central orbit about an eccentric of the circle points S. 87. A particle is moving with uniform it is straight line. and if is the foot of the perpendicular from F on the major axis. Prove that.
with an acceleration to a point on the axis distant c from the vertex. Prove that the time tending of moving from the vertex to a point distant y from the axis is proportional A to y+Ay^/««95. Prove that any conic can be described by a particle with an always at right angles to the transverse axis and varying inversely as the cube of the distance from it. Prove that the acceleration towards the centre of the fixed circle with which a particle can describe an epicycloid is proportional to r/p*. A Show and pole angle ^ that a particle can describe an equiangular spiral of angle a with an acceleration iijSP^ whose direction makes a constant with the tangent to the spiral provided that S tana=^(nl)tanj3. A particle describes an ellipse with acceleration A parallel to a diameter. Prove that it will not strike the axis x unless /a F^P.64 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 94.Vh) from the origin. it strikes it at a distance Ul^\{^^ . 100. in this case. If aS'. particle describes a cycloid with an acceleration always perpendicular to the base. V > 98. 99. an equiangular spiral whose pole is is described as a central orbit about any point prove that the acceleration at P is inversely proportional to OP. where r is the radius vector and p the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent. and that. Show that the acceleration must vary inversely as the cube of the ordinate of the conjugate diameter. If a particle is describing an ellipse in this manner. [CHAP. Prove that the acceleration with which the curve is r=a sin n6 can be described as a central orbit about the origin proportional to 104 Prove that the curve r a ( 1 + ^ ^6 cos ^) is a central orbit about the origin for acceleration proportional to r~*f. h) with velocities U^ parallel to the axes of x. The curve initial 103. 102. prove that its magnitude is proportional to the inverse fourth power of the radius of curvature at each point of the curve. 101. SP^ sin3<^. 96. II. latus rectum 4o. particle moves with an acceleration \iy~^ towards the axis x^ starting from the point (0. where is the angle which the radius vector SP makes with the tangent at P. y. particle describes a parabola.Jar ~^ = . prove that the particle will proceed to describe an hyperbola having the axes of the ellipse as asymptotes. and at one end of one acceleration of the equiconjugate diameters the acceleration is suddenly changed in sense without being altered in magnitude. Find the formula for the acceleration. 97. with ^n r=a+ 6^ is described as a central orbit about the origin distance a and initial velocity F in a direction making an angle with the initial radius vector.
Show that the second particle has an acceleration to S less than that of the first particle by h^ cos^ ajr^. and 110. the line density p at any subsequent time t is given by (i){p) + ht = ct){ppo/p). if the line density at any time is constant and =po. /'. Prove that. and the angular velocity of its radius vector is less than that of the first particle in the ratio sin a 1. and may leavev the solar system. particle is describing a central orbit about a point S. rate of description of areas about 0. r r' is the angle r or If and / are corresponding makes with the tangent. prove that the central acceleration is 2^2 (52« _ (^2n) ^ ^2«2/(^2n _ 52«)2 . and ^h being the from 109. about the origin with areal velocity ^h. p the perpendicular on the tangent. If any curve is velocity of the foot of the perpendicular as the chord of curvature through 0. Another particle moves so that at any instant its distance (r) from >S' is equal to that of first particle. + /3/' A'2 ' where h and (f> h' are constants. and h twice the rate at which the radius vector describes areas. M. and that the angle of elevation is 22^°. seven miles per second will not in general return to the Earth. prove that the angular acceleration a about equation the where u is the reciprocal of the distance from 0. : A the 108. prove that 2 sin2<^» radii vectores. 112. Prove that the least velocity with which a body could be projected from the North Pole so as to meet the Earth's surface at the Equator is nearly 4i miles per second. described as a central orbit about a point 0. / is the acceleration and ^h the areal velocity in a central orbit satisfies about a point 0. 106. 5 .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 65 If the curve r^" + b^'^\2a'^r^ cos n6 = is described as a central orbit 105. A series of particles are describing the same curve as a central orbit about a point with an acceleration whose tangential component is h^/p^(f)' (p). Prove that a body ejected from the Earth with velocity exceeding 111. If inverse curves with respect to can be described as central orbits about with accelerations ^3/ A2 /. the from on the tangent varies inversely is 107. L.
the time of flight is A K/(3a/^)(tanV6 + v/i). 113. if the distance of the sphere from the •  V( ^^ . a length it an angle a.2 Vv cos a + v^ + 2gE) of the line of particles will fall upon the sphere. g being the force per unit . originally very great.66 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. in a straight line intersecting the line and velocity A K V is K making with line is Prove that. if the direction of projection makes an angle 30° with the vertical. at the surface of the sphere. where a 114. whose centre moves with velocity i. stream of particles originally moving in a straight line with under the influence of a gravitating sphere of radius R. particle is projected from the Earth's surface so as to describe a Prove that. II. portion of an ellipse whose axis major is f of the Earth's radius. is the Earth's radius and g is the value of gravity at its surface.
of the altitude of the place above.g. so far as operation is performed observation can tell. of sectional is supporting a load of 1 ton. rest upon a horizontal plane. hanging vertically. 5—2 . and extended by the fraction 000007 of its length. for example. approximately. definite place on the Earth's surface {e. ported near the Earth's surface. depth below. ing the stretching of the steel bar. area one square inch. We * A steel bar. Consider a heavy body sup58. at any is not too great." his muscles are If the body is supported by a man carrythrown into a state of strain. the spring is stretched if . supported even by a steel bar. may therefore use this balance. the bar is stretched a and the stretching of the bar can be observed by means of is suitable instruments. it. The body may. is proportional to the weight so determined. as determined by the common . analogous to The operation of weighing a body in a common balance determines a certain quantity the number of pounds or grammes which the body weighs. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE. the body little*. or its : . We should say that he exerted "force. the stretching of the spring. and. or spring. the mean surface of the Earth. in London). The force of gravity. it may be supported by a rope or a spiral In either case we should say that there was a force acting upon it and counteracting the force of the Earth's field. which is then the plane surface of some other body. When the body is supported by a spring.CHAPTER HI. The number so determined is independent of the latitude and longitude of the place where the and it is independent also. The stretching of a spring supporting a body can be measured when the weight of the body. and the man has a sensation of muscular effort.
may be determined by adding the masses of the several each being determined by weighing in a common balance or parts. be damaged by a correctly. The force which is suggested by the above considerations is the a heavy body*. or Sun." The weight of body is said to be "weighed by the body. and it would not measure that weight t This force is sometimes called the " weight " of the body. to the local value of g (the acceleration of a "force" is based upon the muscular primitive notion of The measure of sensations of a man supporting a heavy body. will be called the mass of the body. We denote this force by W. as determined stretching We are thus a common balance. Force may be defined as a certain 59. In the particular case of a body supported upon a horizontal plane. This definition of mass does not the mass cover such cases as the mass of the Earth. e. suflficiently • is An supposed to be proactual spring would heavy weight. This quantity.g. however great the weight may be. " " by some equivalent method.63 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. by led to measure the force of the Earth's gravity as proportional to factors. The force of the Earth's gravity acting upon a bodyf is measured by the product of the number of units of mass in the mass of the body and the number of units of acceleration in the local value of g. III. of the body. or Moon. It is found to be proportional free falling body). a battleship. determined by the spring balance. and write W^mg. A more general definition will be given in Chapter YI. the The spring is "ideal" in as much as the extension portional to the weight. is different in different latitudes and at different altitudes. each of these The operation of weighing a body in a common balance teaches us how to assign to any body of sufficiently small bulk a definite constant quantity: the number of pounds or grammes which the body weighs. (ii) to the local value of g. which cannot be weighed in a common balance. We denote the mass of a body by the letter m. measure of the action which one body exerts upon another. or any suitable constant For a body multiple of it. and then the stretchiDg to determine the weight a spring balance. . Measure of force. This stretching of an ideal spring supporting is always proportional (i) to the weight.
5860]
MEASURE OF FORCE
69
force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to
an action of the body having the horizontal plane
surface
;
for part of its
this force is called the pressure of the plane
upon the
supported body.
In the case of a body supported by a rope or
spring, the force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to an action of the rope or spring; this force is called the The force of the Earth's gravity tension of the rope or spring.
acting upon a body is, in like manner, traced to a supposed action of the Earth upon the body.
In this
last case
is
we know that the
produce
in the
effect of
the action,
if
not
;
counteracted,
to
body a
certain acceleration
and the measure of the force is the product, as explained above, of the mass of the body and the acceleration which it produces.
In like manner, we may say that the effect of any force on a in the body, when not counteracted by other forces, is to produce body an acceleration, and the measure of the force is the product
of the measures of the
acts
upon a body of mass m, and we have the formula
mass and the acceleration. If a force it produces in it an acceleration
P
/,
60.
Units of mass and force.
In the
It is
units, the
gramme
is
the unit of mass.
system" of the onethousandth
"c.g.s.
part of the
mass of a certain lump of platinum known as the "Kilogramme des Archives," made by Borda, and kept in Paris.
It is the force which, is called the "dyne." a body of mass one gramme, produces in it an acceleacting upon ration of one centimetre per second per second.
The
unit of force
In the "footpoundsecond system," the pound is the unit of mass. It is the mass of a certain lump of platinum kept in the is called the Royal Exchequer in London. The unit of force " It is the force which, acting upon a body of mass one
poundal."
pound, produces in
second.
it
an acceleration of one foot per second per
In the "British engineers' system" the unit of force is the force of the Earth's gravity acting in London upon a body which
weighs a pound, when weighed in a common balance.
It is called
70
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
a "force of one pound."
The
unit of mass
is
the mass of a body
which weighs 322 pounds
in a
common
balance.
The mass
is
of
a body which weighs one pound in a
common
balance
^^
In this system, as in the others, the unit force, units of mass. in it an acceleration of one acting upon the unit mass, produces unit of length (one foot) per second per second.
In any system of units, force
is
mass, one dimension in length, and
a quantity of one dimension in — 2 dimensions in time. The
dimension symbol
is
MLT^^.
Vectorial character of force. In the cases which we 61. have examined so far, either there has been a single force acting " upon a body, which for definiteness we thought of as a particle," or else the forces acting upon the body have exactly counteracted
each other.
acceleration.
In the former case, the body moves with a certain In the latter case, it remains at rest. In the case
of a heavy body supported by the tension of a cord, we may regard the Earth's gravity as producing in it the acceleration g down
wards, and the tension of the cord as producing in it the acceleraIf we do this we are able to maintain in both tion g upwards.
cases the measure of force as the product of the
mass and the
acceleration that
is
produced by the
force.
Consider a body supported upon a plane horizontal surface. Let the surface be gradually tilted so that the plane becomes an inclined plane. It is found that the body will begin to slide*
down the plane when the plane
is tilted at an angle which exceeds a certain limiting angle. If the surfaces in contact are We highly polished the angle at which sliding begins is small.
might imagine the surfaces to be so smooth that sliding would
take place at any inclination however small. The acceleration with which the body slides down the plane is the resultant of the acceleration g in the direction of the downward vertical and some other acceleration,/. Let a be the inclination of the plane; then the acceleration g can be resolved into two components,
•
The body should have a
flat base.
A
solid sphere, or
any body with a curved
avoid for the present
surface, placed
on an inclined plane,
will generally roll.
We
the complication of rolling.
60, 61]
viz.:
COMPONENT FORCES AND RESULTANT FORCE
in
71
^sina
the direction
of a
line
of slope
drawn down
the plane, and gcosa at right angles to the plane. See Fig. 29. If the accelera
/ is directed at right angles to the plane its amount must be g cos a, in the sense opposite to one of the two components of g, as shown in Fig. 29, since the
tion
gsina
X
Fig. 29.
^o
cos
a
body moves on the plane, and so has no
.
acceleration at right angles to the plane. In this case, the acceleration with which the
the plane is g sin a is of amount mg cos
*,
a,
body slides down and the pressure of the plane on the body the mass of the body being m. This state
be
of things cannot be exactly realised in practice, but it can approximately realised when the surfaces are very smooth.
down the plane
resisted
In any actual case the acceleration with which the body slides is less than g sin a, and the motion is said to be
by
"friction."
For the present we
effect
shall
suppose that the
is
surfaces are so
smooth that the
of friction
negligible.
We
is
have learnt that the
the same
effect of the Earth's gravity on the body as that of two forces: one m^sin a producing acceleraline of
tion
down the
slope,
and the other
mg cos a
producing
acceleration at right angles to the plane. This result leads us to the conclusion that force, as a mathematical quantity, is to be regarded as a vector quantity, equivalent
to
"component
is
forces" in
the
same way
as
any other vector
quantity In particular,
equivalent to
components.
we
be regarded as what (Art. 17), the point at which the vector
see that force acting on a particle ought to we have called a "vector localized at a point"
is
localized being the
The line, drawn through the point, by position of the particle. which the vector is determined, is the "line of action" of the
force.
The
line of action of the force
are the direction
and the sense of the and sense of the acceleration which the
force
force
produces.
According to this statement any forces acting on a particle are equivalent to a single force, to be determined from the separate forces by the rules for the composition of vectors. This single
force
is
called the "resultant" of the forces acting on the particle.
*
This result was used by Galileo for the determination of
g.
72
62.
1.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
Examples^.
Find the time of descent of a particle down an inclined tube when friction is neglected and the particle starts from rest at a given point of
the tube.
2. Prove that the time of descent down all chords of a vertical circle, at its lowest point, starting at the highest point of the circle, or terminated
is
the same.
3.
*
Prove that the line of quickest descent from a point ^ to a curve, a vertical plane containing A, is the line from A to the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its highest point and to touch the curve. Prove also that the line of quickest descent from a curve
which
is in
to a point A is the line to A from the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its lowest point and to touch the curve.
4. Prove that each of the lines of quickest descent in Ex. 3 bisects the angle between the vertical and the normal to the curve at the point where Hence show that the line of quickest descent from one it meets the curve.
given curve to another in the same vertical plane bisects the angle between the normal at either end and the vertical.
6.
and moving on the plane without
63.
Prove that a particle projected in any manner on an inclined plane, friction, describes a parabola.
Definitions of
momentum and
kinetic reaction.
The momentum
V, is
of a particle of
mass m, moving with a velocity
a vector, localized in the line of the velocity, of which the sense is the same as that of the velocity, and the magnitude is the
product
7nv.
The kinetic reaction of a particle of mass m, moving with an acceleration /, is a vector, localized in the line of the acceleration, of which the sense is the same as that of the acceleration, and
the magnitude
is
the product mf.
The kinetic reaction of a particle is the same quantity as the rate of change of momentum of the particle per unit of time.
64.
Equations of motion.
kinetic
of force in Articles 58
— 61 leads to the following statement —
:
The
discussion of the nature
The
reaction
of a particle has
the
same magnitude,
direction
and
sense as the resultant force acting on the particle.
is
is to be regarded as a general principle which the facts stated in the previous discussion and suggested by other facts of like nature. In other words it is an induction
This statement
The
results in
Examples 2 and 3 were noted by
Galileo.
6265]
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
73
from experience. From the nature of the case it is not capable of mathematical proof The truth of it is only to be tested by the
comparison of results deduced from it with results of experiment. The statement is expressed analytically by certain equations,
which are called the "equations of motion" of the
are obtained
in
particle. They by equating the resolved part of the kinetic reaction
any direction
to the
sum
of the resolved parts of the forces
in that direction.
be the components parallel to the axes of x, y, z Let X, F, of the resultant force acting on the particle, or, what comes to the same thing, the sums of the resolved parts of the forces in the
directions of these axes.
X, y, z
Z
Let
m
be the mass of the
particle,
and
of
the coordinates of
its position at
time
t.
The equations
motion are
mx — X,
We
have had
equations of motion.
my =
F,
mz =
Z.
are really
several examples already of equations which
For example, the equations
^•=0,
'y
= g
in Art. 33 are really equations of motion.
As a further example,
force.
If
/
;
is
the intensity of the
consider the motion of a particle in a central field of field, and the centre of force is the origin,
and
if
the force
the origin
is an attraction, it is of amount and the equations of motion are
t
mf and
is
directed towards
mx= — mf 
,
my= mf, mz=  mf 
,
where r denotes distance fi'om the origin. Just as in Art. 49, these equations show that the motion takes place in a fixed plane. By means of the result of
Art. 43 the equations of motion, expressed in terms of polar coordinates in the plane, can be written
m(f rS^) =mf
m^j^
(r^)=0.
Equations of Motion in simple cases.
Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity. 65. The motion of a small ring on a very smooth wire, or of a small
spherical shot in a very smooth tube, can be discussed by treating the ring or shot as a particle constrained to describe a given curve, and supposing that the particle is subject not only to the
force of the field, but also to a force— the pressure of the curveWe take directed along the normal at any point of the curve.
74
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
is
[chap.
III.
the case where the curve
the
field is
a plane curve in a vertical plane, and We draw the that of the Earth's gravity at a place.
axis of y vertically upwards, and denote by s the arc of the curve measured from some fixed point of it up to the position of the
particle at the instant ^, and in the direction of increase of
by
s.
v
We
curve by R, and suppose that its If the pressure really acts of curvature. will be negative. found for
the velocity of the particle denote the pressure of the sense is towards the centre
outwards, the
value
R
Fig. 30.
In the lefthand figure (Fig. 30) are shown the components of the kinetic reaction along the tangent and normal. In the righthand figuie are shown the forces acting on the particleThe equations of motion, obtained by resolving the forces along
the tangent and normal, are dv
mv
T
= — mg sm
.
.
<f>,
m = R mg cos
v'^
r,
<j>.
Now
sin
</)
=
^
,
and the
first
of these equations becomes
dv
dv
This equation can be integrated in the form
^mv^
where
(^0, 2/o)
= — mgy {G,
C
is
a constant.
of the curve.
Let Vq be the velocity at some point Then C = ^mv^^ + mgy^, and the equation
can be written
J mv'
 i wV = mg (y^  y).
This equation can be partially interpreted in the statement that the velocity of a particle moving under gravity without
65, 66]
friction is
MOTION ON A SMOOTH CURVE
it
75
always the same when This result was found by Galileo.
comes back
to the
same
level.
If the particle starts with an assigned velocity from a given point of the curve, this equation determines the velocity in any
position
at
;
the equation ni—
= R— mg cos
(f>
determines the pressure
any point of the curve.
66.
1.
is a circle, the angle ^ of Fig. 30 is the angle which the radius of the circle drawn from the centre to the particle makes with the
Examples. When the curve
vertical
drawn downwards.
Prove that,
if
position in which <^=a, the velocity v in
y2
= ^ga (cos ^
any position  cos
a),
the particle starts from rest in a is given by the equation
where a
is
the radius of the
circle.
Find the pressure in any position. Find the greatest angle through which a person can oscillate in a swing, the ropes of which can support a tension equal to twice the person's
2.
weight.
3.
When
cycloid
under gravity, the vertex
a particle moves on a smooth of the
cycloid being at the lowest point, the equation of motion, by resolution along the
tangent in direction QP^
may be 5= — ^sin^,
written
s
to P,
being the arc measured from the vertex and 6 the angle which the normal OP
vertical.
makes with the
Now, by a known
property of the cycloid, s = 4asin^, where a is the radius of the generating circle, and thus the above equation becomes
Fig. 31.
4a
showing that the motion in
s is
Thus the time taken
is
to fall to the vertex
simple harmonic with period 27r ^Ji^a/g). from any point on the curve is
is tt
independent of the startingpoint, and in fact
[This property
^{a/g).
known
as the "Isochronism of the cycloid."]
4. Show that the time a train, if unresisted, takes to pass through a tunnel under a river in the form of an arc of an inverted cycloid of length 2s and height h cut off' by a horizontal line is
.J
/f2gh\
>J2g/i''''^"\v^+2ghJ'
where v
is
the velocity with which the train enters and leaves the tunnel.
y^y. and the distance through which the particle descends. In the case of a particle moving under gravity. mg. with of length. The "work done" by a constant is a quantity which is force acting on a particle defined in terms of the force and the dis placement of the particle. which is a number of units parallel We multiply this number.  y) : can be expressed in words in the statement The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal the work done by the force of gravity in that displacement. system of units the unit of work is called the erg. this sign. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. particle.\ mvo' = mg {y. by the number of units of force in the measure of the force. C. and a certain sign." It is the work done by a "force of one pound" acting over one foot. The product so obtained is the work done. The equation imi." footpoundsecondsystem the unit of work is the It is the work done by a force of one poundal foot. work done by the unit force in a displacement of one unit of The unit of kinetic energy is length in the direction of the force.S. to Units of energy and work.2 . acting over one In the British engineers' system the unit of work is the "footpound.G. the kinetic energy acquired by a free body on which one unit of work is done. The quantity obtained the number of units of mass in the mass of a by multiplying half the square of the number of units of velocity in particle by the velocity of the particle is called the "kinetic energy" of the Kinetic energy and work. We resolve the displacement into and perpendicular to the line of action of the components The component parallel to this line (taken in the sense of force. the force) has a certain magnitude. the work done by a force of one dyne acting over one centimetre.76 67. The unit of work is the 68. It is equal to the work done in the latitude of . the work done by the force of gravity is the product of the force. In the It is In the "footpoundal. III.
Power is a quantity having the dimensions a more extended discussion see Chapter VI. work and kinetic energy are quantities of 1 dimension in mass. depend upon the materials of the bodies in contact and the degree of polish of the surfaces. = mg sin i. in a common In any system of units. For Friction. the ratio of the This ratio (equal to to the pressure remains constant. /a) tani or is called the "coefficient of friction.6770] KINETIC ENERGY AND in raising WORK 77 London pound through one foot a body which weighs one balance. Consider a body sliding down an inclined Let a be the inclination of the plane. It is friction found that. and the coefficient of friction. 70. so that when the to take place is tan i. The acceleration of plane. MUT~^. the friction just prevents In this case ^ sin a =/. Let /be the acceleration up the lines of slope which must be compounded with the acceleration ^sina down the lines of slope in order that the The forces resultant may be the actual acceleration of the body. the friction acts in the senseopposite to that of the velocity. and the friction motion. In the same case the pressure = mg cos i. and — 2 dimensions in time. body We and the pressure. " This force is called the friction. ." The body will not slide down the plane unless the inclination a exceeds a certain angle i. Whether the body moves up or down the plane. and a third force which is of magnitude m/and acts up the lines of slope. i. the body down the lines of slope is less than ^sina. on the body are the force of gravity mg vertically downacting wards." The angle of friction. 2 dimensions in length." The angle i is called the "angle of friction. Hence the ratio of the friction to the pressure When a = when motion is just about write /^ for tan i. 69. when motion takes place. If 550 is one horse power. and is equal to the product of ^ and the pressure. or /=^sini. is about to slide the friction is equal to the product of //. the pressure mg cos a at right angles to the plane. The dimension symbol is MUT~'^. Power. is An agent which does one unit of work per unit of time said to be footpounds of work are done per second the power working up to a unit of power.
there is is friction displacement less the increment of kinetic energy in any than the work done by gravity in that dis 72. We shall take the plane an angle a to the horizontal. Prove that the . Also F is the friction and R the pressure. to be inclined at mx = mg sin a ." further in Chapter VIII. When down the down the the particle moves up a line of slope.78 71. III. The force by which the and kept in motion against the resistance called the "pull of the engine. + /x cos a is When the body slides on a horizontal plane the pressure equal to mg vertically upwards. A I carriage is distance from a station. at a and comes to rest ^at the station.R. slipped from an express train. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. fimg This last result is motion of a train on train is set in motion is level rails. going at full speed. 2. find the velocity with which the A particle returns to the point of projection. Motion on a rough plane. the friction acts line. and treat the body down a line of slope.F. Find the height above the point of projection of the point at which it comes to rest. generally taken to be applicable to the The resistance to the motion is taken to be proportional to the mass. 1. where = mg cos a. Draw the sliding on it as a particle moving The equations of motion are axis of X down a line of slope. We shall consider this force When placement. Supposing the inclination of the plane to be greater than the angle of friction. Hence the particle moves down the line of slope with acceleration — g sin a fi cos a. particle is projected with a given velocity up a line of slope of a rough iuclined plane. we have F=fiR. and the acceleration is equal to ^ sin a line. and the friction is equal to in the sense opposite to that of the velocity. Examples.
and that the mass of the chain is negligible in comparison with the masses of the bodies (see Fig. rest of the train will then be at a distance M and m being the masses of the whole train and of the carriage slipped. 1784." We shall assume that the tension of the chain is the same throughout. and T The kinetic reaction of m' is m"x vertically of motion of m' is The equation therefore m'x G. The forces acting on m are mg vertically downwards. downwards. The equation of motion of m is therefore m mx = mg — T. Let T be the tension of the chain. x is negative. A treatise on the rectilinear motion and rotation of bodies. . Prove that the extra work required to take a train from one station to I stop at the next at a distance in an interval t is gf^ k I \Sin'^ n)\m'^ 71^ kj] times the work required to run through without stopping. The upwards. Atwood's machine^. on m' are m'g vertically downwards. * = T — m'g. Let m.7173] ATWOODS MACHINE Mll{M. is tions of motion afforded Another simple example of equaby the problem of two bodies attached to a string or chain which passes over a vertical pulley.m) beyond 79 the station. Then x is also the distance through which m' has ascended at time t. Chapter VI). 32. 3. and the resistance of the road and the brake power per unit mass are equal to the components of gravity down uniform inclines of 1 in 71 and 1 in ^ respectively. forces acting vertically upwards. This amounts to assuming that there is no friction between the pulley and the chain. m be the masses of the bodies. and the pull of the engine being constant. and T is mx vertically The kinetic reaction of vertically upwards. This arrangement constitutes in principle the instrument called "At wood's machine. Cambridge. 73. Atwood. x the distance through which m has descended at time t. If m has ascended and m' descended. where the incline of the road is 1 in w.
the motion of the bob. and piece is lifted oflf. members of these equations. in which the friction and the masses of the chain and pulley are neglected.Q' The value of g is sometimes determined by means of Atwood's Various corrections have to be applied to the result. and the ascends. Simple circular pendulum executing small oscilla tions. called An ordinary pendulum consists of a a "simple circular pendulum. 1. (See Chapter VIII. The work done by Prove that the tension of the chain is 2mm' ." suspended by a bar which can turn about a horizontal axis. A particle constrained to describe a circle in a vertical is plane. called the "bob. Examples. and the bar thin. and also the righthand. By adding the lefthand. 75. lighter follows that the heavier body descends. with an acceleration ^ m {vi . and the most important correction is on account of the mass of the pulley. Generally the pulley turns with the motion of the chain." massive body. The kinetic energy of the two bodies in the case of the simple Atwood's machine. without friction. When the bob is small and massive. is gravity mgx—m'gx.) 74. In Atwood's machine the smaller mass m' of a rigid portion of if after passing through the ring it falls a distance ^ in the time ^2 ^. Assuming that the increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal to the work done by gravity. 2.'^. As m descends it passes through a ring by which the additional Prove that. machine.80 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CBAP. if m starts from a height h above the ring. is ^mx^ + ^m'a. deduce the acceleration of either body.<fm\m^ is rigid. III. . treated as a particle. then _ m+m' ^~2(mm') A^' the friction and the masses of the pulley and chain being neglected. approximates to that of a simple circular pendulum. the mass m consists mass m' and a small additional piece resting lightly upon it. we find (m + m!) x = (m — It mf)g. 3.
and we have the approximate equation If 6 is very small le^^gO. The time from rest to position. A 900 ft. The length of the seconds' pendulum at a place is A given by the equation Pendulum experiments mining the value of 76. afford the most exact method of deter g. This equation shows that the motion in 6 is simple harmonic motion of period 27r \/{llg). Examples. rest is ir^JQ^jg). then the length of the seconds pendukim there is 99*4] 3 centimetres. (Cf. the units being the centimetre and the second. L. This is known as the time of a "beat. of equilibrium. if in London ^=981*17. 1 of Art.) The pendulum swings from starts side to side of the vertical. 38. in one minute. 2." pendulum which beats seconds is known as a "seconds' pendulum". the time of a complete oscillation of such a pendulum is two seconds. approximately. If it from rest. When the circle which passes through the particle makes an angle 6 with the vertical as in Fig. a position slightly different from the position falls to this position in the time i7r>^{l/g). the acceleration along the tangent to the circle is 16 (Ex. sin 6 may be replaced by 6. throughout the motion. Prove that. 33. and comes to rest after an interval JttVC^/^) from the equilibrium The motion is then reversed. to passes through and proceeds move away from it on the other side until its displacement is numerically equal to that at starting. in it it. 6 .7376] SMALL OSCILLATIONS OF PENDULUM denote the radius of the circle 81 the radius of We by I." the period 2'ir*^(llg) is the time of a "complete oscillation. 1. 65 in the form mg sin 6. Art. 37). may We write down one equation mid = — of motion in the same way as in Art. M. balloon ascends with constant acceleration and reaches a height of Show that a pendulum clock carried with it will gain at the rate of 27*8 seconds per hour.
The bob of a cliflF pendulum which is hung close to the face of a cliff is /. 65. and determine the position of the bob at the instant when the fibre becomes slack. horizontal. This equation determines the point at which the particle leaves the curve. I is the length of the pendulum.82 3. or it may be inside a smooth 77. horizontal. vanish. prove that the square root of the true length of the seconds' pendulum is the harmonic mean between ^li and V^24. 78. by the R=mwhere (j) { mg cos <f>. pendulum V. drawn in a definite sense. This will happen if the pressure particle may leave the curve. Or it may be outside such a cylinder. Now equation the pressure is given. and not too far from the lowest generator. A bead slides inclined at an angle a to the vertical. The bob of a simple circular is projected horizontally from Find limits between which V must lie in order that the suspending fibre may become slack. we must have cos = 99 where v' is known. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. and I2 the length of another. Examples. makes with the To make <b R . is the angle which the tangent. according to Art. and not too far from the highest In either case the constraint is "onesided. The particle then describes a parabola under gravity vanishes. of which the normal section is the curve and the generators are circular cylinder. until it strikes the curve again. If ^1 is the length of a slightly defective seconds' pendulum which n seconds in an hour. on a smooth circular wire of radius a. III. whose plane i^ Find the period of its small oscillations about the lowest point. Onesided constraint." and the generator. A particle may be constrained to describe a circle by means of a thread of constant length attached to the centre of the circle. More generally a particle may be constrained to describe a curve in a vertical plane by being inside a cylinder. n being small. attracted to the with a horizontal force of intensity Show that the time of a beat is where 5. its equilibrium position with a velocity . such pendulum gains which loses n seconds in an hour. 1.
attached to a fixed point on the vertical straight line which passes through the centre of the circle. when that due to falling from the radius through it Find the the complete least velocity of projection in order that the particle circle. radius of the circle. Prove that when it strikes the circle again the A thread makes an angle 3/3 with the same vertical. 79. so as to move round inside the cylinder. horizontally along the tangent of the circle. particle of the towards its The are forces acting on the of gravity. the cone We form ^^8* ^^• the equations of motion by resolving vertically. horizontal. = mg — I cos a. Prove that if it leaves the parabola anywhere it does so at the point of projection. tension and the directed T along the generator of towards the fixed point. A A smooth hollow particle is projected from the lowest point of a vertical section of a circular cylinder. Prove that. and a particle is projected along it in a vertical plane. and the vertex upwards. the particle leaves the circle makes with the vertical an angle cos~i §. the force mg vertically dov^^nwards. I 6—2 . particle is constrained to describe a circle by means of an inextensible thread. may describe 4. particle is ^ ^—. the axis of a 3. Conical pendulum. and we therefore have the two equations sin a — T sm a. CONICAL PENDULUM 83 cylinder whose section is a parabola is placed with its generators normal section vertical. if the velocity is the highest point. of the string. Let 2a be the vertical angle of the cone and I the length of the string. Zsin The radius of the circle is Let v be the velocity of the particle and T the tension of the The kinetic reaction of the string. whose axis is horizontal. In any position of the particle the string lies along a generator of a right circular cone having its vertex at the fixed point. and horizontally along Neither the kinetic reaction nor the forces have any components in the third of these directions. and leaves the circle when the thread makes an angle /3 with the vertical drawn upwards. a. A particle can be constrained to describe a horizontal circle uniformly by the tension of a string or thread. t — sin a directed alonsf the ° circle radius centre.7679] 2.
my^ = Jto Ydt. The point of suspension of a simple pendulum of length I is carried round in a horizontal circle of radius c with uniform angular velocity w. JU myi . of v. and let my = F. A may be treated as a conical pendulum. of the 2. with Prove that to prevent the train from leaving the metals the velocity outer rail ought to be raised a height equal to hv^jpg above the inner. Prove also that.84 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. Let the equations of motion of a particle be written in the forms mx = X. 1. with respect to both members of each of these equations be integS t over an interval from 4 to ^i. which the radius of curvature is p. when the motion is steady.yi. the inclination can be inwards towards circle. Zo the components of velocity at the instant ^i. which is the change of momentum of the particle during the interval. the inclination a of the suspending thread to the vertical is given by the equation to^{c + l sin a) =g tan a. Examples. ii be Vo. Let x^.^^0 = I Xdt. Prove that. mz= Z. Theory of Momentum. The quantities in the righthand membeis of the same equations are the components of another vector which is called the "impulse of the force" acting on the in particle during the interval. h being the distance between the rails. the axis of the if (gl(o^)^<l^c^.] [The train rails. and ^o. train rounds a curve. components of velocity at the instant ^o. The equations can be expressed . 81. in which the pressure directed at right angles to the plane of the rails. Impulse. By • eliminating T we find the equation I sin^ a ^ cosa This equation determines the velocity with which the circle can be described when I and a are given. or the angle a when V and 80. III. I are given. raz^ mZo=  'Zdt Jto The quantities in the lefthand members of these equations are the components of a vector. takes the place of the tension of the string.The result is the mil .
tQ members have T is finite limits vfhen = — ^t. acting on the the resolved part of the . Let t' denote the instant at which the sudden change of motion takes place. in the direction of this line is constant. difficult to of motion to We may allow for the possibility of sudden changes of motion by supposing that the force acting on a particle becomes very great during a very short interval of time. Sudden changes of motion. t' and = f + Jt. mii — mzo = Z. Changes of motion of is bodies sometimes take place so rapidly that it observe the gradual transition from one state another. In the equations of the type mil the righthand ti — ma. to be " t\ at impulse exerted on the particle at the instant the sudden change of motion takes place. We the " of which the define the vector. Z. The equations of motion of the form mx = j X = X. components parallel to the axes are X.o= J to ^dt. localized at the position of the particle. Lt rf+ir Ydt=Y. in such a way that the impulse of the force has a finite limit when the interval is diminished indefinitely. and rf+ir diminished indefinitely. ct'+^ We write Lt Xdt = X.7983] IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM statement: 85 particle words in the — The change of momentum of a in any interval is equal to the impulse of the force acting on the particle during the interval. Then the equations are — mi^o = X. : may and also be written (mx) this equation may be expressed in words in the statement "The rate of increase of the momentum of a particle in any to the sum of the resolved parts in that direction direction is — equal of all the forces which act If the line particle is upon the particle." of action of the resultant force momentum at right angles to a fixed line. 82. 83. which Constancy of momentum. myi — myo = miPj F. Lt Zdt = Z. Y.
and X. of force. Through the point {x\ y'. Then the force F' at right angles to this Hence the moment length of the common the force at right angles to the axis. If {x. The theorem of Art. * perpendicular. 84. the moment is independent of the point of application. y. Resolve the force F into components Z parallel to the axis of z. Let F be the force. and consider a force at the point (x' y\ z'). 33). with a certain sign. So long as the magnitude. the resolved part of the momentum in any direction at right angles to the direction of the resultant impulse is unaltered. Now in its the force be supposed to be applied at that point line of action at which the common perpendicular to the let line of action and the is is axis of z meets the line of action. we have the equations* x and therefore we have —x __y — y' ^z — z' xYyX== x'Yy'X. z) is any point on the line. its : The rule of signs is that when the axis of z and the direction of F' are related like the directions of translation and rotation in an ordinary righthanded screw the sign is +. Otherwise the sign is — . the rule of the righthanded screw. F. We had an example of this in the parabolic motion of pro jectiles (Art. momentum and kinetic reaction Let the axis be the axis of z.86 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. cutting the axis of z in the point P. Z applied . line of action and sense of the force remain the same. Then the moment of F about the axis of z is defined to be the same as the moment of F' about P. III. as before. These equations express the conditions that the projections on the axes of a segment of the line are proportional to the resolved parts of the force parallel to the axes. z') draw a plane. of the perpendicular and the resolved part of common The rule of signs is. and F' at right angles to this axis. about an components parallel to the axes. the product. Moment axis. 22 gives for the moment of F about the axis of z the expression x'Yy'X. If the velocity of a particle undergoes a sudden change. .
or be localized at a point in L' and have for direction the direction of L'. are respectively {x. if the vector is resolved any components. m {xy — yx\ 85. y. Let z be the coordinates at time ^ of a particle which is subject to any forces. and let the vector be localized — in a line L'. and let X. The moments about the axes of of a force {X. z)y yZzY. of the re solved part of the vector at right angles to L. F.8385] MOMENT OF LOCALIZED VECTOR 87 This result leads to a general definition of the moment of a localized vector about an axis: Let the axis be a line L to which a certain sense is assigned. resultant force parallel to the axes. or is the resultant of given vectors. The moments of the momentum of a particle are about the axes m {yz — zy). z. y. and the length of the common perFig. applied at a point x. Constancy of moment of momentum. . X. with sign. my= F. the moment of the resultant about any axis of the component is the sum moments of the components. m {xy — yx). mz = Z. 35. pendicular to L and U. From what precedes into it is clear that. m (zx — xz). at time z are the coordinates of the position of the particle The moments of the kinetic reaction of the particle about the axes are m {yz — zy). The rule of signs is the rule of the righthanded screw. m {zx — xz). y. y. zXxZ. Z be the components of the We have the equations mx = X. F. Resolve the vector into com ponents parallel to L and at The moright angles to L. t. xYyX. ment of the vector about the axis L is a certain the product. Z). where x.
s„. the second of these equations Multiply both members of first by y." same axis of all The equation may also be written ^ [m {xy yx)]=xYyX. 6 the angle which the line of action of at any point of the curve makes with the tangent to the curve at the point.. the work done by the force.. Energy. at any point on the side = 1. s^.. Work and 86. III. 5i cos di + F^. having all its vertices on the curve. suppose this tangent to be sense in which the curve is described. or is parallel to. would be Fi . 2.. . and subtract the by a?." If the line of action of the resultant force acting on the particle meets a fixed axis.2+ . We have had an example of this in central of the orbits. and let i^ be a force acting on the particle. or is parallel to such an axis. Work done by a variable Let a partible move along a curved path. If the velocity of a particle moment momentum undergoes a sudden change the about any line which meets. and both members of the We have results.[ Fn. and. . as the particle describes the polygon. its 5^(/c were F^ and the angle which its line of action makes magnitude with the side were 6^.. m {xy — yx) — xY — yX. force. . §2 cos 0. the line of the resultant impulse is unaltered.88 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. If the force were the same at all points of any B F of these sides. w). Sn COS 0^. of which the arc measured from a fixed point to a variable point is denoted by s. This equation " The moment expressed in words in the statement of the kinetic reaction of a particle about an axis may be : — is the moments about the equal to the sum of the forces acting on the particle. F We drawn in the Let the arc between any two points A and of the curve be replaced by a polygon of n sides. the moment of momentum of the particle about the axis is constant. s^. and now the lefthand member may be read as "The rate of increase of the moment of momentum of the particle about the axis..
and 3^ » • • • would be ex pressed in terms of It is that the result.8587] WORK DONE BY A FORCE the 89 When number nnitely. and also to know the values of the components of 87. that is to say it would different for different <)urves joining the same two points. This expression represents the work done by the force upon the particle in the displacement from ^ to B along the curve. It is clear from the form of the expression that the work done by the resultant of any forces acting on a particle is equal to the sum of the works done by the separate forces. Calculation of work. and we could also express 7^ . Th ^^ and thus we should have to integrate an expression of the form dx l{^fe^fe'%h' between two fixed values of 6. if it could be obtained. the work the force in terms of the position of the particle. . Then at any point on the curve we could express X. Z in terms of oo. y. clear . " this expression tends to a limit. . called the lineintegral of the of F'' along the arc of the curve between tangential component and the lengths of of sides of the polygon is increased indeall of them are diminished indefinitely. F. say 0. this expression the same as the lineintegral taken along the curve from the point A to the point B. In this expression Z. For the actual calculation of it would in general be necessary to know how to express the coordinates of a point of the curve in terms of some parameter. z). 6. Y. y. the points A and B. A and B. 6. /: A If X. ^dy ydz corresponding to the points . and therefore of terms of 6. It is expressed by F cos dds. z. Z are the is components of the force at any point {oo. would be depend in general upon the curve. 7^ .
When the work is independent of the path. the is tangential component of the force — mf{r) 7 . When the work is independent of the path.<^(n)] It depends on Vq and rj. mf{r). which is a function of the distance r from a fixed point." 89. 6 the angle which the direction of the field at any point makes with the tangent to the curve any point. we denote by In the case of a particle moving the intensity of the field at / be an arbitrary fixed point in the field. is a function of the coordinates of P. 88. The work done by the force of the field in the displacement of a . to a point P. but is the same for any two curves joining the points A and B. Let in a field of force. so that then the work done is m [<^(^o). The value of the work function at any point to the work done by the forces upon the particle as the particle moves along any path from the chosen fixed point to the P A assigned point P. s the arc of a curve measured from A. 67. Potential function. be the indefinite integral of f{r). Work function. curve Another example in which the work is independent of the is afforded by a constant force as we saw in Art. and the work done is where r^ and <\) i\ Now let (r) are the distances of A and B from the fixed point. the forces are said to be conservative. and take l(Xdx+Ydy + Zdz) along any path drawn from the point J. a central attractive force. III. so that a work " function exists.90 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE In the case where the force is [CHAP. This function The is result the work is equal function. we the integral may choose arbitrarily a fixed point A. the sense of the tangent being that in which the curve would be described by a particle starting from A. A at the point.
Forces derived fi'om a potential. cos 6 . Y. Z) is the direction of the field. I the chosen point A to If the force of the field is conservative. The potential function then given by the equation or the potential at any point is the product of the constant and the reciprocal of the distance of the point from the centre /jl of force. the axis z in the direction opposite to that of the — gz. Y. this expression is equal to the value of the work function at we write it P .ds. . is or mV. In the case of a uniform field of intensity g. the function is increased by a constant. It is the lineintegral of the tangential component of the force of the field (estimated by its intensity) taken along any curve joining the chosen point A to the variable point P. so that the direction of the vector (X. and the function defined to be the value of the potential function " " at is called the potential V a point. In the case of a central field. we take the is point A distance. Let V be the potential of the field. replace the point by any other fixed point P. cos Q ds. and the resultant of {X. . The If potential function vanishes at the point A. A f . which is the value potential of the integral •JB we A I. mZ be the components of the force of a field acting on a particle of mass m. supposed conservative. we may draw field. mY. Z) is the intensity of the field. Let mX. mV(P) Then V(P) at the point P. of which the intensity at a is distance r from the centre of force at an infinite ^ .8790] WOEK FUNCTION AND POTENTIAL 91 particle of mass a variable point m along the curve from P is m /. potential at a point is then the 90.
in any direction. same as the value of the integral p /.1 and this is the {Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz).z) Bx. This is. as here.y\hy.y. when P' moves up dx to P. and if a work function U exists. is equal to the per rate of increase of the potential per unit of length in that direction. y.V{x. Y. ^ ' therefore. Z the components parallel to the axes of the force acting on a particle. z).z). y. of course. III. the force said to be " derived from a potential. P be any point z\Bz). Y\ Z\ the greatest and least values of X. so that the line PP' is parallel to the Then we have axis of x. Hence we have X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz =V{x + Bx. ^ and V{x\Bx. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. ' we have * ^^dU dx When is Y^dU dy ^^dU dz ' the components of force are. and P' any neighbouring point y¥By.y. If. F. the partial differential coefficients of a function of the coordinates. PP\ which are such that Z "^ p /: {Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) = X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz. {x. In like manner we should find ' F=^ zJ— dy ' dz The force of interpreted in the statement unit of mass).z + Bz) . (Xdx+Ydy + Zdz) taken along the straight line drawn from P to P\ intermediate between that occur on the line Now there exist some values X'. result : The may be — the field (estimated adopting a different notation. The difference V(r)V(P) is the value of r (Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) ." . a fundamental theorem of Integral Calculus.92 Let (x + Bw. we denote by X. in the limit.V (x. z). Let By and Bz be zero.
equal to . and this expression represents the the forces.^mvo^ = J A {Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz\ where at P v and v^ are the values of the velocity of the particle and A. 91] ENERGY EQUATION 93 right 91. The equation can be expressed in words in the statement is : — The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement the work done by the forces in that displacement. Let s A of it to a variable point denote the arc of the path measured from a fixed point We multiply both sides of of it. m (xx \yy \ zz) is ^[hm(x' The sum + f\z% is where the quantity differentiated particle at time t the kinetic energy of the of the righthand members is Xx+7y\. y. my = : Y. It becomes and we hence find the equation ^mv^ . Energy equation.Zz. viz. and add the hand members. Multiply the lefthand and hand members of the equations of motion • mx = X. : and this equation can be expressed in words in the statement The rate of increase of the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to — the rate at which work is done by the forces acting on the particle. mz = Z The sum of the left by x. and the integral is a lineintegral taken along the path.90. P the equation just written by r . 7'ate at which work is done by Hence we have the equation ^[im(x' + fhz')] = Xx\Yy + Zz'. z respectively. results.
34. This quantity in the field. is the work that would be done by the force of the field upon a particle 92.iservative. It easy fields. . 1 and 2. III. Forces which do no work. 3. Ex. and is the mass of the particle field of The m body. We bolic call this equation the energy equation. Conservative and nonconservative is fields. in the case of central orbits we have the result in equation (2) of Art. to invent analytical let servative For example. for it is always directed at right angles to the path. and be equal to /zr and let . the pressure of the curve or surface does no work . The work which moves from the point point A. All fields of force which are found in nature are co. surface. and member of the equation last written is U ^(P)?7(^). When a particle moves forming part of the surface of a body. Ex. Ex. When function. 4." is P by any path to the chosen fixed called the ''potential energy of the particle The energy equation can be written " Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = const. We have already Potential energy of a particle in a field of force. and Art. expressions for nonconthe force at a distance r radius vector from a fixed point be always directed at right angles to the drawn from the point. function at a point P." had several examples of energy equations. Ex. on a fixed curve or 94. treated as a particle. where z is the height of the above some chosen fixed level." potential energy of a body. 48. In the paramotion of projectiles we have the result in Art. in the the Earth's gravity is mgz." In forming the energy equation we may always omit such forces from the calculation. 40. 60 and the special results in Art. " Forces which do no work are frequently called constraints.94 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. with its sign changed. 40. the righthand denotes the work the forces are conservative. 93. andwehave Jmy^ C/'(P) " = const. in the case of simple harmonic motion we have the result in Art. 3.
and yet it would transfer kinetic energy to an external body. a plane closed curve containing the point. the curve. Hence every time that the particle moves round the curve it acquires an increment of kinetic such a system could be devised a machine. once started. after each circuit of ally performs work. For this reason an ordinary machine. Z) satisfies the equations ' ^ dx dy and yet the field of force may not be conservative. does not go on for ever. It an external body. with the same initial velocity. work done in displacing a particle not only is the points by saying that. it could be used to drive perpetual motion. when periodic motions are performed without friction. when the initial position is recovered. easily to be equal to the product and the area of the curve. We should then have a If energy expressed by this product. The work done can be shown of 2yu. there can be no increment of kinetic energy available for transfer to an external body." The statement that natural fields of force are conservative is included in the statement that there cannot be a perpetual motion. F. It is to be observed that a function U may exist dz ' which is such that the force {X. but also the potential is a oneforce derived from "valued function. In natural systems. but gradually comes to rest. In a con servative field the round any Now if U were of the form closed curve whatever vanishes. . and subject to natural forces. In general there are forces of the nature of friction which have the effect that. a potential. A tan^(2//^) an amount of work equal to "lirA would be done in displacing a particle round any curve surrounding the axis We may express the restriction to which this example of z. the kinetic energy is diminished. under the action of the force. might yield up its increment of kinetic energy by striking against " By would then start always from the same initial position Its motion would be periodic.9194] CONSERVATIVE FORCES 95 a particle be guided by a "constraint" to describe. in a conservative field. a " perpetual motion " is meant a selfacting machine which continuIn the above example the particle.
and find the radius and position of such a sphere. and k the vertical height of the centre of the former circle above that of the latter. normal chord of quickest descent from the curve to the major axis is that drawn from a point at which the line joining the foci subtends a right angle when there is such a point. has a small hole at starts down a chord from the Prove then moves its lowest point . its axis inclined to 6. the locus of the positions of the particle for different chords of •descent is a sphere.FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. A parabola is placed in a vertical plane with its axis inclined to the vertical at an angle cos~^§. Prove that the 7. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Prove that the time of sliding down the latus rectum is the same as that of sliding down the chord drawn from the upper end of the latus rectum to the vertex. and that. a is the sum of the radii. passes through the hole. the vertex being the highest point of the axis. Prove that the time down the chord of quickest descent from the focus to the curve is V(2a^^sec3^/3). 5. and a particle interior surface. and a second curve is drawn Prove that. Prove that the time of quickest descent along a straight 1. vertical plane and do not from one to the other is such that the normals and the vertical lines through its extremities form a rhombus and further that the centres of curvature at the extremities cannot lie on the segments of the normals included between the verticals. An ellipse is placed with its minor axis vertical. . at any instant before or after passing through the hole. A spherical shell freely. line from between their centres. 3. the straight line of quickest descent . 4. distances along the normals to the first curve. Determine the normal chord of quickest descent when there is no such point. III. equal cutting if the second curve now receives a certain vertical displacement. Show that when two curves lie in the same intersect. A parabola is placed in a vertical plane with its vertex downwards and the vertical at an angle ^. where c is the distance is drawn in a vertical plane. the time of quickest descent from one curve to the other is independent of the starting 2. Any oflf curve point. and that the time down any intermediate chord is less. a point on one vertical circle to another in the same plane is V{2(c2a2)/^(a+A)}.
and another constant value while it is running at full speed. and 2h A describing the vertical height through which a particle would fall freely in the time of . M.. The from the higher to the lower is of length h and makes an angle (^ with the vertical. and no work at full speed.. is ^5'n/2. The brake horses is — supposed to be applied to one wheel only. train starts from rest at one station and stops at the next. weight of driver.xj{h?la) — 2h^ = 0. and the average speed is v. mass m runs from rest at one station to stop at the next The full speed is F.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 97 8. where a is the radius of the it. Prove that. and particles starting from various points of the base run down chords of quickest descent to the curve. The resistance of the rails when the brake is not applied is u Vjlg of the weight of the train. then x^ generating 9. the pull of the engine having one constant value while the train is getting up speed. Prove that the work done by the engine in getting up speed exceeds that done by the brake in stopping the train during the whole journey.. The pull of the engine has one constant value while the train is getting up at a distance speed. and another constant value while it is running at full speed prove that the average rate at which the engine works in starting the train is . weight two horses = 30 cwt. and that the least 13. is done by the when going to one quarter of the an Atwood's machine the chain can only support a tension equal sum of the weights at its two ends. cycloid is placed with its axis vertical and base upwards. Prove that a depth line of quickest descent hjl = sec </) sec^ 2</> = 2^2 cosec ^ sec 2</) cos ( rr + 20) . each horse of a two. 12. and when the brake is applied it is u' Vjlg of the weight of the train.2A>2/Vi/4 A  11. and brake power produces a friction equal to onefifth of the pressure.horse omnibus which maintains an average speed of 6 miles an hour without exceeding 7^ miles an hour and slows down to 1 foot per second every hundred yards to of = pick up or set down—given the following data weight of 'bus 25 cwt. average speed of the train. If in acceleration possible L. ^Tf. conductor and passengers =35 cwt. A train of I. if x is the length of such a chord. Two I vertical at a distance 2Z equal parabolas of latus rectum 2? are placed with their axes from each other and with the vertex of the lower at below the vertex of the higher. circle. show that the greater weight cannot be much less than six times the smaller. 7 . and in pounds weight the pull exerted by. by (F/y — 1) times the work done by the resistance F and v being respectively the full speed and the It is required to find in horsepower the average rate of working of. 10. the convexities being opposed.
and if the initial velocity is v/[agr{2+V(3V3)}]. Two equal bodies. prove that the paths lie on a straight hne whose inclination to the vertical is tan~i(V5)16. it will A leave the cylinder at a point whose eccentric angle e^ coB^(f) is given by the equation = 3 cos — % <f) where e is the eccentricity of the normal sections. . neglecting friction. III. A smooth parabolic cyhnder is fixed with its generators horizontal. It starts projected along the circumference of a smooth vertical from the lowest point and leaves the circle before reaching the highest point. Prove. Prove that. are attached to the chain of an up and down through two fixed horizontal so that each time one of them passes up through a ring it lifts a bar of rings mass m. 18. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. if the particle leaves the first parabola at will do so at the point where the normal passes through the intersection of the directrices of the two parabolas. a parabola of equal latus rectum. and will then describe . and period yiK ^')). it under gravity alone. A particle is placed uix)n it at a height above the axial plane equal to the latus rectum prove that it will run off at the extremity of the latus rectum. produce where /i 15. A particle is circle of radius a. and is free to leave it and describe a different parabola A all. that the of an excursion of amplitude a is Atwood's machine. A series particles slide down the of vertical circles touch at their highest points. Prove that. while at the same instant the other passes down through its ring and deposits on it a bar of equal mass. and the axis of each of its normal sections is horizontal. particle slides under gravity on a smooth parabola whose axis is inclined to the vertical. the particle after striking the circle will retrace its former path. and that the successive amplitudes form a diminishing geometric progression of which the ratio is will is a mass which distributed over the circumference of the pulley the same effect on the motion as the inertia of the actual mechanism. each of mass oscillate J/. starting from rest on the highest generator. particle moves on the outside of a smooth elliptic cylinder whose generators are horizontal. 19. if the coefficient of restitution between the circle and the particle is unity.98 14. and smooth arcs with the velocity due to falhng from the highest foci of the free point . which Prove that passes through extremities of major axes of the normal sections. 17.
is 2V(i^r)sin(^±^)^ r being the distance from the pole. in passing along must PQ. starting from rest at an arcdistance Sg from the Prove that the arcdistance from the vertex of the point where the meet 27r^ / // 1 1 2 27rA where 21. an equiangular spiral of angle a under the action of a force to the pole. Show that a body cannot rest on the floor of the carriage unless the coefiicient of friction between the body and the floor exceeds.r MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 20. moving in Prove that the impulse necessary to make a particle of unit mass. starting with a constant acceleration / from a point A of a railway. if. Si After a time t. Prove also that. a and a' being the radii of the generating circles. touching &. 99 a smooth cycloidal tube with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. if the track is tilted up 25. whichvertical. 24. and next after that at time ^'TsJ{aa')l{{^la\^a')^g] or ^tt J{aa')l{{>Ja^Ja')]jg}. locomotive.t AP P and must lie on a AP. V(/^ + g"^ sin2 a)jg cos a. A the curve so that train starts from rest on a level uniform curve. and the pole of the spiral having its diameter equal to at an angle 6 so that the constant pressure vanishes. and moves round The outer rail is raised so that the floor of a carriage is inclined at an angle a to the horizon. cycloids are placed in the same vertical plane. Two particles start to describe the cycloids from points at the same level. railway carriage is travelling on a curve of radius r with velocity the distance between the rails and h is the height of the centre of Show that the weight of the carriage gravity of the carriage above the rails. with their axes vertices downwards and at the same level. and F the force at the moment of impact. 7—2 . comes to a curve in the line. 22. describe a circle under the action of the same force. the pressure of the flanges of the wheels on the rails is constant. and before the first particle has reached the a second particle slides A particle slides down down the tube is vertex. A 2a is : > 23. the angle of the spiral must be tani(^/~i tan 6). starting from rest at an arcdistance from the vertex. Two and their ever is less. Show that they will next be at the same level after a time ^ir >J{aa')/{{y/a+^a')y/g}. particles vertex. V. Prove that. is divided between the rails in the ratio grav^h gra\v^h^ and hence that the carriage will upset if v >J{gralh). T is the time of a complete oscillation in the tube. A PQ PQ be a portion of an equiangular circle spiral. its speed increases at a constant rate /.
Prove that the new path is independent of the direction of projection. where e tangent ellipse.100 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. makes it describe a the blow makes with the the eccentricity of the is . A Sy in and when direction particle is describing an ellipse about a centre of force in one focus it is at the end of the further latus rectum it receives a blow E momentum it move at right angles to SE. A particle of mass m is projected from a point P with velocity V and 27. Find the position of the axis of the new orbit and show that its eccentricity is (e~^c). When the distance. Find the generated by the blow. A particle is describing an ellipse of eccentricity e about a focus and 26. Prove that the direction of to the ellipse an angle cot^e. A particle is describing it an ellipse about a focus S. when its radius vector is half the latus rectum it receives a blow which makes it move towards the other focus with a momentum equal to that of the blow. 29. and when it is at one end of the latus rectum receives a blow which confocal hyperbola. orbit. and prove that the particle will proceed SE which makes to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {26^/(1 +e^)}. P — R 28. III. the kinetic energy is increased by wi V^RI{4a R) by a particle reaches being the distance SP and 2a the major axis of the tangential impulse. moves under a force to a fixed point *S' varying inversely as the square of the PP is the chord through the other focus of the path.
there exists no general method for solving them. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. to resolve. asterisk (*) marked with an may be omitted reading. Although there are many cases in which equations of this kind can be solved. The down in previous application of the principles which have been laid Chapters to the discussion of the motions of particles in particular circumstances is the part of our subject " shall devote usually described as Dynamics of a Particle. The lefthand member of arrived at are differential equations. or we may resolve along the radius vector from the origin to a particle. 95.CHAPTER IVt. right angles particular cases are determined + Articles in this Chapter which are in a first by the circumstances. The method of formation of the equations of motion has been 64. Diversity can arise. and in directions at right angles thereto. referring respectively to motions We under given forces. or again we may resolve at along the tangent to the path of a particle and in directions The most suitable directions to choose in thereto. a given function of geometrical quantities. in regard to the formation of the equations. 96. The righthand in general. It consists in equating the product of the mass of the particle and its resolved acceleration in any direction to the resolved part described in Article The equations thus of the force acting upon it in that direction. and to constrained and resisted motions taking We confine our place under forces which are not all given. Formation of equations of motion. . only from the choice of different directions in which Thus we may resolve parallel to the axes of reference. any equation contains differential coefficients of geometrical quantities with respect to the time." to it the two following Chapters. member is. attention in the present Chapter to motions under given forces. This part of our subject divides itself into two main branches.
dvr(dx\^ + (dyY (dz\n 2 (dx d^x ^ dy d^y . z\ the direction cosines of the tangent. i/. A. ds In the expressions x. . Methods by which the components of acceleration in chosen directions can be expressed in terms of suitable geometrical quantities have been Further illustrations are given in the next exemplified in Arts. increases. (^^j (^^j +(^j the direction cosines of the principal normal directed towards the centre of curvature are pr^t P^i PT2^ satisfying the relation where p . d fdx\ _ds cl /ds dx\ _ d dx\ f ^~df. s. PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. is . recall the facts that. z for the component accelerations parallel to the axes we change the independent variable from t to s. Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve. ^d^Vdxd^xdy d^y dz dhl F/d'xy ^ fdW /dWl . and the direction cosines of the d^x dz\ dhdy\ (dHdx (d'^xdy d^ydx\ We recall also the relation j ds ds^ y^ + ^ ds . *97.. for this component the expression . dz dh\ dv ^^ V^. • . we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the principal normal directed towards the centre of curvature we thus find for this component the expression . ^. writing v for the speed. We have. two Articles. we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the tangent to the curve in the sense in which s increases we thus find . fdxV' ^. in the sense in which s dx dy dz .r.._ dx _+.. IV. "^UvJ^' Kdsd^^^dsdT^^d^d^)^ ^^• Again. ^. the radius of circular curvature (di^ydz . ^dh If we multiply these component accelerations in order by the direction cosines of the tangent and add.f ds^ + ^ ds^ t^=0. so that v stands for . ' dv d^x ^=. y. MOTWN^aF.__. are satisfymg the relation We of a curve and . if s . + (dy\^ (dz\^ =1. ^.~dt \dt)~dtds \di d^)~^dsyd^) d^x c^ that 80 k«4. 36 and 43. y.102 . „ dv dy „^i „ d^y •• dv dz . if we multiply by the direction cosines of the principal normal and add. v*LU. z are the rectangular coordinates of a point the arc measured from some particular point of the curve to the point (^.. . „ . v'^ .
9698]
EXPRESSIONS FOR COMPONENT ACCELERATIONS
103
and add,
we
Finally, if we multiply by the direction cosines of the binormal find no component acceleration parallel to the binormal.
Thus the
osculating plane of the curve,
acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve is in the and its resolved parts parallel to the
tangent
and principal normal are vr and
a plane curve.
—
,
exactly as in the case of a point describing
As
in that case, the expression for the former
v,
component
may
be replaced by
or
by
s.
^98.
Polar coordinates in three dimensions.
The
co
ordinates are r the distance from the origin, 6 the angle between the radius vector and the axis 2, ^ the angle between the plane containing the radius
vector and the axis z and a fixed plane drawn through the axis
z.
The plane containing the
"meridian plane," and the
the "meridian."
radius vector and the axis z will be called the
circle in
which this plane cuts a sphere
so that ar = rsin
r= const,
We denote distance from
the axis
z
by
or,
B.
In a plane parallel to the plane (.r, y), or and are plane polar coordinates ; in the meridian plane z and oj are Cartesian coordinates, and r and 6 are plane polar coordinates.
Hence the velocity {x^ y) parallel to the plane (^, y) is equivalent to at right angles to the axis z in the meridian plane, and ot^ at right angles to this plane ; and the velocity (i, y, z) is equivalent to (i, w) in the meridian plane and tzr0 at right angles to this plane. Also the velocity (i, w) in this
plane is equivalent to r along the radius vector and r6 along the tangent to the meridian. The components of velocity are therefore
f along the radius vector,
r6 along the tangent to the meridian,
w
r sin 64) at I'ight angles to the meridian plane.
The
and
accelerations
J (or^A) in
is
i?,
y
parallel to the axes x^
y
are equivalent to iisw^'^
—
ZET
at
and perpendicular
to the
meridian plane.
z, zs
Hence the
acceleration
equivalent to z parallel to the axis
 w^^
at right angles
to the axis z
and in the meridian plane,
"uH
r. {'^'^4>)
dt
^* ^^g^* angles to the
meridian plane.
Taking the components 2, ot, which are in the meridian plane and are these are equivalent to parallel and perpendicular to the axis z, we see that
rrB'^ along the radius vector and

the jii^^) along
tangent
to
the
meridian.
104
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES
 tc^^^ which
is in
[CHAP. IV.
We resolve the acceleration
 1«7^2 cos B.
r
the meridian plane and at
radius vector right angles to the axis s, into components parallel to the These components are  tiT(^2 gj^ ^ to the tangent to the meridian.
and ^nd
Hence the components of
acceleration are
 r&^  r sin^ 0^^ along the
f]
=
radius vector,

1
(r^B)
 r sin B
cos 6^"^ along the tangent to the meridian,
——
:
rainBdt
99.
lir (r2sin2^(f)) at right angles to ^ ° ^ ^^
the meridian plane. ^
ever there
Integration of the equations of motion. Whenis an energy equation (Art. 91) it is an integral of the
the particle moves in a straight line under conservative energy equation expresses the velocity in terms of the
is
equations of motion.
When
forces the
position; and the position at
any
Ex.
1
position, in Art. 55.
any time, or the time of reaching determined by integration. For an example see
When the particle does not move in a straight line other integrals of the equations are requisite before the position at any time can be determined. If there is an equation of constancy of
momentum
(Art. 83), or of
moment
of
momentum
(Art. 85), these
also are integrals of the equations of motion. These, with the energy equation, are sometimes sufficient to
combined
determine
the position at any time. Examples are afforded by the parabolic motion of projectiles and by elliptic motion about a focus.
100.
Example.
Deduce the result that the path of a particle moving freely under gravity is a parabola from the equation expressing the constancy of the horizontal component of momentum and the energy equation.
101.
Motion of a body attached to a string or spring.
Simple examples of Dynamics of a Particle are afforded by problems of the motion of a body attached to an extensible string
or spring. line of the
We
consider cases in which the particle
moves
in the
string or spring (supposed to be a straight line).
When
+
the mass of the string
which the mass
is
is
neglected f, and there
is
is
no
A
string of
neglected
often called a
«'
thread."
98101]
friction
FORCES PRODUCING SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
acting upon
VI.).
it,
105
it
the
tension
is
constant throughout
(Chapter
the length of a string can change there is a particular which corresponds to a state of zero tension. This state length is called the "natural state/' and the corresponding length the
When
"natural length."
Let
Iq
be the natural length,
I
the length in any state.
The
quantity
— lo)/lo {I
is
called the
"
extension."
The law
connecting the tension
and
the extension is that the
If e is the extension, the tension is proportional to the extension. This tension is equal to the product of e and a certain constant.
constant
If,
is
called the
"
modulus of
"
elasticity
of the string.
in the course of any motion of an extensible string, the
and string recovers its natural length, the tension becomes zero, " attached to the string is the string becomes slack." particle
A
then free from force exerted by the string until the length again comes to exceed the natural length.
A
string which exerts tension, but
is
never sensibly extended,
must be thought of as an ideal limit to which an extensible string modulus \ approaches when the extension e tends to zero, and the a way that the product Xe is the tends to become infinite, in such Such a string would be described as finite tension of the string.
"
inextensible."
A
spring,
an extensible the same multiple of the contraction
;
when extended, exerts tension in string when contracted, it exerts
the same
way
is
as
is
pressure which
 1)1 (lo
lo
as the tension
of
the extension.
end is fixed, and body attached to a spring, of which one moveable in the line of the spring, is subject to a force equal to " called the strength of the spring," and fix, where /a is a constant X is the displacement of the body from the position in which the When the length is increased by x has its natural
A
spring the force
pressure.
length.
is
tension;
when
it
is
diminished by x the force
is
a*
The
of the body, considered as equation of motion
is
particle of
mass m,
mx = — fix.
It follows that the
motion of the particle
is
simple harmonic
motion of period
2'ir\J{mjfi).
106
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
may
also be obtained
IV.
This result
by forming the energy equation.
For
the work done by the force in the displacement
x
is
I
or
it is
;
— \ixdx^
of the body, treated as a particle, is
\ma^.
 ^/Lur2 and the kinetic energy Hence the energy equation is
^^n^2 ^ ^^2
result that
— const.,
and the
x
is
of the form a cos {^^/(/i/m)+a} can He obtained by
integrating this equation.
102.
1.
Examples.
A
particle of
mass
r/i
thread, of natural length a
fixed points.
Prove that,
is attached to the middle point of an elastic and modulus X, which is stretched between two if no forces act on the particle other than the
tensions in the parts of the thread, it can oscillate in the line of the thread with a simple harmonic motion of period TrJimajX).
is attached to one end of an elastic thread, of 2. particle of mass The natural length a and modulus X, the other end of which is fixed. particle is displaced until the thread is of length « + 6, and is then let go.
A
m
Prove that,
if
no forces act on the particle except the tension of the thread,
a time 2f7r +
it
will return to the starting point after
2T)^/Y"
3.
Prove that,
if
elastic thread
and
let fall
a body is suddenly attached to an unstretched vertical under gravity, the greatest subsequent extension is
twice the statical extension of the thread
4.
when supporting the
body.
Prove that,
is
force
a spring is held compressed by a given force and the suddenly reversed, the greatest subsequent extension is three times
if
the initial contraction.
5. An elastic thread of natural length a has one end fixed, and a particle attached to the other end, the modulus of elasticity being n times the weight of the particle. The particle is at first held with the thread hanging
is
vertically and of length a', and is then let until it returns to its initial position is
go from
rest.
Show
that the time
2
(tt
 ^ + ^' + tan ^  tan
6')
Jiajng),
where
d, 0'
are acute angles given by
sec
«=
na'/a
w—1
,
sec^ 6'
=
sec'^
6  4n,
and
a' is
so great that real values of these angles exist.
103.
The problem
of central orbits.
some
detail
vestigated this problem in
in Arts.
49
—
We
52.
have already inWe found that
a particle moving under a central force directed to a fixed point, moves in a fixed plane which contains the centre of force and the tangent to the path
101104]
at
THE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS
instant.
107
any chosen
We
found that the equations of motion could
be expressed in the form
 d m (r  r^2) = _ m/, ^ 1 ^ {rH) =
where
m is the mass of the
is
particle,
taken to be an attraction.
We suppose
and / is the intensity of the field of force, that /is given as a function of r.
The energy equation
hn {r^ + rW^) = const. — m
j
fdr^
and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum about an the centre of force at right angles to the plane of motion is
axis through
mr^0=mh,
where A
is
a constant which represents twice the rate of description of area
vector.
by the radius
We
found that these equations lead to the equation
^ is a constant, pressed in terms of u.
where
u
is
written for 1/r, and / is now supposed to be exThis equation determines the path of the particle.
particle starts from a point at a distance a F, in a direction making an angle a
is
When / is
given,
and the
from the centre of
with a velocity with the radius vector, the value of h
force,
T5 )
Fa
sin
a.
The
initial
value of
+ M^ is
1 /a2
sin2 a, for it is the reciprocal of the
square of the perpendicular
from the origin of r upon the tangent to the path. the path takes the form
"^ "^
Hence the equation of
~
a2 sin2 a
[dej
V^a^ sin^ a J i u^
a
6,
When the path is known, so that u becomes a known function of time of describing any arc of the path is the value of the integral
u^ I.
the
d0 Va sin a
'
taken between limits for 6 which correspond to the ends of the
arc.
104.
Apses.
Au
apse
is
a point of a central orbit at which
the tangent is at right angles to the radius vector.
a theory concerning the distribution of the apses when the central acceleration is a singlevalued function of the on distance, i.e. for the case where the acceleration depends only
There
is
the distance and
is
distance. always the same at the same
108
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
Let
IV.
A
be an apse on a central orbit described about a point 0, / the central acceleration, supposed a
^
x'<
>T
singlevalued function of distance,
TAT'
a line through A at right angles to AO. Then a point starting from A at right angles to AO with a certain velocity
would describe the
velocity.
orbit.
Let
V
be this
V
p
in direction
If a point starts from with velocity or AT, and has the
A
AT
gg
acceleration /* towards 0, it describes the orbit so that two points starting from
;
A
two directions with the same velocity F and the same Since the two points have acceleration / describe the same orbit. the same acceleration at the same distance, the curves they describe are clearly equal and similar, and are symmetrically placed
in these
with respect to the line AO. Thus the orbit is symmetrical with respect to AO in such a way that chords drawn across
it
orbit
line
at right angles to on either side of
^0 are bisected by AO. The parts ^0 are therefore optical images
of the
in the
AO.
Now
let
the point start from A in direction AT, and let B be the next apse of the orbit that it passes through, also let A' be the next apse after B
BOA'
OB, passes through. Then the parts of the orbit are optical images in the line OB, and the angle is equal to the
that
it
A
AOB
angle A' OB, and the line J.0 is equal to the line A'O. In the same way the next
^ig 37.
apse the point passes through will be at a distance from equal to OB, and thus all the are at distances from apses equal
to either
OA or 0B\ these are called the apsidal distances, and the angle between consecutive apses in the order in which the
moving point passes through them
is
always equal to
AOB,
this
is
called the apsidal angle.
The theory
just explained
is
usually stated in the form
:
—
Thei^e are two apsidal distances
and one apsidal
angle.
104106]
APSES OF CENTRAL ORBITS
109
It is clear that the radius vector is a periodic function of the vectorial angle with period twice the apsidal angle.
105.
1.
Examples.
If the apsidal distances are equal the orbit is a circle described
about
its centre.
for (1) elliptic motion (3) all the orbits that
Write down the lengths of the apsidal distances and the apsidal angle about the centre, (2) elliptic motion about a focus, can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance.
2.
an
Explain the following paradox: Four real normals can be drawn to ellipse from a point within its evolute, and in Ex. 6 of Art. 46 we found
3.
;
—
the central acceleration to any point requisite for the description of an ellipse there are apparently in this case four apsidal distances and four apsidal
angles.
106.
Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit.
Let the
central acceleration be f{r) at distance r, then a circle of radius c described about its centre is a possible orbit with \h for rate of
describing area provided that
i
©/<•>•
or
h'=(ff{c).
Let us suppose the point to be at some instant near to the circle, and to be describing an orbit about the origin with moment
of
momentum
specified
by
this h.
is
The equation
of its path
d^
At the
precisely , c
_f{r)
u
is
instant in question
nearly equal to
;
if it
was
and
if
the point was moving at right angles to the
radius vector, the point would describe the circle of radius c. assume that it is always so near to the circle that the difiference
We
u
c
is
so small that
we may
neglect
its
square
;
the investigation
is
we
condition this assumption give will determine under what
justifiable.
Put u =  + a; and write
<^
(u) for /(r),
and a
for , so that
h?=(}>{a)la\
107.^7M 9 W is positive we may put is it equal to /c^ and then the solution of the above equation of the form x =A cos {icB 4. prove that the possible circular orbits are n<3 and unstable when w>3. n = 3 prove that the circular orbit is unstable.110 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. In this case the orbit tends to depart widely from the circular form. small enough so that the greatest value of x is A. In the former of these cases the circular motion stable. whatever the number we agree to neglect may be. IV. If /(r)=:r~" or <f>{u) stable 2. and find the orbit described by a point moving with the moment of momentum required for circular motion in a circle of radius c through a point near the circle. A In this case with period its apsidal u. and by taking X will be as small as we please and the neglect of x^ will be justified. when For = u''. if Now 3 . 1. will be a periodic function of 6 i^ > *^^ ^^^^^ nearly circular and angle / /fo is tt/ . in is said to be the latter unstable. if 3 r^ \ 9(a) negative we may put is it equal to — /c^ and then the solution of the above equation of the form and clear that one of the terms increases in geometrical progression whether 6 increases or diminishes. so that x will very it is soon be so great that its square can no longer be neglected.a). Examples. / a<i>'{a)\ 77^ Again. Then d^ _ a^<l> (a + os) 1 <f>{a) if a^ is neglected. . and therefore 27r /* /]3 —?r7\\ — j3 is r.
in general h is variable. as in Ex. When the forces are derived from a potential. where r and r' are the particle of A mass m . The equation of the can be found by eliminating h between the equations path 3. is either the circle r=c or one of the curves If /(r) momentum r_cosh^4l "" c cosh 6^ ' r_cosh^l ~ c cosh ^ + 2 ' 108. 4. Examples of motion under several central forces. the equation of the path can be written in the form dV_ . moves under the action of forces to two fixed points A. particle which moves in one plane are R. d V \do) de^"" dO where d dd y^ stands for . Put 7^B — h^ u=r~^. an energy equation \m (r2 + r^e^) = m V+ const. When the radial and transverse components of force acting on a 1. Examples of equations of motion expressed in terms of polar coordinates. A' of magnitudes m/i/r^. m/x'/^^ respectively.""*. when the point of projection is near to or on this circle. 1. the equations of motion are 2.106109] 3. When the forces are derived from a potential V we have R = m^:^ cr and there is . RADIAL AND TRANSVERSAL RESOLUTION 111 = r~* prove that the curve described with the moment of required for circular motion in a circle of radius c. T. r ^ + dd 506 du t^ d du d • 109. 2. .
described under this force. and that the velocity is constant and equal to §K/(3/i). '""'d^'^'^'ds' Vk^ _J! Pic point. can be described under the action of forces m^jr and w/*// directed to those points. /a' IV. This equation with the energy equation determines the motion.112 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. . = ./ir' sin = . A particle of mass m moves under the action of forces to two 1. Vk the velocity of the particle at any point when the curve is . where a is the distance A A'. The = a in cos 6 fi' cos 6') + const. points of magnitudes my^r^ mii'r'. r^ the distance of the point from Ok and p* the perpendicular from Ok on the tangent to the curve at the point. when the forces act separately. Then we are given that J'J'Vk' all Now velocity the curve can be described under the forces if there exists a V satisfying the ^ two equations dV_ n dvK ds~V~d^' by I V^npK ~P~V"^' and it is clear that these are satisfied V'^'S. p the radius of curvature and ds the element of arc of the curve at the dVK _ dVK J. 2.t 6'. Prove that a lemniscate rr' =c^^ where 2c is the distance between the points from which r and r' are measured. there is an integral equation of the form that /ir2^+/xy2^'= const. 6' and adding. with the notation of Ex. and integrating. fixed Prove. we have Resolving at right angles to the radius vector ni _ _ (^^)_wi ^ sin X./xa sin 0. similarly r^ j {r'H') ^. provided that the particle is A properly projected. where x /2 is the angle APA\ so that _ (^2^) = ^V sin X = /*'« sin . we have an equation of Multiplying by the given form.. r. 3. given plane curve can be described by a particle under central forces Prove that it can to each of n given points.Vk^ Thus the condition be the sum that the kinetic energy when all the forces act of the kinetic energies when they act separately. be described under the action of all the forces. is must 4. distances of the particle from A and A\ and \i. and the form equations of motion possess an integral of T^r'^B' are constants. centre Let /k be the acceleration produced in the particle by the force to the (cth 0<t.
the eccentricities. The ellipses. bounded by the axis minor. 2 of Art. eccentricity by are determined Tangential impulse. these attractions are not entirely negligible.109111] SEVERAL CENTRAL FORCES 113 5. Prove that its acceleration is 2a being the axis major. and the angle in question by cr. each varying inversely as the square of the distance. the the plane of the orbit. velocity. apart from relatively small forces. 8 . and the other from the farther focus. 111. is €ts/{f{ar}lr{'2ar)]. having a given focus. r) equation of the orbit. and the angles which the apse lines make with some fixed line in We denote the major axis by a. 41). We have. describing an orbit about a focus S. at a distance r point describes a semiellipse. referred to the point where the line joining the centres of force meets the plane as origin. and / a constant. e. Disturbed elliptic motion. in a line perpendicular to the plane of the that the general (p. M. one 6. by the lengths of the major axes. and a and b are constants. directed towards A two points symmetrically situated orbit. /2 1 L. 48. The motion of the Planets about the Sun does not take place exactly in accordance with Kepler's Laws (Art. is of the form Show where c is the distance of either centre of force from the plane. The theory of the motion of the Planets presents us with the problem of determining a motion which. We shall consider here some examples of elliptic motion dis turbed by small impulses in lines which lie in the plane of the orbit. Although the Sun's gravitational attraction preponderates very greatly oyer the attractions between the Planets. by Ex. 110. R particle from S at the instant. and its from the nearer focus. particle describes a plane orbit under the action of two central forces each varying inversely as the square of the distance. compounded of two. Let a particle P. a + Sa the semiaxis major of the orbit imme diately after the impulse. /^/r^ the acceleration to S when the distance is r. receive a small tangential impulse elliptic Let be the distance of the increasing its velocity by Sv. The ellipse described after the impulse is a little different from that described before. A tending to the nearer focus. would be elliptic motion about a focus.
Hence if I is the semilatus rectum before the impulse. IV.e^) Ba . h altered. ^ . if + of the velocity about S before the since the tangent to the path is unBh afterwards. vj V a] 1 .e 2Bv \Bv /I 1\ Be Further the angle 6 which given by the equation l/R SP makes with the axis major = 1 + e cos ^ and it is clear that Be = .^) a vBv fjL Bv] =1 — e^Bv e a \v^ ifjL l"! . giving = 21 Bv — approximately. Again. . Now l = a(l — e^). . with Ji' = fil.2€aBe = 2a (1 .e^) Bv (1 giving or (1. . giving Ba ~ = 2vBv approximately. h is the moment we have h V + Bh _h { Bv v' giving Fig. I is hence BllR = ^(j^l^^esm6Bx^.114 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.B^. we have fjL{l + Bl) = h'(l + Bl jj . I + Bl afterwards. and if e becomes e + Be. impulse. 39.
1. Normal impulse. unaltered. to the first order. or we If p have Bh==^{R'p^^)Bv. fjLCie Again. then the value of h is increased by PYBv. For a small tangential impulse prove that 8e = 2bv{e+cose)lv. = 2lf efl 0^ yc^ M V 112. = dv{r{e + cose) + lcose}/h.. For'a small radial impulse prove that 8a = 2a%Svsiu^/A. 8—2 . the perpendicular from the focus S on the tangent at P. sin ^/ev. 8e = ASv sin ^//x. For a small normal impulse prove that 8e=.2aeBelR = (. Then the resultant velocity is.rdv sin Ofav. Cfi. drzr 6tzr = 2S2.p'') . 4. meeting it in F. = 8v {2ae + r cos e)laev. Examples. 2. so that . Suppose the particle to receive an impulse imparting to it a velocity Bv in the direction of the normal outwards.. 3. so that sJ{R^ .h8v cos 6/ dizr For a small transversal impulse prove that 8e da=2Sm2(Hecos^)/A. and consequently a is is unaltered.^ l) 7 + ^ ^^^ ^^^• producing a small If the particle is subject to a disturbing force normal acceleration / we have ^ ^^'"^^ = « = ^' ^ = nfv /2ae l — R\ ^e'^^^'P'^ n:B'^^' 113. = 8v sin 6 (I +r)leh. 8^= . IjR = 1 + e cos 6.111113] DISTURBED ELLIPTIC MOTION 115 If the particle is subject to a disturbing force producing a small tangential acceleration / we shall have ' fjL V e\R e a e sin . or Ba = 0. Hence also Bl = — = 2hBh = 2pvBv fiBl 2aeBe.
and the straight paths intersect. Relatively to a certain frame. A particle is describing an involute of a given curve . and <f> the angle which the tangent to its path makes with that of 0. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. prove that the is proportional to the B produced. moving uniformly . A particle from a fixed point moves so that the angular velocity of the radius vector and the acceleration along it are both constant. A particle moves with an acceleration always directed to a point in a straight line. and a second point a way that the line OP describes areas uniformly prove that the resolved part perpendicular to OP of the acceleration of P is 2 Vv sin (fyjOP^ where v . IV. A particle is moving in a parabola its and at distance r from the focus its velocity is v . The motion of each of two points relative to a certain frame is uniform rectilinear motion. the angle which the tangent makes with a fixed straight . F is the velocity of P. and the line joining the point to the position of the particle at any time is normal to the path of the particle prove that the path of the particle relative to the point is a conic. Prove that the acceleration with which the distance between the points increases is inversely proportional to the cube of that distance. 1. and a point B moves with an acceleration always directed to A. 2. 3. 4. If the area covered by the line AB is resolved part parallel to perpendicular from OA B on OA of the velocity of described uniformly. prove that the acceleration at right angles to it varies as the hyperbolic sine of the angle between it and a fixed straight line.116 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. and find the path of either point relative to the other. Kelatively to a certain frame a point describes a straight line describes a curve in such uniformly with velocity F. 5. line. prove that {s\jr) its accelerations along the tangent respectively. show that and t j( acceleration is compounded of — 4r dr^ — (v^r) ' parallel to the axis — ] along the radius vector outwards. and normal to its path are a/a ~ and 5^2 where s is the arc of the given curve. 7. 6. a point A describes a circle (centre 0) uniformly.
V H . If x^ y are the coordinates of a point referred to rectangular axes turning with angular velocity «. usin C^sin a ~v8in B=ca)j A < Fsin B=ca>. w. The ^.x^) ' n_r{rr — xx){r'^ — x^) — {rx—xrf {r^x'^f ~x The position of a point is given by x.xrf X {f^ . usual signification relative to rectangular axes. parallel to the axis of ^. then tan =^ V as ^ . The sides (7/1. prove that the accelerations in the directions of the axes are i. and a> is the angular velocity of . velocity are Ajx if rectangular axes Ox..cu)'^. t. V. then the square of the distance of the point from the origin Prove that.ra)  w^y. y. on two an angle a prove that the component velocities in the . 14. Oy revolve with uniform angular and the component velocities of a point {x.0)% and y + ^^o) + 2. y) parallel to the axes and Bjy.2yo) . AB prove that mcos^+?. where x^ 3/. u. . increases uniformly with the time. Prove that the component accelerations of a moving particle are and R perpendicular to the radius vector. 9.= d^\r must be satisfied at every point. — x^) — {rx . fixed lines containing position of a point is given by the perpendiculars ^.[uicx + vwy)lr\ r. 13. CB of a triangle are fixed in position.yco . UcosA+ Fcos B=.cosjB=0. AB is V. co. show that the component accelerations are u + —. 12.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 8. . w being component velocities in the directions x^ y. In the case of a plane curve the condition that the acceleration directed to the is always same point is that the equation sin^/rf7^ as ^ ^ t. and the side of constant length c. i/r if the acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve >// makes an angle with the principal normal. V. 10. r have their 11. r. 2. where X y_rT{r^ . directions rj are (i + '7C0Sa)/sin''^a and (^ + ^cosa)/sin2a. 117 Prove that. The velocities of A and B along CA and CB are u and the corresponding accelerations are U.
prove that the accelerations in these directions are wi + wi — + ( ^ ) (W2 cos ^12 + % cos ^13). Prove that. y + a)V cot a — (nu cosec a. ^2. If the position of a point is defined by the perpendiculars . Two fixed points are taken . circle is . Two o) velocity about axes Ox^ Oy are inclined at an angle a and rotate with angular Show that the component velocities are 0. at distances rj ^''O™ and that the component accelerations in the same directions are 17. IV. r^). ^12 are the angles contained 19.118 15. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. /•2.^. particle is suspended from a point by an elastic thread and oscillates in the vertical line through the point of suspension. on a circle 16. A ?. them.) 4. and the velocities in these directions are u^. which. and any point on the . The radii vectores from two fixed points distant c apart to the position of a particle are ri. y + cay cot a + (ox cosec a. length table. «i+««2C0Sa=ri. in which ^23) ^31 by the directions of {r^. prove that the component velocities UfV in these dii*ections are given by « = (I f ^ cos a)/sin'^a + cor] /si na\ r = (.w^/sin a ) ' and that the component accelerations fire u — (jiU cot a\oiV cosec a. if directed along the thread would make the particle move to a maximum distance 21 from the fixed end. » and the two similar expressions.^ cos a)/sin2a . 2^2? ^3.r3 the direction of the blow makes an angle a with the thread. {r^. the maximum is the greatest root of the equation + ^^sin2a = 0. rj drawn to the instantaneous positions of Oxj Oi/. . Prove that the period is the same as that of a simple pendulum of length equal to the excess of the length of the thread in the position of equilibrium above its natural length. with the thread straight but unstretched. the radii vectores r^ r^ containing an angle a that the component velocities in the directions of rx and ^2 are ^tj. ^s. it receives a blow. and the velocities in these directions are UiyV^] prove that the accelerations in the same directions are The radii vectores from three fixed points to the position of a particle 18. r. u^i prove where W2 + %cosa = r2. are n. r^. X — <iiX cot a — <oy cosec a. ri) and (ri. particle is attached to one end of an elastic thread of natural is fixed to a point on a smooth horizontal the particle is at rest on the table. A 20. the other end of which When if length of the thread during the motion ar*2/.
if the particle is projected in any direction. show that the apsidal angle is where at 7ro)/V(3a>2j/). A particle describes a central orbit with acceleration ^[4(a/r)9 + (a/r)332(r/a)3].aH^) and the particle is pro26. and the particle is vertically above the point of attachment. . each ring being at a distance from the fixed end of the thread which passes through it equal to the natural length of the thread.^p(^i^a). 6). A particle fj. is the mean angular velocity. and that the particle can describe the curve A r = a{4 — cos 22. Show (n cot 12) with the radius vector and that the equation of the path 28. If the central acceleration is 2/x {u^ . Prove that the path ? = a3coth2^. from prove that it describes the curve r=a coshnO. and the initial velocity ^fi/a at right angles to the radius vector. moves in a nearly circular orbit with an acceleration a being the mean radius. determine the orbit. 29. If the central acceleration is /xw' the velocities at the Vi^ two apsidal distances satisfy the relation + V2'^=2h*lfi. whose coefficient of elasticity is six times the weight of the particle. velocity with acceleraparticle describes a central orbit about the origin starting from an apse at distance a with the infinity . 24. Prove that. particle is attached to a fixed point by means of an elastic thread of natural length 3a. it describes an ellipse about its position of equilibrium as centre. is r=a (1 — 2 sin 6). When the thread is at its natural length. i" a direction starting from a point for which r=a with velocity 3V(2«/a) is making an angle ^tt with the radius vector. A tion fiu^in^+l^Ti^a^u^). A particle moving with a central acceleration fi{zc'^ + 2au^) starts from a point at distance a from the origin in a direction making an angle with the velocity from infinity. the initial distance a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 119 21. A heavy particle is fastened to the free ends of a number of elastic threads which passed through fixed smooth rings. the time until the jected from an apse at distance a with velocity Vm/«. 23. the particle is projected horizontally with a velocity S^/i^ag). verify that the angular velocity of the thread can be constant. distance is r is 27. 25. If the central acceleration is fi[2(a^ + b'^)io^2a%^u^].
time . from a point where r=^a with velocity iJ{2fi)/a^ at an inclination starting Prove that its path is sini 4. A particle moves under a central force varying inversely as the nth 34. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. under an attraction ^fi{nl) «»' will an*ive at the centre in 3 >•» + Xr3. and the direction of projection makes an angle/? with the 2 Prove that the maximum distance is radius vector of length R. a force tending to a fixed point and varying inversely as the nth power of the Prove that if n is not < 3 the particle will ultimately fall into the distance. to the radius vector. centre of force.a)^ towards particle describes a central orbit the velocity from infinity at a distance c (which is starting with greater than path is a and less than 2a) at an angle 2cos\/(a/c).a)/a} . IV. orbit with acceleration fi{r^ . C and h are (r) is known. power of the distance (w>l).la^r''^). 31.120 30. 1 ^{{r . A particle describes a central l^ = av'3y(4r2a2). A particle is projected with velocity less than that from infinity under 33.Un^J{{r a)/a]. 35. R cosecws is /3 Prove that the time of describing any part of a central orbit /. where V is the potential. A particle moving with a central acceleration 4^2 (2r ~ ^ — 3ra ~*.2r^a ~ ^) starts from a point distant A a from the origin in direction making an angle tan ~* 27/125 with the radius vector with such velocity that the rate of descripShow that the equation of the orbit is tion of areas is k.V{2r2((7+F)A2}' taken between appropriate limits. A the origin. and constants depending on the initial conditions. with acceleration /i/(r . Prove that. a In particular prove that a particle projected from an apse at distance a with velocity v/(X +/*)/«. the velocity of projection is that due to a fall from rest at infinity. 36. when n>3j and that the particle goes to infinity if u= or <3. if a possible orbit under a central force possible orbit under a central force (f){r) + \r~^ can be found. ( w > 3). given by the equation Prove that the ^=tanh32 .
42. equation (cu + cos 41. prove that a first integral T=^fi2iHm20. where i^(0 = 1/(0 «^^ . the apsidal distances are approximately a±Au V{3/(a)+a/(a)} 39. the work done by the central attractive force (per unit of mass) as the particle moves from the point of projection to any point at distance r from where W is the centre of force. and a small increment of velocity Aw is given to it in the direction of motion. of the differential equation of the path can be expressed in the form  h^^Une'^ucosd^ f^[{sm3esme)'^2ucos3e~]^ = C. ^)2 Show that the orbit is one of the conies given by the = a + 6 cos 2 (6 + a). 40. under a radial force A particle moves in a plane where F and a transverse force T P=HU^ (3 + 5 cos 26). particle is describing a circular orbit of radius a under a force to the centre producing an acceleration /(r) at distance r. if the increment of velocity imparted to the particle directed radially. from a point at distance ?*q in a direction making an angle a with the radius vector. 38. y/ifi/c) A particle moves under a central force proportional to u^ {cu + cos $)~^ towards the centre.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 121 A particle moves under a central force and is projected with velocity 37. A particle moves under a central force fi {I + 8k cos 20) /)'^ being . projected from an apse on the initial line at distance c with velocity show that the next apsidal distance is c/(l+3ic). Prove that the apsidal distances are the real positive roots of the Vq equation for r WV2/(Vsin2ar2)=^V. Prove that the A apsidal distances of the disturbed orbit are 3/" (a) + «/(«) is Prove also that. A particle moves under the action of a central force P and a transverse Prove that disturbing force f(t).
Verify that in a plane polar coordinates is of force of which the potential referred to a particle. one to each focus. . Prove that it will oscillate in an arc of an hyperbola if both forces attract. and the other passing through the focus . one to each mass along the focal radius vector r is _ 1 rfy2 2r(2ar) where 2a 47. each varying inversely as the square of the distance. particle of mass the action of a force to a fixed point S.122 43. IGmTT^ CO^ CP^_ 45.a sin d){rb sin 6) = ah. field IV. centres of force of equal strength. 0' in CS and equal A P respectively to 16m7r2 CCPqP^ . find the time occupied in describing any arc of the curve. at a point where the forces are equal. If the force equal. prove that the A latter force varies inversely as the through the focus constant force. m describes a circle (centre C) in period T under 44. provided that ^+__^^+=0. is 4 dr ' the major axis and v the velocity. prove that distance. particle describes an ellipse under two forces. A to the other 46. each force varying inversely as repulsive. particle describes a parabola under two forces. projected in the proper direction curve of the form (r . if will describe a with the velocity from infinity. Show that the force j)er unit of ai>^ under the action of two forces. and is repulsive. functions of the If the law of force to one focus is /ir. the square of the distance. SB at right angles will oscillate in a semiellipse of which S" 48. repels. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. A body is placed at rest in a plane through two fixed centres of force. Show that a particle placed anywhere in the Two plane bisecting and ff are foci. one constant and parallel to the axis. Prove that the force at any point can be resolved into two directed to inverse points 0. it must be fir{n'/r^. and in an arc of an ellipse if one force attracts and the other 49. to the if the particle starts from rest at the vertex. at the vertex. one attractive and the other are placed at two points S and H. and numerically square of the focal distance. An ellipse is described focus.
r' from the point to the ends of the chord. A and prove that the product of the component velocities along r and / varies inversely as the length of the perpendicular from the position of the particle to the chord . COS^a the particle when moving r parallel to the chord. tending to the extremities of a fixed chord.. where the ^1. and h is 55. and a force [i (1/c^. . if it starts from rest at a point where the forces are equal. Prove that the time taken in this revolution is less than the original period by the fraction — ST of itself. there is an integral equation of the form >S'i. particle describes a circle under the action of forces. Show that. and particle moves under the action of a repulsive force \i{u^avF) from a fixed point. Show that it describes the lemniscate. If a curve is described under a force P tending to the origin and a normal force N. \\u being A the distance from the point. the becomes less than its original value by the same amount. r'.\<^y^) parallel to a fixed line. prove that where p denotes the perpendicular from the origin on the tangent. S^P. rg are the distances ^jP. $2 moment are the angles S^S^P and S^S^P. c is the distance of the velocity about the line of centres.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 123 50.of itself : when the particle is at the further apse. Determine the forces. 52. {rr' A = (P) is projected from an apse of Bernouilli's Lemniscate the tangent with vefocity Vft/2c and moves under the action of along particle forces . it describes a parabola of which the fixed point is the focus. if the motion does not take place in a fixed plane. *S'i*S'2. the force on unit mass at unit distance is increased by the small force fraction . Prove that. r being the distance from the nearer pole. and / from the further pole. which are to each other at any point inversely as the distances r. also show that the time from one end of the chord to the other is a (7ra)cosa+sina V ' where F is the velocity of a the radius of the circle. and a the angle between 51. 54. >S'2 (n^) (^2^4) + ^'^ cot e^ cot ^2 = c (fii cos Bi + /i2 cos $2) + const. 53. where /j. When a particle is at the nearer apse of an ellipse of eccentricity e described about the focus.2 r' r ^' ^^ to the nearer •2_LZI— (3rr'r'2)3' (3r/r2)3' and further poles respectively. A particle P moves under the action of two fixed centres of force producing accelerations /ij/ri^ and ^2/^2^ towards Si and *S'2.
A particle end of the minor . IV. equal to unity. 8a = 2bV^{a^le)/^{l+e)}. the comet is instantaneously affected by a planet so that its 1 velocity is increased in the ratio w ti. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. 62. it receives describes an elliptic orbit about a fociis and. and show that they are respectively proportional to the resolved peri^endicular to the apse line. if the new orbit is a parabola. and e the eccentricity of the orbit. If the velocity of a periodic comet is suddenly increased near its aphelion by a small amount dV. 59. where the letters have their usual meanings A comet describes about the Sun an ellipse of eccentricity e nearly 61. where n is great. receives a small radial impulse /i. and when at it receives impulsively a small A P velocity 8v in the direction PM xu • • the major axis will turn through the angle r 11 . 4 cos^^B nearly. prove that the changes produced in the eccentricity and axis major are given by the equations 8e=28V^{l/fji). . An ellipse of eccentricity e and latus rectum 2^ is described freely about a focus. is 2eg the axis major. and that the angle which the axis major of the orbit makes with the distance from the focus will be increased by particle is at an extremity of the minor axis in a direction perpendicular to the plane of V^a where 2a 60. If. with moment of at the nearer apse it line is turned through the angle equal to h. At a point where the radius vector makes an angle S with the apse line. find the angle through which the apse line will have turned and the change of the eccentricity.124 56. liijeh. direction. prove that the eccentricity of the orbit will be diminished by ^ V^ae/fi. : + e =l — a. /xwi being the when the receives a small impulse m V the orbit. for elliptic motion. body is revolving in an elliptic orbit with acceleration fi/r^ to a centre of force in one focus S.th of its axis. momentum When the particle is Prove that the apse a focus. 57. ^u right angles to the major axis. at any point of an elliptic orbit about act for a given very short time. ^y S^' xu 1 Prove that —^pP^ — . without altering its Show that. when at the a small impulse towaids the centre equal to momentum. m describes an ellipse about a focus. the force ceases to 58. particle of force at unit distance it parts of the force parallel and A mass .t 1. Show that the eccentricity e is increased or diminished by  »J{\—e^) according to the direction of motion at the instant.
and CB the semiaxis minor. 64. is at an end of the axis minor. Also. and the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the centre. and the major axis is turned through an angle aajl. Defining the instantaneous orbit under a central force varying as the distance as that orbit which would be described if the resistance ceased to act. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance is k perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. but the axis major will be turned through an angle a^{e~^\). A particle is describing is when the particle distance x parallel through the angle an ellipse under a force to a focus S. prove that the periodic time increased in the ratio 1 particle is at + ^ —3 : 1. the angle between the apse is altered by (le2)2 2ea2 and 67.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 63. the centre of force is suddenly moved a short to the tangent at P. when a particle. while the periodic time is unaltered. Prove that at a point Q on the original ellipse the deviation of the new path. the rate of variation of the principal semiaxes are given by the equations a ^ b ^ f where v is the velocity and r the radius vector at the instant. show that. describing an elliptic orbit about a focus. 6 the angle which the normal makes with ISO. Also prove that. . described under a force to a focus S^ the direction of motion deflected through a small angle ^ without alteration of magnitude. where I is the semilatus rectum. and. to a first approximation. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the particle. measured along the normal at $. the eccentricity is diminished by a. where G is the foot of the normal. 66. 125 At a point P is of an ellipse. the periodic time is increased by Za^a^l2P of its original value. show that. If. ^ the angle which the 68. the eccentricity e of the orbit will be unaltered. If when the from the centre particle (of the last Example) is at any point distant r offeree. and tangent makes with SP. if the change takes place when the line the radius vector an end of the latus rectum. is where H is the second focus. 65. if at any point the resistance produces a retardation /. Prove that the axis major is turned sin cf) ^7. sin {6 — 0). If the particle (of the last Example) is at an end of the latus rectum. at P. to a second approximation.
begins to move along this axis with a simple harmonic motion A P F Show that the motion of P may be represented at any time by /isinX^. .126 69.g where fi is the central force on unit mass at unit distance. particle When is at an end of the acceleration k^ (distance) directed to a point 0. IV. describes an ellipse under a central force producing an 70. axis major. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.g (X sin kt k sin \t) sec kt. acceleration In the last Example there is a disturbance which produces a normal g instead of the resistance. Show that the maxima of the rates of variation of the principal semiaxes of the instantaneous ellipse are given by the equations d h _ ±. motion in an ellipse whose centre is fixed and axis minor is constant and whose semiaxis major is variable according to the formula a = OQ+ uk [' .
pressure R We equations for the case where the particle t Articles in this Chapter which are in a first reading. is on the inside of may be omitted marked with an asterisk (*) . the increment of the kinetic energy in any displacement is less than the work done by the force of the field by the work done against the resistances. is called the always negative. The force of the field is not the only force acting on the particle. Let v be the velocity the of the particle in the direction in which s increases. but there are other. We had an example in the friction between an inclined plane and a body placed upon it (Art. 115. This work. It follows that the work done by a resistance is with its sign changed. "work done against the resistance. Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces.CHAPTER Vt. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES. be constrained to move on a given smooth Let a particle of mass plane curve under the action of given forces in the plane. Let s be the arc of the curve measured from some point of the curve up m Let S be the tangential to the position of the particle at time t of the forces in the direction in which s increases. and component A' the component along the normal inwards. and its sense is always opposed to the sense of the velocity. and shall write down the of the curve on the particle. " second main subdivision of Dynamics of a Particle" relates to motion of a particle in a given field of force when the 114. unknown. forces acting upon it. that is to say they may do no Another class of forces to be included in the discussion are known as resistances." When a particle moves in a given field of force. The work. 71). Such forces may be constraints. and is at the same time subject to resistances. characteristics of a resistance are that its line of action is always the line of the velocity of the particle on which it acts.
^ ^ m. Prove that. 2. when the curve is a free path under the given forces f«r proper velocity of projection. of motion of the bodies can be formed in the Art. separated by a ring or a peg. Prove that. when the particle leaves the curve. V. the curve.= N\R P When may be the forces are conservative. the pressure varies as the curvature. leave the curve. the second of the equations of motion determines the pressure B. We that the which it does work on the two particles vanishes. ^mv'' = I Sds ) + const. If .= ds o. the sum of the lengths of the two portions is constant. and accordingly acts inwards. For example. the velocity is that due to falling under the force kept constant through one quarter of the chord of curvature in the direction of the force. and that the tension of the string is the same When this is the case the (See Chapter VI. 116. the is first of these equations It has an integral. In the case of onesided constraint (Art. Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible suppose that the bodies may be treated as mass and extension of the string can be neglected. may R Examples. tension of the string does no work.) throughout. 73. 117. When V is known from this equation. for the sum of the rates at string. In forming the equations of The equations manner explained in motion we take account of is the condition that the length of the string constant. which written identical with the energy equation. shall particles. 1. if the string is in two portions. The equations for acts outwards can be obtained by changing the case in which R R the sign of R. for any other velocity of projection. resolving along the tangent and normal equations of motion By we obtain the dv mv Y. 77) the particle This happens when vanishes.128 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. then.
m distance c from the ring. Two particles of masses circle is nearly a with centre at a point 0. Prove that the apsidal angle of J/'s orbit is of negligible mass . 75) can be determined by the energy equation. describes a curve whose polar equation is M is projected on the ring m reaches the M of the form r=csec[^VW(Jf+m)}]. and the particles are at rest. or of moment of momentum. f(sin^sin^). 92) it is is mgl(lco8 6). and I the radius of the circle. the energy equation ^16^ or = g (cos 6 — cos a). circular Oscillating pendulum. and the thread passes through a small smooth hole at and supports m. is if the chosen fixed level from which point. of negligible mass which passes through a small smooth ring on a smooth When the thread is just stretched. Prove that until table at right angles to the thread. m are connected by an inextensible thread *119. M describes on a smooth table a curve which 7rV{i(l+W^)}. so that J/ is at a fixed horizontal table. it is an integral of the equations of motion. 1. Two are connected by an inextensible thread particles of masses if. 118. If the pendulum is displaced initially so that 6 is and is let go from this position. whether it executes small oscillations (Art. or an equation ot constancy of momentum. Examples. measured that of the lowest Hence the energy equation can be written ^l6 = g cos 6 + const. where vertical drawn downwards.115119] there is OSCILLATING PENDULUM * 129 an energy equation. position of the To express the L. = 01. Let 6 be the angle which the radius of the circle drawn through the position of the particle at time t makes with the The kinetic energy is ^ml^6^. 2. m the mass of the particle. i^^ = in showing that the pendulum oscillates between two positions at an angle a on the right and which it is inclined to the vertical left sides of the vertical. pendulum. i/. M. pendulum in terms of the time 9 . The potential energy of the particle is the field of the earth's gravity (Art. or in length of the pendulum. The motion of a simple or not.
130
ty
MOTIONit
yjr
UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
position,
[CHAP. V.
since
was in the equilibrium
we introduce a new
variable
defined by the equation
sin
^
sin
i/r
= sin
^
,
increases from
to a, i/r with the further conditions that as 6 increases from to ^tt as ^ diminishes from a to 0, i/r increases
;
from i TT to
to f TT
Stt.
;
TT
;
as ^ diminishes from
to
to 0,
— a,
>/r
increases from
ir
and as 6 increases from
—a
is
With
these conventions there
increases from 7r to i/r one value of ^fr corresponding
to every instant in a complete period.
Now we
have
J ^ cos
^
=
^fr
sin
^
cos
yjr,
sin^

n
sin^
=
fi
sin^

n
cos^ ^/r,
^2 = 1 ^lsin2sin2irV
Hence the time
t
from the instant when the particle was
passing through the lowest point in the direction in which Q increases is given by the equation
'Sl'g).
^(lsin^lsin^V'
where the square root
complete period
is is
always to be taken positively.
The
a
4
/LP
IP
between
d±
and
sin
is
With the above
Elliptic
relation
t
t
i/r,
i/r
is
said to be an
Function of
sin
a/j, and
(^t
the relation
written
yjr
= sn
y/)
^mod
sin
.
)
The
function has a real period, and the integral
dyjr
.C
'y/(lsin^sin^^
is
one quarter of this period.
119121]
FINITE MOTION OF
PENDULUM
any time
t is
131
The
position of the
pendulum
at
determined by
the equation
sin
^
=
sin^sn
U
.
/'Ij
(mod
sin
^
If the constant in the Energy equation of Art. 119 is such that 6 never vanishes, it must be greater than g, and the velocity at the lowest point is greater than that due to falling from the highest point. Hence there will be
*120. Complete Revolution.
some
Let us suppose the velocity velocity at the highest point. at the highest point to be that due to falling through a height h
;
then, w^hen 6
= 7r
l^e^
=
2gh,
and
for
any other value of
il6'
= g(cose +
V
l+j\
+
2l^'''2j'
k'
*^
giving sin ^
21'
h
= sn
(t
a
/f)
i^od k), where
is
=
2l/{h
+ 21).
The period
of a complete revolution
/I
r^
d4>
*121.
Limiting case.
In the case where the pendulum
is
projected from the position of equilibrium with velocity equal to that due to falling from the highest point the equation can be
integrated by logarithms.
The constant
be chosen so that
fore is
in the energy equation of Art. 119
vanishes
when 6 =
7r,
must then and the equation there
^le^
= g {1 +
cos d),
which may be written
The time
of describing an angle
is
therefore
t,
where
9—2
132
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
It is to
[CHAP. V.
be noted that the particle approaches the highest not reach it in any finite time. point indefinitely, but does The same equations may be used to describe the motion of the
particle
which
starts
from a position indefinitely close to the
circle.
unstable position of equilibrium at the highest point of the
*122,
1.
Examples.
finite oscillation
is 2rr (1
Prove that the time of a
is
when the
fourth power of
a,
the angle of oscillation,
2.
neglected,
+ j^^a^) >J{l/g).
Prove that, in the limiting case of Art. 121,
e = 2ia.n^{i\nh{t^{ffll)}.
3.
Prove that,
if
a seconds' pendulum makes a complete
finite oscillation
in four seconds, the angle a is about 160°.
*123.
Smooth plane tube rotating
in its plane.
Let
in
a particle of mass tube rotate in
a point
it.
m
move
let
a
smooth plane tube, and
its
the
plane about rigidly connected with
Let OA be any particular radius vector of the tube, and
the angle which OA makes <^ with a fixed line in the plane of the tube. Then <f> is the angular
velocity of the tube.
Fig. 40.
We
shall
write
(o
for
<j>.
the position of the particle in the tube at time t. = 0. Then r and 6 are polar coordinates Let OP = r, and of referred to OA as initial line, and r and ^ + </> are polar
Let
P be
^AOF
P
coordinates of
P
referred to a fixed initial line.
Let p be the
radius of curvature of the tube at P.
Let V be the velocity of the particle relative to the tube. = s, v is s, the direction of v is that of the tangent Then, if arc to the tube, and the resolved parts of v along OP and at right
AP
angles to
OP
are r and rO.
Now
the resolved accelerations of the particle along
OP and at
right angles to
OP
are
and
1{^.(^4_^)).
121124]
REVOLVING ORBIT
133
These may be written
r
—
r dt (r2^)42r«
1^
+ ra)
w
are equivalent to v
v^lp
Of
these the terms independent of
dv
ds
along the tangent to the tube at normal to the tube.
P and
inwards along the
The terms containing 2(o as a factor are equivalent to 2cov inwards along the normal to the tube. This can be seen by considering that r along OP and rO transverse to OP are equivalent
that
to V along the tangent in the direction in which s increases, and we have, as multipliers of 2ft), the components of this result
ant turned through a right angle.
Now we
can resolve a vector in the direction
ponents along the tangent at
P
to the tube
OP into comand inwards along
p
is
dv 7) the normal by multiplying by 7 and V as
dicular from
to
,
where
the perpen
on the tangent; similarly
for a vector transverse
OP.
Hence
finally the accelerations resolved
along the tangent and
normal to the tube are
dv
V ^
v^
ft)"r
dr
y
ds
r^
ds
„
+ ft)»,
,
—
p
h
zwv
+ (o^p ^
dr
ds^
\
cor y
let the particle move in the tube under the action of forces in the plane of the tube whose resolved parts along the be the tangent and normal to the tube are S and N, and let
Now
R
pressure of the tube on the particle. are
Then the equations
of motion
m
v^
dv
V
T
dr
(o^r T
+
.
oyp
rn
+
^
2(ov
+
o
(o^p
+
dr
ds
(or
LP
*124.
Newton's Revolving
is
Orbit.
Suppose that the form
of the tube in Art. 123
a free path under a central force to 0.
134
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
(f>
[CHAP. V.
which is with an angular velocity Let the tube turn about to nd, where n is constant, and 6 is the angular always equal
velocity of the radius vector in the free path when the particle is at (r, 0). Then the path traced out by the particle is a free path under the original central force and an additional central force
which varies inversely as the cube of the distance.
Let
f
be the central acceleration in the free path, and ^h the
rate of description of areas.
Then we
are given
Now,
and
in the tube
<^
= nO^
so that
rr{d + (j>y = f^re^ (2n + n")
tube
particle in the revolving a free path with a central acceleration to made up of two one of them being /, and the other being inversely proporterms,
is
r^.
Hence the path traced out by the
tional to
This result
may be
stated in another form as follows
:
— Rela
tively to a certain frame a particle describes a central orbit about
particle relatively to the second frame is again a central orbit with the central acceleration increased an amount
the origin with central acceleration /; if a second frame with the same origin rotates about the origin relatively to the first frame, with an angular velocity always the same multiple of that of the radius vector in the said central orbit, the path of the
by
inversely proportional
to the cube of the distance.
n25.
1.
Examples.
particle
A
rotates uniformly about the pole, to the pole of the Prove spiral.
central force
form of an equiangular spiral which under the action of a central force that, if there is no pressure on the tube, the at distance r must be of the form Ar + Br^, where A and B
moves
in a tube in the
and
is
are constants.
2. Prove that motion which, relatively to any frame, can be described as motion in a central orbit with acceleration ^/(distance)3 towards the origin and moment of velocity h may be described, relatively to a different frame with the same origin, as uniform motion in a
straight line, provided h'^>fx.
124126]
MOTION ON A ROUGH CURVE
135
3. particle moves in a smooth plane tube, and is under a central force to a fixed point about which the tube rotates uniformly. Prove that, if the pressure is always zero, the central force is
A
m [rco2 + 2ro)
where
(Ji
 r^a>)/p^ + {h — r^a))^p~^dpjdr],
m is the mass
of the particle,
mh
is its
moment
of
momentum
about
the fixed point, w is the angular velocity of the tube, r is the radius vector, and p the perpendicular from the fixed point on the tangent to the tube at the position of the particle.
*126.
Motion on a rough plane curve under
is
When
a particle
constrained to describe
gravity. a plane curve in a
under gravity but there is motion as well as pressure on the curve we assume that the friction is times the pressure, where
vertical plane
frictional resistance to the
fju
/A is
the coefficient of friction.
The
friction
acts along the tangent to the curve in the sense opposite to that of the velocity.
The equations of motion take different forms in different circumstances. We shall
choose for investigation the case where the particle is on the outside of the curve, and
is
^^a, 41.
descending.
the curve be measured from some point of the increases in the sense of the velocity, and let <f) be the angle contained between the inwards normal and the downwards vertical. Then (p increases with s, and ds/d(l> (= p) is the
Let the arc
s of
curve so that
it
length of the radius of curvature.
Let V be the velocity of the particle, its mass, the pressure of the curve on the particle. The equations of motion are
m
R
mv
dv
j
„ = mg sm <p — /xMy
.
,
m — = mg cos — R
cf)
Eliminating
R
V
we obtain the equation
dv
^^ ds
v^ — — = g (sin <^ —
fjb
//<
cos
(^),
or
dv
~d^
—
/jbv^
= gp (sin
—
</>
/a
cos
<^).
136
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
This equation can be integrated after multiplication by the
factor
e^***,
in fact it
becomes
ri (iy^e'^'*"^)
= gpe^f"^ (sin
<^
<t>
 fi cos
</>),
d<p
so that
v»e2M«^
=
2g
I
pe'^*^ (sin
 /i cos <^) d<t> + const.,
a function of
<^,
an equation which determines
v as
and therefore
The velocity being gives the velocity at any point of the curve. determined, the second of the equations of motion gives the
pressure, and, just as in the case of a
smooth curve,
if i?
vanishes
the particle leaves the curve.
motion take different forms according as the outside the curve, and according as it is particle or descending. But in each case the equations can be ascending There is accordingly no definite integrated by the above method. expression for the velocity at any point of the curve in terms of
The equations
is
of
inside
or
the position, but the expressions obtained are different in the
different cases.
*127.
1.
Examples.
in
Write down the equations of motion in the three cases not investigated Art. 126 and the integrating factor in each case.
2.
sphere of radius
horizontally from the lowest point of a rough to this point after describing an arc aa, Prove that the initial velocity (a<^7r), coming to rest at the lowest point. is sin a ^{2ga {l+fi'^)/{l  g/x^)}, where /x is the coefficient of friction.
a,
A particle is projected
and returns
3. particle slides down a rough cycloid, whose base is horizontal and vertex downwards, starting from rest at a cusp and coming to rest at the
A
vertex.
4.
Prove that,
if
fi
is
the coefficient of friction, fi^e^'=\.
veitex
time
t
A ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire whose base is horizontal and downwards prove that during the ascent the direction of motion at makes with the horizontal an angle 0, given by the equation
;
^,{/*«"^sin(</> + 0}=sec2..*tane^i^(^^^^^
where
f is
the angle of friction.
*128.
Motion on a curve In general.
forces,
When
a particle
moves on a given curve under any
we take
m
for the
mass
of the particle, S for the tangential component of the resultant force of the field, iV for the component along the principal normal.
is so that the velocity determined in terms of the position. The other two equations then determine the pressure. When the curve is rough we have to eliminate F. and R^ for the component of the and for B for the pressure along the binormal in the same sense as B. Also we take Ri the component of the pressure along the principal normal towards the centre of curvature. R^ by F^=^ti^{R^^ means of the equation + R. 126 the velocity in velocity in terms of the position. Sds and we can integrate the form in Art. for the friction. can integrate this equation. if we pressure. and this result can be expressed in the form change of kinetic energy = work done. and let the particle at time t be at distance y and be on a meridian curve of the surface in an axial plane axis. .^\ which expresses that the friction is proportional to the resultant There results a differential equation for v^ and. R^. m=N+Rj P = When first smooth equation. p to be the radius of curvature.126129] MOTION ON A CURVE 187 component along the binormal. F is zero. on the way in which that position has any position depends partly been reached. v. a vertical Let the axis of revolution be the axis x {x being measured from the upwards). in the ^mv^ = I + const. we shall obtain an equation giving the As in Art. in the same way as the curve is B + R. increases to be that of and we suppose the sense in which Then the equations of motion are as j s mv = SF. *129. the curve is rough we take Further if F take s to be the arc of the curve from some point to the position of the particle at time t.. 115. Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with axis. We and V to be the velocity.
the forces acting on the particle have no moment about this axis. Again. and ^ the angle which the normal to the surface at any point on the projection is circle /S)'. Fig. making an angle of the meridian with a given axial plane. makes with the vertical. Hence the moment of the momentum about the axis is constant. Examples. Then meridian section is it is is &. The equations which have been written down determine & and (j). and let o. 42. If the particle is properly projected it can describe a circle. and the normal meets the axis of revolution. the required velocity of {gy tan . at right angles to each other. 1. while the force of gravity acts in a line parallel to this axis. which lie in the tangent plane to the surface. V. or we have y^(f> = const. since the pressure of the surface on the particle acts along the normal to the surface. Thus the energy equation i (a^ + y^(j>'') is +gx = const.be the arc from some particular circular section to the position of the particle. that in is y(f}) two they determine the two components of velocity (cr and directions. If 3/ IS the radius of the circle.138 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES </> [CHAP. and the velocity along the tangent to the clear that the velocity along the tangent to the circular y^. *130.
will When the surface is rough there be two components of tangents to the two curves that point. p the radius of curvature .. We shall see presently that the pressure is field determinate as soon as the velocity is known. part We Let V be the velocity of the particle. We shall therefore confine proceed to investigate a general expression for the resolved of the acceleration along the normal to the surface. and x=f{u) is the equation of the meridian curve of the surface. a constant. if Iju is put for y. the projection of the path of the particle on a horizontal plane is given by an equation of the form (^)'[l where A is + K/(«)P]+. to the product of the coefficient of friction We have thus the means of writing down equations of motion of the particle. and along the normal to the surface. Prove that. 2. At any point we may resolve the force of the field into components along the tangents to the curves that meet in that point. and the resultant friction has the same direction as the velocity but the opposite sense. We may resolve the acceleration along the same lines. For a particle moving on a smooth surface in a conservative there will be an energy equation expressing the velocity in terms of the position.*2+/(«)=const. Also the resultant friction friction in the directions of the meet at any is equal in magnitude and the pressure. fixed surface move on a under the action of given Let a particle forces and the pressure and friction of the surface. where m is the mass of the particle.129131] MOTION ON A SURFACE is 139 In this case the pressure of the surface equal to mg sec ^. We may imagine the surface to be covered with a network of curves belonging to distinct families. in such a way that at each point of the surface one curve of one family meets one curve of the other family. and we may suppose the curves that meet in any point to cut at right angles. Motion on a surface in general. but the process can in general be simplified by using methods of Kinematics and Analytical Dynamics which are beyond the scope of the present work. *131. ourselves to the simplest cases.
43. This suppose section is not. Since the normal to the surface is at right angles to the tangent to the path the resolved part of the acceleration along the normal to the surface is the resolved part in that direction of the acceleration along the principal normal to the path. in general. *132. 130 stated that a particle may be projected along a horizontal tangent of a smooth surface of revolution whose axis is vertical is with such velocitv that it describes the circular section under Fig. [CHAP. it Osculating plane of path.140 of its MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES path. we We take p to be the radius of curvature of the normal section of the surface through the tangent to the path. 1 of Art. the osculating plane of the path suppose that it makes an angle </> with this osculating plane. it is therefore ^' — COS Q). In Ex. Y. . . A. 9 Also by a wellknown theorem we have p =p cos </>. The tangent to the path touches the surface. Hence the acceleration along the normal to the surface is v^\p\ and the pressure is determined by resolving along the normal. and we a normal section of the surface drawn through it.
with the notation p'=PG. or V^>gy cot a. Again. tan < tan a. Q the point where the osculating plane of the path = a. Now. 2. otherwise it falls below the circle. the point of projection. and R the pressure. We may use the result of Art. Also p = PG cos a. A A particle moves on a rough cylinder of radius a under no forces but . revolution. 131 to find the position of the osculating plane of the path for any velocity of projection. This equation determines the position of the osculating plane of the path. the radius of curvature of the path. 1. meets the axis. 131. and above that plane.131133] the action MOTION ON A SURFACE 141 of gravity and the pressure of the surface. Examples. </> point of projection. path initially lies the osculating plane of below the horizontal plane through the or if V^< gy cot a. and Z GPQ = </>. it lies n33. along V Hence resolving along this line we have </>) — mg cos (« — RsiiKJ) where = 0. It is almost obvious that if the velocity exceeds that requisite for description of the circle the path of the particle rises above the circle. Now the if tan (j> > tan a. under no forces particle moving on ca surface (smooth or rough) but the reaction of the surface describes a geodesic. is m is the mass of the particle. of Art. Let Z Let P be PG PN=y P GPN When the particle is projected along the tangent to the there is initially no acceleration circular section with velocity a line in the meridian plane at right angles to PQ. y = PN = PG cos taiKJ) Hence =gy/V^. the normal to the surface at right angles to the axis of the ordinate of at P. resolving along PN^ we have (j)) m — cos (a — where p is = R cos a. <l).
Show that the osculating plane of the path is initially above or below this section according as v2> or <gab^ {¥lc^\)lsj{{a^c^) 134. Motion in Resisting Medium. F in it a direction making an moves over an arc ~^ a/x fi cosec2 a log ( 1 + /* Vta " ^ sin^ a). V. The equation of motion is = mg. same and the opposite Problems of this kind are related to facts of observation in regard to the motions of bodies in the air and in other fluid media. the reaction of the surface. In many cases it is found that the observed facts can be approxiis mately represented by the supposition that the resistance proportional motion of a to the velocity. Let the motion take place under gravity parallel to the negative direction of the axis y.fcy. Since the velocity of a particle is a vector whose direction and sense are determined by the resolved parts x. being 3. tlie coefficient of friction. and a particle is projected from one of the lower umbilics with velocity v along the tangent to the horizontal section within the ellipsoid. A hollow circular cylinder vertical. {a^h'^)]. . We consider cases of the motion of a particle in a known field of force when. is /x the coefficient of friction. the resistance has resolved parts — kx. and first suppose the particle to move vertically.142 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. this is true for instance for the pendulum swinging in air. An whose principal semiaxes are a. — kz. starting with velocity angle a with the generators prove that in time t . — k^. and is about its axis which makes Show that a particle can slide down a fixed line of radius a is a> with uniform velocity aa. y. where 4. and fi>cot ellipsoidal shell a. mi/ or ^ + ^+9 = 0. made to rotate uniformly with angular velocity an angle a with the parallel to the axis rough on the inside. in addition to the force of the field. there is exerted on the particle a force proportional to a power of direction as the velocity its velocity having the sense.v/{(/iHl)/(/i2tan2al)}. 6. c{a>b>c) is placed with the greatest axis vertical. i. 135. Resistance proportional to the Velocity. where /c is a constant.
Hence y = Ce"^/'^ mgJK. The complete primitive of this is written for /c/m. the motion would be simple harmonic in period 27r/n. Consider the case where. where (7 is a constant of integration. X \\x { v?x — 0. a. and with amplitude diminishing . We or have the equation mx = — mn^x — kx.\\%\ The motion may be roughly described as simple harmonic motion with period '±'K\\J{n^ — JX^). but for the horizontal motion we have an equation giving i. Since x and y are known. mx = — KXy = Ae""*/^. as functions of the path can be Resisted Simple Harmonic Motion. as a function of Again suppose that the particle is projected in any other than a vertical direction then the vertical motion is the same as before. it is former case.\\% + B sin [t slin" . A. where ^ is a constant of integration. apart from the resistance. 136.183136] RESISTING MEDIUM written for «r/m. and the resistance is proportional to the velocity. or the particle falls with a practically constant velocity when it has been falling for some seconds. In the takes different forms according as v?> ox < ^X^. X= e^^* where \ [A cos [t sj^n" . . 143 e^^ where X we have is Multiplying by and integrating. If the particle continues to fall for a sufficiently long time the value of y will ultimately differ very little from —gmJK. This equation can easily as a function of t t. is This velocity called the terminal velocity in the medium. equation which is practically the more important. be integrated again so as to express determined. The equation as to express r/ last written can easily be integrated again so t.
then the coordinate of the position of equilibrium and the time of vibration if there were no resistance are respectively problem considered in Art. arithmetic progression. medium. 1. 2. It will be observed that the period is lengthened by the resistance. Thus the motion rapidly Examples. particle is projected vertically upwards with velocity *' in a medium in which the resistance is proportional to the velocity.log u^). and a. ^0. particle of unit mass is fastened to one end of an elastic thread of natural length a and modulus an^. 5. and that the amplitude falls off in geometric progression as the time increases in dies away. E=t {uo . show that the range and time of flight t A R are given by the equations VoVi= gt. c. 136. Prove that. It rises to a height h and returns to the point of projection with velocity iv. If in the starts from rest in where a and /3 are the roots of the quadratic ^^. (i) it will begin to rise or it fall according as n2(6a)>or<^. and the particle any displaced position. when set free. is fixed and the particle is held at a distance h{>a) below the fixed A point. h. X>2w. V. proportional to the velocity. according to the exponential function e~^^^. and returning to the horizontal plane through the point of projection with component velocities ^i . (ii) in its subsequent motion will oscillate about a . in a medium the resistance of which to the motion of the particle is 2k The other end of the thread (velocity).Wi)/(log Uq . Prove that A where V is the terminal velocity in the medium. according to the formula 4. Prove also that R=UQVtl{y+V()\ where Fis the terminal velocity in the A body performs rectilinear vibrations under an attractive force to a centre proportional to the distance in a medium whose resistance is Prove that. 3. are fixed T the coordinates of the extremities of three consecutive semivibrations. if is the period.144 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. it creeps asymptotically towards its position of equilibrium.\^\n^ = Q. Vi. starting with horizontal and vertical component velocities Wq. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the velocity. 137.
u. so that u — v cos </>. is we have . since the resistance directed along the tangent. where <f> the angle which the direction of motion at time t ^^' ' makes with the horizontal and u is the horizontal velocity. v. is /> the radius of curvature. is Since <^ diminishes as s — ds/dcf). M. du rrr d<i> = vf(v) where v g r = u sec 6. Investigate the equations A which the where h and /x are constants. u^ = const. Again resolving along the normal to path. Prove that the time of falling from any point to the vertex is independent of the starting point.. 7. 10 .136138] point RESISTING MEDIUM 145 from which is at a distance a+g/n^ below the fixed point. Let mf{v) be the magnitude of the resistance when velocity is v. we "^ get . .f(v) is COSCJ). eliminating (f>. (iii) the distances of successive positions of rest form a geometric series of ratio e""^*/"*. being the mass of the m the particle. t. ^ . and the above equation may be written v^—^g cos and thus. Motion in a vertical plane under gravity. (r) in a medium of particle moves under a central force resistance varies as the velocity.= gcos<l>. and we have — d(b :^zr. g jcos"+i<^ and therefore also in an equation giving L.**. where p increases. *138. For law of resistance we can make some progress with the any equations of motion of a particle moving in a vertical plane under gravity. terms of </>. then resolving horizontally we have u = . This equation can be integrated when f{v) 1 n/c ^^\ = aci. — kK (iv) the interval between any two positions of rest is 7r/m. downwards under gravity and a resistance varying as the velocity. where m^=n^ A particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex 6.
= CgiKy _ gj^^ is Again. when the particle is ascending..n^. when the particle descending we have.. = I — d(/) + const. particle are and thus the time and the position of the in terms of a single parameter <^. so that t is found in terms of <^. y being measured upwards. ^fe^y = giving 2/2   e^y + const. measuring y downwards. we have Multiplying by ^"y and integrating. dx ^= give us a? .. = . V. . Now the equation gives t =— I sec ^dcft { const. however. Also the equations . It is not determined generally possible to vertical rectilinear motion even for integrate the equation for the case here described where f{v) is In the special case. where the resistance proportional to the square of the velocity the velocity can be KV^. ^ Ce~^y. = found in any position. dy ds j^ cos<l>. We have.146 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. Now hence —{^f)^Ky^ = g. ^ fC .I— tan</>c?<^ + const. 3/ = v. ^=s. y or = 9'cy\ ^(hy') giving y^=z + 'cy' = g.
and starts from the lowest point with such velocity that if it were unresisted the angle of oscillaProve that it comes to rest after describing an angle 6 which tion would be a. 2. and a resistance k ( velocity )2. fi if it starts from rest at a distance a from the centre of force. it will first come to rest at a distance 6. Prove that. power of the velocity. 1 .138. particle of unit mass moves in a straight line under an attraction Prove that. which is practically attained when the particle has fallen through a considerable height. 10—2 . "^139. 139] RESISTING MEDIUM 147 is As in the case of resistance proportional to the velocity. paiticle is A ance varies as the square of the velocity. than it would be if Prove also that. s/{g/K). A particle of weight W moves in a medium whose resistance varies is the resistance as the nth. then the direction of motion makes an angle F when W — = ncos^(f) A f j sec" + ^(/)c^0. acquires a velocity Utanhigt/U) and falls a distance where U is the terminal velocity in the medium. if with the horizon. Examples. where The bob of a simple pendulum moves under gravity in a medium of 4.cos Oe^^^ where I is the length of the pendulum. projected vertically upwards in a medium whose resistProve that the interval that is less ^lapses before it returns to the point of projection there were no resistance. there a terminal velocity. if the particle is let fall from rest. which the resistance per unit of mass is k (velocity)^. (distance) to a point in the line. satisfies the equation (1 + 4:<H^) cos a = 4<H^ . C/'^^ then in time t it i log cosh (^^/C/'). 3.2kI sin ^e^^W ^.
particle moves on a smooth curve in a vertical plane.148 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. the perpendicular from F on AB cuts at Q the circle on AB as diameter. where 2a.e^)] . Prove that the time of a complete revolution is A m (m^D? 7—5 V Q ' ^^^ *^^* *^® length of the vertical axis of the curve is — 7. if the ring falls from an extremity fixed to the foci of the wire. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. A particle 4. and QR is a diameter of this circle. A 6. and leaves the curve at P. V. 3. the whole length of the curve being Tra if ^  Prove that.e)}. 1. and moves under gravity along the concave side. a particle moves in a smooth tube under the action of forces tending to centres. A ring is free to move on a smooth elliptic wire whose minor axis is thread of natural length I and of modulus equal to n times the weight of the ring passes through the ring and has its extremities Prove that. ellipse. and its initial velocity is such that if it were free its orbit would pass through the other focus. if it is projected from the nearer the pressure is vertex with velocity {l + e)/a (1 . =75. Prove that PR is horizontal. it elliptic arc. the pressure at the lowest point will vanish if I = 4na^bl{a^ + 2nab +262). arj A particle is constrained to move in an ellipse about a centre of force in one focus varying inversely as the square of the distance. and l<2a. Prove that. the form of the curve being such that the pressure on the curve is times always the weight of the particle. An elastic of the major axis. A particle moves in ^^2 + ^3 per unit of mass. 26 are the major and minor axes of the 5. is projected horizontally from the lowest point of a smooth whose major axis 2a is vertical. the pressure on the tube at proportional to any point will be p{^^i4H' . smooth cycloid has its axis AB inclined to the vertical and its convexity upwards a particle begins to slide down the arc from A. given by p\r^^a^{lef 2. its path. >v^{/a an elliptic tube under a force to a focus equal to Prove that. . Prove that it will leave the curve if the velocity of projection lies between »J{2ga) and •J{{ga (5 . if the constraint were removed at any point of would describe an orbit passing through the other focus. vertical.
their planes being at different inclinations two small heavy beads are projected at the same instant along these circles from their lowest points. the height of the line of zero velocity above of a length pendulum the lowest point being 2acosec'*^a. if of the suspending cord. A smooth circular tube of radius a is fixed in a vertical plane. Prove being that due to falling from a horizontal line that. r and p is the radius of curvature. assumed constant. the pendulum oscillates through an angle of 3". then any chord through / divides the circle and the line A HK HK wire into two parts which are described in equal times. and the other end of the a smooth pulley and supporting a body of weight W. which is constrained to move rod is attached to a cord passing over vertically. is p is the perpen dicular from this centre on the tangent. Prove that the train will come to rest after running about 385 yards. and contains a particle. above the circle. 14. The bob of a pendulum (weight W) is suspended by a cord from one end of an inextensible rod of negligible mass. falling from the highest point of the other circle. ^3 .cos g) "! ^*^\lfcos2^"^ 12. the distance from this centre. the tension makes an angle d with the vertical. if / is the internal limiting point of the coaxal system of which the are members. The bob a horizontal force of a simple pendulum of length I and mass mpg cos nt. Prove also that.3) ag]^ it will just reach the lowest Two equal smooth circular tubes are fixed so as to touch at their 9. 8. which is attached to the highest point of the tube by an elastic thread inside the tube. when j it the amplitude of the vibration is a. where p is a large number. m is acted on by and In^ is large . Prove that. Prove that the period of small oscillations of the pendulum is the same as when the point of support is at rest. is 2 (cos 6 cos ^ . Prove that the time of a beat of a circular pendulum of length a to the time of complete revolution of oscillating through an angle 2a is equal a cosec^^a. bead moves on a smooth circular wire in a vertical plane its velocity 10. the modulus of elasticity is \yj^ of the weight of the particle. the vertical while the train is A simple pendulum is resistance being 13. 11. and the natural length of the thread subtends an angle ^tt at the centre. When the brakes are put on.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES where is 149 j the acceleration towards any one of the centres. if when the particle is in equilibrium it receives by an impulse a downward velocity V{(2t point. lowest points the same horizontal plane. Show that throughout the motion the two beads will always be at the same height. the velocity of each bead being due to . (Hcos2^)2 I and remains suspended from the roof of a railway carriage running uniformly at 30 miles an hour.
then in time t the length of the arc cleared of rings will be where I is the length of the cycloid. 20. 19.Sx)la. Show that the pendulum may two points distant a from the lowest point with an amplitude ^. . w is The point of support of a simple pendulum of length I and weight attached to a massless spring so that it can move to and fro in a horizontal hne. From a point fixed on A ring slides on a smooth wire bent into the form of a curve in 17. in time or sec a c?^/V/i. W is the weight required to stretch the spring a length A platform is I. generated by the rolling of a circle of radius 6 on a circle of radius a. sliding down a smooth it spherical hill from rest at the a plumbline is suspended in a tube which is always held perpendicular to the surface of the hill at the point of contact Prove that the tension of the cord. if the constraint at the cusps is removed. Prove that the period of oscillation is independent of the amplitude. is w{a. smooth tube in the form of an of angle a at a distance 2d from the pole. Prove that. is at rest equiangular spiral under the action of a force /x/(distance)2 towards the pole. Prove that it will descend through a vertical height which is a third proportional to the . is fi. and that the time of an oscillation is where the force per unit of mass at unit distance 21. Prove that a hypocycloid. Prove that. and w is the weight of the lead. summit. descended a distance x measured vertically. where a is the radius of the sphere. a vertical plane. the thread being stretched throughout the motion. 15. 22. in a it will reach the pole A cycloidal wire in a vertical is plane. and the modulus of elasticity is twice the weight of the ring. is isochronous for a force varying as the distance from the centre of the fixed circle. oscillate about either of compared with g. where COS a = 2ln^l{gp^). natural length of the thread and the increase of its length when in the lowest position. the period of small oscillation of the fibre in the position of equilibrium. the suspending fibre of a simple pendulum is slightly is that due to the stretched length A particle moves in a smooth tube in the form of a catenary being attracted to the directrix with a force proportional to the distance from the directrix. with its axis vertical and vertex upwards completely occupied by equal small smooth rings. prove that the time of vibration is where 16.150 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. being attached by an elastic thread to a fixed point in the plane it starts from a position in which the thread has its natural length. A particle. of unit mass. when the platform has of the platform. Prove that. V. if extensible. 18. ^=2/p.
on which A moves. the major axis being vertical. Two particles A. Find the time also when x>^a  1. m'/m<2 tan a tan i3 . thread of length I. 151 cycloidal tube. and is let go. and if n is the ratio of the masses of B and A. is with axis vertical and vertex downwards. 29. where x<Aa — l^ it will reach the vertex in time I where n ve is 8wa + ^. Prove that its path is part of an ellipse of semiaxes I. passes over two small smooth pegs A and B. the particle of greater mass m will at once pull the other off the plane if 21. 26. and contains two elastic placed threads of natural length I fastened at one end of each to the cusps and at their other ends to a particle. B are connected by a thread of length I which passes through a small hole C in a smooth horizontal table. under gravity diminished in the ratio V(l + k^ + 2k cos a) 1 k. Prove that it falls with acceleration R ^(l/P+l/0^(l/P+l/$+4/i2). m' are attached to the ends of a thread passing over a pulley. point of endless thread of length on which are threaded beads of masses AB The hghter bead m is raised to the middle Show that the beads will just meet if (M+m)IM=2^{l/{l\a)}. 25. reach the table if the velocity of projection is less than that due to falling through a height 28. passes through the slit and supports a particle of mass Km.1. . Show that. The suspended particle is held displaced in A straight smooth groove is cut in a A m horizontal table. slit is cut in the bottom of the groove. and 1/(1 +k). if AC=kI. Two particles of masses P and Q lie near to each other on a smooth horizontal table. A is projected along the table at right angles to AC. Prove that. 24. An M and m. and is then let go. Two particles of masses m. and a straight the vertical plane containing the slit with the string straight. B cannot 27. If the particle is moved a distance x from A the vertex. the ratio of the modulus of the string to the weight of the particle. if each portion of the thread makes an angle /3 with the corresponding plane. the particles lying on the circle. and supports B. being connected by a thread on which is a ring of mass hanging just over the edge of the table. attached at one end to a shot of mass resting in the groove. Show that the motion of from its position of equilibrium will be the same as that m of a free particle starting from the top of the circle. nlj {! + <). a being the angle which the connecting : + thread subtends at the centre. of which the radius of the generating circle is a. masses Two particles of m and Km are connected by a thread which passes over the top of a smooth circle.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 23. and are held on two inclined planes each of angle a placed back to back with their highest points beneath the centre of the pulley. which are at a distance a apart and in a horizontal line.
A horizontal table. Prove that the horizontal pressure on the groove when the first particle is at an extremity of the minor axis vanishes if 2a3 . where r parabola. which passes through a small hole at the centre of the ellipse and supports a particle of equal mass. Two particles of masses J/. when A and B meet. the height of the pulley above the highest point of the groove. B each of mass m slide on a circular wire of radius a and are connected with a third particle C of mass m! by two threads each equal to the radius. at its other end. m are connected by a cord passing over a 31. and the foci. the Two particles A^ fixed in a vertical plane. and they are projected with velocities u and v from points at distances a and 6 from the shortest distance between the wires. is the focal distance of the bead and 4a the latus rectum of the Two smooth straight horizontal nonintersecting wires are fixed at 35. Prove that the tension T of the thread at any stage of the motion is given by an equation of the form fixed in A smooth parabolic wire. where 2a and 26 are the principal axes. velocity of either of them is V{(2V2)a^(l+m7m)}. is A moves from rest at an extremity of the major axis of a smooth elliptic groove of axes 2a. Two small rings of equal right angles to each other at a distance d apart. R and R\ on the groove when Prove that.h'^)]^ the particle at the ends of the axes are connected by the equation RIP ~ R'a (3a2 _ 262) =6 Wa%e^. is a horizontal plane. a weight 2c/{el). mass. One of the bodies is particle of weight is W pulled downwards with velocity Ve axis. smooth pulley the smaller {m) hangs vertically and the other (J/) moves in a smooth circular groove on a fixed plane of inclination a to the vertical. e is the eccentricity of the ellipse. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP.. being attached to a thread. . Prove that after the thread becomes tight the motion is oscillatory and of period 27r {l^(P)/{av'^bu). 33. on which is a smooth bead of weight w. Prove that. V. the starts from highest point of the groove being vertically under the pulley. is if V^<ah'^gl{e{Za^'2. and 34. (eTw) (er—a)2= const. Prove that. slide on the wires. To the bead is attached a thread. The system starts from rest in a A and B form a square position in which the threads and the radii through with C vertically below the centre. M a point close to the highest point of the groove without initial velocity. moves in a smooth elliptic groove on a attached to two threads which pass through holes at and each thread supports a body of weight W. which passes through a smooth ring fixed at the focus of the parabola and carries. connected by an inextensible thread of length l. and that in this case the horizontal pressures. if it makes complete revolutions.AaW + 463 = 0. particle where h 32.a^h . when the particle is at an end of the minor the threads do not become slack.152 30. the radius of the groove must not exceed hmM cos al{m^ — M^ cos^ a). 25 cut in a horizontal table. .
the tension of the cord varies ively. Show that. particle attached to the other end is dropped from a position in which the thread is straight and horizontal A and at right angles to the axis of the cylinder. then m mv^ 41. connected table with the thread just straight. if l^'^tra^ the thread will become slack before the particle comes to rest. the lengths of the pieces being a and a!. at the Initially the thread is just extended and in two straight pieces meeting The particles are projected at ring. 153 Two on a vertical circular wire. the same as if they One end of a thread of length I is attached to the highest point of a fixed horizontal circular cylinder of radius a. former being within a smooth fixed horizontal tube and the latter on a smooth table in the horizontal plane of the tube.. the 39. .. Q.. slide equal velocities along the external bisectors of the angles OPQ.which passes through a small smooth ring at 0. Initially OF=OQ. inversely as OP. of the particles is set in prove that each of them is '2. Q. and the particles are projected with 38. is the Prove that. Particles of masses i/and m are attached to the ends of a thread. on a smooth endless cord OP^. throughout the motion. by a thread of length a. if right angles to the string with velocities v and v' . Show that the differential vertically. motion at right angles to the thread with velocity v describes a series of cycloids. : ~ m'J 7^ r'^ Prove also that the other apsidal distances will be equal if mV^=3a' + a : 3a + a'.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 36. are connected by a fine string which passes through a small hole in a smooth inclined plane (inclination a). when is the other reaches the lowest point. Prove that. < — 6 j. of equal mass. OQP respectProve that. and Two P equation of P's path is sin 6 sin ad K .. masses wi. equal beads connected by a massless rigid rod are placed one being at the highest point. path is of the form r cos m'. the velocity of each had been unconnected throughout the motion./'Trr \~^' Two particles. Q hangs moves on the inclined plane.sin a cos ^ + sin a sin B{1 + k) ^' ^ =0. on a smooth horizontal table are con nected by a thread passing through a small smooth ring fixed in the table. particles P. Two particles P. T tension at any time and r. and lies on a smooth horizontal plane. 37. (! + '') ^2 + ^^' where k is the ratio (mass of Q mass : of P). The thread is initially straight and the particle of mass m is projected at right angles to the thread.7ra/v. lie on One . the time of describing any one of which 42. Two a smooth particles of equal mass. its Prove that the polar equation of 40. / the distances from the ring. and that it will then have turned through an angle whose circular measure 7r is + ^a/^ + 7r(a/Z)2 + f(ff + O(«/0' + .
and the particle is projected from A along the tube with velocity v. V. 49. and that the particle leaves the cycloid e is when the 48. 45. friction being move on a long straight rough rod. and if the tangent at the starting point makes with the horizontal an angle greater than a. where d is the distance of the rod from the centre of 44. A ring can force. rest at a point close to that point of a A particle starts from is rough cycloidal arc (vertex uppermost) at which it could rest in hmiting equilibrium. the coefficient of under an attraction to a fixed point (not on the rod) varying /*. it will Prove that. The point A is the foot of the perpendicular from C on the tube. ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. if X is the angle of friction.154 43. cycloid down a rough cycloid whose axis is vertical and Prove that the time of reaching a certain point on the independent of the starting point. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES Two particles. the angle which the radius vector through the velocity is makes with the horizontal when the sin ^ a maximum. if it starts from the lowest point with velocity A . /x is the coefficient of friction. and the particle starts if arc of a rough circle (/x = ^) fixed in a. and m\ are connected by a thread which masses a hole at the vertex of a smooth right circular cone having its passes through The particle of mass m! hangs vertically. A particle slides down the 6 is vertical plane.m cos a) sin a) 2a being the vertical angle of the cone. where 47. perform small oscillations in time 2^ V/[ \Zg c{m'+m) {m' 1 ' . axis vertical and vertex uppermost. then = Jcos^ + e~^. where a is the least positive angle which satisfies the equation Prove also that. from rest at an end of the horizontal diameter. A is particle slides vertex downwards. Show that the velocity at a point at which the tangent makes an angle <^ with the horizon 2 J{ag) sin (<^ f ). m and m describes a circle of radius c on the cone. as the distance. under the 46. if slightly disturbed. Prove that it comes to rest when the radius vector from C makes with CA an angle 6 satisfying the equation A AB /i^logsec^ = y2/^. where the angle of friction. Prove that. sin(aX) = e(*+^)*'^"^sin2X. particle Prove that. of [CHAP. and that the ring will ultimately come to rest at a point within a length 2/iO? of the rod. Prove that the time of oscillation is the same as if the rod were smooth. the particle will oscillate. particle of unit mass moves in a rough straight tube action of a central repulsive force from a point C of magnitude X/r at a distance r from C. velocity is kK^^9) (sin ^e+cos^c).
being referred to fixed axes. Prove that the path of the particle is given by the 52. 51. from the axis of rotation. and moves under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface. to rest at its lowest point. its velocity u when its direction of motion horizontal is given by is 155 <f> inclined at an angle to the ^^2= (^^2 + 4^^ sin2^) e2«/> tan .2 Vra> sin y(r)^ \fA) yjr ( where r is the length OP. moving with constant velocity V relative to same time turning round a fixed axis perpendicular to it with angular velocity a>. wire whose centre particle P is free to move on a smooth circular with constant angular velocity in the plane of the wire about a fixed makes complete point 0. and a heavy particle slides down it.1 ) sin </> + 3/x cos = 2/i. . _ ^^^ ^^^2 (^ + g)^ t is where a is the radius of the generating circle and if it the angle of friction. the pressure between the particle and the wire 54. a. Show that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Uq. during its starts from a cusp with velocity Vq. the plane at the equation — = V(r2a2)+cosi. 50. and a being the least distance of the r and particle 53. a point Prove that the curvature of its path is V{(r V+ 2a>)(V+r(o sin + r(o(Va> sin /cos ylr+r<o^) 72 + rW 4. Prove that at the starting point the coming tangent makes with the horizon an angle 2tan~i/i. and / the rate of increase of V. if CP=30C and the particle just vanishes when revolutions. V the velocity of P relative to the curve. A C revolves CP makes with 00 an angle sec'^B. A Prove that it returns to the point of projection after a time where fi is the coefficient of friction. a{e^t*''^l)/{iiV)^ rough wire in the form of an equiangular spiral whose angle is placed in a vertical plane. A particle on a plane is it.is the curvature of the curve at P. A point P moves along a plane curve which rotates in its plane about with uniform angular velocity o). yjr the angle between OP and the tangent. Prove also that. and that the velocity is greatest when the angle <f) which the direction of motion makes with the cot~^2fi is A horizon is given by the equation (2/bt2 . its velocity v descent v'^ is given by = {Vo^ + 4ag C0s2 e) e(*2'^)tane _ ^^^ ^^^2 ^^ _ g). particle is projected from a point on the lowest generator of a rough horizontal cylinder of radius « with velocity Fat right angles to the generator.
will oscillate in a period 27r V(l 60. V. 61. 56. the body described under the original force an orbit which at the same time rotated (with the body) round the centre of force with angular velocity n times the angular velocity of the body. and when it is at a distance r from this centre it comes under the influence of a small disturbing force directed to the same point and varying Prove that the effect is the same as if inversely as the cube of the distance. the wire is suddenly stopped. A bead is initially . The rods are made to revolve uniformly in their plane. . and r^. about their point of intersection. where e is from the intersection of the wires at any time. Prove the wire made to rotate with uniform angular velocity that the bead will subsequently a> move with velocity y (a^ + c2 + 2ac cos ^) . its — e^)/ea)j where elliptic e is the eccentricity. ^2 are the distances of the beads mi (ri2 A smooth elliptic tube rotates about a vertical axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane with uniform angular vislocity co. where 2a and 26 are the axes of the ellipse.156 65. and the to rotate with uniform angular velocity about a vertical axis the particle. . at rest on a is smooth circular wire of radius a in a a> horizontal plane about an axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through a point on the diameter through the bead at a distance c from the centre. Prove that a particle can remain at an extremity of the axis major. Prove that through a point on the diameter passing through arc bounded by a chord through the centre of the time of describing any rotation is constant.(a + c cos ^)}. the major axis being vertical and the particle being at rest at the highest point. Two small beads of masses rrii m2 slide along two smooth straight 58.rgW) +Xe2/c = const. if slightly disturbed. and.. the extension of the thread. as that of the bob of a simple pendulum. 57. A smooth horizontal circular wire rotates uniformly about a point in Prove that the motion of a bead on the wire will be the same its plane. A body is describing an ellipse of semiaxes a. and the beads are connected by an elastic thread of natural length c and modulus X.ri2a)2) + m^ {r^ . When the bead has moved a distance aO on the wire. Prove that the particle will move on the ellipse as if under a force to the centre varying as the distance. the tube is suddenly set in rotation with uniform angular velocity >/{^gl{(i + b)}. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. rods which intersect at an angle a. A particle can move in a smooth tube which can turn about centre in a vertical plane. with angular Prove that throughout the motion velocity a>. b about a centre of gravitation. where m is a small constant such that the semiaxes of this new free orbit are equal to those of the original one reduced by fractions inh^jr^ and n{\ + b'^/r^) of themselves. 59. . and. A particle made tube is is at rest in a smooth horizontal circular tube.
tj=^cl "^ ta. the groove from rest at the vertex show that the time of descending through a vertical height k is equal to the time of falling freely through a height . if a particle starts axis of the cone with angular velocity Q.n a fi cosh (f) ^> where a is of the helix to the horizon. moves sphere of radius angular velocity in a smooth tube in the form of a loxodrome on a while the tube turns uniformly about the polar axis with The particle is projected from a point in the equatoreal . a the inclination and fi the coefficient of friction.?^^° r. aflr ^ ^ sec a smhd).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 157 62. fcosh ^ (Qi sin a cos ^) Q2sm2acosi3^ ^ 1]. 65. cut on the surface of a right circular cone and vertex upwards in such a manner that the tangent A small smooth groove is is vertical whose axis is particle slides down always inclined to the vertical at the same angle ^3. Prove that. particle slides on a smooth helix of angle a force to a fixed point on the axis equal to /x (distance). with velocity due to a height 2a above the lowest point. the radius of the cylinder on which the helix lies. = . 63. The tube is made to turn about its axis with uniform angular velocity a. . Prove that the particle makes at least one complete revolution round the axis if /3 ^aa)^lg>[{7r + 2y) sin 7 + 2 cos y] sin ^ cot a cosec^ a. w. ay/fiseca. ^ 68. A particle moves on a helical wire s is whose axis is vertical. . and a particle rests in the tube. it will in time t describe along the tube a distance from ^ . rest at the vertex. another particle circulates in a smooth helical tube described on the cylinder of diameter h whose axis is horizontal. Show also that the pressure is constant and makes with the principal normal to the path a constant angle tan 1 (I sin a/^(cos2 „ _ ^032 ^) ^ where 2a is the angle of the cone. A h sec^ /3. provided that the length of one turn of the helix is equal to the circumference of the circular tube. Prove that the two particles can move so as always to be at the same level. is where 67. Prove that the velocity v after describing an arc y2 given by the equations . . sin 7 = tan a cot ^3. lie A smooth tube bent so as to on a cone of vertical angle 2a and to cut the generators at a constant angle ^. the axis of the cone being vertical The tube is made to rotate uniformly about the and the vertex uppermost. touching the circular tube at the lowest point. ds d(f) sec^acoshd) . A particle a. While one particle oscillates in a smooth circular tube of radius a in a vertical plane through an arc of height h. (>a) to the vertical. A and radius a under a Show that the pressure is cannot vanish unless the greatest velocity of the particle 64. and a is the radius of the helix. A smooth helical tube of pitch a has its axis inclined at an angle 66.
158
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that the particle will be to the tube. plane with velocity aa> relative at an angular distance 6 from the equatoreal plane after a time  log (sec $ + tan 6)} /a, {sec a
and that the pressure on the tube
2maa>2
in this position is
(1
+sin a) cos 6,
a the angle of the loxodrome.
m being the mass of the particle and
A particle is fastened to one end of a thread of length I, the other 69. the particle end being fixed to the top of a smooth sphere of radius a describes a horizontal circle with angular velocity a>, and the length of the thread in contact with the sphere is aa. Prove that
;
a>^=g cot al{a sin a + (/ aa) cos a}. A bead can slide on a rough straight wire which is rotating with 70. uniform angular velocity o) about a fixed vertical axis intersecting it, and a Prove that, for the ring to is the inclination of the wire to the horizontal.
be in relative equilibrium,
distance apart
is
^
it
must
lie
between two points on the wire whose
^0)"
sec a {tan (a + X)
— tan (a — X)},
where X
71.
is
the angle of friction.
small ring can slide on a smooth plane cmved wire which rotates with angular velocity cd about a vertical axis in its plane. Find the form of the curve in order that the ring may be in relative equilibrium at any point. Prove that, if the angular velocity is increased to a>\ the ring will still
A
be in relative equilibrium if the wire is rough and the coefl&cient of friction between it and the ring is not less than \ (w'/to — w/o)').
A rod of length 2a rotates in a horizontal plane about one of its 72. ends with uniform angular velocity a. The ends of a thread of length 2/ are attached to the ends of the rod, and a bead can slide on the thread. Prove that, when the motion is steady and the bead is at a distance a\x from
the axis, the acceleration towards the axis
is
its
uniform angular velocity about Prove that a particle cannot rest in the tube anywhere except at the lowest point unless the angular velocity a> of the tube exceeds J{gla\ where a is the radius of the generating circle, and that, when
73.
A smooth cycloidal tube rotates with
is vertical.
base which
exceeds this value, there are two positions of relative equilibrium, the <k> arcdistances of which from the vertex of the cycloid are
2a>V[2a^<»^±2a ^,'{a^(o'^g^)']. in a smooth circular tube of radius a which rotates about a fixed vertical diameter with angular velocity o. Prove that, if 6 is the angular distance of the particle from the lowest point, and if initially it is at rest relative to the tube with the value a for 6 where a cos ^a = ^{gla\ then at any subsequent time t
74.
A particle moves
cot iO
= cot ^a cosh (at sin ^a).
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
159
a
is constrained to remain on the surface of 75. particle of mass sphere of radius a, and is attached to a fixed point of the sphere by a Prove that, if slightly extensible thread of natural length aa and modulus X.
A
m
the particle is projected at right angles to the unstretched thread with velocity V the greatest subsequent elongation is '2.a\~'^mv^cota.
76.
A
particle is projected
smooth cone whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. path when the cone is developed into a plane is the same
particle
77.
horizontally on the interior surface of a Prove that its
as the path of a
under the action of a constant force to a
fixed point.
A
particle
moves on a smooth cone under a
force to the vertex
varying inversely as the square of the distance. Prove that, if the cone is developed into a plane, the path will be a conic having one focus at the vertex
of the cone.
on a right circular cone with a motion can be integrated without elliptic functions, the particle must be below the vertex, and that its distance r from the vertex at time t is given by an equation of the form
where 2a
79.
is
78. particle moves under gravity vertical axis. Show that, if the equations of
A
= 2g cos a{r Tq) {rirf the vertical angle of the cone.
particle
(r
+ 2ro)»,
circular cone of vertical
A
moves on the
inside of a
smooth
angle 2a under a force to the vertex varying inversely as the square of the It is projected from an apse at a distance c from the axis with distance.
Prove that the polar velocity ^^6 of that requisite for circular motion. equation of the projection of the path on a plane perpendicular to the axis is
3c jr =2 + cos (B sin
a),
that the time from one apse to the next is tt (2c cosec a)^/<^fi, and that the pressure is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the vertex.
80.
A
of a right circular cone, whose axis
initial velocity
surface particle is projected horizontally along the smooth inner is vertical and vertex downwards, the
being ^{2ghl(n^ + n)}, where k
its
is
the
is
initial
height above the
vertex. vertex.
Prove that the lowest point of
path
at a height h/n above the
81. right circular cone of vertical angle 2a is placed with one generator vertical and vertex upwards. From a point on the generator of least slope a particle is projected horizontally and at right angles to the generator with velocity v. Prove that it will just skim the surface of the cone without pressure if the distance of the point of projection from the vertex is
A
^v^ cosec^ a/g.
horizontally from a fixed point on the interior surface of a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. Prove that when it is again moving horizontally its velocity is independent of the velocity of projection.
82.
A particle is projected
160
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that, when a body of mass m moves under gravity on a smooth 83. sphere of unit radius, the osculating plane of the path makes an angle t&n~^ (gh/mt^) with the normal, h being the moment of momentum about the vertical diameter and v the velocity, the osculating plane always cutting the vertical diameter below the centre.
84.
A
particle
moves on the inner surface
of a
smooth bowl
in the
form
of a paraboloid of latus rectum 4a with axis vertical and vertex downwards, being projected along the surface in the horizontal plane through the focus
with velocity J{^iiag).
i8
Prove that the
initial
radius of curvature of the path
2>v/2na/V(lfw2).
85. particle moves inside a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards, being projected from the level of the
A
focus with velocity due to a height A in a direction making an angle ^tt with the meridian. Prove that, if I is the latus rectum, the initial radius
of curvature of the path
is
—^ cos tan~i7.
5
oh
the path of a particle moving on a right circular cone cuts the generators at an angle x^ ^^e acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
86.
Prove that,
if
where v
sin x), v^ {dxjds + r the velocity, and r the distance from the vertex. If the axis of the cone is vertical, and the vertex upwards, and
1
~
is
if
the
velocity is that leaves the cone,
due to
falling
from the vertex, prove that, when the particle
2 8in2;^ = tan2a,
2a being the vertical angle of the cone. What happens when tan^a 2 ? A particle moves on a smooth surface of revolution. The velocity is 87. V at a point where the normal terminated by the axis of revolution is of length
v, and this normal makes an angle 6 with the axis prove that, if ds is the element of arc of the path, and x the angle at which it cuts the meridian, the acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
;
>
sin
^'^(dx
X cot ^\
88. particle describes a rhumb line on a sphere in such a way that the longitude increases uniformly prove that the resultant acceleration varies as the cosine of the latitude, and that its direction makes with the
;
A
normal an angle equal to the
89.
latitude.
rhumb line on a smooth sphere under a force that the force varies inversely as the fourth power of the distance from the axis and directly as the distance from the diametral
particle describes a
parallel to its axis.
A
Show
plane perpendicular to the axis.
90. particle of unit mass moves on a smooth sphere under two central attractive forces \ilr^r^^ and tijr^ri^ in the distances rj, r^ of the point from the ends of a fixed diameter. Prove that, if the velocity at starting is that due to falling from an infinite distance, the on the is a rhumb line.
A
path
sphere
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
161
91. particle is placed at rest on the smooth inner surface of a vertical circular cylinder, which rotates with uniform angular velocity at about the
A
generator which is initially furthest from the particle. Prove that the pressure vanishes when the particle has descended a distance
92. particle is attached by a thread of length a to a point of a rough fixed plane inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to the angle of friction
A
between the particle and the plane. The particle is projected down the plane at right angles to the thread, which is initially straight and horizontal. Prove that it comes to rest at the lowest point of its path if the square of the initial
velocity is {n
93.

2)figa/^{l +ix^), where
/a
is
the coefficient of friction.
its axis
A rough hollow circular cylinder is made to rotate uniformly about which is horizontal, and a particle within it is projected from the lowest point in a direction contrary to that of the motion of the neighbouring
parts of the cylinder with such velocity that it comes to rest at an end of the horizontal diameter. Prove that, provided the angular velocity is great enough, the next position of instantaneous rest is given by the least positive root of the equation
3/x {e^f"^
 cos e) = (2^2 _ 1
)
sin ^,
being the angle between the axial planes through the two positions of instantaneous rest, and n the coefficient of friction.
94. particle is projected horizontally with velocity V along the interior surface of a rough vertical circular cylinder. Prove that, at a point where the path cuts the generator at an angle ^, the velocity v is given by the
A
equation
agjv^
= sin^
{ag/ V^ +
2ft
log (cot
(f)
+ cosec ^)}
,
and the azimuthal angle and the
I
vertical descent are respectively
— d(b
^9
&nd
I
— cot d) ad).
9
J'i>
J<f>
right circular cone of particle vertical angle 2a under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface. It is projected at a distance r from the vertex with velocity perpendicular to the generator. Show that, when its path crosses a generator
95.
A
moves on the surface of a rough
V
at an angle x^ the velocity is Ve~'^^^^'^^^^\
and the time
to that point is
^P''g^C0taC0SXcosec2;^C^;t,
fi
being the coefficient of friction.
96.
A particle is projected vertically
is
upwards
in a
medium
in
resistance
k
(velocity)^.
If
u
is
the initial velocity and
is
T the
which the whole time
of motion prove that ^k{2ujg
L.
 T)
positive
and increases as k
increases.
M.
11
162
97.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
in
A
particle is projected vertically
is
upwards in a medium
if U,
which
the resistance
^
(velocity )2.
Prove that,
V are
the velocities with
which the particle leaves and returns to the point of projection,
_i
98.
JL_J_
a:
A
particle falls
from rest under gravity through a distance
;
in a
as the square of the velocity v is the velocity the particle, V the terminal velocity, and Vq the velocity that acquired by would be acquired by falling through a distance x in vacuo ; prove that
medium whose resistance varies
i;2/V =
99.
l^o7^' + 2^V/^*2:^V/F«+...
and when
its
A
is
Earth with velocity
surface
that, if z
upwards from the surface of the is v and its height above the Prove z the resistance is Kv'^l{a\z), where a is the Earth's radius. is always small compared with a, the velocity V with which it
particle is projected vertically
w,
velocity
returns to the point of projection
is
approximately given by the equation
variations of gravity with height being taken into account.
100.
A particle is projected
is
vertically
upwards
:
in a
medium
in which the
kg (velocity)^. Prove that it returns to the point of projection with kinetic energy diminished in the ratio 1 1+^ F^, where F is the velocity
resistance
of projection.
Prove that in the same medium the angle B between the asymptotes of the complete trajectory of a projectile is given by the equation
IJ^lw^
= cot $ cosec 6 + sinh ~
w
^
cot
B,
where Via the terminal velocity and
horizontally.
101.
the velocity
when the
projectile
moves
A
particle
moves under gravity
proportional to the velocity.
in a medium whose resistance Prove that the range on a horizontal plane
is
is
a maximum, for given velocity of projection, when the angle of elevation at first and the angle of descent at last are complementary.
A particle is projected up a plane of inclination a under gravity and 102. a resistance proportional to the velocity. The direction of projection makes an angle /3 with the vertical, the range i2 is a maximum and t is the time of
flight.
Prove that,
if
U
is
the terminal velocity and
F
the velocity of
projection, then
(i) (ii)
(iii)
l+(F/£7)sec^=exp.(5r«C^),
UV{C
+
Fcos/3)/(
UV^ sin /3/( F+
(7 cos /3)
F+ £/cos/3)=^(i2sina+ =gR cos a.
Ut\
103. particle of unit attraction equal to {fi'^ K^)r
A
+
when
mass describes a plane curve under a central it is at a distance r from the origin, in a
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
medium whose
time
t
163
its
resistance is 2k (velocity).
e «
Prove that
coordinates at
are
 ** " "^
+ cos /i^ + {ya
{^0 cos
/i^
1
/i
(wo
1
/i
( vo
+ K^o) sin fit}^ + kt/q) sin ^^},
•^o>
yo being its initial coordinates
and
Wq) ^o its initial velocities.
104. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the square of the velocity, and u and v are the magnitudes of its velocity at the two instants when its direction of motion makes an angle ^tt with the
A
horizontal.
Prove that, when
it is
moving
horizontally, its velocity is
105.
Defining the instantaneous parabola of a projectile in a
medium
whose resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity as that which would be described if the resistance ceased to act, prove that its latus rectum diminishes at a rate which varies as v^ cos^ 6, where 6 is the inclination to the horizon of the direction of motion at the point where the velocity is v. Prove also that the axis of the parabola moves towards or from the point of
projection according as the projectile is ascending or descending.
106.
Show
that the horizontal and vertical coordinates
in a
^,
y
of a particle
moving under gravity
medium whose
dx^
V* cos^
resistance
is
R satisfy the equation
'
V being the velocity
107.
and
^
the inclination of the tangent to the horizontal.
t,
Prove that the time
the horizontal abscissa x^ and the vertical
ordinate y, at a point where the tangent of the inclination of the velocity to the horizon is jt?, of a trajectory in a medium whose resistance varies as the
nth.
power of the
velocity, are given
by
where
P=
{'^
il+p^)~^ dp,
J p
denoting the terminal velocity in the medium, and a the tangent of the inclination to the horizon at the origin, the point of infinite velocity,
is small, and equal to Prove that the period is unaltered, but that in each semi vibration the amplitude is diminished by ^ko^, where a
w
108.
A
particle in a
medium whose
resistance
K (velocity )2, is executing small vibrations.
is
the original amplitude.
109.
of
medium of which the resistance per unit Prove that, when powers of the arc above the first are neglected, the period is the same as in the absence of resistance, but the time of descent exceeds that of ascent by  ko >J{l^lg), where a is the angular
oscillates in a
A pendulum
mass
is k
(velocity )2,
amplitude of the descent, and
I is
the length of the pendulum.
11—2
164
110.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that in a resisting medium a particle can describe a circle a under the action of a force to a point on the circumference the resistance being varying inversely as the fourth power of the distance, to r~^J{a^r^) when the distance is r. proportional
of diameter
111.
A
;
under a force
retarded
in a resisting medium particle describes an equiangular spiral to the pole, and the rate of description of areas is uniformly
F
prove that
are constants, and find the law of resistance.
resistance of a
where X and
112.
ft
The
medium
is kV^\
in it
by a
particle of unit
mass under a central attraction
prove that the orbit described /x/r^ will be an
equiangular spiral if the velocity of projection is that in a circle at the same distance, and the angle of projection is cos~i (2fi/c).
particle acted on by a central force and moving in a resisting which the resistance is k (velocity )2 describes an equiangular whose pole is the centre of force ; prove that the force is proportional spiral
113.
A
medium
j^Q
in
^SgStrseca^ where a
is
the angle of the spiral.
114. particle of unit mass moves in a resisting medium, of resistance at any point is R, under the action of a radial force
A
which the and a
F
transversal force G.
Prove, with the usual notation of central
orbits, that
de
,, fd'^u
^^
^
~
w3
\
u'^ds'
\
f
„Gdu\
V
115.
A
in a
medium
moves in a field of force having a potential particle of mass in which the resistance is k times the velocity. Prove that, if
t,
m
D is the quantity of energy dissipated in time
TT H
dt
{D F)= const. m^
'
If the resistance is k (velocity )2,
and
if
ds
is
the element of arc of the
path of the
particle,
then
^ + m^
ds
?^(/)_F) = const.
116. smooth straight tube rotates in one plane with uniform angular velocity a about a fixed end, and a particle moves within it under a resistance equal to k times the square of the relative velocity. Prove that, if the particle
is
A
projected so as to
come
to rest at the fixed end, the relative velocity at
is
a distance r from that end
^V2a)»cV(e^'''*2Krl).
particle is suspended so as to oscillate in a cycloid whose vertex is at the lowest point, and starts at a distance a from that point measmed 117.
A
along the curve.
Prove that,
if
the
medium
in
which
it
moves gives a small
A m where u is the velocity of projection. and the particle describes an ellipse under the action A of two forces to the foci w = l. if . forces are equal at equal distances. particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex upwards in a medium whose resistance is (2c) "^ (velocity)'^ per unit of mass. at any point of the path and show that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 165 resistance < (velocity )2 per unit of mass. 120.c)/gc}y A 2a being the length of the axis. particle moves in a medium in which the resistance at any point varies as the density of the medium at the point and as the square of the velocity of the particle. the density varies as the acceleration with which the particle would move if constrained to describe the same ellipse under the same forces but without resistance. then before it next comes to rest energy approximately equal to fxa of the original energy will have been dissipated. . moves under equal constant forces m/ along particle of mass the tangent and normal to its path. and the distance of the starting point from the vertex measured along the curve is c . 119. and the find the density of the medium varying inversely as the nth power of the distance . 118. and the resistance is mfv^/k^ when the Prove that the intrinsic equation of the path is velocity ia»y. prove that the time to the cusp is >^{8a (4a .
This line must be that joining the centres. THE LAW OF REACTION. in opposite senses. The velocities of the spheres immediately fall. Let the centres of two spheres move in the same line. m found that m{uU)=^m'{U'u'). See Principia. radii. until its centre is at a above the equilibrium position. after Fig.. the impact are measured by observing the rise. the velocity of the centre of before impact. When velocities of proper arrangements are made for measuring the velocities. Elementary Dynamics of Particles and Solids. determined by weighing them in a common balance. Ballistic balance. m be the masses of the spheres. M. when the cords are vertical. or if they are moving in the same and one overtakes the other. 45). The spheres will come into contact if their centres are moving is the other sense. Let m. 140. Direct impact of spheres. * The W. in the same sense and let u and u be the and m' in the same sense after impact. 'Axiomata sive leges motus. 141." In principle it comes to this* : — The two spheres are suspended from two fixed points at the same level by cords. Lib. towards m'. the cord attached it to height let being kept taut. heights to which the centres actual construction and method of using the instrument are described by Ricks. Let U be the velocity of the centre of the sphere m before impact. and. it is in the sense from m W m . or if one of them is at rest.CHAPTER VI. 45.' . Experimental investigations of the kind referred to in the text were made by Newton. i. 1890. and moving towards it. An instrument by which experiments of the kind just considered may be maxie is called a " ballistic balance. London. the spheres are in contact of centres is horizontal (see Fig. It known is ^ then At the instant of impact its velocity is J{2gH). and the line The distance between the fixed points is equal to the sum of the One sphere is then raised.
and then it takes the bodies. The statement because it frequently called the Law of Reaction " " was briefly expressed by Newton in the phrase action and reaction are equal and opposite. in the In any action between particles the changes of velocity are inversely proportional to the masses. and these forces are equal and opposite. The result of Art. The lefthand member is the measure of the " change of momen tum" of the sphere m'\ is changed. Massratio. results The proof it of its truth regarded as an induction from is found in the agreement of " deduced from is with results of experiment. 140 may be expressed in the form "H^lT'm' and this result : — {u— U) _m' generalized. any two bodies treated as particles. The impulses The result is generalized in the statement : — In any action between by which the motion of either is set up. the very short time of the impact. This result enables us to assign for any two particles. and the forces have opposite senses. altered or stopped." 143. 140 may be written m'u' — m U' = — (mu . This result leads us to conclude that the forces also are equal and opposite. sphere m. form : — is The magnitude of the force exerted by one particle on another equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by the second particle on the firsts the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles. with its sign the measure of the change of momentum of the These changes of momentum are produced. during — of these forces are equal and opposite. The result stated in Art. a perfectly definite . or for ratio. THE NOTION OF MASS 167 Statement of the Law of Reaction. statement — may be and made precise. by forces which the spheres exert one on the other. This abstract statement may be experience.m U). The result can be stated in the form : the righthand member. each body exerts force on the other. The statement may be made more precise when the bodies are replaced by particles.140143] 142.
either produces in the The massratio of other.s. that the determination of masses by weighing is a We particular case of the determination by means of mutual action. any two particles is the inverse ratio of the accelerations which." If the force them accelerations / between the and /' respectively. The fraction number of units of mass in the mass of a body number of units of volume in the volume of the body mean density of the body. the massratio of the particles bodie. to set the in motion. 144. or to bring it to rest. are accustomed to estimate the qiiantity of matter in a body by weighing the body. Since we body alteration in the velocity of a moving body." or " uniform.168 THE LAW OF REACTION " [CHAP. is so weighed. 145. it is customary to state that the quantity of matter in a body is equal to the mass of the body. Density. It is clear that the definition of is more shall general and more fundamental than that by means of weighing. the massratio is f : f." otherwise it " heterogeneous." . This result leads us to recognize a tendency in bodies to maintain an esta To produce any blished state of motion when is of motion.show in Chapter X. In the same way we may define the mean density of any portion of a body. the ratio of the determined by the mutual action is. is the " " the body is is said to be " homogeneous. applications of force are required. which may be called the particles produces in massratio. the ratio of the masses of the This statement enables us to assign masses to bodies without weighing them in a common balance. Mass. . When the mean density of all parts of the body is the same. Thus the mass of the body provides a measure of its inertia. VI." The impulse of the force required to produce any assigned change of motion in a body is proportional to the mass of the body. Whenever the bodies can be masses that feet. Whenever two bodies can be is treated as particles. by their mutual action. This tendency called there are no forces which produce changes " inertia. as a matter of the same as the ratio that is determined by the operation of mass by means of mutual action weighing.
and the force of the are proportional to the masses of the Earth Planet's gravitation."^. Density is a physical quantity of dimensions 1 in mass and — 3 in length. the centimetre and the gramme being the units of length and mass. is then expressed by the formula * Harmonices Mundi. describing orbits about the Sun. Ex. 146." . respectively. Thus the force of the Earth's gravitation. Gravitation. r. where 2a is the major axis of the orbit. and the Planet should accordingly expect the be proportional to the mass of force of the Sun's gravitation the Sun. the intensity of the field of force at //. are proportional to the cubes of the major axes of the orbits. acting on the Earth ively. fi is be the mass of the Earth. the density of pure water (at a temperature of 4° Centigrade and a barometric pressure represented by 76 centimetres of mercury) is unity. The result is sometimes called Kepler's "third law of planetary motion. 1619. the quantity all the Planets. that is to say.143146] THE NOTION OF MASS 169 at In the case of a heterogeneous body. r' the distances from the Sun to the Earth and the Planet respectThe forces of the Sun's gravitation. 5). The periodic time is of a particle describing an elliptic orbit about a focus Stt^^ ^u. or by the Earth on the Sun. Let E and the Planet These thererespectively. For example. 48. The result that the unit distance is and squares of the periodic times of the Planets. are jxEIr"^ and ^Pjr'K fore are the magnitudes of the forces which the two bodies exert on the Sun. to We where 8 denotes the mass of the Sun and 7 is a constant independent of the masses. The densities of sensibly homogeneous substances in assigned circumstances are physical constants. was noted by Kepler*. from the focus (Art. P that of any Planet. If the intensity of the field of the same for the Sun's gravitation is denoted by /^/(distancey. The force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. and they are proportional to the masses of the bodies. we are led to take for fi the form 7^. we may define the density a point as the limit to which the mean density of a volume containing the point tends when the volume is indefinitely diminished.
(665)108 in c. When a body is regarded as made up of particles. units^. 3 in length. the most important result of the theory is that homogeneous spheres. Mean we density of the Earth. and if the m were an attraction of amount * r^ The law of gravitation states that this formula expresses the law of force between particles (taken to be small parts of bodies) at all distances which can be measured by ordinary means {e. it is " constant of called the It is of dimensions. R. and denotes distance from its centre. Boys. the resultant force The theory acting on a particle of any one of the bodies may be calculated. From our present point of view. In consequence of the result last stated. 148. 56 (1894). and those of other bodies. by a divided scale). Theory of Attractions.s. act upon each other with forces according to the law of gravitation. t The result is due to Newton. Sect. vol. —1 in mass. and at verified all greater distances. . London. —2 in time. Apart from the correction on account of the rotation of the Earth. The law can be by actual observation of the gravitational force between bodies at the Earth's surface. where of the Earth.G. are led to take the intensity of the field of the Earth's is the mass gravitation. i. is We denote it by g'." y is a physical constant . Proc. and the particles of a body. Soc. this quantity is the acceleration of a free body at the surface. it is the same as g.g. By these observations also the value The best determination gives for y the value of y can be determined. if these particles upon each other with forces in the lines joining their force between two particles of masses m and positions. even at a moderate distance. Now if we take E R R to be the radius of the Earth. each of which acted would arise if bodies were made up of small parts. VI. or spheres of which the material is arranged in concentric spherical strata of constant density. Lib. may be treated as a particle. The quantity gravitation. xii. Since the intensity of the field of the Sun's gravitation is yAS'/(distance)2. 147. and accounts of it will be found in books on Statics. to be yEjR^. attract an external particle as if their masses were condensed at their centres t. by means of which the calculation is effected is the Theory of Attractions.170 THE LAW OF REACTION Such forces [CHAP. a knowledge of the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun (365 days) enables us to determine the mass of the Sun. V. Then we find that the mean density p of the Earth given by the equation ^ • ^nyR C. Principia.
loc. find the time of passing through the tunnel. and. Boys. been determined* to be 5*527. It will move directly towards the centre with an acceleration ^nypa^/. equation gives us p when y is known. Consider the motion of a particle under the action of a uniform fixed gravitating sphere. for the velocity and the constant is determined from the expression given above at the instant of entering the tube. from the centre.. Now suppose a fine and it moves with a simple harmonic motion. [Neglect g. or about h\ times the density of water. this we determine g' (cf. Chapter 149. Examples. or X. it will have a velocity given by start iS:^ = i^pa=(liy tunnel to be bored through the centre of the sphere When the particle passes into in the direction of motion of the particle. . Prove that.] the distinction between g' and * C. It is a known result in the Theory of Attractions that a homogeneous shell bounded by concentric spherical surfaces exerts no attraction at any point within its inner surface.146150] If GRAVITATING SPHERE if 17 1 we ignore the distinction between g' and g. cit. and suppose the particle to from rest at a distance h{>a) from the centre.). so long as a?>a. the attraction of the Earth upon an internal particle at a distance r from its centre would be gfrja^ where g' is the attraction at the surface. and when ^ = a. 2. of density p and radius a. Thus the law of gravitation avails for the determination of the mass and the mean density The mean density (in grammes per cubic centimetre) has of the Earth. It follows that the attraction at sphere is a point within a homogeneous gravitating that of the concentric sphere which passes through the point. 1. If the Earth were a homogeneous sphere of radius a. Prove that the velocity at the centre is V{7rypa2(3_2a/6)}. taking b = a. Attraction within gravitating sphere. on taking a pendulum down a mine. the tunnel its acceleration becomes ^rrypx at a distance x from the centre. V. the time of vibration is is increased or diminished according as the mean density of the siuface rock greater or less than twothirds of the Earth's mean density. X from the centre is given by the equation Ji2 ^ 1 7ryp^2 The velocity at a distance _ const. 150.v^ at a distance a.
and let the mass of the particle be determined by the equations y. which is a " moment of momentum. z) 2(?7i3/) ' m ' '^~ X^) 2m l(mz) '^~ 2m Im ' where the summations extend to all the particles." of mass coincides with the defined in books on Statics. and moves forces. localized in a line through the point. of a particle at the point {w. time ^ of a particle of the system. my. 153. vectors (see The general theory of the reduction of a system of localized Appendix to this Chapter) shows that the momenta of the particles of a system are equivalent to a " resultant momentum." The . y. 152. some of which are taken within the to arise from the mutual actions system. In general we shall suppose that each under particle of the system has an assigned mass. their Satellites afford The Sun and the Planets with an example of a system of bodies. Theory of a system of 151. On is centre of gravity account of the relation between " " inertia (Art. of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are mi. 144) it sometimes called the "centre of We shall denote it by the letter G. which is mz. which can be treated as particles moving under their mutual attractions. z be the coordinates at . The momentum of mass m. The momenta of the particles of a system are a system of vectors localized in lines. has been defined to be a vector. a point {x. is The centre mass and inertia.172 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAR VI. together with a vector couple. z) at time t. Let x. Centre of mass. and others from the actions exerted upon particles within the system by particles outside the of particles system. Resultant momentum. This point " defined to be the " centre of mass of the system of particles. y. Much of theoretical Mechanics has been developed from the theory of the motion of such a system of particles. The law of gravitation avails for the determination of the masses of the system as well as for the determination of the motions. particles." localized in a line through any chosen point.
my." localized in a line through any chosen point.e. Now x% (m) = 2 {mx). and moving so as to be always at the centre of mass of the system of particles. placed at the centre of mass of the system. z^m = ^mz. by dififerentiatiDg the equations such as find such equations as x% (m) = X {mx). S {mz). and a vector couple. We is call this fictitious particle the result that the resultant equal to the 154. S (my). to a resultant and a vector couple. momentum Resultant kinetic reaction." Then we have of the system of particles of the particle G. and resultant kinetic reaction are independent of the chosen point which is used in reducing the system of momenta. we Hence the resultant kinetic reaction is the same as the kinetic reaction of the particle G {i. The kinetic reaction of a particle of mass m. For most purposes it is simplest to take the point either at the origin of coordinates. where the summations extend to the particles. and moving with it)." The components parallel to the axes of the resultant kinetic reaction of a system of particles are S {mx). has been defined as a vector. . 155. which is a " moment of kinetic to a " The reaction. z) at time t. are the resolved parts The lefthand members of these equations parallel to the axes of the momentum of a fictitious particle. The resultant momentum Relative coordinates. of mass equal to the sum of the masses of the particles. kinetic reactions of a system of particles are equivalent resultant kinetic reaction. S {my).151155] resolved MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION parts in the directions of the are 173 axes of the resultant momentum S (mi). or kinetic reactions. Now we have x%m = S {mx). but the vector couples depend upon the position of the point. of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system. of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are m^. localized in a line through the point. y^m — 2 (my). which is at the point {x. momentum the "particle (r. y. all 2 {mz). mz.
y.." ..zy')\ The of the term of this expression is the moment about the axis x momentum of the particle G. It may be called the " resultant moment of momentum sultant at the centre of mass " and its axis " the axis of re moment of momentum. 156. The moment of momentum of the system about the axis x is ^\m{yzzy)\ See Appendix to this Chapter." We may therefore state our result in the of a system about any axis equal to the moment of momentum of the particle G.. mz. together with the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G about a parallel axis through G.. The sum of the moments momenta of the particles of the system about any axis is of £he the moment of momentum of the system about the axis. 2(m/) = 0. and the second term is the moment about an axis drawn through G parallel to the axis x of first the system of relative " momenta mx. This expression is equal to 2 [m {{y + y') {i + z') {z + z') (y + y')}l and this reduces to {yz . or the momenta in the motion : words is —The moment of momentum relative to 6r.. are the coordinates of a point relative to the centre From and it the definition of S(ma." Its components are X[m{y'zz'y')\. We shall coordinates of the centre of mass. VI. S(m/) = 0. the couple is the moment of momentum in the motion relative to the centre of mass. Moment of Momentum. 2(m^') = 0.. my'. Xy an arbitrary fixed point.zy) 2 (m) + S [m {y'z' .174 which take is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP.') x. or at the centre of mass. y = y + y\ z^z\z\ z' Then x\ y\ of mass...') = 0. When the momenta of a system of particles are reduced to a resultant momentum at the centre of mass and a vector couple. and put yy z to be the x^x + x'. " Moment of momentum" is often called "angular momentum. These are the momenta to parallel axes through G.. follows that 5:(mi.. z we have = 0.
Kinetic energy. equal to _.zy)\ or ^ S [m {yz . and v the velocity of one particle relative to the other.zy)\ and this can be expressed in the form {yz . sum of the lm{d^ kinetic energy of a system of particles is the It is the quantity kinetic energies of the particles. and this is equal to G about a parallel axis through G. The kinetic energy of a particle half the product of its mass and the square of its velocity. V is the velocity of the centre of mass. 1. z) it is + f + z^. m' move in any manner.zy) X (m) + S [m {y'z' . MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION 175 of Moment of kinetic reaction. When the kinetic reactions of a system of particles are reduced to a resultant kinetic reaction at the centre of mass and a vector couple.zy')\ Hence the sum fixed axis is of the moments of the kinetic reactions about any of the kinetic reaction of the particle G about the axis together with the moment of kinetic reaction in the motion relative to moment the moment equal to the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the of momentum about the same axis. is For a particle of mass m at (x. Examples. . fV^. The sum iP the moments of the kinetic reactions about the axis is 2 [m {yz . Two particles of masses m. 158. the couple is the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the resultant moment of momentum at the centre of mass. i (^2 + ^2 2) ^m\^t [m {x^ + y'^ + z% : We may state this result in words —The kinetic energy of a G together system of particles is the kinetic energy of the particle with the kinetic energy in the motion relative to G. y. The kinetic energy is \{m\m')V^\ —— . 159. The iX[m(^2 + This expression is ^2_^i2)].155159] 157.
2:(r)=o. 160 the result may be written i(Z')=o. x^. the resultant moment is at right angles to the the particles and the line of the relative velocity. plane containing and the axis of resultant mm' jDv. In the notation of Art. is velocity. The moment of a force about an axis is the same at whatever Hence the point in its line of action the force may be applied. resolved parts of these two forces parallel to any axis' vanishes. 161.{yZ'zY')=0. . ^22/2 = F2 + F2'. VI. and the suin of the moments about any internal forces between the particles of a system are identically zero. Z') is the is the type of the external forces. Z^ the sums of the resolved parts on this particle by parallel to the axes of the forces exerted particles not forming part of the system. F/. 5:(zo = o. if p is the perpendicular from the position of one the other in the direction of the relative particle to the line drawn through of momentum at the centre of mass. sum of the moments about any axis of two equal and opposite forces acting in the same line vanishes. In the same case. l{zX'xZ')=0. Fj. z^ may ma ^2 = X2 + Z2'. Z( the sums of the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the forces exerted on the same particle by the remaining particles of the syst. ^{xT yX')==0. mz = Z + Z\ Then {X. Zi. Z) (X\ F'.em. m^z^ = ^i mii?i = Xi + X/. We shall write as the type of such equations mx^X^X\ my=Y+Y'. Y. and type of the internal forces. to of of internal action. 2/2. ?7ii2/i at f Z^. THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Let Wi be the mass of one particle of the system. X/. I'he sum of the resolved any aocis. Equations of motion of a system of particles.Zi. l.176 2. z^ its coordinates at time t. y^. Law all the parts parallel axis. 160.^2. muz^ = Z^\. The mutual consists of action between any two particles of the system two equal and opposite forces acting upon the two The sum of the particles in the line joining their positions. 7?i2 Similarly the equations of motion of a second particle of mass be written (. The equations of motion of this particle are = Fi + F/. m\m^ moment of momentum .
d'alembert's principle Simplified 177 forms of the equations of motion. By integrating both members of the equations such as ^ (mx) = 2X initial with respect to the time.159162] 162. Adding the lefthand members of all the ajequations of motion. change of momentum of the system in any direction equal to the sum of the impulses of the external forces resolved in that direction. we find such results as X {mx)t^t. In like manner we have X(m2/)=2F. the kinetic reactions and the external forces are two equivalent systems of localized vectors. 1743. tions Again multiplying the ^'equations by the ys and the yequs. L. 2 [m {zx — xz)] — X {zX — xZ). = X or. we form the equation 2[m(2/22y)] In like manner we have = 2(yZ^F). we obtain the equation S (mx) = SX. and remembering that IX' = 0. result may also be briefly stated in the form : — When the external forces are regarded as localized in their lines of action. in ft. words: is —The Jt. M. and X [m {ayy — Our equations may be (1) yx)] stated in words : — same direction. and remembering that ^(yZ' — zY^) = 0. .X {mx)t^t. was first stated by D'Alembert in his Traite de Dynamique.by the zs. between limits which correspond to the and final instants of any interval. 12 . of the resolved parts in any direction of the kinetic reactions of a system of particles is equal to the sum of the The sum resolved parts of the external forces in the (2) The sum of a of the moments about any axis of the kinetic reactions moments The system of particles is equal to the sum of the of the external forces about the same axis. Xdt. It is known as D'Alembert's Principle. and t(mz) = 2Z. = S (a^F— yX). in a slightly different form. This result.
like 'ilm^^Z. we see that xl^m^lX. under the action of the vector resultant of all the forces applied to the system. parallel to the velocity of the centre of is of the constant. 165. Motion of the centre of mass. and These can be stated in words of time) of the : —The rate of increase (per unit in the moment of momentum motion relative to G. or the resolved part of the resultant momentum mass parallel to the line is constant. 166. pm=2F.. [(yz . square brackets in the two members as are equal.z'y')]. Conservation of Momentum. In such a case the resolved part.. is equal to the the external forces about the same line. Since the resultant kinetic reaction of a system is the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system placed at the centre of mass and moving with so that the centre of it. .. Hence the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the resolved part of the resultant momentum of the system parallel to that line is zero. the sum of the resolved parts of the kinetic reactions of the particles parallel to that line is zero. From we see that the motion of the determined by the external forces independently and the motion independently of the of any motion relative to the centre of mass. of the about any line through G. sum moments of the results of the last two Articles centre of mass is Independence of translation and rotation.178 163. particle. THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. line. In the — zy)] = 2 (yZ—zY) put x = x\a)'. and the righthand member becomes The terms in we thus have such equations [ylZ'zXY] + X(y'ZzY). of mass equal to the mass of the system. relative to the centre of mass is determined motion of the centre of mass. VI. equations such as 2 [m {yz The lefthand member of the equation just written becomes 164.. mass moves a Motion relative to the centre of mass. When the resultant external force on a system has no resolved part parallel to a particular line.zy) Im] + t{m (y'z .
let X' he the sum of the resolved parts parallel to the axis x of all the forces. relative to the centre of mass is constant.)}] = t(yZzY). . Lt. MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 179 the axis sum Conservation of moment of momentum. and X (yZ' — zY'). as in Art.163168] 167. of the about that axis vanishes.=o Xdt = X. . As in Art.. 12—2 . that act on a particle m and.. external and internal. instant respectively. When moments of the external forces about any fixed the sum of the moments of the kinetic reactions vanishes. • in drawn Sudden changes of motion. and the moment of system about the axis is constant.=o Xdt==X. Then we have the equation to the axes In like manner the impulsive changes of velocity parallel y and z will be determined by equations which may be written m (i ..?) = ^ + ^^ Now it follows from the law of internal action (Art. Hence we have the equations 2[m(ic5)] = 2X. X X X defined by the equations Lt. These equations can be expressed words in the statements : — The change of momentum of the particle G in any (1) direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external impulses in that direction. X \ ..(yi. but that the impulses of 168. in X[m{y{zt}. vanish. Let x and ^ be the resolved parts parallel to the axis X of the velocity of m just after the instant t and just before this are finite. or that and X\ t.. 82 suppose that and X' do not remain finite at time and X' are finite.. 160. 161) that XX'.. the moment of momentum about that axis in the motion vanishes. the sum of the moments of the external forces about an a fixed direction through the centre of mass. momentum of the When axis..
z^ (ii .^ ' F^_i:ii3 r ' and 2^^::i^i r r i^^^\ r first force The rate (per unit of time) at which the r does work is ^^^v. r ^^yi^y^ ^ ^^^^^^.x^ I (yi . z^ denote the coordinates of the two and r the distance between them. The work done in any displacement is the value of the integral \Frdt or [Fdr. VI. r force does and the rate at which the second jF work r is r X^ + Jf r 2/2 ^ + P 2^2 Hence the sum of the rates at which the two forces do work is F r or [(a?i .. impulses about that 169. ^1 and t.130 (2) THE LAW OF REACTION The change of the [CHAP. y^. The components axes of the forces exerted on the particles 1 and 2 parallel to the for definiteness.^. . We form as in Art. the distance between the particles remains unaltered throughout the motion. the internal force does work. x^. so that (yi r^^{x. about any axis is equal to axis.y. F denote respectively are F^^izJ^ r ' ^ y^^y^ r py_i:zy.2/2) (yi . taken between limits which correspond to the positions of the particles before and after the displacement.x. Let a?i. Work all done by flinction. no work is done by the force between them but if the distance varies.y + {z.3/2) + («i .x^ {x^ . If . 86 the work the forces acting on any particle of a system as the . take this force to be repulsive. 170.z^\ the magnitude of the force between them. and.z^\ Fr.y + Also let . moment of momentum of the system the sum of the moments of the external Work done by 2/i. time particles at the force between two particles.
is independent of the paths of the particles. When the between two particles of masses m. as its particles pass from any set of positions to a prescribed standard set of positions. in the position A. as they pass from one set of positions to another. energy of the system in the former set of positions. force Potential energy of gravitating system. it is a function of the coordinates of the final positions. A with its A Only systems for which a work function exists. m' is an attraction ymm'/r^. is said to be : — a conservative system and the work done by the forces of such a system. the initial positions being This function is the " work function." prescribed. only con servative systems." It is important to observe that the work done by the internal forces may not in general be omitted from the sum." a work function exists the system is said to be "con The work function in any position sign changed is the work that would be done by the to the standard forces if the system passed from the position It is defined to be the Potential Energy of the system position. For the sake of precision we present our previous statements A system in which the work done by all in the following form the forces on all the particles. same value for all paths joining the particles.e. / . this expression has the When the initial and final positions of We " refer to the prescribed initial positions as constituting the standard position. is called the potential . Potential Energy. can possess potential energy. When servative. i. the work done in a displacement by which the distance r between them changes from ro to r^ is ^i mm . 172. 171.168172] particles ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 181 time t move from their positions at time ^o to their positions at The expression for the sum of the works of all the forces all acting on the particles may be written where the summation extends to all the particles.
the value of the work function position to be that in which all the distances in any other position is and the potential energy in this position is „wim' The negative sign indicates that there is less potential energy in state than there is in the state of infinite difiusion. F. 173. we choose the standard are infinite. y„m'(ii). f 97.182 and this is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Art. z be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the velocity of the particle of mass just after an impulse. As in Kinetic Energy produced by Impulses. result that the increment of kinetic is energy in any displacement equal to the sum of the works done by all When a work function exists this result gives us an integral of the equations of motion. Z the sums of the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the . 168 let x. \ the similar resolved parts of the velocity just before the impulse. y. and this integral can be written in the form kinetic energy 174. mx = X we form the equation of which the lefthand From the X' \ equations of the type member may be written We deduce the result that the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the kinetic energy of the system is equal to the rate at which work is done by all the forces internal and external. X. VI.  potential energy = const. and consequently we deduce the the forces. any other Energy equation. m . Hence in a gravitating system the work done in any displacement is /mm' where the summation extends to If all mm'\ the pairs of particles.
as the known " " Bodies*. The principle of the conservation of momentum shows that the centre of mass of the two particles moves uniformly in a The accelerations of the particles.172176] THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES 183 external impulses applied to m. the change of kinetic energy produced by impulses sum of the products of all applied. It is required to show that the relative motion is parallel to a fixed plane. and 176.j) (i? + f ) + two similar terms] =S \{X \^')\{x\\)\. We Also have such equations as T . Two particles which attract each other according to the law of gravitation are projected in any manner. The problem of n bodies. * The Problem of Two Bodies was solved by Newton. in their directions. is known as the "problem of n bodies. . 173. supposed to be n in number.i^)] _ \^ [m (f + ^^ + fO] = JS [m {x . and the velocity straight line." The particular cases of two and three bodies are problem of two bodies and the " problem of three bodies.To = JS [m {x" ^f^. xi. Lib. It is very important to notice that the internal impulses may not be omitted from the equation here obtained. The Problem of the Solar System. T and T^ the kinetic energies of the system just after and just before the impulses.two similar terms]. Sect. The mathe matical problem of integrating the equations of motion of such a system of particles." The only one of these problems which has been solved completely is the problem of two bodies. i. just as the internal forces may not be omitted from the energy equation of Art. Props. 175. just before the impulses and the arithmetic to the velocities. the bodies of the Solar system can be treated as a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation. and that the relative orbits are conies. 57—63. X\ Y\ Z' the sums of the similar resolved parts of the internal impulses. of the particles means of which they are and just after the impulsive actions. The Problem of Two to determine the periodic time when the orbits are elliptic. As we have already ex plained. is the Thus. Principia.
these equations become ^(^^)=« and it is r motion of m^ would lead clear that the equations of us to the same two equations. Then the acceleration of each particle is in the line joining it to the origin. and whose origin is at the centre of mass. Now particles. = rj + r^. are unaltered. m^. is 'yim^ m^jr'^. We shall suppose this to be done. are Since i\ = m^rl{7n^ + m^. 6 the angle which the line joining them makes with any fixed line in the plane of motion. m^ the masses of the their distances from G at time t.^ relative to m^. G r^ be the centre of mass. if we refer them to a frame whose axes are parallel to those of the original frame of reference. 46. let rj. and that there is no transverse acceleration. »»2 Fig. VI. or of m. each particle therefore takes place in this plane. of either relative to the other. be the distance between the particles at time t The force between them is ym^m^lr^ Then the equations of motion of mj.184 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. also let r. and the velocities of the particles are localized in lines which lie in a plane containing the origin the motion of . The equations last written show that the acceleration of m^ relative to w^. Thus either particle describes + .
is (see Art. . denote the masses of the Sun. and the Earth and 2. P. equal to 27r*^{y (mi 177. and radii a. wi'. the major axis of the Planet's orbit is h times that of the Earth's orbit.176. measured from the position in which the distance rt. to fall it is gravitating spheres of masses m. 2a. by Ex. this orbit is a conic Further. and the time required is I C J^cLc. t. required to find the time until they are in contact. 51.2=2y(m + wi')(^j. v' in directions con taining an angle a from points whose distance apart is R^ prove that the relative orbit is an ellipse. E states that [Kepler's Third Law of Planetary motion quoted in Art. 146 7^=1<^ approximately. and J mx m\m is of the system ^ \m + m'J \m+m'/ ^ m+m' The potential was c as standard energy. or hyperbola according as . >S'. and its periodic time is n years prove. . + ma)} ' Examples. when the orbit is an ellipse.' cos a < = or > 2y ('/ni + '(fii^\R. position. If the particles are projected with velocities v. described about a focus. neglecting the mutual attractions of the Planets. 48. parabola. a Planet. 1. by Art. 172) ymm \c~x)' Hence the energy equation is i. Two We may suppose the centre of mass to be at rest. 177] THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES 185 a central orbit about the other with acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance. is the sum of the greatest and least distances between the particles. and take x for the distance beween the centres of the spheres at time are equal in magnitude to vr^x Then their velocities m^m Hence the kinetic energy 2 . are allowed together from a position in which their centres are at a distance c.y2 ^ y'2 _ 2^2. and the periodic time is. its major axis. 5 of Art. Kepler's law is approximately correct because S is or E^ great compared with P 3. a'. and. that .
But there are a number of circumstances which conduce to the possibility of deducing from this law such an approximate account of the motions in question as shall be sufficiently exact to agree Among these we may mention with observation over a long period of time. The energy equation also is an integral of the equations of motion. would. in the case of three particles these integrals do not suffice for a Except in particular circumstances of no other first integral has. so that the three are always gravitation M in a fixed plane. even the mass of Jupiter being less than ic'su*^ P^^ of that of the Sun. General problem of Planetary motion. Even complete description of the motion. shall an angle Q such that a\a' = c cos^^. and that of a fixed body of mass ^. masses m. we have for the required time c^(^ + sin^co3^) V{2y(m+m')} Two gravitating spheres. and that the direction of the relative velocity will ultimately be turned through an angle 2tani{F2c?/y(m+m')}. Tisserand's Trait4de M^canique celeste^ tt. 1—4. im!^ moving freely with relative in the absence of gravitation. pass each other at a minimum distance 4. so far. are hy^^erbolic. (1) that the mass of the Sun is great com pared with that of the other bodies. the equation becomes 178. Paris.186 If then THE LAW OF REACTION we find [CHAP. which the centre of mass of E and M H is the rate at M Prove that. describes area about E^ and where h is the rate at which describes area about S. Conservation of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the velocity of the centre of mass in any direction is constant. and all but those of a few Satellites lie nearly in one plane. velocity V when at a great distance apart. Thus we cannot deduce from the law of gravitation an exact account of the motions of the bodies forming the Solar system. The principle of the Conservation of Moment of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the moment of momentum of the system about any axis drawn in a fixed direction through the centre of mass is constant. . It would be outside the scope of this book to explain how these special circumstances can be utilized for the piupose of integrating approximately refer to the equations of motion of the bodies of the Solar system. if all three bodies are free. For this we must books on gravitational Astronomy. Prove that the relative orbits d. The most recent comprehensive treatise is F. VI. been obtained. if two bodies of masses E and 5. In the general case of a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation we know The principle of the seven first integrals of the equations of motion.. move under their mutual Prove that. (2) that all the orbits are nearly circular. projection. then {E^ Mf H^ EMh =const. 18891896. S{E^MfH^{S^E\M)EMh=QO\\^t.
when the body regarded as rigid. It coincides with the centre of gravity of the body. This force is the tension of the chain. A general discussion will be given in Chapter XI. This comes to the thing as taking the mass of a particle. of mass equal The to the resultant mass of The the body. If the body is divided in imagination into a very large number of very small compartments. For example. The momentum of a body is equivalent to a certain resultant momentum and a certain moment of momentum. to be equal to the product of the volume of the compartment and the density of the body in the neighbourhood. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. We We adjust the masses of the particles so that the sum of the masses of those particles which are in any part of the body shall be equal to the mass of that part of the body. is suppose that the particles move under the actions of forces obeying the law of reaction. 179. in any compartment. drawn at right angles to the line of the chain. 152. momentum is that of a particle.177179] MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL 187 Bodies of finite size. we assume that they are adjusted so that the distance between any two particles is invariable. The centre of mass of a body is found by a limiting process from the formulae of Art. we assume that the forces between parbody string is ticles situated on the two sides of a plane. We deal with the motion of a body in the same way as with the motion of a system of particles. same In general we do not attempt to determine the forces between the particles. Theory of the motion of a body. as determined in books on Statics. but we assume that they are adjusted so as to secure the satisfaction of certain conditions. are equivalent to a single force directed more along this line. and a particle supposed to be placed in each compartment. When the is a or chain. the motion of the body is determined when the motions of all the particles are known. axis through the centre of mass moment of momentum about any .
" motion of a rigid body is determined when the motion of three of its particles is determined. Solid bodies often move rigid body. Like statements hold for the kinetic reaction. in such a forces Motion of a between the hypothetical particles to the condition that the distance between any two of the particles is to be maintained invariable. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. The system The of particles subjected to this condition is said to represent a "rigid body.188 is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. The kinetic enei^gy of the body is equal to the kinetic energy of a particle. of mass equal to the mass of the body. the sum of the moments about that axis of the momenta of the particles relative to the centre of mass. together with the kinetic energy of the motion relative to the centre of mass. VI. bodies by those of systems of particles we subject the internal 180. If the work done " can be specified by a " work function there is an energy equation. The equations of motion of the body express the statements that the resolved part of the resultant kinetic reaction in any direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external forces in the same direction. " equations of motion of any part of the body are formed The forces exerted upon this part of the body across the surface are now external " which separates it from the rest of the body forces acting on the part in question. way that no apparent change of size or shape takes To represent the motions of such place in any part of them. The gravitational attractions between particles within the surface and " *' external forces acting on the part particles outside it are also within the surface. The rate (per unit of time) at which the kinetic energy of a body increases is equal to the sum of the rates at which work is done by all the forces external and internal. For the three particles . The in the same way. and the moment of kinetic reaction about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about the same axis. which is an integral of the equations of motion.
relative to another. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. directions and senses being unaltered. and of a plane through that line. of a rigid body relative Thus the positions of all the particles to a frame are determined when six quantities such as those specified are given. and the plane through it parallel to that axis may make any angle with a coordinate plane. which may be taken to be the angle it makes with the plane drawn through the line parallel to one angles determine the line. The motion of every is known when the motion of any part of it is known. F. the coordinates of the point. or of any part of the body.179181] MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL all 189 the par determine a frame of reference relatively to which ticles of the body have invariable positions. In the cases of a deformable body and a system of isolated particles. 181. To determine the positions of all the particles of a rigid body relative to a frame is therefore the same thing as determining the position of one frame. of mass equal to the mass of the body. This requires the determination of the positions of the origin of the frame F^ of one of its lines of reference. it is manifest that the internal relative motion of the parts of the body or system would be altered by transferring the point of application of a force from one the force. The forces do not enter into the equations in any other way. but not upon their points of application. The position of a point depends on three quantities. Hence the forces may be supposed to act at any points in their lines of action without altering the motion of the body. The resolved parts and moments in question depend upon the lines of action of the forces. The equations of motion of this particle are the same as if all the forces acting on the body were applied at the centre of mass. the motion of determined by that of a fictitious particle. of the axes of reference. The position of a line through a point on two quantities. part of a Now the equations of motion of the body involve the external forces by containing the sums of the resolved parts of these forces in assigned directions and the sums of the moments of these forces about assigned axes. When the body is a rigid body moves without rotation. but these two The position of a plane through a line depends on one quantity. their magnitudes. particle to another in the line of action of . since the line may make any angle depends with one of the axes. rigid body Transmissibility of force.
Forces between rigid bodies in contact. the parts in contact have the same velocity in the direction of the normal. particle of of contact. 183. so long as the bodies remain in contact. the pressure does (positive or negative) rates (per unit of time) work on both bodies. B. and the sum of the at which it does work on the two is zero. Friction. and the action between the two bodies (apart from their mutual gravitation) may be regarded as consisting of a pair of equal and opposite forces applied at the point surfaces of of contact. let Let P be A. relative to B. This result is We sometimes called the Principle of the transmissihility offorce. and the tangential component the "pressure" of on B. The to is parallel at P. VI. which one of the bodies A exerts upon the other B at the point of contact can be resolved into components along The normal comand perpendicular to the common normal. contact. conclude that a force acting on a rigid body may be regarded as a vector localized in a line instead of a vector localized at a point." In the system of two bodies in contact the pressure does no work for. relative to axes of P B will have a certain velocity. 182. The particle of . or that the resolved part of this velocity in the direction of the common normal vanishes. opposite. manner there The condition of continued contact is that the relative velocity just described is localized in a line in the tangent plane at P.190 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. and the pressures acting upon the two bodies are equal and . The resultant of the pressure and A A friction is often called the " total reaction. The force ponent is is the "friction" oi on J5.4 at similarly for the particle of at P. The two rigid bodies may be regarded as touching at a single point. . considered as a point of A velocity of the particle the axes of reference drawn through the B the velocity of the point A. Each of the bodies regarded as having a particle at P. relative to A. and at P. In general. In like is an equal and opposite velocity of the point of considered as a point of B. and R denote the pressure and is the point of contact of two bodies F the friction.
For a body under the as gravitational attractions of other bodies. When The rule for the When slipping takes place the bodies are sufficiently rough to prevent slipping throughout the motion they are sometimes said to be perfectly rough. The constant fju is called the coefficient of friction. When is the relative velocity above described is zero. F. but it may do (positive or negative) work on each of the bodies and then the sum of the rates (per unit of time) at which it does work on the two is zero. portion represents what may be called " internal potential energy. The second law of pressure Friction is that the friction F and the R is where yu. necessary that the coefficient of friction should exceed generally a certain number depending on the circumstances of the case. . is work means of a by When this is the case the also be specified by a work function. and regarded of Art.181184] PRESSUKE AND FRICTION BETWEEN BODIES law of Friction is 191 The at first that the friction acting upon •! p [ P is opposite in sense to the velocity of the point of contact. considered as a point of \d\ relative to j . always negative." . the friction does no work on the system of two bodies. ^ fiR. When the motion is one of rolling. and this work 184. the motion is In order that rolling may take place it described as rolling. up of particles. by a relation of inequality a constant depending only on the materials of which are connected F the bodies are composed. may be stated in the form : — Friction tends F= fiR. is also specified by means of a work The other internal forces may also do work. described as a motion of sliding or slipping. and this work may . made Z in specified any displacement and this work work function. . When the motion is one of is sliding. 160 do the external forces X. parts of the body. the friction does work on the system. of the potential energy. Further the work done by those components of the internal forces. A motion of two bodies in contact which is not one of pure rolling is direction of friction to prevent slipping. Potential energy of a body. which represent the mutual gravitation of the function. corresponding to this work function.
a portion of the string of natural length l^. 169 that the internal forces between the particles of a rigid body never do any work. and the other attached to a body. or with deformable bodies such as elastic strings. and let its extension be e. where X is the modulus of elasticity. For the body may be in contact with other rigid bodies. It follows from the result of Art. body in the of the Earth's gravity is The potential energy of a represented by the expression where m denotes the mass of any of the hypothetical particles. or with resisting media such as the air and the forces exerted upon the rigid body by bodies with which it is in contact may do work which is not specified by a work .192 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Energy of a rigid body. so that its length is ^o (1 + e). Mg'z. This expression is equal to M z is the height of its centre of mass 185. VI. The potential energy of the mutual gravitation of the parts of a rigid body and the internal potential energy of the body can both be taken to be zero by choosing the actual state of aggregation of the body as the " standard " state. and internal potential energy. and where above the fixed level. and z is the height of that particle above a fixed level. Its tension is Xe. Now let the string be extended further. which exerts upon it a tension Xe. Potential energy of a stretched string. potential energy of the mutual gravitation of the parts field of the body. Consider 186. and we may also regard the portion as free from the action of any other external forces. kinetic energy of the body and the potential energy of the body in the field of external force are variable quantities. In such a case the potential energy is divisible into three potential energy of the body in the field of the external parts : attraction. The rate at which the terminal tension does . function. is the mass of the body. For the purpose of calculating the potential energy we may regard this portion as having one end fixed. The The equations of motion of a rigid body do not always possess an integral in the form of an energy equation.
a portion of a stretched string.184187] POTENTIAL ENERGY OF STRETCHED STRING . 193 work (per unit of time) is Xe l^i. as an amount of internal Hence the potential energy of potential energy (Art. when its extension is e. in the same way as kinetic energy We is possessed by a moving body. s + As be what these lengths become when the string is stretched. Sq+^^o that of a slightly longer portion. result holds for a spring. We piece can be expressed as ^Xe^ per unit of length (in the natural state). M. Localization of Potential Energy. In the case of the string are able to assign a certain amount of the potential energy to each piece the string. we of But the two cases present a marked difierence. 101). and let s. with changed sign. 184). 187. is When of the string not stretched uniformly. is ^\lo€^. moving end. in such a way that the amount so assigned corresponds to the state of that piece. let Sq any portion measured from one end. and its value is ^Xloe. Then we define the extension at the point corresponding to Sq to be . so much being located in each piece. 13 . by the internal forces is —^\lo6\ Since this amount depends only on the initial and final states we can regard it. Hence the work done from its l^^e is the velocity of the in the extension of the string for natural length to the length 1^(1 + e) is / The Xe. L. whether extended or conbe the natural length Art. As . energy as possessed hy the piece of string. which is of natural length Iq. Lidt integral is taken between limits which correspond to the values and e of the extension. A similar tracted (cf.ASn If this is denoted by c. can think of this e denoting the extension at any point of the piece. We may regard the string as being extended so slowly that no sensible kinetic energy is imparted to it. the potential energy of any portion between s^a and SQ =b is b i: The potential energy of a gravitating system and the potential energy of a stretched string are two examples of the potential energy that arises from internal forces between the parts of a system. Then the work done by the internal forces together with that done by the external It follows that the work done forces vanishes. may therefore say that the energy is located in the The amount located in any string.
and that of S diminished. 188. and so on. For instance. In general much of the work is done against friction. in the case of a heavy body near the Earth's surface we cannot locate the energy in the body. independently We cannot. but suppose that the mass of any finite length of it is finite. When the chain is not uniform. some portion of the energy in one part of the system. The poicer of a time at which the first system acting on another system is the rate per unit of system does work upon the second. In general we neglect 189. in its direction. this ratio has a limit. rate at which the work is done. a certain amount of energy is expended. of the force exerted upon it either of these products measures the rate at which the force does work. not by the bodies composing the system. per unit of time and the machine is said to be "working up to a j)ower" measured by the . the limit of the ratio of the number of units of mass in the mass of any portion to the number . when the interval the rate at which work indefinitely being done per unit of time. or in the Earth. of the velocity of the particle on which it acts. When work is done by the action of a system S upon a system S' the forces exerted by the particles of >S' upon the particles of In cases where the *S" do work in the displacements of the particles of *S". Motion of a string or chain. by a quantity equal to the amount of work so done. . The sum second. in any machine performing mechanical work. In the case of the gravitating system we are not able to assign a certain of the potential energy to any part of the system in such a way that to changes in the state of that changes of the energy so assigned correspond of changes in the position of the part relative to other part. Power. or by the product of the magnitude of the velocity of the particle and the resolved part. the chain is uniform. We have to think of it as possessed hy the system. VI. which is and. of all these powers is the power of the first system acting on the The power can be measured equally by the rate at which work is done upon the second system or by the rate at which the first system does work. Thus. another portion in another part of the system. energy can be localized. the thickness of the chain. or in any definite proportion some of it in the body and some amount in the Earth. in any way that shall be completely satisfactory. is Corresponding to each force between particles of the two systems there a certain power measured by the product of the magnitude of the force and the resolved part. When the mass of any portion is proportional to the length of the portion. the energy of the system aS" is increased. and an equal amount of work done. is is The number of units of work done in any number of units of time in the interval short. in its direction. locate parts. interval bears a definite ratio to the .194 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP.
indefinitely. and if is m is the linedensity of the chain in the neighbourhood. is neighbouring particles chain at the corresponding point. The force between two taken to be equal to the tension of the and diminishing the lengths of the small portions of the chain. m^s the mass of the cor responding particle. We We We resolve the force of the field in the same direction. Let the chain be divided in imagination into a very large of very short lengths. resolve the acceleration of any hypothetical particle of the chain in the direction of the tangent to this curve at the denote the resolved part of occupied by the particle. when the chain is in a field of force. If any of the short lengths is As. 190. The two next neighbours are tends to zero with As. tensions in the two directions from the particle to its in general different. and the pressure and friction of any curve or surface with which the chain is in contact. and let the mass of the particle be the supposed mass of that length of the chain. is the mass per unit of length.187190] MOTION OF A CHAIN 195 of units of length in the length of the portion. and then passing to a limit by increasing the number of particles. This force is the tension of the chain. point the acceleration by /. The motion of the chain is determined by forming the equations of motion of any particle. In each length let a particle be to be placed. and denote by F the force of the field per unit 13—2 . If a (geometrical) plane is at right angles at drawn to cut the line of the chain any point. the two parts of the chain which are separated by this plane act one oq the other with a force directed along the line of the chain at the point. or the linedensity. The chain lies in a curve drawn on the surface. Let each of the hypothetical particles act upon its next neighbours with a force adjusted in number accordance with the law of reaction. String or chain of negligible mass in contact with smooth surface. but the difference The other forces of the forces acting on the hypothetical particles are the field. when the length is diminished indefinitely.
of mass in that direction./= mAs . T^ = T. As is The limiting form of this equation J. . hypothetical particle is to the curve at the point.=^T and ^.F\T^ cos '' + Tj cos <^i As . = 0. (t>. j^ dT is mf=mF\^. Resolve along the tangent to the curve for the motion of the hypothetical particle. If m is very small this equation that. We have </)2 m^s . the tension constant. is nearly the same as ^ = 0. holds also for any portion of the chain which is in The form of the argument shows any portion which is free. 0i and <f)^ the angles which their lines In the limit of action make with the tangent to the curve. VI.196 THE LAW OF REACTION The [CHAP. pressure of the surface on the directed at right angles to the tangent Let T be the tension of the chain at the point and let Tj and Tg be the forces acting between the hypothetical particle and its two next neighbours.= vr. Hence we conclude if the mass of the chain may be neglected. The that it result is proved for contact with a smooth surface. .
fi and /x' denoting the forces on unit mass respectively at unit . and that. time / r \f 7rjy(l ?g2)hcosi?g \l + iv) "V{7(^+^)} . at a distance m gravitation. 2. Prove that the smaller body will overtake the other after a 5. describes an ellipse of eccentricity e and axis 3. the stream of fragments will form a complete ring after a time approximately equal to ^ttR/v. A body.4).. and a smaller body of mass moving in the same is r. ?h<S}m e' Two each other gravitating particles of masses m./2 (m\m) fi ^ w + »i'le'2\ am moving _ '\R is /2 s^ le^ Jr=^ \R 1 a in a straight line with velocity U. the force being the same at the same distance in each case . bursts with an explosion which generates velocity v in each fragment directly outwards from the centre of the shell. the eccentricity m' is given by the equation of the orbit subsequently described by . A body of mass M followed. distance. if is suddenly fixed when the particles are at a distance R. Two particles are under the action of forces tending to a fixed point and varying as the distance from that point.197 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. of mass km. if m is let go when the distance between the bodies is B. by The bodies attract each other according to the law of line with velocity tc. describes a circle of radius with velocity V about a gravitating centre of A . when its centre length 8F3yi2/(F46KV + 2. moving without rotation. R is at a point A. if v is small. Prove that. rest. thin spherical shell of small radius. major 2a under the action of a fixed gravitating body of mass m. the particles also attract each other with a different force varying as the distance between them prove that the orbit of either particle relative to the other is an ellipse and the periodic time is 2Tr/s^{fi + 2fjL'). Prove that the fragments all pass through the line AO within a force and. the eccentricity e' of the subsequent relative orbit is given by the equation (1+^) 4. 1. mass being at Prove that. m' are describing relatively to their centre of elliptic orbits of eccentricity e and axis major 2a.
a v/(3. Prove that. prove that the two bodies proceed to describe. being projected in the Two P P P same manner as before. circular orbits bodies. squares of u and 10. ^ being neglected.198 6.. are describing circles uniformly about their common centre of gravity with angular velocity o). 2w . The particle A is projected towards the centre of the triangle w^ith velocity c^fx. If V is the relative velocity. comes to rest at successive of is a succession of cycloids and that path cusps after equal intervals of time. M M orbit and m the relative In a system of two gravitating bodies of masses an ellipse of semiaxes a and h. parabolas whose latera recta 7. projected with velocity ^{y{M\m)ld} at right angles to the line M M Prove that the joining the bodies. then b = 2b\ and + e) = i(l . and a small general disturbance in the plane of motion is communicated to the system. and m is is at rest.)/(! 11. G attracting each other with a force proportional to the distance and equal to /x per unit mass at unit distance. and 6'. W3. VI.)"" •Jia^Ho'Y . and m receives an impulse m V towards m'. a and a' being their distances from the centre of mass. If h is the conjugate axis of the orbit described by either or Q. are 2a and 2a'.const. whose distance is r. the other 12. if the mass of the second body could be suddenly doubled. those P23 WI2P31 distances are in the ratios 7711 : : msPi2 Three equal particles A. e its eccentricity.. equal particles P. Q are projected from points equidistant on opposite sides of a third particle S. so that after any time t the distance is rf w. Prove that the three particles being set free at the instant of projection. v is the relative velocity at the instant of the change. subject only to their mutual A25 remain at constant distances from one another. m2. M is where 9.^0)0 = 3&)^ (r0 + 2a) z<) . ?«'. . e' those of the relative orbit of and *S' (in the absence of §). the eccentricity of the new orbit would be 8. masses m. Two gravitating paFticles. All three particles are gravitating. particles will first be in a straight line after a time 1 sm^ . initially In a system of two gravitating bodies. B. are placed at the comers of an equilateral triangle of side 2a. relatively to the centre of mass. with a velocity due to their distance under the attraction of *S^ only. are describing relatively to each other under their mutual gravitation.')/(! + 0. and m. and the line joining the particles is in advance of the position it would have occupied if the steady motion had not been disturbed by the angle ^ obtain the equation . If three bodies of /'23> attractions Psiy masses Wj. (1 . and the directions of projection are at right angles to PQ. d being the distance between the bodies. THE LAW OF REACTION Two [CHAP.
/i 199 Two particles. and a = (ab)/(a\b). 6. Cz are the components of attraction of the spheroid at a point 17. of semiaxes a. z). the resistance under the action of which of their is pro mutual which is any function of their distance. one moves for a time \trlsJix before the other starts. under the in the line of foci.h)j{b {a + 6)}. {x. . if it = l. then a)2=(Ja2_(7c2)/a2^ where Ax. Two particles move in a portional to the attraction. 2a. 16. while they are : that. mass and the velocity. are placed in two rough straight intersecting tubes at right angles to each other and the friction is equal to the pressure on each tube prove they are initially at unequal distances from the point of intersection. Prove that their centre mass either remains at rest or moves in a straight line with a velocity which diminishes in geometric progression as the time increases in arithmetic of progression. ring moves on a rough eUiptic wire. on which the circle rolls uniformly. medium. if it is projected from an end of the minor axis and comes to rest at the end of the major axis through which it first passes. Ay. 15. describes the circle with uniform angular velocity w under the attraction of the spheroid. y. and that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 13. 2& are the principal axes of where p is the density of the cylinder. particle placed at an end of the major axis of a normal section of a uniform gravitating elliptic cylinder of infinite length is slightly disturbed in the plane of the section.a  [^ e~^e {a + byj Ol^acosd + a^' Jol where fi is the coefficient of friction. attracting each other with a force (distance). and normal section. Prove that it can move round in contact with A the cylinder. and that its velocity v when at a distance y from the major axis of the section is given by the equation v^ = ^iirypy^ a {a. the velocity v of projection is given by the equation V'' = 4yMiJ. a A particle is projected along a circular section of the surface of {x^\y'^)la^\z^lc^ a smooth uniform oblate spheroid given by the equation Prove that. if manner approaching the point of intersection of the tubes. attraction of a thin uniform gravitating rod of mass A M Prove that. each of unit mass. they move in the same as the projections of the two extremities of a diameter of a circle line upon a straight 14.
whatever line This L is always the same. a vector (unlocalized). APPENDIX TO CHAPTER YI. and choose a of the moments (with their proper signs) of the two vectors about sign. the sign otherwise. When the sense of the line L is such that the moment is positive. 47). and may be stated as follows If the line meets one of the vectors. Let this be ABCD Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P. so long as the chosen sense of the line L remains of the same. a Draw any sense for this line line. REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS. VI. which the vectors two pairs of form a parallelogram. (a) Vector couple." or. L The : — L L and that of the other vector are related like the senses of translation is }. CB. . CD. and be locaHzed in the lines AD. and the direction and sense are those of the line Z. localized in parallel lines. Its magnitude the product of the measure of either vector of the couple and the measure of the perpendicular distance between the lines in which the vectors are Its sign is determined when the sense of the line is chosen. are equivalent to zero. L at The sum this line right angles to the plane of the couple. of equal moments.200 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. being parallel lines. briefly. and be localized in the lines AB. We shall obtain by (6) the result that a couple can be represented in all respects this unlocalized vector. moment is called the axis of the couple. is sum moments is the moment of the couple. and let the *^^* ^^ vectors of the other couple be of magnitude Q. The lines in are localized. We shall prove that two couples in the same plane. (Fig. Equivalence of couples in the same plane.. Two and having opposite " couple. form a " vector couple. rule of signs is the rule of the righthanded screw. of which the magnitude is the magnitude of the of the couple. it is  . both in magnitude and in L we take. and the sense of the line localized. in opposite senses." senses. are said to equal vectors. and rotation of a righthanded screw.
The sense of this vector is CA. The two vectors P and Q are equivalent aq to a single vector P + Q in R = Pt0 Fig. The line of the other vector is at a distance from the line of which is equal to Qd/{P+Q). each of magnitude P\Q. localized in parallel lines. and proportional CA and propor. AC. Then the vectors P and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude P+Q. P and Q. and propor Also the vectors P and Q localized in the lines to those lines. See Fig. and a couple of moment Qd. and a couple of moment Qd. Introduce two Then the vectors vectors each of magnitude Q into the line of action of P. lines. It follows that the set of four vectors P. AD. let two vectors each of magnitude Q be introduced in the line of the vector P and in opposite senses. The sense of this vector is AC. of the parallelogram is of magnitude equal to the moment Hence AD represents Q in magnitude. in it and Q. one of which is the line of P. and the sense of the vector it lies between the lines of P P P+Q is that of P or Q. See . Let the unit of length be so chosen that AB represents P in Then the area of the couple. localized in parallel lines. 48. CB. B any points on these the magnitudes of two vectors lines. Fig. localized in the line of and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude Q P P P. 49. 49. Parallel vectors. let Q be the greater. Q are equivalent to zero. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line. and let the sense of the vector in this line be opposite to that of P. this line. and proportional to those lines. When P and Q are in unlike senses. CD. A. d the distance between the When P and Q are in like senses.] SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 201 magnitude. and having the opposite sense to P. and having the sense of P. 48. This theorem shows that a couple the same plane having the same (c) may moment and Q be be replaced by any other couple in sense. Replace the couple of moment Qd by two vectors. Let P. See Fig. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line. Now the vectors P and Q localized in the lines AB.APP. localized in the line of P.
P in this line. Fig. and is at a distance from the line of P which is equal to Qd/{QP) on the side of the line of Q which is remote from the line of P. QP localized in parallel lines. 52. 51 P and Q are equivalent to a single vector Q. . and let the vectors of the other couple be of magnitude ^. Hence two vectors localized in parallel lines. R=QP Fig. are equivalent to a resultant vector localized in a parallel line. 50.202 Fig. VI. moment Qd by two one of which is vectors each of magnitude the line of P. other vector it lies . and the moment of the resultant about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments (d) of the components about the same axis. and The two vectors the sense of the vector QP in it is that of Q. and be localized in the AB. See Fig. Fig. when they are not equal and opposite. CD. 50. 51. We shall prove that two couples in parallel planes having equal moments and opposite senses are equivalent to zero: lines Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P. Equivalence of couples in parallel planes. and be localized in the lines A'D\ C'B'. THE LAW OF REACTION Replace the couple of [chap. and let the The line of the sense of the vector in this line be the same as that of P.
p P B Fig. Through the couple AB and CD draw a in the points A\ B\ These two pairs of planes with the planes of the two couples form a parallelepiped. 53.A pp. This theorem shows that a couple may be replaced by any couple of the same moment (e) in any parallel plane. and the line CD. Composition of couples. are equivalent to a vector of magnitude joining the middle points of AD' and BC. and Q. Also parallel vectors P localized in lines CD. B^ C. D'. and have the senses indicated by the order of the letters. 2P localized in the same MM'. one of Replace the couple in one plane by any couple having localized in its vectors AB iu the sense AB. Replace the couple Q in its plane by an equivalent couple consisting of vectors localized in the lines B'A' and i/C". . Now parallel vectors localized in lines AB. B'A' are equivalent line to a vector of magnitude vector is M'M. let Let the two vectors be of magnitude P. P DC\ and having the senses localized in the line 2P MM' is The sense of this vector MM'. Let the planes of two couples meet in the line AB.] Through the couple SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 203 A'D and B'C draw P Q a pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of in the points A^ D. its vectors We will can take these vectors also to be of magnitude P. These vectors are both of magnitude P. pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of 6". P. indicated. Q are equivalent to zero. the other be localized in localized in one of Replace the couple in the other plane by a couple having BA in the sense BA. Th^ sense of this It follows that the set of four vectors P. and then the other be localized in a certain line FF in the plane of the second couple.
localized in lines through 0. perpendicular to the plane A OB. ABCD^ ABEF. VI. and their areas are These areas are in the ratios Hence if sides will be parallel we turn the triangle BCE through a right angle in and proportional to the axes of the couples. and are localized in the lines CZ>. figures are seen to be equivalent to a single couple. and let Through in a line there be two vectors each of magnitude and of opposite senses localized in this line. and let be any point not in the draw a line parallel to AB. See Fig. Let a vector of A B. Then the two couples The vectors are of magnitude P. one localized in the line of R through and in the sense opposite to R. Any given system of vectors in a plane can in this way be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line passing in the plane. CDFE proportional to the moments of the couples. and having the same senses as those vectors. F. and sense of a line E'C^is the axis of the resultant of two component couples. 55. together with a couple of moment Fp. if E'B' represents the axis of the second couple in sense. and the other in a parallel lirfe at a distance GjR from 0. See Fig. in a plane. FE. and senses of two lines E'B' and B'C. equal and parallel to the given The vectors. be the resultant of the vectors at 0. />. p the perpendicular on its line from 0. of magnitude F. (f) System of localized vectors any magnitude F be localized line AB. E. each of magnitude R. and the sign of each term is determinate. replace G by two localized vectors. Then the system of vectors is F equivalent to a vector localized in the line through parallel to AB. 53. This is the vector law. of the lengths of BC.204 Let THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. where is the magnitude of any one of the original vectors. planes at right angles to AB cutting the lines and through the points A. Let R If . The whole system is then equivalent to this last vector. It is clear that. Thus the axis of a couple which has the magnitude. direction. It follows from the preceding theorems that a couple can be regarded as an unlocalized vector represented by its axis. are rectangles. axis of the couple is perpendicular to the plane and its moment is 2 ( ± Fp). and having the sense of the original vector in A B. and G the moment of the R is not zero. together with a through a chosen point Fie 54 The resultant vector is the resultant of vectors couple. the sense of the first is B'C\ and the sense of the resultant is E'C. where p is the distance of AB from sense. CE. the axes of the components having the magnitudes. B draw CD and EF in the points whose named C. BE. directions. F couple. AB represent F in magnitude. and its axis is This couple has a definite 0. its plane its Let B'C'E' be the new triangle.
or _ o/f a couple. Z resolved parts parallel to the axes of one of the vectors. y. or to zero.APP. is If R and G are both zero the system equivalent to zero. or to a couple whose axis is perpendicular to the plane. 56. The where the system single vector. Z. be the Take any and any rectangular axes of x. The original vector is thus of this vector. 55. (3) is magnitude and is When one system is equivalent to zero. T. the other equivalent to zero. of the same one system sense. ^Y . 7. .] If SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 205 R is zero the whole system is equivalent to the couple G. are determinate and unique. {g) Reduction of a system of vectors localized in origin 0. z. of equal and opposite vectors localized in a line through parallel to the line and resolve them into components localized in the axes. Let X. The magnitudes of these components are Z. localized in the same ^p yIq. (2) When is the other equivalent to a couple. of the sense. lines. in the cases is equivalent to a single vector. equivalent to a couple. equivalent to a single vector. z the Introduce a pair coordinates of a point on the line in which it is localized.'^X Y< Fig. The conditions of equivalence of two systems of : vectors localized in lines lying in a plane are these (1) When one system is equivalent to a single vector. or the couple. and x^ y. Thus any system lying in a plane is of vectors localized in lines equivalent to a single vector localized in a line lying in the plane. the other is same magnitude and line.
Y^ are the resolved parts of any one of the original vectors parallel to the axes. y. xYyX Hence any system of vectors localized in lines can be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line through the origin. is independent of the position of the origin. takes different values for different origins.. whose moments are 2.. and x. 2 Y^ 2Z... whose resolved parts parallel to the axes of coordinates are SA". zXxZ. but the vector couple. of which the line in which that vector is localized. the axes. VI. whose moments are Z yZzY. . {yZzY\ 2 {zXxZ\ 2 {xYyX\ where A'. F. components are '^X.. of which the components are "^{yZzY)^ . respectively. Art. localized in the axes. z are the coordinates of any point on the The resultant vector.206 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Cf. 84. and by three couples about replaced by vectors X. equivalent to component couples about the axes. Z .. together with a couple.
but a little observation shows that. and initial motions. When two bodies come into contact at a point of each. There are numberless cases in which the deformation is permanent. if one body is smeared over with soot. Nature of the action between impinging collide. of the great difficulties of our subject is the integration of the differential equations of motion of a system of bodies. but there are a number of cases in which all the desired One Such cases information can be obtained without any integration. . There are other Such cases cases in which the method of integration is known. they must be in contact over a finite area for example. at first their surfaces bodies. after separation. will and accordingly we circumstances if be unable to give an account of the we treat the bodies as rigid. methods and theories relating to general classes of problems which can be solved by the principles laid down in previous Chapters. there are others in which the recovery of form is practically complete. On the other hand. if the bodies are rigid. 192. It is clear therefore that during the impact the bodies undergo deformation. of We propose in this Chapter to bring together a number 191. and problems in which the principles of energy and momentum supply all the first integrals of the equations of motion. Now it is clear that. Sudden Changes of Motion. before separation. properties . shall the problem of calculating the deformation from the elastic of the bodies is generally beyond our power. include small oscillations. no deformation can take place. Further. include sudden changes of motion. or the motions which ensue upon release from constraint.CHAPTER YIL MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS. the other. show a sooty patch.
we shall find that one inevitable result of every impulsive action between parts of a system is a loss of kinetic energy in the system. He found that the relative velocity of the two spheres after impact was oppositely directed to that before impact. for very soft approaches nexion between e and the elasticity of the impinging bodies has " led to its being sometimes called the coefficient of elasticity. that this ratio depends are made. Coefficient of restitution. e is little different it from unity . u and u' their velocities in the same line and in the same sense after impact. and that the magnitude of the velocity of separation bears to the He found velocity of approach a ratio which is less than unity. 193. cit. e is called 194. In order to formulate in a simple and manner the mechanical collision it is necessary to general by and subsidiary hypotheses. The con Loc. Nor have we far to seek for the form of energy that is developed in compensation for the apparent loss. has been abundantly proved that the of this kind is of the nature of We must therefore expect that in impulsive changes of motion some mechanical energy will be transformed into heat. of both is raised. the temperature that. such and ivory. The number the " coeflficient of restitution. let U and U' be the velocities of the two spheres in the line of centres. p. before impact. It is a fact of observation when one body strikes against another." but we avoid this phrase because it is sometimes used a different (in * materials. .208 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. where e is a positive number less than unity. zero. then uu' = e{UU'). effects produced in two bodies have recourse to special experiments Newton^s experimental Investigation. ante. and it production of thermal effects a transformation of energy. Newton made an elaborate series of experiments* on the impact of spheres which come into contact when their centres are moving in the line joining them. and in the same sense. upon the materials of which the spheres To express this result." For very hard elastic as glass solids. such as wool or putty. 166. VII. and this apparent loss of energy can frequently be calculated.
which is that from the centre m to the centre of the sphere m'. We shall speak of such materials as being " " without restitution " and " of perfect restitution respectively. This expression accords with the result of Art. and the equation of constancy of momentum of the system. just as the coefficient of friction between two bodies depends on the materials and degree of polish of both. mu + mii! —mJJ\''m!lJ'. ordinary materials we shall speak " It is. Direct impact of elastic spheres.u'){U' + u'). 174. m m \ \ / \ ^ + The kinetic energy lost in the impact is (im U^ + ^m' U'^) . these velocities suppose all the velocities being parallel to the line of centres. Then we have R m R = m{uU) = m\u'U') = {l + e)^^^^^{UU'). u' For the determination of Newton's experimental we have the equation given by result. m+m . u. viz. Materials for which e is zero or unity may be regarded as ideal limits to which some bodies approach. to be underof as having imperfect restitution. 14 . We to be estimated in the of the sphere same sense.u){JJ+u)^\rd{JJ' . M. u.{\mv? + \w!u!% or \m{TJ. both the materials. Hence we find (mm'e)f7 + m'(l+e)0'' u= . or ^R[{U+u){U' + u')l L. of course." stood that any such phrase refers to an action between two bodies The coefficient e depends on of the same or different materials.me) U' + m{\ m+m ^ e)U be the impulsive pressure between the spheres. viz. R is in the regarded as the impulse of a force acting on the sphere direction opposite to that of U. before impact be U._ { m' Let . Let the masses m' let the velocities of their centres just . 209 meaning) in the Theory of For a like reason we avoid the phrase "coefficient of resilience" which has also been sometimes used. of the spheres be m. u.192195] IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES Elasticity. C/'^and just after impact. 195. .
210 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS In virtue of the equation [CHAP. Hence the resolved part of the directed along the line momentum of either is impact. 196. velocities of V be the resolved m in the line of centres and at right angles thereto before impact. and the pressure between them of centres. The spheres being smooth. Let Let U. of masses m. 197. when we substitute for R. two smooth uniform spheres. and let u. impinge. where e is the coefficient of restitution. For the purpose of in which the circumstances applications to problems of collision are less simple than in the case of direct impact of spheres we state result : — the following generalization of Newton's experimental and before impact. The generalized Newton's rule gives the equation uxC^eiTJU'). there is is no friction between them.(le^)(UUy. V corresponding velocities of m. VII. v'^y. . after —e : 1. of the points of bodies that come into contact. the expression for the kinetic energy lost becomes and. mm Generalized Newton's rule. U'. sphere at right angles to the line of centres have therefore the equations unaltered by the We v^y. and rn after impact. Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres. 7n'. are in the ratio The relative velocities. v and u\ v' be for corresponding velocities m ^857. resolved along the two impinging common normal to their surfaces at these points. we find that this is equal to i m + mJ.
is The impulsive pressure between the spheres same way as in Art. similar form. IF. Let and ^v are the " relative velocity of approach " and the " relative velocity separation. we have the result that w has a constant ra. Art. * _ {m'. 199. 159. let w. v denote the components of velocity of the centre of mass of the two spheres parallel to the line of centres and at right angles to this line. This method is adequate for the discussion of many is in questions. In such systems no internal forces are developed except after wme deformation has taken place. Deduction of Newton's rule firom a particular assumption.me)U' + m (l\e)U is Hence the velocity of each sphere after impact determined. Then w. The method followed in applying the above rule to treat the impact as instantaneous. rj are unaltered be changed into w by the impact. and this is Newton's rule. and the impinging bodies as rigid both before and after it. Solving these equations we find ^ {mm'e)U+m'{l+e)T]' m\m' . In the motion before impact.195199] IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES 211 and the equation of constancy of momentum of centres is parallel to the line mu + m'u' = mU \m' U'. 1. The Hence the kinetic energy after impact can be expressed in a kinetic energy lost in the impact is If we assume that the kinetic energy lost is proportional to the square of the relative velocity of approach. Ex. v. so that at the beginning of a motion which is 14—2 .tio to IF. rj the components of the velocity of 7n relative to m' parallel to the same directions. Blastic systems. The quantities by the impact. It cannot however give an exact account of the eflfects of impact elastic systems. 195 to be found in the m+m and the kinetic energy Article to be lost is ^ found in the same way as in that mm' ^ m+m ^ ^ ^ 198." The kinetic energy before impact is equal to W W of Cf.
lie nearly in contact impiiiges directly third hall of equal size and mass the ball so that the line joining its centre C to A makes with the line CAB. : It is now clear A71 elastic system cannot support an impulse. the direction of its velocity B We have the equations V=u' + w. by means of some problems. of supporting an impulsive tension. suddenly produced some part of the system yields at once. The general method of treating such changes of motion depends simply on repeated applications of the principle that for every particle in a connected system. . VII. statement that an elastic system in the action of elastic strings altered suddenly. halls. the time of the action in which the elasticity of the bodies is concerned being — This statement may conveniently be summed up in the An example of the cannot support an impulse will be found attached to rigid bodies whose motion is impulsive tension in such a string. we have been confining our attention to the impulsive action between impinging bodies. then just after A strikes B. if sin S>{1 . The direction of v m AB. balls. after a finite time a finite deformation is produced. Let Let w be its velocity after striking A . 213). v the velocity of the direction of iC makes an angle 6 with AB. after A strikes it. and for each rigid body in such a system. ucos<f)v=eu'coa6. capable 200.e)/(l +e). CA. whose centres are A and B. We shall illustrate the application of this principle 201. and the equations given by Newton's Rule ii'w=eV. a direction coeffixiient Prove that. and starts to move with a finite velocity. which continue to act as long as there is any deformation. of momentum u'ainO=usincf>. before striking being the of restitution for either pair of the velocity of Let V be A . Two equal smooth on a smooth tahle^ and a on J. So far General theory of sudden changes of motion. but there are many other changes of motion which take place so rapidly that it is con venient to regard them as suddenly produced. Art. an inextensible string is regarded as it (cf. is that of V. the changes of momentum are a system of vectors equivalent to the impulses that produce them. I. and is opposed by finite elastic forces. u'cos$ = ucos(j> + v. and the treated as negligible. proposition that the method founded on Newton's result is of the nature of a compromise. AB an angle of in e A will start making with AB C an angle tan~^{2{le)'^ tanO]. Illustrative problems. There is no motion of the body immediately after the impulse is exactly the same as if the string were not attached to On the other hand.212 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. Fis localized in w u u' be the velocity of A immediately after C strikes it. since the impact is direct. ^w0. Suppose the direction of u to make an angle <^ with AB.
. coejfficient at right angles restitution between the plane and the of plane n times striking Since the velocity parallel to the plane is unaltered by impact. .j from the plane.6). provided that there is is no second impact The i (1 condition for this u cos (cf) .. between the and second. e being the particle. flight before the first ti is 6) — gt sin 6. A particle is projected with velocity it V from the foot plane of inclination 6 in a direction making an angle a with {a>6).Fsin {a.. (f) = {I e)ic' cos 0... impact.e)>iv. velocity perpendicular to the plane and thus at time ti ^i = 2 Fsin (a — B)/g cos 3. ^>(1 e)/(l +e). ^n be the times of on.^gti^ cos ^ = 0. between or Thus A moves A and C. ts^et^. Immediately after the impact the velocity at right angles to the plane becomes eFsin {a 6) a.. Find the condition that may stnke the at the nth impact.199201] whence SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION 2w=V(le). By . 2u'=V{l + e\ 2ic 213 cos . is Hence ^i + ^2+. and tand)=:^ le Fig. off as stated. The Fsin {a'6)—gti cos ^ or . ^2) . thus at the end of any interval t from the beginning of the motion the velocity parallel to the plane is Fcos {a Let first ^1.. 58. We thus find that t2=eti.e) w' cos2 + sin le it' sin^ ^>YTr ^'' of a smooth fixed the horizon it which leads to II.H^n» —^ le till gcosO ^^ —\ is the interval from the besupposition.wa. at the end of ginning of the motion the nth impact. and so Then given by Vti sin {a 6). the motion of the particle parallel to the plane is determined by the same equation as if there were no impacts..
C is projected mth velocity u perpendicular to AB. 60. Find the velocity of immediately after the string becomes tight. By the generalized Newton's Rule we have v'— %sina=ey. . Whence IV. '0 AVhua i ^r+ato Fig. A smooth sphere of mass is tied to a fixed point hy an inextensihle thready and another sphei'e of mass in' impinges directly on it with velocity v in a direction making an acute angle a with the thread. It therefore starts to move Let at right ii angles to the thread. v'. be its angles to the thread tion of momentum Fig. this interval the velocity parallel to the plane vanishes. 59. Let its velocity after impact be There is an impulsive tension in the thread and the sphere m is constrained to describe a circle about the fixed end. b from the two ends. wi'sina(l + e) + m' sin^ a m Two particles A. VII. B of equal mass are connected hy a rigid rod oj negligible mass^ and a third equal particle C is tied to a point of the rod at distances a. P C Let V be the velocity of C immediately after the string becomes tight. or this interval is Fees (a — ^)/^ sin ^. The required condition is therefore tan^ = 2tan(a^)(le«)/(le). The impulse between the spheres acts in the line of centres so that the direction of motion of m' is unaltered. Kesolving for the system at right we have the equa mu^mv sma=wivsma. velocity.214 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. III. Find the velocity with m which m begins to move.
if it takes r more leaps in coming down than in going up. A 4.e)}.] sides of a rectangular billiard table are of lengths a and b. aa>. the former must be projected in a direction making an angle with the line (of length c) joining the two centres.201202] SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION its is 215 is The Since the impulse on C is along the string velocity with which P starts to move direction of motion v along the string. Thus A starts with velocity ?. If a ball is projected from a point on one of the sides of length b to strike all The four sides in succession and continually retrace its path. in order to produce the greatest deviation in the direction of a smooth billiard ball of diameter a by impact on another equal ball at rest.e2 . show that the angle of projection with the side is given by ae cot 6 = c + ec\ where c and c' are the parts into which the side 2. a) m being the mass of either particle. Prove that. . projected from the foot of an inclined plane and returns to the point of projection after several rebounds. i 2 a^ + b^+ab + 52 — ^» Examples. connected by the equation cot 6 cot {ae) = 2 y{l  e») . Eliminating a> we find a^+b^ or v=202. the inclination 3 of the plane and the angle of projection a are particle is . 1. and that A + + = the vertical heights of the three points of impact are in the ratios e2 : 1 . The equation of giving = (6a)v/(a2+62).e^)}l{e^ (1 . So starts with velocity P A + B vhat. unaltered. one of which is at right angles to the plane prove that. e is [In these examples 1. is divided at the point of projection. 1 a2 orx^r. The equation of momentum parallel to the string is mv + m{v + a(a)\m{v — h(a)='inu.(1 . and the last impact is direct. particle is projected from a point at the foot of one of two smooth parallel vertical walls so that after three reflexions it may return to the point of projection. Prove that e^ e^ e l. the coefiBcient of restitution between two bodies. The and the velocity of velocity of A is compounded of the velocity of relative to P. 3. Let 0) be the angular velocity with which the rod begins to turn. moment of momentum about P is ma (v + aa) — mb (v — ba) = 0.
VII. in a plane through normal making an angle a with the line of greatest slope on the inclined A Prove that. the angles a. particles adhere. on a plane with which its base is in contact a sphere of smaller mass m is dropped vertically. just balance each other. /3.216 6. being attached to the centre by an inextensible Show that. prove that the tensions M T threads after impact are connected with their values Tq and by the equation ^o before impact bucket and a counterpoise. Prove that they return to the corners with velocities diminished in the ratio e : I. Show that. 10. connected by a chain 9. ' M 2g \l+efm^ A particle of mass 8. y must satisfy the equation (1 . for the particle to be on the horizontal through the point plane.e) cos a tan ^. is moving on a smooth horizontal table with uniform speed in a circle. of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley. Three equal particles are attached to the ends and middle point of a rod of negligible mass. find the time that elapses before the ball ceases to rebound. if the coefficient of restitution between the plane and the hemisphere is zero. and a ball. and strikes the hemisphere on the side towards which it is moving. if the two thread. and that between the sphere and the hemisphere is e. 6. of projection when it meets the plane for the nth. so that the line joining their centres makes an angle 7r/4 with the vertical. and one of the end ones is struck by a blow so that it Prove that the magnitudes of the starts to move at right angles to the rod. and meet near the centre. of mass «i. of equal mass i/. and strikes another particle of mass m at rest. the height through which the sphere must have fallen if the hemisphere is stopped dead is V2 {2MemY . A smooth uniform hemisphere of mass is sliding with velocity V 7. 11. If there is restitution between the particles and the second one is describand t in the two ing the same circle as the first. time. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP.e") tan y = (1 . velocities of the particles at starting are in the ratios 5:2:1. the tension of the thread is diminished in the ratio i//(J/+m). and show that the whole distance descended by the bucket during this interval is 4meh/{{2M+m){ley}. direction this particle is projected from the foot of a plane of inclination y in a making an angle ^ with the normal to the plane. is dropped into the centre of the bucket fi*om a height h A above it . Three equal spheres are projected simultaneously from the corners of an equilateral triangle with equal velocities towards the centre of the triangle. An impulsive attraction acts between the centres of two spheres If v is which are approaching each other so as to generate kinetic energy K .
when one of the bodies its momentum. supports. before and after. then sin« = sin^'y(l + ^. where 12. since the resolved acceleration along the normal to the path is the product of the square of the The The problem This remark enables us resultant velocity and the curvature. Two small bodies of equal mass are attached to the ends of a rod of negligible mass . make with the line of centres. each particle of it with a certain acceleration.202203] INITIAL MOTIONS 217 their relative velocity before the impulse. the rod is supported at its centre and is turning uniformly. and 6. is struck by a vertical blow equal in magnitude to twice Prove that the direction of motion of each of the bodies is instantaneously deflected through half a right angle.). Initial Motions. . This is evident since the kinetic energy must be increased above the value (zero) which it has in the position of rest. so that each of the bodies is describing a horizontal circle. or internal actions between different bodies and the determination of the unknown reactions object. of determining the curvature of the path of a whose velocity is not zero offers no difficulty when the particle velocity and acceleration are known. & the angles which the directions of the relative velocity. M is the harmonic mean of the masses. Our first object in such a case is to determine the accelerations with When which the parts of the system begin to move. and that at a particular instant some one of the constraints ceases to be applied . We suppose that a system held in some definite position in a field of force. easily to determine the initial curvature of the path of a particle when its motion is changed suddenly. then the system begins to move. 203. is Nature of the problems. our second senses of the accelerations with which a conservative moves away from a position of instantaneous rest can system sometimes be determined by help of the observation that the motion must be one by which the potential energy is diminished. the accelerations have been found there is generally no difficulty in determining the initial values of the reactions of of the system is .
make the the acceleration same angle a with the of each Hng. B)y {B. hoi^izontal. The system to the pairs of held so that all the threads initially is let go. relative to ./' be the accelerations of J. Q.218 204. as the relative AP. opposite. and three other equal and similar rings P. and those of P. D). and thus the acceleration of relatively to A. purposely choose one of a somewhat complicated character in order to illustrate the various details of the method. It is always possible to determine expressions for the accelerations of all the points of a connected system in terms of a small number of independent accelerations. since the threads AP. VII.C. of equal inextensihle threads is rings {A. Four equal rings A. We distances on Illustrative Problem . Since the initial acceleration. so are those of B. Method for initial accelerations.B. BP are . describes a circle. D are equal and Fig. and It is required to find From the symmetry of the system the accelerations oi A. 61. (2) that every composition and resolution may be effected by taking the the accelerations can be found.1 is made up of a tangential acceleration and a normal acceleration proportional to the square of the angular velocity Now P P / of AP. and there is always the same number of equations of motion free from unknown reactions. so that all The expression of the initial accelerations in the proposed manner is facilitated by observing (1) that the velocity of every particle initially vanishes. /i at right angles to angular velocity vanishes. J5 along the smooth horizontal rod. we have. at right angles to AP. R. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. R are attached hy pairs C\ (C. Also the acceleration of Q Let/. is vertical.D are at equal a smooth fixed horizontal rod. C. 205. position of the will method system to be that from which it starts. Again. The be better understood after the study of an example.
f 4 cos 2a = f = cos 2a q sin 2a 12 — 11 cos 2a + cos2 2a* • 206. Now we have let m be the mass of each. accelerations of the particles are expressed in terms of / and /' and Q are ^ (//') cot a and in particular the vertical accelerations of . It is required to find the initial curvatures of their paths. Let u^ V be the initial velocities of the particles. Then resolving horizontally for J. Initial curvature. mf cot a = 7\ (1) . The to acceleration of and the acceleration of m G is that of a particle w . and m .. threads as shown in the figure. T^. and w the initial angular velocity of the thread. and from (2). Thus the P /'cot a downwards. velocity thus the acceleration of describing a circle of radius m'll{m\m') with angular along the thread is m'l(o^l{m + m'). . (//') cot a + (5/+/') tan a = 2^.i P and Q we have + Ta) sin a + mg. the particle its horizontal acceleration is \ (/+/')• P AB and Hence giving M/+/') =//i /i sin a sin a.(2).( From the set of equations T^ cos a = mf.. T. G vanishes. T^^ we have . /' cot a + 3 (/+/') tan a =5r whence . T^i. =^ (//')• we have therefore the Again. we have cos a^m (f /+i/').204206] INITIAL MOTIONS 219 thus is always vertically under the middle point oi equal. then U\V — l(a. m(/+/') = (r2ri)cosa. As an example of initial curvatures : when the motion does not start from rest we take the following problem Two particles of masses m. \m iff) cot a = . 62. . and acceleration f^ of Q relative to B given by the equation /2sina=/'. and B m/=riCosa.2 Tg sin a + mg. relative y Yis. m! connected hy an inextensihle thread of length I are placed on a smooth table with the thread straight^ and are projected at right angles to the thread in opposite senses. and resolving vertically for mf'=={T^T^^C0Ba. particle and Ii. Then G V_^a. on substituting for ^2.{l). 7^3 cos a=m f (/+/') . moves unifoiTnly on the table with velocity {7nu — m'v)l{m\m'). the horizontal acceleration of Q vanishes. >^" Let G be the centre of mass of the two particles. T^ the tensions in the /*.
2. which is straight. 207. and the system is suspended by its ends from D is ? (1 + 2 sin a) apart in a horizontal line. if p is the _ ~ m'l p giving llp m + m'\ /u\v\^ ' I J = m'{u + vf/{(m + m') lu^]. DB is cut. Prove that. Supposing the string to be destroyed in any manner. The rings are initially held in such a position that the lowest part of the thread is horizontal and the highest parts make equal angles y with the horizontal.220 this is MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. : that the initial direction of motion of D is inclined to the vertical at and an angle 4. if there is perfect restitution. the radii of curvature of the paths which A and C begin to describe are equal to ^a. particle is supported by equal threads inclined at the same angle a to the horizontal. with the same velocities. so that points A. One thread being cut. 1. . the uppermost being connected with the other two by inextensible threads. Three small equal rings rest on a smooth vertical circular wire at the corners of an equilateral triangle with one side vertical. if the portion the tension of I {. Bj C of equal masses are attached at the ends and middle point of a thread so that AB = BC=a. Three particles A. initial radius of along the normal to curvature of the path of m. is suddenly changed in the ratio 2sin2a : 1. of the thread Prove that. ^ such that cot <\) = tan a + 2 cot a. of length 3^. the tension in the other thread is instantly diminished in the ratio 3 6. curvature of the path of m' is In like manner the initial m{u+vfl{{m\m')lv'^]. of a thread Particles of equal mass are attached to the points of trisection C. u'^ m its path. and the particles are moving at right angles to the thread. A set of '2n equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread. prove that the tension in the A remaining thread 3. (ii) the tension in the lowest part of the thread is to what it was in equilibrium in the ratio mf mncot^y + 7n\ where in is the mass of a particle and m' the mass of a ring. if the vertical thread is cut through.cos^ \^ instantly changed in the ratio 2 cos^ a ACDB B distant AC CD a. : 4. A is rigid. bodies A and B of equal weight are suspended from the Atwood's machine. and the rings are let go. the acceleration of VII. when B impinges directly on an obstacle. of an Examples. Hence. determine the sense in which A begins to move. and the ends of the thread are attached to equal small smooth rings which can slide on a horizontal rod. while B consists of a vessel Two is chains full of water in which a cork attached to the bottom by a string. : 6. horizontal and equal to I. Prove that in the initial motion (i) the acceleration of each particle is vertical. Prove that.
Now let the equations of motion be taken in the forms of Art. the initial radius of curvature of ^'s Applications of the Energy Equation. nM Two particles P. which work and is called the ' Principle of Virtual Work ' or of ' Virtual Velocities. by hypothesis. hanging vertically. Prove that. if the system is at rest in an equilibrium position. point of a thread distant a from one end and to that end. are connected by a thread of length I 8. Y') y \{Z\. with velocity path is v. and the other end is fixed to a point on a smooth table on which the particles rest. position of equilibrium This result is usually stated in a form involving infinitesimals.Z') z']. Hence the result : hand member The rate also vanishes. so that all the velocities vanish there. if Q is projected horizontally of P's path is 2cv^l{v'^\cg). the position is one of equilibrium.206208] APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION 221 and ?ii/. 173) is S [m {xx' + yy' + ^•^')] = S [(X + X') ^' + ( F + Since. The equation which expresses the result that the rate of change of . kinetic energy (per unit of time) is equal to the rate at which work is done (Art. the lefthand member at of this equation vanishes. 160. of equal mass. P being at a distance c from the hole and Q. or we have the — right is done when a system passes through a with any velocity vanishes. and let the system pass through a position of equi librium with any velocities denoted typically by x\ y' z. 208. the velocities must be such which work . are attached respectively to a Two particles. of masses 7. Q. . the the particle initial radius of curvature of its path is a (1 + ^ sin^ a). The possible positions of equilibrium of a system are distinguished from other positions by the condition that. P is projected on the table at right angles to the thread with velocity v prove that the initial radius of curvature Prove also that. if is projected on the table at right angles to the thread. while P is not moved.' In forming the expression for the rate at or the expression for the virtual is done. which passes through a small hole in a smooth table. the accelerations also vanish there. Equilibrium. the thread M — being in two straight pieces containing an obtuse angle tt a. work.
VII.222 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. if there are any resistances which depend upon velocities. this vanishes for all values of ^. Hence we have the equations and the values of ^. such resistances do not affect the positions of equilibrium.. <f). say . then •••• dW dW. we should have to begin by solving the equations determine which among the various sets a true maximum or a true minimum. Further. . as are compatible with the connexions of the system. the rate at which work is is dW done is — i— If TT a function of any quantities which define 0. When there . : — Since the potential energy of the system in we have the result W.. ^. dW + W==W^"^80 * If the position is one of equilibrium... in which In the positions to and then proceed of solutions make W de ' ••• we should say or that W is stationary.. Machines. and consequently the The potential energy is determined in terms of a single variable. . In all or "mechanical powers" the positions of the socalled "simple machines" all the parts can be expressed in terms of a single variable.. . those 209. which satisfy these equations determine the positions of equilibrium. the position of the system. any position is The equilibrium positions of a conservative system are positions in which the potential energy is stationary... the rate at which these resistances for manifestly would do work is to be omitted. whether it is a true maximum minimum or not. <j). and vanish with the velocities. is a work function W. If we sought the positions in which TT is a maximum or minimum. condition that the potential energy is stationary in the position of equilibrium becomes a relation between the masses of two moving .
if it has been chosen in any is 6o." This result w^orked out in books on Statics. 1. Atwood's machine [Ex. the equation in of energy determines the whole motion. and the kinetic energy is thus of pressed Now T the form ^A6^ where with e. is We have to consider the small motion of a system which equilibrium.W'Ffli W^F' + W'F^) 211. descend with acceleration F Prove that the centre of mass of F' and W will g ( WF' . move vertically. Again. and the inertia of the machine being neglected. both hanging by vertical cords. We . Thus V can be expressed as a . 1 of Art. These bodies are replaced by bodies of weights F' and W\ which. Prove that the acceleration with which it moves is agl{2a\b). supports a body of weight Tf. In any conservative system in which the positions of all the parts can be expressed in terms of a single variable. the velocity of each particle of the system can be exin terms of 6 and 0. the position of equilibrium other way so that its value in the position of equilibrium then — Oq can be used instead of 6. V which may be expanded in powers of 6 and the series contains no term independent of 6. if the standard is the position of Thus F is a function of 6 position equilibrium. In any machine without friction and inertia a body of weight 2. but does not vanish Also the potential energy vanishes with 6.208211] parts: the EQUILIBRIUM AND SMALL OSCILLATIONS 223 is "power" and the "weight. or that the term of the first order missing from the series for V. the principle of virtual work shows that is dV vanishes ^n do with 0. ( W+ F'). geometrical quantity as in the case pendulum (Article 119). We had an example Examples. and a body whose mass is equal to that of the greater body is suddenly attached to that body. of the simple circular can always choose to vanish in for. a and b being the radii of the wheel and the axle respectively. Two bodies are supported in equilibrium on a wheel and axle. 74]. Small oscillations. 210. in the subsequent motion. of the system slightly displaced from a position of We confine is our attention to cases where any position determined by assigning the value of a single 6. A may depend upon 6.
. and thus The value of (7 for ^= is the value of 77^ for conditions that the conditions for a real period of oscillation are the same as the may have a minimum value in the position of V equilibrium. the former case the equilibrium is stable and in the latter unstable. positive since otherwise the expression Now A must be could not represent an amount of kinetic energy. and the expression for V might have been taken to be simply the The term of the series which contains d'\ These simplifications might have been made before differentiating the energy equation. The equation of energy accordingly is and on differentiating we have Omitting small quantities of an order higher than the have Ae\. process which has been adopted shows that we might have reduced the expression for T by substituting zero for ^ in ^. quantities have the same sign. and more generally we may say that. the * This result. If we express the kinetic energy correctly to the second order of small quantities in the form ^A 6\ and the potential energy also correctly to the second order of small quantities in the form ^06'^. the motion in where A Thus. when 6 is sufficiently small.224 series MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. If the period is real. beginning with the term in 6'^. here proved for a special class of cases. the motion can be small enough for the approximation to be valid otherwise it soon becomes so large that we cannot simplify the equation of motion by neglecting 0\ In . ^AO^ Hence there are ^ = 0.00=^0. oscillations in a real period if (7 is positive. V=^Cd^. We energy learn that in a position of stable equilibrium the potential is a minimum*. VII. first we and C have their values for ^ = 0. is if these two simple harmonic with period 2'7r ^(A/G). where (7 is a function of 6 which is finite when ^ = 0. is true for all conservative systems.
have rewhich the principles of energy and integrals of the equations of motion of a system. Prove that the over the pulley carries at its ends bodies of masses time of a small oscillation in which the pulley moves vertically is 47r M ^{Mma/{M+m) X}. particle is suspended from two fixed points at the same level by equal elastic threads of natural length «. m' connected by a rigid rod of negligible on a smooth vertical circular wire of radius a. and then the quantity gAjC is the length of a simple pendulum which oscillates in the same time as the system. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is A hl^{la)l{Ph^a). is and the if the fixed points in Ex.  5. 2. the rod subtending an angle a at the centre. and length I. One end of an inextensible thread is attached to a fixed point A^ and the thread passes over a small pulley B fixed at the same height as A and at a distance 2a from it and supports a body of mass P. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system is {m + m') aji^iw? + w'^ 4. 213. 3. M. particle is displaced vertically. 212. It is called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system. and hangs in equilibrium at a depth h with each thread of length I. 3 are at a distance 2c apart.211213] SMALL OSCILLATIONS 225 In the case of a period of the small oscillations is 27r \/{AIG). Examples. .J{aMP{M>rP)lg (4P2 _ M^f). A is mP and G is mgly simple pendulum of mass so that m AjC^ljg. if it is slightly displaced parallel to the line joining the fixed ends of the threads. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum hl^{la)l{pc^a). can ring of mass A slide on the thread and the system is in equilibrium with Prove that the time of a small oscillation is 477 M M between A and B. Principles of Energy and Momentum. and an inextensible cord passing A and m. 4. Prove that.2mm' cos a). Prove that. We in marked that there are numerous cases momentum supply all the first L. In any other case we may compare the motion with that of a simple pendulum. 15 . 1. pulley of negligible mass is hung from a fixed point by an elastic cord of modulus X and natural length a. Two free to slide mass are rings of masses m.
^^ so long as x positive. . When x vanishes the string has its greatest a+ V^{mm'al{m\rii')X\. The particles then move with the velocities they have attained until m' overtakes ?/i. which it attains at the instant in question. V the m begins to move. —— is . VII. the relative reversed. — increase until it . so long as x remains positive.226 and thus position. In any case the description of the subsequent motion involves nothing new. m' that of the other.m + m . these values are attained at the meantime the string contracts to its natural length a. u+ m + m' ' m + m' ' Hence the kmetic energy °'' is x^ ^ (m + m ) w42^ '2. : length We can thus describe the whole motion m moves oflf with velocity V which gradually diminishes. . Whenever the string is unstretched we have JC—+V. length of the string at time t. and of its hy an elastic string of negligible mass. be the mass of the particle struck. are connected When the stnng is straight. one of the particles is struck by a bloic in the line of the string and away from the other particle. until it is reduced to V{mm')l{m + m'). Let m velocity with which until it is extended. and the velocity of m' continues to . and m' moves in the same direction from rest with gradually increasing velocity the string begins to extend. when a collision takes place. The subsequent motion depends on the motion is coefficient of restitution. The potential energy is „ . MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS suffice to [CHAP. of mass moves on the table with uniform velocity u. determine the velocities of the parts of the system in any To iUustrate these principles further particles A and we take the following problem : Two B. Let ^ be the increase in the in the line of the string. placed on a smooth horizontal table. and at this instant the The velocity of m continues to diminish particles have equal velocities u. determine the subsequent motion. There is no tension in the string and thus at first m' has no velocity. a being the natural length of the string. If this is unity. and this happens at the end of half a period from the beginning of the motion. Thus the energy equation 2m\m showing that the motion in x is 2m + m is 2a 2 simple harmonic motion of period 27r sj{mm'al{m^m')\}. and continues to do so until it attains its greatest length this happens at the end of a quarter of the period of the simple harmonic motion. then the velocities of the particles are The centre = mVI{m+m'). and X the modulus of elasticity. same instant in the has the value 2mV/{m+m'). natural length.
that when held fixed m^ makes thread. 4. and the modulus of elasticity of is the thread relative to the plank falling 6. Prove that the modulus of elasticity of the upper What 7. Prove that. the velocity of each of the end particles (at right angles to the part of the thread which is attached to it) at the instant when they impinge is \ <JS of their initial velocity. the velocity of the jjarticle when the thread has its natural length is that due to c^/a. Suddenly the lower thread breaks. and two particles of masses m and m! move on the faces. wii will make n \/(wi2Mi)) and that. particle is attached by an elastic thread of natural length a to a point of a smooth plank which is free to slide on a horizontal table. and the system is let go from rest. the particle jumps up to the highest point of the shell and adheres there. which natural length «. in a horizontal line passing over the A •centre of if the mass of the plank. there are no external forces. Prove that. and. a external forces produce momentum in the system as a whole ? + h^ Three equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length so that the middle one is at distances a and b from the other two. if both are free. l (l + m/J/)tana + (l + m/JI/)2tan2a' smooth wedge of mass whose base angles are a and /3 is placed table. if wi2 is held. Prove that the wedge moves with acceleration on a smooth A M ^ 3. Prove that. M placed on a smooth if the muzzle velocity 2F2 g 2. if Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to an inextensible when the thread is straight. 1. and is also attached to the lowest through a height thread is h. A shot of mass m is fired horizontal plane and elevated at of the shot is F. 5. the range is ' from a gun of mass an angle a.m { m') — {m cos a\m' cos ^)2 {m sin a ^ m' sin ' Two bodies of masses nii is ?«i. being connected by an inextensible thread which passes over a smooth pulley at the summit. attached to the highest point by an elastic thread of stretched to length a +6'. mi are connected ?i by a spring of such strength complete vibrations per second. equal to the weight of the particle. the two end ones are projected with equal velocities in the same sense at right angles to the thread. 15—2 . 214] 214. /3) {m cos a + m' cos ^) {m+ m') JM\. they will make n J{{mi^m^jmi} vibrations per second. plank and particle have equal masses. Prove that. and it is observed that the shell jumps up . through a height A spherical shell of radius is a and mass m contains a particle of the eame mass. the vibrations in all cases being in the line of the spring. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM 227 Examples. point by an inextensible thread and the shell rests on a horizontal plane. and the thread is stretched to a length a + c.213.
the impinging ball will be reduced to rest . falls freely. and (ii) that the initial radius of curvature of the path of A immediately after it leaves the table is ^^ ^^51. Two equal balls of radius a lie in contact on a smooth table. i)rove (i) that the time between successive impacts of the two A balls is Vi/g. of the particles immediately after they have become free of the table.e. if the middle particle is set free. and prove (i) that in the subsequent motion the tension of the thread is always half the weight of either particle. assuming the restitution in each impact to be ijerfect. and 2. with its centre in the vertical plane containing and of mass A m . the thread being straight and at right angles to the edge. the tensions in the two parts of the thread are altered in the ratios 2a + 6 3a : and 2b\a : 36. (ii) {'^ViV2){vi + V2)l8g that the heights at which they take place are alternately and (3^1 + ^2) (^i'^2)/8^j (i") that the velocities of the balls at the impacts are equal and opposite and alternately 4(^1 — ^2) and i(^i + «'2). and when its velocity is Vo a second ball is projected from the same point with velocity Vi . centre common tangent. Prove that. : prove that the ratio of the velocities which either ball will receive according as it is struck first or second is 4 3 . there being no external forces. A third equal ball impinges on them. Two equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length 8. third sphere of the same radius contact on a smooth horizontal plane. moving along a line nearly coinciding \vith a horizontal Assuming that the periods of the impacts do not overlap. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. ball is projected vertically with velocity Vi from a point in a rigid 1.228 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS is [CHAP. Vll. one of them ^ is on a smooth table and the other is just over the edge. Find the velocities I . it The middle one held fixed and the other two describe circles about with the same uniform angular velocity so that the two portions of the thread are always in a straight line. 3. where e is the coefficient of restitution. Two spheres of equal radius and of masses XiWi and X2m are lying in 4. if all the balls are of the same material. horizontal plane. if the coefficient of restitution is ^c2(a + c)2/a3(2a+c). Two equal its balls lie in contact on a table. are struck simultaneously by a ball of radius c moving in the direction of the horizontal common tangent at the point of contact prove that.
that it is Show possible to project a small elastic ball inside a regular polygon of n sides so as to describe a regular polygon of the same number of sides. if it returns to the point of projection. where m. e is the coefficient of restitution. and then returns to A. if the coplane.tan"! " ^. rest if on a smooth table. ball is projected with velocity Ffrom a point of a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal the direction of projection is at right angles to the plane. then again. then DC. the velocity of the falling sphere just before impact.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 229 the centres of the other two. Prove that. the angle of the ball A is to cannon off B on to impact at B must lie between ^irrtani ^ where 7. A is e. (1 it will have described a length A vertical. efficient of restitution for each impact is e. e the coefficient of restitution for each 11. a ball is From one comer J. prove that the velocity produced in the sphere of mass XiWi is where v is V V3 (1 + 2X2)/(1 +4X1 + 4X2+12X1X2). S = sin~i Ad\a. if e is the coefficient of restitution. C. and if e is a root of any equation . BCD AB BC AB : 6. before ceasing to bound. Three smooth billiard balls of perfect restitution. and the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the plane . which is on a smooth table. Prove that the distance travelled through by the tube when the particle has made (*i + l) impacts is + a(l — e")/(e'*e'*'^^) or a (1 .^— and j^+S^tt . it strikes . ^ c2d8mB — . hollow elliptic cylinder stands on a horizontal plane with its axis From the focus of a horizontal section a particle is projected in a horizontal direction with velocity v. of a rectangular billiard table A 5. . Two unequal particles are attached to a thread which passes over a smooth pulley. .\^ c2rtsm(Z?+8) • — '. Assuming that there is no restitution in any of the impacts. so as to strike them simultaneously.c)^ along the plane. each of radius d. n are any integers and 2a is the major axis. Initially the smaller is in contact with a fixed horizontal Prove that.ij . projected in a direction making an angle a with the side first the side BC. and prove that the ratio of the sides of the two polygons is where 8. Prove that.e** i)/(e" . smooth tube of equal mass. 10. then AD. Prove that. their centres forming a triangle ABC'.e" 1) according as n is even or odd. A particle is projected inside a closed at both ends and lies "*" 2a being the length of the tube. and the other at a height k above the plane. the height of the section above the table is '^m^ga^jn^v^. prove that. and impact. the coefficient of restitution in each impact being unity. 2 F^ sin ajg cos^ a 9. AD=e^ cot a\\\e^.
of mass m. Two equal spheres are in contact.12e balls : 19. makes an acute angle a with the line of centres efficient of restitution between on and m'. m and of equal radii.230 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. moving parallel to the thread with velocity v. and the particle m is struck by a blow in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the threads so that both threads are jerked. Prove that the velocity of the impinging sphere is diminished lies in this common in the ratio 13. a being the radius of the wheel. 17. and. Prove that their generates an A shell of mass Jfis moving with amount E velocities are 16.m. vmm' (1 4e) cos^ al{Mm' ^m^a + m Two balls are attached by inextensible threads to fixed points. The particles are placed attached by inextensible threads to particles on a smooth table with the threads in two perpendicular straight lines. A fifth equal sphere running along tangent strikes the first two symmetrically so that the threads become tight. Prove that the initial velocities of m' and m" are in the ratio m + m" m + m'. and the threads cross each other at right angles. A particle of mass w is of masses m' and m". and of mass m'.. of the form e"2e + l=0 with ?i integi'al. where 15. 12. of mass m'. at rest. after the lapse of one second. the velocity of the ascending weight 2 Tf gb{2ab)/ia'^ + ah + 2b'''). and a ball of the same radius. lie on a smooth table with the thread straight. connected by an inextensible thread. and b the radius of the axle. Prove that m' will start to describe a circle oim sin a cos a (1 + <?)/(?« with velocity cos^ a + m' sin^ a). Two of masses M. and thereby breaks the shell into two fragments whose masses are in the ratio mi'. VII. balls. is weight W attached to P. e is the coefficient of restitution between the An internal explosion velocity V. after the is lapse of another second. Weights A weight W is P and W equilibrate on a wheel and axle of negligible mass. describing a circle with velocity u. The lines of the threads pass through the centres of the spheres to which they are attached and make angles of 30' with that common tangent to the first two at their point of contact which the plane of the four centres. another attached to the ascending weight W. so that the line of centres makes an angle a with the thread attached to wi. impinges on the other. and 14. m) (Jl/. Prove that. where e is the coeflicient of restitution. : . where v mass immediately before to its first the velocity of the particle of greater impact on the plane. if e is the costarts with velocity {M\m\m')]. of energy. M m). and are attached by equal threads two other equal spheres at rest. strikes the ball m so that the line of centres (m'. one of them. The fragments continue to move in the original line of motion of the shell. Prove that. 7. is the system will come to rest after a time 2h(l+e)/v (le).
if an impulse is applied to one of the end particles in the direction of the thread attached to it. rigid rod of negligible mass. and. one of the extreme Prove that the particles is struck by a blow at right angles to the rod. when the other extreme particle is fixed. Prove that the magnitudes of the velocities of the particles are in the ratios 9:2:2:1. impulsive tension that. . Prove that the sides of the rhombus begin to turn with angular velocity 2w sin a/a (1 42 sin^ a). and the system is placed on a smooth table so as to form part of a regular polygon whose angles are each na. lower rings being at the ends of the horizontal diameter. the two 24. The radius of the wire is onethird of the length of the thread. find when the threads become is tight. Two equal rigid rods particles. 20. kinetic energy imparted to the system. where 2a is the acute angle of the rhombus. the kinetic energy generated is greater than it would be if the particles were constrained to move in a circular groove. li A is struck by a blow along the line of greatest slope. in the ratio cos2a + 4sin2a: cos2a + 2 sin^a. and prove that the velocity of A immediately afterwards F/(3 2 sin2 a) + ^gh sin a/ F. Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 18. and the system is moving on a horizontal plane with uniform velocity u in the direction of the longer diagonal AC^ when the end A of that diagonal is suddenly fixed. and the impulse were applied tangentially. the : 22. B. 231 A particle of mass is projected with velocity V in a direction an angle 6 with the horizontal. and the rod turns about it. 23. so as to start to BC move down this line with velocity F. Four particles of equal masses are tied at equal intervals to a thread. change 19. AB. Three particles J. (7 of equal mass are placed on a smooth plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. Four equal particles are attached at the corners of a rhombus formed of four threads each of length a . the line being below the level of A. C are connected with by threads of length h sec a which make equal angles a with the line of greatest A slope through A on opposite sides of it. being attached to the point of promaking Prove that the jection by an inextensible thread of length T^ cosec^ ^/2^. BC oi negligible masses carry four equal and at the middle points of the rods. the end A is struck with an impulse at right angles to the rods. The rods and laid out straight. and B. is less than it would be if the system were free in the ratio 24 25. and the rings are at the four upper cornel's of a regular hexagon inscribed in the circle. 21. Three particles of equal mass are attached at equal intervals to a system being at rest. C being freely hinged at i5. the tension is Mg (12 sin* 6). attached &t A. intervals to a thread Four small smooth rings of equal mass are attached at equal and rest on a circular wire in a vertical plane. M when the thread becomes immediately after the tight is JfFcos^ 6 cosec 6y and of motion.
the initial tension of has particles of masses m. B oi masses w. system is initially held at rest so that the radii of the circular section. cut between one of the extreme particles and one of the middle in the horizontal part is suddenly diminished in the Particles of masses which rests cylinder of in a vertical plane mass M. make angles a and fi with the vertical. so as to 30. which is free to rotate about a fixed vertical axis passing through its other end.Q!^ c^ jh). and to the horizontal.m"^] ~AMmm'm''^ + {m + m!) /i^ ' where /x2 = 2wi'2 m"^ + 2m"2 m^ + 2wi2 m'2 . m' are connected by a thread. 26. to one end of a rigid horizontal arm of length c. wire.sin 3) + (wi sin a + m'sin /3) {1 cos (a +3)} . and m' are fastened to the ends of a thread. Prove will begin to move in a direction that. the tension ratio 5:9. being pass over smooth pulleys at points A^ B. sphere of mass hangs by a chain. passes through a smooth ring C at the top of a smooth plane of inclination a = a) is along a line of greatest slope. rests and a particle of mass touch at its lowest point a smooth table against it.m'^ . which passes over the is . ones. if the wire is set free. the as the highest point of the wire. and that the plane through the chain and the radius from the centre of the sphere to the point of attachment starts to rotate with angular velocity \Q. A particle P.m')^ . M making with CP an angle _ J /A (m ~ m') {{m \. Prove that. A B thread it attached to at ABC is fixed at J.mini! (cos a cos * /S)^ of mass J/. 29. and the system is AB and BC make and when C acute angles a and a 4/3 are let go. Prove that the tension of the chain A m immediately becomes m {g \. is m {m + m') g cos a/(w + m' sin^ held at rest in a vertical plane. about the radius. if A is projected at right angles io will begin to ascend or descend according as iii!lm<i or AC with >sina + v2/^a. v. 25. Cat the edge of the table. which pass through the particles. m\ m" by cords which table. and B and C. The arm is seized and made to rotate with angular velocity Q. . velocity B Prove that.m"\ Two particles A. VII. A circular wire of mass M m and is secured to a fixed point in the plane of the wire at the same level Prove that. AB /3). of length h and negligible mass. being supported by an inextensible thread.232 thread MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS is [CHAP.m* . 28. if the cord supporting m" is cut. rests in equilibrium on a smooth horizontal attached to three particles of masses m. m' held in a vertical plane so that with the vertical. the tension of^the thread immediately becomes M{ism a 4. The m ^ {m + m!) {M\m sin^ a + m' sin'^ fi) . when the system is released. Prove that. { Initially AC BC is vertical. which 27. on the surface of a smooth horizontal circular The cylinder can slide on a horizontal plane.
m. the initial radius of curvatiue . and AB. bead of mass m' can slide on a thread.Each pulley and its coimterpoise are suspended by a cord passing over the preceding pulley. . Prove that. is immediately diminished by an amount the angular distance of the particle 31. connected by equal threads.. A with the vertical. and 33. The pulleys are simultaneously set free. There is a system of n moveable pulleys. 34. plane. are placed on a smooth plane of inclination a(<^7r) to the horizontal. Two equal particles connected by an inextensible thread lie on a smooth table with the thread straight prove that. The highest cord (connecting mi and m) passes over a fixed pulley. Prove that the the particle is projected parallel to initial tension in PQ is /3 M QR with Mm 72 (sin where a is . and the two parts of the thread make equal angles a 32. mo. Four particles A. •• Hn.. of masses [ii.M&m 2/3). prove that the tension in each of the lower threads is D instantly diminished in the ratio (l2sin2a)/(H2sin2a). B. prove that the downward acceleration of the p^^ moveable pulley is 2 . the length of QS. where a from the highest point of the wire. T. and no cord passes over the lowest pulley w„. I) of equal mass. . if the mass of each pulley (m) is to the mass of each counterpoise (fi) as 5 3.„ and n corresponding counterpoises. of its path is twice the length of the thread. one end of which is fixed. fj. if the particle m is released. line of greatest slope.. One end of a thread PQ is fixed to a point P on a smooth horizontal and the other end Q is attached to a small smooth ring of mass m which rests on the plane another thiead passes through the ring and is fixed at one end to a point R of the plane while its other end iS carries a particle of mass M. so that is a. : 32n/> + l_5 35. velocity V. and the the bead m' is g {m' + 2 w cos^ a)l{m' 4..2. of masses m^.2. Initially m is held at the level of the fixed end. T^ are the tensions in the cords. and the particles B and are released. make angles a with on AC AD ^C opposite sides of it. while the other end carries a particle of mass m.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES pressure of the particle upon it 233 is m^g sin^ a/ {M+ 4m sin^^a). Initially the angle PQR is obtuse and equal to ^.cos i3)/a (m + Mk. {Tp^Jmp+Tp_i/mp_{) = Tp{llmp + llfji^ + 4/mp_i) further. Prove that. the angle RQS is right . If the uppermost particle A is held. . if Ti. The suffixes indicate the order in which the pulleys are slung. the initial tension initial acceleration of in the thread is mm'g co8a/(m' + 4m cos^ a). if one of them is projected on the table at right angles to the thread.4m cos'^ a). . C.
Show that the coefficient of friction between the window and the framework is «(^3/)/6(^+/). A rests on a rough 39. B on a 37. A window is supported by two cords passing over pulleys in the 42. v. C are connected by two threads Three particles A. straight wire. are connected by a fine string . angles to the wire from a point on it is An inextensible thread passes through two smooth rings A. m is projected horizontally at right angles to the thread. . {p + m ) v^/b +pu^/a (p \. the radius of curvature it leaves the table is {mkm'Y (m + ??i')2 + 2m'2 Two particles J. the initial 771. and m is projected at right angles to this portion. smooth table particles of masses p and q are attached to the ends. B. Prove that. VII. horizontal table (coefficient of friction = /x) and hangs vertically at a disis tance I below the edge of the table. and a. and another by a thread of length a. b the lengths of the threads. and projected horizontally with velocity w. where a is the height and b the breadth of the window. Prove that. The extreme particles are projected at right angles to the thread with velocities u. If A is on the point of motion. One cord breaks and the window descends with acceleration /. (/A yiU^I{{yL\\)Vj^ and that the initial radius of curvature of J5's + 1)^.q ^^ m) v^ the other end A particle of mass m is attached to one end of through a bead of mass M and is smooth horizontal table on which the whole rests. if particle of mass m is attached to a point . the initial curvature of its path is {pjOA ~ q/OB)/(p + q + m). if of the path of wi immediately after by a thread of length a at right angles to the system starts from rest. p. AC and the system placed in a line on a smooth table. is AB. q curvatures of the paths of B and C are . if are the masses. A small mass ring of on' is mass m rests on a smooth it particle of if connected with m' is projected in a direction at right at a distance a from m. A particle of mass m on a smooth table is joined to a particle of mass m' hanging just over the edge the edge. (q+7n) ijfifa f qv^lb {p\q+'m)u^ 41. the initial radius of curvature of the path a{m\'m')lm. show that A will begin to move with B B B an acceleration path will be 40. the portion between m and being of length a. Prove that. 38. framework of the window (which it loosely fits). and a between A and B. a thread which passes secured to a point on a Initially the two portions M Prove that the initial radius of curvature of the path of m is a(H4mi/'icos2^a). of the thread are straight and contain an obtuse angle a. Prove that. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. and is connected with counterpoises each equal to half the weight of the window.234 36.
on^. . may remain .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 235 A bucket of mass raised from the bottom of a shaft of depth 43. of mass m. Prove that the acceleration of 31 is on a smooth table. which is applied tangentially to its rim for a certain time and then ceases. the weight of the vehicle exclusive of the axle and wheels is TF. Prove that. 46. from rest is engine is pulling a If train. find the mass of the single body in order that m' „ .. and its centre of V . if the shafts are in a horizontal plane with the tops of the wheels. if the ratio F: Q lies between 3 and ^. Im'm a. are is + rn^ 4mi m^ (M+m) (Wi + 7712) + 4?«i {lYii I m ??l2 bodies hang by a cord over a fixed pulley inertia of the pulley is neglected. An H units of work per second. prove that the time of generating velocity v \w 45. if the bucket just comes to rest at /i Mm the top of the shaft rate of working is t seconds after the beginning of the motion. which bodies of masses mi. mass of the other moving body may be found which will keep either and that these values are in the ratio SPQ: 3QP.2/i (J/+ m)}. and The cord passes over the edge of the table carrying another cord to the ends of attached. and prove that the acceleratioa 01 the T)ulley is . M is and works at a constant power doing the the mass of the whole train and F resistance (supposed constant). Q. A particle of mass M is attached to a cord. where X is the angle of friction between the axle and its bearings. certain values of the or Q stationary. The wheel is driven by a constant force. P 49. runs is may In an Atwood's machine the groove in the pulley in which the chain cut to that depth at which it is found that the inertia of the pulley be divided equally between the moving bodies. If for bodies of masses one of the bodies a pulley of negligible mass is substituted.r^ sin'^ X). the spaces described 47. its the mass of the wheel being regarded as condensed uniformly on 44. 48. Show that. f) ^^^''''^^ twowheeled vehicle is being drawn along a level road with velocity the wheels (radius c) are connected by an axle (radius r) fixed to them. Two : show that. the greatest 2hM^gH/{Mgf . which hang freely. A mass is vertically over the middle point of the axle. if the by the bodies in successive equal intervals of time are in arithmetic progression. round which passes a cord connecting two masses P. For one of the moving bodies in an Atwood's machine a pulley is substituted. rim. and Q is the weight . H ir^v ^^° ~ Mv\ . Show that. by means of a cord which is wound on a wheel of mass m. at rest if initially so. and supports a pulley. the horse is working at a rate Wvr sin \l>J{c^ . fMH. and m and m' slung over it.
fastened to a point A below B. the pulleys being of equal weight.236 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. passes over Prove that the acceleration of the pulley and supports a body of is g (2m' . Q' by cords. P'. and bodies of masses m/. mass m'. Two pulleys each of mass 8m hang at the ends of a chain of negligible mass which passes over a fixed pulley a similar chain passes over each of the two suspended pulleys and carries at its ends bodies of mass 2m. if bodies pulleys in which each pulley hangs by a separate cord. if all the parts of the chain are vertical. g {M+ 2/i . and the initial subsequent velocity when Q' reaches the plane just before V Q rises. Prove that either pulley M moves with acceleration where fi is m/ and 7712'. Prove that an additional weight R will P produce acceleration Rg/{2P+2Q\R+ W). the harmonic mean of mi and 7)12 and fi is the harmonic mean .2.i')l{M+ M' + 2. the moveable pulley will remain at rest if its mass is twice the harmonic mean of the other two masses. P' will des:. mo are hung over M'. If Fis the initial subsequent velocity of P. 52. .cend with acceleration /. are substituted. W is the weight of the Two smooth pulley. Prove also that the two descending bodies move with the same velocity. A chain of negligible mass passes over two fixed pulleys and under a moveable pulley. A is a body of mass chain chain of negligible mass passes over a fixed pulley i5. 51. prove that F:F' = (2P+^)2:4P(P+^). P' are connected by a cord passing over a and to them are attached equal masses Q. of A body of weight P balances a body of weight W in that system of Prove that.M' . A mass m is now removed from one of the bodies and attached to one of those which hang over the other pulley prove that the acceleration of each pulley is y^^. 50. A similar (7. P' when Q rises just before Q' reaches the plane.x + 2fi'). and that the velocity of one of the ascending bodies is five times . of weights P' and such that W /{22«P'+fP + i(2'^ + l)(2"P. 54. Bodies of masses mi and ra^ are hung over J/ by a cord. 53. equal masses P. . . where pulley. Q' are in motion from the plane and Q' caught by it almost simultaneously.m \p)l{Am' f m +p). Two pulleys of masses and M' are connected by a cord passing over a fixed pulley. VIL required to be added to overcome the friction of the axle when equal weights are hung at the ends of the chain. and bodies are attached to its ends. Q. Q is raised Initially Q lies on a horizontal plane.W)} = 2^g{2''{P'P)+W'all Tf}. and P. Prove that. 55. that of the other. and supports m at one end and a pulley C of mass p at the other.
m are attached to the points B. M. The distance ends are attached to two points in the same horizontal plane. are attached. /3. are symmetrically attached to a circular wire. being attached to A by equal elastic threads of natural length I. if there are no external forces. the period of the small oscillations is 2Tr ^{2almlE {pa U)}. Two equal particles are connected by a string of length 21. and each cord supports a mass M. suspended by the ends A. The portions AB. A triangle ABC is formed of equal smooth rods each of length 2a. of a thread AE of length 4«. Prove that i/'tana= (i/'+2m)tan^. passes over a small fixed pulley. A particle is attached to the middle point of an elastic thread whose 62. D E from two points at the same level. to the ends of which particles of mass The thi*ead is hung over two pegs distant 2a apart in a horizontal line. of the same radius. system is n [a (?? + 2)lgnY. Three particles of masses m.mi wig}.. m^. apart.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 56. Prove that. if receives a small vertical dis DE M placement. the length of the equivalent simple I pendulum is cot ^ cosec j3 cosec a. 237 Three particles. 58. Prove that. to a thread. CDj are each of length a and make with the horizontal angles a. of negligible mass. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple of the system is pendulum of the small oscillations (mi + WI2 + ^3) a/s. which 60. and that. and if one of the rings is slightly displaced. a respectively. and connected together by an inextensible thread passing through a fixed smooth ring at the middle point of BC. BC. and a that of the plane to the horizon. and of radius a. which can move in a smooth circular tube. of masses mi. m^.m^ m^ m^m^. /3 is the two portions of the string to the i)lane when the particles are together. the period of the small oscillations is the same as for a simple pendulum of length sin a sin sin^ ^ sin (a — /3) cos (a . AC. and they rest on a smooth inclined plane so that the two parts of the string are nearly in a vertical plane. when they are slightly displaced and the motion is regarded as taking place in a vertical inclination of the plane. A particle of mass M horizontal table of radius a . /3. and rest C. Prove F that the period of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is the same as that for a simj)le pendulum of length a tan a.jS) a cos a + sin^ /3 cos /3 is placed at the centre of a smooth circular cords are attached to the particle and pass over n smooth pulleys placed symmetrically round the circumference. . and small equal rings rest on the rods at the middle points of AB. where m is the mass of each ring and E is the modulus of elasticity. 61./{mi^ + mi ^m^. Show that the time of a small oscillation of the 59. Two equal particles of mass Psin a are attached. fixed in a vertical plane. at a distance 2a sin a 57.
rigidly attached to hoop of negligible mass and of radius h carries a particle it at a point distant c from its centre. in the form of a circle. ? What happens 64.238 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. if the rings attract each other according to the law of gravitation. Prove that the time of a small oscillation is the same as for a . and. to 2a between the points and the unstretched length of the thread are each equal and. the two parts of the thread contain a right angle. being let go. simple pendulum of length a(2V22)/(2V2l). whose surface is . if this condition not satisfied Three small equal rings are fitted on three smooth rods. Iha \J c^ Two vertically from a are attached to a thread which hangs particles of masses Jf. Show that. a. is under the action of a force fi (distance) per unit mass directed from its centre. under the action of a repulsive force. modulus X. is held slightly pulled being above J/ . one being midway between the other two. and are placed so that the line joining any two of them is nearly perpendicular to the rods. the middle ring and the centre of mass of the other two will oscillate in a period other two relatively to each other in period 4iTl^{5fi). directed from the centre of the fixed circle and equal to /x times the distance. of mass m. then M{vit) will remain An umbrella. time. 63. and the parallel being the attraction at distance 65. fixed point. Prove that its radius will vary harmonically A about a mean length 27rXc/(27rX is — w/xc). which falls vertically with velocity v smooth and spherical. and its inner surface is constrained to roll on the outer surface of a fixed circle of radius a. fia 27rls/{Sfx). VII. the system performs Prove that the angular motion of the lower thread in the case will be the same as that of the upper thread in the second case if 67. A number of uniformly distributed particles . which are and in the same plane. Prove that the period of circular A small oscillations of the hoop will be h+c a 66. 68. and natural length 27rc. and u its velocity. and the distance between neighbouring rods being a. the system performs small oscillations . uniform elastic ring. first without disturbing m^ and. (1) m m m aside a distance h from the position of equilibrium. (6>a). provided that 2nX>mfxc. move with the same velocity v in the same direction in this medium is placed a body of any form and such that all the particles impinging on it adhere. is held in rain and the umbrella itself is drawn . in the position of equilibrium. (2) J/ is held slightly pulled aside a distance k^ small oscillations. if J/ is the mass of the body at any constant. Prove that. being let go.
in the subsequent motion. when the thread like Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread is straight. l/V(l+2sin2^) of 70. and are initially at rest at a distance a apart. and are connected by an elastic thread of modulus X. . where X is the modulus of elasticity of the thread. if the greatest particle is projected at right angles to the thread. send a 32 lb. so that motion ensues without rotation of the wedge. and is if the weight of the gun is n times that of the shot. An M its wedge.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES vertically 239 downwards with velocity V(<v). so that straight and the end right angles to Bof masses 2m and m are attached to an inextensible OA = AB. portions of same velocity v at right angles to the thread. never less than a right angle. Prove that. Two particles on a smooth table are connected by an elastic thread of natural length a. 69. and a smooth ball of mass M' is placed in contact with the wall and with one face of the 71. One Prove that. two Find the charge of powder required with an elevation of 15° to 74. and is of its natural length a. then the range is 6400?i/(4w that + 2 . and is the harmonic mean between the masses of the particles. ball will descend with acceleration Prove that the 72. being given that the initial velocity is 1600 feet per second when the charge is half the weight of the shot. m one of is placed on a smooth table. and lie on a smooth table with the thread fixed. the angle OAB is line.V3) yards. thread OAB.part will then be {7n'^m') J{auvl\{m{m')}. length of the thread during the subsequent motion is 2a. the two extreme ones are projected in . shot over a range of 1600 yards. while the charge just found. if the gun is moveable on a smooth horizontal plane. directions with the if Prove that. OAB is again a straight the velocity of B Two particles of masses m. that they will come to rest at the same time and that their distance a. Two particles A. which The ]3asses round a smooth peg in the plane. the angular velocity of the the thread when they have turned through an angle 6 is its initial value. the velocity of projection is ^{SaX/Sm). Prove that the average pressure per unit area of the rain falling on the umbrella at a point whose distance from the highest point is ^ is jt? cos^ 6 (v — V)'^lv% where p is the average pressure per unit area of the rain falling on a fixed horizontal plane. Prove particles are projected away from the peg with equal momenta. m' are placed close together on a smooth 73. with equilateral wedge of mass lower edges in contact with a smooth vertical wall. The particle B is projected on the table at AB. and that. there are no external forces. where ic and v are their initial velocities. is Prove that. when half that of A. horizontal plane. and.
if the gun is fixed to the carriage. Prove that the path of the particle is a parabola of latus rectum after 2M'^{MifM'^m)gt^l{{M+M'\mY\M'^f. Motion ensues for a time ^.240 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. the sphere will ascend through a vertical height M hM^ cos2 a[{{M + m) ( J/'+ m sin2 a)} where h is . is and the total length of recoil of the gun carriage on the truck iqm{M'{qR)MR)l[R{M\'M'){{M+m) QmR]] 79. Show that. are placed on a railway truck of mass M' tons which runs on a smooth level tons is fired from the gun parallel to the projectile of mass railway. a length I feet. it is in MM'mgl{MM' + (if+ M') {m + M') tan2 «} Prove also that the total weight exceeds the pressure on the fixed horizontal plane {( J/4 by M') {M' + m)2 g sin2 a}/{( J/+ M') {M' + m) sin2 a + MM' cos2 a}. Prove that. together of mass 78. if the powder gas exerts a uniform thrust equal to the weight of Q tons on the shot and gun. A M A m rails. two equal parallel vertical cords in a vertical plane containing the axis of the gun. . The truck is made to slide on a smooth horizontal plane by a massless horizontal chain. M Prove that the pressure of the particle contact is m on the plane with which . on which there is a particle of mass m. is due. and a small sphere of mass 7n. A gun is suspended freely at an inclination a to the horizontal by 75. which the particle is allowed to fall down the tube. if there is no restitution between the wedge and the sphere. lasting till the shot has traversed the bore. Prove that the range on a horizontal plane through the muzzle is 4n (1 +7i) Atana. 76. tons. is horizontal. feet. where h is the height through which the gun rises in the recoil. A wedge of mass and angle a rests on a smooth horizontal table. plane. In a truck of mass M is fixed a fine vertical tube inside which is fastened a particle of mass m. and a shot whose mass is Ijii of that of the gun is fired from it. A wedge of angle a and mass is free to move on a fixed horizontal Another wedge of angle a and of mass M' is laid upon it so that its upper surface. VII. comes to the edge of the wedge. smooth bore gun and carriage. moving on the table in a vertical plane which contains the centre of mass of the wedge and a line of greatest slope on its inclined face. the height to which the velocity of the sphere before reaching the wedge 77. The surfaces are all smooth and the motion takes place in a vertical plane. and if the resistance to sliding weight of between the gun carriage and the truck is constant and equal to the R tons. and if the wedge is high enough. then the velocity imparted to the shot is Q^J\^Mgll{m (m + M) Q — m^R]'\ feet per second. which passes over a fixed smooth pulley and supports a body of mass M'.
then «2 Prove that. 81. if it just slips over the sphere. if the length of the thread = 2gs — Xs2 (m + m')lmm'L z Also. Prove . and if the backing against which is inelastic. a)2 ( 1 + sin a) = tan^ ^ ( 1 . 3 sin a + cosec a. joined by an elastic thread of at the are placed on a smooth table with X. prove that (l . 85. the tensions in the two portions are altered in the ratios (a + 6) 2a and (a +. at any time is ? + s. M. Find /x also the radius of 16 . An elastic circular ring of radius c sin a is placed unstretched in a 82. with the same angular velocity.sin of. moving with velocity v.x) + mz= \mgt^. Prove that. so that the thread is straight. a. and lie on a rough horizontal plane (coefficient of One of the paiticles is projected vertically upwards with velocity friction /*). if the particle A is let go. Assuming that A railway carriage is the compression proportional to the force. and the other two are describing circles particle A is held fixed with the same angular velocity. : : that.sin 83. where a ( is the least angle which satisfies the equation a) (cos a V^ — Sgl sin provided that V^/gl is less than curvature of the path immediately afterwards. prove that the buffers will not be if completely compressed Prove also that. The particle m m m is then just pushed over the edge. r. : : Two 84. horizontal plane over a smooth sphere of radius c. The force necessary to compress a buffer carriage through the full extent I is equal to the weight of a mass m. impinges on a of mass M' at rest.6) 26. prove that the other particle will begin to move when the rod makes with the plane an angle a. equal particles are connected by a thread. Two particles each of mass m are connected by a rod of negligible mass and of length I. + sin a) = figl. One extreme about it Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread. line perpendicular to the edge. the position of equilibrium is defined by the equation 4 (sin ^ . 241 of mass J/". Prove that. so that the thread is always straight. is fixed . the tensions in the two portions of the thread are diminished in the ratios 1 3 and 1 2. carriages is if the buffers are driven v exceeds this limit. Two particles of masses natural length I and modulus edge and m' at a distance I in and m'. L. one point of which and the particles are describing circles of radii a and h about this point. m has fallen through m' and m' is at a distance 3^ from the edge.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 80. the ratio of the final velocities of the Mv>J{2mM'ffl{l + M'IM)}:Mv + y/{2mMgl{l\MIM')}. . if the thread is suddenly released. if at time t.
in the motion which ensues after the system the plane.t right angles to AB.tan /3) a. strikes directly a fixed plane. 90.242 86. In a smooth table are two small holes A^ B Sit a. mass m. 88. 87 the spherical shell is of mass 1cm and the particle of Prove that the shell will or will not strike the plane again according as /:< or > 1+2 cos a. In Ex. if '^•nln is the period of the free oscillations of the systera. l^ [CHAP. each of mass m. Prove that. particle and that the radius of curvature of the path of the upper immediately . if J^>2M'mag tan a. M m A blow Jia applied to M a. the shell will strike the plane again after an interval of time equal to half the period of free oscillation. the tension of the thread is constant and equal to of \mgal~^ cos^ a after it leaves the plane is 1 (1 . and the system. Show that. to move In Ex. each of length a(lfseca). spherical shell contains a particle of equal mass. which are attached at opposite ends of a diameter . 87 the particle and the shell have equal masses but there 89. be — 2a^{(sec a sec ^3) (sec a sec /3 + 2)} . being a particle of mass connected with a particle of mass hanging beneath the table by two inextensible threads. the distance through which M oscillates will . distance 2a apart 91.sin g cos a [cos2a+^(lsina)2]^ l+^a^~i cos2a(lsina)' 87. is In Ex. Prove that. all parts of which are moving in the line A of the springs with the same velocity. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS Two particles. but if where tan ^3 is positive. VII. 88 prove that the period of oscillation when the shell is free is less than it would be if the shell were held fixed in the ratio l:^{l + \lk).sin a). . Prove that. imperfect restitution (coefficient e) between the shell and the plane. where a is the least positive root of the equation tana = a+7r. supported by springs of equal length and strength. M will oscillate to and fro through a distance 2a tan J^ = 2Mmag (tan a . thread of length of inclination a. rests on the table at the middle point of AB. the t time until the shell again strikes the plane is the smallest positive root of the equation (l + <2)sin7i^ = (l e)nt. are connected by an inextensible passing over a smooth pulley at the top of a smooth plane on which one of the particles rests at a distance a from the is free top {a<l). passing through the holes. if the coefl&cient of restitution between the shell and the plane is unity.
but the z of each particle remains constant throughout the motion. y) of a frame of reference. representing the determined by coordinates of the position of one of the particles. make an angle 6 at time t with a line fixed in the plane. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS. of a line of particles passing through that particle. 180 that to determine the position of a rigid body it is requisite and sufficient to determine the positions of a particle of the body. Then the position of the plane is and the position of the line is determined by the which it makes with a fixed line in the plane. line of particles. the axis of x\ further. 16—2 .CHAPTER Vlllt. In this CKapter we propose to discuss the motion of 215. and the angle which a line of the body drawn through that particle. for example the plane {x. The motion is said to be "in two dimensions. of the position of the rigid body (moving in two dimensions) requires the determination of three numbers." Now we saw in Art. for instance angle invariable . We can now see in what meant by the angular Let one velocity of a rigid body moving in the body. y). In the case now under discussion we may take the line and plane in question to be parallel to the plane {x. and parallel to the plane. and of a plane of particles passing through that line. fixed (*) may be omitted reading. makes with a is fixed line. and moving in the plane of its motion. Then this angle is increasing at t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk in a first one plane." or "in one plane. the position of the chosen its particle is Thus the determination coordinates x and y. In such a case the x and y of a particle of the body vary with the time. a rigid body in cases where every particle of the body moves parallel to a fixed plane.
244 a rate MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS 6. The multiplier moment of inertia presently that it &> and Jw^ in these expressions is called the shall see of the body about the axis. and for a \(jiy^\\\p {x^ + y^) dxdydz. It follows that the moment of momentum of the rigid body about the axis is and the kinetic energy is the summations referring to all the particles. very small in all their dimensions. enters into the expressions for the kinetic energy of We . y. line. and this is the angular plane velocity of the rigid body. These expressions become (o\\\p{x^\2/2) dxdydz. Let any other line of particles be drawn also parallel and let a be the angle which it makes with the first Then a is invariable. Then this describing a circle of radius r with velocity ro). multiply the value of p {a^ + y"^) at a point in one of these volumes by this volume. to the plane. definitely. Moment of Inertia. and pass to a limit by diminishing the volumes inThe process will be exemplified in Art. /9 at a point {x. about an axis with angular velocity o). and its kinetic energy is ^mr^co^. and this angle also increases at thus see that every line of particles parallel to the 6. the axis of rotation being the axis of The body integrals are of the body. 218. that is into a very large volume integrals taken through the volume to say we must divide the volume of the number of volumes. VIII. Hence particle its moment of momentum about the axis is mr^ay. turns with the same angular velocity. [CHAP. a rate We 216. z)^ body of density z. Now the second line of particles makes an angle ^ + a with the fixed line. sum the products for all the volumes. for if it were to change the body would be deformed. L^et a particle of a body at a distance r from the is Consider a rigid body turning be the mass of m axis.
I. z the coordinates of the centre of mass. and it will therefore be sufficient to consider axes in different directions through the origin. The of inertia of a system about any axis is equal to the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centre of mass together with the moment of inertia about the original axis of the whole mass placed at the moment centre of mass. relative to the centre of mass. y. of inertia of a body about an axis depends only its situation with reference to the axis. be the coordinates of any particle of the system.\ and the moment of inertia about the axis of 2 is 2m {x^+y'^). it. Theorems concerning Moments of Inertia. of inertia of a plane lamina. The expression moment of inertia about a perpendicular line would be cos2 B2 {mx"^) + sin2 d2my'^ + 2 sin ^ cos 62 {mxy). about any axis perpendicular to its plane. y. y) from this line is is — ^ sin ^ h^ cos ^. and the distribution of density within 217. ^'. x. y) so that this quantity 2 {mxy) .215217] MOMENTS OF INERTIA 245 and moment of rotation is momentum of a rotating body. the theorem stated. Let 6 be the angle which any line makes with the axis x. The moment on the shape of the body. the moments of inertia about the axes of x and y are respectively 2my'^ and 2mj. z X. m its mass. The quantity 2 (mxy) is known as the product of inertia with respect to the axes of x and y (in two dimensions). y. We can always choose the axes of (^. y. For we can use Theorem I.} Now So 2m^2 = 2m (^ + j/)^ = x^2m + 2nu/^ + 2x2mjf 2my^=p2m+lmi/'\ Hence which II. The moment To compare the moments parallel axes of inertia of a lamina about different axes in its plane. For. For new axes obtained by turning through an angle 6 it has the value _ (cos2^ sin2 6) 2 {mxy) + sin 6 cos 6 {2 (m/) 2 {mx^)). is 2m (x^+f) = 2m (af^+y'^) + (^ +y^) 2m. is the sum of those about any two rectangular axes in the plane which meet in any point on the first axis.2 sin ^ cos 62mxy. if the axes are taken to be those oi z. III. whether the axis of fixed or not. zf those of the particle m Then x=x{a/^ y=y^y\ z — z + z'A 2maf=0y 2m^=0. and thus for the the moment of inertia about the line 2m {y co^6x sin 6f = sin^ 62 {mx^) + cos^ O2 {my^) . 2m2f=0. of any form. Let ^. The distance of any point {x.
The quantity k for any body as the radius of gyration of that body about that axis. r the The mass of the part between if Therefore. and the same centre of mass. they have the same moment of about any other axis in the plane. vanishes. be the moment of inertia about the axis x. and if their moments of inertia about any three assigned axes in the plane are equal. Then the moment of inertia about a line through the origin making an angle 6 with the axis x is Jcos^^ + ^sin'^^. the moment of inertia of the ring about its axis would be the same as the moment of inertia of the body about the axis is and any axis II. Radius of gyration of a body. Calculations of moments of inertia. if . the two systems have by Theorem III. ellipse whose equation is Ax'^\By^ = Gon^t. we can always express moment of inertia about any axis in the form mJc\ where k represents the length of a line and thus we see that k is the radius of a ring such that. distance of any section from the middle point. is drawn on the lamina. The directions of the principal axes vary with the point chosen as origin. the same centre of mass. be the Now let the axes of x and y be principal axes of the lamina at the origin. =2 (wx^).246 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. For. Uniform rod. and of very small section. moment of inertia about the axis y. known in question. the thickness of the rod is . =2 {my'^). I. they have the same moment of inertia about any axis perpendicular to the plane. When this is done the axes of x and y are called Principal axes of the lamina. the the mass of the body were condensed uniformly upon the ring. and of mass m. In the case of a body of any shape. Such systems are described as momental It is clear that equivalents. IV. VIII. and 2a its length. If two plane systems in the same plane have the same mass. For a circular ring of Uniform. and the same moments of inertia about these principal axes. the same principal axes at the centre of mass. the moment of inertia about the axis is ma'^. the same moment of inertia about any axis lying in the plane and passing through the common inertia centre of mass. mass m and radius a. mass of the rod. and by Theorem II. ring. and 5. ellipse This ellipse is known as the of inertia. Let m be the 2a br. two plane systems are momental equivalents if they have the same mass. since every element of the mass can be taken to be at the same distance a from the axis. by Theorem I. they have the same moment of inertia about any axis in or perpendicular to the plane. 218. Let ^. then the moment of inertia about any diameter of it is inversely proportional If an to the square of the length of that diameter. in the first place.
IV. /: Ta2 ^Trrdr. and r {x^ y^ z) from the centre. centre at right angles to its plane „ is r2 . Uniform sphere. where the integration denotes the distance of the point taken through the volume of the sphere. . and the distances from the centre of all the lie points in this volume between r and r + br. and finally to pass to a limit by diminishing the small volumes indefinitely. Hence the moment of inertia of the disk about an axis drawn through its The mass per unit of area of a uniform thin circular m is m/na^ The area of the narrow ring contained All the circles of radii r and r+8r is 2ir (r + ^dr) 8r. is the mass of the sphere. next point within one of the small volumes to multiply the value of r^ for a by this volume. 47rr'''ci?r=— ^. disk of radius a and mass between two concentric particles in such a ring are at distances from the centre which lie between r and r+8r. of the sphere that / I \x^dxdydz= i j \y^dxdydz= \ j Iz^dxdydz. is The moment of inertia of the sphere about any diameter therefore where w. the moment of inertia about right angles to the rod is an axis through the middle point at The III. then to sum the all products so formed. Hence the required integral j I \r^dxdydz= r r^. 216 we must integrate Now it follows from the symmetry '\x'^\y'^) through the volume of the sphere. is a/^d. According to the general formula of Art. 218] MOMENTS OF INERTIA 247 disregarded. and let the origin of coordinates be the centre of the sphere.z^) is dxdy dz or \\\\'r^ dxdydz. radius of gyration of the rod Circular disk. = ^irpa^.217. each of these integrals l\ \ Hence is equal to \{x^+y^\. Let a be the radius of the sphere. The radius of gyration of the disk about this axis is a/^2. which is ^wa^. Now r\br is 47r{r2 the volume contained between two concentric spheres of radii r and + r5rf ^(Sr)2}gr. where the integrations are taken through the volume of the sphere. to divide the sphere into a very large To evaluate this integral we have first number of very small volumes. p the (constant) density of the material.
(c2+a2). h and mass m about its principal axes are \w. z = c^. of Art. area of a circle of radius a.) 4. Prove that the moment of inertia of a uniform cube of mass m and an axis through its centre parallel to an edge or at right angles to an edge is fma^.] . We get a^bcjjj$^d^dr}dC. y=br). placed at the middle points of its sides. 218.248 219. Prove that the radius of gyration of a circular disk about a diameter 3. is the mass of the ellipsoid. [It can be shown that the same formula holds for any axis drawn through 7. and \7na?.h^ radius. Prove that the moments of inertia of a uniform rectangular lamina of mass m and sides 2a. To evaluate is the integral 1 1 x^dxdy taken over the area within an ellipse \. This is the same thing as an integration over the area of a circle of unit Hence prove that the moments of inertia of a imiform thin elliptic lamina of semiaxes a. 217 and IV. : Prove that a momental equivalent of a thin rod of mass m consists of three particles one of mass pn at the middle point. of Art. According to IV. An ellipsoid is given / / by an equation of the form x^/a^ +y^/b^ + z^/c^ — l. where the integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality $^+r]'^1^l. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. y. Examples. and one of mass }m at each of the ends. change the variables by putting x=a^. Hence prove that the moments of inertia of the ellipsoid (supposed to be of uniform density />) about the axes of x. the origin being at the centre of the (Cf. z are I (62+^2). To find the value of ix^dxdydz taken through the volume of the ellipsoid. 1. VIII. 5. where the integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality This is the same thing as an integration through the volume ^2 + ^2_j_^2^ 1_ of a sphere of unit radius. We have to find the value of a^b l^^d^drf. 218 the result is 4 — 15 tt. where m. Prove that a momental equivalent of a uniform triangular lamina 6. f(aH62). 26 about axes through its centre parallel to its edges are Jm6^ and ^ma^. side 2a about the centre of the cube. of Art. y = bT]. Hence evaluate the integral I ix^dxdy taken over the circle. = ^npabc. 2. is half the radius. each onethird of its mass. which given by the equation x^la^{y^lh^ = change the variables by putting I x=a^. II. consists of three particles.
where M. makes parallel to the axes are wy' and wx. 63. equal to Mu. =Sm. Let P be any other particle of the coordinates relative to body. and the velocity of is rw relative to at right angles to the resolved parts of this relative velocity . 220] 220. Fig. Hence the resolved velocities of P parallel v to the axes are u— Let (oy and + cox. y' its G at time t Then the GP — is turning with the angular velocity ft) of the rigid body. Similarly the momentum of the body parallel to the axis y is Mv. and let u and v be resolved parts of the velocity of G Let G parallel to the axes x and line y.219. MOMENTUM OF Velocity and RIGID BODY 249 Momentum of rigid body. since the line P G GP GP with the axis x an angle whose cosine is is x'jr and whose sine y'jr. r its distance from G. be the centre of mass of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. body parallel to the axis x Then the is resultant Sm {u — (oy'). and x'. m be momentum which is of the the mass of the particle at P. is the mass of the body. .
(oy'y is the kinetic energy of the whole mass. where k is the radius of gyration about the axis. Mv in the two chosen directions. The point is called the instant is instantaneous centre of no velocity. With the notation of the last Article. together with the kinetic energy of the rotation about the centre of mass (Art. (Art. so that the motion of the body at the a motion of rotation about an axis through this point perpendicular to the plane of motion. The resultant is localized in a line is through G. and the moment of the couple is Mk^a). Thus the momentum of the bod}?^ is the same as the momentum of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. VIII.) The moment of momentum of the body about an axis through is the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion which is equal %m {x' (v + cox') — y' {u — coy')}y to wSm (x'^ + y'^) or to Mk^co. Thus the momentum of the rigid body specified by the resultant and couple of a system of vectors localized in lines.250 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS resultant [CHAP. 158). . the point moves relatively to 6^ in a circle of radius r with angular velocity equal to (a at time t its acceleration relative to G may therefore be resolved into rw at P . the kinetic energy of the body is ^Im {(u which + {v + (ox'Y] = iif(M2 + v^ + A. 153. The formulae for the velocity of a point show that at each instant the point whose coordinates relative to G are — vjw and ujco has zero velocity.W). 156). or frequently "the instantaneous centre. Again." The fact that the motion of a rigid plane figure in its plane is equivalent to rotation about a point is of importance in many geometrical investigations. moving with the centre of mass. Kinetic Reaction of rigid body. The moment of momentum about any parallel axis is the moment about that axis of the momentum of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it together with the moment Mk^co (Art. 221. and has resolved parts Mu.
the axes which are and these ^m {u — my' — (o^x') are Mu and Mi). The kinetic reactions may be reduced to a resultant kinetic reaction localized in a line through the centre of mass and a The resultant in question has resolved parts parallel to couple. moment is 2m [x' (v 4. and rm^ along PO. and 2m {i) + wx — to^y'). of the acceleration of to the axes are parallel P u — my' — (o'^x\ and v + wx — ay^y'.220.d)x' — co^y') — y'{ii— coy — wV)}. moving with the centre of mass. 64. The couple is the moment of the kinetic reactions about a line through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion this . 221] KINETIC REACTION OF RIGID BODY 251 Hence the resolved parts right angles to GP. The moment of the kinetic reactions about any axis perpen dicular to the plane of motion is the moment about that axis of the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body. (Art.) moment . 157. together with the of the couple Mk^m. Fig. and this is Mk^oa.
When the point / is fixed in the body this can be replaced by Ka. The show that formulae for the acceleration of any point of the body at each instant there is a point which has zero acceleration."] the circle of inflexions Prove that the curvature of the path of any particle which is not on is ay^p^j V^ where p"^ is the power with respect to the circle of the position of the particle. This point It is of is called the instantaneous centre of no much less importance than the instantaneous centre of no velocity. acceleration.(^ir^co^j + mk'^co^ we take an angle 6 result obtained l^{^^(F + r2)a>2}. Examples.252 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. Equations of motion of rigid body. O) The r=IG. that particle which is at a cusp on its path. at any instant. 3. velocity of G is rm at right angles to the line joining or we have u'^\v^=r'^(x>^. K for the I. and V is the resultant velocity of the particle. The coordinates of the instantaneous centre to axes through the centre of moment in question is 0) / being — vjat and uja) referred mass G parallel to the axes of reference. where Hence the above or If j. such that B = and write a>. is [This circle 4. . in general. [It follows that this centre can be constructed if we know the directions of motion of 2. called the " circle of inflexions. the normal to the path of every particle passes through the instantaneous centre (of no velocity). is 5. 222. their paths lie Prove that those particles which at any instant are at inflexions on on a circle. and the may be written j^ da {^K(o^).] Calculation of the moment of the kinetic reactions about the instan taneous centre (of no velocity). 217. moment of inertia about the instantaneous centre /. 235 and 236 infra. Prove that. VIII. Other cases in which this formula can be used are noted in Arts. then K=m{k^ + r^) by of Art. 1. is it to /. the — mv + —mu\mK^ai. at the instantaneous 223. two particles. w is the angular velocity of the body. The equations of motion express the conditions that the kinetic reactions and the external forces may be equivalent systems of vectors. centre (of no velocity) Prove that.
the equations arrived at are differential equations.221225] EQUATIONS OF MOTION 253 be the mass of the body /i. and of axes about which to take moments. This class includes all the cases in which the body is symmetrical with respect to a plane and the forces applied to it are directed along lines lying in that plane. A this question in which the cannot be given here. 224. t Ch. and the principles which he invoked were among the considerations which ultimately led to the establishment of the Theory of Energy. or an equation of conservation of momentum. such equations are first the circumstances are such that there integrals of the equations of motion. Let P. De horologio oscillatorlo. when the forces can be reduced to a single resultant in the plane of symmetry and a couple about an axis perpendicular to that plane. was first published in 1673. which at some instant moving in two dimensions parallel to a certain plane. and let be the couple. arises Continuance of motion in tw^o dimensions. M force at its centre of Let the forces acting on the body be reduced to a resultant mass and a couple. His work. or. The is question whether a body. N. as the system P. more generally. Q be the resolved parts of the force in the directions in which the acceleration of the centre of mass was resolved. As in the case of Dynamics of a no rules can be given Particle. about a fixed horizontal axis is known as a "compound pendulum" 225. but it is clear that there is a class of cases motion in two dimensions persists. /a the resolved accelerations Let of the centre of mass in any two directions at right angles to each other in the plane of motion. Mf^. and for solving them in general. continues to move parallel to that plane or will general answer to presently be found to be moving in a different manner. Q. In the formation of equations of motion diversity can arise from the choice of directions in which to resolve. and the same moment about any axis. A heavy body free to rotate Rigid Pendulum f. « the aagular velocity of the body. If however is au equation of energy. Huygens was the first to solve the problem of the motion of the pendulum. Mk(6 has the same resolved part in any direction. In particular we have and the equations of motion of the body can always be written in this form. . N Then the system of vectors expressed by Mf^.
A rigid pendulum. A uniform rod moves with its ends on a smooth circular wire fixed in . 6 the angle which GS makes with Let the vertical at time t Then the whole motion takes place in the vertical plane which passes through G and is at right Fig. Let GS = h. . 119. G perpendicular to the plane of The energy velocity of the centre of is mass is hO. Hence the energy equation can be written iM{h'' + k') &" = Mgh cos 6 + const. axis." 226. 1. 2. A the " The point in the line SG at this distance from S is known as centre of oscillation. Let M be the mass of the body. and the kinetic The potential energy of the is body in the field of the earth's gravitation Mgh{\co%d\ the standard position being the equilibrium position. pendulum whose motion was G be the centre of mass of the GS the perpendicular from G to the body. 95 and 119." S is called the " centre of suspension. VIII. 65. Comparing length {k^ see that the motion this equation with that obtained in Art. and the position of the pendulum at any time depends only on the angle 6." distance between these centres is the " length of the equi valent simple pendulum. is hung up so that it can oscillate in the same vertical plane as before. for which S and are respectively a centre of suspension and the corresponding centre of oscillation. we is the same as that of a simple pendulum of + ¥)lh. angles to the axis. to distinguish it from the simple discussed in Arts. k its radius of gyration about an axis through motion.254 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS " " [CHAP. but with as centre of suspension instead of S prove that S will be the centre of oscillation. Examples.
which Fig. It will now be most convenient. the expression of kinematical conditions. and the expression of the effects of the principles that have been laid down by inertia of a rigid body by means of the moment of inertia. the kinetic energy is and the work done is (m . We shall consider Atwood's machine. 32 [his). and the calculation of resultant of stresses. > < Two rigid pendulums of masses and I. its Let m m and m' be the masses of the bodies at tached to the rope. A or twice according as the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is the distance of the centre of gravity of the bob from the axis of rotation. which can slide on the rod. A' distances of the centres of the axis are V respectively.m') gx. Illustrative Problems.225227] a vertical plane. 4. Now let Ic M be the mass of the pulley. To avoid having to take account of the motion of the pulley in our preliminary notice of Atwood's machine (Art. which can turn about a fixed horizontal axis. . The A. I. m zontal axis. a its radius. if the pendulums are fastened together in the position of equilibrium. Prove that the period of oscillation will be prolonged by sliding the bob up or down. We exemplify the application of the partially working out some problems. 6 the angle through which it has turned up to time t. 73) we assumed the pulley to be perfectly smooth. Then x = a6. 227. radius of gyration about its axis. in order to get some idea of the way in which the motion of the pulley affects the result. to suppose the pulley to be so rough that the particles of the rope and the pulley in contact move with the same velocity along the tangents to the pulley. The mass of the rope being neglected. and m' turn about the same horimass and of oscillation from Prove that. Other matters subsidiary interest are the kinematical expression of velocities and accelerations in terms of a small number of independent geometrical quantities. compound pendulum consists of a rod. Inertia of machines. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the compoimd body will be {mhl + m'h'l')l{mh + m' h'). The most important matters to be illustrated are actions between two rigid bodies whether smooth or rough. pendulum is equal to the radius of the 3. if it PENDULUM 255 the length of the equivalent simple subtends an angle of 120° at the centre. or that the rope slides over resistance it without frictional and without setting it in motion. and x the distance through has fallen at time t. circle. RIGID Prove that. and a spherical bob.
Wheel set in .m') gx + const. Let a wheel.mg. The sense of a is the same as that of G and therefore. its mass is neglected) by ^Mk^ja^. mk^o) = G — Fa. the plane of which is and let the wheel be vertical. . are vertically mv = Fj = R. reactions. When v slips on the plane in the sense opposite to that of v. If v = a(Oj so that the wheel rolls. and written down the equations. if the motion In the same case starts from rest. on the aw. so that the energy equation I? \M 2 i^ + ^ w + m') i^ = (m . and obtain the equation m{k^ + a^)d> = 0. obtained by resolving horizontally and and taking moments about the centre. 66. we may eliminate F fron^ two of our equations. and then the friction < acts in the sense shown. the mass. be in contact with rough horizontal ground set in motion by a couple about its axis. . Fig. ( Thus the acceleration with which m descends is m + m'+Mk^la^ It appears that the effect of the inertia of the pulley is equivalent to an increase of each of the masses in the simple problem (where the pulley is regarded as smooth and II. point m F Let o> with which be the angular velocity with which the wheel turns. G the applied couple. k the radius ot gyration about the axis. The lefthand figure is the diagram of the kinetic hand figure is the diagram of the applied forces. VIII. the point of contact supposition that v does not exceed aw. motion hy couple. the friction and R the pressure at the of contact with the ground. Let a be the radius of the wheel. and the right The equations of motion.256 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS is [CHAP. the sense of a> is the same as that of G. v the velocity its centre moves. We have drawn the figiue.
S. and keeps it in motion against the resistances. which can be transformed into work done by the couple acting on the driving wheel. in the coupling is a the frictions at the points It appears that the "pull of the engine" (Art. The machinery is so contrived that a couple is exerted on the driving wheel of the locomotive. II. and of contact of the wheels with the rails act as resistances. the wheel slips or " skids " on the rail but.e. FjR or conclude that. In order that this motion may take place it is necessary that Gal{{k^+a^)mg] should not exceed the coefficient of friction. Again let the wheel of No. motion by a horizontal force P applied at its centre in its plane. London. All the characteristic motions of machines and of living creatures are examples of the same principles. 1888. . or the centre of the wheel moves Fig. We Wheel set in motion hy force. but the working out of the details is in general a matter of difficulty. III. so that the friction acts in the sense in which the centre of the wheel moves (the sense shown in Fig. R. 66). and equal to Pk^Kk^ + a^). 84. on eliminating F^ wheel rolls. or the friction is too small. II. Experimental Mechanics. The problems of Nos. The motion of a wheel of any coach or truck attached to the train is of the character considered in No. The way in which a source of internal energy may result in the production of motion. Ball. {i. the wheel will begin to roll along the road. 214. If the = Rmg. be set III.227] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 257 F=Gaj{k^\a^\ which is positive. such as the friction in this problem. The external forces. if the friction is great enough. through the agency of external forces. The direction of the friction at the point of contact is that of the motion of the train as in No. 2nd Edition. and that the friction at the point of contact is the horizontal force which produces the horizontal momentum. has already been illustrated in simple cases in Ex. mk^a=Fa. are necessary to the successful action of the animal or machine. (Cf. 66). the wheel starts to roll. pp. so that v=aa)j Hence « is positive. 71) is really the friction of the rails on the driving wheel. and III. we have. we have the equations of motion in mv = P+F. in the sense opposite to that if shown The motion will be one of rolling Pk^l{mg{k^\a^)} is less than the coefficient of friction. L. 17 . illustrate the forces that affect the motion of a railicay train. If this couple is too great. 1 of Art. and F is negative. if the ground is sufficiently rough. II. which The in friction in this case acts in the sense opposite to that in P acts. 6 of Art. The tension horizontal force setting the vehicle in motion.) M. This is the " force " which sets the train in motion. 83. 207 and Ex. With the same notation as before. The condition for the production of the motion is the existence of a source of internal energy.
whence MaU+MPi> = 0j I U increases and eo diminishes according to the equation a t^+ Fo) = Fo)o .a Fq. Let V be and <a the angular velocity at time t. where h is the radius of gyration about the axis of the cylinder. Then there must come an instant at which F vanishes. take the problem presented by a uniform and radius a which is set rolling and sliding on a rough cylinder of mass horizontal plane. and at this instant o has the value (OQaFo/F. Taking moments about the point of contact we have MV ifaFifFw = 0. 68. 67. IV. the friction is still finite and in the same sense as before. Then so long as aQ)>U the friction in the same sense. 67. where F is positive. F Resolving horizontally we have MV=F.a F= Fa>o . where Fq and wq are the values of F and w in the beginning of the motion. in the sense of F. Rolling and sliding. See Fig. the The system of kinetic reactions reduces to horizontally through the centre of mass. velocity Hence F is negative and to is also negative. VIII. At this instant the lowest point has velocity aatQ. F+awin the sense of F. be the velocity in the sense At any later stage of the motion let acts opposite to Vq. . Now let F be the friction between the cylinder and the plane. senses being those shown in Fig. the velocity of the axis. on The F diminishes and the angular velocity Foj also diminishes according to the equation .258 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. the angular velocity being initially such that the points on the lowest generator have the greatest velocity. and a velocity of the centre in the opposite sense begins to be generated. We shall proceed with the case where Fo<(iDoF/a. and a couple J/Fd) in the sense of w. The particles on the lowest generator have velocity and therefore has the opposite sense. M We Fig. and we have U F MU=F.Voa^/k^ in the same sense as before.a Fo .
Prove that. Prove that. Prove also that. when the particle begins to slip. if the when the engine only action between an axle and its bearings is a frictional couple varying as the angular velocity of the axle. M The engine exerts a couple G on the forward axle. where ft is the coefficient of friction between the cylinder and the plane. 228. so long as the cylinder slips. ixg and radius a is free to turn about cylinder of mass is placed upon it close and a particle of mass to the highest generator.227. Prove that the hoop will remain stationary for a time aa>lg sin a before descending with acceleration 4. m equation ^i {{M+ 6m) cos 6 — 47n} = if sin 6. the constantly equal to y^Mg. 17—2' . a^ + —B — j^ ^ . 68. In the problem just considered prove that the time from the beginning is ^ of the motion until the motion becomes uniform 2. Examples. It is to friction is be noticed that. circular A uniform thin its about centre with angular velocity co is gently placed on a rough plane of inclination a equal to the angle of friction between the hoop and the plane so that the sense of rotation is that for which the slipping at the point of contact is down a line of greatest slope. the friction between one of the forward wheels and the line capable of being called into play must not be less than \ G {A\Ma'^)la {2A+Ma^). 1. \g sin a. 4^2)^ this instant the cylinder is rolling on the plane. Thereafter the Fig. has two pairs of wheels of radius a engine of mass such that the moment of inertia of either pair with its axle about its axis of rotation is A locomotive A. the final friction called into play between either forward wheel and the line is G/Aa. 228] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS equal to aw the value of either is 259 When U becomes and at a(Fa>oaFo)/(a2 cylinder rolls on the plane uniformly. the angle 6 which the radius through it makes with the vertical is given by the its axis A homogeneous which is M horizontal. hoop of radius a spinning in a vertical plane where 3. /x is the coefficient of friction between the particle and the cylinder. if both pairs of wheels bite at once starts. in this problem.
angles The The F B is A is b(o at right. in the sense of (a 46) 6. 70) In the diagram of accelerations V from equation (1). 69. F have the same velocity along the common tangent to the two We therefore have {a + b)0\ba)= aQ. V the horizontal velocity of m. VIII. Q AB m The condition that m rolls on the plane is V=aQ. Consider the following cylinder of radius b rolls on a cylinder of radius a. A horizontal. which rolls on a It is required to determine the motion. problem : — Kinematic condition of rolling. ratio of the friction to the pressure is f tan *229. horizontal plane. but in the opposite sense. and the._ and {a + b) 6^ in BA. (Fig. is therefore compounded of this velocity and V velocity of horizontally. . B A B (Fig. relative to is {a + b)6 at right The velocity of angles to AB. o> the angular velocity of m'. and that the a. The condition of rolling is that the particles of m and m' that are at circles.) (considered as a point of m') relative to velocity of to AB. k and k' the radii of gyration of and m' about their axes. Since ration of we have introduced the value of B describes a circle relative to A B relative to A is compounded with angular velocity of {a 6. (2). MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. . This gives us the diagram. the angular velocity of m.(1). A Let m and m' be the masses. 69.260 5. 6 the angle which makes with the vertical. (considered as a point of velocity of to AB. uniform sphere rolls down a rough plane of inclination a to the Prove that the acceleration of its centre is fg sin a. angles P m) relative to aQ at right. Fig. the accele + b)d at right angles to AB. A and B the centres.
one of them is the energy equation.. is Prove that. about to for the system. ILLUSTRATIVE PKOBLEMS 261 form the equations of motion.a)k"^lb} = const. 6] + m'k^'^a} m'{aifh)d{aith + a cos 6) + m' (a + h) 6^ a sin 6=. 2. pendulum for small oscillations is and the length of the equivalent simple . in the problem just considered. take moments about We have P for m\ and (3). there equation of the form an integral maQ. *230.228—230] Now. and that 6 and 6 are connected by an equation of the form i{a + b) 6^ [(1 +k'yb^) m' (cos 6 k"^lb^f\{m (1 +F/a2) 4. plane. Two first integrals of these equations can be obtained . Examples.. + m' ail {a + {a {h) cos.^' (1 +/&'2/&2)] 4.^ cos 6 = const. 70. so as to remain in contact with the cylinder. and if it rocks without slipping. the angle 6 which it makes with the horizontal at time t is given by the equation \ ( xV V. {a + b) 6 cos 6 . m'h{a + h)'e\m'atlhco^6\m'Jcf'^m=m'gh^V[\6 and \ mk^Q +ma'^Q. and there then remain two unknown quantities in terms of which the motion can be completely expressed by solving the equations that are obtained by substituting from (2) in (3) and (4).m'g {a + h) sin 6)'"^ '' One of the quantities co and G can be eliminated by means of equation (2).+ aW) e^ ^ga (cos ^ + ^ sin ^) = const. (1 \k^la?)\m' {aQ. if it is displaced in a vertical . 1. A its a with uniform rod of length I rests on a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius middle point at the top prove that. iai^e' Fig.
about an the mass of the ball. Prove Fig. A ball is at rest in a cylindrical garden . (ii) that the angular velocity (a of the ball is Y\a — {b — a) d/a.a). coq of co Prove also that coq vanishes. and therefore the moment of momentum of the ball about any axis through this point is zero initially.V^) +m F2/(6 . forces acting on the ball pass through the point of contact. Prove that each reel descends with uniform acceleration. the unwound part of the thread being vertical. Let a be the radius of the ball.a). the uppermost point of the 3. supposed uniform. roller. is ga?\{a^\lc^\ where h is the radius of gyration of the reel and that the tension of the thread is F/(F + a2) of the weight A thread passes over a smooth peg and unwinds itself from two cylindrical reels freely suspended from it and having their axes horizontal. Prove also that the value of in any position is R R mg (Y. Prove that the acceleration of the centre of the reel about of the 4.cos ^ . when the roller is seized ball. A thread unwinds from a reel of radius a. VIII. thread being held fixed.262 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. Deduce the condition that the the roller. m{ha)6^ = R — mg cos 6. where is is the pressure of the roller on the ball. Prove that the motion in 6 the same as that of a simple pendulum of length (6 . h of the roller. B the angle which the line of centres makes with the vertical. is (i) that the an gular velocity of the roller F/6. and the axis of the reel being horizontal. cube containing a spherical cavity slides without friction plane of inclination a. 71. reel. and Obtain the equations of motion mk^d> . 5. Let k be the radius of gyration of the ball. V the velocity of the roller.ma {ha)'6= mga sin ^. its axis. A down a Prove . and made to roll uniformly on a level walk to find the motion of the assuming that it does not slip on the roller. and a homogeneous sphere rolls in the cavity. ball may roll quite round the interior of 6. m Hence obtain the equation mk'^a)o — ma{{b — a)0o. Initially all the impulsive axis through its centre.V] = and ^o of ^ for the initial values find the value of Sq.
and M and m for the for the distance described by the cube masses of the cube and sphere. and between it and the cube. the radius whose generating circle is c and whose vertex is highest. the radius of gyration of the disk about its centre of mass. p the ^^~x\ radius of X \ . and the instantaneous a> centre of rotation of the disk at the point of contact. the value of 6 at time is the angle of given by the equation 1/7 9 1^ ^{5 (^+ ^) ^^^ € — m cos 6 cos {B . Let c be the radius of the disc.ij\ 6'^'] . 8. Further. we have <j>.\ra¥ sin e + {M+ m) cos a sin {B . in time t. ^ the disk describes a curve parallel to the given curve and at a distance is c from it. is connected with the angular velocity o) of the sphere by the equation (ah)6 = ba. when the plane of Ex. e is t friction Prove that. {f {M+ m)m cos^ 6] ^2 _ [M\. Motion of a circular disk rolling on a given curve under gravity. and that the disk leaves the cycloid when cos =f . the motion is determined by the equation 3c<j>^ of cos* ^(f>=g (3 + cos (f)) sin2 ^0. Finally obtain the equation ^ 7. Velocity of centre = coi = (p + c) Hence obtain the equation of energy ^{p + cY{l+k^le^)^^=g where k is j {p + c)sm(}>d(f). Investigate the corresponding equation when the curve is concave to the disk. the angle which the normal at the point of / I \ \.e) gj{a — b) = 0. where a b is the radius of the sphere. so that. and a. its centre of figure. supposed to coincide with circle is Prove that the disk can roll inside a cycloid the radius of whose generating a and whose vertex is lowest so that the angular velocity (p is uniform and equal to Prove that. 6 is rough.m) cos a cos 6 gl{a . curvature of the curve at this point. taking is the radius of the cavity. obtain the equations of motion by resolving for the system down the plane and at right angles to it and taking moments for the sphere about its point of contact with the cavity.L^'^^ contact makes with the vertical. The centre of p. .230] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 263 that the angle 6. if is the angular velocity of the disk. when the disk is uniform and rolls outside a cycloid.6) = const. between the normal to the plane and the common normal to the sphere and the cavity.
2a its length. 6. If then we take moments about / the pressures do not ' O having components maO enter into the equation.e) + ma^ cos /3 cos e ^^ ^ ' where a its axis. its mass. The lines of action of the two latter forces meet in /. is always at a distance a from 0. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. Jc its radius of gyration about the particle and e the angle of friction between it and spheres are in contact.i wall and the end tally in contact B with the plane. A uniform rod slides in a vertical plane between a smooth the motion. let vertical wall and a smooth horizontal plane. the horizontal pressure at A. and a couple mk^d in the sense of increase of the angle 6 which the rod BA makes with the vertical BI.oB^ sin 26 =^ sin {6 . whose centre of gravity is at its centre. which slides on the plane. To determine Let AB he the rod. and show that the rod leaves the wall when cos ^ =  cos a. prove that the value of 6 at time t is given by the equation a(^ + cos 2e) B .2e). so that the centre of mass G. VIII. is m the mass of Two smooth the radius of the wheel. The forces acting on the rod are its weight at G.f ) + m cos ^ sin  slides. m its mass. Hence prove that the motion lum of length a. therefore equivalent to a resultant kinetic reaction at and maO^ perpendicular to OG and along GO. in 6 is the same as that of a simple pendu By resolving horizontally and vertically find the pressures at A and B. and is connected with the centre of the wheel by a thread the whole motion takes place in a vertical plane. zontal plane. and the vertical pressure at B. and the figure OBIA is a rectangle. .264 9. and the end A move horizon vertically in contact with the . 73. a being the initial value of 10. rolls down a rough plane of inclination a. with the same e. the line of greatest slope down which the particle system descends with uniform acceleration Msin a cos (/3 . 9 are both rough. and the lower slides on a hori M the plane. which is the middle point of AB. A wheel. When angle of friction the plane and the wall of Ex. 12. The system actions is of kinetic re Fig. dragging a particle of mass m. Prove that the M (F + (a c) a2) cos (/3 . The instantaneous centre / is the intersection of the horizontal through A and the vertical through B. . and the thread makes an angle ^ with 11.
a and h the radii. 75. If m is the mass of the rod. 6 the angle which the line of makes with whole sysfrom rest.. makes . since the radius of gyration about the centre of mass is a/v/3. ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 265 m be the masses. 8=^ a initially.'^8 ^a^ = and where a lations. 6 the angle which with the vertical at time ^. it 2a we have. and thus the horizontal velocity of Gis XBy equating this to zero M+m {a + b)0 cos in 3. the spheres separate when 3 M+m cos^^J)=2cosa. since all the forces acting on either sphere its pass ^^' through centre. the amplitude of the oscil Now consider the action between Fig. is —ctg sin 6. Further. — a^2 =g (cos 6 cos a). we express x terms of and 6. for there is no resultant force horizontal on the system. Hence prove that the equation of energy can be put in the form K cos ^ \e^ C0S2^)^2 + COS ^ = const. neither acquires any angular velocity. If the tem starts the centre of mass G descends vertically. if Find the pressure between the spheres in any position. Let x be the distance of the centre of the lower sphere (if) from the vertical through the centre of mass at time t. and prove that. its length. then the distance of G from the centre of Jf is m {a\b)/{M+m).230. 231] Let centres J/. the two parts of the rod exerted across . njT *231. As an example of the resultant force between two parts of a body we consider the case A^ of a rigid uniform rod swinging as a pendulum about one end. Stress in a rod. the vertical at time t.
BP the weight mgxja vertically downwards through couple G. and we may resolve the force into a tension T in the rod. couple G. its middle point.x) 6 = S— mg . in the opposite senses to those shown. or ^mg sin 6 J^^ . m. and suppose the ing force S at right angles to it. AP is then reducible to a force at P S. The action of We BP on having components T. of amount equal to the product of the angular velocity of the body through the centre of of the whole mass of the and the moment of mass perpendicular ineytia about an axis through the centre of to the plane of motion. S. We apply the theory of sudden changes of motion of any system (Ch. S. and equal to the momentum body moving with the centre of mass. V be the resolved velocities of the centre of mass in the . and by taking moments about P. and by these equations T.{2a . we obtain the equations of motion of BP in the form By resolving along AB m(2ax)6^=T'mgGOfie. 6 and known. the centre of mass in two directions (at right angles to each other) the angular velocity before impact in the plane of motion. We may suppose the action of AP on BP reduced to a force at P and a couple. and G^ to be those shown in the figure. U. and a shearcall the couple G. Impulsive motion. VIII.266 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Let [CHAP.sin 0. let u. and m V H . while its centre describes a circle of radius 2a xyi ith the same It moves in this way under the action of the forces T. 220). The momentum a resultant of the body was shown to be equivalent to momentum localized in a line mass. VI. Sy angular velocity. \ m . together with a couple.\x(^ax)6\~ (^\ — — G — mgx sin 6. In particular the couple G resisting bending is 6^ being imgsme^{ax). and G are completely determined. senses of T. the resolved velocities of Let be the mass of the body. a section distant 2x from the free end. 168) and the theory of the momentum of a rigid body (Art. and a is a rigid uniform rod of mass mxja. 232. P be the centroid of this section. and the and at right angles to it. We have three equations of impulsive motion expressing that the change of momentum of the body is equivalent to the impulses exerted upon it. turning with angular Now — velocity 6. Art.
m{vV)=Y. in the same direction. V. in any direction.) = t\xYyX). — moment N.231—233] same two let SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION and « the angular velocity . whose — U) and resolved parts in the two specified directions are {ii m m{v — V)\ moment together with a couple. is equal to the about the same axis of the vector system determined by determined hym(u — U). The equations of impulsive motion express the equivalence of the two systems of vectors. corresponding quantities just after. and the moment about any axis of the vector system mk^((o D. of the vector whose resolved parts. More whose resolved mk' (co . F. in the specified directions. if whose resolved parts the impulses are reduced to an impulse at the centre in the specified directions are X and F. just before the impulses act. m(v — V).n) =^ K generally. in the specified directions. The equations of impulsive motion are m{vV) = tY. Thus of mass. Let m be the mass of the body. together with a couple N. 0) Let X. the resolved part. . of the vector — U) and parts. y. V resolved velocities of its centre of mass parallel to the axes of reference. are X and X. body move in one plane. are m{u is m (v — V) equal to the resolved part. U. we can take the equations of impulsive motion to be m{uU) = X. u.). The change of momentum of the system can be expressed as a vector localized in a line through the centre of mass. in the plane of motion. be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the Y impulse applied to the body at any point whose coordinates relative to the centre of mass are w. F. 267 also directions after impact. mk'{oyD. k be the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinetic energy produced by impulses. and H its angular velocity. of The impulses exerted on the body can be expressed as a single impulse at any origin and an impulsive couple. Let the 233..
and prove that. Then we have of this equation The righthand member is the sum of the products of the external impulses and the arithmetic means of the velocities of their points of application resolved in their directions before and after. P is of a diameter rotating in its plane about one end fixed. it begins to turn about its is and that the kinetic energy generated end were fixed in the ratio 4 3. and is set in motion by an impulse of magnitude mV. A uniform rod at rest is Prove that. It follows that the internal impulses between the parts of a rigid body. the point of it which is distant onethird of struck at one end by an impulse at right is free. An when elliptic disk PP'. : greater than length from the other end. contribute nothing to this sum. required for the the same kind as solution of problems concerning rigid bodies of 206 but attention those which were considered in Arts.268 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Multiply these equations in order by [CHAP. must be paid a rigid body. the diameter may be so chosen that the disk is reduced to rest. A uniform rod of length 2a and mass m is constrained to move with ends on two smooth fixed straight wires which intersect at right angles. when a parallel axis at a distance c becomes fixed. Initial motions. : 3. Examples. which the radius of gyration is ^. it would be if the other for A free rigid body is rotating about an axis through its centre of mass. Prove that the kinetic energy generated is '^V^p^Ja^ where p is the perpendicular from the intersection of the fixed wires on a line parallel to the line of the im pulse and such that the centre of mass is midway between the two is parallels. if the eccentricity exceeds v'f. which undergoes a sudden change of motion. Prove that the angular velocity of the body is suddenly diminished in the ratio F c^+k\ 2. Tq that before. 203 235. and let The the kinetic energy of the body after the impulses. Find the impulse at and the angular suddenly is P P velocity about P. to the proper expression of the kinetic reaction of The kinetic reactions are equivalent as we saw in . VIII. internal 234. No new method — . if the rod angles to its length. PP its 4. Now energy is the theorem of Art. 174 asserts that the change of kinetic equal to the value of the like sum for all the impulses and external. 1.
Ex.233 — 287] IMPULSES. Small oscillations. at an instant when the velocity vanishes. 211 is applied. of the body at one instant during the period course. 235. displaced position. where inertia about an axis drawn through the instantaneous centre K at right angles to the plane of motion. Let OA^ OB the horizontal. where the letters is have the same meanings as in Art. It is then to be remarked that. 221 to a resultant kinetic reaction and a couple is the same as that of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with the acceleration of the centre of mass. 6 the angle between AB and A'B'. The the kinetic reaction about the instantaneous centre correctly to the first order in the displacement moment is of expressed by the formula K(D. Illustrative problem. 3 of Art. the is the moment of moment of kinetic reaction is Kco. sufficient for the This approximation purpose of forming the equation of oscillatory motion. 269 resultant kinetic reaction and the Art. slide with its ends A uniform rod can on two smooth straight wires which It is re are equally inclined to the horizontal and fixed in a vertical plane. 222. When the method of Art. it is sometimes convenient to form an equation of motion by taking moments about the instantaneous centre. and c6 is the angular 236. oscillations . The take moments about the instantaneous centre in a displaced position. Then 6 is the angular . occupied by of oscillation. AB the horizontal be the two wires. acceleration. so also in the case of small oscillations. If we take moments about the instantaneous centre in the position of equilibrium the equation is nugatory. quired to find the oscillations about the horizontal position. and at any other instant during the period the instantaneous centre is in method which is now effective is to a slightly different position. This position is. Cf. the most important matter to attend to is the expression of the potential energy correctly to the second order of the small quantity 6 by which position is specified. a the angle which each of them makes with A'B' a position of equilibrium of the rod. Sometimes it is convenient to form an equation of motion by taking moments about the instantaneous centre. the displacement from the equilibrium As in the case of initial motions. 237. initial motions.
2a be the length of the rod. OB drawn from the ends of the rod. and same as that of a simple pendulum of length therefore the motion in 6 is the acota(^ + cot2a). Hence we have the equation of moments Now m{P + IG^)e=mg{irGG'). Now OF diameter of a circle of which A'B' is the circumference. The and the forces acting on the rod are its weight and the pressures at its ends. and thus the moment of the weight about /' is . VIII. rod. The moment of the kinetic reaction about /' its is m(Ff /'(?'2) its 6.2a at of constant length and //' is therefore ultimately at right angles to 01 and horizontal. where m is the mass of the rod and k radius of gyration about centre of mass. /' the positions of the instantaneous centre corresponding to AB and A'B\ and by G. GG'=IGe = ae cot a. . MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS and 6 the angular acceleration of the is [CHAP. We find //' = BB' sec a = IBB sec a = a$ cosec a sec a.mg {ir — : let GG'). The instantaneous centre in any position the point of intersection of perpendiculars to OA. O' the corresponding positions of the centre of mass. and the equation becomes ma^ (^ + cot^ a)S=— mgaS (sec a cosec a — cot a). Also GG' being ultimately at right angles to IG is horizontal. We denote by /. and thus OF is a chord subtending an angle tt . The righthand member is — mga6 tan a. With sufficient approximation we may put IG for I'G'.270 velocity. is a lines of action of the pressures pass through /'.
the tension in the other immediately becomes Prove that. if the constraint the pressure on the sphere is instantly diminished in the ratio distance is removed. is supported in a horizontal rod of length 2a and mass The ends of the position by two equal inextensible cords each of length I. A small oscillations in the vertical plane through the cords is ^al cos a {1 + 2 cos^ a)f{a + 1 sin^ a). 238] 238. . uniform rod of length 2a is supported in the way explained in the distance between the fixed points of attachment of the cords being 2 (a r^ sin a).237. which is above the lowest point of a smooth bowl in the form of a The rod rests in a vertical surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. cords are attached. A fixed at a height b curve at the lowest point. A uniform rod of length 2a rests in a horizontal position in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical . the centre of mass being at a 3. 5. 4. one to either end of the rod. {a^ + d{abf}/{b^ac). uniform triangular lamina is supported in a horizontal position by Prove that. if one cord is three equal vertical cords attached to its corners. INITIAL MOTIONS AND OSCILLATIONS 271 Examples. the ends of the rod are at points where the radius of curvature of the meridian curve is p and the normal makes an angle a with the vertical. and the other to a fixed A uniform m point. 1. X^rovided that this expression is positive. if c denotes the radius of curvature of the meridian position. 1. uniform rod of length 2a passes through a smooth ring. Prove that. b{bc) : (62 + 3c2). is positive. if mg cos a/ and that the initial ( 1 + 3 cos^ a). cut. A c from the point of contact. angular accelerations of the remaining cord and the rod are in the ratio a sin a : 3^ cos^ a. the tension in each of the others is instantly halved. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations in the vertical plane through the equilibrium position of the rod is ^ap cos a (1 + 2 cos^ a) /{a — p sin^ a). Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for Ex. Prove that. so that the cords one cord is cut. A vertical rod. Into the top of a smooth fixed sphere of radius a is fitted a smooth uniform rod of length 26 rests on the sphere with its upper end constrained to remain on the vertical rod. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations is ic provided that this expression 6. make equal angles a with the vertical. 2.
from a horizontal position. which moves in any manner in that the rope remains tight. is one end of which can turn about a smooth hinge. are firmly joined together so 7. instant. prove that the accelerations directed to a common point.. oscillates under gravity about a fixed horizontal tangent as axis. m. at any 2. of mass and radius a. find the pressure on the axis in any position 9. the directions of motion of all its particles are tangents to a parabola. so rope passes round a rough pulley. 2. Prove that the directions of motion of all the points of the rope.a2}/V {2 (62 + c2) . straight rod moves in any manner in its plane. A A its plane. when the horizontal component of the pressure on the hinge is a maximum. as that of a simple pendulum of length the same ^ (1 — 2 cos A cos B cos C)f. 3 in cyclical order. If any circle is drawn through the instantaneous centre of no acceler ation. are tangents to a conic.J{\ — 8 cos A cos B cos C\ where 6. A uniform triangular lamina ABC is constrained to move Prove that the motion plane with its corners on a fixed circle. and each of the sums contains three terms obtained by putting 1. each of radius a. A uniform triangular lamina ABC is supported own plane (which i {3 is vertical) is so that in its about the angle A. 7?2j % minutes a day respectively.. The pendulum of a clock consists of a rod with a moveable bob clamped the position of the centre of mass of the bob on the central line of the rod being adjustable. n are the numbers 1. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum when the clock keeps correct time is 2 [xiW {ejej)]/2 [xi (eje^^)i where I. it can oscillate Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum (62 + c2) .272 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. of all other points on this circle are Prove that. . of mass of the bob from the axis of suspension when the clock gains ?ii. 1. 2. ^i = l4ni/1440. the vertical comof the weight of the rod. ponent is 8. 3. Given the angular velocity a of the sphere in the lowest position. VIII. 3 successively for I. R is the radius of the circle circumscribing the triangle. . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. fall allowed to ^ uniform sphere. which are in contact with the pulley at any instant. Prove that. Two circular rings. Prove that. in a veitical is 6. A thin uniform rod. A M . that their planes contain an angle 2a and are placed on a rough horizontal Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is plane. if Xi^ x^^ X3 are the distances of the centre to it. ^a cos a cosec2 a (1 + 3 cos^ a).. 4.a2}.
and equal of a railway carriage. which has its hinges (supposed towards the engine. A zontal. the sphere will roll on the cylinder until the plane through the centre of the sphere and the axis of the cylinder makes with the vertical cylinder. L. vanish Prove that. the lower edge of the front face being hinged to the floor of the truck. 18 . displaced. 12. 2a the length of the lamina perpendicular from that axis. in this case. particle. and M. A system consisting of a rough uniform circular wire of mass i/.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 273 and prove that. the m masses of the lamina and the 14. find its previous velocity if the block just turns over. in a position of instantaneous rest. if slightly which is fixed with its axis horizontal. stands open at right angles to the length of the smooth) train when the train starts with an acceleration/. 11. Prove that the door closes in time The door ^ is ^ "w^j J o J{^^) ' ^^^^ ^^ angular velocity ^{2afl{a^+k% where 2a vertical axis the breadth of the door. truck. uniform sphere is placed on the highest generator of a rough Prove that. A uniform rectangular block. and that the total pressure is a to ^Mffy/f^^ when the angle is sin~i§^. minimum. and find the time that elapses before it begins to roll. and made to move horizontally parallel to its length with given uniform A Prove that the cylinder will at first slide and afterwards roll on the velocity. of mass M. 10. A an angle a satisfying the equation 17/i cos a . stands on a railway truck with two faces perpendicular to the direction of motion. 13. and the truck is suddenly started. with its axis perpendicular to the length of the truck. M. solid homogeneous cylinder is placed on a truck. c the distance of the particle being the coefficient of friction. whose ends can slide on the wire.2 sin a = lO/x. the horizontal and vertical pressures on the hinge when the angle which the plane through the hinge and the centre of mass of the block makes with the horizontal has the values sin~i § and sin^ijj respectively. If the truck is suddenly stopped. where /x is the coefficient of friction. and which particle is placed on a rough plane lamina which is initially horiis free to turn about a horizontal axis through its centre of mass. and a straight uniform rod of mass m. Show that the particle will begin to slip when the plane has turned through an angle tan fji  i{/x^«V (^«^ + 9^c^)} > to the axis. and k the radius of gyration about a through the centre of mass. the line of the resultant pressure will be at right angles to the line drawn from the centre to the point of contact of the sphere with the axis if a)^=^gi/a. 15.
with a smooth base. while the wire is at rest.274 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. on a rough horizontal plane the plank is suddenly set in motion along its length with velocity V. and begins to roll at a point B. VIII. curvature of the curve being everywhere less than that of the ring.m) sin''^ a + 3i/ cos^ a] disk of radius a is projected on a rough horizontal such that the friction on an element a is c Vhna. and the plane is made to move backwards and forwards horizontally. if ttQ velocity of the element and m the mass of a unit of area. of mass and radius a. according as the coefficient of friction between the hemisphere and the plane is greater or less than 25wiac/{26 {M+m) a^\40mc^} . where jx is the coefficient A M . {m . The ring is projected from a point A of the curve. the rod will come to rest relatively to the wire after a time ( ^^4. if initially the rod has an angular velocity Q about the centre. and.m) [{M+ m) sin^ g + 3 Jf cos^^ a + fi^m sin^ a ~ 2/x'^ Jf sin^ a] fxmQ [{M'\. is placed with its vertex lowest on a rough horizontal plane. where /x is 18. the corresponding velocities equation (3^2 u. « at any subsequent time satisfy the . the changes from rolling to sliding take place at times where r is a positive integer and a is the least positive root of the equation cos a = 7/i^/26n2 prove also that the changes from sliding to rolling (except the first) take place at times {r7r\y)l7i. Prove that. A Prove that the angle between the normals at the coefficient of friction. which is of friction at each of the places of contact. where y is the least positive . plane . A homogeneous solid hemisphere.a)/ny root of the equation sin y 20.ZM) negative (/x being the coefficient of friction). uniform circular ring moves on a rough curve under no forces. and a particle of mass m is placed on the base at a distance c from the M Prove that the hemisphere begins to roll or slide on the plane centre. flat circular is A table which the disk. the 17.aW)y{Suo^ .aWy= (u^co)/{uo^<oo). and that the whole system will come to rest after a time M'V/fig (M+M') from the beginning of the motion. where V is the Prove that. so that its displacement at time ^ is 6 cos ni. if /x the coefficient of friction <^bn^lg. Prove that if neither of the expressions {M+ m) sin^ a + SJIfcos^ a ± is /x sin a cos a {m . A homogeneous sphere of radius a is initially at rest on a horizontal 19. and 0)0 are the initial velocity of the centre of mass and angular velocity of 16. . the rod subtending an angle 2a at the centre of the wire. + sin a = 7fxg (y + a)l2bn^. moves in one plane under no forces. Prove that the sphere will first slide and then roll on the plank. A and B is fi^ log 2. uniform sphere of mass rests on a rough plank of mass M'.
given by an equation of the form (y{. if either the fx<mb/{Mm)a. and a sphere of mass m is set in 21. and that the V=) velocity of the board will .2 if it oscillates. between the board and the table is neglected. and d is the initial distance between the sina . thread is carried in a vertical line over a smooth peg at a height k above the centre of the reel and supports a body of mass m. plane on which Show cf> that it will .(l become uniform. /* being the is coiled on the reel so as to lie on a The free end of the cylinder of radius b{<a) and coaxal with the reel.x<. and its diameter subtends an angle 2a at the centre of the sphere. weight of the 24. k. then be ^ 22. motion on the upper surface of the board so that the vertical plane containing the direction of projection of its centre passes through the centre of mass of the board the velocity of projection is V and the sphere has an angular velocity Q. axes of the cylinders.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 275 A board of mass J/ rests on a table. the roller. under certain conditions. about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane of projection. A circular cylinder of radius a whose centre of inertia is its axis rolls is at a distance b from angular motion on a horizontal plane. The coefficient of friction between the board and the sphere is /a. ^^ ^\ A reel of mass M and coefficient of friction. 23. and the friction . and <f) is radius of gyration about the axis. Prove that. or if M<m[lb\l]a/haybk)/{a^hk^)]. in which the mass of the handle may be neglected. is A garden roller. (j) k^l{a^+k^)} ^ TTsin ^. On the top of a fixed smooth sphere rests a fine uniform ring with 26. pulled with a force P in a direction making an angle a with the horizontal it rests. and on Prove that. Prove that. Prove that after a time + the motion will (raa)/. j2 _ 2ab cos 6) =gb (cos 6 . system can start from rest and move so that each cylinder rolls on the table with the constant acceleration Two rough them is where Mg sin 2a/{mi (1 +^iW) + Wg (1 +^27^2^) + 4i/ cos^ a} = (ri''r2)/o?. 25. W are the radius. r2 are put on a rough table. thread will be unwound from the reel. it will its 18—2 . the placed a rough plank. if the ring is slightly displaced. cylinders of radii r^. Prove that. /T7 ^\ I ft . not roll unless P { sin a sin + cos a cos where a. and the the angle of friction between it and the ground.cos a). Fine thread radius a rests on a rough floor. its ^^2 + cj2 4. centre in the vertical diameter.
the right angle on the semicircle which it describes is given by one of the equations <. Two uniform rods of equal length a sl% and of equal mass. band of tension inclination equal cylinders of mass wi. A uniform rod. lying at rest in a smooth sphere. and a the radius plane. (2a2 + 3c2~3ac)(4c~a). in a horizontal line and move placed Prove that the angular motion of in the vertical plane through the pegs. distant c apart. and Two M radius c is gently placed upon Prove that. [Assume that the pressure between the sphere and the ring acts only at the highest and lowest points of the ring.f)2 (I a2 _ is (j^Q cos ^0 + c2) + ^g {a cos ^(f>c cos (f>) = const. Prove that at any time t before the thread is entirely unwound the tension is ^mg sin a sin^ {^ t ij{3\/lm)}. a uniform sphere of mass horizontal line. plane has turned through an angle which + a) sin a = 2 cos^ a (2 . F2>^a(V2 + i\/202). if 9M{a^ + c^y^ = have half the velocity which it would have had after at the point where their ends meet. and are at right angles. over two smooth pegs. which is the line of contact of the straight portion of the thread with the plane. each of mass m and length 2«. which are fixed at a distance 2a apart in a The rods being horizontal. bound together by a light elastic T. falling freely them through the same height. and the other to the top of a smooth fixed plane of inclination a to the horizontal. the sphere will. The rods are firmly fixed at one extremity of each. down which the disk moves in a vertical plane through a line of greatest sloj^e. equal uniform rods. one end being fastened to the rim. VIII. are free to turn about their middle points. Initially the thread has its natural length I and is entirely wound on the rim of the disk which is at rest at the top. The rod is set in motion so that its ends remain on the sphere and make complete revolutions in a vertical Prove that. homogeneous circular disk of mass m.] 27.. if V is the initial velocity of the centre.3 cos B). roll with their axes horizontal down a rough plane of Show that their acceleration down the plane is f^rsm. and. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum 29.276 first MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS begin to leave the sphere when is given by the equation sin {6 its [CHAP. — 2m{a^ G^}^. as it leaves the rods. 31. is of such length that subtends a right angle at the centre. Two a. it of the sphere. \ mg sin a /i being the coefficient of friction between the cylinders . An elastic thread of modulus X is wound round the smooth rim of a 30. if the motion is a small oscillation. are 28.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 277 32. and of the road. the forces which maintain the rotation being applied to the part AC oi the 35. M m mF radius of each pair of wheels. Prove that. the spheres will separate when the line joining their centres makes with the horizontal an angle 6 which is given by the equation (a + b) 37. Prove that the stress couple at the middle point C of the arc AB vanishes when AB is vertical if a> = V{(47r)^/(6~7r)a}. Prove that the couple resisting bending is greatest at a point P determined by the condition that the centre of mass of the part FB is the centre of oscillation of the pendulum. and to have rail to is M one extremity on the ground. A semicircular wire A CB^ whose line density varies as the distance 34. {{M. Prove that the inclination of the vertical in the ensuing motion (supposed to be in a vertical plane) the equation the given by \6^ sin'2^)a2 + where a [^(1+ is the initial value of ^^ (^—4^acos^yj=5ra(cosacos^). ^3 being an angle depending on the nature A rod AB. uniform rod of mass has one extremity fastened by a pivot to the centre of a uniform circular disk of mass M. of mass m and length 2a. rests the system starting from rest in a position in which 36. the mass m centres being in a vertical plane at right angles to the wall. 6. plane of the wall is at right angles to the plane containing the disk and the rod. . denoting the mass the mass. pendulum about a horizontal axis through A. and a second homogeneous sphere. is placed in contact with it and the wall. on a horizontal a. and a the body of the waggon. which rolls on a horizontal A m The plane. = a. and the road is crushed uniformly by the wheels. of and radius b{<a). is at rest on a of mass and a heavy straight rail. which is vertical. if all the surfaces are smooth. the moment of inertia. Prove that the inclination 6 of the rod to the vertical when is it leaves the wall given by the equation cos^ d + Qm cos 6  QM 4m cos a = 0. with its length in contact with the cylinder. A homogeneous sphere. the other extremity being in contact with a smooth vertical wall. prove that the accelera tion is (J/ + 2m)8in(ai3) {M+ 2m) cos /3 + 2m¥Ja^ ^' of the the centre of mass being midway between the wheels. rotates in its plane. . from the diameter AB. is swung as a 33. smooth horizontal plane is placed so as to rest and radius c. A waggon runs down a road inclined at an angle a to the horizon.m) sin^ 6 + 3m sin ^} = 4m V («&)• A smooth circular cylinder. whose density varies in any manner. with uniform angular velocity a> about the fixed point A. of mass M and radius plane in contact with a vertical wall .
equal to the length of the rod. if the cords attached to A and B are of lengths a and a+X respectively. will be where the angle through which the diameter through the particle has turned in the same interval. B in a horizontal line. the first cylinder is of inertia of the second about its axis is MK^. while the shell rolls on a horizontal plane. +m the angular distance 6 of given by the equation . VIIT. Prove that the plane through the axes moves like a simple pendulum of length {ba){l+k^la^). A . then the angle turned through by the hoop in time (vtja. where 2a is the angle of oscillation. only A move by . is sin2 $) ^2 = (ijf +m) \ (if the greatest value of 0. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is (6a)(lf 7i)/?i. if initially the hoop is at rest.cos a) (g/b). projected along it from the point furthest from the fixed t line with velocity y. Prove also that ^ is 42. of that of the hoop can slide on the hoop without Prove that. Show that t is the particle from the vertical diameter at time where a 39.8inylr)/{2\ + l). 40. Prove A that. rolls inside a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius 6. and then Prove that the angular motion of the handle about the given by the equation axis of the roller where its radius of gyration about its axis. vertical the handle released. . uniform circular hoop of radius a is so constrained that it can and a rolling in a horizontal plane on a fixed horizontal line particle whose mass is l/'X. and the moment of . being suspended by two its ends and to points A. (cos 6 A circular cylinder. is held fixed. cords which are attached to AB is uniform rod swings in a vertical plane. is the mass of the handle. where n = a^/k^ + mb^lMK^ prove also that the pressure between the cylinders is proportional to the depth of the point of contact below a plane which is at a depth 2w6 cos a/( 1+3/1) below the fixed axis. and I the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of is R K M its m the handle when the roller 41. The M friction at the inner surface is neglected. mass from the axis. 38.278 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. a. to turn about its axis . h the distance of its centre of and mass. and the cords are not crossed. is garden roller stands at rest on a level path with the handle is pulled down into a horizontal position. the radius of the roller. of radius a and radius of gyration k. The second cylinder is free mass m. held at rest. and the particle is friction. The outer surface of a uniform spherical shell of mass is of radius and the inner (concentric) surface is of radius h. A particle of mass m moves inside the shell.
and the sphere has rolled a length s along the surface of the wedge. prove that. and not being nearly equal to a right angle. the radius of the wheel. and radius of gyration k about its centre. from at rod has its lower end on a smooth table and is released any position. A uniform rest in fallen. and the whole motion to take place in a vertical plane.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES where X 279 is small. show that with constant velocity V he cannot ever get to the highest point of the rim unless V is at least as where a is 2y/{ga {nia^jMK^) (1 \'mayMK^)}. uniform rod.c^)£l\ where MK"^ is the moment of inertia of the rod about the fixed point. the centre of the tube will describe a A uniform sphere of mass m is rolling on the horizontal upper surface of a wedge of mass i/". an angular velocity Q. whose under surface slides without friction on a fixed plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. If the the rim of the wheel great as a horizontal axis and a fly of mass walk along fly suddenly starts off" to relative to the rim. at the instant when the centre reaches the is one quarter of the weight of the rod.+ a' + r'^. the rough edge of a disk of mass m. If a particle is table.r=sseca= 7 7 (i/"m)sina ^ . which is free to turn about a point fixed in it. is greater than it would be if \ were zero by X (g/2a^)'^ (cos 6 — cos a)2 (tan^ 6  i sec 6 sec a) approximately. and edge is the rough enough to prevent slipping. is maintained at rest in a horizontal position on a rough plane of inclination a . of radius a and mass M. Prove that in the subsequent motion the distance r of the point of contact from the fixed point rest satisfies A the equation {MK^ + mr^){l\. where h is the height through which the centre has 44. pressure on the table 45. a being the value of ^ in a position of rest. at a distance c from the fixed point.k^a^) r^ = {MK^ + mc^) {k". Prove also that. if at time t the wedge has slipped a length x along the plane. the angular velocity of the cord attached to A. A wheel can turn freely about 47.^\ .„ ———^r. Show that the velocity of its centre on arriving the table is V(f ^A). trochoid. hollow thin cylinder. and MK^ its moment of inertia about its 48. is suddenly communicated to the rod so that the disk also is set in motion. then . and an insect of A . when inclined to the vertical at an angle 6. moving in a circular tube held at rest on a smooth and the tube is let go. radius a. Assuming the system to move from rest. the horizontal plane. touches. The system being at on a smooth horizontal plane. 46.gtK ^„ . m is at rest at the lowest point. 43.
a. lies {1 . find the velocity produced by an slide impulse applied along the lowest edge CD. 5 of a uniform rectangular lamina on two smooth fixed rigid wires OA. and is suddenly brought to rest by an impulse applied at the other end along the tangent at that end. if one is cut. of four uniform rods each of length 2«. An insect. . Prove that. Prove that. which are attached to its corners and to the corners of a similar fixed triangle in a horizontal plane the plane through any two cords makes an 54. then it will come to instantaneous rest when the insect starts to crawl angle which the radius through the insect makes with the vertical the equation is given by 72 49. 53. a. whose angular distance from the hinge is where 52. if AB = '2. Prove that. : A uniform equilateral triangular board is suspended by three equal cords. 51. Prove that.a) sin a.cos {B . (f) tan ^<j) = l. uniform circular disk is supported in a vertical plane by two cords attached to the ends of a diameter.280 mass MOTION OF A KIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. A uniform rigid semicircular wire is rotating in its own plane about a hinge at one end. A . BC=4:a. b A particle of mass m impinges directly on a smooth uniform spheroid of mass M and semiaxes may the spheroid being at if rest. the angle through which the square turns *''""' \/i4 50. . m is at rest in the cylinder on the line up the cylinder with of contact with the plane.cos square ^) = (1 + Mjm) ag {6 . which is horizontal the cords are equally inclined to the horizontal at an angle a.10ab/{a^ + ¥\ is the point of impact be so chosen that the particle reduced to rest. The velocity F. the tension of the other is diminished in the ratio 2 sin^ a 1 f 2 sin^ a. Prove that. starts from the corner B to crawl along the rod BC with uniform velocity V on a smooth horizontal relative to the rod. and the cylinder is released at the same instant. The lamina being in a position of equilibrium with AB horizontal. and can turn freely about one angular point A^ which is fixed. then AB will just rise to coincidence with a wire if the impulse is such as would impart to a mass equal to that of the disk a velocity §V{«5'(42v/2)}. Prove that the impulsive stress couple is greatest at a point (f). if the relative velocity is maintained and the cylinder rolls uphill. in any time is t before the insect reaches C. and no energy being lost in the impact. VIII. 1 < Mjm < 6 . OB at right angles to each other in a vertical plane and equally inclined to the vertical. A rigid ABGD^ formed table. (¥\/^)A BCD are free to The corners ^.a)} + ag (cos a . whose mass is equal to that of either rod.
(2) when it is rough. (4c .4c aiii^ a. rests with its vertex downwards between two a distance 2c apart in a horizontal plane. the pegs. if 26 > a. 58. Q. peg (1) hangs in a vertical plane on two pegs which are in and the line joining the pegs subtends an angle 2a at the One peg is suddenly removed. and is kept in shape by a band round the horizontal great circle.h^) apart in a horizontal line. if the band is cut. the period of the small oscillations about it is v/[{16F sin2 a + (3A sin a . vertical angle 2a. and radius of gyration k about an angles to if axis through its centre of inertia at right rough parallel rails at of figure. Through each line. the 2 \. P. (1 + j tan^a)^. Prove that. 1 : A are in the ratio 56. the time of a small oscillation about the vertical position is of equilibrium 2v/27ra/v/{3^(26a)}. Prove that. Find the pressure on the remaining when it is smooth. Prove that. one of the cusps being at the highest point of the circumscribing circle (radius is 3a). and prove that these pressures circular ring line. Prove that. is \/ g^inAjAPQ^AG^sm^AY where k is the radius of gyration of the lamina about a line through G perpendicular to its plane. a horizontal centre. 60. 55.4c cos af]lg sin a cos a . if one of the cords tensions in the remaining two are diminished in the ratio Ssin'^a : 281 is cut. whose centre of gravity is 6*. about a position of equilibrium in which the vertex A of the triangle APQ is upwards. A uniform its axis solid right circular cone of height h. are two narrow straight slits BA^ AC. In a heavy plane lamina. 59. being in the same horizontal Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the lamina in its own plane. such that AG bisects the angle BAG.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES angle a with the horizontal. thread of length 2a whose ends are fixed to two points distant 2 >J(a^ . and the upper end of the rod slides on a fixed smooth vertical rod which bisects the line joining the two fixed points. the pressure on the plane is diminished by the fraction 4577^/2048 of A number itself. slit passes a fixed peg. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum ^a. The lower end of a uniform rod of length a slides on an inextensible 57.3A tan a)]. sphere resting on a horizontal plane is divided into a very large of segments by planes through the vertical diameter. the equilibrium rr is stable. The extremities of a uniform rod of length 4a slide without friction on the circumference of a threecusped hypocycloid whose plane is vertical.
are connected. . and d^ = c^¥.d\lM. each of mass m. if I is the length of A the equivalent simple pendulum for a small oscillation. and slightly displaced by rolling on the plane. solid circular cylinder. 26. if the wire is rough enough to prevent slipping. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP.282 61. angles with the. uniform sphere of radius c is placed on a horizontal wire in the Prove that. Prove that. then the ratio of the longest and shortest generators is l\4. A form of an ellipse of axes 2a. radius a. is laid on its curved surface on a rough horizontal plane. and radius of gyration are rigidly connected by an axle of length c and run on a horizontal plane. Two k about its axis. of the centres of the wheels by cords which pass over smooth pegs in the line of centres. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is where F=fc2. bounded by two planes making given 63. the time of a small oscillation is where 26 + c is the distance between the pegs. Two particles. VIII. and d the diameter of the cylinder. axis. and prove that. Find the position of stable equilibrium. if the wheels are symmetrically placed between the pegs. equal wheels each of mass J/. one to each 62.
uu'=0. This hypothesis leads to the following rule for solving the First solve the problem on the supposition problem of impact that there is no restitution. Paris 1833. on the supposition that there is no restitution. Traite de Mecanique. Multiply this pressure by {\\e). ^ m •\m * This Chapter may be omitted in a first reading. and find the impulsive pressure : — between the bodies. D. the restitution of form takes place. 273 et seq. Let us apply this method to the problem of the direct impact of two With the notation of Art. 195 in Ch. which is the coefficient of restitution. Now solve the problem again on the supposition that the impulsive pressure has the value so determined. Poisson supposed that this interval could be divided into two periods during the first period the bodies are undergoing compression during the second period : .m' U\ between the bodies ' is ^rn(uU) ^ or ^'^^. solid bodies. 2nd ed. Poissonf introduced a certain hypothesis as to the motion which takes place while the bodies In this short interval of time the bodies may not be regarded as rigid. pp. . 2. RIGID BODIES 239. t.{UU'). Further Poisson supposed that the impulse of the pressure between the bodies during the period of restitution bears to the impulse of the pressure during the period of compression the ratio e. collide. the equations of the problem.CHAPTEE IX ^. and the impulsive pressure jffo mu + m'v! =mU\.. Impact of two To investigate the motion of solid bodies which are in contact. but the deformation that occurs must be taken into account (Art. t S. Poisson. AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS. vii. 102). are spheres.
. In the case of the direct impact of smooth spheres the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as the results that can be deduced from Newton's experimental show in like manner that.{UU'){l+e). V. 77. axis of ^ be taken y being any Q. AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS The equations between the bodies [CHAP. We sition that the impulsive pressure of the problem. The direction of R is the common normal at P to the two surfaces. and let ^. v. 77). We shall show that this result holds for the impact of any two bodies. considered as a point of m^ has U—Q. the velocity system of corresponding quantities after impact. m! at the instant of Also suppose the negative sense of the axis of x Fig. and let accented letters denote similar quantities for m'. are m{uU)=^^^. We may friction is not great 240. in the case of the oblique impact of smooth spheres (Art.. m ordinates of the centre of mass of m and . whether smooth or rough.U') = ^^.{r\y\ u — (o{t] —y\ F+ Q (^ . 197).^) before impact. Suppose the bodies to be smooth at P. components and v^(a{^x) after impact. w. the axis of perpendicular direction. the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as those that can be deduced from the "generalized Newton's rule" stated in Art. on the suppois {l{e)Ro. be coordinates of that. P is at the same instant. provided that the result. Let two rigid bodies moving in the same plane come into contact at a point P. Let the in this direction.U'){l + e\ and the values of u and u' which are found from these equations are the same as those found in Art. y be the cobefore impact. Let R be the impulsive pressure between the bodies at P. . 196. at U. enough to prevent sliding. Also let x.284 RIGID BODIES multiply this by (1+e).{U. 195. as acting on m. IX. y' those of impact. the sense of R (Fig. Impact of smooth bodies. The velocity of P.r'. m' {u'. fixed line in a Let m and m' be the masses of the bodies.
m{vV)=F\ and mJc^{a>Q)=={^x)F+{7)y)R m'iu'U') = R.y')}. The impulsive action between two rough bodies which come into contact. the friction and the pressure having a constant ratio. viz. when there is sliding at the point of contact. Impact of rough bodies. kf (o) .x') '^' before impact. obtained by resolving parallel to the axis of ^. a>' in the equation containing e.V) = 0. e is The result of this Article can be expressed in the statement that the generalized Newton's rule and the rule derived from Poisson's hypothesis are equivalent for any two smooth bodies moving in one plane. for the impulsive action between rough bodies.239241] The THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT 285 components and velocity of P. resolving parallel to the axis of y are m (y  F) = 0. when there is sliding at the points that come into contact. is assumed to be expressible by means of an impulsive pressure. m' {v' .' o)' {r} —y'\ V + Q' (^ . for the impulsive friction at the point of contact. as in the case of smooth bodies. The equations obtained by m' {u'  U') = R. considered as a point of m'.Q y) U' + Q' {r).Q) = i? (77 y\ m'k"^ (o)' a')=R{q. we find and this equation {l+e) times what it shows that the impulsive pressure with any value of would be if e were zero.1/\ are the radii of gyration of the bodies about the axes in On substituting for u^ u\ w. The equations of impulsive motion of the two bodies. 241. u' — (77 — 3'')? + «' (^  ^') after impact. we have the equations of impulsive F motion m{uU)^R. and an impulsive friction tending to resist sliding. The equations of moments about axes through the centres of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion are mF where k and question. m'iv'V')=:F. has JJ' — Q.R.l m'k'^<o' Q') = {^a/) F{ri y') R j ^ ^' j ^^^' . the rule deduced from Poisson's hypothesis is equivalent to the We generalized Newton's rule. are m{uU)=. We shall relative velocity to be the suppose the geometrical condition as regards the same as in the case of smooth bodies. the generalized Newton's rule. and taking Writing the same notation as in the last Article. shall show that. the coefficient of friction. is The equation provided by the ua){T} y) m' + co' generalized Newton's Eule {q accordingly (Vy)= e{U.
the result which would be •obtained from Poisson's hypothesis is not in general the same as that which R would be obtained from the generalized Newton's rule.'{r^y')]. v + (o{$a.. + (^ . (2). Since is not in general proportional to 1+e. (5). The or results would however be the same in any case (I ^)iv.nd the equation provided (3). From these equations we obtain.286 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. one of them having (1+e) as a factor and the other not containing that factor. From F. shows that R contains (1+e) as a factor and is otherwise This equation independent of e. Case of no sliding. is is. and thus proves the equivalence of the two rules.) = v' + (o'{^x') (1).. the motion must depend largely on accidental any practical interest because circumstances. We may obtain a provisional solution by assuming that the generalized Newton's rule holds good. but instead of equation (3) we have the condition that there is no sliding.U'+a'{n !/')]. Also we have the equation of sliding friction F=i^R «. 7^. . = (l+«)[£^a(>. (4). equations (5) we can form two equations for R and _\m mj mk^ mk^ J mk^ mk^ _ J = (l+e)[UQ{rjy)U' + Q'{r]y% It is clear that the solution of these equations will give •consisting of an expression for R two terms.{rjy)U' + Q. (4) of Art. 241 are still valid. viz.>{rjy)u' + <^'(r^y')=e{UQ. The first of these equations expresses the condition that there no in relative velocity of sliding at the instant of impact.{^). by the generalized Newton's Rule by elimination of an Uo. u. viz.y).^') in y')lm'k'^=o. or that the * impact which there Poisson himself did not suppose his hypothesis to be applicable to cases in The question is not really of is sufficient friction to prevent sliding. When the bodies are sufl&ciently rough to prevent sliding the problem is more complicated. viz. u\ v.2/)/^^' in which either V+Q{^x). o). IX.V'Q'{^x')=0. Then equations (1). 242. •equation for R. The efifects of the elasticity of the bodies cannot be so simple as in the previous cases*. (2). v'. <»'.
for all values of the coefficient of restitution. Prove that. 6. A ball spinning about a vertical axis moves on a smooth table. if the direction of motion makes angles and /3 with the rod before and 2 (3i/62 + ona^) tan ^3 = 3 (3 Jf 6^ _ ema^) tan a. Prove that. falling without rotation. uniform sphere of radius a and mass wi. plane. the centre moving directly towards the cushion. A impact is to that of the sphere before impact in the ratio 1 :l + (m/m')(l + f62/«2). if B is the angle of reflexion. strikes the plane so that the distances of the centre of mass from the point of impact and from the and with velocity plane are r and p. 243. 2. the angular velocity of the rod immediately after impact is a maximum if the rod before impact makes with the horizontal an angle cos "^1/^3. Prove that. Examples. if there is no restitution. the kinetic energy is diminished in the ratio 10 + 14 tan2 ^ : lOe 2 + 49 tan2 <9. moving l''at in its plane without rotation right angles to a fixed plane. the kinetic energy lost in the cube. Prove that the sphere will rebound at an angle greater or A moving less than if instant of impact 4. and 5. there were no friction according as the lowest point of is moving forward or backward." The second is satisfied if r^=^y=y\ that is if the normal at the point of contact passes through the centres of mass of the two It is also bodies. the cushion being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. where k is the radius of gyration of the disk about its centre of mass. satisfied if r}=^y and ^=x\ which would be the case if one bodj is a sphere or a circular disk and the other is a thin rod. 1.241243] THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT 287 an obvious sense. of mass w. "direct. then to turn about a pivot at its centre. uniform rod. 3. and the point the pivot. impinges on a vertical cushion. the edges in contact being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. impinges directly on a smooth uniform cube of side 2a and mass m'. moving without rotation. the line of motion of the sphere being at a distance b from the centre of mass of the Prove that. A circular disk of mass M and radius a c impinges on a rod of mass m and length 2a which is free of impact is distant h from of the centre of the disk after collision. of it at the A disk any form. . the impulsive pressure is is sufficiently rough to prevent mF(lfe)(F+i?2)/(F + r2). if the plane sliding. A sphere whose centre of mass coincides with its centre of figure is in a vertical plane and rotating about an axis perpendicular to that plane when it strikes against a horizontal plane which is sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. as it would if the bodies are spheres or circular disks. strikes a smooth horizontal Prove that.
Let P be the impulse applied at the end A. c[c{u^x\2y^z)\cz\ + h{{'ilc + h){u+x+y)\hy'\ Kc{u\x + ^y+z)\Kh{u'rX\y)\Kau \ \ 1 = P. +a[(2c + 26 + a)w^a^]=0. and let PA vA Fig. I Subtracting the second and third we get. It is required to find how they begin to Let 2a. on simplifying this and the second by using the first. to form equations for each I. we get x{a + 4b + 2c)+y{dc + 3b)+zc=0. and fca. CD. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. kc the masses of the rods. and (2b + a)x + by = 0. for the rod CD. Impulsive motion of connected systems. IX. h\b{u + x\y)lhy'] + a[{^h\a)u^ax]=0. not need to introduce explicitly the reactions between the connected The second illustrates the choice of equations. the last being struck. Then the system of velocities velocity of the centre of mass of the first. is as shown in the figure. body separately. for. We take and about A moments about G for the three rods. about B for the rods BC. Three uniform rods of masses proportional to their lengths are freely jointed together and laid out straight^ and one of the end rods is struck at the free end at right angles to move. We thus obtain the equations \ u\x=0. 26. k6. . and we resolve for the whole system at right angles to the rods. on dividing by c. In illus tration of the application of the equations of impulsive motion to systems of rigid bodies with invariable connexions we take the In the first it will be observed that we do following problems. 78. c{u+x+2y + %z) + 2b{u+x+y) + 2au = 0. and. it is unnecessary bodies. u the xla^ yjh^ zJG be the angular velocities with which they begin to move. its length. 2c be the lengths of the rods.288 244. although some of the unknown reactions must be introduced.
Let 2a be the length of each side of the rhombus A ABCBj a the angle v+aujk Fig. 79. . it. These impulses act in opposite senses on the two rods which meet at a hinge. The figure shows the senses 19 M. Now hinge at let parallel to BC and R at right angles D the impulsive reaction of the hinge at G be resolved into S to BC^ and the impulsive reaction of the into <S". X AB containing the distance of the point struck from the middle point of the side the impulse. and let v be the velocity of the centre of mass. in which we take them to act on the rod CD. Since the figure is always a parallelogram. Let these angular velocities be o) and (n' . To find how the rhombus begins to inove. R' in the same directions. F corners is set in motion by rhombus formed of four equal uniform rods freely jointed at the an impidse applied to one rod at right angles to it. DAB. L. P The centre of mass of the system is the point of intersection of the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides. and the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides are of constant length 2a and turn with the angular velocities of the sides to which they are parallel. opposite sides have the same angular velocities. m the mass of each rod.244] SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION 289 Hence we have IC X y ^ II. Then the velocities of the centres of mass of the rods and their angular velocities are as shown.
ma2 ((o + a)') = P{x + a cos ) a). impulse 5. and the system falling in a vertical plane with velocity V strikes against a fixed horizontal plane. is f (1 + 6) ( V/a) sin a/(l + 3 sin^ a). the ends at A being in contact but free. a) = ^F:vlma% a>=%P cos ajma.290 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. BAC ACin the direction of AB are in the ratio 2 : 7. we get Hence 245. prove that.aa') = R + R'. Two equal uniform rods freely hinged at a common end are laid out 2. straight. V cos a = ^a(o'. v=iFlm. the impulsive action at either of the hinges in the horizontal diagonal makes with the horizontal an angle tan~i {(3 cos^ w^l) cot a] In Example 3. if yl^ is struck by a blow at A in the direction DA. Cf and D. and AC is struck at C by an impulse in a direction Prove that the velocities of the centres of mass oi AB and parallel to AB. . We direction of the impulse form two equations of motion by resolving for the system in the and by taking moments about the centre of mass. Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a rhombus of side 2a with one diagonal vertical. and one end of one of them is struck by an impulse at right angles to their length. on elimination of and R' by resolving for and AD about B and R and R'. Taking a to be the angle which each rod makes with the vertical and assuming no restitution. 3. Two equal rods AB. IX. m \{v — aco) a cos a — \ o^in'^ = — '^aR. m \{v + a<ji) acosa — ^a2&)']= — 2aR\ from which. square framework A BCD is formed of uniform rods freely jointed at B. Examples. the initial velocity of A ia A 79 times that of D.j Again. Prove that the kinetic energy generated is greater than it would be if the rods were firmly fastened together so as to form a single rigid : body in the ratio 7 4. AC freely jointed at A are at rest with the angle a right angle. We thus obtain 4mv = P. we can form three equations containing R CD at right angles to BC. is prove that (i) the impulsive action between the two upper directed horizontally. Prove that. . 1. (ii) the angular velocity of each rod after the impulse is f ( V/a) sin a/(l + 3 sin^ a). (iii) the impulsive action between the two rods upper rods is to the momentum of the system before impact in the ratio ' sin a (3 cos^ a (iv) 1) : 8 cos a (1 + 3 sin^ a). if the coefficient of restitution between the rhombus and the ground is e. and taking moments for BC A respectively. We thus obtain m {v cos a . the angular velocity of each rod after the 4.
. It may however happen that such methods are difficult of case we may begin by writing application. for that Let position. there will be certain values ^o.. is rotating in its plane about its fixed. initial accelerations of we shall obtain the relations between the the various geometrical quantities involved. and find the angular centre with angular velocity becomes suddenly velocity of the sides of length 2a. 246. INITIAL MOTIONS 291 masses A rectangle formed of four uniform rods. define the position of the system. <^o. and for every geometrical quantity the value that it has in the initial position. (f).) On differentiating be the form of one of the equations we have Reducing in the way that has been explained we obtain 19—2 . The kinetic reactions of the parts of a connected system of particles and rigid bodies caa always be expressed in terms of a finite number of geometrical quantities which are unconnected by any geometrical This can usually be effected by methods similar to equations. Now the geometrical for these quantities in the initial position. n when a point in one of the sides of length 2a Prove that the angular velocity of the sides of length 2b instantly becomes ^?i (3m+w')/(3??i + 2m'). we can obtain. are a series of geometrical quantities which ... • • • equations provide the means of expressing the x and y of the particle in any position in terms of the values of 6.. of lengths 2a and 26 and m and m'. . those used in Art. y are the coordinates of any particle whose acceleration is required. x =f(0. down the geometrical equations which hold between the coordinates If we differentiate these equations of the points in any position. and ^. this is the When twice with respect to the time.244246] 6... </>. Initial motions and initial curvatures. and. in the results. 205. </>. substitute for every first differential coefficient of a geometrical quantity the value 0. freely hinged together. Thus if X.
It is required to determine the initial curvature of the path of any point of BC. </>) (f>)} cf)) . A complicated problem has been chosen intentionally. Let AB make an angle 6 with the horizontal. y. By taking moments about obtain the two equations wi2 (j^^ B for BC. wi2 and AB A in is AB horizoTiial and BC vertical. where ^o. and BC an angle with the Fig. vertical at time t. the that shown in Fig. and it will at the same time be seen how simplifications may at times suggest themselves. 80. It will 247. y ^yof^. From such series we can deduce the paths of all initial curvatures of the the particles. 80. as We have in fact as a first series in ascending powers of the time. and about A for the system. a can turn about lengths a. 6. + m2ae^ ^b cos {d + ^1 (i«^ + ^«^) ^ + ^2«'<^ {a + ib sin (S + + amn{B\(f))}^b(j)m2acos {B+(f)) ^b<j>^ m2^^b^(j>m2{^b = \miga cos 6 + m2g {a cos 6\^b sin 0). ^o denote the values of x.m^aJd^^h cos (^ + <^) = .292 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS initial [CHAP. and arranged as a process of approximation for expressing the values of or. and 6q. Two uniform rods AB. BC of masses mi. and since the centre of mass of BC is diagram of accelerations describes a circle of radius \h relative to B..^n2gb sin <^. can be carried further.. . = = approximation ac ^ooot^.. Illustrative problem. be easier to understand how this process is carried out after studying its application to a particular problem. Wa'*" Now denote the values of 8/ 3/ a^'a<^' this process when 6 — = (f) (j>(. TX. we + I'g^^) ^ ~ m2a6\h sin (^ + . Since B describes a circle of radius a about A. and The system starts from rest in a position in which vertical plane. 6 are freely hinged at B.
+i:^^^„. by picking out the terms of order 2 in to . Again. and dividing out common (?/ii + ^^) aO — \m^h<j) sin (d + first cf)) — ^^26^^ cos {B + =gcos6{^mi+m2) Also the of the above equations is ^b(j) (1). taking as origin the initial position of B. if 0o^^ is finite the equation see that t. This shows that 0o Qiust be zero.. 9a^„ «„^ giving *„. it we power of in this series is the fourth. 0= if '(^Qt +^4>ot^+..^=0. expanding these we have approximately giving ^=_^^„. by Maclaurin's theorem. so that the series for 6 begins Going back now to equation (2). 2. ^0 were finite. <.. 3.. picking out the terms in <* in equation (2) we have 3«^ p Now. ^ = 0.. a) 9a /Zmi + 67712 gY ' Again. and taking x and y horizontal and vertical. <^ = 0.. 247] INITIAL CURVATURES factors. .^a'S sin In the initial position + (f))had^ cos {$ + (!))= ^ffaincj) ^=0. . t and observing that cos^ = l^ t + — . Now. In fact.. 2. we can write for the coordinates of a point of BC distant r from B^ cc= a(lcos^)+rsin(^. we can be reduced. taking equation see that the lowest (1). so that the terms would be respectively of orders 1. t^. cf>) 293 we have Adding the equations. + 6m2a/? In any position we have.) .d\ rcoacf). also 0= 0^t +ieot^+.=^ =^ (zWTem. and we have {B (2).. it is clear that ^ contains no term in t^ but there is a term in f^. (f) would be of order and 6 of order t^.246.=^^„v(:2). the axes of in the figure. taking equation (2). and then appears from equation (1) that the lowest power of in 6 is the fourth.. ^ _o *^«^' _ ^mi + 6m2 g ^'2m. y = asm.
when the initial radius of curvature of the path of a particle distant r from the middle point is {a^jr) tan a. to a higher order. method A uniform rod is supported from its at its ends by two equal vertical cords suspended flawed points. and can turn equal uniform rods AB. middle It is required to find the small oscillation in tvkich the point moves vertically and the rod. and D) in a symmetrical position with BC lowest and AB and CD equally inclined at angles a to the horiwhen the ends A and D are released. [CHAP. 248. and the ends A and can slide on a smooth horizontal rod. BC each of length a are freely jointed Prove that. r=§6. so that equal angles a with the horizontal. Illustrative problem. Prove that the initial angular accelerations of the rods are in the ratio 6 . .3 cos 2a : make 9 cos 2a  8. the other so that the rods can turn about it. and this end is let go. is 2a6/(3r  26) unless r = 6. 2. is let go. uniform rod of length 2a is held at an inclination a to the horiits zontal in contact with a smooth peg at middle point. 4. the pressures at A 1 lsin'^a : and D are changed in the ratio A 5 . in order to get an approximate equation to the path. Examples. 1. Three equal uniform rods are freely jointed at B and C so as to form three sides of a quadrilateral A BCD. the radius of curvature of the path of (7 is fa. Small oscillations. We find ^^«></>o 61^1 + 27712 initial 6 480^' is correct as far as t^^ and thus the path given by the approximate equation (y§6)3=60a6^(l+2m2/mi).3 sin^a. Two first is fixed end of the the rods equal uniform rods are freely jointed at common ends. IX. remaining horizontal. is which are correct as Hence the initial path of the point ap proximately a parabola and the radius of curvature of the path If. the rod Two at B. 249. The system is initially held (by means of horizontal D forces applied at A horizontal. turns round middle point. if the system is released from freely about A. initial a horizontal position. 3. 211.294 RIGID BODIES far as AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS t^. and with Prove that. Prove that. zontal. The following problem illustrates the application of the of Art. we must expand however. and the other end is of the second held at the same level as the fixed end of the first.
\mg{a^ll)6\ The motion pendulum 250. mgz. Prove that. and I the length of m the equivalent simple pendulum for the oscillations of the handle when the roller is held fixed. oscillations. . A number at a common end and of equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely jointed arranged at equal intervals like the ribs of an umbrella. the angle through which the rod has turned in the same the length of either cord. oscillations of the handle of Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small a garden roller rolling on a horizontal walk is where a is the radius of the roller. if m is the mass of the rod. h its radius of gyration about its axis. Now. in 6 is therefore the same as for small oscillations of a simple of length \l. the lowest position being the standard position.247250] SMALL OSCILLATIONS I 295 Let 2a be the length of the rod. is the kinetic energy in any position \m{z^^\aW\ and the potential energy is Fig. with sufl&cient \ma^\ and the potential energy is. cos2a)/(l + 2 cos^a). tance through which the middle point has risen at time t. M the mass of the roller alone. this cone of rods is placed in equilibrium over a smooth sphere so that the angle of the cone is 2a. the kinetic energy is. in the small approximation. B AM position of the corresponding cord is 2a sin ^0. 1. the mass of the handle. Examples. for small vertical oscillations of the joint. and I = to the first order. h the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the roller. 81. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is and \a cos a (1+3 2. Hence. z the dis The depth of either end A or below the corresponding point of — support is I Zf and the distance or BA^ of an end from the equilibrium time. with sufficient approximation. Hence we have this equation shows that when z and 6 are small z=^{a^ll) &^ to the second order.
We circle. . ^= with angular velocity o) may be possible. The energy equation is \raa^ {e''\^ixi^e^^)^mga (1 cos 6) = const. so that in equilibrium the the thread vertical.) . (1). One of the joints where four rods meet is fixed and the other is attached to . <f> the angle contained between the plane through the particle and the vertical diameter and a fixed plane through the same diameter. that is a particle moving under gravity on the surface of a sphere so as to describe a The horizontal circle. sin^ 6 = (o sin'^ a. Differentiating with respect to the time V . 251. Four equal uniform rods are freely jointed so as to have a common extremity. Now ^ = when 6 — a. 79. principles of energy and momentum may frequently be applied to problems concerning the stability of steady motions. and the equation of constancy of momentum diameter is about the vertical ^^* ma^ sin^ ^<^ = const.. wish to discover the condition that motion in a horizontal a. <^ We have so that the energy equation may be written const. 3. Let be the angle which the radius vector from the centre of the sphere to the particle makes with the downw^ards vertical at time ty a the radius of the sphere. and four other like rods are similarly jointed the other ends of the rods are then jointed in pairs so as to form eight edges of an octahedron. Art. we obtain the equation /ix „sin^acos^ Q n r.296 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. Stability of steady motions. the steady motion is possible if o) is so adjusted that This gives us the condition aa)^ = ^seca. are the equilibrium length and the natural length of the thread. it octahedron is regular and Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small vertical oscillations of the lowest point is f (^— ^o)? where I and ^o by an elastic thread.(2). We shall illustrate the method by considering the steady motion of a spherical pendulum. eay" +^sin(9 = 3^ sin^ 6 a . (Cf. IX.
We of equathus find 0.250252] STABILITY OF STEADY MOTIONS is 297 nearly angular ma^cofim^a about the vertical diameter. results in Art. circle. in a nearly horizontal direction. %+% d j^ ^ \^ sin e (g . but the period of oscillation would be un changed. 252. or to depart widely from it. . A particle describes a horizontal circle of radius r is vertical boloid of revolution whose axis if it is slightly on a smooth paraand vertex downwards. . 106. Utilize the method of Art. mass rotates freely about a small heavy ring can slide on the wire without friction. if a small disturbance is made.. is the latus rectum. then either it tends to remain always very near the = a. Examples. where co is given by (2). 251 to show that the motion of a particle describing a circular orbit under a force /(r) directed to the centre is stable if [3 + Deduce the c/'(c)//(c)] is positive. and that.^ and reject powers of above the first. orl . . where 4a 4. is The steady motion path is is stable if cos a positive. 1. In the position of relative equilibrium the radius of the circle drawn through the ring makes an angle a with the vertical. we may put ^ = a + %. Prove that. oscillations take place in time 2. is disturbed. If the angular is ^ote. ^ "^ '^a showing that the particle oscillates about the state of steady motion in a period equal to that of a simple pendulum of length a cos a/(l + 3 cos^ a). with an momentum near the tion (1).(0^ sin^ a + Scos^a cos a cos 6^ ^^^. its period of oscillation 7rV{(r2 + 4a2)/2^a}. Supposing it to remain circle equal If the particle is projected from a point for which 6 to a. projection) momentum (as well as the direction and point of slightly altered. negligible . 3. or the circular below the centre of the sphere. expand the terms ~ . the possible steady motion would take place along a slightly different circle . c being the radius of the circle. pendulum Prove that the steady motion with angular velocity w of a conical of length I is stable. and prove that the a vertical chord distant c from the centre length of the equivalent simple A circular wire of radius a and of pendulum a)/(c for small oscillations of the ring is a cos a{c{a sin + a sin a (1 + 3 cos^a)}. Find the angular velocity with which the wire rotates.
the period of the small oscillations about the state of steady motion is V{27r^am/X(4a30}. small oscillations is AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP.RIGID BODIES Prove also that. In further illustration of the principles Energy and Momentum consider the following problem : of A uniform rod and a particle are connected hy an inextensihle thread is attached to one end of the rod^ the system is laid out straight^ It is required to and the projected at right angles to the thread. which the thread makes with the I line the length of the thread. Let 6 be the angle which AB makes at time t with its initial direction. if a is the radius in steady motion. is the same as before. IX. find the Let 2a be the length of the rod. the velocity The velocity of P relative of P relative to B is l{B+x) perpendicular to BP. and. if these masses are jo relative to O has components respectively. Consider first the motion of the particle P relative to the centre of mass M of the rod AB. Fig. the period of the same as for a simple pendulum of length a cos a{c\(i sin d)\{c + a sin^a). and I is the radius when the ring is unstrained. 83. if the wire is made to rotate uniformly. and. Its resolved parts along and perpendicular to AB are accordingly l{6\x)^mx and aB \. equilibrium 5. X rotates Prove that.1 {6 ^x) cob X' Now and ratio of the m G is always at the point dividing in the masses of the particle and the rod. M to M is the resultant of these two velocities. and an equation of motion of the ring must be formed by The angular velocity in relative resolving along the tangent to the circle. Then the velocity of B relative to is aB at right angles to AB.] An elastic circular ring of its mass its m and modulus of elasticity uniformly in own plane about centre under no external forces. [In the second case energy is expended in keeping up the angular velocity of the wire. since ^P makes an angle 6+x ^'^^^ a line fixed in the plane of motion. particle motion when there are no forces. Illustrative problem. x the angle of the rod produced at time t. 253. the velocity of the centre of mass MP M 4^(^ + x)sinx and ^{ad + l{e\x)co^x] .
problem of Art. 253 we might have obtained the velocity of P relative to by taking as axes lines through along and perpendicular to AB. Hence the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G and the kinetic energy in the same relative motion are constants. and the moment about any fixed axis of the momentum of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is also constant. P y the coordinates of the particle referred to fixed .252254] ENERGY AND MOMENTUM AB. Consider the motion of a particle whose coordinates at time t are x'. Also the kinetic energy of the system and its moment of momentum about any fixed axis are constants. motion relative to also twice the kinetic energy in the G is ^a2^2 + _^?£_ [a2^2+^2 (^+^)2 + 2a. It is sometimes convenient in calculating the velocities of points in a connected system to use the coordinates of a In the point referred to axes which do not retain the same directions. and the velocity of 299 along and perpendicular to F relative to G has components ^ m\p in the l{e+x)smx and ^^ "^ '^ m+p {ae + 1(6 + x) cos x} same directions. Kinematical Note. Hence throughout the motion we have the equations \{\^mlp)aW +a^(aZcosx) + ^(^+x)(^ + «cosx) = (a + 0^>l l{\\mlp)a^^ + aW+l'^{6+xf\^aie{e + x)ooBX= V^ ^ 254. then the initial values of the moment of momentum and kinetic energy in the motion relative to G are {a{l)Vmpl{m\p) and \V^mpl{m>rp). Hence the moment of momentum in the motion relative to 6^ is or ^aa^e+^[{a + lcoax)(^ + {^ + C'COBx)l{0 + x)]. .^ {O+x) cos x] Now the centre of mass moves with uniform velocity in a straight line and thus the kinetic energy of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is constant. When we wish to calculate the velocity of a point in this way we have to attend M M to the fact that the component velocities parallel to the moving axes are not the differential coefficients (with respect to the time) of the coordinates referred to the same axes. y' referred to rectangular axes rotating in their own plane about the origin . Let V be the velocity with which the particle was initially projected at right angles to the thread . let be the angle which the axis of x' makes with a fixed axis of x in the plane at time U and ^.
v=y'{x'^. required AB. we take axes through along and perpenA B. 3 are the resolved parallel to the axes of x\ y\ then parts of the acceleration of a — u — oiV and ^ = v\a)ii. Then the angular velocity of the moving axes is B. We have to add to the expression given in that moment of momentum in the motion relative to G the term ipl^{B+x). 253. 84. to the moving axes of the velocity of the are y' x'. BG^ move in one plane We may use the figure and notation of Art. rods under no forces it is freely jointed at B. if a. Also let u^ v be component velocities of the particle parallel to the axes of x' and y'. rectangular axes of x and y. IX. and the M coordinates of velocities of P are a + ^cos. Fig.{^''2/'4>) sin 0. and to the expression there given for the kinetic energy in the motion relative to O the term ^pl^{0+x)^. w Now. x = {x'—y'<p)cos(j){^'+x'^)8m(f). Article for the . y={y'+x'4>) cos (fi 4. We have whence Also x = of cos — 7/ sin y = y' cos ^ + ^ sin 0. taking P to be the middle point of BC. The energy equation and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum determine the motion. Two uniform . We may P dicular to In the problem of Art. is y = vcos(f) + usin(f). </>. 255. prove in precisely the same way that.^. From these the component P relative to M which were obtained otherwise in that Article might be deduced. to find the motion. and writing m and p for the masses of AB and BC and 2a and 21 for their lengths. Hence we u=x'—y'<j).300 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. y' — toy' and + (nof. 253. 1. if we write co for and the resolved parts parallel particle whose coordinates are cd the angular velocity of the moving axes. Examples.'\ (f> (f). J x=ucos(f) find — vsm(f).^ and ^sin.
the particle being close to the middle point. about at the instant t is denoted by A. Prove that the angle 6. H' the R moment of point.. the momentum of moment of the is BC about it is at the instant t. other point 0' this instant is At the instant t\ B coincides with some and. and the rings are so thin they may be regarded as in the same plane. at the H H constancy of H. if there are no external forces. is given by the equation ^2(F + a2sin2^)^2=F2a2. then we are taking moments about a which the moving line coincides at an instant. then what we mean by h is at this instant. and let be the moment of momentum of BC about at the instant ?. and. if the moment of momentum of BC about B (or 0') at A'. the moment of the kinetic reaction of about is not equal to A. B coincides with at the instant and H vanishes . If the moment of B momentum of BC^ say. the tube is started to rotate about that point with angular velocity o). In reference to this discussion it should be observed that. It is ENERGY AND momeJntum important to observe that the 301 of moment momentum of either is not constant. Art. Kh i't^f) I t This is not equal to H because h! is not equal to H' . The system being at rest on a smooth table with the pivot in the line of centres. h is identical with H at this instant. Let be any fixed point in the plane of motion. and H' the moment of momentum about The instantaneous vanishing of t'. 3. . about the resultant force acting on either rod passes through B. fixed axis with Two about its centre. does not involve the constancy of h. or of the system. the velocity of the particle relative to the tube when it leaves A it is aa)v/. 2. h' being the moment of momentum about 0'. about at the instant (cf. the axis is moving body. equal circular rings. so that the centre of mass of the system starts to move with velocity V. a geometrical line which is always a If the axis about which we take moments is defined by some axis. 255] Note. i. uniform straight tube of length 2a contains a particle of equal mass. which either radius through the pivot makes with its initial direction at any subsequent time. that to say hm f'f=0 H'H tt . On the other hand may be a maximum or a minimum at the instant t. To see this consider B BG B the meaning of h. when we take moments about an " fixed " line of a line. 157). Prove that. but the instantaneous vanishing of does not involve the same instant ^ 0. although the hne of action of rod. so that their planes are parallel. the pivot is struck by a blow perpen dicular to the line of centres. Since is a fixed t is kinetic reaction of H If BC .254. . each of radius a and radius of gyration k are freely pivoted together at a point of their circumferences.
major end of the major axis nearest the centre of force. where / is the moment of inertia of the cone about 7. provided that Sin = 2fi7)ie{l/7nP + llI). if the initial length of the straight portion of the thread is c. its axis. and carries a particle of mass is moment is free m to a smooth plane perpendicular to the axis. angles to the thread with velocity V so that the thread tends to wind up move on round the cylinder. One of the particles is struck at right angles to its thread so that it starts Two mass whose oflf Prove that. =(/+mr2 sin2a). and a smooth where M^I/a^. IX. and carryequal particles which are initially at rest on two smooth horizontal planes. c'^ the cylinder being free to turn about 5. and starts at a distance c from particle of mass the vertex. An elliptic its tube of latus rectum eccentricity inertia / about major axis. which of mass m which is e. Prove that. is the generators an angle /3.c2 = 2a Vt + VH'^ml{M+ m). A cone of vertical angle 2a is free to turn about its axis. attracted to one focus with angular velocity Q. which is fixed in a vertical position.c2)} a'^ V\ value of r. Find the angular velocity in the steady motion in which each rod makes an angle a with the vertical. 2?. 6. moves in the groove.% it will come to rest relatively to the tube at an end of the nearer latus rectum.302 4. Hence prove that ^2 . its axis. equation with velocity V and its thread begins to unwind from the cylinder. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. rhombus of side 2a and the system rotates about one diagonal. are coiled in opposite directions round it. horizontal threads are attached to a circular cylinder of negligible axis is vertical. while the cylinder is free The particle is projected on the plane at right to rotate about the axis. and prove that the period of the small oscillations about this state of steady motion is the same as for a simple pendulum of length ^acosa(l+3sin2a)/(l+3cos2a). Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a 8. if at any subsequent time the particle is at a groove cut in its surface so as to make with A m distance r from the vertex and the cone has turned through an angle r and 6 are connected by the equation (/+wc2sin2a)e2^'^"''^°^^ 0. the highest point of the rhombus being fixed and the lowest being free to slide on the diagonal. its attached to the particle struck r^ length r at time t is given by the = + 2aVt + ^V^fi. . Prove that the length subsequent time is given by the equation r of the straight portion at any where c is the initial (/+ ma2) r^p = {/+ m {r^ + a^. A thread of inertia / attached to a rigid cylinder of radius a and which about it^ axis. Prove that. and if fjie{l+ey<PQ. and contains a particle by a force /xm/(distance)2 and is initially at rest at the and moment of axis. is rotating freely about its is fixed. if the particle is slightly displaced.
It is important to observe that discontinuous motions such as are considered here in general involve dissipation of energy. This principle is to be applied to a hypothetical (Art. Illustrative Problems. At any time t let x be the length which has fallen over the edge. coiled up. m During a very short interval A^ a length of the chain which can be taken to be i'Ai is set in motion with velocity x^ and the impulse of the force by which it is set in motion can be taken to be TM. resolved : — along the tangent to the curve at the position of the particle. This principle is illustrated in the following (Cf. supposed to pass during a very short interval particle from one state of motion to the other. . Art. It is required to find the motion. A chain is coiled at the edge of a table with one end just hanging over. and moves so as to be in contact with a given curve. 256. Tension at a point of discontinuity. I. is the same for all the particles. Hence we have the approximate equation Tt:d=^mxM which passes over into the exact equation . It often happens that two parts of a chain move in different ways.) of the problems. When the chain forms a curve. 257. 162. line.) of the chain.255258] MOVING chain 803 Motion of a string or chain. Inextensible chain. Let be the mass per unit length of the chain. T the There is no tension in the part tension at the edge in the falling portion.x^ T=mx^. 258. and that portions of the chain are continually transferred from the part that is moving in one way to the part that is moving in the other way. 189. the condition takes the form The velocity of a particle. The tension at the place where the motion changes is then to be determined by the principle that the increase of momentum of a system in any interval is equal to the impulse of the force which acts upon it during that interval. and the mass of the hypothetical particle is to be taken to be the mass of the part chain which changes its motion during the interval. When a chain moves in a straight the condition of inextensibility is that all the particles of it have at any instant the same velocity.
Hence we have the exact equation . Let s be the distance. of a point of the g^urve from a fixed point. become 5 + As. . so that 2x=\gt'^. that v and x vanish together. IX. </> . The time until the length is [^ ^ is dx _ /Ox The potential energy lost while the free end falls through x is \mgx\ and the kinetic energy gained is ^mxv^ or ^mgx^ and the amount of energy dissipated in the same time is ^mgx^. The equation Writing v for of motion of the falling portion therefore mxx = mxg . or in a groove cut on a rough surface. x = hgt. We shall suppose the chain to be in a rough tube. A chain. and the other end is then let go. any time are determined. measured along the curve. ^ this is dv . Integrating. falling portion is free from tension. Between P and P' we may (/). i?. During a very short interval At a length approximately equal to ^gt At passes from motion with velocity gt to rest. we have This equation gives the velocity of the falling portion when its length is x. so that the line of it is a given curve. Let P' be a point near to P. one end of which is held fixed. B): P Fig. + A</>. We shall take this curve to be in a vertical plane. </> the angle which the normal to the curve at P P makes with the vertical. Constrained motion of a chain under gravity. and observing.2) = 2^A2. destroys an amount of momentum which is approximately equal to hmgH^At.304 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS is [CHAP. Let 2^ be the length of the chain. so that an impulse. II.r2i. The and the free end has fallen through 2. T the tension ^ at its lower end. „ or ^^(. which is approximately equal to TAt. 85. p the radius of curvature of the xmrfe at P. is initially held with the other €nd close to the fixed end.inx^. T=inigH\ at Thus the motion and the tension 259. l{x the length of the part that has come to rest at time t. for which 5. m the mass per unit length.r under gravity.
which we may take to be directed along the tangents the pressure of the curve. P equation. P If the curve If. and fi is the R coefficient of friction. M. 86. and the tension can be found by substituting tension is for v in the known the pressure at equation (1). cos + (Th.= mgAs . sin <^ + (jT + AT) cos A^T — /jlRAs. which we may Fig. We denote the pressure and friction by RAs and is the pressure per unit of fjuRAs. ( 1. and passing exact equations of motion mi) the limit. which we may take to be directed along the normal at P. A L. so that length. and lies in uniform chain of length a is laid out straight on a smooth table. The equations are We mAs . When the any point can be found from the equation 260. at P and P\ and the friction. the velocity v can be determined by means of the energy equation. take to be directed along the tangent at P. form equations of motion by resolving along the tangent and normal at P. One end is put just 20 .AT) sin A</) — RAs. which we may tion. t) = mgAs . Examples. . We regard the particle take. a line at right angles to the edge of the table. is smooth we omit fxR from the further. 'to On dividing by As.258260] MOVING CHAIN 805 Let v be the velocity imagine a hypothetical particle of mass mAs. mAs . (2). to approximabe directed along the tangent to the curve at P. the ends of the chain are free. with sufficient may as moving under the tensions T and T+AT. we have the = mg sin <^ + dT j A'P (1)> m — = mq cos v'^ T (i>\ R first (2). of this particle.
if the upper end is let go. . 4. and that the portions of the chains which have become straight increase during the interval with uniform accelerations ^g^m^lis/mi + ^m^) and 2g^mil{>Jmi\^m2). of a smooth horizontal circular cylinder. Let A be that of any the position on this curve of a chosen particle. Prove that the chain becomes straight after an interval equal to threequarters of that in which A fell to B. and let s be the arc of the curve measured from other particle. Prove that. when the chain is let go. the lower end is the first part of to leave the cylinder.s!mo)l{s!'nh + \/^2). acceleration g {s^m^ . At any instant the chain forms a curve. IX. the pressure on the table as the coil is formed increases from 2h W/l to (2^ + 3^) W/l. and the other end is at a height h above a smooth table. Kinematical equations. Initially the chains are held up in coils and they are released simultaneously without Prove that. greatest slope of a smooth plane of inclination a to the horizontal so that it just reaches to the bottom of the plane where there is a small smooth A W off. the tension at the bottom of the plane is when a length x has run W{\&ma)x{lx)IP. Chain moving freely in one plane. Prove that. so that the part of the chain which has run off at any time is vertical. If the chain is inextensible we may regard 5 as a P parameter specifying the particle which is at the point P at . and that this happens when the radius drawn through the upper end makes with the vertical an angle </> given by the equation lies. A to P. Prove that. until one of the chains causing any finite impulse in the thread has become entirely uncoiled. the thread slips over the pulley with uniform . Two uniform chains whose masses per unit of length are mi and m2 are joined by a thread passing over a fixed smooth pulley. is placed on a line of uniform chain of length I and weight 5. A uniform chain AB is held with its lower end fixed at B and its 3. The end A is released. if the edge of the table is rounded off. and at the instant when it passes B the end B is also released. subtending an angle /3 at the centre of the circular section on which it Prove that. A uniform chain of length I and weight W is suspended by one end 2. A it J^ cos {<f) + ^) = sin /3 f sin 261. upper end J^ at a vertical distance above B equal to the length of the chain. over the edge. uniform chain is held with its highest point on the highest generator 6. pulley over which it can run off.sin (</> +^). and lies on the cylinder in a vertical plane.306 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. the velocity of the chain as the last element leaves the table is »J{ag).
of the position of the We have the equations particle specified by s at time t Let X. 261] MOVING CHAIN </> 307 time t Let drawn in the sense of increase of . it is negative. s. otherwise.e. in the plane We resolve the velocity of the particle of the chain which is P at time into components u. (See Fig.260. without regard to sign. is ^ positive. the normal is drawn towards the left hand. . The sense of the normal is taken Fig. if the curve is described in the sense of increase If this sense s. s and independent variables. be the angle which the tangent at P to the curve. dx in which the differential coefficients are partial. s. that of the normal drawn towards the centre of curvature. Also let p be the radius of curvature of the curve at P.) is The absolute value of ^. y be the coordinates of P. 87. is directed along the normal. makes with a fixed axis of x is estimated as the angle <^ through which a line with the axis of x must turn in the positive sense so as coinciding to coincide with the tangent. From these equations we have d^y t being _ d<f> dx d^^dsds' d^x dy _ d¥~~dsds' d(f> 20—2 . 87. of which u is directed along the tangent to the curve at P in the sense of increase of and v at t v. . i. to of is r)fh be such that.
308 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. which is the same as dx d^x ds dsdt dy d'^y _ ^ ' ds dsdt or 9 fdx dx dy dy\ ds dt) d^x dx ds^ dt d^y dy ds^ dt _^ ds\ds dt or du ds dd) ^ OS This equation. with which the tangent to the curve at the position of the particle specified by s is turning. IX. The ponents u and . The angular velocity ^ . dx dy (^) +(o^) =1» we have dt\\ds} ^^(dy^^ Kds. have the equation expressed in terms of u and v. We have therefore the ot dt equations _dxdx Since dydy _ _dydx the equation 0. Further the direction cosines of the normal drawn in the sense — nil and nX already chosen are ^ ^ . may be We (j)) ^=— or d(j) sin ^ ^ (cos dx d^y ds ^ '^' + cos (/> ^ (sin 0). combined with the statement that s and t are independent variables. _ __d dy d^x ds dsdt j dt dydx dx dy\ d'^y dx d'^x dy '~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds^di~'d^di _ 6 / dydx dx dy\ d<f> (dx dx dy dy\ ~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds[dsdi'^dsFt) . velocity of the particle specified by s at time t has comV in the stated directions. and also has components — ^ parallel to the axes of coordinates. expresses the condition of inextensibility of the chain.
In discussing such cases it conduces to arise in . 254 in the forms du dt d(b dv dd) dt' dt^ dt is The resultant of the tensions at the ends of the element obtained in the forces same way as in Art. Note. The component accelerations in these directions are obtained by the method of Art.261263] or MOVING CHAIN 309 ~ dt ds ds' The two equations ds ds ' ds ds dt are the kinematical conditions which must be satisfied at all points of the chain throughout the motion. 262. Chain moving freely in one plane. but the chain moves along the curve. m denotes the mass per unit of length. it portion of that is P as in the above Art. the equations of motion are fdu dct>\ = dT ^ '^[Vt''dt) ^ ds^'^^' ^t^^y^fs^^ where 263. Equations of motion. Interesting cases of the motion of a chain which the shape of the curve formed by the chain is invariable. Invariable form. that the following kinematical equations points of the chain : must hold at all where e is the extension of the chain at the particle P. and we may take particle F. and Sq is the natural length of the contained between a chosen particle A and any other is specified by the parameter Sq. the particle We may then prove in the same way Sq and t as independent variables. If S and iV denote the component per unit mass applied to the chain in the directions of the tangent and normal to the curve. If the chain is extensible. 259. form the equations of motion by resolving the kinetic reaction of a small element of the chain in the directions We of the tangent and normal to the curve which it instantaneously forms.
1. The kinematical conditions become dw so that the chain ^ d(b deb moves uniformly along of itself. The velocity of any point of the tube is then determined as the velocity of a point of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. and w is the velocity with which the chain m moves along 2. 3. and. Prove that any curve which is a form of equilibrium for a uniform chain under conservative forces is a form which the chain can retain when moving uniformly along itself under the same forces. and the velocity of any element of the chain will be found by compounding a certain velocity lu relative to the tube with the velocity of any point of the tube. Prove that A uniform chain moves over two smooth level same and is the portion between the rails can be a common catenary. uniform chain moves in a plane under no forces in such a way that the curve of the chain retains an invariable form which rotates about a fixed A point in the plane with uniform angular velocity w. The velocity w is in this case the velocity of an element of the chain. . we have u = w^ v = 0. that the chain can move steadily in the form of a common catenary. IX. s = c tan </>. 261. The direction of w is that of the tangent to the line of the tube at the point. r) equation of the curve must be of the form (^ + 2F/a>)r2=ap + 6. and to move along the tube while the tube moves in its plane. and that the tension is is the greater in the steady motion than in equilibrium by mvfi^ where mass per unit length of the chain. The equations motion of Art. of the shape in question. Examples. the curve retaining its position as well as its form. with the notation of Art. itself. clearness to imagine the chain to be enclosed in a fine rigid tube.310 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. 262 are (/> satisfied by T= mgc sec + mw^^ the curve being the catenary 264. provided that the velocity of the chain along itself is s]{gh). at the parallel rails distant 2a apart transferred from a coil at a distance h vertically below one rail to a coil at a distance h^h vertically below the other. Prove that the general (/?. we show Taking now the special case of a uniform chain moving under gravity. while the chain advances relatively to the curve with uniform velocity F. and its magnitude is variable from point to point in accordance with the kinematical conditions. where a and h are constants.
8. . its velocity is ^ {ag sec a sinh 2fi)j where /a is. Prove that. and the points F and F' are never for any finite time at rest. the result of differentiating equation . and a uniform chain is placed within it. the points A. rough helical tube of pitch a and radius a is placed with its axis. The system oscillates so that the threads are always stretched. A uniform chain hangs in is fixed to point from the horizontal diameter during the the equation first part of the motion satisfies where I is the length of the chain and 2c is the circumference of the circle. form. C. a position which Since ^^ vanishes initially. and passes over a smooth peg B between A and C and in the same horizontal line with them.263265] MOVING CHAIN 311 Prove that is 4. tube is constrained to rotate with uniform angular major axis which is vertical. the coefficient of friction between the tube and the chain being tan a cos e. the distance y of the lowest 5. is When the chain starts from rest in not one of equilibrium the initial velocities are and the equations of motion are simplified by the omission of zero. the chain will be in 7. uniform chain falls in a vertical plane under gravity. determined by the equation cot ^e tanh /x = tanh (/x sin e + ^m cos a sin 2e). Elastic threads of natural lengths I and l' and moduluses X and X' are fastened to points P and F' of the chain on opposite sides of B and their other ends are fixed to points and 0' vertically below F and F'. when the chain has fallen a vertical distance ma. two points A. Prove that the time of a complete oscillation 27r sJ{Lll'txl{\l' is + \'l . A uniform chain of length 2L and mass 2Z/i has its ends attached to 6. and portions hang vertically on both sides.fxgll')}. 265. B. Prove that. and contains a uniform chain whose length is equal to a quadrant of the ellipse. where I is the latus rectum of the ellipse. C being so close together that the parts of the chain between them may be considered vertical. At the same time the kinematic conditions are altered in d(l>/dt. A vertical. Prove that. if 0)2 = 4^/^. Initial Motion. if the end is set free. the square of the angular velocity of the tangent at any element A 7equilibrium over a smooth pulley one end the extremity of the vertical diameter. A fine elliptic its velocity a> about stable relative equilibrium with one end at the lowest point.
and it may become slack throughout. the equation of motion of an element at the end. the acceleration of the extreme particle must be directed along the tangent to the curve. 262. to be finite. found by resolving along the wire. cannot be satisfied if the acceleration of the element is finite (not infinite) and the tension is finite (not zero). one end of the chain is guided to move on a given curve. Impulsive Motion. and to take the mass of the ring. We may write the equations of motion in the form du ^ ^ = o H m ^OS ct. applied to an element. enter into the solution of the equation we have to use the conditions which hold at the ends. Differentiating the . at first. and T as impulsive tension. The equations is of impulsive motion of a chain which suddenly set in by the method of Art. chain. The equations are ds ds . The conclusion in such cases must be that the chain becomes slack at the In such cases it is usually conend. IdT . when the problem has been without limit.312 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. not perpendicular to the tangent at the end. We motion are obtained at once have only to regard S and as N the resolved parts of an impulse. Cases arise in which this method cannot be applied. venient to suppose the end of the chain to be attached to a ring which can slide on the wire. In the case of a heavy chain with an end which moves on a smooth straight wire. \ dt m ds 5. of the If. first with respect to multiplying the second by ^ and subtracting. for example. IX. solved with this condition we can pass to the case above described by supposing the mass of the ring to be diminished 266. or at other special points. reckoned per unit of mass. we obtain an equation ds \m ds J m p^ ' ds ds This equation serves to determine the initial tension at any To determine the arbitrary constants which point of the chain.
 ) MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. and we can eliminate u and v. 267] MOVING CHAIN conditions are the 313 The kinematical same as those which were obtained in Art. In the initial motion of a chain under gravity prove that the tension a satisfies the equation /I dT\ ds T mp^~ 8»\m 2. and 3. 207. [Cf.] If the ends of the chain of Ex. 5 in Art. 1. Ex. where Mis the mass : of the chain. of mass Impulsive tensions Ta Tp are applied at the ends of a piece of chain hanging in the form of a common catenary with terminal tangents M inclined to the horizontal at angles a and /3. A vertical. 8 and In case no impulses are applied to the chain except at its ends. iV vanish. The Examples. the tension at the lowest point is changed in the ratio 2M' 2M'{Mcot^y. if the rings rings are initially held so that the tangents to the chain just below them make equal angles y with the horizontal.^66. prove that the tension at a point where the tangent with the horizontal immediately becomes angle makes an ^ Mgcf) sec 4. 261 for a chain in continuous motion. . . and the chain is severed at its vertex. obtaining an equation for T in the form ds \m ds ) mp^ solution of this equation subject to the given terminal conditions gives the impulsive tension at any point of the chain. 2 are held fixed. if there is no restitution. Prove that the kinetic energy generated 1 . and are let go. M' that of either ring. Prove that. rod of length 2a is held in a position inclined at an angle a to the and is then let fall on a smooth horizontal plane. Prove that.tan is a. 267.tan i3 z ^ M f(^a V[ . ) A uniform chain hangs under gravity with its ends attached to two which are free to slide on a smooth horizontal bar. . the end of the rod which strikes the plane will leave it immediately after impact provided that the height through which the rod falls is greater than 1. ^g a sec a cosec^ a (1 +3 sin'^ a)^. „ cos a 3^/3 008/3)2 ^ ^^ + ( Ta^ a—p rr 9 a a\\ sm a COS a Tb^ am ^ COS ^)y._. <^ cos yl{cos y + y sin y).
A heavy ring of radius a a. gravity being neglected.cos a) sin2 a (14 . if the ring starts from rest in a position in which it is in contact with two obstacles.314 2. and if there is no slipping. velocity in a direction making a given angle with the horizontal. A to a of breadth h perpendicular to its path. the angle subtended at the centre by two adjacent obstacles the ring touches both. is with n spikes projecting from it in its plane at equal projected with its plane vertical so as to strike a rough horizontal plane (zero restitution) in such a way that the line joining the point of contact to the centre makes an angle tt/ti with the vertical. if there is no slit without jumping is 72 . 1 Iga > F2 + lO^a. given by the equation (1 . and kept moving in the vertical plane of the ball's motion with a uniform Prove that. the ball will descend if the vertical velocity of the bat plane is vertical is which is greater than P^cosa(e + f tana). tt/w. rough to prevent 6. its A is sphere (centre 0) with centre of gravity at a point O distant c from dropped vertically upon a plane of inclination a to the horizontal . Show angular intervals. IX. Prove that.cos*" 7)/( 1 — cos* y).2a2^ . where 2y when 4. apart circular cylinder rocks between two parallel rails whose distance than the diameter of the cylinder. its angular velocity aa)2 o as 1 it leaves the (7i + l)th obstacle is given by = 2^ sin a sin y cos* y ( . k is the radius of gyration about the end of a spike. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP.> L^Qga (1 . and the velocity of the end of the spike at right angles to the spike is F. Prove that the greatest of the axis above its equilibrium position diminish in geometrical heights is less A progression.2 sin2 tt/w)*" (Fco + a F) = 2^ ^{ag) where a the radius of the circle on which the ends of the spikes lie. the condition that it should cross the slit sphere of radius a rolling on a rough table with velocity F comes Prove that. and subsequently meets a bat whose ground A and perpendicular to the plane of the ball's motion. rolls with its plane vertical down a piano which of inclination On this plane there is a series of pointed obstacles are equal and at equal distances from each other. if at the instant the angular velocity is o. sliding. restitution. uniform ball moving without rotation with velocity F strikes the at an angle a with the vertical. is A circular disk.10 sin2 a)/(7 . and the radius of the disk is less is than a cos 5. the number of spikes which strike the plane is the greatest integer in the value of m that is sin 7r/27i. that. after striking the bat. and e being the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the ground the bat and the ground are supposed to be sufficiently . and are sufficiently high to prevent the ring from ever touching the plane. 3.10 sin2 a)\ cos a where 6 = 2a sin a and 7.
the kinetic Prove that. 1 if there is no restitution. and e is the coefficient of restitution. a2. ^2 impinge directly. tution. where the radius of gyration of the sphere about an axis through right angles to GO. the kinetic energy lost in the impact is ^m (1 . 13. Prove that. Prove the coefficient of friction between the sphere and the board exceeds 2MU'/{'7M\2m) (1 + e) F. {M+m)K^Ql{{M+m) K^+ma^}. Prove that the angular velocity immediately after impact is its centre. radius a. A m M and the that. plank of length 2a is turning about a horizontal axis through its centre of gravity. there being no restitution. about which it can turn freely in a vertical plane. the ball rebounds in a direction making with the horizontal an angle tan~i{(l + ^7i) tanaecota}. the relative velocity of the centres before impact being lost in 1 V. 9. A homogeneous sphere is allowed to fall on one end of a uniform horizontal horizontal axis through its centre of mass. A and a the inclination to the vertical of the radius passing through the point at which the ball strikes the hoop. if e is the coefficient of resti11. A circular disk of mass J/.e2) V^+mMUy{7M+2m). of mass A wedge of mass M is placed m is dropped upon it so that on a its table. h^ about their centres. and m the mass of the particle. is Prove that. rough enough to prevent sliding. Prove that the sphere will not rebound unless the mass of the beam is at least three times as great as that of the ball. radii ai. . and a uniform sphere centre falls in a vertical plane . 12. of which the mass is 1/n of that of the the hoop is suspended from a point in its circumference. ball ball is let fall upon a hoop. The coefficient of restitution between the sphere and the board is e. falls vertically and impinges with velocity V sphere of mass which is moving with velocity C^ on a horizontal against a board of mass table. impinges normally on a rough rod of mass m. if the plane energy lost in the impact is to : that of the sphere before impact in the ratio (le2)cos2a + (>J:2sin2a)/{F + (a + c)2} 1. the kinetic energy impact ___F2___ 2 1/Jfi + l/i/2 "^ 2 1/J/i (1 (aiQi + a2Q2)^ + a^lki^) + l/ifa (1 + a^jlc^) ' 10. 14. if friction between the board and the table can be neglected. and moment of inertia MK'^ about spinning with angular velocity Q. the coefficient of restitution beam balanced on a being unity. if the A motion indefinitely repeats itself.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES so that is 315 G is above and GO is normal to the plane. spinning about their centres with angular velocities 12i. rebounds. and a particle strikes the rising half. the coefficient of restitution being unity. and strikes the other half. 1c is G at' 8. and radii of gyration ki. the inclination of the plank to the horizontal must never exceed a where / (tt f 2a) tan a = ma^. J/2. Prove that. Two rough circular disks of masses Mi. /being the moment of inertia of the plank about its axis.
if at the instant of impact the rod is point of the rod which turning about any point in the vertical line through that is distant a(l+Jsec2^) from the lower end. smooth oval disk is rotating with angular velocity « on a smooth horizontal plane about its centre of mass. where I is the moment of inertia of A m the disk about an axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane. the length of a side. fixed axis and at a distance c from the vertical plane through it. p the perpendicular from the centre of mass to the normal at the point of contact. so that they are pressed together and begin to slide one over the other. is (l/n^3)Py. The friction between the wedge table is negligible. equal rigid uniform laminae. the where a is (M+m)sin^a if+msin'^a + f (if+m). ABCD A small smooth ring of mass m can slide on the side ^jB of a square formed of four rigidly connected rods. IX. An equal cube falls without rotation and with velocity F. and the cube is at rest with two faces horizontal. assuming no 16. They are struck at the same instant with equal blows F in opposite directions bisecting the common edge and one other edge of each. when it strikes a smooth rod of mass at the middle point of the rod. where 2a point o{ its centre. 17. each in the shape of an equilateral with two edges in contact. which is fixed. and strikes the upper face of the first cube along a line parallel to the Prove that. and prove that. and e the coefficient of restitution. . if /x is the coefficient of friction. 15. A uniform rod of length 2a moving in a vertical plane falls on a horizontal smooth plane so as to make with it an angle 6 at the instant of impact. Prove that the initial velocity of in direction the ring is Racj{mc^ + {M+m) F}. kinetic energy is diminished by the impact in the ratio : no restitution. the angle which the face on which the sphere is dropped makes with the horizontal. but that between the wedge and the sphere is is Prove that. Prove that. the angular velocity a and the vertical component of the velocity of the centre of mass will be immediately reversed. if there great enough to prevent sliding. and the through the centre of mass of the wedge. Prove that the new angular velocity is {I—'mep^)ail{I+mp^). 19. Find the velocity v of the point of application of either blow resolved in its direction. A smooth uniform cube of side 2a and radius of gyration k about an axis through its centre is free to turn about an axis which is horizontal and passes through the centres of two opposite faces. rest the kinetic energy generated in the system restitution. c is the distance of the ring from the middle is the mass of the square and k its radius of gyration about M 18. Two triangle. An impulse R is applied at C DC. and there is perfect restitution. and further that if 3^ cos d = aa)^lg the subsequent impacts on the plane will take place at equal intervals of time 2^/0). is AB.316 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP.
Prove that the kinetic energy when b is free is to that when the further end of b is fixed in the ratio (4a + 36)(3a + 46)/12(a + 6)2. Two and line. A rectangle. An equilateral triangle. sides 2a and 2b. and that of the adjacent sides is f (v/a) sin a. The rods being at rest in a straight M an impulse MVis applied at the free end of a. side is zero. is moving with velocity v in the direction of one of its diagonals. F 20. with no motion relative to each other. Prove that. A rhombus. being at the moment a right angle. when a point in one of the rods is suddenly fixed. BC of masses w. if after impact the ABC relative 22. Prove also that the rectangle cannot begin to rotate as a rigid body unless the direction of motion before impact makes with the impinging side _^ an angle greater than ^^"^ a{3b+af{3b + 3af 6 (26 + 3a) • 25.I m' cos2 a). Two uniform rods AB^ BC hinged together at B are moving about 21.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES if e is 317 the coefficient of restitution and a the angle which the lower face of the falling cube makes with the horizontal. greatest possible angular velocity. m + 4m' BC at its middle point on the proper side to give constraint the kinetic energy is . formed of three equal uniform rods hinged at 23. : formed of four uniform rods of the same material and section. the angular velocity imparted to the first cube is c F(l + e)l{c^ + \a^a^ sin 2a). of length 4a cos a. Prove that. Two uniform rods AB. the point must be the hinge. m! . their ends. the point of impact must be at a distance a{(36 + a)/(36 + 3a)}^ from its centre. is held in a vertical plane with one side horizontal and the opposite corner downwards. Prove that. the impulsive stresses at the upper and lower hinges will be in the ratio ^13 1. freely jointed at lengths 2a and 26 are cut from the same uniform rod of mass one end of each. formed of four equal uniform rods each of length 2a freely jointed at common extremities. smoothly hinged at the ends. for that side to acquire the 24. is moving without rotation on a smooth horizontal plane. when a side of length 2a impinges on a small rough peg (zero restitution). the kinetic energy of the resulting motion at right angles to they are jointed at 5. and the end A If ^ 5 is struck at the middle by a blow is P AB If there is a smooth peg touching ^ P2/(. lie on a smooth table inclined to each other at an angle a turns on a pivot fixed to the table. motion of the rods is initially zero. . when the middle point of one of the Prove that the initial angular velocity of that front sides is suddenly fixed. the middle point of ^Cas instantaneous centre of rotation. if after falling through any height the middle point of the highest rod is suddenly stopped.
if u is l/(l + ^Vcosec2^). then u is reduced in the ratio prove that.1^) gl{% aW + 32aV/^2 _ 8a2c^). u. of length 21. 00. and that.318 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. is where b is the equilibrium length of each cord.h{h. kept in the form of a regular hexagon by a thread joining two opposite comers. if one of the cords is cut. =P/{(2?^ 1) m].c)/{c sin 4a b sin 2a). set of (27i + l) equal rods OA. they can be the edges of a cube. Prove (9m + 3/))^/(10m + 3p). angular velocity with which each rod begins to turn is V (c cos a '' a sin^ a)/(§ a^ sin^ a + c^ cot^ a — ac sin 2a). each of mass m and 29. . of equal uniform rods are jointed together so as to have a common extremity and placed symmetrically so as to be generators of a cone of vertical angle 2a . an impulse A P along OA. Twelve equal rods each of length 2a are so jointed together that 26. inclined at an angle a to the vertical and attached Prove that. 28. A initial radius of curvature of the path of the centre of the disk 3 cos a. . the kinetic energy is ^M(^aW+'U^). and lie in one plane so that any two neighacts bouring rods are inclined at an angle a. in a straight line and at rest when a blow is struck at the free end Prove that the of the extreme rod in a direction perpendicular to its length. where 30. The thread that jo descends with initial acceleration then destroyed... the velocity of the centre of mass. Two Prove that. infinite number of equal uniform rods are loosely jointed together. Any number Prove that the metrically a smooth fixed sphere of radius c (no restitution). An and are F impulse exerted at the hinge at the further end of the n^^ rod is . 0)1 cosec a . length 2a are freely jointed at 0. uniform circular disk is symmetrically suspended by two elastic cords of natural length c. where if is the mass of the framework. if the frame strikes the ground when ^ = 0. . Six equal uniform rods each of mass m are freely jointed and are 31. the initial angular acceleration of either rod (8a2c . IX.1)"P 22« sin2« ( ^ . are the initial angular velocities communicated to the rods on each side of OA in order. and a particle of is mass p is attached to the middle point of the lowest rod. and the framework moves symmetrically through a configuration in which each rod makes an angle 6 with the vertical . is if the thread is severed. the to the highest point of the disk. equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely hinged at one and their other extremities are connected by an inextensible thread extremity.. The system rests on two smooth pegs distant 2c apart in a horizontal line.. . and ©i. ©2. is the initial velocity of OA. =27r/(2n + l). Prove that = 0)2 cosec 2a = =  uja. OB. The hexagon is in a vertical plane with the highest rod fixed and horizontal and the thread also horizontal. 32. the system Mling with velocity V strikes sym27. .
Four uniform rods. are The end A is fixed and the system is supported by a freely jointed at B. A M mass mass is on the plank with its axis parallel to an edge and its centre of The whole system is drawn aside vertically over that of the plank./3) a' ^^^ . so that the cross section of the board made by a vertical plane perpendicular to the hinge forms two sides of a triangle ABC. is suddenly applied at one end perpendicularly to the length of the rod. two of length 2a and two of length 26. whose 34.4m' cos2 (a . . a distance c from its middle point.^) h' J^. BC.(1 . and /M is the coefficient of friction. masses are proportional to their lengths. Find the initial vertical and horizontal accelerations of C. and a uniform cylinder of 37. its A uniform rod W A about a point distant x from the equation x^ its middle point. . and the angle C in the hinge. are freely jointed so as to form a One of the rods of length 2a is free to turn about a pivot at parallelogram. BC make angles a and /3 with 35. Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 33. of masses m. of which the side AB is in the horizontal plane. the initial angular accelerations of AB and BC are I (w + 2m') sin a — 2«i' sin ^ cos {a — ^)g Y" {m + 3m') .2??i cos^ a}.4w' cos^ (a . thin uniform rectangular plank of mass is suspended from four points in the same horizontal plane by four parallel chains of equal length and negligible mass attached to the corners. and is let go. Prove that the initial (3J/+m) g cos a/{3 {M\m) .B). Two the vertical.2 (m + 2m') sin a cos {afi) (*^^ + ^'^^') sin ^ g ' . 319 A parallel to thin uniform rectangular board. m' and lengths 2a. is opened out to any angle and placed on a smooth horizontal plane. where x 1 Pa^lfi is the positive root of . uniform rods AB. and prove that it starts to move in a direction making with the vertical an angle whose tangent is ^ tan A tan B tan ^{A. large enough to produce motion.{m + Zm') plane with of length 2a and weight rests on a rough horizontal horizontal pressure on the plane uniformly distributed. and tension of each chain is equal to I (if +m) is then let go. if the string is cut. Prove that the rod begins to turn 36. 26. . initial angular acceleration of each of the horizontal rods is gc{a + h)l{c\a + h)+a'{la + h)}. in the vertical plane at right angles to the axis of the cylinder till the chains m make an angle a with the vertical.2P//X W) a\v  W= 0. force P. string attached to C in a position in which AB. hinged along a line in itself one side. and is initially held in a horizontal Prove that the position so that the figure is a rectangle.
and a bead of mass p can move on the A (M+m) tan a/(3J/'+m). r2r=5'(5 + 2V6r+^''(52V6n the constants By C. together and held so that they are alternately horizontal and vertical. the distance of the bead from the centre. will at first increase. a^y=— ^sina. r2„=0. Close round it moves a ring of mass The ring carries a rotating about its centre with angular velocity v{<(o).v)l{mc^ ^pa?)] [^jMc^ + l/(wc2 \pa^)\ is where X^ the frictional couple when the relative angular velocity is 6. each of mass ?n. and the angular velocity of the ring. when the rods are let go. of the nature of friction and proportional to the relative angular velocity.i/)/(«ic2 +joa2) .4x^2 [X (o) . where 6 = log (a/^). A and can turn freely round its end which is fixed.RIGID BODIES or AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS — mfi sin a cos a}. formed of n equal symmetrical rods. ^2n=0. a^^''=g^ sin a cos a (i/'+ Zm)\{M\ m). a (i/"+ m) ro>^ = Zmg"^ sin^a. each the highest rod is horizontal vertical rod being lower than the preceding . Also prove that the initial radius of curvature of the path of m is where i?o=>'oj yo=«*<^o. each of length 2a and radius of gyration k about its centre of mass. Prove that. Prove that. circular disk (mass M) rotates m /Li/(distance)2. and radius c angular velocity a>. J J/" ( J/"+ m) g cos a/{ J/ + wi sin^ a /* according as the coefficient of friction is greater or less than in a horizontal plane with uniform 38. [CHAP. if m is released from rest in a position in which its coordinates are a. are hinged 39. if the supports are simultaneously removed. 2F2 + 16ro5m5r=0. the horizontal component X^r and the vertical component Y2r of the initial action between the 2rth and the (2r + l)th rods are given by X^r^B {b + ^sl^Y + C (52V6r. + 1 sech log (tanh" ^ 6)]. then in the initial 7^0 motion (Jl/+wi) = mucosa. One end is fixed and the whole is supported in a horizontal line. if a slight continuous action now begins between the centre. B\ C being determined by the equations X2 + 2Xo=0. A particle of mass M rests on a smooth table. massless smooth spoke along a radius. and is connected with a particle of mass m by an inextensible thread passing through a hole in the table. series of 2/1 equal uniform rods. IX. 40. the free end begins to move with acceleration chain is A ^ [1 +()" 41. and their values after a short time t will be and 1/ + ^\ (o) . V=ro*^3ai9o^ yo'^ = «^o*''+6>=o<^o . disk and the ring. a referred to the hole as origin and the vertical as polar initial line. spoke under the action of a force to the centre of the ring equal to and the bead is in relative equilibrium at a distance a from the Prove that. Prove that.
and the end B of the attached to A by an inexteusible string of length Aa/^'S. and ABCD being Prove that. L. the bodies being freely jointed at B and C. CB of equal length 2a are freely jointed at C the rod turn in a vertical plane about the point A. + «w«n^). + a„a)„)2/(aiQ)i2 + agtog^ + . . if one end is fixed. The rods fall rest.11^). A M when the plank is let go. . Mab Two is 4(7 is free to rod CB rods A C. 26 and masses Ay B are freely hinged common extremity and the other extremity of A is fixed. . Prove that the initial radius of curvature of the One end to a board of M path of 43. the initial radius of curvature of the path of D is i§ AB. 44. 21 . from a horizontal position of of the further extremity of Prove that the initial radius of cmvature B is + Bf}. The rod is held so as to make an angle a with the vertical.. its middle point is a {JI/2 cos2a + ( if + w)2 sin2a} ^ /M(M+ m^. where 3={mb — Mc)l{mb + Ma). the initial radius of curvature of the path of the free end is (aiwi 48. and MK^ the moment of inertia of the cylinder about its axis.. and the board mass is j)laced on a smooth table. the cylinder being homogeneous and of radius a. . 321 of a uniform rod of length 2a and mass m is freely jointed at the centre of mass of the board. m its mass. at a Two uniform rods of lengths 2a. Prove that. . is the initial radius of curvature of the path described by centre of inertia cn~^ (sin2 a + n^ cos^ a) *. system consists of two equal uniform rods AB. system being in equilibrium the string of curvature of the path of is cut. wg. 46. if the mass of the sphere initially a horizontal straight line. Prove that. axis of the cylinder a with the horizon. the plank being held horizontal. and a uniform sphere of mass m is placed on the plank at a distance h from the axis on the side remote from the centre of mass. on a horizontal plane which is rough enough and the handle is so held that the plane through the and the centre of mass of the handle makes an angle that. where (nl) M{K^ + a^)= ma^. Show that the initial radius 5 is a —4 /413 ^/ ir ' A set of 71 equal rods are jointed together in one straight line and 47. and is the moment of inertia of the plank about the axis. A garden roller is at rest Show to prevent slipping . 2ah {A +BYI{aA'^+h{2A 45.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 42. + a20)2 + . turn about J. The . and is let go. CB and a sphere The system is free to of diameter BC equal to the length of either rod. have initial angular accelerations ©i. M. and c is the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the cylinder. <Bn ^^ one plane. is free to turn in a vertical plane about a rough plank of mass horizontal axis distant c from its centre of mass. the initial radius of curvature of the path of the centre of the sphere is 216^/(5 . is A equal to that of either rod. if the its handle is let go.
— Iq). in the form of a circle of radius r. so that the spheres turn through equal angles about their centres and the thread remains in one plane. and are set to vibrate symmetrically. each of length pendulum of length ^2 WajX. 52. each rod swings about its position of equilibrium like a simple 60. where 1/^ sin a cos a/(r. each of radius a and moment of inertia / about its centre. as to rest on a smooth sphere with each of its planes inclined to the vertical at an angle A lum a[>sin~i (^ cos tt/ti)]. Prove that. is / M and radius a. and a the inclination of the = normal to the 53. An unit length is /i through one continuous half and stretched over two equal rough pulleys each of mass endless flexible and inexteusible chain. whose base is a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius a. are freely comers are joined by two and of modulus X. freely jointed at the corners. length §1 {I of the string.322 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. which line. suspended from a corner. and the opposite similar elastic threads of equal uustretched lengths 2a and weight W. Two an axis through equal spheres. . have their centres connected by an elastic thread passing through holes in their surfaces. if in equilibrium the tension of the thread is T. is 51. the length of the equivalent simple for its small oscillations is pendu ^a cos a (1 48 cos2 a)/(l +2 cos^a). jointed at a common vertex so as to form a pyramid. p being the radius of curvature of the meridian curve at a point on the ring. jointed so as to form a rhombus. vertical. where their period is the same as that of a simple pendulum of I and Iq are the equilibrium length and natural length An elastic circular ring of which the radius when unstrained is a rests on a smooth surface of revolution. A cubical framework of twelve rods. remaining veitical. IX. number n of uniform isosceles triangular laminae are smoothly 49. if the system is placed so vertical angle 2cot~iV(3+sin2 7r/w). Prove (i) that. if the system is laid on a smooth horizontal plane and the threads never become slack. then the time of an oscillation of small amplitude is 27r ^{I/Ta). and held in shape by an elastic string occuj^ying the Prove that. Four equal uniform rods. of which the mass per through the other. 54. if small oscillations take place with the string vertical diagonal. whose axis is vertical. can turn freely about their centres at a distance b apart in a vertical Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the chain under gravity is the pulleys being rough enough to prevent slipping. Prove that the period of the small oscillations in which each element moves in a vertical plane is the same as for a simple pendulum of length I.a) — sec a/p. and whose edges lie on a cone of Prove that.
] 55. then the period of a small oscillation of amplitude a dd a\/\\a) Jo V(lisin2^) [There are no forces besides the tension of the thread and the pressure between the spheres. if sphere under no forces but the attraction of the sphere. uniform rod of length 2a moves in a smooth fixed tube under 57. is ranged symmetrically round a rigid framework freely moveable about a fixed axis A^ the axis of each cylinder being parallel to A and at distance a from it. if the natural length of the thread is 2a and X modulus of elasticity. and prove that the period of small M oscillation about such a position is where is the pressure on the axis per unit of length. p are the radius of the cylinder. particle is placed on one of the plane faces of a uniform gravitating circular cylinder at a very small distance from the centre of the face . where m is the mass of the sphere. a and 21 the length of the rod. about radius a are fixed with their centres at C. Prove that the period of small oscillations is A m A series of n infinitely long uniform circular cylinders. and the density of its material. The attraction of the spheres alters the position of Prove that the density of equilibrium of the balls by a small distance x. slightly displaced. at a point distant c from the action of a fixed gravitating particle of mass the tube. and mass per unit of length.^ of is suspended by its middle point by means of a wire of such torsional elasticity that the system makes a complete oscillation Two equal uniform spheres of in a horizontal plane in time T. X Two negligible mass which equal uniform balls are fixed to the ends of a rod J. prove that it will make small oscillations in a period A where a. Find the positions of stable equilibrium. its radius. it will oscillate in time 27r?(a2 + ^2)l/ax/(3yTO). Prove that. its height. 59. D so that AC and BD are each of length h and are in the same horizontal plane with AB and perpendicular to it on opposite sides.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES and (ii) 323 is its is that. They are attracted by a similar gravitating fixed cylinder with a parallel axis at a distance h {>a) from A. A uniform rod rests in equilibrium on a rough gravitating uniform 56. A. the spheres is 21—2 . each of radius c 58. and the mass of the framework is neglected.
Show that the inclination a of the rod to the vertical when the particles are moving with uniform angular velocity <» given by the equation cos a = (m — m') g/ {(m + m') aH}. the velocity is a cot yjr >J{gd)lh. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is particle is A rp cos a/(r + 3p cos^ a sin a). KIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. Prove that. 62. if the tangent plane at any j)oint of revolution being vertical. ZA'% I .324 60. A particle describes a horizontal circle in steady motion at a depth d 63. 65. if the particle is slightly disturbed. A particle can move in a smooth plane tube which rotates uniformly 61. + 46^ sin^ describing a circle of radius r in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. and a the distance of the point from the axis. 26. the axis of Prove that. IX. if a is the angle which the circle and supports a body of mass m. with angular velocity a> about a vertical axis. which is freely moveable about its middle point. A the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium is where ^irsf{A a^ Ah'')l2Pg {P + = A 2gl^l(o^ {l^ c^). the steady motion is stable or unstable according as l6sin2a8sin3^a is negative or positive. and the period of the small disturbed is the same as that oscillations when the steady motion pendulum ^/). A smooth circular wire is made to rotate uniformly about a vertical A bead of mass m can move on the wire. a the angle which the normal at this point makes with the vertical. Prove that the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium is  A p sin a p sin a cos' where p is the radius of curvature at the point of relative equilibrium. radius through the bead in steady motion makes with the vertical. and is attached to a thread. below the centre of a smooth oblate spheroid of >axes 2a. diameter. Two particles of masses m and m' are attached to the ends of a rigid rod is of negligible mass and of length 21. if rotates about the vertical axis with angular velocity a. is slightly of a simple >//> of length aHj{a'^ cos2 64. where p is the radius of curvature of the meridian curve and a the inclination of the normal to the vertical at any point on the horizontal circle. which passes through a fixed smooth ring at the lowest point of the Prove that. the circle makes an angle yj^ with the vertical. . and a bead can slide on the thread Prove that. thread of length I has its ends attached to two points distant o the system apart on a vertical axis.
A straight uniform rod passes through a ring on a elastic thread plane. which is vertical. A uniform rod of length 2b can slide with its ends on a smooth vertical circular wire of radius vertical diameter with a and the wire is <». plane lamina of any form has in its surface a flat circular cavity ot radius a. k is the radius of gjTation of the rod about its centre. 68. Prove that. made uniform angular velocity to rotate about a Prove that the lowest horizontal position is stable if 69. Four equal uniform rods are freely jointed so as to form a rhombus with a vertical spindle by means of a hinge at A. where d. and k tan a is the value of r at the apse. . smooth horizontal whose natural length is equal to that of the rod has its ends fastened to the ends of the rod and its middle point fixed to the Prove that. permitting free motion in the vertical plane BAC. velocity such that the steady motion is unstable. and it is free to turn about a vertical axis through a point in the circumference of the cavity. radius of gyration of the circular disk about a vertical axis through its A plane tube the equation of which is y'^=f{x) is turning freely 71. and of modulus of elasticity equal to twice the weight of a rod. A with a smooth face and a rough edge is in the cavity. 325 A particle describes a circle uniformly under the influence of two centres of force which attract inversely as the square of the distance. about the axis of symmetry. of natural length equal to § of the value which AD has when AB is inclined to the vertical at an angle a. and the whole system is Prove that rotating steadily about the vertical axis with angular velocity w. and an (1 f F/r2) sin2 a=cosh2 (3 sin a). =sJ{ZglAD\ when each rod makes an angle a with oscillation ABJDC AB.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 66. is the moment of inertia of the lamina about the axis. AC a. with angular velocity V(^/c). joins A to D.re connected the vertical the system will move steadily. A circular disk of mass m and radius c{<a) 70. and that the time of a small about the steady motion is (7r/a>)V(H3sin2a). then if it is slightly disturbed its centre will describe the curve whose polar equation is 67. An elastic thread. Prove that the motion is stable if 3cos^cos^<l. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations about the state of steady motion is g{ac) ac'o>^ {c^ + k^)I^Amk^a^ and k is /+m{F + (2ac)2}' the where / centre. are the angles which a radius of the circle subtends at the centres of force. . if the rod is rotating about its centre with an angular ring. where B is measured from the apse line. if the system is started to rotate with angular velocity ©.
then throughout the motion freely jointed at B and maP. IX. and V the potential energy of the stretched string. hinged at B connected by a thread so that ACB and having their revolving in their own plane with uniform angular '' A which is is fixed. string makes with a fixed line. (^1 + 4) sin'^ ^ (^1 . BG m and length 2a are have their middle points joined by an elastic string. One end is matter constrained to of a rigid uniform rod of length 2a formed of gravitating move uniformly in a circle of radius c with angular at the centre velocity cd. each of mass Two equal uniform rods AB.^2) = 0. and the rod is attracted to a fixed particle of mass of the circle. are velocity about the angle Prove that. Prove that. on a rod of negligible mass whose ends slide Prove that.. if the bead moves relatively to the rod as repelled from the middle point with a force varying inversely as the cube of the distance. is stable if rod If an elastic thread whose length is the same as that of a uniform attached to the rod at both ends. by a blow in a line passing through the centre of mass of the system. equal uniform rods AC. where n is the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the thread to the weight of the rod. if there are no external forces. 72. A bead is free to slide without friction on a fixed circle. 74.326 and a if RIGID BODIES particle of AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. the particle will rise in the tube to a vertical height h which is the least positive root of the equation 2lch = {I'lmch)f{h\ where / is the moment of inertia of the tube about the axis of symmetry. Prove that. the reaction at the is hinge instantaneously changed in the ratio */& 4.{(J 77. 7^2. and the system moves in one plane under no forces. if ^1. . and that this steady motion 'ym>a>^c(c2a)2. smooth rigid uniform circular tube of mass The tube is placed on a table and set in motion particles of masses mi. a right angle. CB. = const. then throughout the motion A M make at time t MimiOi + mJz) + 2?ni?W2 76. 62 are the angles which the radii to the particles with a fixed line on the table. mass m is in the tube close to the lowest point. Prove that the rod can move steadily projecting inwards m towards the centre. if the thread is severed. the radius of curvature of the tube at the lowest point is greater than c. prove that the rod will sink until the parts of the thread are inclined to the horizon at an angle 6 which satisfies the equation 73. (7. contains two 75. Prove that. Two extremities A. is cotH^cot<9 = 2?i. {\ + cos2 B)^ + cos2 6) 0^ + (^ + sin2 6) 6^] + F= const. and suspended by the middle point. if 6 is the the angle which the angle between the string and either rod at any time.
itself A uniform rod of mass m and length 2a moves at right angles to on a smooth table.2) + 52 1^2 ^(^gyi =(^ + 52)2. A smooth uniform tube contains a smooth uniform rod and the 78.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 327. any distance. One end of a The find . system moves under no external forces. the limits of oscillation are given by 79. Prove that. if no restitution. and impinges symmetrically on a uniform circular Prove that. Prove that. lying on a horizontal plane contains a and can turn about a point A of its circumference. disk would have turned through an angle whose circular measure is there is (m' 82. where 6 is a certain constant depending on the masses and moments of inertia of the rod and tube. rests is through groove of radius a of mass if. to a of a an inextensible thread of length a is attached smooth circular wire of radius a. system starts from rest with the thread and rod in a horizontal position the velocity of the rod when its middle point has fallen through of . whose plane is vertical. disk of mass m! and radius a spinning freely about its centre. and that. and radius of gyration h about an axis on a smooth horizontal plane. its centre. the particle can oscillate about the point B furthest from J. of revolution is free to turn round its axis. at one end horizontal diameter the other end of the thread is attached to one end rigid uniform rod of length a. and the edge of the disk is rough enough to prevent the bodies will separate after an interval in which the unmolested slipping. ± ^ sin a. the V {/+4wa(A + Ao)}{i+4ma(a+A+Ao)cos2a}' where 4a about 83. and the line joining the particle to the centre at time t makes with the radius to B an angle j3. being set in motion by an impulse directed at right angles to the tube when the distance between the middle points of the rod and tube is a. which and has a groove cut in its surface which makes a constant angle A particle of mass m is placed in the groove at a depth Aq a with the axis. + 3m)/(m' + m). is vertical. Prove that the distance r between the middle points when the system has turned through an angle 6 is given by the equation (^2 + ^. 81. when the particle has descended a depth velocity of the paraboloid is angular / h. A solid paraboloid below the vertex. particle at a point cos ^ j3 = 80. A smooth circular tube (7. whose other end can slide on the wire. if CB subtends at the centre an angle a. A uniform cube. if the tube is struck by a horizontal blow. is 'igha {(A +Ao) sin^ a— a cos^ a} the latus rectum of the paraboloid and / is its moment of inertia its axis. and a smooth circular cut on the upper face and passes through the centre .
these ends being connected by six similar elastic threads in the sides of the hexagon. are freely jointed and placed on a smooth table in a straight line parallel to an edge. and the rods are inclined at an angle a to the vertical. if a0 is with projected along the groove from the arc traversed by the particle. and the tube is struck by a blow parallel to the minor axis so that it starts to move parallel to this axis with velocity V. Initially all the threads have their natural lengths. the elevation of the gun. each of vertical angle 2a. A cord is attached Two uniform to the joint and passing over the edge of the table at right angles supports a body of mass l/n of that of either rod. starting with its centre very nearly above the point of intersection of the highest generators. is its where 2a and 26 are the principal axes of the tube. A particle is placed in a smooth elliptic tube of n times its mass at 87. so as to touch along a horizontal generator and to Two . Prove that the eccentric angle is <p given by the equation ra2 sin2(f. each of length 2a. Prove that the angle 6 through which either rod has turned at time {2 t is given by the equation + w(l + 3sin2^)}a^2=3^sin^. A particle of mass m is Prove that. their other ends at the corners of a regular hexagon on a smooth horizontal plane. equal right circular cones. and M is the mass of the gun and carriage. p the pitch of the barrel. its radius of centre at right angles to its plane. is < or > sin a cos a/(l — sin a)^. Six equal uniform rods are freely jointed at a point and have 85. and k gyration about an axis through 88. then 72 {F//)Hsin2a + Jf cos2a/(Jf+m)}= ^72 (1 +F/p2) {sin2a+i/'2 cos2a/(i/+ w)2^ where m is the mass of the shot. are fixed with their axes horizontal.328 of that face. + 62cos2d>+ cL^a^b^)sm^4> n. if Prove that. ^2 = ^2 ( j/_. IX. V the muzzle velocities of the shot when the carriage a A is (1) fixed and (2) allowed a free recoil. rifled gun is mounted on a carriage without wheels. (f) make <s/{lOg (a+c) (1 . Two rough horizontal cylinders each of radius c are fixed with their . RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP._ m)l4ma\ rods. where 84. and 6 the angle turned through by the block in any time. and U. Prove that the joint will or will not reach the plane according as the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of each thread to the weight of each rod 86. velocity V. k the radius of gyration of the shot. of the position of the particle at any time an end of the major axis.sin (p)/{7 — 5 cos2 a cos2 <^)}. axes inclined to each other at an angle 2a and a uniform sphere of radius a rolls between them. Prove that the vertical velocity of its centre in a position in which the radii to the two points of contact angles ^ with the horizontal is sin a cos 89.
."7^ o 9/1NZJ9 + 3sm2(9)^^ = —a^ • . and the opposite corners are joined by similar Prove that. where a 94. A homogeneous hemisphere of radius a and mass M falls from rest .''^ ICOSI {f(o)95. and X is the modulus of the thread. is slightly extended and the rhombus left free. The rhombus is laid on a smooth horizontal table freely jointed together. one of horizontal diagonal are joined a and mass wi.'2)}. formed of four equal uniform rods each of length a. Prove that the angle 6 which the tube makes with the vertical when its angular velocity is a maximum and equal to co is given by the equation ^{rnr^\I)<ii^^ingr(i? QXi%6\mg'^^\v?e = ^^ where /is the moment of inertia of the tube about its middle point. if angular velocities «. A particle of m Four equal rods. the greatest value of the angle them in the subsequent motion is 0)7/(0. nm^ and the tube rotates freely about a vertical chord AB {^A above E) which subtends an angle 2a at the centre. A square extremities.sin a)^ ~ sm a . and the system starts from rest with the tube horizontal. if one elastic threads of natural lengths 2a cos a and 2a sin a. . is laid on a formed of four similar uniform rods freely jointed at their smooth horizontal table. each of length as to form a rhombus. ^ l+3sm2a + — (cosacos<9)^— a '^ma . Prove that. if any rod makes an angle B with the vertical at time t after the impact. show that. mass is placed in a smooth straight tube which can rotate in a vertical plane about its middle point. one of its corners being fixed . the periods during which the two threads are respectively extended in the subsequent motion are A rhombus thread in the ratio (cos a)^ 92. + 6. o •  . 93. with one angle equal to 2a. and the tube is set rotating with angular velocity G. Prove that the height z of its centre above the plane of the axes satisfies the equation i^'l+^COt2a+^COt2a(^sec2a + ^j=5r(2ro^). A circular tube of mass m and radius a contains a particle of mass 90. then /I the system (l 18.. are freely jointed so whose diagonals is vertical the ends of the by an elastic thread at its natural length. if the particle oscillates between C and B^ then aO:^ {( w + 1 ) C0s2 a + ^} is C0s2 a =5r (1 + sin a) ( 1 + 2 cos^ a). is the initial value of ^. . and r is the distance of the particle from that point.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 329 have their vertices coincident. ' sin^a 3X 6a. A sphere of radius a rolls between them. falls through a height h to a horizontal plane (no restitution). Initially the particle is at the highest point C of the tube. to' in the plane of the table are communicated between to the rods that meet at this corner. and . Prove that. : (sin a)^. ' (sin ^ 9 ^ ^. 91.
equal rigid inelastic uniform hooks A BCD.. and impinge so that finite portions of opposing faces come into contact. and if is the initial value of the line joining the centres at the instant of impact cuts the opposing faces at an angle ^tt. so long as they remain in contact. Prove that the ends and D' are provided with apparatus for clipping so that they can slide on these sides without friction. : B and D' strike the middle points of B'C and BC. and that. move with equal velocities V in opposite directions parallel to or A'B'. then in the subsequent motion and D' will come to relative rest after if D the sides B'C and BC D moving over distances ^ {S — fJb) a on B'C and BC.19^2(^2_l)^ 15 F^ 8 . moving at right angles to their bases with the same velocity V. Two ^^ Show that they separate immediately after impact with the velocities of their centres of mass reduced in the ratio 9 53. is pressure on the plane when its is equal to where V is the velocity with which it strikes the plane. A'B'C'D'. its Prove that the hemisphere will leave the plane immediately upon becoming vertical if 15 F>16V(a^). each in the form of three sides of a square of side 2a.Tq 72^^2 (^2 + ^2 _ ^. 18 V53 a Two smooth rigid uniform hemispheres. Prove that the distance a. equal and opposite velocities V in parallel lines. base integer. masses. and that the CD' will impinge upon A'B' and AB after an interval sides CD and from the instant when D p V(44+^2) VJy/5 V(^2_5)«^ and D' were at rest relative to the hooks. each of radius a and of equal 98. IX. the line joining their centres meets the opposing faces at a distance x from the centres of the faces which ^2 (.r2 satisfies the equation + §a2) (^^2 + 1^2)= .^2)^ x. if 675 V^l{10247rag) is an the hemisphere will again strike the plane with its base vertical. and impinge so that the points 97. show that. /84V19^l\ /8+^l9zl V19 a V19 . impinge so that lengths fa of the diameters of their bases in the plane through their centres perpendicular to their bases come into contact. between their centres (measured parallel to their bases) at time t is given by the equations 80^2=. Two equal homogeneous cubes are moving on a smooth table with 96. an angle 2^f{tanVf+tanVi}.330 with that its its RIGID BODIES base veitical AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS base horizontal [CHAP. and separate after an interval (1 + J3) aj V after turning through Prove further that. . Prove on to a smooth horizontal plane (no restitution). then while the faces are in contact they slip with uniform relative velocity.. where 2a is a side of either cube.
satisfies the equation Mla6 = m{\gt^aBY. to one end of another coil of mass m^ per unit of length. A coil of parts of the chains increase with uniform accelerations ^VW(V*^i+\/^2) and ^Vmi/(Vwii + \/wi2). To m is fully stretched. and the other end put over the edge of the table. uniform chain of mass rrix per unit of length is placed on a smooth table and one end of it is joined by a thread. The chain then runs down under gravity. before the chain . 331 A lower end the plane. and the system released from rest when a length I of one chain is vertical and the rest of that chain and the other chain are coiled on the table. A 105. Prove that the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table 104. the free extremity of the string is attached a uniform chain of mass and length I if the chain is gathered close up and then let go. . Prove that the chains be momentarily at rest when the length of the vertical portion reduced to ?^. and that the length of chain which has then run A log cosh ( Fjf/A). length ^ of a uniform chain of length l{Jc and mass ii{l\k) is coiled at the edge of a table and the length I hangs over the edge. which is held just at the edge. prove that the angle ^. passing over the edge of the table. and one end is allowed to hang over until it just reaches another platform distant h below the first. and a body of mass equal to that of a length I of the chain is fastened to one end and projected vertically upwards with the velocity due to falling through a height h prove that it will rise to a height . A quantity of uniform {l'^il + Zh)fl. so long as neither 102. Prove that if the second coil is let go the straight . great length of uniform chain is coiled at the edge of a horizontal platform. chain is coiled on a horizontal plane. that its velocity (Vt/k). is uniform chain of length I is held by its upper end so that its at a height I above a fixed horizontal plane. Prove that immediately after leaving the A table the particle is 101. . and is let drop on Prove that when half the chain is on the plane the pressure on f of the weight of the chain. A Prove that at time t is down is ultimately acquires a finite terminal velocity F. the plane 100. A string without weight is soiled mass solid cylinder of M and round a rough horizontal uniform is free radius a which to turn about its axis. and that the maximum velocity is acquired when 2jcll=\og2. A above a table has attached to is thread of length 2h — l passing over a smooth peg at a height h its ends two uniform chains. 103. is is is uniform chain of length I is coiled at the edge of a table one end attached to a particle of mass equal to that of the chain. is completely uncoiled. it Ftanh 106.)} = 2^:11. where will I is log m a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 99. moving with velocity \ >J{^gl). through which the cylinder has turned after a time #.
rises vertically and passes over the pulley. where a. and a uniform chain of mass m and length I is held by its upper end above one of the scalepans so that it just reaches the pan. 110. 112. where Two buckets each of mass fixed M mass which passes over a 108.332 107. the chain passes over the cylinder and has its free end on a level with the table. Prove that the time of leaving the plane is J{llg (1 . 114.). at any time t before the chain is completely uncoiled. Prove that. A chain of length a is coiled up on a ledge at the top of a rough plane of inclination a to the horizontal. A smooth circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal and vertically over the edge of a table.gl{dM^)/{M+f. y are constants. On the bottom of one of them lies a length I of uniform chain. on which a length a of a uniform chain of mass ml and length I is coiled . Prove that. the chain will be uncoiled at the end of a time sJ{Qal{giaxi\)]. and is coiled on the platform. if the system starts to move from rest. A . of a uniform chain of length I and mass is fixed to a horizontal platform of mass (2^l)m. the end of the chain hanging initially just over the edge. IX. whose mass is fxl^ one end of which is attached to a fixed point just above the bottom of the bucket. A uniform chain is is vertical and vertex upwards. Find the acceleration of the pan when a length x of chain has fallen upon it. the velocity of the bucket when there remains upon it a length y of chain is F. Prove that.the edge of a table. the depth x of the platform satisfies an equation of the form a. circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal on which lies a chain of length I and and one end of the chain is attached to a thread which passes over the /x Prove that. placed on the arc of a smooth cycloid whose axis Show that. if all the chain is off cylinder and supports a body of mass M. so long as the chain is wholly in . the chain passes over a smooth fixed As the platform descends vertically.^ = a+^j:\ye~^'^'^. if this end is slightly displaced downwards. Prove that. if the inclination of the plane is double the angle of friction (X). the amount of energy that will have been dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is ^mga^/l. Two scalepans each of mass are supported by a cord of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley. One end m the chain uncoils. /3. and prove that the whole chain will have fallen upon it after an M interval ^{\l{4:M+m)IMg]. 111. 113. pulley. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. are connected by a chain of negligible smooth pulley. and one end is allowed to slide down.sin a)] log (cot \a). the table before any of it reaches the cylinder. A chain of length I slides from rest down a line of greatest slope on a smooth plane of inclination a to*the horizontal. 109. the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is mass lf. smooth vertically above.
A uniform chain falls in a vertical plane with uniform acceleration . and is a maximum at the middle point. 6=a(o^ Y' 117. one end being initially at the vertex. A m — point of the chain is ^mcos^ a{l^ a. in the groove under gravity. m the mass of a unit of length of the chain. A rough circular cylinder of radius c is fixed with its axis vertical. radius a rotates uniformly about the base of the cycloid with angular velocity Prove that. the time of a small oscillation A about the position of relative equilibrium (87r/i2)v/{2a2/(16a2_^2). The free end of the length a is pulled by a constant force F in the direction Prove that. its end portions of lengths a and b being straight. and length 21 is in a tube of uniform 118. smooth tube in the form of a cycloid generated by a circle of 119. 115. chain whose density varies uniformly from p at one end to 3p at is placed symmetrically on a small smooth pulley and is then Prove that it leaves the pulley with velocity ^is^f{lllg\ where 21 is its A length. mass ma. the chain is under no forces but the pressure of the tube. uniform chain of mass bore in the form of an equiangular spiral which revolves in its plane about Prove that the tension at any its pole with uniform angular velocity &>. /(IF where /x l^{lbf 1 ?=c//x + (a being the coefficient of friction. An elastic string (modulus X. it will be moving with a velocity cylinder. and a uniform chain lying on a smooth horizontal plane has a length c/3 in contact with the cylinder. where a is the angle of the and a^ the arcual distance of the point from the middle point of spiral the chain. if 6 is the angle through which the cone has turned when the upper end is at a distance r from the vertex. Show that the length of the string in equilibrium tan 6 . and a fine smooth groove I cut on its make a constant moves A uniform chain of mass and length angle /3 with the generators. A cone of vertical angle surface so as to /x is /. if i2. and + 6e^^)/(e^^l). when the free end of the length b reaches the of its length. 121. is 333 constant the other end let go.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES contact with the cycloid. confined within a straight tube to one end of which it is fastened. the tension at any point of the chain throughout the motion. where 2a. is 120. Prove that. {/cosec2a//x + ^?2cos2^}e2«8i"«cot^^^2+^^cos^ + Z2cos2^ + 7cosec2a//i. ^ /m is a . and a piece of uniform chain of length 21 is in the tube.^) co^/l. is free is to turn about its axis which whose moment of inertia about its axis is vertical. and the tube rotates about that end with uniform angular velocity w in a horizontal plane. unstretched length a) is 116.
the other end being free. lying in the form of a circle. prove that the curve is an equiangular spiral. / retaining an invariable form. the part below the pulleys is a catenary of parameter c. chain hanging under gravity receives a tangential impulse initial velocity at any point in the direction parallel A uniform at one end. Prove that. part of the chain is coiled up on a horizontal platform at a depth k below this line. IX. A uniform chain lies in an arc of the curve r=ae^^ from ^ = to and receives a tangential impulse Tq at ^=0. A uniform chain in motion by an impulsive tension applied lying in a curve on a smooth horizontal plane is set at one end in the direction of the If the initial direction of motion of every element makes the same tangent. considered as a function of the time t and of the arc s measured up to this point from some definite point of the chain. Prove that the impulsive tension at any point is 127. 124. radius a. the initial normal velocities at the lowest point and at either end are in the ratio 1 cos 6. : 126. the J{g{h — h')]la^ and that the relation between A=cseca + a cos a. while the chain advances along itself with a Prove velocity which at any instant is the same for all points of the chain. and the chain hangs in the form of an arc of a circle subtending an angle 2^ (<7r) at the centre. if equal tangential impulses are applied at the ends. The ends of a chain of variable density are held at the same level. generated is ^T^siu^ajM^ where M is the mass of the chain. angle with the tangent. 123. the vertical parts being between the pulleys. and the chain hangs from the second pulley to a platform at a lower level A'. pulleys rotating with angular velocity that steady motion with this configuration is possible. whose centres are at a distance d apart in the same horizontal line . A the part between one pulley and the platform is vertical.334 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. receives a . and h can be found by eliminating a between the equations (^=2csinh~i (tan a)— 2a sin a. c?. Prove that the to the directrix is proportional to the curvature at the point. Show c. 6=^ 128. satisfies the two partial differential equations ds dsdt dt ds^ uniform flexible chain passes over two rough equal pulleys of 122. prove that the kinetic energy tangential impulses T applied at its ends . An endless uniform chain. and the line density varies inversely as the square of the distance from the diameter The chain is set in motion by equal parallel to the chord joining the ends. that the angle (f) which the tangent at any point of the chain makes with the horizontal. 125. A chain of variable density is in the form of an arc of a circle less than a semicircle and subtending an angle 2a at the centre.
angles y with the vertical. Prove that the whole will move without change of form parallel to the line which was vertical in the 129. A on fixed wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 335 point tangential pluck at one point J. 131. : 133. Prove also that to move in a direction making an angle ^ with the tangent. A chain of variable density is placed on a it of the curve in which hanging chain.cos j3)}] . V which touch the disk at the ends of the arc of contact and particles of masses m and m' are attached at the ends. is instantaneously changed in the ratio (0fa)sin/3 : cos/3(a+3) sin/3. Prove that. where the tangent makes an angle ^ with the horizontal. chain hangs under gravity in the form of a circle. AF P starts = (6*'^. if the wire supporting one end is removed. and two impulsive tensions are applied at its extremities.+ e2% smooth table in the form would hang under gravity. the tangents at its and B making angles a and /3 with the horizontal the ends can slide . is the length of the straight portion of chain A uniform chain is suspended from two points in the same horizontal . the length of this part being a (a + ^) the remainder 130. line so that the tangents at the where Prove also that the tension at the other 1 : tan ^ = (1 +sin2 a + 2a tan a)/sin a cos a. the tension at a point P. is A heterogeneous diminished in the ratio ^ y + cot y. if the wire supporting A is removed. where tan(/. P ^ sinh(27r(9) sinh 27r ' 6 being the angle which subtends at the centre. ends A chain of variable density hangs under gravity.2«)/(e^. A plane is in . end is diminished in the ratio 1 +^a""i cot a. m begins to move with velocity M~ V [(m' + pV) (sin a + sin ^) + pa {(a f 1 i3) sin a + (cos a . which are to each other in the ratio of the tensions at the same points in the hanging chain. its ends being free to slide on two smooth straight wires which make equal Prove that. and V to which m' is attached. with the horizontal the tension at a point where the tangent makes an angle 132. Prove that. Prove that. . uniform flexible inextensible chain of density p rests on a smooth a part of its length is in contact with a smooth circular disk of radius a which lies on the plane. that end starts to move in a direction making with the horizontal an angle ^. two straight portions of lengths Z. if the chain is severed at its vertex. which gives it an impulsive tension T^ at that is prove that the impulsive tension at any point . . where J!/'=m4m'+p^ + pZ'. ends make angles a with the horizontal and the ends can slide on fixed straight wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends. when the disk is suddenly moved with velocity F in a direction making an angle a with the radius to the point at which the portion carrying m leaves the disk. .
This process of been accepted as a " timemeasuring process. stars is very nearly the same as if his motion were an elliptic motion about a focus at the centre of the Earth. The sense in which the Sun describes his orbit is the same as the sense in which any particular meridian plane of the Earth turns about the polar axis. is a relative motion which every star moves relatively to by the Earth continually from East to West." has been regarded as taking place uniformly. that is to say the Sun is always t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk in a first (*) may be omitted reading. the sense polar of this axis and the sense of the rotation are related like the senses angles of translation and rotation of a righthanded screw. consider in the first place the motion of the Sun relative to a frame whose origin is the centre of the Earth and whose lines of reference go out thence to stars so distant as to have no observable annual parallax. 44).CHAPTER Xt. 269. 268. The path and motion of the Sun relative to this frame are the same as the motion (in a planetary orbit) of the Earth. It is a fact of observation that there stars of the Earth and the The rotation is such that. relative to a frame whose origin is in the Sun and whose lines of reference go out thence to the same stars The Sun's path relative to this frame of Earth and (cf. To explain this statement. by which any part of the Earth's surface moves relatively to the stars continually from West to East. Ex. Sidereal it relative rotation has for ages that is to say Solar Time. . if the is called a "sidereal day. Time measured Time and Mean by is this process is called "sidereal time. This motion can be precisely described by saying that the Earth rotates about its The time in which the Earth turns through four right polar axis. THE EOTATION OF THE EARTH. what is geometrically the same thing. 3 of Art." Now we have said (Article 3) that the process used for measuring time the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun." axis is supposed to be drawn from South to North. or.
and time so measured is mean solar time. depends upon the axes to which the motion is referred. is much more nearly elliptic motion about a focus than uniform circular motion. To define the to the frame of Earth measurement of time by the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. then we imagine a second point to move in the plane of the Earth's equator with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth. but the time of revolution of the Sun is not a constant multiple of the time of revolution of the stars. L. The unit of time is the time in which the Earth rotates mean day . and the stars make about time in the orbit 366 J revolutions. to axes If we refer the motion which rotate with the Earth the particle has no such acceleration. The specification of the acceleration of the particle. of gravitation. 22 . this rotation and relatively to this frame through an angle equal to 1/86400 of four right angles. When we say that the it Earth is we imply that a body at rest relative to is moving round the polar axis. and at such a rate as always to coincide with the first point at the node corresponding to the Vernal Equinox. and therefore of the forces acting on the body. so that the time of describing any angle is a constant multiple of the time in which the Earth turns through the same angle). Now it is to be observed that. and the periodic is a year (technically a "tropical year"). relative and stars.measuring process. The Sun passes the line of nodes at the Equinoxes. and at such a rate as always to coincide with the Sun at the nearer apse of his path . Relatively to this frame the Earth rotates about solar its polar axis in an interval called a can be used instead of the rotation relative to the stars as time. The variability arises in the first place from the fact that the motion of the Sun in his path. This second point is called the Mean Sun. the line joining the origin to the Mean Sun as a line of reference. and the line of intersection of the plane of the orbit with the plane of the Earth's equator (known as the line of nodes) has a small progressive motion in the opposite sense. relatively to a frame fixed in the Earth. and the plane through this line and the polar axis as a plane of reference. M. 270. progressive motion in the sense in which the orbit is described. with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth {i. and therefore has an acceleration directed towards the centre of this circle. The elements of the in particular the apse line has a small elliptic orbit are not quite constant . We may determine a frame of reference by taking the centre of the Earth as origin. Any particle of the body is describing a circle about a centre on this axis. The law rotating. we imagine a point to move (relatively to the frame of Earth and stars) in the Sun's path. this unit is the mean solar second. the Sun makes about 365^ revolutions round the Earth in a year.e. and in the second place from the fact that the plane of the Sun's path is inclined to the equator.268270] MEAN SOLAR TIME 337 moving from stars which have a more westerly position towards stars which have a more easterly position in the plane of his path.
The law of gravitation is a statement concerning the forces It implies that the motion that act upon the particles of bodies. Gravity. and described to gravity. vi. the law the origin and axes to which the motion is referred ought In other words. (ii) The axes are determined by stars so distant as to have no observable annual parallax. Relatively to this frame the Earth as a whole has certain Of these the most conspicuous are the orbital motion motions." is specified by reference to axes fixed in the Earth. is denoted by g. has been chosen. so that 27r/n is the number of mean solar seconds in a sidereal Let H day. relative to such axes. be the mass of the body. in a position near the Earth's surface. due to the field in which the Earth moves. Let p denote the distance of a particle from the polar axis. the force mg' due to m .) This acceleration is denote the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation. and a complete statement of the law reference would involve the specification of this frame of reference. When the law is applied to the motions of bodies within the Solar System an adequate frame of reference can be specified by the statements: (i) The origin is the centre of mass of the system. Let/ denote the acceleration of the Earth's centre of mass referred to the frame specified by the centre of mass of the solar system and the "fixed" stars. The acceleration of a body. about the Sun and the rotation about the polar 271. as determined by the law of Let The forces acting upon it are the force mf gravitation (Ch. (Of Ch. of a particle starting as the "acceleration from rest.338 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. relative to such axes. treated as a is compounded particle. the law implies that a frame of to be specified. not identical with the acceleration produced The latter in the particle by the field of the Earth's gravitation. which is at rest relatively to the Earth. Vl). The due acceleration denoted by ^. axis. of the accelerations / and pVL^\ the acceleration pD? is directed towards the point where the polar axis cuts a plane drawn at right angles to it through the position of the particle. For a complete statement of is referred to some axes or other. X. It may be precisely defined as the initial acceleration.
The sense of TT is W The kinetic reaction of the particle is compounded of mf in the direction of the acceleration the acceleration / and mpD. I. is W = mg in Chapter that. Hence is by mf W . Let X be the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator.^ in the direction of is pHl Hence the resultant of W and mg' equal to mpil^ in the direction of the acceleration pD.270272] GRAVITY AND GRAVITATION field. 339 which keeps the the Earth's gravitational aud a force W particle in relative equilibrium. (See Art. Consider a body at rest relative to the Earth. and the forces acting upon the body are mf. the relation rotation. W directly opposed to that of the acceleration g. mpfl^. equation of motion by resolving parallel to the The equation I. W.) We / The upwards. Form an equation of motion by resolving in the direction of the polar axis. Variation of gravity with latitude. in the "vertical" at the place. pfl^ and g. disregard in this statement the difference in the values of the intensity of the external field at the centre and surface of the Earth. now appears ill we neglected when g is defined unaffected by taking account of this 272.\ If the particle is released. Its kinetic reaction consists of vectors mf. It as above. angle which the equator. direction of it is other words is that of a plumbline at the place. mg'. In obtaining the relation the rotation of the Earth. = mg and the line of action of and mg'. its initial acceleration is compounded The forces acting upon it are then those specified of/. is mpD? = mg' cos \—W cos 22—2 . 274. Let I be the vertical at a place makes with the plane of the Then I is the (Astronomical) latitude of the place. The directions and senses of all these vectors have been specified. The equation is = mg' sin X — TT sin Form an direction of the acceleration pCl^.
regarded as spherical. and as made up of concentric spherical strata of equal density. Now equal at the same place. The equations determine is X. is the ratio of the forces with which they are attracted by a gravitating body when they occupy. Mass and weighing. latitude. successively. are equal. and E is its mass. When two bodies are found to be of the same weight. and we have If the Earth g'=^r^EIR\ p==Rcos\ where R is the radius of the sin Earth. / are known by observation and p is known in terms of I when the figure of the Of the is Earth known. it is verified that the forces required to support them in equilibrium relative to the Earth are Hence the product mg is the same for both. as position with respect to that body. X W = mg. But the ratio of two masses. The assumptions enable us to account for the variation of g with of the Earth. 273. There is a small correction to the formula for g on account of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. and g'. The determination of the mass of a body by weighing it in a common . determined by the law of gravitation. the ratio g ^' is sin X sin I. as determined by the law of gravitation.340 Since THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. is the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator. where I is the Astronomical latitude of the place. angle. by weighing them in a common balance. 12. Hence (l\) ~ i^n^ _ sin X cos X g ' ^~^ _ ryE sin \ sin I . It follows that the product mg' : : and X is the same for the two bodies. approximately equal to This angle is called the "deviation of the plumbline. the line of action of the force mg' passes through the centre. and therefore sin I cos I radians. . we have 9' ^ sinZ 9 sinX ^ P^' s\n{l — \) QX quantities in these equations ^." Also g is approximately equal to ? Now RD?lg — \ is a small ^^ r^E ^(1^i^cos^OWith the above assumptions as to the figure and constitution \ becomes the "geocentric" latitude of the place. the same Hence the masses of the two bodies. ^ '' is a small fraction equal to yj^ nearly.
is This variation most marked in the case of the Moon on account of its comparatively small distance from the Earth.] If the [In these examples the Earth is regarded as a 1. in any latitude. H. homogeneous sphere. as above. The Tides and kindred phenomena in London. 1898. The force which arises. is available for producing motion of the body m relative to the Earth. Its intensity varies slightly from centre to surface. in the sense of /'. 275. prove that in (geocentric) latitude X the value of ^ is VW 3. The effect of this force is to make the direction of the plumbline at a place deviate slightly from the direction which it would take if /' were the same as /. The The force which produces the lunar deflexion of gravity is the same as that which produces the tides. If the acceleration due to gravity at the Poles is g^ and at the Equator ^e. 2. sin2X4^g2 cos'^X).272275] balance of DEVIATION OF THE PLUMBLINE 341 may mass by means of mutual was stated in Chapter vi. in the sense of f reversed. Examples. In the above discussion we have treated the external the centre of mass as uniform. Darwin. 275. and let denote the intensity at a point on the surface. and that the deviation of the plumbline from the (geometrical) tani{(^o^e) sin X cos X/(^o sin^Xl^^ cos^X)}. prove that. extremely diflicult* Ex. or as having the same intensity at of the Earth and at any point on its surface. Cf. the plumbline would be parallel to the polar axis." The direct measurement of this effect is theoretical value can. the Solar system. 274. this effect is generally referred to as the "lunar deflexion of gravity. the intensity of the external field at the Earth's centre of mass. force compounded of m/'. as before. . Planets. Earth were to rotate so fast that bodies at the equator had no weight. however. vertical is Prove that a pendulum which beats seconds at the Poles will lose is approximately 30m cos^^ beats per minute in latitude ?. therefore be regarded as a particular case of the determination action. on the basis of the law of gravitation. be determined. and m/. A / Let / denote. as Lunar de&exion of field gravity. at least in so far as these depend upon the Moon. Since the difference between / and /' arises mainly from the attraction of the Moon. * See G. The Moon and external field arises from the gravitational attractions of the Sun. where \\m \\ the ratio of the values of g at the Poles and at the Equator. 5 in Art. from the difference between / and /' is the tidegenerating force.
cos I approximately. we = — g cos 0. = . the axis of z to be the polar axis (from South Pole to North Pole). but they are xQy.342 4.(ymE/R^) sin \. and 60 times the Earth's radius. using equations (2) of Art. as the body remains near a place. This system is a We righthanded system. the positive sense of the axis of x being from the centre to the meridian in question. y + 2nx = = " 9 sin L z X — 2fly . y + D. j mz where \ is the angle which the radius of the Earth drawn through the body makes with the plane of the equator. also we take the axis of y to be at right angles to this meridian plane and directed towards the East. and y = 0.(ymE/E^) cos X. mass m is travelling with 4mvQ. i. body are ] z. a seconds' pendulum at the Earth's surface will be losing at a rate i^jjC^ sin^a.1) seconds per day. y. spherical. j^{xny)^n(y + nx). of motion of the m(x. and the component accelerations are i. Motion of a first free body near the Earth's surface. By the results of Art. where a is the altitude of the Moon at the place of observation. 272 we take the Earth to be fixed in the Earth. I m(y + 2nxn^y)=: 0. 272. prove that. we may take X to be constant. THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP.2 fly . 5. owing to the Moon's attraction. A of latitude in latitude the rails uniform speed v along a parallel Prove that the difference between the pressures on when the train travels due East and when it travels due West is train of I. X. put x = find R cos X I. the axis of x to be the intersection of the plane of the equator and the meridian plane near which the motion takes place.x. the component velocities of the body parallel to these axes are not x. and we may in the terms containing H^. 254. *276. Assuming that the mass is that the Moon's distance of the Moon is ^^ of that of the Earth. the equations of motion of the body referred to axes As in Art. Now.n^x) = . Then. We form take the origin to be at the centre of the Earth. Hence the equations ~{y + nx)}n(x~ny).
and we is zero. Initial motion. We thus obtain the equations = 0. x=2ny'sml and integrating the third equation.202/' cQsl^g.275277] Since these MOTION relative to the earth 343 equations contain only differential coefficients of with respect to the time. we have. without making any alteration.\gt\ . \ y' z . shall The motion first suppose that the initial value of the coordinate ?/' is determined by equations (1) of Art. z =^ z sin x cos I. suppose the origin to be on the Earth's surface in the X. z latitude and longitude near which the motion takes place. the time from the beginning of the motion. Then the initial velocities relative to axes at the place of observation are given by the equations x' = 0. x' axis of y\ and the vertical drawn upwards I \ as We have y' = X sm I — z cos I. taking the origin as just explained. we may. Suppose the body to fall from rest the relative to the Earth. we have z =gt2ay'cosl where t is (2). — y. \ + 2n(ir'sin^ + i'cos0=0. Substituting in equations (1) and (2). so that y' we = ngt'' cos I = ^ngfcosl y' (3). 276. on integration. y. X where and = Xq / = Zo . and neglecting terms of the same order as before. on tuting in the second equation. z = 0. these equations determine the motion of the body relative to the axes at the place of observation. . of these. *277. J ^'2n2/'sinZ (1). and neglecting fl^y\ integration. the horizontal shall We drawn eastwards as axis of /. transform to the horizontal drawn southwards as axis of x'. Substihave. now. y' = 0. Integrating the we have (1). I J Xq V are the initial values of x' and /.
and add. and it what we have called g.^mg {x'^ + y^)IL (4). . the origin being at the equilibrium position. by Art. . z. J I (2). I my' + 2mn {x' sin + z' cosl) mz — 2mVly cos / = — mg \T {L — ^')IL. y'. This result accords well with observed *278.2mQ. the eastward deviation in a the East of the starting through a height h being very approximately nV(2/iV^)cosZ. 276. the terms containing n (3).344 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. Let x'. mx . Multiply the equations (2) in order by x\ i/'. in the integral equation. Let a simple circular pendulum of length L be free to move about its point of support. (Lz')IL. On this assumption we We have approximately z' = w + y")IL (3). also vanish z'^ Omitting we have identically. It appears that the body falls a little to fall point. and substituting for / from \m {x'^ + y'^) = const. z' be the coordinates of the bob referred to the system of axes described in Art. and the equation can be integrated. Now the equations of motion are. axes fixed on the Earth is In the beginning of the motion the acceleration relative to is directed vertically downwards. then the line of action of T makes with the axes angles whose cosines are ^IL.y' sin ^ = .T {x'jL). shall integrate these equations on the assumption that the pendulum makes small oscillations. facts. and let T be the tension of the suspending fibre. + y' + (Lzy = L' (1). \ = .T (y'/L). and we have the relation a)'' y'lL. which is fixed relatively to the Earth. The terms containing T vanish identically by (1). Motion of a Pendulum. To the order of approximation here adopted the vertical component of acceleration remains constant throughout the motion. X. 276.
Introducing polar coordinates in the horizontal plane given by X =r cos 6. multiplying the first of equations (2) by second by x. adding.277279] MOTION relative to the earth 345 — y\ and the Again. To start the . is showing that the horizontal motion in the plane of vibration simple harmonic motion of period 27r\/ (L/g). y —r sin Q. r2^ = 5r2nsin^. It is to be noticed that r and </> are polar coordinates referred to an initial line which rotates about the vertical from East to West with an angular velocity Hsin^. so that the pendulum has no velocity in the plane of vibration when r = a. r' = Ar'(g/L). and omitting the term in y'z\ we have on integration xy y'x' = D. Hence the pendulum oscillates so that its plane of vibration turns round the vertical relatively to the Earth with angular velocity O sin I from East to West. Foucault's Pendulum. we neglect ll^sin^^ in comparison with g/L. the system is known as a Since r can vanish. we shall r2 + r2<^2 = (^ + 205 sin i) . *279. if we put have + n^sin^ = <^ (6). \ ^ These equations completely determine the motion.r^ {{g\L) + H^ sin^ I]. ^ and. If a is the amplitude of the simple harmonic motion. point of support and is set oscillating so as equilibrium position. it will not move as here described unless its angular velocity relative to the Earth is 12 sin I from East to West. it follows by the second of equations (7) of the last Article that B must vanish. if The first of equations (7) of the last Article then becomes. its When the pendulum can turn freely about to pass through its Foucault's Pendulum.^ml{x'^^y"')\GOn^t (5). from equations (4) and (5) we obtain equations of the form r2 + r2^2 = ^r%/Z). and thus (f> vanishes throughout the motion.
2.r2)/r . . it pendulum. Examples.cos powers of L€^^lg above the first being neglected. relatively to a certain frame. > ) approximately.t (sin I cos ^ cos a + cos z = Vt {sin a + Qt cos I sin /3 cos a} — ^gt^. West with This result accords well with observed ^280. eastwards through y. and the vertical plane through it makes an angle jS with the meridian (East of South). Prove that after an interval t it will have velocity V moved southwards through where ^. 3. therefore. particle is observed to move. equilibrium position not sufficient to hold aside from its it must be projected at right angles to the vertical plane containing it with velocity aOsinZ. /3}. which the line turns. with a simple harmonic motion of period ^irjn in a line. and upwards through \ 2. Prove that. facts. {^e) = n s/{Llg) sin I y{a^ . X. Q^i/ being neglected. equation its path is given approximately by the "i (r/a)}. set going it moves like a simple pendulum of the When thus same length in a plane which turns about the vertical from East to angular velocity 11 sin Z. 1. [CHAP. x= Vt cos a {cos ^ + Qt sin I sin y=Vt {cos a sin ^— Q. which turns uniformly about the mean position of the particle in a plane fixed relatively to the A frame with angular velocity a> prove that the acceleration of the particle when at distance r from its mean position is compounded of a radial acceleration (w^ + q>^) r.346 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH it is . projectile is projected A from a point on the Earth's surface with at an elevation a in a vertical plane making an angle ^ with the meridian (East of South). I sin a)} + ^ Qgt^ cos I. and a transverse acceleration 2a)r in the sense in . if the bob of a pendulum of length L is let go from a position of rest relative to the Earth when its displacement from its equilibrium position is a.
and he made the idea of force. We : give Laws of Motion.CHAPTER XI. " Every body remains in line. Newton found by of the Solar that the notion of acceleration." is "compelled by impressed forces to change is Second Law. as that which produces acceleration. and in the Scholia attached here a translation of the three Laws of Motion "First Law. Galileo discovered by experiment that the velocity of a falling body is proportional to the time during which it has been falling. thus introduced Galileo. He recognized in the motion of a body on a very smooth horizontal plane that a body. existence of force with the production of acceleration. and takes place " which that force is impressed. and he was thus led to the notion of acceleration. moved uniformly in a straight line and he was thus led to connect the . availed for the description of the motions of the bodies System equally with the motion of falling bodies near the Earth's surface. He formulated his theory in a series of definitions. as distinct from weight. its state of rest or of as it uniform motion in a straight " except in so far its state. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS. w^hich he Leges Motus. Change of motion "impressed moving force. the cardinal notion in his philosophy. in the three celebrated called Axiomata sive thereto. Newton also introduced the notion of mass. and stated that the mass of a body is the quantity of matter which it contains." proportional to the in the direction in . which could be regarded as subject to no forces.
time this that it and the motion goes on unchanged." The definitions preceding the laws introduce the notions of mass. case of the second for. Reaction is [CHAP. and of impressed moving force as an action on a body by which its state of motion is changed. and also in H. but are expressed in a form that is more convenient I. and the forces have opposite senses (Art. Translation. is step in the formulation of the principles of Mechanics* the recognition of the vectorial character of such quantities first The as velocity and acceleration. Discussions of the principles of Mechanics will be found in the works cited 357 below. In the course of this book the theoretical aspect of the science has been developed from two principles which are essentially the same as Newton's laws of motion. These principles correspond precisely to the second and third The first law may be regarded as a particular of Newton's laws. II. XI. there is no .348 " SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES Third Law. London. " " always equal and opposite to action or the actions of two bodies one on the other are always equal and oppositely directed. 64). and an account of the we now scholia balance. 1899. Hertz's Principles of Mechanics. In Newton's particular principle was so subversive of current ideas it was necessary to state explicitly. and sense kinetic reaction of a particle has the same magnitude as the resultant force acting on the particle The magnitude is of the force exerted another equal to the magnitude by one particle on of the force exerted by the second particle upon the first. They are The direction (Art. . and as proportional to what call momentum generated in a given interval. the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles. change of motion. for application. 142). determination of masses by direct experiment with the ballistic The latter is given as a verification of the Third Law. The statement that is velocity is a vector * is the proposition that often called the " parallelogram on p. if there is no impressed force. . The attached to the laws contaii^ a demonstration of the theorem of the parallelogram of forces.
This hypothetical this inference When we draw we go beyond the facts. is valuable as an illustration but the process that of it illustrates is not the composition of two velocities relative to the same ." It is not a physical law. It is inferred that there is some action of the Earth upon bodies in its another. and free from contact with other bodies. another step which has physical significance when that the motion of bodies in a field of force is recognize book modified when they are in contact with other bodies. The occurrence of definite accelerations in definite places is a physical fact. by action is called /orce. that it had a definite acceleration. which we now call the ''acceleration due to gravity. Galileo.FIELD OF FORCE of velocities. say of a body anywhere in the Solar System. of this latter process is very simple (see Art. 27). or may not. In our Chapter IV it is introduced merely for the purpose of stating results in the same terms as in subsequent Chapters. no matter how its motion is started. The establishment recognize of this notion was one of the services rendered to science by We make a body near the Earth's surface that it has such and such an acceleration. A table. postulates and axioms. In our Chapter II it has not been introduced. or of one body of the Solar System on which the acceleration is produced. given in many books as a " proof. but it is a definition arrived at by gradually is This notion increasing the precision of a notion already formed. be legitimate. In Newton's hands the It was found to be possible to principle was carried further. nor is it a 349 mathematical proposition capable of mathematical proof from definitions. instead of falling through into the air does not move in a ball thrown rests on the . step which has physical significance when we the existence of a field of force. neighbourhood. In so far as the analytical formulation of the facts is concerned it is unnecessary. The inference that some "action" or "force" produces them may. The discussion. We make we A placed on a table to the floor. frame. the notion of velocity as rate of displacement per unit of time. He showed that we could say of a free hardly necessary to say that neither Galileo nor anyone else has ever Galileo found how to isolate the effect experimented upon a free body." and he demonstrated It is the existence and nature of this eflfect conclusively. but the composition of a velocity relative to one frame with the The analytical formulation velocity of that frame relative to another frame." by means of the motion a ball in a moving tube.
In like manner it is not shall if make a mistake we suppose measure determined by the use of the spring balance under suitable conditions. For example. We the method and results of Art. and proportional to a power of that velocity. We might. 138. existence of pressure between bodies in contact seems obvious to common sense. nor is its (Art. or due to the air. notion of mass is irrelevant. an acceleration directed along the tangent of its path. in addition to the acceleration of a free body. is an action of some sort. by a body hung on to it. the extension of the spring. but the trajectory It does whereby the acceleration that a free body would have is modified. Nevertheless it is to be noted that the pressure is just as much inferred from an observation about the motion of the bodies as the action between gravitating bodies is inferred from the motions of these bodies. Yet action at a distance appears to common sense to be absurd. is steeper in falling than in to be a legitimate inference that there appear rising. would appear are at liberty to define force in the way that we find most define it as a particular measure of the action convenient. although it was from these sensations that the notion of such action grew up. parabolic path. XI.350 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. The result that. whatever the magnitude and sense of the velocity may be. should have force. We that the existence of any action between bodies is verified by our muscular sensations. We infer the It — — existence of the action from observed It " " accelerations ^ which we also that regard as produced by the actions. We In the same parts of the science the have introduced it in Chapter III solely in order that the statement of the results may take the same form as in the subsequent parts of the theory. whatever that tangent may be. in our (as well as in II and IV). due to the table. would appear from this discussion that the action of one on another is a concept something conceived by us in body terms of which we describe the motions of bodies. nearly all the questions disChapters III and Another point to be noted V cussed could be expressed without using the notion of force. is proportional to the weight of the body (as determined by the common balance) is a fact about the elasticity of the verified. and we state how it is to be measured. 58). spring. discuss the motion of a particle which moves in a given field of and has. in the sense opposite to the velocity. We define the . is that the notion of force is not really to the analytical formulation of those parts of the science in which necessary we pay attention to the motion of one body at a time. When we The infer such action we assert the existence oi force. we We of one body on another. The definition can be given in most precise terms when the body acted upon can be treated as a particle. for instance.
As has been already pointed out. From this point of view the " parallelogram of forces " becomes part of a conventional definition. and determine their massThe fact that the ratio by the method of the ballistic balance. have a ratio which is always the same so long as the bodies remain the same. as the product of the mass of the particle and the acceleration that is produced in it by the action. define the force acting on a particle as a vector localized at We a point. The definition of what is meant by the To do this force " remains incomplete until we explain " mass of a body. which are produced in two bodies by their mutual actions. been sketched in Art. be regarded as verifications that the definition is.FORCE AND MASS 351 magnitude of any force. this Law is equivalent to the statement that the accelerations. In the second place. we must introduce the Law of Reaction. as the ratio of their . in the first and we are place. the notions of force and mass are not essential to the analytical formulation of those parts of the science in which we study the motion of one body at a time They are essential as soon (the body being treated as a particle). We may consider. result is the same seems to the present writer to be the central fact of Mechanics. . may convenient. weights when weighed in a common balance. The reciprocal of this ratio is the ratio of the masses of the two bodies. we may let the bodies collide. the mutual actions of the bodies and the Earth thus led to the massratio of two bodies. and in accordance with our concept of force. or of a particle. as we begin to discuss the motions of several bodies forming a connected system. corresponding The definition is incomplete until we state what the nature of the dependence of force upon direction is to be taken to be. There are two quite distinct sets of circumstances in which we can observe accelerations or changes of velocity. as a matter of One way in which the definition may be arrived at has 61. acting on a particle. these changes of velocity are regarded as produced by mutual actions. The "proofs" and "verifications" given in most books fact. in As has been explained Chapter VI.
It may be stated here that no new of gravitation. and the problem of bringing the various conceptions into harmony with each other has not been solved. M. Electric Waves. Accordingly this theory constitutes a science torically — a logically valid and practically valuable method of representing observed facts by abstract formulas. 1902. as of particles. They have thus histhis theory provides developed into a scheme which successfully coordinates an immense number of disconnected observations concerning matters of fact. In the course of this discussion principles. as a matter of historical the two conceptions upon which the existing science of Mechanics is They possess further the advantages. principle is required for the more complete discussion of the motions of rigid bodies. and the made up of forces fact. 1905. both of we introduce two subsidiary which were introduced by Newton the law : and the conception of a body as a system of We have already worked out in considerable detail particles. or a set of bodies. See the remarks on the 'Beneke Preisstiftung in Gottingen Nachrichten. Leathem. independent of the chemical and electrical conceptions . H. Macdonald. between based. and J. Volume and surface integrals ' * med in Plnjsics. The conception conception of the of bodies as made up mutual are. when applied to bodies which may be treated as rigid. Cambridge. Appendix B. G.352 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. the consequences of these principles. (2) that an adequate abstract formulation of the rules the motions of the bodies of the Solar System. or for the discussion of the motions of deformable solid bodies or of fluids. and of obeyed by matter in bulk under ordinary conditions. (1) that it is possible to found upon them a strictly logical deductive theory. There is no reason for thinking that it is incapable of solution '^. . or with the electrons and corpuscles of modern physical We must be on our guard against " The mechanical conception of the constitution of bodies is speculation. Cambridge. actions of bodies. " of the particles identifying the mechanical theory with the atoms and molecules of chemistry and the kinetic theory of gases. It appears to be desirable to explain how it may be possible for internal forces between the hypothetical particles of a body. 1901 (" Geschaftliche Mitteilungen "). particles. and cf. It has been already explained in Chapter VI how the masses of the hypo thetical particles can be assigned. to be adjusted so that the motion of the particles may represent the motions of the bodies. XI.
2m {y'i zy) = {^Z. each particle must have a suitable acceleration. or system of bodies. and Fyi.. We regard the bodies which are thus in contact as forming a single "system of bodies. system We The method that is thetical forces. X^ is of the form COS ^i2 + i^l3 cos ^13 f . also are satisfied identically. number of ways so that the indeterminate. Let the body.STRESS 353 In the case of a free body. if ^21 is the same as Bxii then ^^21= — ^i2) and therefore the equations of the types 2Z'=0. or the system of bodies. the external forces are gravitational attractions between the particles of the body and the particles of other bodies. between them are ^71 (n—1) quantities. are To make the motion of the particles represent the motion of the body. are those which the lines joining the particles make with the axis of ^. the infinite \n{n—\) quantities Fxi can be adjusted in an 3w. A body which is not free is in all contact with some other body. The \n{n — \) unknown quantities are connected with the known quantities by 3?i equations. M. if the particles are sufl&ciently numerous. of the particles.. 2(yZ'2F)=0 But the equations of the types 2wi? = 2 X." The masses known. and so they can be regarded as known. and so on. . or actually to assign these forces.. nevertheless. and the external forces acting on them. leaves actually adopted involves a restriction upon the hypothem largely indeterminate. and the external forces We conclude that. which. method involves the introduction L. can be represented by the motion of a system of particles. where the angles ^12. Thus the kinetic reactions of the particles can be regarded as known. since the accelerations are supposed to be adjusted correctly. The Zn equations in which mxXi are of the form and X\ are known. of bodies.. These quantities are such that. which are the equations of motion of the particles. Let there be n particles in the system. The Zn components of kinetic The magnitudes of the internal forces reaction can be regarded as given. equations may be satisfied. are satisfied. be replaced by a system of particles. 23 . +i^i„COS ^i„. It appears that the forces between the hypothetical particles are largely This result offers no difficulty so long as we do not attempt conclude that the motion of the body.z T) l. The of the notion of stress. and F^i denotes the force exerted on the particle mi by the particle m2.
and the sums of the moments about the axes. and thus the internal forces between the two sets of particles must be regarded as consisting of other forces besides these vertical forces the centre of attractions. We curve C Let S now denote any closed geometrical surface drawn in the body. . by contracting the towards the point 0. Those which are due to the mutual gravitation between the particles below the plane and those above it have horizontal components and vertical components. Xu. the Earth's Consider a body resting on a horizontal plane in the Let the body be imagined to be divided into two parts by a horigravity. plane. of the forces which >S^ arise on the two sides of are expressed from actions between neighbouring particles by such formulae as where the integration extends over the surface. We consider the forces In general let draw on the plane a closed curve thus exerted upon the particles which lie on a chosen side of the plane.. and the sums of the components parallel to the axes. does not move. When we represent the body by a system of particles we may zontal plane. ?. and a plane surface be drawn through a point C of area S containing the point 0. which is called the "resultant stress" or "resultant traction" across the area >S' of the plane. ^ are the components of a vector quantity. If these were all the internal mass of the particles which are above the plane would have an acceleration. the particles below the plane must be regarded as particles exerting upon those above the plane forces which. ^. r]\S^ (fS are the components of a vector quantity which is " " " " called the average traction across the area >S' of the average stress or The suppose that as the area S is diminished. Yy^ Zv the components of the stress or traction across the tangent plane at any point of >S^. of a body. acting upon those particles which are above the plane. Let sums of the components of these forces parallel to the axes. on the whole. then these limits are the components of the "stress" " or the " traction across the plane at the point 0. ^ denote the Then .354 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES field of [CHAP. Some of the lines of action of forces between neighbouring particles on the two sides of the plane cross the plane within the curve C. Since the law of gravitation is assumed to hold for all distances that are measurable by ordinary means (Art 146). the components of the average stress tend to definite finite limits. suppose that none of the particles are in the plane. but the components are directed downwards. XI. counteract the gravitational attractions. Consider the forces Those forces which are due to the Earth's gravity act vertically downwards. we must regard the additional forces as being exerted only between particles which are very near together. ?7. quantities ^//S'. Then the part of the body within aS' is to be regarded as a system of particles which move under forces. of which the vertical component would be different from Since the centre of mass of the zero and would be directed downwards.
act. seen to be but an example of a general principle applicable to kinds of physical processes. For theoretical purposes we regard such forces as examples of a possible class of forces which we call " body forces. The energy equation in Mechanics is . what is the same thing. This tension is the resultant of the tractions across a plane which is normal to the line of the chain. parallel to any fixed direction. resultant traction across a portion of a geometrical plane.THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY This specification of the internal forces by means of stress for the description of the motions of extended bodies. This comes about through the doctrine of the conservation of energy. The introduction of the notion of stress carries with : between two classes of forces — body forces it a distinction and surface tractions. is 355 found to be adequate The stress across a plane at a point of a body is a measurable quantity which can sometimes be determined theoretically and in some cases measured The simplest examples are pressure in a fluid and tension in practically. In the course of this book the energy equation has been regarded as one of the first integrals of the equations of motion This mode of treatment appears to the of a conservative system. small volume the gravitational forces which act upon the part of a body within any is proportional to the volume. by the traction across a plane at a point. The through a body. a string or chain. or. when these areas are small enough." They may be specified by the force per unit of volume. or per unit of mass." These forces act across surfaces. all Attempts have been made to discard the notion of force. a clear and definite meaning for the term " " " mass. made up of particles at the same time as the notion One difficulty in the way of this method of formulation the difficulty of giving any account of the retained notion of In the Newtonian Mechanics we have. Law of Reaction. or any equivalent statements modern Physics would assign to the energy equation a much more important rdle. which we call "surface tractions. and are proportional to the areas of the surfaces across which they act. writer to be the most natural when the science is based upon but Newton's laws of motion. They may be specified by the force per unit of area. drawn is an example of another class of forces. which they of all Gravitational forces are proportional to the masses of the particles on The sum of the components. on the basis of the mass. It has been proposed also to discard the conception of bodies as of is force. and to develope the theory of Mechanics from the notions of mass and energy." Another energetic method difficulty in the way of the of formulation is the difficulty of giving any adequate account 23—2 .
Lagrange. so all the equations of motion of the system can be deduced from an equation of motion of the form (A) 2[m(^^'+J/y'+B0] = 2[(X+Z')i^' + (F+ r)^' + {Z+Z')z'l which may be obtained by the method of Art. possibility of this intermediate method depends upon an analytical transformation of the equations of motion. for any and an expression for of the rate at which work ** is done.. (f). in the Newtonian method. an expression for the kinetic energy we can find. of generalization of the principle of virtual work.356 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. as developed in accordance with the Newtonian method. represent any set of velocities with which the system The result is due to might pass through the position denoted hy 0.. </>'. . XI. function of the corresponding velocities 0.. (ji. by taking the notions of kinetic energy and work from the Newtonian system. To explain this statement we consider the case in which the position of the system at any time can be expressed in terms of a finite number of independent geometrical quantities. . of equilibrium of a system can be deduced from an equation of the form 2[(X+Z')^' + (r+F)y'+(^+^)0']=O. or of work. if system.. 208. as has been explained in Art. of potential energy. . and destroying the scaffolding of forces and particles by which they are reached. we can obtain the equations motion of the system without introducing any considerations of forces " or " particles. Let these quantities be denoted by Then the kinetic energy T can be expressed as a homogeneous.. 208. The masses that occur in this intermediate method The of formulation are then regarded as coefficients in the expression for the kinetic energy. and the lefthand quadratic member of equation (A) can be expressed in the form 0. <j>. It appears from this discussion that. is In some books they are called •' effective forces. These difficulties may perhaps be overcome in the future. In the present state of science we may make a compromise between the two methods." choice The formulation of the principles of Mechanics implies that is made of the frame of reference and of the timemeasuring This statement remains true whether the formulation * process. This analytical transformation proceeds by way Just as all the equations. . represent what have been called in this book "kinetic reactions*" are expressible in terms of the kinetic energy.. The important result is that the terms of the equations of motion which. {it in CD  m ^'* {a © " St *'+•• ' which ^'.." .
Laws of ' vol. should be made to Newton's original argument in the Principia. Scholium attached to the Definitiones. d. rather than to emphasize the divergence of this view from those held by others. that we have knowledge of absolute direction but not of Since the question is absolute position. The Science of Mechanics. as clearly as may be. What comparatively easy to answer the slightly referencesystems are inadmissible ? The answer system of reference which satisfies the conditions of this " question and answer may be described as kinetic*.' and to the following more recent works ' ' ' : — J. Poincar^.RELATIVITY OF MOTION carried out in terms of mass . C. vi. 1870). or the principle of the conservation of energy. differs from that stated in the text.). or in terms of kinetic and work for the two methods require the specification energy When we say that a particle at of accelerations and velocities. Neumann. Voss in Ency. The Grammar of Science (London. 10th Edition. Natural Philosophy. In regard to the reference system of Astronomy see the Article by E. 1893). Anding in Ency. K. A similar statement holds for velocities. Macaulay cited above and the Article by A. It Thomson and need hardly be said that the view adopted from Newton by Maxwell and by Tait. 1.D. E. La science et Vhypothese (Paris. d. Wiss. 1900). Lib. math. reference A * W. Teil 2." A frame of in Ency. Ueber die Principien der GalileiNewton' scht Theorie (Leipzig. Bd. Part I (Cambridge. it has seemed to the present writer to be desirable to set forth. 1901). 1 (Leipzig. iv. the place and the acceleration must be specified by reference to some frame or other. 1 (Leipzig. in the Article ' Motion. H. math. N. Thomson and Tait. both for space and time. it is sufficient to suppose that they have been chosen. Art. We may ask two questions: (1) How is ? specified different the system specified ? (2) How ought the system to be It is a little difficult to answer briefly either of these questions. Wiss. Pearson. the description of the motion is incomplete until the reference system. Macaulay. But in any problem concerning observable motions of actual bodies. 1879). is specified. Translation (Chicago. not of practical importance. Bd. and the specification of the acceleration involves also the use of some method or other of measuring time. describes what is here called a "kinetic frame" as a "Newtonian base. 30 (1902). . and it : is question is that no system ought to be admitted which conflicts with the principles of Mechanics." In regard to the general question of the relativity of motion. For many theoretical purposes it is unnecessary to specify either the frame of reference or the timemeasuring process. Brit. or the law of gravitation. a certain place has a certain acceleration. viz. Maxwell. Mach. 357 and force. the Article by W. 1. H. 1882). Art. H. Teil. Matter and Motion (London. C. 1905). a view which seems to him to be logically defensible.
To concept of bodies. may consider the forces that can of Earth The system and Moon. XI. to regard the Earth as exerting forces on other and the law of reaction states that these bodies exert on the Earth. time. therefore. or. and at the same time maintain the law of reaction. that sidereal time is not kinetic * That is to say a change in the form of the energy by which less of it is rendered available. forces force." the motion of the Earth. in accordance with the illustrate this question. astronomers have shown that one of the inequalities in the motion of the Moon could be explained by the supposition that such a gradual slackening in the speed of the Earth's rotation is taking place. and the answer. that the centre of mass of the Earth has certain component accelerations. in the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. On the basis of the law of gravitation and the principle of the conservation of energy. let us consider The principles of Mechanics require that the Earth should be regarded as a body having a certain mass and a certain centre of mass. Thus we cannot choose as a frame of reference axes fixed in the Earth. as. and. Such internal relative motions generally involve dissipation of energy * in a system. for they do not take place without friction. or that the period of the diurnal rotation (the length of the day) is gradually increasing. This result implies that the timemeasuring process is not the rotation of the Earth. As an illustration of the restrictions limiting the choice of the timemeasuring process we affect the rotation of the Earth. The change from the geocentric astronomy of Ptolemy to the heliocentric astronomy of Copernicus may be regarded as an instance of the discarding of an unsuitable frame of reference. with the fluid ocean on the Earth." and time measured in accordance with the conditions will be called " kinetic time. but without fixing beforehand what the timemeasuring process is to be. . for example. Observations of falling bodies and Astronomical observations lead us. We are is thus led to expect that the kinetic energy of the Earth's rotation being dissipated at a finite rate. executes various internal relative motions. in other words. reference which satisfies the conditions will be called a " kinetic frame.358 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. among which the tides are conspicuous.
Nat. Let the Earth as a timekeeper be losing at the rate of e seconds per day. We know that € is a very small fraction. by means of the familiar process of changing the independent variable. that is to say time determined by the rotation of the Earth relative to the stars. and the position the masses of the bodies which compose the Solar System relative to these bodies of the centre of mass of the system. Part II. €_l 86400 2 • It we measure time by r instead it kinetic time so far as of t. Phil. We may construct a frame. See Thomson and Tait. In regard to the measurement of time we have no natural " " fixed stars provide for the system of reference such as the but we can proceed in a different determination of direction .SYSTEMS OF REFERENCE 359 The century result is as a timekeeper *. lines drawn to " fixed " stars which have no appreciable proper motion or annual parallax. to a certain order of approximation. During this interval the Earth turns through 27rt radians. by means of three The rate is variously estimated. H. . and to take. It has proved to be sufficient to take this centre of mass as origin. the instant of the occurrence of some assigned event. Let a new variable r be introduced by the equation '^ ^. measured from some particular epoch. and we may fashion take the interval t to denote t sidereal days. t is. It has always proved to be possible to correct a choice previously made so as to harmonize the observations of the motions of actual bodies with the principles of Mechanics. Appendix G (contributed by G. of course. Let t denote sidereal time. By means of the law of gravitation we can determine. as lines of reference. of which the origin * is the centre of mass of the Sun. is usually stated in the form that the Earth losing at the rate of so many seconds in a The processes by which we reach a kinetic frame of reference and a kinetic timemeasuring process are approximative. Two estimates are 22 seconds per century and 8 3 seconds per century. Darwin). This discussion suggests also a method by which we might dispense with " the " fixed stars in the choice of a frame of reference. the quantity r measures has been necessary as yet to determine its measure.
in the long run. rate. we relatively to it. may be taken to coincide with a motion of some instant. it remains true that the centre of mass of the system cannot. is a convention. and the third. We have set out to describe the motions of bodies . be a proper origin for a kinetic frame. for the most part. It will then move relatively to the kinetic frame. at any for our purpose. . and Jupiter. This method has no practical value but it appears to have some theoretical interest.360 lines SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. and we wish to utilize the results that have been accumulated during three centuries by scientific investigators who." we explain how a kinetic frame can be found and when and how kinetic approximation time can be determined. We may take these lines arbitrarily we may draw two of them to the centres of mass of the Earth instance. Finally it must be said that the choice of a kinetic frame and of kinetic time. in a chosen sense. Then we are able to state that the relative the two frames is so small that it has not been detected by any observations. We do this when we " say that the system of reference what we have called kinetic. The frame which we now adopt. as precisely as we can. with. . sufficient . what our system of reference is. However small the forces which thus act upon the bodies of our system may be. be more apparent if we reflect that. but we can take it to coincide with a kinetic frame at some instant. continue to be a kinetic frame . and the kinetic frame will move If the relative motion of the two frames were known. paid little attention to the question of systems of reference. To achieve our object we must state. . and axes pointing to fixed kinetic frame at stars. This interest will of these two. with origin at the centre of mass of the Solar System. for drawn from the origin. according to the law of universal gravitation. determine the position of the kinetic frame at any time. could determine the position of the kinetic frame in the system after a short interval of time and thus we might by a continued approximation. of course. XI. at right angles to the plane This frame does not. instead of any other frame and time. and how actual bodies move with reference to is it. there are gravitational forces acting between the bodies of the Solar System and the stars.
such that all the parts are identical in respect of the property in question. to measure the length of a segment of a line. The mode of referring to the standard must be such that it determines a positive number (integral. .APPENDIX. is identical with the standard in respect of the property in the measure of the object in respect of that property is n. or irrational) which is the measure of the object in respect of the property. The mathematical theory of measurement rests on (a) the assumed possibility of dividing an object into an integral number of parts which are identical in respect of some property. MEASUREMENT AND UNITS. The standard must be an object which possesses the property in question. Here it is to be noted (1) that the rule (a) is the case of the rule O) for which q = \. where the test of equality of length is conto measure the mass of a body we must suppose it capable of gruence . question. The number is determined by the following (a) rules : — each of which the object can be divided into an integral number n of parts. is congruence. and the test of equality of angles division into a tested . we must suppose the segment divided into a number of equal segments. It may that however great q is taken there is no corresponding number jo. In the mathematical theory of measiuement the case where no rational measure the object may not be so simply dismissed. number of bodies of equal mass. rational but not integral. happen fraction pjq can but that. and (2) a mode of referring to the standard. When the object and the standard can be divided into p and q parts respectively {p and q being integers). The measurement of an object in respect of any property requires (1) a unit or standard of comparison. Thus. and (2) that in practice the integer q may be taken so large that an integer p may be found for which the fraction piq measures the object within the limits of experimental error. while the fraction pjq would measure an object somewhat smaller . Measurement. the measure of the object in respect of O) When that property is the rational fraction pjq. where equality of mass is by weighing to measure an interval of time we measure the angle this requires the division of turned through by the Earth in the interval an angle into a number of equal angles.
only if they hold good for all systems of units.362 APPENDIX than that to be measured. this book. ing is number can express a quantity only when the unit of measurement stated or understood. a certain number which has been arrived at in another way. and this irrational number is the required measure. classes is marked by the irrational number >/2. pressing an interval of time force is measured by the product of a numbei and all th( expressing a mass and a number expressing an acceleration other magnitudes that occur are in similar ways dependent upon lengths times. that we wish to measure the diagonal of a square whose side is the unit of length. acceleration is measured by a fraction of which the numeratoi is a number expressing a velocity and the denominator is a number ex. Mathematical equations. are relations between numbers. Every rational numbers all — — that number without exception falls into one or other of the two classes. Thus. as considered ic quantities are lengths. and thus the quantity is not identical with the number expressit. Fundamental and derived Quantities. the fraction {p + l)/q would measure an object somewhat greater than that to be measured. Every rational number without exception The separation between the two falls into one or other of the two classes. When the unit is stated or implied the number A expresses the quantity." The quantity does not change when the unit chosen to measure changes. between numbers expressing quantities are valid expressions of relations between the quantities. as distinci from the numbers. When this is the case the measure sought is an irrational number. the the Suppose. expressing that a certain number which has been arrived at in one way is equal to. and all those in the inferior class are too small. we can think of as measurable in respect of any property. is a numbei velocity is measured by a fraction of which the numerator an interva" expressing a length and the denominator is a number expressing of time . or less than. Mathematical equations. and the phrase "magnitude of an object" is thus coextensive in meaning with the word " it quantity. and those whose squares are less than two. We may separate all rational numbers into two classes— those whose squares are greater than two. . all the other quantities which occur are derived from these. and separation between them is marked by an irrational number which is measure of the object. and masses. and The "object" may be anything which this measure is always a number. Number and Quantity. and masses. times. greater than. and inequalities. We may in fact separate all rational into two classes a "superior" class and an "inferior" class so the numbers in the superior class are too large to be the measure of the object. The fundamental Physical (c) In Dynamics. When the unit is stated the magnitude of (b) an object is precisely determined by its measure in terms of the unit. . and inequalities. for example.
is the dimension symbol of the The condition that a mathematical equation or inequality between numbers expressing quantities may be a valid expression of a relation between the quantities is that every term in it must be of the same dimensions. We give here a quantities that occur in Dynamics and [LYIT]^' list showing the principal derived their dimension symbols.MEASUREMENT AND UNITS {d) 363 DimeTisions. or zero. in every case. Since the quantity to be its length. if we assume its mass. by saying that the dimension symbol of the quantity is [Z]^[7^«[J/']*". Thus. which expresses a quantity is said to be of If the unit of measurement is altered so that the new unit is a certain multiple x of the old. the measure of any quantity in terms of the new units is obtained from its measure in terms of the old units by dividing by x^y^z^. B. This will be made clear by the consideration of some examples. Constant of Gravitation [LY[T]^\]ir[\ We can frequently determine the form of (/) Method of Dimensions. and r dimensions in mass. q dimensions in time. Kinetic Energy Power Density [Z]3[J/]i. " A number one " dimension in that quantity. The numbers p. and mass are changed so that the new units are respectively x.rjni. we can prove that proportional to the square root of the length. y^ z times the old. q^ r may be positive or negative. [LY[T]^[MJ. of which ^ is a homogeneous expression of some degree p in numbers expressing lengths. where [Z]p[7^«[J/]'* quantity. ^^p^^. the product of three numbers A. We say that the quantity is of p We express this shortly dimensions in length. (e) Physical Quantities. integral or fractional. time.f^. it is that the period of oscillation of a pendulum can depend only on and the acceleration due to gravity.^j^.C. j J j^pf^^. is a homogeneous expression of some degree B q in numbers expressing intervals of time. The number expressing a derived quantity is. a result by consideration of the dimensions of the quantities involved. If the units of length. is expressed an interval of time its expression cannot involve any power of a . and (7 is a homogeneous expression of some degree r in numbers expressing masses. Velocity Acceleration [^P[^"^ Moment of Impulsive Couple Reaction Kinetic Momentumj l j l j l j [ipryi. the number expressing the quantity in terms of the new unit is the quotient by x of the number expressing the quantity in terms of the old unit.
has dimension symbol [^^[^]~i.364 APPENDIX mass. to take another example. consider the ellipticity of the rotation w. numerical multiple of J{lly). hence the only way in which the expression of the period can contain the length I of the pendulum is by being proThis argument would prove that the period is a portional to its square root. of (o^lyp. . The method of dimensions supplies also a useful means of verification. and the constant of gravitation y. In any piece of mathematical reasoning where the numbers represent quantities all the terms in each equation must be of the same dimensions. product yp has dimension symbol [7^]"^ and thus (o^lyp is a number (angles being measured in radians) the ellipticity being a number. and we have assumed that no mass but the mass of the body can enter into the expression the period is therefore independent of the mass of the body. Now g has dimension symbol [Z']^[^]~^ and therefore \lijg . Again. must be a function mean . the Earth supposed to depend on the angular velocity of The density p.
72. Internal. 355 . 217 . motion on a plane. 69 components 15 1 257 348 Ballistic balance. 128 Eelative. 72 Dimensions. along normal to surface. of a chain. Correction for inertia of pulley. 103 . as a time. 244 Apses. ellipticity of the. 342 Curve. 127. central. Construction of. relative to rotating frame. 300. 336 motion relative to the. 296. of a particle. Acceleration. 93. three dimensions. of oscillation. 75 Anding. 172. 107 Areas. Theory of. motion on a tortuous. the. Definition 82. 32. E. 219. 171 Earth. of. Theory of. 298 Envelopes. 4. 305. 24. 359 Density. Constitution of. 106 . 135 . body in general. 181 . 4. 90. G. 357 Angular momentum. 364 Modulus . 191 Conservation of. 113 269 . 182 Energy and momentum.. 42 of two bodies. 166. 188 252 . 170 Axes. S. 195. 207. Definition of. 70. 102. The numbers refer to pages. ! under several. Measurement of. j mass. along normal to plane . 33 Couples. 79 . 19. C. of trajectories. 23 . 73. 246 Ball. of path of a particle of a rigid body. of. 181 . 253. . 52 Equations of motion.. isochronism of. Bodies. E. motion of a particle under. 94. of a system of particles. 103 Polar in curve. 39. 170. onesided. 356 . 102 . 41 . Eighthanded. 283 Conic. radial and transversal. Principal.. 173. v. 76. of Energy. initial. 94. 7 Dyne. 183. 250. of a rigid body. 49 Constraint. 27. 255 D'Alembert's Principle.INDEX. Attractions. 42. Polar. Kinetic. 176 of a . uniform. . 104. 40 . 363 . 291 . from 94 certain conditions. 303. 111 Central orbits. 73. 175 . Instantaneous. 38 Atwood's macMne. 194. . 225. Eectangular.. 32. 39. 254 of. 111. Line of quickest. 105 \ Central forces. Potential. 169 of. 174 Angular velocity. . Equable description of. Displacement. 359 Elasticity. 187. 170 . Cliain. 77. H. re 24.. keeper. . 352 Boys. 309 Lagrange's^ Coordinates. 341. 187. 23. motion Elliptic motion. 3950. 342346. 355. Mean density of the. . 168 Descent. 136 Curvature. Eotation of the. 106 Centre. H. 252 Cycloid. 104 Collision. Energy equation. 140. 127. along principal normal of tortuous curve. 200204 Cox. Tension motion of. 2 ferred to polar coordinates in three dimensions. initial. 22 . disturbed. 211. 303 Conservative forces. 177 Darwin. 358 Dissipation of. 187.
105 . 139 in rolling and . 175. 338. 23 I. on curve. 111 servative. Determination of. 189 of. 68. L. 356 Coefficient of. 36. . Circle of. 71. Measurement. Neumann. on plane. 339. 223. 170. Law of. Lagrange. Dynamics of a. 18 of forces. 285 Frame of reference. Parallelogram. 208 Hertz. 39. 357 Perpetual motion... Moment of. M. . 175 . on elastic system. 294 Osculating plane. 27. under. 343 Inverse square.. . 187 Gramme. Ch. at a point. 357 Notation. of path of particle. 90. 350 Vectorial character of. 182 produced by impulses. 170 Work done by. Moment of. 52. 23.. 43. 182. of localized vectors. 269. 86 of Momenta! equivalents. about a moving of a system . . 267 . Change of. 72 . 209 Kinetic frame and kinetic time. 29. momentum. Central. 171 . 301 87. 39. Macaulay. Conical. 311. Extension. Transmissibility Forces. 68. 253 Impact. Notion of. 190 . 73. Free motion Gravitation. . 71 Effective. . radius of. 106. 68 Work done by. 356 sliding. 252 . 181 . 76 Force. 183. 181 Motion of two bodies under. 250 . 179. 173 of a rigid body. H. G3rration. See Collision internal. 129. . 69 Massratio. 76. 257 Mass. 80. 338. H. 212 Impulsive motion. Corrections of. Simple. 51 . 352 Mach. 347. 340. 244 Ellipse of. 356 Laws of motion. of localized vector. 169. 193 Field of force. 188 . 95 Pendulum. 221 Erg. Measurement Galileo. 85. Particle. Con176. 192 . 178 . 174 . 172. J. 268. 103. . Constant of. 76. 135. Impulse. H... 352 Line of action. Centre of. 176 Body. See Sudden changes of motion Inertia. 75. J. 104 Initial motion. 349 Footpound.. 337 . 27. impulsive. 27. 357 Newton.. 70. 357 of. Law of. Kinematic formula. 351. 50 101 Path. . 47. 129 . 347 Leathem. 250. Theory 361 20. 167. Notion of. 84. of a particle. 77. 72. 104 341 . 33. 355 . 102. 345 Friction. . 357 Macdonald. 349 . 208. 71 of. . 357 Machines. Momentum. Internal. OsciUation. 172. Horsepower. 348 84. 246 Moment. 347. 306 Kinetic energy. 170. for velocities. &c.. 222. Kesultant. 5. 30. 169 17. 260. 68. axis. 351 Primitive notion . generated in collision. 78 on surface. 68.. 349 of. 133.366 EquiUbrium. 6771. 249 Conservation Heat. External. 167 . 217. 191 136 . Force of. 77. . lost in collision. 43. 256259. 168 . of a rigid body. G. 80. 300 Pearson. 249. 179. 183 Gravity. E. MaxweU. Kepler. J.. change of. C. 76. 49. 177 of. 351 of velocities. 357 . 71. of Kinetic reaction. 76 INDEX Kinematic conditions. 140 Parabolic motion. 77 Huygens. 2 . 343 . 291. 168. C. 2. of a particle. K. 69. W. J. 246 Inflexions. Definition of. 246 of particles. 72 a system of particles. 93. 183. effect of. 17 38. Foucault's pendulum.
20. Impact of. 356 Voss. 166. 339. with surface. 74. 170. 224 . 38. Equivalent . 69 Poundal. 257 of matter. 135 Virtual work. 210. 351. 190.. Independence of. Mean solar. 113. 169. 305 Problem of two bodies. 76. . Definition of. Rough curve. Weight. 190. S. 191. 359 . . 193 due to gravity. H. 81 of oscillating system. 104 . of gravitating system. of. 353 . 69 . 78. Reaction. Motion on a. of of 76 . Simple.INDEX 83 . Rolling. 337 Seconds' pendulum. 192 . of circular orbit. Surface.A.. of the Earth. 110 . of string in contact of. of bodies in contact. Planetary motion. 37 . found by method of Rigid. 31. 104 Motion of two bodies connected by a. 144 Tycho Brahe. 70. F. Potential energy of. Pull. 187. 253 of. 224. 181 . of velocity. Potential function one in a rod. 283 Rigid body. 283 Attraction of. equilibrium. 286 Position. 86 . 192 of stretched string or spring. 38 Uniformity of Nature. 193 of Stability. 167. 10 . . 186 Plumbline. 17 Quantity. Surface. Localized.. 217 Relative motion. 168 Time. 258 dimensions. 134. 70 Pound. 128. Motion on a. 195 initial. 147 . 86 Second. 357. 25. Resisted. 221. 340 Poincar^. 186 Traction. 1519 terminal. 34 ComposiProduction of. 18 . Reduction of a . 303 . 143. on a surface. 5. 244 . 183. Determination of. 194 Pressure. 188 Energy in two dimensions. of tion of. 8 Composition and Resolution of. 69 Power. 95 Potential energy. 178 Range. Thomson and Thread. . 94. . 143 . Translation and Rotation. 91 . 69. 139 . . 253 Sliding. 364 Speed. 131 . 355 at a place of discontinuity. 24. 350 on a curve. 134 system . 296 Stress. CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY. Eevolving. 257 Trajectory. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 336 Tisserand. righthanded. Unit. 105 . of frame. valued. 77. 17 Spheres. of power. 41. 258. D. . Foucault's. 145 . 249 143. 81 Simple harmonic motion. 191. 127 77 Vectors. motion of a. 171 . 142 Restitution. Work function. 357 Poisson. of a string or chain. 29. Law 1 . 367 pendulum. of a locomotive. 192 Force of one. of. 336 Velocity. A. of internal 180 ^ . 187 Motion of. Spring. 2. 283. 137. 243. 209. 90. of a projectile. of time. Potential energy of. 19 of mass. 200206 . 355 Train. 23 force. Resisting medium. Localization of. 208. Definition forces. Resistance.. 260 Rotation. 3 Potential. 132. 68 Work. 193 . of rigid body. 183 Projectile. of steady motion. 135. Tension. 104 Tait. M. 181 . 195. 3 . 141 127. 69 . 20. 265 . of rigid body. 362 . 225 Period 345 . 88 . 342 • acceleration. String. Measurement of. 180. Definition of. Moment of. 357 Screw. coefficient of. of work. of.
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GENERAL LIBRARY U.C. BERKELEY B00Dia7M37 r. t • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .
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