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THEOKETICAL MECHANICS
AN INTRODUCTORY TREATISE
ON THE
PEINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS.
Manager. ILetpjig: F. CLAY. Hotttion: ©laafloto: FETTER LANE. Ltd. WELLINGTON STREET. A. C. 50. IBambaxi antJ Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND [All rights reserved.CAMBKIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE. BROCKHAUS. E. ^tiu lorfe: G. PUTNAM'S SONS.'] . F. CO..G. P.
CAMBRIDGE.A. LOVE.S. E.E. OXFORD. CAMBRIDGE 1906 : AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. F.. . H.Sc. BEDLEIAN PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. SECOND EDITION. D.THEOEETICAL MECHANICS AN INTEODUCTORY TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS WITH APPLICATIONS AND NUMEROUS EXAMPLES BY A. M. HONORARY FELLOW OF QUEEN's COLLEGE. FORMERLY FELLOW AND LECTURER OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.z^^ 0f^ CambnDge : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY.A. M.'' . ^ .
dictum that diction ^ all motion is relative stands in pronounced contra with Newton's dynamical apparatus of absolute time. and his achievements in this department constitute perhaps most enduring title to fame. The reader is supposed to have a slight acquaintance with the elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus. It has been necessary to reconsider in detail the principles. in regard to the principles themselves. . they have acted the part of commentators. nnHE J his his foundations of Mechanical Science were laid by Newton. Later writers have developed principles analytically. and have extended the region of their application. absolute space. He is not assumed to have read 330176 .EXTEACTS FROM THE PEEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. The philosophical precise formulation of observed facts. which is of the nature of a j gradual change in the point of view: there is less search for causes. more inclination to regard the object to be attained as a I On another side there is an important respect in which modem writers have departed from the form of the Newtonian theory. The class of students for w^hom the book is intended may be described as beginners in Mathematical Analysis. and which shall be in accordance with modern ideas. and absolute motion. and the results deduced from them. in order to ascertain what modification would be needed to bring the into theory of Rational Mechanics founded by Newton harmony with the doctrine of the relativity of motion. which shall be as precise as possible. The purpose of this book is didactic it is meant to set before students an account of the principles of Mechanics. and some knowledge of Plane Coordinate Geometry. Nevertheless we may trace a tendency in modern investigations. but.
These Examples are for the most part taken from University and College ExaminaIt is I > / hoped that these j . H. . R. may prove useful to teachers. and Wolstenholme. Webb. Cambridge. In regard to methods for the treatment of particular questions. large collections have been appended to some of the Chapters. in very small number.VI PREFACE Solid Geometry or Differential Equations. are taken from the wellknown collections j  of Besant. and the solutions of the differential equations that occur are explained. j ' i more helpful to the students j i In addition to the Examples in the text. LOVE. and Mach's Science of Mechanics. It not infrequently happens that analytical methods are preferred to geometrical ones. I am conscious of a deep obligation to the teaching of Mr R. Routh. tion papers. which I have not found in such papers. as likely to be whose wants are in view. some of which are wellknown theorems and are referred to in subsequent demonstrations. The last should be in the hands of all j  ' students who desire to follow the history of dynamical ideas. E. and to students occupied in revising their work. A. others. August. Pearson's Grammar of Science. The apparatus of Cartesian Coordinates in three dimensions is described. j The works which have been most useful to me in connexion I with matters of principle are Kirchhoff's Vorlesungen uber Mathematische Physik (Mechanik). 1897.
Oxford. E. . 1906. A. My best thanks are due to Mr A. LOVE. and all of these examples have now been verified or A corrected. of the nature of a rearrangement of the ^ the most of the material. 1 The main objects in view in this rearrangement to present the theory in a less abstract have been on the one hand fashion and on the other hand ( to avoid long preliminary dis cussions. E.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. student The collections of miscellaneous I 1 teacher who may be reading the book without the guidance of a is recommended to pay the greatest attention to the Articles ! unmarked and to the unmarked \ ollections of examples kindness inserted in the text. so that it may be hoped that few errors remain. As an in the first edition. rilHE changes which have been made in this edition are. for order part. examples at the ends of most of the Chapters have been retained with a few changes. some Articles have been marked with asterisk to indicate that they may with advantage be omitted in a first reading. JoUiffe for his in reading the proofs. September. H.
24 .. Formal definition of velocity Measurement of velocity 20. 17. 12..CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. 25. . 22. 19. 26. 22 23 23 24 25 . 3. Introductory 7 8. 13. Acceleration 24. 15. Choice of the timemeasuring j)rocess and of the frame of reference 3 5 6 CHAPTER I. Measurement of Acceleration Notation for velocities and accelerations Angular velocity and acceleration Relative coordinates and relative motion Geometry of relative . 11. .. 23. 5. Examples of equivalent vectors Components and Resultant Composition of any number of vectors Vectors equivalent to zero 9 10 13 14 15 Components of displacement Velocity in a straight line 15 17 Velocity in general Localized vectors 18 19 19 18.. Moment of localized vector 20 20 21 21. 27.. 2 2 4. Frame of reference 6. 1. ACCELERATION. 16. DISPLACEMENT. . . 14.. motion . PAGE Nature of the science Motion of a particle Measurement of time Determination of position 1 2. ART. Displacement Definition of a vector 9. 7 8 10.. Lemma Theorem of moments . 7. 28. VELOCITY.
. 34. 50 51 51 56. 43. . Examples Motion in a curved path Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve . 38. 46. 45 46 . . ART. 51. 52 53 Miscellaneous Examples . 54. 50. Examples Elliptic 42 42 43 orbits 47. . 29. . Hne varying inversely as the square of the distance Examples Field of the Earth's gravitation . THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. . . given fields 53. 41. Newton's investigation Motion in a straight line with an acceleration to a point in the 49 55. .. 48. PAGE Gravity Field of force Rectilinear motion in a uniform field 27 27 27 28 3L 32. 40. motion about a focus Examples Inverse problem of central Determination of central orbits in a given field Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance Additional examples of the determination of central orbits in .47 48 52. 33 Examples Simple harmonic motion Composition of simple harmonic motions Examples Kepler's laws of planetary motion Equable description of areas 34 34 37 37 38 38 . . ..30 32 36. . 30. Radial and transverse components of velocity and acceleration 39 41 41 Examples Acceleration in central orbit 45.CONTENTS IX CHAPTER II. 57. 49. Examples Parabolic motion under gravity 29 • . . 35. 39. Examples . 42. 44.. 33... 37.
93 94 94 94 96 Forces which do no work Conservative and nonconservative Miscellaneous Examples fields 94. 88. Examples Conical pendulum Examples 84 THEORY OP MOMENTUM. 62. 82 82 83 80. . . 92. momentum and kinetic reaction about an axis Constancy of moment of momentum Moment 87 WORK AND ENERGY. 85. 73.. Motion on a rough plane Examples Atwood's machine 79 Examples Simple circular pendulum executing small oscillations . momentum and . 76. 66. Units of mass and force Vectorial character of force 68 69 70 kinetic reaction Examples Definitions of 63. 80 81 Examples Onesided constraint 77. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE. 81.. 79. 82. 84 85 85 86 Sudden changes of motion Constancy of momentum of force. 65. Work done by Calculation of a variable force 88 89 90 work Work function Potential function 90 91 Forces derived from a potential Energy equation Potential energy of a particle in a field of force . 68. Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity Examples Kinetic energy and work Units of energy and work Power Friction . 84. 69.73 75 76 76 77 . PAGE The force of gravity Measure of force 67 60. 72 72 72 64. 74. Impulse . 86.. 71. 61. 67. 75. .77 78 78 72. 59. 93. 89. 90.. III.X CONTENTS CHAPTER ART. 87.. 91. 83.. 58. 78. Equations of motion EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN SIMPLE CASES. 70. 80 .
V. lY. . 103. 120. 97. Examples Motion on a rough plane curve under gravity Examples Motion on a curve in general 134 . Normal impulse Examples Miscellaneous Examples . . 124. Examples Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible Examples Oscillating pendulum Complete revolution . 122. Example Motion of a body attached to a string or spring Examples The problem of central orbits Apses Examples Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit .115 115 116 CHAPTER 114. . 109.. . 107. 115. 99. 110. 95.. . 109 110 in terms of polar Examples Examples of equations of motion expressed coordinates Ill forces . . 128 string . . 112.135 136 136 . 121. 123. 109 106. 96.. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. PAGE Introductory 101 Formation of equations of motion Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve] Polar coordinates in three dimensions . 101. Examples of motion under several central Disturbed elliptic motion Tangential impulse . . 117. 111.. 105. . MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES. 101 . Introductory Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces 127 .. . .. 108.113 113 113. 127.. . 126. .CONTENTS xi CHAPTER ART. 102.. . 128. Integration of the equations of motion . . 98.. . 127 116. 104. 103 104 104 104 106 106 107 100. 128 129 129 131 131 Limiting case Examples Smooth plane tube rotating Newton's revolving orbit 132 in its plane 132 133 125.111 . 118.102 .. 119.
VI. 163. . 144.. .. . 159. 153. 131. Examples Motion in a Examples 144 vertical plane under gravity 145 147 . 156. Direct impact of spheres Ballistic balance 166 166 167 142. 148. . 138. 142 142 143 137.Xll CONTENTS PAGE Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with a vertical axis ART. Statement of the law of reaction Massratio 167 Mass Density . . 137 130. . 168 . . Examples 171 THEORY OP A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.148 CHAPTER THE LAW OF REACTION. 160. Miscellaneous Examples . Examples Equations of motion of a system of particles Law of internal action Simplified forms of the equations of motion Motion of the centre of mass . . Examples Motion on a surface 138 in general 139 132. 143. 158. 129.177 178 . . . 155. 136. Introductory Centre of mass 172 172 Resultant momentum 172 173 154..168 169 Gravitation 147. . 140. Osculating plane of path 140 • Examples Motion in resisting medium Eesistance proportional to the velocity Eesisted simple harmonic motion 141 134. . . Resultant kinetic reaction Relative coordinates 173 174 175 Moment Moment of momentum of kinetic reaction Kinetic energy 175 175 . 152. 145. . 133. . 149. 157. 151. 141.176 176 161. . . 146. Theory of Attractions Mean density of the Earth Attraction within gravitating sphere 170 170 171 150. . 162. 135. 139..
Power Motion of a String or surface string or chain chain of negligible . . 173. REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS. Energy equation Kinetic energy produced by impulses 182 182 THE PROBLEM OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM..194 195 197 mass in contact with smooth Miscellaneous Examples APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VI. 165. Potential energy of a body Energy of a rigid body Potential energy of a stretched string Localization of potential energy 192 192 193 194 188.. Potential energy Potential energy of gravitating system 174. particles . 182. 202 203 (/) (^) System of localized vectors in a plane Reduction of a system of vectors localized in lines 204 205 . 170.. 184. 169. 190. 189.. 164. 180. of of n bodies two bodies 183 . . Examples General problem of planetary motion BODIES OF FINITE SIZE. . . 167. momentum moment of momentum Sudden changes of motion Work done by the force between two ... . 176. 178. 175.. 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 Work function 171. 186 179.. . 187. 168. The problem The problem . 181.CONTENTS ART. Xlll PAGE Motion relative to the centre of mass Independence of translation and rotation Conservation of Conservation of 178 . . {a) (6) (c) Vector couple Equivalence of couples in the same plane Parallel vectors 200 200 201 {d) (e) Equivalence of couples in parallel planes Composition of couples . 190 191 185. . 166. 186. Theory of the motion of a body Motion of a rigid body Transmissibility of force Forces between rigid bodies in contact Friction 187 188 189 190 183. 183 185 177.. 172.
220. . 219. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS. 191. 208 208 209 210 210 Coefficient of restitution 195. 222 223 . . 198. Introductory Moment of inertia inei'tia Theorems concerning moments of Calculations of 218.XIV CONTENTS CHAPTER ART. Direct impact of elastic spheres Generalized Newton's rule 199. Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres Deduction of Newton's rule from a particular assumption Elastic systems General theory of sudden changes of motion Illustrative problems . Kir 215. Examples INITIAL MOTIONS. and momentum . 209. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS. . 203. . . 223 225 225 227 228 212. . 207. Equilibrium Machines 221 Examples Small oscillations .212 212 215 202. 211 211 . 204. . 210. PAGE Introductory 207 SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION. 196. 205. Nature of the action between impinging bodies. Examples Miscellaneous Examples CHAPTER '' VIII. . YII. 216. . . moments of inertia Examples Velocity and momentum of rigid body 243 244 245 246 248 249 . Nature of the problems Method Initial for initial accelerations Illustrative problem curvature 217 218 218 218 Examples APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION. 206. 219 208. . 211. 194. 214. 197. . . . . . . 192. 217. 201. 207 . . 193. Newton's experimental investigation . 200. Examples Principles of energy 213.
problem . Examples problem (Energy and momentum) Kinematical Note Examples. Impulsive motion Kinetic energy produced by impulses 266 267 Examples Initial 268 . • Examples Small oscillations . 223. IX. 300 MOTION OF A STRING OR CHAIN. 232. 241. 222.292 . (Note on moments about a moving Illustrative .CONTENTS ART. . 240. 253. AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS. 227.294 294 295 296 297 250. .287 288 245. . 221. Examples Miscellaneous Examples 272 CHAPTER RIGID BODIES 239. 234. Impact of two solid bodies Impact of smooth bodies Impact of rough bodies Case of no sliding 285 Examples Impulsive motion of connected systems . Examples Stabihty of steady motions 251. 249. 229. . 226. motions 268 269 269 271 Small oscillations Illustrative problem 238. 225. 283 284 . . 242.298 299 . 256. . 243. axis) . XV PAGE Kinetic reaction of rigid body 250 252 Examples Equations of motion of rigid body Continuance of motion in two dimensions Rigid pendulum 252 253 224. 257. 254. 255. 244. 253 255 (Note on motion of a train) rolling . Examples Kinematic condition of Examples Stress in a rod 259 260 261 265 233. 248. 255 228. Examples Illustrative problems.286 . 236. Examples Initial motions and Illustrative 290 initial curvatures 291 247. Inextensible chain Tension at a point of discontinuity Illustrative ^^^ 303 303 258. 235. 246. 230. . problems . 231. 252. 237.
Measurement and Units . Kinematical equations Equations of motion 306 309 309 310 311 264. PAGE 304 305 260. Constitution of bodies. 361 Index 365 .. 278. 269. "Energetic" process method. 336 . .313 313 CHAPTER X. Conservation of energy. 259. 270. Mass and weighing Lunar deflexion of gravity Examples Motion of a free body near the Earth's Initial 340 341 341 surface.. solar time . 271. 273. . Field of force. 267. Newton's laws of motion. . Examples Miscellaneous Examples . 277. 265. 266. . pendulum Examples CHAPTER XI. .XVI ART. in one plane. 342 motion Motion of a pendulum Foucault's 343 344 345 346 279. . . ..337 338 Gravity Variation of gravity with latitude 339 274. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS. Mass. CONTENTS Constrained motion of a chain under gravity . Stress. . 276. 312 . 261. Frame of reference and timemeasuring 347 APPENDIX. 268. . 280. Introductory Sidereal time and 336 mean . The law of gravitation . 272. 262. THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH. 263. 275. Examples Chain moving freely Chain moving freely Invariable form Examples Initial motion Impulsive motion in one plane. Definition of force.
" This principle itself —the may events take place in invariable The object of Natural Science is the description of sequences. discovered by observation. its data are facts of experience. future events. The Science of Mechanics viz. and these laws are such that the bodies. For this purpose is necessary to introduce and define a notions suggested by observations of the it number motions of abstract of actual then possible to formulate laws according to which such motions take place. jperience. 1. It is future motions and positions of bodies can be deduced from them. so made are verified in experience. the facts of nature in terms of the rules of invariable sequence be stated as follows —Natural which natural events are observed to obey. with itself. In the process of formulation the Science acquires the character of an abstract and predictions suggested by exThe test of the all that is found is proved by reasoning. it becomes possible to predict a certain kind of abstract forms. suggest to our minds certain general notions in terms of which it is possible to state the rules in Such abstract formulas for the rules of sequence which natural events obey we call the " Laws of Nature. M. possibility of Natural Science depends on a principle which derived from multitudes of particular experiences "Principle of the Uniformity of Nature.INTRODUCTION. 1 . in all which that is assumed is ' L. is occupied with a particular kind with the motions of material bodies. the /validity of a theory of this kind is its consistency logical theory. and the corresponding Law formulated. These rules of sequence. Its object is the description of these motions in terms of the rules of invariable sequence which they obey. of natural events. The is principles are generalizations from experience. Mechanics its is a Natural Science." When any rule has been established by observation.
in general. the it is necessary to attend to two measurement of time. as defining the position from time " body will be called a particle. We think then in place of the motion of a point. of such a science ought to be partly experimental it ought also to be partly historical. Chicago.llA''''' ''':''' ' . Cox. Mechanics it is assigned process. and something also of the processes of inductive reasoning by which these notions were reached. i * Historical accounts are given by E. In regard to this definition things: position. It will be assumed here that some such preliminary study has been made*. Something should be known of the kind of experiments from which were derived the abstract .^ /''. the description of the motions of bodies. 1893. The necessity for a simplification arises from the fact that. all parts of a body have not the same motion. Mechanics. 1904. lation). The duration of the interval may be measured by the amount of any process which is For the purposes of generally more important that time should be conceived as measurable than that it should be measured by an effected continuously during the interval. but we avoid the difficulty thus by regarding it as a geometrical point. The study notions of the theory. and the determination of Measurement of time." the first A moving point considered to time of a very small part of a Motion may be defined as change of position taking place in time. The purpose of this book is to formulate the principles and to exemplify their application. . The Science of Mechanics (Transl and by H. Any instant of time is separated 3. from any other instant by an interval. Motion of a particle. Cambridge. How small the portion must be in order that this may be the case arising we cannot say beforehand. Mach. We have said that our object is 2. and the simplification we make is to consider the motion of so small a portion of a body that the differences between the motions of its parts are unimportant. /'INTRODUCTION test of its value is its ability to furnish rules under which natural events actually fall.
in it. 0.g. particular length. e. MN. " Determination of position.) The with reference to this trihedral angle is position of a point determined as follows we draw parallel to 00 to meet the P : — PN plane AOB in Ny and we draw NM parallel to OB to meet OA Fig. is chosen and called the origin. (See Fig. OCA. 1. position of a point Position of a point and the three planes OBC." process is measured is called the "mean solar In the course of this book we shall generally assume that time is measured in this way. one centimetre. and we shall denote the measure of the time which elapses between two particular instants by the letter ty then Hs a real positive number (in the most general it sense of the 4.14] POSITION 3 The process actually adopted for measuring time is the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. word "number") and the interval denotes " is t seconds. viz. determine the position of P.A. one of them. OAB are the faces of a trihedral angle having its vertex at 0. being taken as the unit of length.C to be four such points . 1. NP Any (in the general sense). and the unit in terms of which this second.B. means of a 1—2 . each of these lengths is represented by a number . The means its position relative to other points. in if I then the lengths OM. MNy NP are three /The position of a point therefore determined by edges no two of which are parallel. relative to a set of points is not definite until the set includes four points which do not all lie in one plane. It is clear that by the number of centimetres contained is OP is a diagonal of a parallelepiped and that OM. Suppose 0.
sets of lines so chosen are called systems of rectangular axes. and are denoted letters x. The rule of signs is that x is equal to the NP of being one compartment. the particular trihedral angle OABG 1. MN. Axes drawn and named as in Fig. letters equal to this number with a opposite sides of the plane BOG. and one of whose diagonals is the line joining the origin to the point. are by the number of units of length in the length same side of the plane BOG. taken with certain signs. planes divide Fig. then the faces of the trihedral angle are also at right angles to each other . 2 that a set of rectangular coordinate the space about a point into eight compartments. 2. 2 are said to be "righthanded. y.INTRODUCTION parallelepiped whose edges are parallel to the lines of. and OM is when P and A are on the minus sign when P and A are on and similarly for y and z. reference. from Fig. The lengths OM. in the course of this make use of rectangular coordinates only. and the planes that contain two of It is clear them are coordinate planes'^. Fig. To fix ideas we may think of the compartment in which x\ y. z are all positive as being * bounded by two adjacent walls of a room and the book. . It is generally preferable to take the set of lines of reference to be three lines at right angles to each other." If the x and y are interchanged the axes are lefthanded. t In the course of this book the axes will be taken to be righthanded unless a statement to the contrary is made. z. floor of the We shall. In most applications of mathematics to physics righthanded axes are preferable to lefthanded axest. called the coordinates of the point P.
turned so as to travel in the positive direction of the axis of a: (or 3/. the horizontal plane at the place . Suppose to be the point. If FRAME OF REFERENCE we look towards one left 5 name the inteisection of the walls the axis of wall with the other wall on the lefthand. a line through that point. or y). Frame To determine a frame of reference we require to be able to mark a point. the axes are righthanded. the vertical at the place. An ordinary. or in any other direction determined with reference to the points of the compass. The three lines so a frame of reference. Fig. determined. for example we may take as origin a place on the Earth's surface.4. line. OA a line through the point. and 2. then at the place we can always determine a particular line. and a plane through that line. A triad of orthogonal lines OA. and. can draw on the plane a line a in 0. we have then a frame of reference. of reference. screw. 3. at right angles to it. or z) will direction of the axis of z rotate in the sense of a line turning /rom the positive y (or 2. OC. we have a particular plane. these as origin the centre of the Sun. The senses 3. 5. lines of reference three lines going out from thence to three stars. on this x^lane we may mark the line which points to the North.5] room. with respect to which the position of a point P can be OB. or righthanded. AOB a plane through the We at right angles to meeting it perpendicular to the plane. any three visible stars. the intersection of the floor with the wall on our the axis of x. or x) to the positive direction of the axis of (or X. Or again we might take would determine a frame of and as . and we can erect at OA determined can be In practice we cannot mark a point but only a small part of a body. of rotation belonging to the three screws are indicated in Fig. Again we might draw from the place lines in the direction of reference. and the intersection of the floor with the wall in front of us the axis of y. will be called a frame of reference.
Choice of the timemeasuring process and of the frame of reference. we shall generally take the frame of reference to be determined by lines which are fixed relatively to the Earth. The have some relation to our daily life. So long as these conditions are not violated. or line.b INTRODUCTION When we on the Earth's surface. The choice of a suitable frame of reference." 6. we are at liberty to choose a different reckoning of time for the purpose of simplifying the description of the motions of bodies. or a cannonball. The choice of the mean solar second as a unit of time satisfies these conditions. and we shall generally take one of these lines to be When we are dealing with the motion the vertical at the place. Time may be measured by any process which goes on continually. are dealing with the motions of bodies near a place for example. that "Uniform processes" are such that equal amounts of them are is. It is clear that processes which are uniform when measured by one standard may be variable when measured by another standard. or a pendulum. In any interval of time many processes may be going on." Processes which are not uniform are of the standard process are effected. effected in equal intervals of time. we shall generally take " " the frame of reference to be determined by means of the fixed stars. and it is manifest that some motions which we wish to describe will be more simply describable when the choice is made We shall return to this matter in one way than when it is made in another. the motion of a train. in intervals in which equal amounts said to be "variable. is in our power. . Of these one is selected as a timemeasurer. of the Earth. or plane which occupies a fixed position relatively to the chosen frame of reference will be described as A "fixed. and different amounts of the process that take place in them. or the Moon. Equal intervals of time are those in which equal amounts of the process selected as timemeasurer take place. or a Planet. in Chapter XI. point. like the choice of the timemeasuring process. we shall call it the standard intervals are in the ratio of the measures of the process. choice of a standard being in our power. it is clearly desirable that it should be so made that a number of processes uncontrollable by us should be uniform or approximately uniform it is also clearly desirable that it should .
Then this line determines a particular direction this is . " The point is said to have undergone a " change of position or a displacement. ACCELERATION. The acceleration. VELOCITY. at any with reference to any frame. importance came to be attached to the notions of variable velocity and 7. the direction of the displacement. 8. chiefly through the proposition called ''the parallelogram of forces. history of the Science of Mechanics shows how. f' 4 contains. Q. for instance through 0. is Of the may be the sense from towards that point {R) which is the fourth corner of a parallelogram having OP. is the magnitude position. and also how. PQ as adjacent sides this is the sense of the displacement. is P Let the line PQ be drawn. It is clear that the . and let a parallel line be drawn through any other point. this number of the displacement. two senses in which this line described one. displacement precisely determined by this line we say that it is Let the line PQ drawn through P represented by this line. had a position has at some later instant a position Q relative to the same frame. The measure of the length of PQ is the number of units of length it . is The subsequent entirely . particular instant. OR. through the study of the motions of falling bodies. Displacement. Suppose that a point which. be produced indefinitely both ways. DISPLACEMENT." the vectorial character of such quantities as force and acceleration came to be recognized.CHAPTER I. We precise and formal definitions of some vector quantities and with some of the immediate consequences shall now be occupied with of the definitions.
and K to Q by the by P to iT by P is straight line KQ. to the class of mathe known as vectors or directed quantities. . called the sense of the quantity. described as extension in space. PK. equal to. direction. or in different senses. On the other hand the vector is subjected by means subject to a rule of operation to which a line can only be of an arbitrary convention. ACCELERATION [CHAP. Then from any point a straight line can be drawn to represent the vectorf in magnitude. KQ Displacement is a quantity. A vector may be defined as a directed quantity which obeys a certain rule of operation*. Definition of a vector. By a "directed quantity" we mean an reasoning which requires for its called the magnitude of the quantity. I. P. displacements represented lines are equivalent to the displacement represented by the line PQ. (4) the magnitude of the displacement. rotation about an axis is not a vector. are clearly not equivalent to each other. or less than another but two displacements in . t The line is not the vector. as in moving the point from to Q directly by the straight line PQ. and sense. The sense of the line is indicated when two of its points are named in the line. determined by (1) the previous position. Let any particular length be taken as unit of length. although it is a directed quantity. and thus displacement belongs matical quantities 9. VELOCITY. (3) the sense of the displacement. Further it is clear that exactly the is same change of from position effected in moving a point from the straight line PK. for one displacement can be greater than. That to say. diiferent directions. (2) the direction of the displacement. (2) the direction of a line called the direction of the quantity. which the vector may not have.8 DISPLACEMENT. order in which they are arrived at by a point describing the * The rule of operation is an essential part of the definition. even when they are equal in magnitude. The line possesses a quality. For example. From our complete idea of the line this quality must be abstracted before the vector is arrived at. (3) the sense in which the line is object of mathematical determination (1) a number supposed drawn from one of its points.
(ii) couple applied to a rigid body. G D is constructed having are any three points. B. or AD. AB. and BG are equivalent vectors. DG. parallel. from different points (2) The vector represented by a line vectors represented by the lines AB. AB. equivalent to the BG. we note (i) displacement of a Examples of equivalent lines. AD. G being AC is any points whatever. Among 10. GG' which are equal and equivalent. C. . If AG. and a parallelogram as adjacent sides. 6.810] EQUIVALENT VECTORS rule is 9 The subject of mathematical operation to which vectors are a rule for replacing one vector by other vectors to which it is (by definition) equivalent. 7. vectors represented by AG. then the vectors represented by A'G' are equivalent. Also the vector or ^0 is equivalent to the vectors AB. as here defined. particle. '\i A^ B. vector quantities. This rule follows (1) : — may be divided into two parts and stated as Vectors represented by equal and parallel lines drawn in like senses are equivalent. vectors. the points A. B. BG AD Fig. Again A. A'C lines are equal and parallel their ends can be joined by two AA\ Fig. G' A' are not AG. BG.
(See Fig. and which its corners are taken.. and the single vector to which they are equivalent is called their resultant. and having any points Py Qy . A set of vectors equiva lent to a single vector are called components. 9.] In particular. The case of this which is generally most useful is the case where the edges of the parallelepiped are the axes of reference relatively to which the positions of points are determined. if the polygon is a gauche quadrilateral a parallelepiped can be constructed having BD. provided that the points A. The operation ponent vectors is of deriving a resultant vector from given com called composition. I. . edges parallel to vector Then the equivalent to the vectors represented by the edges AB. the vector represented by ^(7 is equivalent to the vectors represented by AP. T as corners. 8. Components and resultant. 9. and having J.. VELOCITY. having AG a. first [The taken more than once will be presently removed.. TO. its restriction that and last corners. This is clear because by definition the vectors AP. AG m AP.. PQ can be replaced by is AQ. 11. PQ. AB. no corner being taken more than once.s one side. AQ which meet m A. a polygon (plane or gauche) is constructed. we compound the components . DC. no corner is to be ABDG. (7 are regarded as the Fig. (7 as one diagonal.) Fig. ACCELERATION Further if [CHAP. on.10 DISPLACEMENT. and so The statement the number of sides of the independent of order in of the polygon.
?/). y. these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes of x and y. Again. e. then resolved parts of the vector parallel to the axes. PM OM MP represent the If R is . any vector parallel to a coordinate plane. and these are the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of these axes.* 10. if we take a system of rectangular coordinate axes. the directions of the component vectors are at right are called resolved parts of angles to each other the components the resultant vector in the corresponding directions. Fig. In the former case we take OP to represent the vector.g. we particular directions resolve the vector in the given directions to obtain the components in those directions. the plane of (a?. and z. and the and draw at right angles to Ox. not in the same components parallel to any three given lines resolve a vector in one plane. if we take a threedimensional system of rectangular vector can be resolved into components parallel to the axes. 11 the operation of deriving components in from a given vector is called resolution. can be resolved into components parallel to the axes of oo and y. 11] COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS . any axes of sc. to obtain the resultant It is clear from the constructions in the preceding into lines article that we can components parallel to way which are in a plane to which the vector is any two given and again we can resolve the vector in one way into parallel.10. When Thus.
and 6. More generally. we take OP a parallelepiped with and faces parallel to the coordinate planes. and these are the projections of OP on the axes.12 DISPLACEMENT. If is the magnitude of the P to represent the vector. ACCELERATION <f> [CHAP. I. the angles* magnitude of the vector represented by OP. then the resolved parts of the vector in the directions of the axes are numerically equal to the projections of OP on the axes. Oy. between the lines OP and Ox. VELOCITY. and draw as opposite corners and with its R IVI . then R cos 6 and R cos <^ are the magnitudes of the resolved parts respectively.
and take it to be Let OPi. when cos 6.. MP 12. all I. ie.6^. i.) in lines representing the to be n in num magnitude. when the magnitudes and signs of the resolved parts of a vector in the directions of three mutually It is clear is uniquely determinate. OPn be vectors. (supposed ber. line turning about from Ox towards Let Vn denote the magnitudes of the vectors. OPn make with Ox. and is the R R sin 6. Fig. and let 61. OP 2. let OP be a line representing the vector. . and I. .. first Composition of any number of vectors.e. (x. and sense. in the first case.11. y). As before. . in . the component parallel to the x axis is in the negative direction of that axis. PM at right Then the Fig. rectangular lines are given. the angles . traced out Oy. 12] COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF VECTORS 13 This rule determines the senses as well as the magnitudes of the resolved parts thus. direction. and OA a line parallel to and perpendicular which the vector is to be resolved. is the resolved part of the The vector represented by vector represented by OP at right angles to the line OA. OP^. are negative. 14. where the R is the magnitude of the vector to be resolved. the second case. 6^ be the angles which the lines OP^. . the vector that is to say there is one and only one vector which has given resolved parts parallel to three such lines. in the direction xO produced. . by a revolving r. and 6 its angle between direction and OA. The construction in the former of these cases is a construction p for the resolved parts of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line. the plane oi . . angles vector to is equivalent to vectors represented by OM^ cos d and magnitudes of these are respectively MP. 13. Consider the case where the vectors are parallel to a plane. Draw OA.2. from this rule that.
and call any one of these numbers r. . Let the magnitude of this vector be R. These two equations determine the magnitude R and the R is the numerical value of V (X^ + F^). Thus two equal vectors parallel to the same line. 2^ cos ^ = X. are equivalent to zero.r^ cos ^2 + • • • + ^ n COS Oy 6n = X (7' COS 6). cosines of the angles which the line representing this vector in direction and sense makes with the axes Ox. is When the magnitude of is the resultant of any set of vectors zero the set of vectors said to be equivalent to zero. ACCELERATION [CHAP. and in opposite senses. rn parallel to the lines Ox.Z'^). and r^ sin 6i parallel to Oy. where vector X Y=^rm. Y. in direction 13. and the whole set of vectors is equivalent to a vector whose Oz. resolved parts parallel to the axes are X. and R sin '\jr=Y. Consider the more general case where the vectors are not Let i\. and let its direction and sense be those of a line The X F is going out from Then we have and making an angle i/r with Ox. and similarly All the resolved parts parallel to vector Ox X parallel to X = COS Oi 7\ are equivalent to a single Ox given by 4. All the resolved parts parallel to vector parallel to Oi/ given by are equivalent to a single Y F = ri sin ^i + ra sin ^2 + • • • + ^»i sin ^„ = 2 (r sin 6). Then the vector represented by OPi may be replaced by rj vectors for cos $1 parallel to Ox. r^."rn be the magnitudes of the parallel to a plane. I. Oy. Vectors equivalent to zero. Let ly m. and yjr is angle that one among the angles whose tangents are F/X for which the sine has the same sign as Fand the cosine has the same sign i/r.14 DISPLACEMENT. II. Z=^rn. as X. the numerical value of VC^'^ it + Y^\. Oy. R. Oz. Z/R. and vector whose resolved parts parallel to Ox and Oy are the resultant of all the vectors. The resultant the summations extending to all the vectors of is therefore a vector whose magnitude. the others. Then this may be resolved into rl. Oy. Z. and such that the line and sense makes with the axes Ox. rm. = %rl. representing Oz angles whose cosines are XjR. the is set. VELOCITY. n be the vectors. Y/R.
10) that in the resolution of a vector into components parallel to the sides of a polygon not more than two sides of the polygon may meet 14. velocity. in any direction. precise. and let s be the number of units of length it passes over in t units of time. We have thus an idea of velocity of a point not moving uniformly. in the other. at . Again vectors parallel and proportional to the sides of a closed polygon. y. Velocity in a straight line. one of the lines of reference. (Cf. y' — y. the fraction  defined to be the its A point moving uniformly describes equal lengths in equal times.1215] DEFINITION OF VELOCITY 15 It is clear that the sum of a set of vectors equivalent to zero of the resolved parts. For a point moving in a straight line we may define the average velocity in any interval of time to be the fraction number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval . e. Components of displacement. with reference to the same frame. In this case there will be equal intervals of time in which the point describes unequal lengths in the one of two equal intervals in which it describes the greater length we should say it was moving faster. Art. This last statement enables us to do away with the restriction (Art. but the of imits of length passed over in any interval of time does not bear a constant ratio to the number of imits of time in the interval. x y\ z' the coordinates of the point at a subsequent instant. and with senses determined by the order of the corners when a point travels round the polygon. and we seek to make it number . is equal to zero. z' — z are the components. parallel to the axes. Let x. 8. z be the any particular instant with moving point reference to any particular frame. we should say it was moving more slowly. a point moving in a straight line.) Consider in the first place 15. in a point. Again consider the case where the point moves in a straight line. Then it may happen that the two numbers s and for t have then a constant ratio whatever said to number we take and t The point is z is move uniformly measure of in the line. coordinates of a of a vector quantity which is the displacement of the point.g. in which it describes the shorter length. are equivalent to zero. then X — X.
16 DISPLACEMENT. We might in the same way define the velocity of a point at the last instant of an interval. However short an interval is taken for the unit of time the length described in and measures the velocity in terms of it. and the as the limit of the fraction just written the differential coefficient of s with respect to t. the interval of being diminished indefinitely. which approach a limit the interval given and the Taking the first ing value as the measure of the interval is indefinitely diminished. If the unit of time were replaced by a smaller unit the displacement in it would be replaced by a shorter length. we obtain a series of fractions. number known The velocity . We say that the point is at s at time t. and taking for the measure of the interval a series of diminishing numbers. velocity just before the instant respectively. chosen as the origin of time. and suppose that at the end of this interval the point has described a length s measured from some particular point in the line of its motion. any instant. VELOCITY. I. The two limits are in general the same when they are different we call them the velocity just after the instant and the . Let since t be the measure of the interval of time which has elapsed some particular instant. and its average velocity in the interval it describes a length s' s' —s is '. This limiting value is defined to be the velocity of the point at the first instant of the interval. to bring it into connexion with the definition of variable velocity we say that the latter is measured by "the rate of displacement per unit of time.z The number s is a function of the number is t. When the measure of the displacement of the point during the velocity is uniform it is measured by the displacement in a unit of time. of the moving point The number is accordingly measured by ds j s' s is the interval t't. When the point is is variable number." it . which has a definite value not moving uniformly this fraction is a when the measure of first instant of the interval is given. We line at inte7'val can now define the velocity of a point moving in a straight It is the limit of the average velocity in an time beginning or ending at the instant. Then in the interval t' t — s. When we wish to recall this fact. and this length would measure the velocity in terms of the new unit of time. t ". In the same — way suppose that it is at s' at time t'. instant of the interval always the same. ACCELERATION [CHAP.
as above. and the component velocities parallel to the axes are dx dt' dy dt* dz dt' The interval.—j — — — — . i. drawn in a definite sense. ^ ^ L. is said to move with uniform It is manifest that the velocity of many dx jt } a moving particle can be represented in respects by a vector. t —. velocity at an instant is the limit of the average velocity in an This limit has a definite magnitude. and these limits are. t ^. . As before x. in a straight line it will have a interval f — t parallel to each not moving component of displacement in any is When the point of the three z' axes of reference. and. from some particular point of it to the position of the moving point at time t. the point path is straight or curved. M. t . The magnitude of the velocity of a point is often called its speed. and let s' be the corresponding arc for time t'. the phrase means nothing but the limit of the fraction number of units of length described in an interval number of units of time in the interval when the 16. Let s be the arc of the curve particular line. fractions —. z' z. Let these components be w —x. measured from some particular point of the curve up to the position moving point at time ?. Velocity in general. and is associated with a definite straight line. the length of the chord joining the two positions is the magnitude vector whose components parallel to the axes are a^'w. At any instant the point is moving along the tangent to a curve.e. where the length of the arc of the path measured. z are functions of t. the definition of s of the Then of the From we have the equation Thus the magnitude s is of the velocity of the moving point at time ^ is ^ . — y. when it is speed whether its independent of the time. the rates of displacement per unit time parallel to the axes. y. 16] DEFINITION OF VELOCITY 17 but we must not attach to this phrase any other meaning than that which has just been explained. in the sense of description of the path. called its path or The velocity is associated with this trajectory.15. of which the components parallel to the axes are dz ) dy . t t t has a limit. . 2 . Then each of the . but the vector does not express the association of the velocity with a particular line— the tangent to the path of the particle. y'y. They are defined to be the component velocities parallel to the axes. interval is indefinitely diminished. y' — z.
is equivalent to vectors localized in any three lines parallel to Ox. (ii) Two vectors localized in lines which meet are equivalent to a single vector localized in a line. But it is quantities which. (i) Two vectors localized in the same line are equivalent if they have the same magnitude and the same sense. lines. provided that these components and resolved parts are localized in lines which meet in a point on the line of the resultant. directions. viz. a is line is a vector localized at any point in a particular which in the direction of the vector. ACCELERATION [cHAP. provided all localized at points that components and resultants are lines. Thus a vector localized at is by a line OP^ and represented (as in Fig. having the same magnitude and sense. and sense. called unlocalized vectors. VELOCITY. meeting . also a vector localized in a line is equivalent to components (or resolved parts) of the same magnitudes. and senses are equivalent. they are equally well represented by lines drawn from any point and they have no . often important to consider have the properties of vectors. but which have relations to particular points or particular a point is defined by its magnitude. DISPLACEMENT. and senses as if it were unlocalized. L so far con Localized vectors.18 17. 12) to vectors localized at and equivalent may be represented by lines OH. with the additional rules of equivalence. OK.: equivalent if two sets of unlocalized vectors with the same magnitudes. 0M\ and a vector localized in the line OP. vector localized at A — There is in general no rule of equivalence for vectors localized at different points. All the constructions in the previous Articles apply to vectors and to vectors localized in lines. provided that these components and resolved parts are localized at the same point. The vectors we have sidered have no relation to any particular point. directions. and senses as if it were unlocalized. relation to by any particular they are equally well represented of all lines parallel to their direction. Oy. is points or in the proper localized at the proper In particular a vector localized at a point same magnitudes. two sets of vectors localized at the same point are lence. Oz. equivalent to components (or resolved parts) of the directions. in other respects. A vector localized in line. segments They may be line. and also by a point and by a rule of equivadirection.
The differences between expressed thus : — may be A vector (un localized) is equal magnitude and like sense. in particular the line in which it is localized is thereby determined. As examples moving particle. Velocity in length. of vectors localized in lines (ii) force applied to a particle is an we may cite (i) velocity of a Force to a rigid body (Chapter VI). 19. 18. Formal velocity of a definition of velocity. We may now define the moving point to be a vector. minus one dimension in time. or its dimension symbol LT^.1719] in a point LOCALIZED VECTORS 19 on OP. whose resolved part in any direction is the rate of displacement of the point in that direction per unit of time. is a segment of that line. Thus the vector may be drawn from any point. where L stands for length. OM. localized in a line through the position of the point. The measure of any par ticular velocity a number is expressing the ratio of the velocity to the unit velocity. representing it may be drawn from any point in a particular line. vector localized at a point is single vector. and T for time. that with which a point describes one unit of length uniformly in each unit of time. The line representing it not equivalent to any other must be drawn from the A vector localized in a line is clearly determined by its com ponents parallel to three given lines and by one point of the line. and having the magnitudes and senses of OH. equivalent to any parallel vector of line representing the A vector magnitude and and localized in a line is equivalent to any vector of equal The line like sense localized in the same line. pressing a length to a number expressing an It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the unit of time. Measurement of is velocity. 2—2 . applied example of a vector localized at a point (Chapter III). A point. The number expressing a velocity is the ratio of a number ex The unit velocity interval of time. the three classes of vectors OK. is is and dimension accordingly said to be a quantity of one of.
is The the product. The reason for defining 20. ACCELERATION [CHAP. velocity as a localized vector is that special significance is found to attach to a certain quantity called the "moment of the velocity. otherwise : it is — . then. Let 6 be the angle which the direction of the vector makes localized at with the line AO.20 DISPLACEMENT. and draw ox^^ / at right angles to the line of the vector. . vector are the same as those of translation and rotation in an is ordinary righthanded screw. define the their directions parallel to the plane*. VELOCITY. The moment about a point of a vector a point A is identical with the moment about of the resolved part of the vector at right angles to OA. The perpendicular from line of the vector the line ON. and . so that if the localized in a line that line is L\ and if the vector is localized at a point the line L' passes moment of the vector about a point through the point. the sign +. of the magnitude of the vector and the perpendicular The rule of signs is this Draw a line L through to L' from 0. ON The magnitude of the resolved part of the vector at right angles to is ^0 is R sin 6." Moment We shall attend at present to the cases of vectors localized in lines that lie in a plane and having moment Draw vector is and vectors localized at points in a plane. 21. A more general discussion will be given in Chapter III. with a certain sign. where R the magnitude of the vector. otherwise it is — is . on the is Fig. I. of localized vector. of such a vector about a point in the plane as follows We : — a line L' in the direction of the vector. Iiemxna. : and L' and choose a at right angles to the plane containing sense of description of this line . if the senses of L and the . it is equal to OA sin 6. rule of signs may also be stated thus Let a watch be in the plane of and L\ so that a line drawn from the placed back to the face is in the sense of L\ when the sense of the The vector is opposite to that of the motion of the hands the sign +. 15.
17. y^) in the plane of (x. 21 Now moment of R about = R ON = R. angles which the lines representing and 6^ the A <f> them drawn from make with AO. at right angles to OA. of Now sum moments . 22. See the For example. moving in the plane of (x. and . equal 6i Let Pi and Pg be the magnitudes of the vectors.2022] MOMENTS . or in a line passing through this point. 17.O A sin 6 = i? sin 04 = moment about of resolved part . Then the magnitudes of the resolved parts at right angles to AO Pa sin ^2 » are Pj sin 6i and Rsm<f>. (9 . its is Xi moment about Y^  y^X^. 16. = Pj sin ^i + Pg sin 62. y) is . y). the an»^le which the line representing it makes with AO. This result can be immediately extended to any number of vectors localized at a point. of Pi and Pg about (9i = OA (Pi sin + P2 sin O^) = OA Rsm<j> = moment of R about 0. we know i^ sin <^ (Article 12) that Fig. It follows that. specified by its components Xi and Yi the origin Fig. parallel to the axes of w and y. The sum (with proper signs) moments about a point of two vectors localized at a point to the moment of their resultant about 0. of the is A Theorem of moments. the origin of the ^ j of a particle Fig. when a vector is localized at a point (^1. moment about velocity 1^. R the magnitude of the resultant.
i. ponents at time limits t'. z —. the moving point is said to have a variable acceleration. w be component velocities reference (coordinate axes). When the acceleration is not uniform. or in words it is the limit of the fraction number number of units of velocity added in an interval of time of units of time in the interval is ' The number v is indefinitely diminished. parallel to these axes at When time t^ and u'. relative to any frame. v. by the velocity added in a unit of time. the point is said to have an acceleration relative to that frame. it is said to have a uniform accelera provided that the velocity acquired in every interval has the direction same and sense. VELOCITY. and its differential coefficient with when the interval respect to . and sense. t — —— V t when the interval t' —tis indefinitely diminished. v\ w . of expressing the following definition way : — Let V be the velocity of the point at time at time t\ then its acceleration is t. may be. When increases is moving in such a way that its velocity amounts in equal intervals of time. A point moving with a variable velocity. ( ^ ^ Iy ^ ?/ — ) . . and v its velocity v' the limit of the fraction . direction. the acceleration is measured dv the point is not moving in a straight line it will in general have a variable velocity parallel to each of the lines of Let u. t. however by equal short the intervals tion.z —— have and when the —t is indefinitely diminished. z corresponding com.22 DISPLACEMENT. ~' z Z —. I.— ^ —. where x and y are the coordinates of its position at time 23. Uniform acceleration is determined.e. Acceleration. t is the acceleration. then the fractions interval t' —. . a function of the number t. ACCELERATION [CHAP. as regards magnitude. z ~. The acceleration of a point moving in a straight line is the This is a short rate of increase of its velocity per unit of time.
The to vector which has these components parallel to the axes be the acceleration of the point. Now then its if. The number expressing an acceleration is the expressing a velocity to a number expressing an ratio of a number interval of time. r at is . By measuring angles we can estimate intervals of time. of time. thus q stands for ^ . The quantities which are measured directly are lengths and angles. let u. then its V. or its dimension symbol is LT~^. The measure particular acceleration is the number expressing the ratio of the acceleration to the unit acceleration. localized in a the point. Acceleration is accordingly said to be a quantity of one dimension in length and of minus two dimensions in time. whose resolved part in any direction is the through rate of increase of the velocity in that direction per unit 24. velocities at different times. Accelerations are not measured directly. The values of accelerations are deduced from a knowledge of the values of 25. Again ii. at ^ .2225] these limits DEFINITION OF ACCELERATION are the differential coefficients ^ at 23 . by X. using a clock or watch. be the coordinates of a moving point at time t. v. shall therefore denote We the differential coefficient of any quantity q with regard to the time t by placing a dot over the let oc. We have so frequently to deal with differential coefficients of quantities with regard to the time that it is convenient to use for them an abbreviated notation. Notation for velocities and accelerations. It therefore varies inversely as the unit of length and directly as the square of the unit of time. z z. component velocities parallel to the axes are denoted y. . m. The unit acceleration is that uniform acceleration with which a moving point gains a unit of velocity in a unit of time. be the component velocities of a point parallel component accelerations are denoted by w. or in other words defined define we the acceleration line of a moving point to he the vector. to the axes. for example. of any Measurement of acceleration. q. The values of velocities are deduced from a knowledge of the distances described in different intervals of time.
we q the velocity with which q increases. rr it is convenient to write for for at them so on. x^. Then x stands ^— or ^ (77) .. To fix ideas we shall take the plane to be the {x. to deal with any function . y.v = ~. z( be the t'. the position of a?2 A at time . y). Let be the coordinates of a point A at time t referred to axes with origin at 0. and In the same way when we have of the time. y^. z^ the coordinates of a second point B at the same time referred to the same axes. and the limit of the ratio of these two numbers This is 6. following the analogy of the case may call where q is x. Then f . Let a line. 2^1 Relative coordinates and relative motions. and f. the differential coefficient of 6 with respect to t number. J" are called the coordinates of a^a 2/2 B relative to A. We have = ^1 + f = 2/1+^' = + ?• ^2 S"! » 1 ^^^ [ I Let accented respond to letters denote at time t' unaccented letters at time t. y. y^. for example the line joining the positions at any time of two moving points. In the same 27. is called the angular velocity of the line. 26. = Zl + TZ'2 \ J . ?. we may write q for 7^ as we write q for ^ . Suppose the line to make an angle 6 in radians) with the axis x at time t. way 6 is 6. or z. ACCE^iERATION Since u [CHAP. move so as always to be in the same plane with reference to any frame.. I. and q the accelera tion with which q increases. x. thus the quantities that corlet ^/. 7. Then A^ is the coordinate plane of measure of the angle turned through by the line in the interval measured by A^. w = at at z respectively. ^ly 2/1. Also. called the angular acceleration of the line. Ang^ular velocity and acceleration. ^ the coordinates of B at the same time referred to parallel axes through A.24 DISPLACEMENT. — ^. VELOCITY. 1 Then as before = ^1 + g y^ = yx^v. say q. and an angle (measured 6 { ^6 with the same axis at time t + ^t. coordinates of A'.
. . The geometrical view of For shortness we instructive. in the second brackets on the right are the comrelative to parallel axes with B Thus we have the relative to axes at result: is displacement of a point B compounded of the displacement of a of — The point A relative to the same axes and the displacement through A. velocity. These equations may be \ ) expressed in words as follows relative to axes at is : — The of the \ \ . 4 = ii + t z% and by differentiating again we 00. what is the same thing.f . 2/2 = yi + find 2/1 V. and let A' be its position at time f. by differentiating equations (1) with By t respect to t. and acceleration of the point relative to axes drawn through the second point parallel to the axes of reference.2528] RELATIVE MOTION subtraction 25 By we deduce y2y2 = (yiyi)\{vv). \ ^/^2 = (^/^i)+(rr). we ^2 find = ^1 + t = ^1 4. velocity.2 3/2 = + V. = Zx + ?. relative Geometry of motion is relative motion. in the first brackets on the right are the to the axes of the displacement of A. and acceleration of a point relative to a second point. meaning thereby displacement. B relative to parallel axes f— or. I 5 relative to ^ parallel axes throusfh A. shall speak of displacement. and leads easily to results of some importance. parallel components The terms ponents of the displacement of origin at A. dividing both members of each of the equations (2) by and passing to the limit when t' — t is indefinitely diminished. ^. oi B compounded * (acceleration \ ^. .J The terms on the The terms left (2) are the components parallel to the axes of the displacement of B. ° (acceleration] 28.[ofA of relative to the same axes and the [accelerationj ] . Let A be the position at any time ^ of a point which moves relatively to a frame having its origin at 0.
18. the vector represented by OK equal and OK is the displacement of B. \ (accelerationj (accelerationj \ . we have the \ . ^. and B' its position at time Similarly let parallel to B ^ t'. The resultant the displacement of is the required relative displacement. OK. rules oi : — The of \ B \ relative to A is the resultant of the \ . VELOCITY. and Then the sense. magnitude.26 DISPLACEMENT. . ACCELERATION [CHAP. . Fig. \ oi (acceleration) which must be compounded with the ^ resultant A m. \ oi B. . and since its acceleration in any direction is the rate of increase of its velocity in that direction per unit of time. ^. ! (accelerationj (accelerationj B and the if ^ \ . B In the same way the '' \ . OH OH be the position at time the same frame. HK represents vector the displacement of OK is compounded of OH^ HK. the vector represented by is the displacement of A. Now the Hence HK B is the resultant of relative to A we must compound to obtain the displacement of with the reversed displacement of A. (accelerationj Since the velocity of a point in any direction is the rate of increase of its displacement in that direction per unit of time. Then the displacement of B relative compounded with the displacement of A be the displacement of B. Join to A is the vector that must be in order that the resultant may HK. vector Hence direction. B relative to A in HO. but the velocity and acceleration of B relative to A are to be regarded as localized in lines through B. of a second point referred to From draw BB\ and in the same sense . order that the may be •' the \ . \ oi B relative to A is the \ ^ ?. ^. From draw equal and parallel to AA\ and in the same sense. I. \7 oi A reversed. (accelerationj The compositions and effected as resolutions described in this Article are to be the vectors involved were not localized.
for instance. when bodies fall in the exhausted receiver of an air pump. Gravity. The direction of this acceleration at any place is the " vertical at the place. Rectilinear motion in a uniform field. THE MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE. field call it the of the Earth's gravity. in the neighbourhood of any place. direction of the field be the axis of x. We call it the " acceleration due to gravity. falls generally " " " haviour of " light bodies and heavy bodies are to be traced to the buoyancy and resistance of the air." field." The magnitude of this acceleration depends to some extent on latitude . The fact that bodies fall to the Earth we denote it with a constant acceleration was discovered by Galileo. . When the effects due to An unsupported body near the Earth's surface towards the Earth. and let / be its Let the intensity. it is practically constant." For example. the neighbourhood of the Earth is a field of force " of which the intensity near the Earth is g. Field of force." all the " intensity of the " direction of the acceleration is the direction of the is and the When points the intensity and direction of the field are the same at " the field is said to be uniform. The differences in the be the presence of the air are eliminated.CHAPTER II. but." If we confine our attention to a small We part of the Earth's surface 31. 29. A is with a certain acceleration nitude of the acceleration region in which a free body moves " called a field of force. it is found that all kinds of bodies fall to the Earth with the same acceleration." and by the letter g. when the foot is the unit of length the value is 322. the value of ^ in London is 981 '2." The magfield. we may regard the field as uniform. 30. When the centimetre is the unit of length.
so that the constant is deter Hence that x =XQ\ut\. If s is the distance described in the interval s \s. particle moving in the field parallel to the axis of x has an acceleration /. t or x = u {ft Again one function of differential coefficient is ut 4. where Hence v must be of the form ft + G. Putting mined. x— Xq. the velocity acquired in moving from rest over a distance s is V2/s. so that v is we are given with the condition v = u when ^=0. This is described as the " velocity due to falling 32. ^ where G' 0.\ff. so s = ut + ^ft\ this equation v By elimination = u\ft. . Putting ^ a function having this differential coefficient is ft + C. and u position. Hence v = ii\. we find of t between and the equation v''u'= 2fs. 1. having the constant / for its differential and the most general expression for an arbitrary constant. t Now one function of coefficient is the function ft. t.28 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. having the function u+ft for its hence x must be of the form G' iut + \ft^. = we find Xq = G'. Writing v for x.ift^. when the acceleration is uniform. so that the constant is determined. the velocity at time f. with the conditions x = Xq when ^=0. and integrating. II. is an arbitrary constant. its velocity (parallel to the axis of x) in this Then we are given x =/. the average velocity in interval of time is the velocity at the middle of the interval. Obtain the formula v'^ — u^ = 2fs by multiplying both sides of the equation x=f by a. we find u = G. through s with an acceleration /. and x=^u when ^ = 0.ft. Prove that. Let Xq be the value of x at the initial position of A the particle. In particular." Examples. any 2. G is = 0.
At time direction ^ = let the velocity of the particle be x. when the initial velocity is zero. near a place on the Earth's surface. F in a making an angle a with the axis Fig. has no velocity parallel to this axis. a velocity will be obtained which will have a limit when the number of segments is increased indefinitely. since . We have the equations ^ = 0. does not move vertically. . it undergoes no displacement parallel to this axis thus the particle moves in the plane {x.3133] MOTION UNDER GRAVITY 29 Let the distance s be divided into a great number of equal segi»ents. We Let the axis of y be drawn vertically upwards. Since the acceleration parallel to the axis z is always zero. describes a parabola with a vertical axis. it has a component 33. this average velocity is equal to § of the final velocity. and the sum of the velocities after describing those segments divided by their number. the particle does not acquire velocity parallel to this axis and. with the conditions that when ^ x=V cos OL. y = Fsin a. y) be the vertical plane through the initial direction of motion. and this limit may be called the average velocity in the distance. = 0. Prov^e that. and let the plane (x. When prove that the particle velocity in a horizontal direction. Parabolic motion under gravity. at time ^= it . 3. y). a particle moving in the field of the Earth's gravity. 19.
and whose at the point ^=^^+ The theorem 34. J ' T is parallel to the axis y. and the particle has no velocity parallel to the axis y. at time t' = 0. with Hence a?' ^ ^'. which is reached after an interval (Fsina)/^. and x — 0. after an interval measured by (Fsin a)lg. Since x Since II. Integrating and determining the constants so that when ^=0. we have x = V cos a always. Write down the length of the latus rectum of the above parabola. y' = \gt'^' Eliminating . . If we refer the motion to parallel axes of x\ y' {y' being positive in the opposite sense to y) through the vertex A. therefore has a vertex. t\ „ 2F2cos2a so that the path of the particle is a parabola with vertex at A» We yz=z x= might have deduced this result analytically from the equations J7=0. of this Article was discovered by Examples. we find ^=. with rp— ^cos a. y==yQ+V^ma. 2. Show that the height of the directrix above the starting point is V^jig. and after this it has a Its path velocity in the negative direction of the same axis.30 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. =foSay. we have y = Fsin a ^^ after an interval t. we have = Fcos a . — y = —g.t\gt\ we have F2sin2a X . Previously to this it had a velocity in the positive direction of the axis y. 1. and y=yo) 3?= Fsin a. and y' — at time t' = 0. y vanishes. Thus. and take t' to measure the time of moving from the vertex A to any point P we shall have — = 0. it is therefore moving parallel to the axis x.ro+ Fcosa. 2^L 2^ the equation of a parabola whose axis vertex is v — Vq ^ ^^ \7r\ ^^0 iVjr Fsmaflr^T  n ^ Fcosa =0. = 0. x=Xq^ Fcosa. and ^ = g. from the beginning of the motion. = 0. 0. Eliminating t t. F^ sin a cos a ' F* sin^ a g ^=^«+2^Galileo. —g.
gcosd and that this is the ^ (tan a tan 6\ ^ ' .gt cos 6 . below the directrix. 20. Prove that the time until the particle is again in the horizontal plane is (2 Fsin a)lg. show that the point is 31 at a If V is the velocity at v^j'ig distance 4. MOTION UNDER GRAVITY any point of the path. 34] 3. when the velocity of projection inclined plane is greatest when the vertical.e\ the resolved velocities at time t Fsin {aB)\ are 6y Fcos {a 6).^gt^ sin 6. if a parabola projection S^ its axis vertical. Prove that the range in question . [This is called the time of flight on the horizontal plane through the point of projection. Resolve up the plane. and its constructed having its focus at the point of vertex at a height F72^ above the point . it is gcosB The range is found by substituting this value for is t in Fif cos {a — 6). the range on an direction of projection bisects the angle between the plane and the 8. the resolved initial velocities are Fcos (a . The time of flight is obtained by making the second of these equal 2 Fsin (g^) to zero. and at right angles to are The resolved accelerations ^sin^. To find the range point of projection. Fig.] through the point of projection 5. 7. ^cos^. Show that.sin ^]. Prove that the distance from the starting point of the point where the particle strikes the horizontal through the starting point is ( F^ sin 2a)lg. and time of flight on an inclined plane through the Let 6 be the inclination of the plane to the horizon.33. is is given. [This is called the range on the horizontal plane through the point of projection. same as F2 2^ ^cos* [sin (2a ^).gt sin the distances described in time plane are t Fsin {a~6). it.. VtBm{ae)\gf^coB0.] 6.r 2F2cos2a. parallel and perpendicular to the inclined F^cos(a^)^^^2gin^. Prove that..
the distance between the vertices of the two parabolas is ^gr^. For example. . Conversely we may set before ourselves the problem: Given the acceleration of the particle. two directions in which the particle can be projected. 33. is the envelope considered in Ex. Prove that 11. A c. II. from one given point. of projection. the intersection of the tangents at their positions at any instant describes a coaxial parabola as if under gravity. Two particles describe the same parabola under gravity. to and equal arcs may be In such cases we have the mathematicircle. This paraboloid is the envelope of the trajectories of 9. the body. y\ the axes of coordinates being the same as in Art. touch a paraboloid of revolution about the vertical through S having its focus at such particles. When the motion of a treated as a particle. particle is to be projected from the origin with a given velocity V 80 as to pass through a given point {x. is observed. 12. Motion in a curved path. that is to say the problem of determining the direction and intensity of the field of force. arid  [Clearly the point {x. if r is the interval between the instants when they pass through the vertex. hence show that there are. in the different trajectories possible under gravity between two ix)ints A.32 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. The aggregate of these positions constitutes the path of the 35. cal problem of deducing the acceleration of the particle from the observations. aS* [From this it follows that all possible paths of particles moving with uniform acceleration g downwards. particle moves under gravity from the highest point of a sphere of it radius Prove that cannot clear the sphere unless its initial velocity exceeds ^/Hgc). the path may be a particle.] ^S*. Prove that. y) must lie within the parabola 2V'^y+gx'^= V^/g^ 8. and starting from a point S with given velocity T. Prove that the direction of projection must make with A the axis x an angle a which satisfies the equation gx^ tan2a 2 V^x tan a + (2 V^y +gx^) = 0. 13. things that can be observed are the positions of the particle at diflferent times.] which 10. By the times of flight are inversely proportional to the velocities of the projectile when vertically over the middle point of AB. then the parabolic path for which the range on a line through is greatest touches this parabola at the point where the line cuts it. with given velocity. Prove also that. so as to pass through another given point. described in equal times. in general. Prove that the greatest range on an inclined plane through the point of projection is equal to the distance through which the particle would fall during the time of flight.
3 . we may since v is s. tangent. can be resolved into components v' cos A</) in P and v sin A^ in the direction of Hence the the limit of acceleration in the direction of the tangent at r^ — when A^ P is Now A< is indefinitely diminished.3436] MOTION IN A CURVED PATH 33 determine its path and its positions at different times. between the tangent at P and the tangent at Q.cos A<^ 2 sin2 f i Ai/)) V2 Aj> V A^ (A(^)2 A^ ^' zero. at (f>. M let The velocity at Q the direction of the tangent at the normal at P. 36.1 — cos A0 A^ ' . Let V be the velocity at any point P of the path. v' the velocity at a neighbouring point Q.or v. Hence the above Since we have dv dt _dv ds_ ~ ds dt dv ds ' we may write v r for the component acceleration parallel to the also write s for it. . "aT"^ A and T 1 AJL . M. and L. and As be the length of the arc PQ. limit is ^. The solutions of such problems are facilitated by a theorem of kinematics to which we proceed. Acceleration of a point describing a plane curve. Also let be the time taken by the particle to move from P to Q. and A</) the angle QTA Fig. The limits of the three factors of this expression are ^. Let a particle move in the plane of {x. 21. V cos A<^ — v_v' — v . y).
" (nt + e). Let the straight line be the axis of oc. and that the horizontal component of the is velocity constant. 3. Again the acceleration ^ ^^" is in the direction of the this is the sin normal at P the limit of ^ and . tare is P or P .84 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. 38. Examples. 1. and the limits of these factors in order are . the acceleration of the particle has components ad^ along the radius (directed towards the centre) and aB along the tangent in the sense of increase of 0. 4. in any field of force. is equal to that due to falling through one quarter of the chord of curvature at P. and the fixed point the Then we have x = a cos (nt + e). II. at any point P. Assuming is this result. A circle of radius particle describing a a with velocity v has an acceleration v^/a along the radius directed inwards. ^ ~Kf Ks At A0 A^ A5 v. in parabolic motion of a projectile under gravity. 37. where p is Thus the acceleration drawn towards the centre of curvain the direction of the normal the radius of curvature of the curve at P. have a "simple real constants. the value of v'^/p at any point of the path is equal to the resolved part along the normal to the path of an acceleration equal to g. therefore and ^= — n^x. n. with an acceleration equal to the intensity of the field at P. v. Interpret the formula v^/p for the normal component acceleration so as to show that the velocity. same ' as the limit of . If the radius vector drawn from the centre to the particle turns through an angle 6 in time <. of a particle describing a curved jmth. way that its line in such a Appoint moving in a straight displacement from a fixed point at time t can be expressed in the form a cos where a. is said to origin. Verify the result that. . Simple harmonic motion. 2. e are any harmonic motion. 1. deduce the result that the path a parabola. drawn in the direction of the field.
coinciding with the at right angles to this diameter to meet the Consider the motion of the point P. Let the angle xOP = 6. Then a. we must have Hence the point angle 6 — a sin ^ & — a cos ^ x = — (y6 + xO^). i: =a sin 6. 3—2 . and let a be the value of x at that instant. and y. 6 = 0. 22. when the moving . = 0. and the =t aJ/jl. NP in circle. By hence since differentiating we have . the angular uniform and equal to aJ/jl. draw P. = a cos 6. ^= are the coordinates of P. a positive constant. one diameter of this Fig. and 6^ = . ^^ /jl. Let time be measured from an instant when i. P describes is velocity of the radius vector the circle uniformly. . = — a sin ^ ^. and with a as point circle is radius. describe at N on With the origin as centre. axis X. the motion is simple harmonic motion. x = — fjLX..3638] SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION shall 35 is We now show that. if the acceleration connected with the displacement by an equation of the form x= — where /* is /jLOC. a circle and.
Simple harmonic motion .86 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. and its magni The above of the equation process shows that the solution X — — flXf with the conditions that. 27r IS J. the constant A put ^ = 0. that Hence the solution of the equation x=—fix. II. osciUatory. when ^=0.sin {t ^Jii). Let the moving point have at time ^=0 a position denoted time t. The equation a? = a cos (< Vm + e) represents simple harmonic motion with period ^irj^Jfi. by Xq and a velocity denoted by Xo'. to it be observed that the whole motion repeats itself after to say. Now put f = and we find Xo = B ^JX. — may be regarded as the type of toandfro. x=0. is x=a cos (ts/fi). In this formula a is called the amplitude of the motion it is the greatest value of x. we know that. differentiate with respect to sin {t y/fi) =—A /y/zt +B \//jl cos {t sjfi). cos (t\/fJL) be expressed in the form a. by changing the epoch from which time is measured. =^ + B sin (t \/fi). that the complete solution must be of the form X and this can — a cos {(t — to) *J fi]. motions. x=a. and e determines the phase of the motion. = ajo and x = i*o when ^ = 0. or Oscillatory motions can generally be described either as simple harmonic motions or as motions compounded of simple harmonic motions in different directions. that intervals of time the period equal . velocity of the point a •sjfi sin {t ^/fi). t. To determine the we have x constant B. is X X — Xo cos (t s/jj) + J. at any X must be given by an equation of the form To determine = ^ cos {t\/ fi) + B sin {t^J^l). we have a? Xq = A. with the conditions a. is periodic. is It is . The a?coordiDate of the point N at time t is given by x = a cos {t slfi). The tude is is directed along xO. It follows.
y=C cos (t ^J^l) + D sin {t \/fj). B. then at this instant x and. and whose position with reference to the origin and axes is fixed. cos {t y/fi) fi G. We conwhere the moving particle has a simple harmonic motion of period ^ parallel to each of the axes of x and y. y = 0. We have the equations x = — fix. viz. and suppose the moving point to be at one extremity (x = a) of the = a. is Thus 26 time t. = major axis at the instant ^ 0. (AD. The whole motion is clearly periodic with period 27r Let us change the axes to the principal axes of the ellipse. and B^fi. Then we must have at time t x = aco8 (t Va^). eliminating t. Let y = b\//M at this instant. . the acceleration in each case being directed towards the origin. eccentric angle in creases uniformly with angular velocity Examples. and t\/fL the eccentric angle at The point 40.ByY + (Ay . D are arbitrary constants depending on the initial A and C are the coordinates. Solving the above equations for cos {t aJ/jl) we have (ADBG) cos (t ^/^l) =Dx.3840] 39. 1.Gxf = so that the path of the is moving point is an ellipse whose centre the origin. and we deduce that x and y must be given by equations of the form x=^A where A. is the minor axis. where /z is positive. when the equation that is x=iix. we find (Dx . x = 0.By. + B sin (t \Jfi). D \/ ^ the resolved velocities at the instant = 0. and the and x=Xq when ^=0. and sin (t sjfjb). Prove that. y = bsm (t \Jfj).BG) sin (t ^/fi) = AyGx. (AD . ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT THE CENTRE 37 sider the case Composition of simple harmonic motions.BGf. since the point is moving at right angles to the major axis. then at any time t x=Xq initial conditions are x=Xo cosh (« Va*) + 7^ sinh (t^ii). therefore moves so that its \/fi. conditions.
elliptic In the distance r from the centre motion of Article 39 prove that the velocity v at is given by v^+fir^= const. that proportional to the distance the path is x*«=i(a* 4. prove. Ac * p. at distance r from the centre of the hyperbola is given by v2=/Lir2 + const. In simple harmonic motion given by x=fjiX starting from ^=a. r the radius vector B F OP. 3. A^ the time of moving from P to P'. (ii) The radius drawn from the Sun equal areas in equal times. A« the arc PP'.. II.. v the velocity of the particle at P. 1609. and suppose that a particle describes a plane curve in such a way that the radius vector drawn in the to it from a fixed point plane describes area uniformly. In Fig. From a long and more especially of Mars.38 2. series of observations of the Planets. Equable description of areas. 42.. In the hyperbolic motion of Example 2 prove that the velocity v 5.tradita GommentaHis de Motibus Stella . directed from the origin and is an hyperbola. Kepler* concluded that the 41. 23 represents the fixed point. by multiplying both sides of the equation by x and integrating. the position of the particle at time t. — :r*) for all values of x.. We consider the second of Kepler's laws. MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE Prove that when the acceleration is [CHAP. 23 Martu. : motions of the Planets could be very precisely described by means of the two laws — (i) Every planet describes an ellipse having the Sun at a to a Planet describes focus. Let P' be a point on the curve near to P. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. any fixed point on the curve. . J and evaluate the constant. ^""""Tl^ ^*^^^'' '^'^'''^"'''' nova. p the perpendicular from on the tangent at P. and evaluate the constant. which were made by Tycho Brahe.
in terms of r.yx) = 0. let is Radial and transverse components of velocity and Let a particle move in the plane of {x.  Hence the \ rate of description of this limit is area is the limit oi \q If therefore  or ^q t in and ^ps or \pv. we have (xy . In the motion discussed in Article 39 the ellipse is a central and the centre of the ellipse is the centre of force. acceleration." orbit. since this is xi/ — yx = h y. if a particle moves in a plane path. or xy — yx — 0. in the statement that the Planets the centre of force being in the Sun. drawn from or towards the origin. 6 be the polar coordinates of required to express. position at time t It 6 and their differential . conclude that. twice the rate of description of area. we write pv h is = h." and the path of the particle is a "central orbit. pv = and. constant." "centre of force. and therefore x^y X y' If follows that the direction of the acceleration is that of the radius vector. to be the origin of coordinates and draw the axes of in the plane of motion. we have (cf Article 22) . and the condition that the radius vector describes area uniformly is expressed by saying that h or pv is constant. of the triangle POP' J g Ac. Now pv we take X and y is the moment of the If therefore velocity about 0. to it from a fixed point describes area uniformly. it is in a and the direction of the field at any point is either Such a directly towards or directly away from the fixed point. so that the radius vector We drawn field of force. " field of force is described as the fixed point being the central.4043] the chord EQUABLE DESCRIPTION OF AREAS 3^ The area PP\ q the perpendicular from is to this chord. y) and its r. 43. Kepler's second law of planetary motion may be interpreted move in a central field of force.
2rd cos 6 + rd cos 6 . are the components parallel to the axes of x. We Then x. sin 6.40 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. Vi8md\v^co8 d =^y Solving these equations.r^^ gi^ ^^ we find . and 6 Fig. IL coefficients and acceleration with respect to t. = j^(rsm find ^2 e) we Vi = r. increase.2r^sin ^ r^'sin 6 . Va be the required components of velocity. Let have in /i» fi be the required components of acceleration. = rd. Let Vi. as in Fig. sin ^ = ^ = (r cos 6) = r cos ^. y y of the same Vi co^dv^^me = x = j^ (r cos 0) = rcos6r6 sin 0. 24. have therefore velocity. +/2 cos ^ = y = ^^ (r sin 6) = r sin 6 + Solving these equations.rO'cos /. = rsin e {rd cose. 24. the components of the velocity in the direction of the radius vector and at The senses are to be those in which r right angles to it. We like manner ^ /i cos e /.
44. Let r. relatively to either of these sets of axes. Hence —^f^. Acceleration in central orbit. 42.) centre of force 0.yfe may also write this equation f_^dp ^ dr' p^ . A point P describes a ciuve C relatively to axes through 0. we verify the formulae of Differential Calculus r^d =3cy 2.rS. 23 in The resolved part of the acceleration parallel to the normal at Pis /p. Fig. and let it be directed towards P. the perpendicular from on the tangent at P. Prove all that. Since the moment of the velocity about the origin is r. 45. Oy. p denote the radius vector OP drawn from the and the radius Art. and that any point dividing OP in a constant ratio describes. of curvature of the path at P. — yx =ps. (Cf. In a central orbit we have 3. a curve similar to C. Examples. But this resolved part of the acceleration is — P . describes a curve equal in respects to C. p. it is not the accelera radius vector tion with which the radius vector increases. Let / be the magnitude of the central acceleration at P. From this equation and the equation vp = h we may eliminate and obtain the equation Since p = r r~ . r '' p V.4345] It is ACCELERATION IN CENTRAL ORBIT 41 important to observe that the acceleration parallel to the is the resolved part along the radius vector of the acceleration relative to the frame Ox. 1. relatively to parallel axes through P.
Let /S' be described as a central orbit about a be the second focus. to the length of the diameter conjugate to the diameter through the point. major axis of this ellipse. for an P P polar of 0. Fig. II. P a Show that the central acceleration when a circle is described as central orbit about a point on the circumference is %l?a?\r^^ of the circle. the elliptic trajectories described have the same director circle. and P as one focus. 47. h focus S. Prove that the trajectory in question touches at $ an ellipse having C as centre. 3. be the point of contact of the other tangent to this trajectory drawn from T. Prove that all Let the tangent at P to one of the trajectories meet the director circle in and let Q. the central acceleration at any point is proportional to r/g^ where r is the radius vector OP. Show that. Examples. the acceleration is proportional to the radius vector. and q is the perpendicular from on the that. ellipse of semiaxes a. a being the radius spiral is x Show Show that the central acceleration its when an equiangular is described as a central orbit about 6. ellipse described as a central orbit about any point in its plane. Points move from a position P with a velocity V in different directions with an acceleration to a point C proportional to the distance. pole proportional to r~^. and that 1CT is the length of this T. 25. semilatus rectum. 41). Elliptic motion about a focus.] 4.42 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 46. [CHAP. [This ellipse is the envelope of the trajectories of points starting from with the given velocity and moving about C with the given central acceleration. e the I the eccentricity. . 5. L when the orbit is an ellipse described about the centre. In the same case show that the velocity at any point is proportional 2. first We consider now the Let an interpretation of the of Kepler's laws (Art.
. acceleration varies inversely as the square of the and. 2 ] Prove that in elliptic motion about a focus S the velocity at any point perpendicular and proportional to the radius vector from the other focus to the point TT. Now the acceleration. Prove that. and the other at right angles to the major axis. and the intensity of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from the Sun. a parabola v^=2fxlr. where SP produced meets a circle centre S and radius 2a. = CD^/ah. this circle is called the "circle of no 4. P is [From the formula velocity. and is = ^^/1. one at right angles to the radius vector SP. if we write iijr^ for it. and therefore each of these is = Mz = sJrr' j^r^ GD . ^ r . ellipse is Prove that the velocity v at any point of the given by the equation 4 3. . from . given by /= py h'rah CD' \brj iCDy (m = h^ a h r'l' r" b' Thus the distance r. and when an v^ = n (2/r + 1/a). The field is described as that of the which the Planets move Sun's gravitation. Prove that the velocity at P can be resolved into two constant components. >Si . = r Also since = CD''. pp =^h\ r^r'=2a. it is Prove also that when the conic hyperbola 2. /. 48. ^SPY=^^ STY\ we have rr' ¥ = al. (1 the acceleration is /x/r^ towards the focus. Accordingly Kepler's first and second laws of planetary motion may be interpreted in the statement that the field of force in is directed radially towards the Sun.4648] ELLIPTIC MOTION ABOUT A FOCUS 43 Let vectores diculars P be any point on the ellipse let r and r be the radii drawn from S and /Sf' to P let p and p be the perpenand S' on the tangent at P let C be the centre. Examples. and CD Then p the semidiameter conjugate to CP."] in Example 2. we have h^ = id. 1. if any conic is described as a central orbit about a focus.
a^ sin cos <^).triangle SFN SPJV. = y(</)esin<^). nt = <f)eam(f).44 5. II.1 . curvilinear area ASP=^ab A {(f> . <f} 5. Two points describe the same ellipse in the same periodic time. </>! <^ are their eccentric angles at any instant. Then curvilinear area ^*S'P= curvilinear area ^iVP. h is be the time from to P. SPN = ^ 6 sin <^ (ae . By putting <t> = 2n we is . then.ug\e Now and Hence Let t curvilinear area A NQ = sector ACQ. Let <f)y =lQCA in the figure. Prove that connected with e by the equation . ' ' „ $ = nt^2e sin nt approximately. as in Ex. arc of the ellipse. if e is small. find the periodic time. together from one end of the major axis one of them has an acceleration to a focus Sy and the other an acceleration to the centre C. that.e sin <f)). then (f)i<f)2=e sin (f)^. . starting 7. = (curvilinear area ANQ). Prove that. be the eccentric angle of P. cos J . and 0.a cos </>) . since ht twice the area described per unit of time. "mean motion" and is Thus « The quantity V/*/« is known as the 80 that the time in question is given by denoted by n. + cos^ • . = ab{(j) — e sin <^). =lASP^ the vectorial angle. ccosd' and 1 + . MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE The in which the ellipse is described periodic time ^ira^ 2irab is [CHAP. 26. Fig. if and . _ 6.triangle CQN triangle = \ {a^(f) . ^ = —. To find the time of describing any Draw the auxiliary circle AQA'.tna.
. xy—yx = 0. the origin. In regard to the problem Given the field of force to find the orbit we prove a The path of a particle moving in general theorem as follows: a central field of force is in a plane through the centre of force and the radius vector drawn from the centre of force to the particle 49. make with this line angles 6 6' and 6' such that r sin B _r' sin Inverse problem of central orbits. for the present. and the focal distances. — zy=^ const. the plane (x. We Art. by integration. : — — ^ describes equal areas in equal times. y'z yz zx — xz=0. Then at the initial instant z and i vanish.. along the radius vector. be satisfied by putting i and z not vanish. xy Hence. INVERSE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS 45 ellipses of latera recta I and V in different planes the accelerations to the focus are equal when the distances are equal. yz'yz = If xy — xy does as simultaneous equations to determine i and z. chosen as initial instant. Show that. 49] 8. let a plane be drawn the tangent to the path of the particle and the centre of through Let this be the plane (x. zx — xz — const. is moves in always zero. the tangents to the ellipses at the positions of the points meet the line of intersection of the planes in the same point. We may consider the equations xz — xz = Q. and that about a Two points describe common focus. and the particle . and let the centre of force be force. when the relative velocity of the points is along the line joining them. At any Since the acceleration is directed along the radius vector we have ^ X or =^=? y z' — zy—0. the case of rectilinear vanish initially. — yx= const. these equations can only Hence z equal to zero. instant. r and /. and the particle moves in a straight motion (see omit. the velocity is directed line. y). 54). The first two constants of integration vanish because z and z If the third also vanishes. y).48.
"ds^^Ts When / form is (1> a function of r. this equation „ becomes 2 (duV in 2A rf (3) \de)^'=w^h4i^which / is supposed to be expressed as a function of u Bv this equation we can express ^ as a function of u. 44. dv the angle between the tangent and the radius vector drawn from the origin. according in Art. this equation can be integrated in the ^v'==Ajfdv. and then by integration we can find the polar equation of the path. the tangential component is — / 7 dv . . and is directed towards the for 7. rate of description of area by the radius vector constant.is the cosine of origin. Now. Since xy — yx^ or the moment of the velocity. 36). always half the moment of the velocity about the origin.46 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE is is [CHAP. When the acceleration is of magnitude /. a c^stant. 42 that this rate. 60. where il is (2) to Art. field. II. v'd we have and we have also. We have therefore the equation dv ^dv ^^. the constant is . for we saw in Art. 2 =k _ h dv V^dd' Hence we may write ' ^ ^f^ dd A and equation (2) becomes If M is written for  . whether constant or not. by Ex. 43. Determination of central orbits in a given component of The tangential the acceleration of a particle dv describing any path can be expressed as ?. 7 (Art.
The the latus rectum as a focus. 48. the is an ellipse. the orbits that can be described with central accelefi/r^ ration equal to are included in the equation in which e = 1 + e cos (6 — e). and I is equal to h^ffM.4951] It is often DETEKMINATION OF CENTRAL ORBITS more convenient to eliminate 6. is where A We write ejl for A. ==a 1 say. or greater than f2a\^ ( — . and conic According to the results of Examples 1 and 2 in Art. When/=yL6t*2 equation (4) of Art. constant. To integrate this equation 1 we put then w satisfies the equation d^'w The complete primitive Art. 50 becomes 51. and € are arbitrary constants. possible orbits are conies having the origin is equal to 21 or 2h^lfjL. equal to. parabola or hyperbola according as the velocity is less at a distance r than. t Then the most general possible form for u u==j{l + ecos{d Hence all — e)}. 47 by differentiating with respect to A from equation (3) This process gives the equation Orbits described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance. j . and € are arbitrary constants.. w = A cos (0 — e). _+ d^u . where I is a. 38) of this equation is of the form (cf.
43. when /* is positive. A and «« that Then (2) the possible orbits are of the form h^=yL. When we have^2=^» u = A6 + B. 1. put it equal to t^. If / = fiu^ equation (4) of Art. If /= fir equation (3) of Art. (3) When all A^ < ^^ i _ ^^ is negative. otherwise it is a hyperbolic arbitrary constants. Additional Examples of the determination of central If orbits in given fields. pV From the equations which are obtained from the results of Art. u^A cos {ji6\a). as we see by choosing the constant ^ ^ u = A{ea). (1) When all A2>fi. 2. = ae**^ +be~ "^. put it equal to or tc . 6 equal to zero we have an equiangular dhi Deduce the equation _ f ~d6'''^'^~l^i from the equation ^ 5. / is any function of r. 50 gives dhi _ fi m^ There are three cases according as A2>^ =^ or </i.48 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 52. II. spiral. any circle described about the centre is a possible orbit. To find all the orbits which can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance. having the centre of force as centre. where B are =0 the orbit is a circle. deduce the results .n\ Then the possible orbits are of the form u=A cosh {n6\a) Putting a or 4. If so as to write the above spiral. [CHAP. 1 ^ is positive. 50 gives Hence prove that. all the possible orbits are ellipses 3.
Now and axis describe a conic with focus *S'G' to touch P 2^ at P. PG and OPU^ PK. Newton's investigation* of the orbit described by a point which moves from a given position P. 1. and draw UG parallel to PT. PQ^ one parabola. Hence 6^ is the foot of the normal. as focus describe a conic touching for focal chord of curvature at P. we have when SP>\PU. can be described. Lemma. We give here a version of 53. Draw U be the middle point of PQ. SG>SP'. 3. S Fig. or hyperbola according as or SP>. SP UO and GK at right angles to SP meeting in and respectively. * PT at P. 37. Lib. K Then by similar triangles UPG. PK is the Since SG : aS'P= eccentricity. when SP<\PU. in a given direction PT. Prop. L. and the centre of curvature. and only one. 27. <\PU. 17. Q in PS produced ^ so that SP' 4> Then by Ex. 53] LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE 49 Newton^ s investigation. Let =. 4 With S having in Art. the conic is determinate and unique. Thus the conic is an ellipse. with a given velocity V. or>4AS'P. Given a point P. PQ M. or hyperbola according as P$<. Sect. and has an acceleration directed towards a point S and varying inversely as the square of the distance from S. PQ is the chord of curvature of the path in direction PS. PG at right angles to PT. is semilatus rectum. a tangent P7^. GPK we have OP PU=PU PG = PG : : : Whence PG^ 0P=^^. Since a semicircle on PU a^a diameter passes through G. SG<SP. a focus S^ and the focal chord of curvature conic. velocity Now Find let a point move from P with V in direction PT and have an acceleration /^/(distance)^ towards 5. parabola. SG = SP. when SP=^PU. and Principia. and this conic is an ellipse. =. 4 .52.
acceleration of P = pr^z: where h is twice the rate at which OP describes areas about 0. N move in a straight line OA. The orbit in question is an ellipse if iPQ < SP i. draw tion NP at right angles to OA. so that.e. Let a point when de On OA its as diameter scribe a circle.e. if P<^ ^' = . 47 that the starting with velocity V at two moving points have at starting the same position.50 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. 28. starting from A. Thus Sh'a^ON iV= Hh^a^ON OP' {2a. the point N will have the acceleration named. To that resolve in direction : AO multiply by ON OP=OP: acceleration of ON/OP h^ amd observe 1 OA. if ^ » it is an hyperbola if JPQ > SP line i. Motion in a straight with an acceleration to a point in the line varying inversely as the square of the distance. P. II. circle with acceleration towards 0. and acceleration. 4 of Art.0Ny a ON' . they therefore describe the same orbit. the mo of the point P on the We Fig. and let G be and a consider its radius. and circle. 46 we have . shall show that. and their accelerations are always the same when their distances from S are the same. By Ex. it is a parabola if ^PQ = SP i. centre. Let a second point describe this conic as a central orbit about S. if F=^ > p . 54. velocity.e. if P an describes the. It follows from Art.
5356] LAW OF INVERSE SQUARE 51 Hence if we take the point to start at a distance 2a from and put h^ = fia. iV^ will have an acceleration fijx^ N towards 0. t Thus the coordinate x and the time terms of a parameter 55. we shall have x Since the radius vector = — fl/o)^. i:2_^^_(7^ where we find C is an arbitrary constant . The Moon describes a nearly circular orbit about the Earth. are both expressed in 0. 1. we have C= . be arrived at by integrating the equation x= — —^ with the conditions that. putting ^=2acos2^ in this. and the acceleration of a free body in this field is directed towards the centre of the Earth. putting ^=0. observing that x diminishes as increases. Field of the Earth^s gravitation.e. i. ai triangle OOP thus t=j(20 + sin2e). a^=2aj x=0. 56. when t=0. in a period of 4—2 .~JtOb Thus ^2= /2_1\ '^Xx a) t Hence. Examples. and let t be the time of going from (9)2 A to Then ^„ ht OP^ (2a cos ^ = twice the curvilinear area AOP = twice the sector AGP + twice the = 2al9 + a2sin2(9. describes areas uniformly we can terms of the time. is It is consonant with observations of around the Earth falling bodies to state that the field of force central. deduce the result in the text. then when ON^x. . we have jaaV CiX J By 2. The same results may. of course. OF utilise the figure to express the position in K and Let angle AOP=d. Multiplying both sides by x and integrating. Find the time of falling to 0.
A 2 X? . surface 3. about 27 i days. .52 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. and the period 32'1 in footsecond units. a being the Earth's radiua and (Jijaf being neglected. For bodies in the neighbourhood of the Earth there is a correction of gravity due to height above the Earth's surface. II. when expressed is equal to ^w?rr approximately. and that the intensity of this field. depending upon the Earth's rotation. varies inversely as the square of the distance. the acceleration due to gravity at a height h above the surface is that here mentioned. If ^ is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface. which start from a point P with velocity F. and the distance of the Moon from the Earth is about 60 times the radius of the Now the central acceleration of a particle describing a Earth. 57. There are other corrections of gravity at least as important as The most important. variations of gravity due to altitude being taken into. The envelope of the elliptic orbits described by particles. Show if that a gun at the sea level can command Ijn^ of the Earth's the greatest height to which it can send a shot is 1/w of the Earth's radius. Examples. which has S and P as foci. and move with an acceleration directed towards a point ^S* and varying inversely as the square of the distance. account. circular orbit of radius R uniformly in time T is ^^ and. and a the Earth's radius. Prove that the time in which a particle falls to the Earth's surface from a height A isf — j (l+gJ approximately. 1. like that of the field around the Sun. 27^ days. this motion is nearly uniform. if the radius is is 60 times the Earth's radius (3980 miles). will occupy us in Chapter X. it. is an ellipse. this acceleration. Thus the Moon moves around the if it Earth in nearly the same way as in the ratio 1 : were under gravity diminished (60)^ From this result we conclude that the field of force around the Earth extends to the Moon. and touches any of the trajectories at the point where the line drawn from P to the second focus of the trajectory meets 2.
Prove that the velocity of C is proportional to the intercept which BC makes on the line through A at right angles to AC. and that the time until they arrive at this position 8. and a second straight line BC. Prove that the time in which it is possible to cross a road of breadth c. V is their relative velocity. . 6. the distance AB when A crosses the path of B. A straight line AB turns with uniform angular velocity about a point A. is (. fU a/ 2. 1. is au/ V^. Show that. in a straight line. Two lines containing AB is least where c is A and B move with uniform velocities w. retaining a constant length. A F the arc described by acceleration of P a. v in two straight an angle a prove that the time from the position in which to that in which it is double its least value is points . their distance is av/ V. u and v are the resolved parts of F parallel and perpendicular to the direction of a. .r^)}{R% where 7. Three horses in a field are at a certain moment at the angular points 3. Show that the three 4. particle moves in the plane of two rectangular axes so that the resolved parts of its velocity parallel to the axes are proportional to its distances measured in fixed senses from two other rectangular lines in the Prove that its path is an equiangular spiral or a rectangular plane. when they are nearest together. A hyperbola. moves so that C is always in a certain straight line through A. Their motion relatively to a person driving along a road is in direction round the sides of the triangle (in the same sense) and in magnitude equal to the velocity of the carriage. of an equilateral triangle. is a. Prove that the angular velocity of OP is _ ^ {to (R^ + a2 r2) + move uniformly co' {R^ a^\. moves uniformly in a circle point radius at double the distance from the centre . moving with velocity F. and a point P moves so that CP is always equal to a and turns with angular velocity to in the plane of the circle described by C. between a stream of omnibuses of breadth 6. following at intervals a.53 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. R is parallel and proportional RQ. point in the same tangent at P equal to from the beginning of the motion show that the Q is PR is a to . points Two any time the distance between them At in straight lines in the same plane. with the least uniform velocity.+ ). A point C describes a circle of radius r with angular velocity ©' about the centre 0.^2 2uv cos a). _ Jdcu sin a/(w2 4. R is the length of OP. 5. horses are moving along concurrent lines. also of constant length.
10. and p rvlp^ V being the velocity of the particle. for a subsequent interval ^2 the acceleration is fix. the radius of curvature of its path. A x particle moves in the axis origin. fixed parabola. Prove that it will come to rest at distance A a»J{a^h'^) in time rrc^j^fi^ and will oscillate between these distances. v\ and move with Prove that the length of the course ^ivv'){vfv'f)l{JfY. A particle tx the particle is at the origin . If they meet as soon as possible 14. one with uniform velocity. prove that («2N/fi) tan {tiJp) tauh = 1. and always in the same direction form a triangle ABC the velocities are u along BC^ v along CA^ w along AB. is equal to ^/r^ . an interval moves along the axis ^. «2) particular instant. Three tangents to the path of a particle whose acceleration is constant 17. at distance r. 11. . n^./'.54 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. Two particles start simultaneously lines. starting from rest at x=a\ for from the beginning of the motion the acceleration is ^lx. II. Prove that . particle moves in a straight line under a force tending to a fixed point in the line which. %th seconds after any 12. Two is boats start off to race with velocities accelerations/. and starts from rest at distance a + ^{a^ . 13. BC ^CA + V — U AB 1 — w ^ =0.b^). and at the end of this interval 16. from the same point and move along two straight acceleration. v. the result being a dead heat. after a time t a second body projected vertically with velocity {<v).b^fi/{r^a). Prove that when a particle moves along a plane curve the velocity of 9. x with acceleration Show that the time ixjx^ towards the of arriving at a distance is \/(S)HV^\/63}15. the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on the direction of motion is r its distance from the origin. starting from rest at x=a. A body is projected vertically upwards is with velocity v v' . the other with uniform Prove that the line joining the particles at any time touches a A particle path and describes arcs «i. prove that moves with uniform acceleration along the tangent to its *3 ^^ *^he %.
and if the axis of the trunnions of the cannon is inclined to the horizontal at an angle )3. . an elevation a. Ftan/3. the shot will strike the target at a distance tan a sin /3 on one side. with equal ease at any height from the ground between k^ and Jc^ show that he must estimate his position within a length . The platform moves horizontally in the plane of the particle's motion. 55 its is projected from a gun at any angle of from the point of projection will appear to descend past a vertical target with uniform velocity. so as to keep the particle 20. From a fort and a gun was 6.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 18. 24. Prove that when a shot elevation. ''{v/('J)V('4')). horizontal range 72. 19. ^ of projection is is projected from a point A with the least velocity as to pass through a point show that the velocity at . Show that to strike the buoy the elevation should 25. cos^i sin i A rings. a buoy was observed at a depression i below the horizon. Prove that the angular velocity of a projectile about the focus of path varies inversely as its distance from the focus. Prove that the elevation must be tan~^ —— . c?. must be Fsin of view of the telescope. placed in parallel vertical planes with their highest points in a horizontal straight line at a height h above the point of projection. but the shot was observed to strike the water at a depression i'. Show that the . is the range on the horizontal and h the greatest height the ball If a is the requisite elevation of a cannon for a mark on a target at a 22. particle is projected from a platform with velocity Fand elevation the platform is a telescope fixed at elevation a. the shot as seen ^. A heavy particle V so B B AB heavy particle is projected from a point A so as to pass through B show that the least velocity with which this is possible is v/(2(7^)cos^a. A On always in the centre of the field original velocity of the telescope tion g cot a. of diameter particle is to be projected so as just to pass through three equal at distances a apart. fired at be where cos sin {B + i) _ cos2^ sin ^ ' ' ' cos a sin (a \. where AB=l and makes an angle a with the vertical.i') 26. and that the highest point of the path is at a height ^cos*^a above A. A another point . and ^tana (1 — cos/3) below the mark aimed at. where 2^ attains. where 2/3 is the angle which 23./3) cosec a. makes with the vertical. and its accelera(a A cricketer in the long field has to judge a catch which he can secure 21.
the time of flight varies as '^CB. and C any given point on the line joining them. where I) is the point in which the trajectory meets the vertical through C. of the circumscribed and inscribed circles of the polygon. .b) : ija. are two given points. if the elevation of the point of the path most distant from the inclined inclination plane is y. A . [CHAP. and that the time of y. Show that. so long as the height does not exceed A(l+a/6). such that 2^2 tan = ^3 tan y. B. prove that. and that for heights h and 2A these maximum horizontal velocities are in the ratio . 8in(/3~y). passing from one to the other is . and ^2 the time from that 31. that. prove are the radii that the range on the plane is 2^{B^5li^r^ + 8r^)IR. A man strike a ball over the net so that standing at a distance a from a net of height h wishes to it may fall to the ground within a distance Prove that the square of the maximum which should be imparted to the ball increases in velocity harmonic progression as the height at which the ball is struck increases 6(< a) on horizontal the other side of the net. A particle is projected with velocity V at any elevation. ball travelling round a circle of radius a with speed v throws a from his hand at a height h above the ground. vertical to B. 33. that the least possible If A and 30. 34. for different positions of the vertical plane of motion. Fis given by V^ = v^+gy(a^+h^)h}. then tan a f. if their inclinations to the horizontal are ^ and then ^47=0. A paiticle is /3 projected with elevation a from a point on a plane of in a vertical plane containing a line of Prove greatest slope. the greatest projection of the range on a horizontal line perpendicular to the line of greatest slope is heavy particle starts. line is In any trajectory between two points A. a. in the diflferent trajectories possible under gravity B between A and B.66 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 27. in arithmetic progression. II.tan ^ = 2 tan y. the intercept on a vertical through a point C on AB between C and the trajectory is ^gtit2.J(a 29. from a point on a horizontal table so as to pass the four upper corners of a regular polygon of an even number of through and r If sides which stands in a vertical plane with one side on the table. and that the greatest is ^B^{R^r^)/{r{2r^E% height of the particle above the polygon A particle is projected R 28. it A man so that value of Show alights at the centre of the circle. with a relative velocity F. 32. from a point in a plane of inclination a. greater than the least positive value of cos4 show that its path will cut two planes through the point of projection at right angles. with a velocity u at an inclination y to the horizontal. that.F/^. where ti the time from A to the vertical through C.
v are through the point of projection after a time 7. Prove that after an interval of time t they form a triangle 39. if tangents are drawn to their paths from any point in the vertical line through the point of projection. . 37. show that the plane of the triangle will pass 2 uv sin (8 — a) ^ where u. Show where >/(2^A) is inclination a to placed on a fort situated on a hill side of that the area commanded by it is 47rA(A + c^cosa)sec3a. the points of contact will be simultaneous positions of the particles. Two inclined planes intersect in a horizontal line and are inclined to the horizontal at angles a and ^.sin /3 cos (a +/3)}. V2> the foci of their paths lie in a straight line if % sin202i33) I sin2(^3^i) . /Sg. Particles are projected from the same point with equal velocities 41. Two heavy particles are projected from a point with equal velocities. the muzzle. distant a from the intersection. 42. under gravity. their directions of projection being in the same vertical plane. and T^ show that paths: T tT\t'T' is are the times taken to reach the highest points of the independent of the directions of projection.f{r^4rh) from the point of projection. and move under gravity. and d the perpendicular hill side. A particle is projected from a point in the former. sin20i^2) _Q^ Vi^ Vi^ V2^ Three particles are projected simultaneously from a given point in given directions. show that the velocity of projection /3/v/ is J{2ga) sin {sin a . Prove that at elevations /3i. A gun is the horizon. 40.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 57 35. is is If the velocity v at any point of the path of a projectile under gravity 36. t. prove that the vertices of their paths are on an ellipse. suddenly diminished by onehalf. Three particles are projected from the same point in the same 38. so as to strike the latter at right angles. Show that the furthest are at a distance points of the mountain which can be reached by the shot (measured in a straight line) ry. of area proportional to t^. prove that the focus of the new trajectory nearer to the projectile by the distance f v^/^. ^ the initial elevations of these two particles. /Ssvertical plane with velocities i?i. distance of the gun from the . t' are the times taken by the particles to reach the other point where their paths intersect. If of their they are all equally elastic and impinge on a vertical wall the vertices subsequent paths also lie on an ellipse. If the directions of projection of two of them are in the same vertical plane. A number of particles are projected simultaneously from a point. prove that.velocity of the shot. the initial velocities and a. and that the curvature of the is path quadrupled. is fired with velocity ^/{2gh) from the top of a mountain the form of a hemisphere of radius r. A shot which is in 43.
Prove that. 51. II. towards which the ball may be directly projected lie within a circle of radius the ball is elevation must F2 sin 47. its radius must not be less than [2a{a + Jia^+h^)}]K eff'ect of a wind on the motion of a projectile is in a horizontal direction.62) I {g sin (<9i + 62)}. iv^/tpgf and occurs when sin ^ .velocity being constant. must it Prove that the part of the plane commanded the muzzle./w. w being the vertical component of v. for a constant velocity of i^rojection and different directions of projection. Prove that. the locus of the point of meeting is a parabola. its paths before entering and after leaving the tube differ by ^2 times the length of the tube. A gun on which plane it is pointed. if all the wateris to fall into the basin. lie in a given plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle a. A man standing on the edge of a cliff throws a stone with given velocity w. is real. at h{>aga^lv^\ and a shot is fired with velocity v in the vertical plane Prove that the distance commanded by the to that of the wall. the jet being at a height h above the centre of a circular basin. and Show that the latera recta of to pass out again at the other end of the tube. after an interval r he throws another stone from the same spot with given velocity v at an angle ^n6 with the line of discharge of the first stone and in the same plane. 50.58 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 44. 48. if the sole / A particle is projected so as to enter in the direction of its length a 49. is an ellipse of eccentricity sin a. the Prove that the points on the wall lie between ^i and 62. At a horizontal distance a from a gun there is a wall of height 46. and that. (^1 . mounted at a given spot so as to command the horizontal Its mounting is such that the direction. the sum of the inclinations of the directions of projection must be constant. the locus of points in a to produce an acceleration horizontal plane which can just be reached with a given velocity v of projection is an ellipse of eccentricity //V(/^+5'^) and area nv*jj{f^+g^)/g^. at a given inclination to the horizon. and show that the maximum value of r for different values of 6 is = 2. smooth straight tube of small bore fixed at an angle of 45° to the horizon. jet in Water issues from a fountain such a manner that the velocity of emission in a direction making an angle B with the vertical is JigacosecB). if two heavy particles projected in the same vertical plane at the same instant from two given points with the same velocity meet. in a plane perpendicular to the edge of the cliff. When It is required to throw a projected in the vertical plane at right angles to the wall. Prove that. Find r so that the stones may strike each other. F ball from a given point with a given velocity 80 as to strike a vertical wall above a horizontal line on the wall. right angles gun on the other side of the wall is provided that this expression 46. is [CHAP. in which stands.
from that of the outer.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 59 52. Two particles describe concentric and coaxial ellipses about common centre with accelerations which are equal at equal distances. which tends a force varying as the distance. prove that there are two directions 59. A particle P /x(7P from the centre C. If the acceleration of a particle is directed to a point S and varies inversely as the square of the distance. prove .cp(i^)*(i+^y where 2a is the transverse axis. and the particles start in opposite directions from corresponding Prove that the line joining them is of extremities of the transverse axes. arcs described in equal times. From all points on the circumference of a circle. . /i oflf. point. in which it can be projected from a point P with given velocity so as to pass through a point Q. Prove also that the angle between one of the directions of projection and PQ is the same as the angle between the other and PS. a point Y is taken in that the rate at which P and Y separate is describes a rectangular hyperbola with an acceleration CP so that CP CT=a^. particles are projected towards a point on the circumference with velocities varying as their distances from the Prove that at any instant the particles lie on a circle. Particles are projected from points on a sphere of radius a with acceleration to the centre equal to grja Prove that the part of the surface on which they fall is the smaller of the two segments into which the sphere is divided by a small circle velocity slig^) at distance r. and that the velocity of arrival at Q is the same for both. constant length. and each particle has an acceleration to equal to Prove that all the tangents to the path of the inner cut (distance). to the centre of 55. centre. with velocities proportional to their distances from 0. Two particles are projected in parallel directions from two points in 53. 56. Prove that the times which elapse in the two possible cases before the body reaches the major axis are to one another as 2 1. 54. : 58. Two particles describe the same ellipse in the same time as a central Prove that the point of intersection of their directions orbit about the centre. h. sum of the axes of one ellipse being equal to the difference of the axes of the the the other. A body is describing an ellipse of eccentricity ^ under a force to the and when it is at one end of the latus rectum the centre of force is suddenly transferred to the foot of the corresponding directrix. and turns with uniform angular velocity. v. and move with an of radius 57. of motion describes a concentric ellipse as a central orbit about the centre. a straight line passing through a point 0.
e the eccentricity. to the from a point distant r from the origin. II. whose velocity is inversely proportional to the abscissa of P. V from a point where the distance is R. and particle describes T the periodic time. prove that the direction of motion at any point meets the directrix in a point. prove that the rate at which areas are described about the centre is inversely proportional to the distance from the focus. the angle of projection { a rectangular hyperbola is coseci 69. 2b about a focus. and having an acceleration n/r^ origin. and at any point of the and to vary as the Prove that the new orbit is an distance. and that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an indefinitely great number of equidistant instants of time is a{l+^e^).2tiR)lfM}. ellipse having double contact with the old orbit and entirely within it. A the line prove that the total one point to another is in the direction of the pole of the chord joining the points. V Prove that the periodic time of a particle projected with velocity 62. its magnitude being unaltered. and a second particle describes the same ellipse in the same time with uniform angular velocity about the same focus. Q. oflf by the major axis. orbit the acceleration begins to be directed to the centre about a focus. particle describes being the eccentricity. where e is the eccentricity. 68. 66. is is greatest e when the angle described by the first coa~^{\{le^)^/e. joining the focus to conic about a focus . When an hyperbola is described as a central orbit about a focus. particle describes ellipse A an . [CHAP. is 27r /2 _ V^\^ fi ' y/(x\r 63. V^( V^B^ . A an ellipse as a central orbit about a focus. The particles start together from the farther apse. ellipse ) Prove that the greatest radial velocity of a particle describing^n '^ about a focus is where 2a 64. by a is particle projected with velocity if Prove that the central orbit described with acceleration /^/(distance)^. Prove that the average distance of the particle from the focus for an indefinitely great number of instants corresponding to equal differences of vectorial angle is 6. A angular an elliptic orbit about a focus prove particle describes as the at any point about the other focus varies inversely velocity . that the the normal at the point cut square of the part of particle describes any from velocity acquired in moving 61. When a parabola is described as a central orbit about a focus. P 67. Prove that the angle which the line joining the particles subtends at the focus particle 65.60 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 60. is the major axis. A an ellipse of axes 2a.
the law of the acceleration being unaltered. Prove also that is the other focus neglected the angular velocity about constant. particle is describing a circle of radius c as point distant c/^d from the centre. approximately given by the equations r =a (1 . and proceeds to describe a parabola. At the end of this time the centre of force is transferred without A altering its intensity to the other focus II. eccentricities of the which. orbit. no such point unless the eccentricity under a force to a point A particle is describing a circle S on the circumference. ellipse is ^v/2. the point in an elliptic orbit about a focus at the centre of force were transferred to the empty focus. At a point P on the circle the force changes to the inverse square. its magnitude being unaltered. and SQTR is a parallelogram. when possible. where 2a is the major axis and ^ir/n if e^ is the periodic time. QT is drawn perpendicular to the tangent at P. Show that the middle point of TR is the centre of the ellipse. Prove that there is greater than ^/5 — 2. Find the position of the particle. is 6 = nt + 2e sin nt + ^e'^ sin 2nt. 71. when it arrives at any point P. but the magnitude of the acceleration does not change Prove that the major axis of the new elliptic orbit is discontinuously. the axis of the parabola is at Prove that the eccentricity of the right angles to the axis of the ellipse. When the line joining this point to the circle the law of the particle subtends a right angle at the centre of the acceleration suddenly changes. the force suddenly becomes repulsive find the position and magnitude of the axes of the new . T and show that interval if the centre of force were transferred back to S after the second the particle would begin to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {Zee^)/{l + e). and the an eUipse. . where e is the eccentricity of the first ellipse. 61 A particle describing an ellipse about a focus has its velocity suddenly doubled and turned through a right angle. and thereafter it varies inversely as the square of the distance. tending to a focus S. 74. 16c/5(v/3 and that its eccentricity A an Prove that the focal radius and vectorial angle of a particle describing the nearer apse are ellipse of small eccentricity e at time t after passing 76. and the particle moves for a second interval under the action of the force to H. if Find. On FS produced a point Q is particle proceeds to describe taken so that SQ = §SP. a central orbit about a 75. T A body is moving in a given hyperbola under the action of a force 72. the orbit is would be a parabola. particle describes an ellipse about a focus S starting from the further end of the major axis.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 70. is ^19/8. and show that the difference of the squares of the new and old orbits is proportional to >S'P. 73. and arrives at the end of the minor axis in time T.e cos nt+^e^^e^ cos 2nt).
Prove that in the (7^181. the comet's orbit being parabolic. ^2 are the times in which the comets move from one of these points to the other. 7^2)2 : {T.^2)^ = ( ^ ^) ' ^^^^® ^ i^ ^ y®^^' The times of passage of a particle between two points distant d apart two parabolic orbits that can be described about the same focus with the same law of acceleration are 7\. + r2dy : (r. supposed circular. and two similar expressions.SE)amiQSR. about a focus. + T. and 2a is the major axis of the orbit. Prove that the constant. V(4a2r2)/r(2a2r2)2. and the distances of the points from the focus are ri. earth's orbit for show that the comet will remain within the ^(l + 2/n)V(l. II. r2.62 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. where A Show is that the ellipticity may be the area of the triangle FQRy and A' is the area of a triangle whose sides are 2^{SQ. and the angles between them. and if ^j. Prove that the particle will arrive at after a time * OA^ a— sin a cos a s/(2u) sin^ a . cut off by a focal chord. SQ. where a is the radius of the circle.sin 2<f)).y={r. T2. Prove that the time of describing the smaller part of an elliptic orbit 77. where 2a sin (f) is the chord of the auxiliary circle that corresponds to the focal chord. 78. supposed circular. A circle if ference . found from the equation 6a = aA'. S are Three focal radii SP. 82. is ^{a^/fx)(2<i> . in the same two points. prove that {h + ti)^ + (^1 80. SR of an elliptic orbit about a focus determined. 84. If the perihelion distance of a comet is th of the radius of the earth's orbit. 79. A particle is projected from A with velocity ^{^fiyOA^ and moves with an acceleration /i/(distance)5 directed to 0. + r^ + dr. A particle describes a circle as a central orbit about a point 0. .1/91) years. If the parabolic orbits of two comets intersect the orbit of the earth. the direction of projection making an angle a with OA. sum of the velocities at any two points coUinear with is is described as a central orbit about a on the circumpoint the tangent to the circle meets the diameter through produced in Rj prove that the velocity of R is proportional to 83.
circle as a central orbit Prove that the acceleration with which a particle P can describe a about a point S is inversely proportional to SP^ FF'^. 92. Prove that the acceleration at F is proportional to GG^jRF^^ CG being drawn parallel to 93. on the describes a parabola as a central orbit about a point particle axis. to the other is . BF to meet the tangent at F in G. S' are taken such that Prove that. a particle describes an ellipse as a central orbit about any the sum of the reciprocals of the velocities at the extremities of any diameter is independent of the position of the point and varies as the periodic time. Prove that. then 1/Fe/F' V is constant. where S is the focus corresponding to JT.b^) A particle describes an ellipse of latus rectum 21 about the point 89. . major axis prove that the acceleration at F varies as FL^jOF^ where L is the point of intersection of OF and the diameter conjugate to that passing . /ir/(r2 and when + 6^)3 towards a velocity >J{^ijl)/c^ in a given at a certain point it begins to have an acceleration point S distant a from the line. and if F= at A. If points are taken on the orbit such that the squares of their distances from S are in arithmetic progression. Prove that the accelerations with which the same circle can be described as a central orbit about two points B. and if is the foot of the perpendicular from F on the major axis. prove that the acceleration is /i{l/OP}l/Ojo}3. there are two positions of the point for which the subsequent orbit is a circle. Any conic whose centre is C is described as a central orbit about any point R. 91. being any point on the circle and SG being a straight line drawn from S parallel to to meet the tangent : F BF at Fin 88. if F and are the velocities of the a AB V any point on the portion of the circle concave to S\ when the circle described about S and S' respectively.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 85. OP^. When point in its plane. 87. SF. and that the two circles cut at an angle a> given by c2 sin ^ 0) = 2a V(c2 . 63 A particle describes point. Prove that the acceleration is e^h?'XFI{lSM^). S in its plane in the same periodic time are in the ratio JSG^ RF^.S'A=SB\S'B=e. p being with the curve . G. X through F.«^ . the corresponding velocities are in harmonic progression. In any diameter SA'. A particle is moving with uniform it is straight line. where the axis meets a directrix. prove also that the time the other point of intersection of A F OF of passing from one extremity of the ordinate through §n/(2//x). particle at is circle as a central orbit about an eccentric of the circle points S. 86. if €^>{a^ + b^). where FF' is the chord through S. An ellipse is described as a central orbit about a point on the 90.
The curve initial 103. it strikes it at a distance Ul^\{^^ .Vh) from the origin. an equiangular spiral whose pole is is described as a central orbit about any point prove that the acceleration at P is inversely proportional to OP. Show that the acceleration must vary inversely as the cube of the ordinate of the conjugate diameter. particle moves with an acceleration \iy~^ towards the axis x^ starting from the point (0. Prove that any conic can be described by a particle with an always at right angles to the transverse axis and varying inversely as the cube of the distance from it. prove that the particle will proceed to describe an hyperbola having the axes of the ellipse as asymptotes. particle describes a cycloid with an acceleration always perpendicular to the base.64 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE 94. with ^n r=a+ 6^ is described as a central orbit about the origin distance a and initial velocity F in a direction making an angle with the initial radius vector. If aS'. in this case. Find the formula for the acceleration. [CHAP. If a particle is describing an ellipse in this manner. V > 98. 97. SP^ sin3<^. A Show and pole angle ^ that a particle can describe an equiangular spiral of angle a with an acceleration iijSP^ whose direction makes a constant with the tangent to the spiral provided that S tana=^(nl)tanj3. prove that its magnitude is proportional to the inverse fourth power of the radius of curvature at each point of the curve. 102. where is the angle which the radius vector SP makes with the tangent at P. y. 101. Prove that the acceleration with which the curve is r=a sin n6 can be described as a central orbit about the origin proportional to 104 Prove that the curve r a ( 1 + ^ ^6 cos ^) is a central orbit about the origin for acceleration proportional to r~*f. Prove that the acceleration towards the centre of the fixed circle with which a particle can describe an epicycloid is proportional to r/p*.Jar ~^ = . where r is the radius vector and p the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent. 99. 100. and that. A particle describes an ellipse with acceleration A parallel to a diameter. latus rectum 4o. and at one end of one acceleration of the equiconjugate diameters the acceleration is suddenly changed in sense without being altered in magnitude. Prove that the time tending of moving from the vertex to a point distant y from the axis is proportional A to y+Ay^/««95. particle describes a parabola. h) with velocities U^ parallel to the axes of x. II. with an acceleration to a point on the axis distant c from the vertex. 96. Prove that it will not strike the axis x unless /a F^P.
If inverse curves with respect to can be described as central orbits about with accelerations ^3/ A2 /. Prove that a body ejected from the Earth with velocity exceeding 111. described as a central orbit about a point 0. p the perpendicular on the tangent. 5 . about the origin with areal velocity ^h. 106. prove that the central acceleration is 2^2 (52« _ (^2n) ^ ^2«2/(^2n _ 52«)2 . prove that 2 sin2<^» radii vectores. the from on the tangent varies inversely is 107. A series of particles are describing the same curve as a central orbit about a point with an acceleration whose tangential component is h^/p^(f)' (p). particle is describing a central orbit about a point S. Prove that the least velocity with which a body could be projected from the North Pole so as to meet the Earth's surface at the Equator is nearly 4i miles per second. Another particle moves so that at any instant its distance (r) from >S' is equal to that of first particle. r r' is the angle r or If and / are corresponding makes with the tangent. L. + /3/' A'2 ' where h and (f> h' are constants. and ^h being the from 109. : A the 108. If any curve is velocity of the foot of the perpendicular as the chord of curvature through 0. the line density p at any subsequent time t is given by (i){p) + ht = ct){ppo/p). Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 65 If the curve r^" + b^'^\2a'^r^ cos n6 = is described as a central orbit 105. seven miles per second will not in general return to the Earth. and 110. Show that the second particle has an acceleration to S less than that of the first particle by h^ cos^ ajr^. /'. / is the acceleration and ^h the areal velocity in a central orbit satisfies about a point 0. M. and h twice the rate at which the radius vector describes areas. and that the angle of elevation is 22^°. and the angular velocity of its radius vector is less than that of the first particle in the ratio sin a 1. 112. prove that the angular acceleration a about equation the where u is the reciprocal of the distance from 0. and may leavev the solar system. if the line density at any time is constant and =po. rate of description of areas about 0.
is the Earth's radius and g is the value of gravity at its surface. in a straight line intersecting the line and velocity A K V is K making with line is Prove that. II. a length it an angle a. 113. particle is projected from the Earth's surface so as to describe a Prove that. originally very great. if the direction of projection makes an angle 30° with the vertical.2 Vv cos a + v^ + 2gE) of the line of particles will fall upon the sphere. the time of flight is A K/(3a/^)(tanV6 + v/i). whose centre moves with velocity i. if the distance of the sphere from the •  V( ^^ . g being the force per unit . where a 114. stream of particles originally moving in a straight line with under the influence of a gravitating sphere of radius R. at the surface of the sphere.66 MOTION OF A FREE PARTICLE IN A FIELD OF FORCE [CHAP. portion of an ellipse whose axis major is f of the Earth's radius.
supported even by a steel bar. Consider a heavy body sup58. The body may. of the altitude of the place above. the body little*. it. area one square inch. and the man has a sensation of muscular effort. the stretching of the spring. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE." his muscles are If the body is supported by a man carrythrown into a state of strain. the spring is stretched if . ing the stretching of the steel bar. in London). the bar is stretched a and the stretching of the bar can be observed by means of is suitable instruments. We should say that he exerted "force.g. of sectional is supporting a load of 1 ton. may therefore use this balance. 5—2 . depth below. for example. or its : . so far as operation is performed observation can tell. The number so determined is independent of the latitude and longitude of the place where the and it is independent also. and. We * A steel bar. rest upon a horizontal plane. ported near the Earth's surface. The stretching of a spring supporting a body can be measured when the weight of the body.CHAPTER HI. at any is not too great. the mean surface of the Earth. and extended by the fraction 000007 of its length. definite place on the Earth's surface {e. as determined by the common . When the body is supported by a spring. it may be supported by a rope or a spiral In either case we should say that there was a force acting upon it and counteracting the force of the Earth's field. hanging vertically. which is then the plane surface of some other body. The force of gravity. or spring. is proportional to the weight so determined. approximately. analogous to The operation of weighing a body in a common balance determines a certain quantity the number of pounds or grammes which the body weighs.
suflficiently • is An supposed to be proactual spring would heavy weight. of the body. A more general definition will be given in Chapter YI. We denote the mass of a body by the letter m. The force which is suggested by the above considerations is the a heavy body*. and it would not measure that weight t This force is sometimes called the " weight " of the body. be damaged by a correctly. In the particular case of a body supported upon a horizontal plane. (ii) to the local value of g. or any suitable constant For a body multiple of it. and then the stretchiDg to determine the weight a spring balance.63 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. may be determined by adding the masses of the several each being determined by weighing in a common balance or parts. " " by some equivalent method. This quantity. will be called the mass of the body. or Sun. . by led to measure the force of the Earth's gravity as proportional to factors. a battleship.g. This definition of mass does not the mass cover such cases as the mass of the Earth. is different in different latitudes and at different altitudes. to the local value of g (the acceleration of a "force" is based upon the muscular primitive notion of The measure of sensations of a man supporting a heavy body. Measure of force." The weight of body is said to be "weighed by the body. This stretching of an ideal spring supporting is always proportional (i) to the weight. however great the weight may be. or Moon. The force of the Earth's gravity acting upon a bodyf is measured by the product of the number of units of mass in the mass of the body and the number of units of acceleration in the local value of g. determined by the spring balance. III. We denote this force by W. the The spring is "ideal" in as much as the extension portional to the weight. which cannot be weighed in a common balance. as determined stretching We are thus a common balance. measure of the action which one body exerts upon another. and write W^mg. It is found to be proportional free falling body). Force may be defined as a certain 59. each of these The operation of weighing a body in a common balance teaches us how to assign to any body of sufficiently small bulk a definite constant quantity: the number of pounds or grammes which the body weighs. e.
5860]
MEASURE OF FORCE
69
force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to
an action of the body having the horizontal plane
surface
;
for part of its
this force is called the pressure of the plane
upon the
supported body.
In the case of a body supported by a rope or
spring, the force counteracting the force of the Earth's gravity is traced to an action of the rope or spring; this force is called the The force of the Earth's gravity tension of the rope or spring.
acting upon a body is, in like manner, traced to a supposed action of the Earth upon the body.
In this
last case
is
we know that the
produce
in the
effect of
the action,
if
not
;
counteracted,
to
body a
certain acceleration
and the measure of the force is the product, as explained above, of the mass of the body and the acceleration which it produces.
In like manner, we may say that the effect of any force on a in the body, when not counteracted by other forces, is to produce body an acceleration, and the measure of the force is the product
of the measures of the
acts
upon a body of mass m, and we have the formula
mass and the acceleration. If a force it produces in it an acceleration
P
/,
60.
Units of mass and force.
In the
It is
units, the
gramme
is
the unit of mass.
system" of the onethousandth
"c.g.s.
part of the
mass of a certain lump of platinum known as the "Kilogramme des Archives," made by Borda, and kept in Paris.
It is the force which, is called the "dyne." a body of mass one gramme, produces in it an acceleacting upon ration of one centimetre per second per second.
The
unit of force
In the "footpoundsecond system," the pound is the unit of mass. It is the mass of a certain lump of platinum kept in the is called the Royal Exchequer in London. The unit of force " It is the force which, acting upon a body of mass one
poundal."
pound, produces in
second.
it
an acceleration of one foot per second per
In the "British engineers' system" the unit of force is the force of the Earth's gravity acting in London upon a body which
weighs a pound, when weighed in a common balance.
It is called
70
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
a "force of one pound."
The
unit of mass
is
the mass of a body
which weighs 322 pounds
in a
common
balance.
The mass
is
of
a body which weighs one pound in a
common
balance
^^
In this system, as in the others, the unit force, units of mass. in it an acceleration of one acting upon the unit mass, produces unit of length (one foot) per second per second.
In any system of units, force
is
mass, one dimension in length, and
a quantity of one dimension in — 2 dimensions in time. The
dimension symbol
is
MLT^^.
Vectorial character of force. In the cases which we 61. have examined so far, either there has been a single force acting " upon a body, which for definiteness we thought of as a particle," or else the forces acting upon the body have exactly counteracted
each other.
acceleration.
In the former case, the body moves with a certain In the latter case, it remains at rest. In the case
of a heavy body supported by the tension of a cord, we may regard the Earth's gravity as producing in it the acceleration g down
wards, and the tension of the cord as producing in it the acceleraIf we do this we are able to maintain in both tion g upwards.
cases the measure of force as the product of the
mass and the
acceleration that
is
produced by the
force.
Consider a body supported upon a plane horizontal surface. Let the surface be gradually tilted so that the plane becomes an inclined plane. It is found that the body will begin to slide*
down the plane when the plane
is tilted at an angle which exceeds a certain limiting angle. If the surfaces in contact are We highly polished the angle at which sliding begins is small.
might imagine the surfaces to be so smooth that sliding would
take place at any inclination however small. The acceleration with which the body slides down the plane is the resultant of the acceleration g in the direction of the downward vertical and some other acceleration,/. Let a be the inclination of the plane; then the acceleration g can be resolved into two components,
•
The body should have a
flat base.
A
solid sphere, or
any body with a curved
avoid for the present
surface, placed
on an inclined plane,
will generally roll.
We
the complication of rolling.
60, 61]
viz.:
COMPONENT FORCES AND RESULTANT FORCE
in
71
^sina
the direction
of a
line
of slope
drawn down
the plane, and gcosa at right angles to the plane. See Fig. 29. If the accelera
/ is directed at right angles to the plane its amount must be g cos a, in the sense opposite to one of the two components of g, as shown in Fig. 29, since the
tion
gsina
X
Fig. 29.
^o
cos
a
body moves on the plane, and so has no
.
acceleration at right angles to the plane. In this case, the acceleration with which the
the plane is g sin a is of amount mg cos
*,
a,
body slides down and the pressure of the plane on the body the mass of the body being m. This state
be
of things cannot be exactly realised in practice, but it can approximately realised when the surfaces are very smooth.
down the plane
resisted
In any actual case the acceleration with which the body slides is less than g sin a, and the motion is said to be
by
"friction."
For the present we
effect
shall
suppose that the
is
surfaces are so
smooth that the
of friction
negligible.
We
is
have learnt that the
the same
effect of the Earth's gravity on the body as that of two forces: one m^sin a producing acceleraline of
tion
down the
slope,
and the other
mg cos a
producing
acceleration at right angles to the plane. This result leads us to the conclusion that force, as a mathematical quantity, is to be regarded as a vector quantity, equivalent
to
"component
is
forces" in
the
same way
as
any other vector
quantity In particular,
equivalent to
components.
we
be regarded as what (Art. 17), the point at which the vector
see that force acting on a particle ought to we have called a "vector localized at a point"
is
localized being the
The line, drawn through the point, by position of the particle. which the vector is determined, is the "line of action" of the
force.
The
line of action of the force
are the direction
and the sense of the and sense of the acceleration which the
force
force
produces.
According to this statement any forces acting on a particle are equivalent to a single force, to be determined from the separate forces by the rules for the composition of vectors. This single
force
is
called the "resultant" of the forces acting on the particle.
*
This result was used by Galileo for the determination of
g.
72
62.
1.
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
[CHAP.
III.
Examples^.
Find the time of descent of a particle down an inclined tube when friction is neglected and the particle starts from rest at a given point of
the tube.
2. Prove that the time of descent down all chords of a vertical circle, at its lowest point, starting at the highest point of the circle, or terminated
is
the same.
3.
*
Prove that the line of quickest descent from a point ^ to a curve, a vertical plane containing A, is the line from A to the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its highest point and to touch the curve. Prove also that the line of quickest descent from a curve
which
is in
to a point A is the line to A from the point of contact with the curve of a circle described to have A as its lowest point and to touch the curve.
4. Prove that each of the lines of quickest descent in Ex. 3 bisects the angle between the vertical and the normal to the curve at the point where Hence show that the line of quickest descent from one it meets the curve.
given curve to another in the same vertical plane bisects the angle between the normal at either end and the vertical.
6.
and moving on the plane without
63.
Prove that a particle projected in any manner on an inclined plane, friction, describes a parabola.
Definitions of
momentum and
kinetic reaction.
The momentum
V, is
of a particle of
mass m, moving with a velocity
a vector, localized in the line of the velocity, of which the sense is the same as that of the velocity, and the magnitude is the
product
7nv.
The kinetic reaction of a particle of mass m, moving with an acceleration /, is a vector, localized in the line of the acceleration, of which the sense is the same as that of the acceleration, and
the magnitude
is
the product mf.
The kinetic reaction of a particle is the same quantity as the rate of change of momentum of the particle per unit of time.
64.
Equations of motion.
kinetic
of force in Articles 58
— 61 leads to the following statement —
:
The
discussion of the nature
The
reaction
of a particle has
the
same magnitude,
direction
and
sense as the resultant force acting on the particle.
is
is to be regarded as a general principle which the facts stated in the previous discussion and suggested by other facts of like nature. In other words it is an induction
This statement
The
results in
Examples 2 and 3 were noted by
Galileo.
6265]
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
73
from experience. From the nature of the case it is not capable of mathematical proof The truth of it is only to be tested by the
comparison of results deduced from it with results of experiment. The statement is expressed analytically by certain equations,
which are called the "equations of motion" of the
are obtained
in
particle. They by equating the resolved part of the kinetic reaction
any direction
to the
sum
of the resolved parts of the forces
in that direction.
be the components parallel to the axes of x, y, z Let X, F, of the resultant force acting on the particle, or, what comes to the same thing, the sums of the resolved parts of the forces in the
directions of these axes.
X, y, z
Z
Let
m
be the mass of the
particle,
and
of
the coordinates of
its position at
time
t.
The equations
motion are
mx — X,
We
have had
equations of motion.
my =
F,
mz =
Z.
are really
several examples already of equations which
For example, the equations
^•=0,
'y
= g
in Art. 33 are really equations of motion.
As a further example,
force.
If
/
;
is
the intensity of the
consider the motion of a particle in a central field of field, and the centre of force is the origin,
and
if
the force
the origin
is an attraction, it is of amount and the equations of motion are
t
mf and
is
directed towards
mx= — mf 
,
my= mf, mz=  mf 
,
where r denotes distance fi'om the origin. Just as in Art. 49, these equations show that the motion takes place in a fixed plane. By means of the result of
Art. 43 the equations of motion, expressed in terms of polar coordinates in the plane, can be written
m(f rS^) =mf
m^j^
(r^)=0.
Equations of Motion in simple cases.
Motion on a smooth guiding curve under gravity. 65. The motion of a small ring on a very smooth wire, or of a small
spherical shot in a very smooth tube, can be discussed by treating the ring or shot as a particle constrained to describe a given curve, and supposing that the particle is subject not only to the
force of the field, but also to a force— the pressure of the curveWe take directed along the normal at any point of the curve.
74
FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE
is
[chap.
III.
the case where the curve
the
field is
a plane curve in a vertical plane, and We draw the that of the Earth's gravity at a place.
axis of y vertically upwards, and denote by s the arc of the curve measured from some fixed point of it up to the position of the
particle at the instant ^, and in the direction of increase of
by
s.
v
We
curve by R, and suppose that its If the pressure really acts of curvature. will be negative. found for
the velocity of the particle denote the pressure of the sense is towards the centre
outwards, the
value
R
Fig. 30.
In the lefthand figure (Fig. 30) are shown the components of the kinetic reaction along the tangent and normal. In the righthand figuie are shown the forces acting on the particleThe equations of motion, obtained by resolving the forces along
the tangent and normal, are dv
mv
T
= — mg sm
.
.
<f>,
m = R mg cos
v'^
r,
<j>.
Now
sin
</)
=
^
,
and the
first
of these equations becomes
dv
dv
This equation can be integrated in the form
^mv^
where
(^0, 2/o)
= — mgy {G,
C
is
a constant.
of the curve.
Let Vq be the velocity at some point Then C = ^mv^^ + mgy^, and the equation
can be written
J mv'
 i wV = mg (y^  y).
This equation can be partially interpreted in the statement that the velocity of a particle moving under gravity without
65, 66]
friction is
MOTION ON A SMOOTH CURVE
it
75
always the same when This result was found by Galileo.
comes back
to the
same
level.
If the particle starts with an assigned velocity from a given point of the curve, this equation determines the velocity in any
position
at
;
the equation ni—
= R— mg cos
(f>
determines the pressure
any point of the curve.
66.
1.
is a circle, the angle ^ of Fig. 30 is the angle which the radius of the circle drawn from the centre to the particle makes with the
Examples. When the curve
vertical
drawn downwards.
Prove that,
if
position in which <^=a, the velocity v in
y2
= ^ga (cos ^
any position  cos
a),
the particle starts from rest in a is given by the equation
where a
is
the radius of the
circle.
Find the pressure in any position. Find the greatest angle through which a person can oscillate in a swing, the ropes of which can support a tension equal to twice the person's
2.
weight.
3.
When
cycloid
under gravity, the vertex
a particle moves on a smooth of the
cycloid being at the lowest point, the equation of motion, by resolution along the
tangent in direction QP^
may be 5= — ^sin^,
written
s
to P,
being the arc measured from the vertex and 6 the angle which the normal OP
vertical.
makes with the
Now, by a known
property of the cycloid, s = 4asin^, where a is the radius of the generating circle, and thus the above equation becomes
Fig. 31.
4a
showing that the motion in
s is
Thus the time taken
is
to fall to the vertex
simple harmonic with period 27r ^Ji^a/g). from any point on the curve is
is tt
independent of the startingpoint, and in fact
[This property
^{a/g).
known
as the "Isochronism of the cycloid."]
4. Show that the time a train, if unresisted, takes to pass through a tunnel under a river in the form of an arc of an inverted cycloid of length 2s and height h cut off' by a horizontal line is
.J
/f2gh\
>J2g/i''''^"\v^+2ghJ'
where v
is
the velocity with which the train enters and leaves the tunnel.
acting over one In the British engineers' system the unit of work is the "footpound. It is equal to the work done in the latitude of . by the number of units of force in the measure of the force.76 67. The product so obtained is the work done.  y) : can be expressed in words in the statement The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal the work done by the force of gravity in that displacement. work done by the unit force in a displacement of one unit of The unit of kinetic energy is length in the direction of the force. with of length. The quantity obtained the number of units of mass in the mass of a by multiplying half the square of the number of units of velocity in particle by the velocity of the particle is called the "kinetic energy" of the Kinetic energy and work. mg.\ mvo' = mg {y. to Units of energy and work. We resolve the displacement into and perpendicular to the line of action of the components The component parallel to this line (taken in the sense of force. The equation imi. this sign. C." footpoundsecondsystem the unit of work is the It is the work done by a force of one poundal foot. and the distance through which the particle descends. In the case of a particle moving under gravity. the work done by a force of one dyne acting over one centimetre. system of units the unit of work is called the erg. particle. y^y. the force) has a certain magnitude.S. which is a number of units parallel We multiply this number. and a certain sign. the kinetic energy acquired by a free body on which one unit of work is done. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. The unit of work is the 68. the work done by the force of gravity is the product of the force. The "work done" by a constant is a quantity which is force acting on a particle defined in terms of the force and the dis placement of the particle." It is the work done by a "force of one pound" acting over one foot. In the It is In the "footpoundal.G.2 . III.
70. on the body are the force of gravity mg vertically downacting wards. Power.6770] KINETIC ENERGY AND in raising WORK 77 London pound through one foot a body which weighs one balance. the friction just prevents In this case ^ sin a =/. If 550 is one horse power. Consider a body sliding down an inclined Let a be the inclination of the plane. or /=^sini. and the friction motion. Power is a quantity having the dimensions a more extended discussion see Chapter VI." The body will not slide down the plane unless the inclination a exceeds a certain angle i. depend upon the materials of the bodies in contact and the degree of polish of the surfaces. and a third force which is of magnitude m/and acts up the lines of slope. body We and the pressure. and is equal to the product of ^ and the pressure. " This force is called the friction. Hence the ratio of the friction to the pressure When a = when motion is just about write /^ for tan i. MUT~^. /a) tani or is called the "coefficient of friction. Let /be the acceleration up the lines of slope which must be compounded with the acceleration ^sina down the lines of slope in order that the The forces resultant may be the actual acceleration of the body. the friction acts in the senseopposite to that of the velocity. in a common In any system of units. is An agent which does one unit of work per unit of time said to be footpounds of work are done per second the power working up to a unit of power. For Friction. when motion takes place." The angle of friction. The acceleration of plane. the ratio of the This ratio (equal to to the pressure remains constant. Whether the body moves up or down the plane. . 69. so that when the to take place is tan i." The angle i is called the "angle of friction. the body down the lines of slope is less than ^sina. i. The dimension symbol is MUT~'^. In the same case the pressure = mg cos i. the pressure mg cos a at right angles to the plane. and — 2 dimensions in time. = mg sin i. work and kinetic energy are quantities of 1 dimension in mass. 2 dimensions in length. It is friction found that. is about to slide the friction is equal to the product of //. and the coefficient of friction.
where = mg cos a. going at full speed. the friction acts line. Hence the particle moves down the line of slope with acceleration — g sin a fi cos a. 2. Examples. find the velocity with which the A particle returns to the point of projection. slipped from an express train. there is is friction displacement less the increment of kinetic energy in any than the work done by gravity in that dis 72.78 71. and the acceleration is equal to ^ sin a line.F. The force by which the and kept in motion against the resistance called the "pull of the engine. particle is projected with a given velocity up a line of slope of a rough iuclined plane. fimg This last result is motion of a train on train is set in motion is level rails. + /x cos a is When the body slides on a horizontal plane the pressure equal to mg vertically upwards. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. Prove that the . Find the height above the point of projection of the point at which it comes to rest. We shall take the plane an angle a to the horizontal. 1. A I carriage is distance from a station.R. generally taken to be applicable to the The resistance to the motion is taken to be proportional to the mass. III. at a and comes to rest ^at the station. Draw the sliding on it as a particle moving The equations of motion are axis of X down a line of slope. Also F is the friction and R the pressure. Supposing the inclination of the plane to be greater than the angle of friction. We shall consider this force When placement. When down the down the the particle moves up a line of slope. Motion on a rough plane. and treat the body down a line of slope. to be inclined at mx = mg sin a ." further in Chapter VIII. we have F=fiR. and the friction is equal to in the sense opposite to that of the velocity.
Let T be the tension of the chain. Chapter VI). and the resistance of the road and the brake power per unit mass are equal to the components of gravity down uniform inclines of 1 in 71 and 1 in ^ respectively. and the pull of the engine being constant. Atwood. . * = T — m'g. The upwards. m be the masses of the bodies." We shall assume that the tension of the chain is the same throughout.m) beyond 79 the station. downwards. Prove that the extra work required to take a train from one station to I stop at the next at a distance in an interval t is gf^ k I \Sin'^ n)\m'^ 71^ kj] times the work required to run through without stopping. 3. 1784. 32. Let m. If m has ascended and m' descended. rest of the train will then be at a distance M and m being the masses of the whole train and of the carriage slipped. where the incline of the road is 1 in w. on m' are m'g vertically downwards. 73. Then x is also the distance through which m' has ascended at time t. is tions of motion afforded Another simple example of equaby the problem of two bodies attached to a string or chain which passes over a vertical pulley. and that the mass of the chain is negligible in comparison with the masses of the bodies (see Fig. and T is mx vertically The kinetic reaction of vertically upwards. The forces acting on m are mg vertically downwards. x the distance through which m has descended at time t. Atwood's machine^. This arrangement constitutes in principle the instrument called "At wood's machine. x is negative. and T The kinetic reaction of m' is m"x vertically of motion of m' is The equation therefore m'x G. The equation of motion of m is therefore m mx = mg — T. forces acting vertically upwards.7173] ATWOODS MACHINE Mll{M. Cambridge. This amounts to assuming that there is no friction between the pulley and the chain. A treatise on the rectilinear motion and rotation of bodies.
" massive body. By adding the lefthand. members of these equations. without friction. 1. the mass m consists mass m' and a small additional piece resting lightly upon it." suspended by a bar which can turn about a horizontal axis. treated as a particle. The work done by Prove that the tension of the chain is 2mm' . In Atwood's machine the smaller mass m' of a rigid portion of if after passing through the ring it falls a distance ^ in the time ^2 ^.Q' The value of g is sometimes determined by means of Atwood's Various corrections have to be applied to the result. and also the righthand.<fm\m^ is rigid. is gravity mgx—m'gx. Assuming that the increment of kinetic energy in any displacement is equal to the work done by gravity. machine. called An ordinary pendulum consists of a a "simple circular pendulum. called the "bob. and the bar thin. with an acceleration ^ m {vi . (See Chapter VIII. and the ascends. in which the friction and the masses of the chain and pulley are neglected. if m starts from a height h above the ring. 3. then _ m+m' ^~2(mm') A^' the friction and the masses of the pulley and chain being neglected. we find (m + m!) x = (m — It mf)g. When the bob is small and massive.80 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CBAP.) 74. Simple circular pendulum executing small oscilla tions.'^. is ^mx^ + ^m'a. As m descends it passes through a ring by which the additional Prove that. deduce the acceleration of either body. 2. A particle constrained to describe a circle in a vertical is plane. and the most important correction is on account of the mass of the pulley. approximates to that of a simple circular pendulum. Generally the pulley turns with the motion of the chain. . III. The kinetic energy of the two bodies in the case of the simple Atwood's machine. Examples. and piece is lifted oflf. the motion of the bob. 75. lighter follows that the heavier body descends.
This equation shows that the motion in 6 is simple harmonic motion of period 27r \/{llg). (Cf. and comes to rest after an interval JttVC^/^) from the equilibrium The motion is then reversed. the time of a complete oscillation of such a pendulum is two seconds. may We write down one equation mid = — of motion in the same way as in Art. the acceleration along the tangent to the circle is 16 (Ex.7376] SMALL OSCILLATIONS OF PENDULUM denote the radius of the circle 81 the radius of We by I. approximately. of equilibrium. then the length of the seconds pendukim there is 99*4] 3 centimetres." pendulum which beats seconds is known as a "seconds' pendulum"." the period 2'ir*^(llg) is the time of a "complete oscillation. a position slightly different from the position falls to this position in the time i7r>^{l/g). 1. When the circle which passes through the particle makes an angle 6 with the vertical as in Fig. 38. 2. rest is ir^JQ^jg). throughout the motion. 37). 1 of Art. L. balloon ascends with constant acceleration and reaches a height of Show that a pendulum clock carried with it will gain at the rate of 27*8 seconds per hour. A 900 ft. The length of the seconds' pendulum at a place is A given by the equation Pendulum experiments mining the value of 76. M. Prove that. sin 6 may be replaced by 6. to passes through and proceeds move away from it on the other side until its displacement is numerically equal to that at starting. if in London ^=981*17. and we have the approximate equation If 6 is very small le^^gO. in one minute. the units being the centimetre and the second. 6 . If it from rest. Art.) The pendulum swings from starts side to side of the vertical. in it it. Examples. This is known as the time of a "beat. afford the most exact method of deter g. 65 in the form mg sin 6. 33. The time from rest to position.
drawn in a definite sense. A particle may be constrained to describe a circle by means of a thread of constant length attached to the centre of the circle." and the generator. and determine the position of the bob at the instant when the fibre becomes slack. and not too far from the lowest generator. we must have cos = 99 where v' is known. or it may be inside a smooth 77. The bob of a simple circular is projected horizontally from Find limits between which V must lie in order that the suspending fibre may become slack. horizontal. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. prove that the square root of the true length of the seconds' pendulum is the harmonic mean between ^li and V^24. III. whose plane i^ Find the period of its small oscillations about the lowest point. This will happen if the pressure particle may leave the curve. More generally a particle may be constrained to describe a curve in a vertical plane by being inside a cylinder. Onesided constraint. I is the length of the pendulum. vanish. such pendulum gains which loses n seconds in an hour. according to Art. by the R=mwhere (j) { mg cos <f>. If ^1 is the length of a slightly defective seconds' pendulum which n seconds in an hour. n being small. Examples. its equilibrium position with a velocity .82 3. of which the normal section is the curve and the generators are circular cylinder. and not too far from the highest In either case the constraint is "onesided. pendulum V. makes with the To make <b R . horizontal. on a smooth circular wire of radius a. This equation determines the point at which the particle leaves the curve. 1. The particle then describes a parabola under gravity vanishes. 78. and I2 the length of another. is the angle which the tangent. Or it may be outside such a cylinder. attracted to the with a horizontal force of intensity Show that the time of a beat is where 5. Now equation the pressure is given. The bob of a cliflF pendulum which is hung close to the face of a cliff is /. until it strikes the curve again. A bead slides inclined at an angle a to the vertical. 65.
Let 2a be the vertical angle of the cone and I the length of the string. and a particle is projected along it in a vertical plane. radius of the circle. may describe 4. horizontally along the tangent of the circle. attached to a fixed point on the vertical straight line which passes through the centre of the circle. if the velocity is the highest point. Prove that. and horizontally along Neither the kinetic reaction nor the forces have any components in the third of these directions. CONICAL PENDULUM 83 cylinder whose section is a parabola is placed with its generators normal section vertical. of the string. the cone We form ^^8* ^^• the equations of motion by resolving vertically. I 6—2 . Conical pendulum. tension and the directed T along the generator of towards the fixed point. 79. horizontal. particle is ^ ^—. A particle can be constrained to describe a horizontal circle uniformly by the tension of a string or thread. particle of the towards its The are forces acting on the of gravity. Prove that if it leaves the parabola anywhere it does so at the point of projection. and leaves the circle when the thread makes an angle /3 with the vertical drawn upwards. t — sin a directed alonsf the ° circle radius centre. and the vertex upwards. the particle leaves the circle makes with the vertical an angle cos~i §. particle is constrained to describe a circle by means of an inextensible thread. whose axis is horizontal. = mg — I cos a. so as to move round inside the cylinder.7679] 2. Zsin The radius of the circle is Let v be the velocity of the particle and T the tension of the The kinetic reaction of the string. In any position of the particle the string lies along a generator of a right circular cone having its vertex at the fixed point. the force mg vertically dov^^nwards. a. and we therefore have the two equations sin a — T sm a. when that due to falling from the radius through it Find the the complete least velocity of projection in order that the particle circle. the axis of a 3. Prove that when it strikes the circle again the A thread makes an angle 3/3 with the same vertical. A A smooth hollow particle is projected from the lowest point of a vertical section of a circular cylinder.
^^0 = I Xdt. train rounds a curve. components of velocity at the instant ^o.my^ = Jto Ydt. which is the change of momentum of the particle during the interval. which the radius of curvature is p. By • eliminating T we find the equation I sin^ a ^ cosa This equation determines the velocity with which the circle can be described when I and a are given. h being the distance between the rails. Zo the components of velocity at the instant ^i. III. Examples. I are given. The quantities in the righthand membeis of the same equations are the components of another vector which is called the "impulse of the force" acting on the in particle during the interval. of the 2. Theory of Momentum.The result is the mil . Prove also that. Impulse. The point of suspension of a simple pendulum of length I is carried round in a horizontal circle of radius c with uniform angular velocity w. the inclination a of the suspending thread to the vertical is given by the equation to^{c + l sin a) =g tan a.yi. Let x^. takes the place of the tension of the string. The equations can be expressed . raz^ mZo=  'Zdt Jto The quantities in the lefthand members of these equations are the components of a vector.84 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. of v. the inclination can be inwards towards circle. with respect to both members of each of these equations be integS t over an interval from 4 to ^i. when the motion is steady. Let the equations of motion of a particle be written in the forms mx = X. with Prove that to prevent the train from leaving the metals the velocity outer rail ought to be raised a height equal to hv^jpg above the inner. or the angle a when V and 80. Prove that. the axis of the if (gl(o^)^<l^c^. in which the pressure directed at right angles to the plane of the rails. mz= Z. A may be treated as a conical pendulum. JU myi . and let my = F. 1. 81. and ^o. ii be Vo.] [The train rails.
Then the equations are — mi^o = X. 83. which Constancy of momentum. Z. difficult to of motion to We may allow for the possibility of sudden changes of motion by supposing that the force acting on a particle becomes very great during a very short interval of time. Let t' denote the instant at which the sudden change of motion takes place. Y." of action of the resultant force momentum at right angles to a fixed line. in such a way that the impulse of the force has a finite limit when the interval is diminished indefinitely. Changes of motion of is bodies sometimes take place so rapidly that it observe the gradual transition from one state another. in the direction of this line is constant. ct'+^ We write Lt Xdt = X. to be " t\ at impulse exerted on the particle at the instant the sudden change of motion takes place. localized at the position of the particle. The equations of motion of the form mx = j X = X. components parallel to the axes are X. acting on the the resolved part of the .7983] IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM statement: 85 particle words in the — The change of momentum of a in any interval is equal to the impulse of the force acting on the particle during the interval. mii — mzo = Z. t' and = f + Jt. myi — myo = miPj F.o= J to ^dt. and rf+ir diminished indefinitely. tQ members have T is finite limits vfhen = — ^t. 82. We the " of which the define the vector. Sudden changes of motion. In the equations of the type mil the righthand ti — ma. Lt Zdt = Z. Lt rf+ir Ydt=Y. : may and also be written (mx) this equation may be expressed in words in the statement "The rate of increase of the momentum of a particle in any to the sum of the resolved parts in that direction direction is — equal of all the forces which act If the line particle is upon the particle.
The theorem of Art. 84. z) is any point on the line. with a certain sign.86 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. Otherwise the sign is — . its : The rule of signs is that when the axis of z and the direction of F' are related like the directions of translation and rotation in an ordinary righthanded screw the sign is +. If {x. These equations express the conditions that the projections on the axes of a segment of the line are proportional to the resolved parts of the force parallel to the axes. the moment is independent of the point of application. Now in its the force be supposed to be applied at that point line of action at which the common perpendicular to the let line of action and the is is axis of z meets the line of action. So long as the magnitude. * perpendicular. We had an example of this in the parabolic motion of pro jectiles (Art. and consider a force at the point (x' y\ z'). 33). z') draw a plane. of force. as before. we have the equations* x and therefore we have —x __y — y' ^z — z' xYyX== x'Yy'X. about an components parallel to the axes. Then the force F' at right angles to this Hence the moment length of the common the force at right angles to the axis. line of action and sense of the force remain the same. Then the moment of F about the axis of z is defined to be the same as the moment of F' about P. 22 gives for the moment of F about the axis of z the expression x'Yy'X. of the perpendicular and the resolved part of common The rule of signs is. and F' at right angles to this axis. F. y. If the velocity of a particle undergoes a sudden change. Resolve the force F into components Z parallel to the axis of z. III. the resolved part of the momentum in any direction at right angles to the direction of the resultant impulse is unaltered. . Z applied . Let F be the force. the rule of the righthanded screw. the product. cutting the axis of z in the point P. Moment axis. Through the point {x\ y'. momentum and kinetic reaction Let the axis be the axis of z. and X.
Resolve the vector into com ponents parallel to L and at The moright angles to L. my= F. are respectively {x. Constancy of moment of momentum. at time z are the coordinates of the position of the particle The moments of the kinetic reaction of the particle about the axes are m {yz — zy). zXxZ. X. 35. or is the resultant of given vectors. pendicular to L and U. z)y yZzY. xYyX. if the vector is resolved any components. The rule of signs is the rule of the righthanded screw. and let X. and let the vector be localized — in a line L'. F. y. Let z be the coordinates at time ^ of a particle which is subject to any forces. with sign. mz = Z. Z). of the re solved part of the vector at right angles to L. resultant force parallel to the axes. where x. The moments of the momentum of a particle are about the axes m {yz — zy). m {zx — xz). the moment of the resultant about any axis of the component is the sum moments of the components. m {xy — yx). applied at a point x. m (zx — xz). . y. y. y. m {xy — yx\ 85. and the length of the common perFig. ment of the vector about the axis L is a certain the product. From what precedes into it is clear that. Z be the components of the We have the equations mx = X. t. z. or be localized at a point in L' and have for direction the direction of L'. The moments about the axes of of a force {X. F.8385] MOMENT OF LOCALIZED VECTOR 87 This result leads to a general definition of the moment of a localized vector about an axis: Let the axis be a line L to which a certain sense is assigned.
" If the line of action of the resultant force acting on the particle meets a fixed axis.2+ . and both members of the We have results. of which the arc measured from a fixed point to a variable point is denoted by s. as the particle describes the polygon. the second of these equations Multiply both members of first by y. Work done by a variable Let a partible move along a curved path... .[ Fn. s„.. We have had an example of this in central of the orbits.. the moment of momentum of the particle about the axis is constant. suppose this tangent to be sense in which the curve is described. If the velocity of a particle moment momentum undergoes a sudden change the about any line which meets. its 5^(/c were F^ and the angle which its line of action makes magnitude with the side were 6^. having all its vertices on the curve." same axis of all The equation may also be written ^ [m {xy yx)]=xYyX. would be Fi .. and subtract the by a?. §2 cos 0. 6 the angle which the line of action of at any point of the curve makes with the tangent to the curve at the point. 5i cos di + F^.. F We drawn in the Let the arc between any two points A and of the curve be replaced by a polygon of n sides. s^. or is parallel to. Sn COS 0^. . and now the lefthand member may be read as "The rate of increase of the moment of momentum of the particle about the axis. m {xy — yx) — xY — yX. or is parallel to such an axis. Energy. the line of the resultant impulse is unaltered. s^. at any point on the side = 1. the work done by the force. 2. force. and let i^ be a force acting on the particle.88 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. and. w). Work and 86. III. If the force were the same at all points of any B F of these sides. . This equation " The moment expressed in words in the statement of the kinetic reaction of a particle about an axis may be : — is the moments about the equal to the sum of the forces acting on the particle.
and 3^ » • • • would be ex pressed in terms of It is that the result. if it could be obtained. Then at any point on the curve we could express X. this expression the same as the lineintegral taken along the curve from the point A to the point B. In this expression Z. ^dy ydz corresponding to the points . y. . and therefore of terms of 6. Th ^^ and thus we should have to integrate an expression of the form dx l{^fe^fe'%h' between two fixed values of 6. This expression represents the work done by the force upon the particle in the displacement from ^ to B along the curve. For the actual calculation of it would in general be necessary to know how to express the coordinates of a point of the curve in terms of some parameter. " this expression tends to a limit.8587] WORK DONE BY A FORCE the 89 When number nnitely. 6. . z). A and B. would be depend in general upon the curve. F. and we could also express 7^ . called the lineintegral of the of F'' along the arc of the curve between tangential component and the lengths of of sides of the polygon is increased indeall of them are diminished indefinitely. Calculation of work. say 0. the work the force in terms of the position of the particle. It is clear from the form of the expression that the work done by the resultant of any forces acting on a particle is equal to the sum of the works done by the separate forces. the points A and B. z. Z in terms of oo. It is expressed by F cos dds. 7^ . /: A If X. that is to say it would different for different <)urves joining the same two points. 6. Y. and also to know the values of the components of 87. clear . Z are the is components of the force at any point {oo. y.
which is a function of the distance r from a fixed point. curve Another example in which the work is independent of the is afforded by a constant force as we saw in Art. 6 the angle which the direction of the field at any point makes with the tangent to the curve any point. the sense of the tangent being that in which the curve would be described by a particle starting from A. This function The is result the work is equal function. we denote by In the case of a particle moving the intensity of the field at / be an arbitrary fixed point in the field. III. the forces are said to be conservative. so that then the work done is m [<^(^o). When the work is independent of the path. be the indefinite integral of f{r).<^(n)] It depends on Vq and rj. we the integral may choose arbitrarily a fixed point A. Potential function. to a point P. but is the same for any two curves joining the points A and B. is a function of the coordinates of P. and the work done is where r^ and <\) i\ Now let (r) are the distances of A and B from the fixed point. A at the point. 88. so that a work " function exists. Work function. s the arc of a curve measured from A. a central attractive force. The work done by the force of the field in the displacement of a . mf{r). and take l(Xdx+Ydy + Zdz) along any path drawn from the point J. 67. When the work is independent of the path.90 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE In the case where the force is [CHAP. Let in a field of force." 89. the is tangential component of the force — mf{r) 7 . The value of the work function at any point to the work done by the forces upon the particle as the particle moves along any path from the chosen fixed point to the P A assigned point P.
ds. cos 6 . It is the lineintegral of the tangential component of the force of the field (estimated by its intensity) taken along any curve joining the chosen point A to the variable point P. mV(P) Then V(P) at the point P. so that the direction of the vector (X. this expression is equal to the value of the work function at we write it P . is or mV. and the function defined to be the value of the potential function " " at is called the potential V a point. of which the intensity at a is distance r from the centre of force at an infinite ^ .8790] WOEK FUNCTION AND POTENTIAL 91 particle of mass a variable point m along the curve from P is m /. In the case of a uniform field of intensity g. we take the is point A distance. mZ be the components of the force of a field acting on a particle of mass m. Z) is the intensity of the field. A f . we may draw field. Z) is the direction of the field. . supposed conservative. Y. Forces derived fi'om a potential. the axis z in the direction opposite to that of the — gz. Y. Let V be the potential of the field. cos Q ds. the function is increased by a constant. In the case of a central field. replace the point by any other fixed point P. which is the value potential of the integral •JB we A I. . The If potential function vanishes at the point A. mY. Let mX. and the resultant of {X. I the chosen point A to If the force of the field is conservative. potential at a point is then the 90. The potential function then given by the equation or the potential at any point is the product of the constant and the reciprocal of the distance of the point from the centre /jl of force.
III. ^ and V{x\Bx. F. z). and if a work function U exists. is equal to the per rate of increase of the potential per unit of length in that direction. in any direction. P be any point z\Bz). The difference V(r)V(P) is the value of r (Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) . Y. (Xdx+Ydy + Zdz) taken along the straight line drawn from P to P\ intermediate between that occur on the line Now there exist some values X'. {x. as here. If. y.z + Bz) . z).1 and this is the {Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz). and P' any neighbouring point y¥By. we denote by X.92 Let (x + Bw.z) Bx. PP\ which are such that Z "^ p /: {Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) = X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz. result : The may be — the field (estimated adopting a different notation.V (x. same as the value of the integral p /. when P' moves up dx to P.y\hy. in the limit. Let By and Bz be zero. the force said to be " derived from a potential.z). FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP.V{x.y. the partial differential coefficients of a function of the coordinates." . Z the components parallel to the axes of the force acting on a particle. y. of course. ^ ' therefore. Y\ Z\ the greatest and least values of X. Hence we have X'hx + Y'hy + Z'hz =V{x + Bx.y. ' we have * ^^dU dx When is Y^dU dy ^^dU dz ' the components of force are. In like manner we should find ' F=^ zJ— dy ' dz The force of interpreted in the statement unit of mass). a fundamental theorem of Integral Calculus. so that the line PP' is parallel to the Then we have axis of x. This is.
90. and add the hand members. mz = Z The sum of the left by x. : and this equation can be expressed in words in the statement The rate of increase of the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to — the rate at which work is done by the forces acting on the particle. my = : Y. 7'ate at which work is done by Hence we have the equation ^[im(x' + fhz')] = Xx\Yy + Zz'. 91] ENERGY EQUATION 93 right 91. y. results.^mvo^ = J A {Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz\ where at P v and v^ are the values of the velocity of the particle and A. P the equation just written by r . and the integral is a lineintegral taken along the path. It becomes and we hence find the equation ^mv^ . Multiply the lefthand and hand members of the equations of motion • mx = X. and this expression represents the the forces. z respectively. Let s A of it to a variable point denote the arc of the path measured from a fixed point We multiply both sides of of it. m (xx \yy \ zz) is ^[hm(x' The sum + f\z% is where the quantity differentiated particle at time t the kinetic energy of the of the righthand members is Xx+7y\. The equation can be expressed in words in the statement is : — The increment of kinetic energy in any displacement the work done by the forces in that displacement. equal to . Energy equation. viz.Zz.
with its sign changed. in the case of simple harmonic motion we have the result in Art. Ex. Ex. 40. where z is the height of the above some chosen fixed level. the righthand denotes the work the forces are conservative. on a fixed curve or 94. treated as a particle. Ex. in the the Earth's gravity is mgz. We have already Potential energy of a particle in a field of force. the pressure of the curve or surface does no work . When function. Conservative and nonconservative is fields. 3. 1 and 2. " Forces which do no work are frequently called constraints. 48. in the case of central orbits we have the result in equation (2) of Art. for it is always directed at right angles to the path. and Art. When a particle moves forming part of the surface of a body.iservative. to invent analytical let servative For example. It easy fields." had several examples of energy equations. . andwehave Jmy^ C/'(P) " = const. All fields of force which are found in nature are co. and member of the equation last written is U ^(P)?7(^). and be equal to /zr and let . We bolic call this equation the energy equation. is the work that would be done by the force of the field upon a particle 92. 60 and the special results in Art. and is the mass of the particle field of The m body. 34. 93. 40. 4. expressions for nonconthe force at a distance r radius vector from a fixed point be always directed at right angles to the drawn from the point. 3. surface." In forming the energy equation we may always omit such forces from the calculation. III. Forces which do no work. In the paramotion of projectiles we have the result in Art." potential energy of a body. This quantity in the field. Ex.94 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. The work which moves from the point point A." is P by any path to the chosen fixed called the ''potential energy of the particle The energy equation can be written " Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = const. function at a point P.
the kinetic energy is diminished. A tan^(2//^) an amount of work equal to "lirA would be done in displacing a particle round any curve surrounding the axis We may express the restriction to which this example of z. when periodic motions are performed without friction. In general there are forces of the nature of friction which have the effect that. It is to be observed that a function U may exist dz ' which is such that the force {X. but gradually comes to rest. work done in displacing a particle not only is the points by saying that. and yet it would transfer kinetic energy to an external body. does not go on for ever. under the action of the force. a potential. but also the potential is a oneforce derived from "valued function. easily to be equal to the product and the area of the curve. In a con servative field the round any Now if U were of the form closed curve whatever vanishes. once started. Z) satisfies the equations ' ^ dx dy and yet the field of force may not be conservative. after each circuit of ally performs work.9194] CONSERVATIVE FORCES 95 a particle be guided by a "constraint" to describe. with the same initial velocity. Hence every time that the particle moves round the curve it acquires an increment of kinetic such a system could be devised a machine. and subject to natural forces. . The work done can be shown of 2yu. the curve. We should then have a If energy expressed by this product. when the initial position is recovered. there can be no increment of kinetic energy available for transfer to an external body. in a conservative field." The statement that natural fields of force are conservative is included in the statement that there cannot be a perpetual motion. a " perpetual motion " is meant a selfacting machine which continuIn the above example the particle. might yield up its increment of kinetic energy by striking against " By would then start always from the same initial position Its motion would be periodic. In natural systems. a plane closed curve containing the point. For this reason an ordinary machine. It an external body. it could be used to drive perpetual motion. F.
. its axis inclined to 6. the straight line of quickest descent . 5. and a second curve is drawn Prove that. Prove that the time of quickest descent along a straight 1. a is the sum of the radii. vertical plane and do not from one to the other is such that the normals and the vertical lines through its extremities form a rhombus and further that the centres of curvature at the extremities cannot lie on the segments of the normals included between the verticals. the time of quickest descent from one curve to the other is independent of the starting 2. the locus of the positions of the particle for different chords of •descent is a sphere. equal cutting if the second curve now receives a certain vertical displacement. A parabola is placed in a vertical plane with its vertex downwards and the vertical at an angle ^. Prove that the time of sliding down the latus rectum is the same as that of sliding down the chord drawn from the upper end of the latus rectum to the vertex. and a particle interior surface. 3. distances along the normals to the first curve. Determine the normal chord of quickest descent when there is no such point. and k the vertical height of the centre of the former circle above that of the latter. Show that when two curves lie in the same intersect. passes through the hole. line from between their centres. at any instant before or after passing through the hole. and find the radius and position of such a sphere.FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. where c is the distance is drawn in a vertical plane. and that. the vertex being the highest point of the axis. a point on one vertical circle to another in the same plane is V{2(c2a2)/^(a+A)}. 4. III. Prove that the 7. Prove that the time down the chord of quickest descent from the focus to the curve is V(2a^^sec3^/3). A parabola is placed in a vertical plane with its axis inclined to the vertical at an angle cos~^§. A spherical shell freely. has a small hole at starts down a chord from the Prove then moves its lowest point . An ellipse is placed with its minor axis vertical. Any oflf curve point. and that the time down any intermediate chord is less. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. normal chord of quickest descent from the curve to the major axis is that drawn from a point at which the line joining the foci subtends a right angle when there is such a point.
12. The brake horses is — supposed to be applied to one wheel only. the convexities being opposed. is done by the when going to one quarter of the an Atwood's machine the chain can only support a tension equal sum of the weights at its two ends. and 2h A describing the vertical height through which a particle would fall freely in the time of . A train of I.2A>2/Vi/4 A  11. The from the higher to the lower is of length h and makes an angle (^ with the vertical. Prove that a depth line of quickest descent hjl = sec </) sec^ 2</> = 2^2 cosec ^ sec 2</) cos ( rr + 20) . and when the brake is applied it is u' Vjlg of the weight of the train.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 97 8. weight of driver. Prove that. and that the least 13. and in pounds weight the pull exerted by.xj{h?la) — 2h^ = 0. and brake power produces a friction equal to onefifth of the pressure. and particles starting from various points of the base run down chords of quickest descent to the curve. if x is the length of such a chord. and no work at full speed. where a is the radius of the it. is ^5'n/2. then x^ generating 9. 7 . Two I vertical at a distance 2Z equal parabolas of latus rectum 2? are placed with their axes from each other and with the vertex of the lower at below the vertex of the higher. train starts from rest at one station and stops at the next. circle. M. and another constant value while it is running at full speed. The pull of the engine has one constant value while the train is getting up at a distance speed. Prove that the work done by the engine in getting up speed exceeds that done by the brake in stopping the train during the whole journey. cycloid is placed with its axis vertical and base upwards. ^Tf. The resistance of the rails when the brake is not applied is u Vjlg of the weight of the train.. average speed of the train. 10..horse omnibus which maintains an average speed of 6 miles an hour without exceeding 7^ miles an hour and slows down to 1 foot per second every hundred yards to of = pick up or set down—given the following data weight of 'bus 25 cwt. each horse of a two. and the average speed is v. weight two horses = 30 cwt. the pull of the engine having one constant value while the train is getting up speed. by (F/y — 1) times the work done by the resistance F and v being respectively the full speed and the It is required to find in horsepower the average rate of working of. If in acceleration possible L. and another constant value while it is running at full speed prove that the average rate at which the engine works in starting the train is . show that the greater weight cannot be much less than six times the smaller. mass m runs from rest at one station to stop at the next The full speed is F. conductor and passengers =35 cwt..
. if the coefficient of restitution between the circle and the particle is unity. A smooth parabolic cyhnder is fixed with its generators horizontal. 19. and smooth arcs with the velocity due to falhng from the highest foci of the free point . 18. and that the successive amplitudes form a diminishing geometric progression of which the ratio is will is a mass which distributed over the circumference of the pulley the same effect on the motion as the inertia of the actual mechanism. which Prove that passes through extremities of major axes of the normal sections. III. FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. the particle after striking the circle will retrace its former path. Two equal bodies. and will then describe . and period yiK ^')). A particle is placed uix)n it at a height above the axial plane equal to the latus rectum prove that it will run off at the extremity of the latus rectum. it under gravity alone. A particle is circle of radius a. particle slides under gravity on a smooth parabola whose axis is inclined to the vertical. a parabola of equal latus rectum. Prove that. 17. particle moves on the outside of a smooth elliptic cylinder whose generators are horizontal. and is free to leave it and describe a different parabola A all. are attached to the chain of an up and down through two fixed horizontal so that each time one of them passes up through a ring it lifts a bar of rings mass m. starting from rest on the highest generator. and the axis of each of its normal sections is horizontal. produce where /i 15.98 14. it will A leave the cylinder at a point whose eccentric angle e^ coB^(f) is given by the equation = 3 cos — % <f) where e is the eccentricity of the normal sections. and if the initial velocity is v/[agr{2+V(3V3)}]. Prove that. Prove. that the of an excursion of amplitude a is Atwood's machine. while at the same instant the other passes down through its ring and deposits on it a bar of equal mass. It starts projected along the circumference of a smooth vertical from the lowest point and leaves the circle before reaching the highest point. A series particles slide down the of vertical circles touch at their highest points. prove that the paths lie on a straight hne whose inclination to the vertical is tan~i(V5)16. each of mass oscillate J/. neglecting friction. if the particle leaves the first parabola at will do so at the point where the normal passes through the intersection of the directrices of the two parabolas.
railway carriage is travelling on a curve of radius r with velocity the distance between the rails and h is the height of the centre of Show that the weight of the carriage gravity of the carriage above the rails. 22. 99 a smooth cycloidal tube with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. and moves round The outer rail is raised so that the floor of a carriage is inclined at an angle a to the horizon. Prove also that. 24. V. if the track is tilted up 25. starting from rest at an arcdistance from the vertex. starting from rest at an arcdistance Sg from the Prove that the arcdistance from the vertex of the point where the meet 27r^ / // 1 1 2 27rA where 21. if. the angle of the spiral must be tani(^/~i tan 6). and before the first particle has reached the a second particle slides A particle slides down down the tube is vertex. and the pole of the spiral having its diameter equal to at an angle 6 so that the constant pressure vanishes. Show that a body cannot rest on the floor of the carriage unless the coefiicient of friction between the body and the floor exceeds. Two particles start to describe the cycloids from points at the same level.t AP P and must lie on a AP. A PQ PQ be a portion of an equiangular circle spiral. describe a circle under the action of the same force. 7—2 . is 2V(i^r)sin(^±^)^ r being the distance from the pole. is divided between the rails in the ratio grav^h gra\v^h^ and hence that the carriage will upset if v >J{gralh). Two and their ever is less. cycloids are placed in the same vertical plane. Show that they will next be at the same level after a time ^ir >J{aa')/{{y/a+^a')y/g}. A 2a is : > 23. and next after that at time ^'TsJ{aa')l{{^la\^a')^g] or ^tt J{aa')l{{>Ja^Ja')]jg}. A the curve so that train starts from rest on a level uniform curve. the pressure of the flanges of the wheels on the rails is constant. in passing along must PQ. starting with a constant acceleration / from a point A of a railway. a and a' being the radii of the generating circles. with their axes vertices downwards and at the same level. Prove that. locomotive. Si After a time t. moving in Prove that the impulse necessary to make a particle of unit mass. comes to a curve in the line. particles vertex. whichvertical.r MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 20. an equiangular spiral of angle a under the action of a force to the pole. touching &. V(/^ + g"^ sin2 a)jg cos a. T is the time of a complete oscillation in the tube. and F the force at the moment of impact. its speed increases at a constant rate /.
orbit. A particle is describing an ellipse of eccentricity e about a focus and 26. A Sy in and when direction particle is describing an ellipse about a centre of force in one focus it is at the end of the further latus rectum it receives a blow E momentum it move at right angles to SE. moves under a force to a fixed point *S' varying inversely as the square of the PP is the chord through the other focus of the path. Prove that the direction of to the ellipse an angle cot^e. P — R 28. A particle of mass m is projected from a point P with velocity V and 27. Find the position of the axis of the new orbit and show that its eccentricity is (e~^c). the kinetic energy is increased by wi V^RI{4a R) by a particle reaches being the distance SP and 2a the major axis of the tangential impulse. Find the generated by the blow. III. when its radius vector is half the latus rectum it receives a blow which makes it move towards the other focus with a momentum equal to that of the blow. makes it describe a the blow makes with the the eccentricity of the is . Prove that the new path is independent of the direction of projection. and when it is at one end of the latus rectum receives a blow which confocal hyperbola. and prove that the particle will proceed SE which makes to describe an ellipse of eccentricity {26^/(1 +e^)}. A particle is describing it an ellipse about a focus S.100 FORCES ACTING ON A PARTICLE [CHAP. 29. When the distance. where e tangent ellipse.
Formation of equations of motion. asterisk (*) marked with an may be omitted reading. The down in previous application of the principles which have been laid Chapters to the discussion of the motions of particles in particular circumstances is the part of our subject " shall devote usually described as Dynamics of a Particle. referring respectively to motions We under given forces. The righthand in general.CHAPTER IVt. to resolve. 96. member is." to it the two following Chapters. right angles particular cases are determined + Articles in this Chapter which are in a first by the circumstances. in regard to the formation of the equations. The lefthand member of arrived at are differential equations. and in directions at right angles thereto. any equation contains differential coefficients of geometrical quantities with respect to the time. The method of formation of the equations of motion has been 64. Diversity can arise. 95. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES. This part of our subject divides itself into two main branches. or again we may resolve at along the tangent to the path of a particle and in directions The most suitable directions to choose in thereto. a given function of geometrical quantities. there exists no general method for solving them. . and to constrained and resisted motions taking We confine our place under forces which are not all given. It consists in equating the product of the mass of the particle and its resolved acceleration in any direction to the resolved part described in Article The equations thus of the force acting upon it in that direction. or we may resolve along the radius vector from the origin to a particle. attention in the present Chapter to motions under given forces. Although there are many cases in which equations of this kind can be solved. only from the choice of different directions in which Thus we may resolve parallel to the axes of reference.
we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the tangent to the curve in the sense in which s increases we thus find . recall the facts that.~dt \dt)~dtds \di d^)~^dsyd^) d^x c^ that 80 k«4. z\ the direction cosines of the tangent. v*LU. Acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve.. • . if s . + (dy\^ (dz\^ =1. are satisfymg the relation We of a curve and . . s. ^dh If we multiply these component accelerations in order by the direction cosines of the tangent and add. ^. IV. fdxV' ^. A. PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. y.r.._ dx _+. "^UvJ^' Kdsd^^^dsdT^^d^d^)^ ^^• Again. and the direction cosines of the d^x dz\ dhdy\ (dHdx (d'^xdy d^ydx\ We recall also the relation j ds ds^ y^ + ^ ds . the radius of circular curvature (di^ydz . is . in the sense in which s dx dy dz . *97. z for the component accelerations parallel to the axes we change the independent variable from t to s. y. MOTWN^aF. We have.__. dvr(dx\^ + (dyY (dz\n 2 (dx d^x ^ dy d^y . dz dh\ dv ^^ V^. ^. ^d^Vdxd^xdy d^y dz dhl F/d'xy ^ fdW /dWl ..f ds^ + ^ ds^ t^=0. increases. Methods by which the components of acceleration in chosen directions can be expressed in terms of suitable geometrical quantities have been Further illustrations are given in the next exemplified in Arts. ds In the expressions x. „ .102 . so that v stands for . ^. (^^j (^^j +(^j the direction cosines of the principal normal directed towards the centre of curvature are pr^t P^i PT2^ satisfying the relation where p . d fdx\ _ds cl /ds dx\ _ d dx\ f ^~df. i/. we obtain the component acceleration parallel to the principal normal directed towards the centre of curvature we thus find for this component the expression . z are the rectangular coordinates of a point the arc measured from some particular point of the curve to the point (^. v'^ . writing v for the speed. if we multiply by the direction cosines of the principal normal and add. ' dv d^x ^=. 36 and 43.. . two Articles. for this component the expression . „ dv dy „^i „ d^y •• dv dz .
9698]
EXPRESSIONS FOR COMPONENT ACCELERATIONS
103
and add,
we
Finally, if we multiply by the direction cosines of the binormal find no component acceleration parallel to the binormal.
Thus the
osculating plane of the curve,
acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve is in the and its resolved parts parallel to the
tangent
and principal normal are vr and
a plane curve.
—
,
exactly as in the case of a point describing
As
in that case, the expression for the former
v,
component
may
be replaced by
or
by
s.
^98.
Polar coordinates in three dimensions.
The
co
ordinates are r the distance from the origin, 6 the angle between the radius vector and the axis 2, ^ the angle between the plane containing the radius
vector and the axis z and a fixed plane drawn through the axis
z.
The plane containing the
"meridian plane," and the
the "meridian."
radius vector and the axis z will be called the
circle in
which this plane cuts a sphere
so that ar = rsin
r= const,
We denote distance from
the axis
z
by
or,
B.
In a plane parallel to the plane (.r, y), or and are plane polar coordinates ; in the meridian plane z and oj are Cartesian coordinates, and r and 6 are plane polar coordinates.
Hence the velocity {x^ y) parallel to the plane (^, y) is equivalent to at right angles to the axis z in the meridian plane, and ot^ at right angles to this plane ; and the velocity (i, y, z) is equivalent to (i, w) in the meridian plane and tzr0 at right angles to this plane. Also the velocity (i, w) in this
plane is equivalent to r along the radius vector and r6 along the tangent to the meridian. The components of velocity are therefore
f along the radius vector,
r6 along the tangent to the meridian,
w
r sin 64) at I'ight angles to the meridian plane.
The
and
accelerations
J (or^A) in
is
i?,
y
parallel to the axes x^
y
are equivalent to iisw^'^
—
ZET
at
and perpendicular
to the
meridian plane.
z, zs
Hence the
acceleration
equivalent to z parallel to the axis
 w^^
at right angles
to the axis z
and in the meridian plane,
"uH
r. {'^'^4>)
dt
^* ^^g^* angles to the
meridian plane.
Taking the components 2, ot, which are in the meridian plane and are these are equivalent to parallel and perpendicular to the axis z, we see that
rrB'^ along the radius vector and

the jii^^) along
tangent
to
the
meridian.
104
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES
 tc^^^ which
is in
[CHAP. IV.
We resolve the acceleration
 1«7^2 cos B.
r
the meridian plane and at
radius vector right angles to the axis s, into components parallel to the These components are  tiT(^2 gj^ ^ to the tangent to the meridian.
and ^nd
Hence the components of
acceleration are
 r&^  r sin^ 0^^ along the
f]
=
radius vector,

1
(r^B)
 r sin B
cos 6^"^ along the tangent to the meridian,
——
:
rainBdt
99.
lir (r2sin2^(f)) at right angles to ^ ° ^ ^^
the meridian plane. ^
ever there
Integration of the equations of motion. Whenis an energy equation (Art. 91) it is an integral of the
the particle moves in a straight line under conservative energy equation expresses the velocity in terms of the
is
equations of motion.
When
forces the
position; and the position at
any
Ex.
1
position, in Art. 55.
any time, or the time of reaching determined by integration. For an example see
When the particle does not move in a straight line other integrals of the equations are requisite before the position at any time can be determined. If there is an equation of constancy of
momentum
(Art. 83), or of
moment
of
momentum
(Art. 85), these
also are integrals of the equations of motion. These, with the energy equation, are sometimes sufficient to
combined
determine
the position at any time. Examples are afforded by the parabolic motion of projectiles and by elliptic motion about a focus.
100.
Example.
Deduce the result that the path of a particle moving freely under gravity is a parabola from the equation expressing the constancy of the horizontal component of momentum and the energy equation.
101.
Motion of a body attached to a string or spring.
Simple examples of Dynamics of a Particle are afforded by problems of the motion of a body attached to an extensible string
or spring. line of the
We
consider cases in which the particle
moves
in the
string or spring (supposed to be a straight line).
When
+
the mass of the string
which the mass
is
is
neglected f, and there
is
is
no
A
string of
neglected
often called a
«'
thread."
98101]
friction
FORCES PRODUCING SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
acting upon
VI.).
it,
105
it
the
tension
is
constant throughout
(Chapter
the length of a string can change there is a particular which corresponds to a state of zero tension. This state length is called the "natural state/' and the corresponding length the
When
"natural length."
Let
Iq
be the natural length,
I
the length in any state.
The
quantity
— lo)/lo {I
is
called the
"
extension."
The law
connecting the tension
and
the extension is that the
If e is the extension, the tension is proportional to the extension. This tension is equal to the product of e and a certain constant.
constant
If,
is
called the
"
modulus of
"
elasticity
of the string.
in the course of any motion of an extensible string, the
and string recovers its natural length, the tension becomes zero, " attached to the string is the string becomes slack." particle
A
then free from force exerted by the string until the length again comes to exceed the natural length.
A
string which exerts tension, but
is
never sensibly extended,
must be thought of as an ideal limit to which an extensible string modulus \ approaches when the extension e tends to zero, and the a way that the product Xe is the tends to become infinite, in such Such a string would be described as finite tension of the string.
"
inextensible."
A
spring,
an extensible the same multiple of the contraction
;
when extended, exerts tension in string when contracted, it exerts
the same
way
is
as
is
pressure which
 1)1 (lo
lo
as the tension
of
the extension.
end is fixed, and body attached to a spring, of which one moveable in the line of the spring, is subject to a force equal to " called the strength of the spring," and fix, where /a is a constant X is the displacement of the body from the position in which the When the length is increased by x has its natural
A
spring the force
pressure.
length.
is
tension;
when
it
is
diminished by x the force
is
a*
The
of the body, considered as equation of motion
is
particle of
mass m,
mx = — fix.
It follows that the
motion of the particle
is
simple harmonic
motion of period
2'ir\J{mjfi).
106
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
may
also be obtained
IV.
This result
by forming the energy equation.
For
the work done by the force in the displacement
x
is
I
or
it is
;
— \ixdx^
of the body, treated as a particle, is
\ma^.
 ^/Lur2 and the kinetic energy Hence the energy equation is
^^n^2 ^ ^^2
result that
— const.,
and the
x
is
of the form a cos {^^/(/i/m)+a} can He obtained by
integrating this equation.
102.
1.
Examples.
A
particle of
mass
r/i
thread, of natural length a
fixed points.
Prove that,
is attached to the middle point of an elastic and modulus X, which is stretched between two if no forces act on the particle other than the
tensions in the parts of the thread, it can oscillate in the line of the thread with a simple harmonic motion of period TrJimajX).
is attached to one end of an elastic thread, of 2. particle of mass The natural length a and modulus X, the other end of which is fixed. particle is displaced until the thread is of length « + 6, and is then let go.
A
m
Prove that,
if
no forces act on the particle except the tension of the thread,
a time 2f7r +
it
will return to the starting point after
2T)^/Y"
3.
Prove that,
if
elastic thread
and
let fall
a body is suddenly attached to an unstretched vertical under gravity, the greatest subsequent extension is
twice the statical extension of the thread
4.
when supporting the
body.
Prove that,
is
force
a spring is held compressed by a given force and the suddenly reversed, the greatest subsequent extension is three times
if
the initial contraction.
5. An elastic thread of natural length a has one end fixed, and a particle attached to the other end, the modulus of elasticity being n times the weight of the particle. The particle is at first held with the thread hanging
is
vertically and of length a', and is then let until it returns to its initial position is
go from
rest.
Show
that the time
2
(tt
 ^ + ^' + tan ^  tan
6')
Jiajng),
where
d, 0'
are acute angles given by
sec
«=
na'/a
w—1
,
sec^ 6'
=
sec'^
6  4n,
and
a' is
so great that real values of these angles exist.
103.
The problem
of central orbits.
some
detail
vestigated this problem in
in Arts.
49
—
We
52.
have already inWe found that
a particle moving under a central force directed to a fixed point, moves in a fixed plane which contains the centre of force and the tangent to the path
101104]
at
THE PROBLEM OF CENTRAL ORBITS
instant.
107
any chosen
We
found that the equations of motion could
be expressed in the form
 d m (r  r^2) = _ m/, ^ 1 ^ {rH) =
where
m is the mass of the
is
particle,
taken to be an attraction.
We suppose
and / is the intensity of the field of force, that /is given as a function of r.
The energy equation
hn {r^ + rW^) = const. — m
j
fdr^
and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum about an the centre of force at right angles to the plane of motion is
axis through
mr^0=mh,
where A
is
a constant which represents twice the rate of description of area
vector.
by the radius
We
found that these equations lead to the equation
^ is a constant, pressed in terms of u.
where
u
is
written for 1/r, and / is now supposed to be exThis equation determines the path of the particle.
particle starts from a point at a distance a F, in a direction making an angle a
is
When / is
given,
and the
from the centre of
with a velocity with the radius vector, the value of h
force,
T5 )
Fa
sin
a.
The
initial
value of
+ M^ is
1 /a2
sin2 a, for it is the reciprocal of the
square of the perpendicular
from the origin of r upon the tangent to the path. the path takes the form
"^ "^
Hence the equation of
~
a2 sin2 a
[dej
V^a^ sin^ a J i u^
a
6,
When the path is known, so that u becomes a known function of time of describing any arc of the path is the value of the integral
u^ I.
the
d0 Va sin a
'
taken between limits for 6 which correspond to the ends of the
arc.
104.
Apses.
Au
apse
is
a point of a central orbit at which
the tangent is at right angles to the radius vector.
a theory concerning the distribution of the apses when the central acceleration is a singlevalued function of the on distance, i.e. for the case where the acceleration depends only
There
is
the distance and
is
distance. always the same at the same
108
MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
Let
IV.
A
be an apse on a central orbit described about a point 0, / the central acceleration, supposed a
^
x'<
>T
singlevalued function of distance,
TAT'
a line through A at right angles to AO. Then a point starting from A at right angles to AO with a certain velocity
would describe the
velocity.
orbit.
Let
V
be this
V
p
in direction
If a point starts from with velocity or AT, and has the
A
AT
gg
acceleration /* towards 0, it describes the orbit so that two points starting from
;
A
two directions with the same velocity F and the same Since the two points have acceleration / describe the same orbit. the same acceleration at the same distance, the curves they describe are clearly equal and similar, and are symmetrically placed
in these
with respect to the line AO. Thus the orbit is symmetrical with respect to AO in such a way that chords drawn across
it
orbit
line
at right angles to on either side of
^0 are bisected by AO. The parts ^0 are therefore optical images
of the
in the
AO.
Now
let
the point start from A in direction AT, and let B be the next apse of the orbit that it passes through, also let A' be the next apse after B
BOA'
OB, passes through. Then the parts of the orbit are optical images in the line OB, and the angle is equal to the
that
it
A
AOB
angle A' OB, and the line J.0 is equal to the line A'O. In the same way the next
^ig 37.
apse the point passes through will be at a distance from equal to OB, and thus all the are at distances from apses equal
to either
OA or 0B\ these are called the apsidal distances, and the angle between consecutive apses in the order in which the
moving point passes through them
is
always equal to
AOB,
this
is
called the apsidal angle.
The theory
just explained
is
usually stated in the form
:
—
Thei^e are two apsidal distances
and one apsidal
angle.
104106]
APSES OF CENTRAL ORBITS
109
It is clear that the radius vector is a periodic function of the vectorial angle with period twice the apsidal angle.
105.
1.
Examples.
If the apsidal distances are equal the orbit is a circle described
about
its centre.
for (1) elliptic motion (3) all the orbits that
Write down the lengths of the apsidal distances and the apsidal angle about the centre, (2) elliptic motion about a focus, can be described with a central acceleration varying inversely as the cube of the distance.
2.
an
Explain the following paradox: Four real normals can be drawn to ellipse from a point within its evolute, and in Ex. 6 of Art. 46 we found
3.
;
—
the central acceleration to any point requisite for the description of an ellipse there are apparently in this case four apsidal distances and four apsidal
angles.
106.
Apsidal angle in nearly circular orbit.
Let the
central acceleration be f{r) at distance r, then a circle of radius c described about its centre is a possible orbit with \h for rate of
describing area provided that
i
©/<•>•
or
h'=(ff{c).
Let us suppose the point to be at some instant near to the circle, and to be describing an orbit about the origin with moment
of
momentum
specified
by
this h.
is
The equation
of its path
d^
At the
precisely , c
_f{r)
u
is
instant in question
nearly equal to
;
if it
was
and
if
the point was moving at right angles to the
radius vector, the point would describe the circle of radius c. assume that it is always so near to the circle that the difiference
We
u
c
is
so small that
we may
neglect
its
square
;
the investigation
is
we
condition this assumption give will determine under what
justifiable.
Put u =  + a; and write
<^
(u) for /(r),
and a
for , so that
h?=(}>{a)la\
if Now 3 . . and find the orbit described by a point moving with the moment of momentum required for circular motion in a circle of radius c through a point near the circle. IV. Examples. / a<i>'{a)\ 77^ Again.110 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. 107. Then d^ _ a^<l> (a + os) 1 <f>{a) if a^ is neglected. in is said to be the latter unstable. A In this case with period its apsidal u. and by taking X will be as small as we please and the neglect of x^ will be justified. n = 3 prove that the circular orbit is unstable. prove that the possible circular orbits are n<3 and unstable when w>3. In the former of these cases the circular motion stable. small enough so that the greatest value of x is A. If /(r)=:r~" or <f>{u) stable 2. will be a periodic function of 6 i^ > *^^ ^^^^^ nearly circular and angle / /fo is tt/ . when For = u''.a). and therefore 27r /* /]3 —?r7\\ — j3 is r. 1. In this case the orbit tends to depart widely from the circular form. if 3 r^ \ 9(a) negative we may put is it equal to — /c^ and then the solution of the above equation of the form and clear that one of the terms increases in geometrical progression whether 6 increases or diminishes. whatever the number we agree to neglect may be.^7M 9 W is positive we may put is it equal to /c^ and then the solution of the above equation of the form x =A cos {icB 4. so that x will very it is soon be so great that its square can no longer be neglected.
particle which moves in one plane are R. RADIAL AND TRANSVERSAL RESOLUTION 111 = r~* prove that the curve described with the moment of required for circular motion in a circle of radius c. When the forces are derived from a potential V we have R = m^:^ cr and there is . r ^ + dd 506 du t^ d du d • 109.""*. When the radial and transverse components of force acting on a 1.106109] 3. the equations of motion are 2. Put 7^B — h^ u=r~^. in general h is variable. . d V \do) de^"" dO where d dd y^ stands for . is either the circle r=c or one of the curves If /(r) momentum r_cosh^4l "" c cosh 6^ ' r_cosh^l ~ c cosh ^ + 2 ' 108. The equation of the can be found by eliminating h between the equations path 3. 1. moves under the action of forces to two fixed points A. m/x'/^^ respectively. when the point of projection is near to or on this circle. T. as in Ex. Examples of motion under several central forces. A' of magnitudes m/i/r^. an energy equation \m (r2 + r^e^) = m V+ const. Examples of equations of motion expressed in terms of polar coordinates. where r and r' are the particle of A mass m . When the forces are derived from a potential. 2. the equation of the path can be written in the form dV_ . 4.
2. and the form equations of motion possess an integral of T^r'^B' are constants. .t 6'. with the notation of Ex. The = a in cos 6 fi' cos 6') + const. similarly r^ j {r'H') ^. Prove that a lemniscate rr' =c^^ where 2c is the distance between the points from which r and r' are measured./xa sin 0. r^ the distance of the point from Ok and p* the perpendicular from Ok on the tangent to the curve at the point. This equation with the energy equation determines the motion. and integrating. 6' and adding./ir' sin = . given plane curve can be described by a particle under central forces Prove that it can to each of n given points. = . A particle of mass m moves under the action of forces to two 1. and that the velocity is constant and equal to §K/(3/i). '""'d^'^'^'ds' Vk^ _J! Pic point. we have an equation of Multiplying by the given form. Then we are given that J'J'Vk' all Now velocity the curve can be described under the forces if there exists a V satisfying the ^ two equations dV_ n dvK ds~V~d^' by I V^npK ~P~V"^' and it is clear that these are satisfied V'^'S. points of magnitudes my^r^ mii'r'. is must 4. Vk the velocity of the particle at any point when the curve is . /a' IV. distances of the particle from A and A\ and \i. r. can be described under the action of forces m^jr and w/*// directed to those points. p the radius of curvature and ds the element of arc of the curve at the dVK _ dVK J. we have Resolving at right angles to the radius vector ni _ _ (^^)_wi ^ sin X.112 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.. be described under the action of all the forces. centre Let /k be the acceleration produced in the particle by the force to the (cth 0<t. when the forces act separately. where a is the distance A A'.Vk^ Thus the condition be the sum that the kinetic energy when all the forces act of the kinetic energies when they act separately. 3. where x /2 is the angle APA\ so that _ (^2^) = ^V sin X = /*'« sin . described under this force. there is an integral equation of the form that /ir2^+/xy2^'= const. fixed Prove. provided that the particle is A properly projected.
/^/r^ the acceleration to S when the distance is r. Let a particle P. Disturbed elliptic motion. and the angle in question by cr. would be elliptic motion about a focus. is €ts/{f{ar}lr{'2ar)]. the eccentricities. these attractions are not entirely negligible.109111] SEVERAL CENTRAL FORCES 113 5. in a line perpendicular to the plane of the that the general (p. Prove that its acceleration is 2a being the axis major. describing an orbit about a focus S. by the lengths of the major axes. e. directed towards A two points symmetrically situated orbit. and the angles which the apse lines make with some fixed line in We denote the major axis by a. apart from relatively small forces. 48. We shall consider here some examples of elliptic motion dis turbed by small impulses in lines which lie in the plane of the orbit. The ellipses. A tending to the nearer focus. is of the form Show where c is the distance of either centre of force from the plane. R particle from S at the instant. and its from the nearer focus. 2 of Art. /2 1 L. eccentricity by are determined Tangential impulse. Although the Sun's gravitational attraction preponderates very greatly oyer the attractions between the Planets. a + Sa the semiaxis major of the orbit imme diately after the impulse. compounded of two. each varying inversely as the square of the distance. and / a constant. 8 . We have. particle describes a plane orbit under the action of two central forces each varying inversely as the square of the distance. having a given focus. the the plane of the orbit. M. The motion of the Planets about the Sun does not take place exactly in accordance with Kepler's Laws (Art. and the other from the farther focus. one 6. r) equation of the orbit. 111. 41). 110. and a and b are constants. bounded by the axis minor. by Ex. referred to the point where the line joining the centres of force meets the plane as origin. The ellipse described after the impulse is a little different from that described before. at a distance r point describes a semiellipse. receive a small tangential impulse elliptic Let be the distance of the increasing its velocity by Sv. The theory of the motion of the Planets presents us with the problem of determining a motion which. velocity.
I is hence BllR = ^(j^l^^esm6Bx^. IV. and if e becomes e + Be. Hence if I is the semilatus rectum before the impulse. vj V a] 1 . . Now l = a(l — e^). impulse. if + of the velocity about S before the since the tangent to the path is unBh afterwards. Again. giving Ba ~ = 2vBv approximately.^) a vBv fjL Bv] =1 — e^Bv e a \v^ ifjL l"! . with Ji' = fil. we have fjL{l + Bl) = h'(l + Bl jj . .B^. ^ . h altered.e^) Bv (1 giving or (1.e 2Bv \Bv /I 1\ Be Further the angle 6 which given by the equation l/R SP makes with the axis major = 1 + e cos ^ and it is clear that Be = . 39. giving = 21 Bv — approximately. I + Bl afterwards.114 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. h is the moment we have h V + Bh _h { Bv v' giving Fig.e^) Ba . .2€aBe = 2a (1 .
or Ba = 0. Then the resultant velocity is. = dv{r{e + cose) + lcose}/h. 8e = ASv sin ^//x..111113] DISTURBED ELLIPTIC MOTION 115 If the particle is subject to a disturbing force producing a small tangential acceleration / we shall have ' fjL V e\R e a e sin .p'') . For'a small radial impulse prove that 8a = 2a%Svsiu^/A. so that .^ l) 7 + ^ ^^^ ^^^• producing a small If the particle is subject to a disturbing force normal acceleration / we have ^ ^^'"^^ = « = ^' ^ = nfv /2ae l — R\ ^e'^^^'P'^ n:B'^^' 113. Examples. 8—2 . Cfi. Hence also Bl = — = 2hBh = 2pvBv fiBl 2aeBe. unaltered. and consequently a is is unaltered. to the first order. fjLCie Again. For a small normal impulse prove that 8e=. or we If p have Bh==^{R'p^^)Bv. the perpendicular from the focus S on the tangent at P. = 2lf efl 0^ yc^ M V 112. = 8v {2ae + r cos e)laev. so that sJ{R^ . Normal impulse. drzr 6tzr = 2S2. sin ^/ev.2aeBelR = (. For a small tangential impulse prove that 8e = 2bv{e+cose)lv. meeting it in F. 4.h8v cos 6/ dizr For a small transversal impulse prove that 8e da=2Sm2(Hecos^)/A. 3.rdv sin Ofav.. then the value of h is increased by PYBv. = 8v sin 6 (I +r)leh. IjR = 1 + e cos 6. 1. 8^= . 2. Suppose the particle to receive an impulse imparting to it a velocity Bv in the direction of the normal outwards.
Relatively to a certain frame. A particle moves with an acceleration always directed to a point in a straight line. line. and <f> the angle which the tangent to its path makes with that of 0. moving uniformly . prove that the acceleration at right angles to it varies as the hyperbolic sine of the angle between it and a fixed straight line.116 MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. A particle is moving in a parabola its and at distance r from the focus its velocity is v . prove that the is proportional to the B produced. Kelatively to a certain frame a point describes a straight line describes a curve in such uniformly with velocity F. IV. and a point B moves with an acceleration always directed to A. show that and t j( acceleration is compounded of — 4r dr^ — (v^r) ' parallel to the axis — ] along the radius vector outwards. and normal to its path are a/a ~ and 5^2 where s is the arc of the given curve. 6. A particle from a fixed point moves so that the angular velocity of the radius vector and the acceleration along it are both constant. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 4. 7. A particle is describing an involute of a given curve . prove that {s\jr) its accelerations along the tangent respectively. 2. If the area covered by the line AB is resolved part parallel to perpendicular from OA B on OA of the velocity of described uniformly. and a second point a way that the line OP describes areas uniformly prove that the resolved part perpendicular to OP of the acceleration of P is 2 Vv sin (fyjOP^ where v . and the line joining the point to the position of the particle at any time is normal to the path of the particle prove that the path of the particle relative to the point is a conic. a point A describes a circle (centre 0) uniformly. The motion of each of two points relative to a certain frame is uniform rectilinear motion. and the straight paths intersect. 5. 3. F is the velocity of P. 1. the angle which the tangent makes with a fixed straight . and find the path of either point relative to the other. Prove that the acceleration with which the distance between the points increases is inversely proportional to the cube of that distance.
parallel to the axis of ^. CB of a triangle are fixed in position. Prove that the component accelerations of a moving particle are and R perpendicular to the radius vector. Oy revolve with uniform angular and the component velocities of a point {x. y. then the square of the distance of the point from the origin Prove that. usin C^sin a ~v8in B=ca)j A < Fsin B=ca>. directions rj are (i + '7C0Sa)/sin''^a and (^ + ^cosa)/sin2a.ra)  w^y. 12.0)% and y + ^^o) + 2. r have their 11. 14.[uicx + vwy)lr\ r.xrf X {f^ . i/r if the acceleration of a point describing a tortuous curve >// makes an angle with the principal normal. increases uniformly with the time. In the case of a plane curve the condition that the acceleration directed to the is always same point is that the equation sin^/rf7^ as ^ ^ t.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 8. co. prove that the accelerations in the directions of the axes are i.cu)'^. If x^ y are the coordinates of a point referred to rectangular axes turning with angular velocity «. V. where X y_rT{r^ .cosjB=0. where x^ 3/. The ^.x^) ' n_r{rr — xx){r'^ — x^) — {rx—xrf {r^x'^f ~x The position of a point is given by x. usual signification relative to rectangular axes. The sides (7/1. fixed lines containing position of a point is given by the perpendiculars ^. w. AB prove that mcos^+?. and a> is the angular velocity of . u. and the side of constant length c. UcosA+ Fcos B=.yco . The velocities of A and B along CA and CB are u and the corresponding accelerations are U. 117 Prove that. . 13.= d^\r must be satisfied at every point. V H . velocity are Ajx if rectangular axes Ox. .. 2. show that the component accelerations are u + —. AB is V. — x^) — {rx . t. y) parallel to the axes and Bjy. on two an angle a prove that the component velocities in the .2yo) . 10. w being component velocities in the directions x^ y. r. 9. then tan =^ V as ^ . V.
w^/sin a ) ' and that the component accelerations fire u — (jiU cot a\oiV cosec a. /•2. prove that the component velocities UfV in these dii*ections are given by « = (I f ^ cos a)/sin'^a + cor] /si na\ r = (. the radii vectores r^ r^ containing an angle a that the component velocities in the directions of rx and ^2 are ^tj. «i+««2C0Sa=ri. y + cay cot a + (ox cosec a. on a circle 16. and the velocities in these directions are UiyV^] prove that the accelerations in the same directions are The radii vectores from three fixed points to the position of a particle 18. A 20.^ cos a)/sin2a . r. Prove that. at distances rj ^''O™ and that the component accelerations in the same directions are 17.) 4. in which ^23) ^31 by the directions of {r^.118 15. r^). rj drawn to the instantaneous positions of Oxj Oi/. them. with the thread straight but unstretched. the maximum is the greatest root of the equation + ^^sin2a = 0. Prove that the period is the same as that of a simple pendulum of length equal to the excess of the length of the thread in the position of equilibrium above its natural length. ri) and (ri. and the velocities in these directions are u^. are n. it receives a blow.r3 the direction of the blow makes an angle a with the thread. X — <iiX cot a — <oy cosec a. A ?. ^s. If the position of a point is defined by the perpendiculars . ^12 are the angles contained 19.^. . y + a)V cot a — (nu cosec a. 2^2? ^3. ^2. particle is suspended from a point by an elastic thread and oscillates in the vertical line through the point of suspension. which. u^i prove where W2 + %cosa = r2. the other end of which When if length of the thread during the motion ar*2/. circle is . and any point on the . Two fixed points are taken . » and the two similar expressions. r^. prove that the accelerations in these directions are wi + wi — + ( ^ ) (W2 cos ^12 + % cos ^13). particle is attached to one end of an elastic thread of natural is fixed to a point on a smooth horizontal the particle is at rest on the table. length table. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. if directed along the thread would make the particle move to a maximum distance 21 from the fixed end. The radii vectores from two fixed points distant c apart to the position of a particle are ri. {r^. IV. Two o) velocity about axes Ox^ Oy are inclined at an angle a and rotate with angular Show that the component velocities are 0.
distance is r is 27.^p(^i^a). 24. 29. If the central acceleration is fi[2(a^ + b'^)io^2a%^u^]. and that the particle can describe the curve A r = a{4 — cos 22. If the central acceleration is 2/x {u^ .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 119 21. verify that the angular velocity of the thread can be constant. A particle fj. it describes an ellipse about its position of equilibrium as centre. A particle describes a central orbit with acceleration ^[4(a/r)9 + (a/r)332(r/a)3]. if the particle is projected in any direction. velocity with acceleraparticle describes a central orbit about the origin starting from an apse at distance a with the infinity . whose coefficient of elasticity is six times the weight of the particle. show that the apsidal angle is where at 7ro)/V(3a>2j/). Prove that. Prove that the path ? = a3coth2^. i" a direction starting from a point for which r=a with velocity 3V(2«/a) is making an angle ^tt with the radius vector. the particle is projected horizontally with a velocity S^/i^ag). A tion fiu^in^+l^Ti^a^u^). A particle moving with a central acceleration fi{zc'^ + 2au^) starts from a point at distance a from the origin in a direction making an angle with the velocity from infinity. and the particle is vertically above the point of attachment. A heavy particle is fastened to the free ends of a number of elastic threads which passed through fixed smooth rings. moves in a nearly circular orbit with an acceleration a being the mean radius. . each ring being at a distance from the fixed end of the thread which passes through it equal to the natural length of the thread. 23. If the central acceleration is /xw' the velocities at the Vi^ two apsidal distances satisfy the relation + V2'^=2h*lfi.aH^) and the particle is pro26. from prove that it describes the curve r=a coshnO. and the initial velocity ^fi/a at right angles to the radius vector. 6). When the thread is at its natural length. Show (n cot 12) with the radius vector and that the equation of the path 28. particle is attached to a fixed point by means of an elastic thread of natural length 3a. the time until the jected from an apse at distance a with velocity Vm/«. determine the orbit. is r=a (1 — 2 sin 6). the initial distance a. is the mean angular velocity. 25.
given by the equation Prove that the ^=tanh32 . IV. 35. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.a)^ towards particle describes a central orbit the velocity from infinity at a distance c (which is starting with greater than path is a and less than 2a) at an angle 2cos\/(a/c). when n>3j and that the particle goes to infinity if u= or <3. a In particular prove that a particle projected from an apse at distance a with velocity v/(X +/*)/«. orbit with acceleration fi{r^ . where V is the potential.2r^a ~ ^) starts from a point distant A a from the origin in direction making an angle tan ~* 27/125 with the radius vector with such velocity that the rate of descripShow that the equation of the orbit is tion of areas is k. and the direction of projection makes an angle/? with the 2 Prove that the maximum distance is radius vector of length R. ( w > 3). with acceleration /i/(r .V{2r2((7+F)A2}' taken between appropriate limits. from a point where r=^a with velocity iJ{2fi)/a^ at an inclination starting Prove that its path is sini 4. A particle moving with a central acceleration 4^2 (2r ~ ^ — 3ra ~*. the velocity of projection is that due to a fall from rest at infinity. under an attraction ^fi{nl) «»' will an*ive at the centre in 3 >•» + Xr3. time . a force tending to a fixed point and varying inversely as the nth power of the Prove that if n is not < 3 the particle will ultimately fall into the distance. Prove that.120 30. power of the distance (w>l).a)/a} .la^r''^). and constants depending on the initial conditions. if a possible orbit under a central force possible orbit under a central force (f){r) + \r~^ can be found. to the radius vector. 31.Un^J{{r a)/a]. R cosecws is /3 Prove that the time of describing any part of a central orbit /. C and h are (r) is known. A particle moves under a central force varying inversely as the nth 34. A the origin. centre of force. A particle describes a central l^ = av'3y(4r2a2). A particle is projected with velocity less than that from infinity under 33. 1 ^{{r . 36.
42.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 121 A particle moves under a central force and is projected with velocity 37. y/ifi/c) A particle moves under a central force proportional to u^ {cu + cos $)~^ towards the centre. particle is describing a circular orbit of radius a under a force to the centre producing an acceleration /(r) at distance r. the work done by the central attractive force (per unit of mass) as the particle moves from the point of projection to any point at distance r from where W is the centre of force. from a point at distance ?*q in a direction making an angle a with the radius vector. 38. Prove that the A apsidal distances of the disturbed orbit are 3/" (a) + «/(«) is Prove also that. projected from an apse on the initial line at distance c with velocity show that the next apsidal distance is c/(l+3ic). and a small increment of velocity Aw is given to it in the direction of motion. of the differential equation of the path can be expressed in the form  h^^Une'^ucosd^ f^[{sm3esme)'^2ucos3e~]^ = C. prove that a first integral T=^fi2iHm20. the apsidal distances are approximately a±Au V{3/(a)+a/(a)} 39. if the increment of velocity imparted to the particle directed radially. A particle moves under the action of a central force P and a transverse Prove that disturbing force f(t). where i^(0 = 1/(0 «^^ . equation (cu + cos 41. 40. A particle moves under a central force fi {I + 8k cos 20) /)'^ being . under a radial force A particle moves in a plane where F and a transverse force T P=HU^ (3 + 5 cos 26). Prove that the apsidal distances are the real positive roots of the Vq equation for r WV2/(Vsin2ar2)=^V. ^)2 Show that the orbit is one of the conies given by the = a + 6 cos 2 (6 + a).
field IV. . 0' in CS and equal A P respectively to 16m7r2 CCPqP^ . prove that distance. one to each focus. An ellipse is described focus. one attractive and the other are placed at two points S and H. particle describes a parabola under two forces. Prove that the force at any point can be resolved into two directed to inverse points 0. find the time occupied in describing any arc of the curve. and is repulsive. particle describes an ellipse under two forces. one to each mass along the focal radius vector r is _ 1 rfy2 2r(2ar) where 2a 47. if will describe a with the velocity from infinity. particle of mass the action of a force to a fixed point S. provided that ^+__^^+=0. the square of the distance. at a point where the forces are equal. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. Prove that it will oscillate in an arc of an hyperbola if both forces attract. m describes a circle (centre C) in period T under 44. to the if the particle starts from rest at the vertex.122 43. is 4 dr ' the major axis and v the velocity. and in an arc of an ellipse if one force attracts and the other 49. Show that a particle placed anywhere in the Two plane bisecting and ff are foci. A body is placed at rest in a plane through two fixed centres of force. repels. each force varying inversely as repulsive. it must be fir{n'/r^.a sin d){rb sin 6) = ah. If the force equal. centres of force of equal strength. SB at right angles will oscillate in a semiellipse of which S" 48. and numerically square of the focal distance. and the other passing through the focus . one constant and parallel to the axis. A to the other 46. each varying inversely as the square of the distance. IGmTT^ CO^ CP^_ 45. projected in the proper direction curve of the form (r . Show that the force j)er unit of ai>^ under the action of two forces. Verify that in a plane polar coordinates is of force of which the potential referred to a particle. prove that the A latter force varies inversely as the through the focus constant force. functions of the If the law of force to one focus is /ir. at the vertex.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 123 50. if it starts from rest at a point where the forces are equal. r being the distance from the nearer pole. Determine the forces. Show that.of itself : when the particle is at the further apse. A and prove that the product of the component velocities along r and / varies inversely as the length of the perpendicular from the position of the particle to the chord .\<^y^) parallel to a fixed line. where the ^1. it describes a parabola of which the fixed point is the focus. >S'2 (n^) (^2^4) + ^'^ cot e^ cot ^2 = c (fii cos Bi + /i2 cos $2) + const. also show that the time from one end of the chord to the other is a (7ra)cosa+sina V ' where F is the velocity of a the radius of the circle. and a the angle between 51. the becomes less than its original value by the same amount. and particle moves under the action of a repulsive force \i{u^avF) from a fixed point. When a particle is at the nearer apse of an ellipse of eccentricity e described about the focus. and h is 55. r'. $2 moment are the angles S^S^P and S^S^P. particle describes a circle under the action of forces. Show that it describes the lemniscate. {rr' A = (P) is projected from an apse of Bernouilli's Lemniscate the tangent with vefocity Vft/2c and moves under the action of along particle forces . COS^a the particle when moving r parallel to the chord.2 r' r ^' ^^ to the nearer •2_LZI— (3rr'r'2)3' (3r/r2)3' and further poles respectively. 53. Prove that the time taken in this revolution is less than the original period by the fraction — ST of itself. c is the distance of the velocity about the line of centres. \\u being A the distance from the point. *S'i*S'2. prove that where p denotes the perpendicular from the origin on the tangent. there is an integral equation of the form >S'i. rg are the distances ^jP. 52. which are to each other at any point inversely as the distances r. S^P. r' from the point to the ends of the chord.. Prove that. if the motion does not take place in a fixed plane. If a curve is described under a force P tending to the origin and a normal force N. 54. and a force [i (1/c^. and / from the further pole. where /j. A particle P moves under the action of two fixed centres of force producing accelerations /ij/ri^ and ^2/^2^ towards Si and *S'2. . tending to the extremities of a fixed chord. the force on unit mass at unit distance is increased by the small force fraction .
momentum When the particle is Prove that the apse a focus. 57. prove that the changes produced in the eccentricity and axis major are given by the equations 8e=28V^{l/fji). when at the a small impulse towaids the centre equal to momentum. and show that they are respectively proportional to the resolved peri^endicular to the apse line. and when at it receives impulsively a small A P velocity 8v in the direction PM xu • • the major axis will turn through the angle r 11 . direction. the force ceases to 58. IV.th of its axis. liijeh. 59. without altering its Show that. equal to unity. 8a = 2bV^{a^le)/^{l+e)}. If. where n is great.124 56. : + e =l — a. it receives describes an elliptic orbit about a fociis and. 4 cos^^B nearly. If the velocity of a periodic comet is suddenly increased near its aphelion by a small amount dV. ^u right angles to the major axis. At a point where the radius vector makes an angle S with the apse line. ^y S^' xu 1 Prove that —^pP^ — . for elliptic motion. Show that the eccentricity e is increased or diminished by  »J{\—e^) according to the direction of motion at the instant. the comet is instantaneously affected by a planet so that its 1 velocity is increased in the ratio w ti. m describes an ellipse about a focus. at any point of an elliptic orbit about act for a given very short time. and e the eccentricity of the orbit. /xwi being the when the receives a small impulse m V the orbit. where the letters have their usual meanings A comet describes about the Sun an ellipse of eccentricity e nearly 61. particle of force at unit distance it parts of the force parallel and A mass . . and that the angle which the axis major of the orbit makes with the distance from the focus will be increased by particle is at an extremity of the minor axis in a direction perpendicular to the plane of V^a where 2a 60. A particle end of the minor .t 1. body is revolving in an elliptic orbit with acceleration fi/r^ to a centre of force in one focus S. find the angle through which the apse line will have turned and the change of the eccentricity. with moment of at the nearer apse it line is turned through the angle equal to h. 62. is 2eg the axis major. receives a small radial impulse /i. if the new orbit is a parabola. An ellipse of eccentricity e and latus rectum 2^ is described freely about a focus. prove that the eccentricity of the orbit will be diminished by ^ V^ae/fi. MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP.
measured along the normal at $. 125 At a point P is of an ellipse. if the change takes place when the line the radius vector an end of the latus rectum. described under a force to a focus S^ the direction of motion deflected through a small angle ^ without alteration of magnitude. show that. Prove that at a point Q on the original ellipse the deviation of the new path. If the particle (of the last Example) is at an end of the latus rectum. and tangent makes with SP. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the particle. the centre of force is suddenly moved a short to the tangent at P. ^ the angle which the 68. is at an end of the axis minor. If. 66. Also prove that. show that. sin {6 — 0). Prove that the axis major is turned sin cf) ^7. and the major axis is turned through an angle aajl. the angle between the apse is altered by (le2)2 2ea2 and 67. . when a particle. but the axis major will be turned through an angle a^{e~^\). and the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance aa towards the centre. the rate of variation of the principal semiaxes are given by the equations a ^ b ^ f where v is the velocity and r the radius vector at the instant. while the periodic time is unaltered. to a first approximation. A particle is describing is when the particle distance x parallel through the angle an ellipse under a force to a focus S. 65. and. If when the from the centre particle (of the last Example) is at any point distant r offeree. the eccentricity is diminished by a. 64. at P. prove that the periodic time increased in the ratio 1 particle is at + ^ —3 : 1. the eccentricity e of the orbit will be unaltered. the periodic time is increased by Za^a^l2P of its original value. where I is the semilatus rectum. describing an elliptic orbit about a focus. is where H is the second focus. where G is the foot of the normal. the centre of force is suddenly shifted a small distance is k perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 6 the angle which the normal makes with ISO.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 63. if at any point the resistance produces a retardation /. and CB the semiaxis minor. Defining the instantaneous orbit under a central force varying as the distance as that orbit which would be described if the resistance ceased to act. to a second approximation. Also.
126 69.g (X sin kt k sin \t) sec kt.g where fi is the central force on unit mass at unit distance. . MOTION OF A PARTICLE UNDER GIVEN FORCES [CHAP. Show that the maxima of the rates of variation of the principal semiaxes of the instantaneous ellipse are given by the equations d h _ ±. motion in an ellipse whose centre is fixed and axis minor is constant and whose semiaxis major is variable according to the formula a = OQ+ uk [' . describes an ellipse under a central force producing an 70. begins to move along this axis with a simple harmonic motion A P F Show that the motion of P may be represented at any time by /isinX^. IV. axis major. acceleration In the last Example there is a disturbance which produces a normal g instead of the resistance. particle When is at an end of the acceleration k^ (distance) directed to a point 0.
pressure R We equations for the case where the particle t Articles in this Chapter which are in a first reading.CHAPTER Vt. The work. and its sense is always opposed to the sense of the velocity. but there are other. Motion on a smooth plane curve under any forces. forces acting upon it. the increment of the kinetic energy in any displacement is less than the work done by the force of the field by the work done against the resistances. unknown. "work done against the resistance. 115. and shall write down the of the curve on the particle." When a particle moves in a given field of force. Let s be the arc of the curve measured from some point of the curve up m Let S be the tangential to the position of the particle at time t of the forces in the direction in which s increases. It follows that the work done by a resistance is with its sign changed. that is to say they may do no Another class of forces to be included in the discussion are known as resistances. We had an example in the friction between an inclined plane and a body placed upon it (Art. and component A' the component along the normal inwards. and is at the same time subject to resistances. is called the always negative. The force of the field is not the only force acting on the particle. " second main subdivision of Dynamics of a Particle" relates to motion of a particle in a given field of force when the 114. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES. characteristics of a resistance are that its line of action is always the line of the velocity of the particle on which it acts. be constrained to move on a given smooth Let a particle of mass plane curve under the action of given forces in the plane. is on the inside of may be omitted marked with an asterisk (*) . Let v be the velocity the of the particle in the direction in which s increases. This work. Such forces may be constraints. 71).
shall particles. when the curve is a free path under the given forces f«r proper velocity of projection. We that the which it does work on the two particles vanishes. the sum of the lengths of the two portions is constant. Prove that. the second of the equations of motion determines the pressure B. 117. and accordingly acts inwards. Motion of two bodies connected by an inextensible suppose that the bodies may be treated as mass and extension of the string can be neglected. For example. the velocity is that due to falling under the force kept constant through one quarter of the chord of curvature in the direction of the force. 1. If . of motion of the bodies can be formed in the Art. the pressure varies as the curvature. if the string is in two portions. the curve. separated by a ring or a peg. The equations for acts outwards can be obtained by changing the case in which R R the sign of R. and that the tension of the string is the same When this is the case the (See Chapter VI. In forming the equations of The equations manner explained in motion we take account of is the condition that the length of the string constant. for any other velocity of projection. may R Examples. which written identical with the energy equation. then.128 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. 116.) throughout. 77) the particle This happens when vanishes. ^mv'' = I Sds ) + const. 2. leave the curve. In the case of onesided constraint (Art. when the particle leaves the curve. the is first of these equations It has an integral. Prove that. resolving along the tangent and normal equations of motion By we obtain the dv mv Y.= ds o. tension of the string does no work. V. When V is known from this equation. 73.= N\R P When may be the forces are conservative. ^ ^ m. for the sum of the rates at string.
92) it is is mgl(lco8 6). so that J/ is at a fixed horizontal table. If the pendulum is displaced initially so that 6 is and is let go from this position. Let 6 be the angle which the radius of the circle drawn through the position of the particle at time t makes with the The kinetic energy is ^ml^6^. and the particles are at rest. 2.115119] there is OSCILLATING PENDULUM * 129 an energy equation. measured that of the lowest Hence the energy equation can be written ^l6 = g cos 6 + const. The motion of a simple or not. f(sin^sin^). i/. of negligible mass which passes through a small smooth ring on a smooth When the thread is just stretched. or of moment of momentum. m the mass of the particle. Prove that the apsidal angle of J/'s orbit is of negligible mass . M describes on a smooth table a curve which 7rV{i(l+W^)}. M. it is an integral of the equations of motion. 75) can be determined by the energy equation. position of the To express the L. describes a curve whose polar equation is M is projected on the ring m reaches the M of the form r=csec[^VW(Jf+m)}]. or an equation ot constancy of momentum. The potential energy of the particle is the field of the earth's gravity (Art. 118. Prove that until table at right angles to the thread. is if the chosen fixed level from which point. pendulum in terms of the time 9 . the energy equation ^16^ or = g (cos 6 — cos a). m distance c from the ring. i^^ = in showing that the pendulum oscillates between two positions at an angle a on the right and which it is inclined to the vertical left sides of the vertical. pendulum. m are connected by an inextensible thread *119. or in length of the pendulum. and the thread passes through a small smooth hole at and supports m. Two are connected by an inextensible thread particles of masses if. 1. Two particles of masses circle is nearly a with centre at a point 0. where vertical drawn downwards. = 01. circular Oscillating pendulum. Examples. whether it executes small oscillations (Art. and I the radius of the circle.
130
ty
MOTIONit
yjr
UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
position,
[CHAP. V.
since
was in the equilibrium
we introduce a new
variable
defined by the equation
sin
^
sin
i/r
= sin
^
,
increases from
to a, i/r with the further conditions that as 6 increases from to ^tt as ^ diminishes from a to 0, i/r increases
;
from i TT to
to f TT
Stt.
;
TT
;
as ^ diminishes from
to
to 0,
— a,
>/r
increases from
ir
and as 6 increases from
—a
is
With
these conventions there
increases from 7r to i/r one value of ^fr corresponding
to every instant in a complete period.
Now we
have
J ^ cos
^
=
^fr
sin
^
cos
yjr,
sin^

n
sin^
=
fi
sin^

n
cos^ ^/r,
^2 = 1 ^lsin2sin2irV
Hence the time
t
from the instant when the particle was
passing through the lowest point in the direction in which Q increases is given by the equation
'Sl'g).
^(lsin^lsin^V'
where the square root
complete period
is is
always to be taken positively.
The
a
4
/LP
IP
between
d±
and
sin
is
With the above
Elliptic
relation
t
t
i/r,
i/r
is
said to be an
Function of
sin
a/j, and
(^t
the relation
written
yjr
= sn
y/)
^mod
sin
.
)
The
function has a real period, and the integral
dyjr
.C
'y/(lsin^sin^^
is
one quarter of this period.
119121]
FINITE MOTION OF
PENDULUM
any time
t is
131
The
position of the
pendulum
at
determined by
the equation
sin
^
=
sin^sn
U
.
/'Ij
(mod
sin
^
If the constant in the Energy equation of Art. 119 is such that 6 never vanishes, it must be greater than g, and the velocity at the lowest point is greater than that due to falling from the highest point. Hence there will be
*120. Complete Revolution.
some
Let us suppose the velocity velocity at the highest point. at the highest point to be that due to falling through a height h
;
then, w^hen 6
= 7r
l^e^
=
2gh,
and
for
any other value of
il6'
= g(cose +
V
l+j\
+
2l^'''2j'
k'
*^
giving sin ^
21'
h
= sn
(t
a
/f)
i^od k), where
is
=
2l/{h
+ 21).
The period
of a complete revolution
/I
r^
d4>
*121.
Limiting case.
In the case where the pendulum
is
projected from the position of equilibrium with velocity equal to that due to falling from the highest point the equation can be
integrated by logarithms.
The constant
be chosen so that
fore is
in the energy equation of Art. 119
vanishes
when 6 =
7r,
must then and the equation there
^le^
= g {1 +
cos d),
which may be written
The time
of describing an angle
is
therefore
t,
where
9—2
132
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
It is to
[CHAP. V.
be noted that the particle approaches the highest not reach it in any finite time. point indefinitely, but does The same equations may be used to describe the motion of the
particle
which
starts
from a position indefinitely close to the
circle.
unstable position of equilibrium at the highest point of the
*122,
1.
Examples.
finite oscillation
is 2rr (1
Prove that the time of a
is
when the
fourth power of
a,
the angle of oscillation,
2.
neglected,
+ j^^a^) >J{l/g).
Prove that, in the limiting case of Art. 121,
e = 2ia.n^{i\nh{t^{ffll)}.
3.
Prove that,
if
a seconds' pendulum makes a complete
finite oscillation
in four seconds, the angle a is about 160°.
*123.
Smooth plane tube rotating
in its plane.
Let
in
a particle of mass tube rotate in
a point
it.
m
move
let
a
smooth plane tube, and
its
the
plane about rigidly connected with
Let OA be any particular radius vector of the tube, and
the angle which OA makes <^ with a fixed line in the plane of the tube. Then <f> is the angular
velocity of the tube.
Fig. 40.
We
shall
write
(o
for
<j>.
the position of the particle in the tube at time t. = 0. Then r and 6 are polar coordinates Let OP = r, and of referred to OA as initial line, and r and ^ + </> are polar
Let
P be
^AOF
P
coordinates of
P
referred to a fixed initial line.
Let p be the
radius of curvature of the tube at P.
Let V be the velocity of the particle relative to the tube. = s, v is s, the direction of v is that of the tangent Then, if arc to the tube, and the resolved parts of v along OP and at right
AP
angles to
OP
are r and rO.
Now
the resolved accelerations of the particle along
OP and at
right angles to
OP
are
and
1{^.(^4_^)).
121124]
REVOLVING ORBIT
133
These may be written
r
—
r dt (r2^)42r«
1^
+ ra)
w
are equivalent to v
v^lp
Of
these the terms independent of
dv
ds
along the tangent to the tube at normal to the tube.
P and
inwards along the
The terms containing 2(o as a factor are equivalent to 2cov inwards along the normal to the tube. This can be seen by considering that r along OP and rO transverse to OP are equivalent
that
to V along the tangent in the direction in which s increases, and we have, as multipliers of 2ft), the components of this result
ant turned through a right angle.
Now we
can resolve a vector in the direction
ponents along the tangent at
P
to the tube
OP into comand inwards along
p
is
dv 7) the normal by multiplying by 7 and V as
dicular from
to
,
where
the perpen
on the tangent; similarly
for a vector transverse
OP.
Hence
finally the accelerations resolved
along the tangent and
normal to the tube are
dv
V ^
v^
ft)"r
dr
y
ds
r^
ds
„
+ ft)»,
,
—
p
h
zwv
+ (o^p ^
dr
ds^
\
cor y
let the particle move in the tube under the action of forces in the plane of the tube whose resolved parts along the be the tangent and normal to the tube are S and N, and let
Now
R
pressure of the tube on the particle. are
Then the equations
of motion
m
v^
dv
V
T
dr
(o^r T
+
.
oyp
rn
+
^
2(ov
+
o
(o^p
+
dr
ds
(or
LP
*124.
Newton's Revolving
is
Orbit.
Suppose that the form
of the tube in Art. 123
a free path under a central force to 0.
134
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
(f>
[CHAP. V.
which is with an angular velocity Let the tube turn about to nd, where n is constant, and 6 is the angular always equal
velocity of the radius vector in the free path when the particle is at (r, 0). Then the path traced out by the particle is a free path under the original central force and an additional central force
which varies inversely as the cube of the distance.
Let
f
be the central acceleration in the free path, and ^h the
rate of description of areas.
Then we
are given
Now,
and
in the tube
<^
= nO^
so that
rr{d + (j>y = f^re^ (2n + n")
tube
particle in the revolving a free path with a central acceleration to made up of two one of them being /, and the other being inversely proporterms,
is
r^.
Hence the path traced out by the
tional to
This result
may be
stated in another form as follows
:
— Rela
tively to a certain frame a particle describes a central orbit about
particle relatively to the second frame is again a central orbit with the central acceleration increased an amount
the origin with central acceleration /; if a second frame with the same origin rotates about the origin relatively to the first frame, with an angular velocity always the same multiple of that of the radius vector in the said central orbit, the path of the
by
inversely proportional
to the cube of the distance.
n25.
1.
Examples.
particle
A
rotates uniformly about the pole, to the pole of the Prove spiral.
central force
form of an equiangular spiral which under the action of a central force that, if there is no pressure on the tube, the at distance r must be of the form Ar + Br^, where A and B
moves
in a tube in the
and
is
are constants.
2. Prove that motion which, relatively to any frame, can be described as motion in a central orbit with acceleration ^/(distance)3 towards the origin and moment of velocity h may be described, relatively to a different frame with the same origin, as uniform motion in a
straight line, provided h'^>fx.
124126]
MOTION ON A ROUGH CURVE
135
3. particle moves in a smooth plane tube, and is under a central force to a fixed point about which the tube rotates uniformly. Prove that, if the pressure is always zero, the central force is
A
m [rco2 + 2ro)
where
(Ji
 r^a>)/p^ + {h — r^a))^p~^dpjdr],
m is the mass
of the particle,
mh
is its
moment
of
momentum
about
the fixed point, w is the angular velocity of the tube, r is the radius vector, and p the perpendicular from the fixed point on the tangent to the tube at the position of the particle.
*126.
Motion on a rough plane curve under
is
When
a particle
constrained to describe
gravity. a plane curve in a
under gravity but there is motion as well as pressure on the curve we assume that the friction is times the pressure, where
vertical plane
frictional resistance to the
fju
/A is
the coefficient of friction.
The
friction
acts along the tangent to the curve in the sense opposite to that of the velocity.
The equations of motion take different forms in different circumstances. We shall
choose for investigation the case where the particle is on the outside of the curve, and
is
^^a, 41.
descending.
the curve be measured from some point of the increases in the sense of the velocity, and let <f) be the angle contained between the inwards normal and the downwards vertical. Then (p increases with s, and ds/d(l> (= p) is the
Let the arc
s of
curve so that
it
length of the radius of curvature.
Let V be the velocity of the particle, its mass, the pressure of the curve on the particle. The equations of motion are
m
R
mv
dv
j
„ = mg sm <p — /xMy
.
,
m — = mg cos — R
cf)
Eliminating
R
V
we obtain the equation
dv
^^ ds
v^ — — = g (sin <^ —
fjb
//<
cos
(^),
or
dv
~d^
—
/jbv^
= gp (sin
—
</>
/a
cos
<^).
136
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
This equation can be integrated after multiplication by the
factor
e^***,
in fact it
becomes
ri (iy^e'^'*"^)
= gpe^f"^ (sin
<^
<t>
 fi cos
</>),
d<p
so that
v»e2M«^
=
2g
I
pe'^*^ (sin
 /i cos <^) d<t> + const.,
a function of
<^,
an equation which determines
v as
and therefore
The velocity being gives the velocity at any point of the curve. determined, the second of the equations of motion gives the
pressure, and, just as in the case of a
smooth curve,
if i?
vanishes
the particle leaves the curve.
motion take different forms according as the outside the curve, and according as it is particle or descending. But in each case the equations can be ascending There is accordingly no definite integrated by the above method. expression for the velocity at any point of the curve in terms of
The equations
is
of
inside
or
the position, but the expressions obtained are different in the
different cases.
*127.
1.
Examples.
in
Write down the equations of motion in the three cases not investigated Art. 126 and the integrating factor in each case.
2.
sphere of radius
horizontally from the lowest point of a rough to this point after describing an arc aa, Prove that the initial velocity (a<^7r), coming to rest at the lowest point. is sin a ^{2ga {l+fi'^)/{l  g/x^)}, where /x is the coefficient of friction.
a,
A particle is projected
and returns
3. particle slides down a rough cycloid, whose base is horizontal and vertex downwards, starting from rest at a cusp and coming to rest at the
A
vertex.
4.
Prove that,
if
fi
is
the coefficient of friction, fi^e^'=\.
veitex
time
t
A ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire whose base is horizontal and downwards prove that during the ascent the direction of motion at makes with the horizontal an angle 0, given by the equation
;
^,{/*«"^sin(</> + 0}=sec2..*tane^i^(^^^^^
where
f is
the angle of friction.
*128.
Motion on a curve In general.
forces,
When
a particle
moves on a given curve under any
we take
m
for the
mass
of the particle, S for the tangential component of the resultant force of the field, iV for the component along the principal normal.
p to be the radius of curvature.^\ which expresses that the friction is proportional to the resultant There results a differential equation for v^ and.126129] MOTION ON A CURVE 187 component along the binormal. and let the particle at time t be at distance y and be on a meridian curve of the surface in an axial plane axis.. 126 the velocity in velocity in terms of the position. The other two equations then determine the pressure. R^ by F^=^ti^{R^^ means of the equation + R. if we pressure. we shall obtain an equation giving the As in Art. Also we take Ri the component of the pressure along the principal normal towards the centre of curvature. 115. the curve is rough we take Further if F take s to be the arc of the curve from some point to the position of the particle at time t. for the friction. and R^ for the component of the and for B for the pressure along the binormal in the same sense as B. can integrate this equation. We and V to be the velocity. increases to be that of and we suppose the sense in which Then the equations of motion are as j s mv = SF. in the ^mv^ = I + const. is so that the velocity determined in terms of the position. Sds and we can integrate the form in Art. v. R^. Motion on a smooth surface of revolution with axis. m=N+Rj P = When first smooth equation. F is zero. on the way in which that position has any position depends partly been reached. . *129. in the same way as the curve is B + R. a vertical Let the axis of revolution be the axis x {x being measured from the upwards). When the curve is rough we have to eliminate F. and this result can be expressed in the form change of kinetic energy = work done.
since the pressure of the surface on the particle acts along the normal to the surface. Again. and the velocity along the tangent to the clear that the velocity along the tangent to the circular y^. makes with the vertical. that in is y(f}) two they determine the two components of velocity (cr and directions. which lie in the tangent plane to the surface. If 3/ IS the radius of the circle. making an angle of the meridian with a given axial plane. the forces acting on the particle have no moment about this axis. and the normal meets the axis of revolution. *130. or we have y^(f> = const. and ^ the angle which the normal to the surface at any point on the projection is circle /S)'. while the force of gravity acts in a line parallel to this axis.be the arc from some particular circular section to the position of the particle. 1. Fig. V. Hence the moment of the momentum about the axis is constant. 42.138 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES </> [CHAP. the required velocity of {gy tan . Thus the energy equation i (a^ + y^(j>'') is +gx = const. Examples. and let o. The equations which have been written down determine & and (j). at right angles to each other. Then meridian section is it is is &. If the particle is properly projected it can describe a circle.
but the process can in general be simplified by using methods of Kinematics and Analytical Dynamics which are beyond the scope of the present work. p the radius of curvature . At any point we may resolve the force of the field into components along the tangents to the curves that meet in that point. and the resultant friction has the same direction as the velocity but the opposite sense. For a particle moving on a smooth surface in a conservative there will be an energy equation expressing the velocity in terms of the position. part We Let V be the velocity of the particle. 2. if Iju is put for y. We may imagine the surface to be covered with a network of curves belonging to distinct families. We may resolve the acceleration along the same lines. and along the normal to the surface. *131. Motion on a surface in general. Prove that. We shall therefore confine proceed to investigate a general expression for the resolved of the acceleration along the normal to the surface. to the product of the coefficient of friction We have thus the means of writing down equations of motion of the particle. a constant. where m is the mass of the particle..*2+/(«)=const. and x=f{u) is the equation of the meridian curve of the surface. ourselves to the simplest cases. and we may suppose the curves that meet in any point to cut at right angles. fixed surface move on a under the action of given Let a particle forces and the pressure and friction of the surface. in such a way that at each point of the surface one curve of one family meets one curve of the other family.129131] MOTION ON A SURFACE is 139 In this case the pressure of the surface equal to mg sec ^. will When the surface is rough there be two components of tangents to the two curves that point. We shall see presently that the pressure is field determinate as soon as the velocity is known. the projection of the path of the particle on a horizontal plane is given by an equation of the form (^)'[l where A is + K/(«)P]+. Also the resultant friction friction in the directions of the meet at any is equal in magnitude and the pressure.
This suppose section is not. 1 of Art. Hence the acceleration along the normal to the surface is v^\p\ and the pressure is determined by resolving along the normal. we We take p to be the radius of curvature of the normal section of the surface through the tangent to the path. A. Y. it Osculating plane of path. 130 stated that a particle may be projected along a horizontal tangent of a smooth surface of revolution whose axis is vertical is with such velocitv that it describes the circular section under Fig. In Ex.140 of its MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES path. The tangent to the path touches the surface. . in general. Since the normal to the surface is at right angles to the tangent to the path the resolved part of the acceleration along the normal to the surface is the resolved part in that direction of the acceleration along the principal normal to the path. the osculating plane of the path suppose that it makes an angle </> with this osculating plane. it is therefore ^' — COS Q). . *132. and we a normal section of the surface drawn through it. 9 Also by a wellknown theorem we have p =p cos </>. 43. [CHAP.
and above that plane.131133] the action MOTION ON A SURFACE 141 of gravity and the pressure of the surface. along V Hence resolving along this line we have </>) — mg cos (« — RsiiKJ) where = 0. or V^>gy cot a. and R the pressure. Examples. with the notation p'=PG. </> point of projection. Now the if tan (j> > tan a. <l). the point of projection. is m is the mass of the particle. Let Z Let P be PG PN=y P GPN When the particle is projected along the tangent to the there is initially no acceleration circular section with velocity a line in the meridian plane at right angles to PQ. 1. under no forces particle moving on ca surface (smooth or rough) but the reaction of the surface describes a geodesic. It is almost obvious that if the velocity exceeds that requisite for description of the circle the path of the particle rises above the circle. 2. Q the point where the osculating plane of the path = a. Now. path initially lies the osculating plane of below the horizontal plane through the or if V^< gy cot a. Again. resolving along PN^ we have (j)) m — cos (a — where p is = R cos a. A A particle moves on a rough cylinder of radius a under no forces but . This equation determines the position of the osculating plane of the path. 131. 131 to find the position of the osculating plane of the path for any velocity of projection. the normal to the surface at right angles to the axis of the ordinate of at P. and Z GPQ = </>. of Art. tan < tan a. y = PN = PG cos taiKJ) Hence =gy/V^. We may use the result of Art. otherwise it falls below the circle. revolution. it lies n33. Also p = PG cos a. the radius of curvature of the path. meets the axis.
c{a>b>c) is placed with the greatest axis vertical. in addition to the force of the field. and is about its axis which makes Show that a particle can slide down a fixed line of radius a is a> with uniform velocity aa. the reaction of the surface. — kz. Resistance proportional to the Velocity. Since the velocity of a particle is a vector whose direction and sense are determined by the resolved parts x. . made to rotate uniformly with angular velocity an angle a with the parallel to the axis rough on the inside. there is exerted on the particle a force proportional to a power of direction as the velocity its velocity having the sense. tlie coefficient of friction. Let the motion take place under gravity parallel to the negative direction of the axis y. 135. A hollow circular cylinder vertical. same and the opposite Problems of this kind are related to facts of observation in regard to the motions of bodies in the air and in other fluid media. F in it a direction making an moves over an arc ~^ a/x fi cosec2 a log ( 1 + /* Vta " ^ sin^ a). Show that the osculating plane of the path is initially above or below this section according as v2> or <gab^ {¥lc^\)lsj{{a^c^) 134. the resistance has resolved parts — kx. {a^h'^)]. is /x the coefficient of friction. V. and fi>cot ellipsoidal shell a. and first suppose the particle to move vertically. Motion in Resisting Medium. being 3.v/{(/iHl)/(/i2tan2al)}. The equation of motion is = mg. — k^. where /c is a constant. and a particle is projected from one of the lower umbilics with velocity v along the tangent to the horizontal section within the ellipsoid. 6. y.142 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. In many cases it is found that the observed facts can be approxiis mately represented by the supposition that the resistance proportional motion of a to the velocity. this is true for instance for the pendulum swinging in air. mi/ or ^ + ^+9 = 0. starting with velocity angle a with the generators prove that in time t . where 4.fcy. i. We consider cases of the motion of a particle in a known field of force when. An whose principal semiaxes are a.
We or have the equation mx = — mn^x — kx. but for the horizontal motion we have an equation giving i. . and with amplitude diminishing .\\% + B sin [t slin" . X= e^^* where \ [A cos [t sj^n" .\\%\ The motion may be roughly described as simple harmonic motion with period '±'K\\J{n^ — JX^). as functions of the path can be Resisted Simple Harmonic Motion. as a function of Again suppose that the particle is projected in any other than a vertical direction then the vertical motion is the same as before. 136. In the takes different forms according as v?> ox < ^X^. is This velocity called the terminal velocity in the medium. The equation as to express r/ last written can easily be integrated again so t. where (7 is a constant of integration. Consider the case where. or the particle falls with a practically constant velocity when it has been falling for some seconds. 143 e^^ where X we have is Multiplying by and integrating.183136] RESISTING MEDIUM written for «r/m. be integrated again so as to express determined. X \\x { v?x — 0. mx = — KXy = Ae""*/^. Since x and y are known. the motion would be simple harmonic in period 27r/n. a. where ^ is a constant of integration. equation which is practically the more important. If the particle continues to fall for a sufficiently long time the value of y will ultimately differ very little from —gmJK. it is former case. This equation can easily as a function of t t. A. and the resistance is proportional to the velocity. Hence y = Ce"^/'^ mgJK. The complete primitive of this is written for /c/m. apart from the resistance.
2. V. show that the range and time of flight t A R are given by the equations VoVi= gt. It rises to a height h and returns to the point of projection with velocity iv. if is the period. Thus the motion rapidly Examples. and that the amplitude falls off in geometric progression as the time increases in dies away. Prove that. Prove also that R=UQVtl{y+V()\ where Fis the terminal velocity in the A body performs rectilinear vibrations under an attractive force to a centre proportional to the distance in a medium whose resistance is Prove that. 137.\^\n^ = Q. is fixed and the particle is held at a distance h{>a) below the fixed A point. (ii) in its subsequent motion will oscillate about a . proportional to the velocity. particle is projected vertically upwards with velocity *' in a medium in which the resistance is proportional to the velocity. and the particle any displaced position. 5. particle of unit mass is fastened to one end of an elastic thread of natural length a and modulus an^. according to the formula 4. E=t {uo . when set free. 1. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the velocity. ^0. in a medium the resistance of which to the motion of the particle is 2k The other end of the thread (velocity). it creeps asymptotically towards its position of equilibrium. are fixed T the coordinates of the extremities of three consecutive semivibrations. medium. h. according to the exponential function e~^^^. (i) it will begin to rise or it fall according as n2(6a)>or<^. X>2w.Wi)/(log Uq . then the coordinate of the position of equilibrium and the time of vibration if there were no resistance are respectively problem considered in Art. Vi. If in the starts from rest in where a and /3 are the roots of the quadratic ^^. and a. Prove that A where V is the terminal velocity in the medium. arithmetic progression. starting with horizontal and vertical component velocities Wq. and returning to the horizontal plane through the point of projection with component velocities ^i . 3. c.144 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP.log u^). 136. It will be observed that the period is lengthened by the resistance.
u^ = const. Again resolving along the normal to path. 10 . where m^=n^ A particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex 6. This equation can be integrated when f{v) 1 n/c ^^\ = aci. t. du rrr d<i> = vf(v) where v g r = u sec 6. we "^ get . where p increases. . Investigate the equations A which the where h and /x are constants. — kK (iv) the interval between any two positions of rest is 7r/m. *138. is Since <^ diminishes as s — ds/dcf). For law of resistance we can make some progress with the any equations of motion of a particle moving in a vertical plane under gravity. terms of </>.136138] point RESISTING MEDIUM 145 from which is at a distance a+g/n^ below the fixed point. g jcos"+i<^ and therefore also in an equation giving L. is we have .= gcos<l>. since the resistance directed along the tangent. where <f> the angle which the direction of motion at time t ^^' ' makes with the horizontal and u is the horizontal velocity.**. is /> the radius of curvature.. downwards under gravity and a resistance varying as the velocity. eliminating (f>. Let mf{v) be the magnitude of the resistance when velocity is v. M. v. (r) in a medium of particle moves under a central force resistance varies as the velocity. 7. being the mass of the m the particle. and the above equation may be written v^—^g cos and thus.f(v) is COSCJ). Motion in a vertical plane under gravity. and we have — d(b :^zr. then resolving horizontally we have u = . Prove that the time of falling from any point to the vertex is independent of the starting point. so that u — v cos </>. (iii) the distances of successive positions of rest form a geometric series of ratio e""^*/"*. ^ . u.
. dx ^= give us a? . = CgiKy _ gj^^ is Again.146 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. y being measured upwards. when the particle descending we have. where the resistance proportional to the square of the velocity the velocity can be KV^. Now hence —{^f)^Ky^ = g. Now the equation gives t =— I sec ^dcft { const. when the particle is ascending.. y or = 9'cy\ ^(hy') giving y^=z + 'cy' = g. V. measuring y downwards. however. Also the equations . It is not determined generally possible to vertical rectilinear motion even for integrate the equation for the case here described where f{v) is In the special case. 3/ = v. . particle are and thus the time and the position of the in terms of a single parameter <^. = . so that t is found in terms of <^. We have. = I — d(/) + const. dy ds j^ cos<l>.. ^ Ce~^y. ^ fC .n^. ^=s. = found in any position. we have Multiplying by ^"y and integrating.I— tan</>c?<^ + const. ^fe^y = giving 2/2   e^y + const.
(distance) to a point in the line. 3. where The bob of a simple pendulum moves under gravity in a medium of 4. 2. which is practically attained when the particle has fallen through a considerable height. power of the velocity. which the resistance per unit of mass is k (velocity)^. s/{g/K). 10—2 . it will first come to rest at a distance 6. Prove that. A particle of weight W moves in a medium whose resistance varies is the resistance as the nth. fi if it starts from rest at a distance a from the centre of force. there a terminal velocity. C/'^^ then in time t it i log cosh (^^/C/'). Examples. 139] RESISTING MEDIUM 147 is As in the case of resistance proportional to the velocity. then the direction of motion makes an angle F when W — = ncos^(f) A f j sec" + ^(/)c^0.138. if the particle is let fall from rest. projected vertically upwards in a medium whose resistProve that the interval that is less ^lapses before it returns to the point of projection there were no resistance.cos Oe^^^ where I is the length of the pendulum. acquires a velocity Utanhigt/U) and falls a distance where U is the terminal velocity in the medium.2kI sin ^e^^W ^. paiticle is A ance varies as the square of the velocity. "^139. if with the horizon. and starts from the lowest point with such velocity that if it were unresisted the angle of oscillaProve that it comes to rest after describing an angle 6 which tion would be a. satisfies the equation (1 + 4:<H^) cos a = 4<H^ . particle of unit mass moves in a straight line under an attraction Prove that. than it would be if Prove also that. 1 . and a resistance k ( velocity )2.
Prove that it will leave the curve if the velocity of projection lies between »J{2ga) and •J{{ga (5 . arj A particle is constrained to move in an ellipse about a centre of force in one focus varying inversely as the square of the distance. the perpendicular from F on AB cuts at Q the circle on AB as diameter. a particle moves in a smooth tube under the action of forces tending to centres. A particle 4. its path. =75. vertical. ellipse. and moves under gravity along the concave side. the whole length of the curve being Tra if ^  Prove that. smooth cycloid has its axis AB inclined to the vertical and its convexity upwards a particle begins to slide down the arc from A. 3. >v^{/a an elliptic tube under a force to a focus equal to Prove that. the pressure at the lowest point will vanish if I = 4na^bl{a^ + 2nab +262). . and l<2a. if the ring falls from an extremity fixed to the foci of the wire. 26 are the major and minor axes of the 5. and leaves the curve at P. Prove that PR is horizontal. if the constraint were removed at any point of would describe an orbit passing through the other focus.e)}. A ring is free to move on a smooth elliptic wire whose minor axis is thread of natural length I and of modulus equal to n times the weight of the ring passes through the ring and has its extremities Prove that.e^)] . Prove that. A particle moves in ^^2 + ^3 per unit of mass.148 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. it elliptic arc. is projected horizontally from the lowest point of a smooth whose major axis 2a is vertical. 1. given by p\r^^a^{lef 2. if it is projected from the nearer the pressure is vertex with velocity {l + e)/a (1 . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. A 6. and its initial velocity is such that if it were free its orbit would pass through the other focus. the pressure on the tube at proportional to any point will be p{^^i4H' . V. where 2a. the form of the curve being such that the pressure on the curve is times always the weight of the particle. and QR is a diameter of this circle. An elastic of the major axis. particle moves on a smooth curve in a vertical plane. Prove that the time of a complete revolution is A m (m^D? 7—5 V Q ' ^^^ *^^* *^® length of the vertical axis of the curve is — 7.
m is acted on by and In^ is large . the velocity of each bead being due to . Prove also that. assumed constant. if of the suspending cord. falling from the highest point of the other circle. the tension makes an angle d with the vertical. Prove that the time of a beat of a circular pendulum of length a to the time of complete revolution of oscillating through an angle 2a is equal a cosec^^a. if / is the internal limiting point of the coaxal system of which the are members. When the brakes are put on. the distance from this centre. their planes being at different inclinations two small heavy beads are projected at the same instant along these circles from their lowest points. then any chord through / divides the circle and the line A HK HK wire into two parts which are described in equal times. above the circle. ^3 . Show that throughout the motion the two beads will always be at the same height.3) ag]^ it will just reach the lowest Two equal smooth circular tubes are fixed so as to touch at their 9. r and p is the radius of curvature. Prove that the train will come to rest after running about 385 yards. The bob a horizontal force of a simple pendulum of length I and mass mpg cos nt. and contains a particle. is p is the perpen dicular from this centre on the tangent. which is attached to the highest point of the tube by an elastic thread inside the tube. A smooth circular tube of radius a is fixed in a vertical plane. 11. where p is a large number. (Hcos2^)2 I and remains suspended from the roof of a railway carriage running uniformly at 30 miles an hour.cos g) "! ^*^\lfcos2^"^ 12. the height of the line of zero velocity above of a length pendulum the lowest point being 2acosec'*^a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES where is 149 j the acceleration towards any one of the centres. 14. and the natural length of the thread subtends an angle ^tt at the centre. The bob of a pendulum (weight W) is suspended by a cord from one end of an inextensible rod of negligible mass. which is constrained to move rod is attached to a cord passing over vertically. is 2 (cos 6 cos ^ . Prove being that due to falling from a horizontal line that. lowest points the same horizontal plane. the pendulum oscillates through an angle of 3". bead moves on a smooth circular wire in a vertical plane its velocity 10. and the other end of the a smooth pulley and supporting a body of weight W. 8. when j it the amplitude of the vibration is a. if when the particle is in equilibrium it receives by an impulse a downward velocity V{(2t point. the modulus of elasticity is \yj^ of the weight of the particle. Prove that the period of small oscillations of the pendulum is the same as when the point of support is at rest. the vertical while the train is A simple pendulum is resistance being 13. Prove that.
if extensible. 22. A particle. natural length of the thread and the increase of its length when in the lowest position. ^=2/p. summit. Prove that a hypocycloid. descended a distance x measured vertically. sliding down a smooth it spherical hill from rest at the a plumbline is suspended in a tube which is always held perpendicular to the surface of the hill at the point of contact Prove that the tension of the cord. Prove that. oscillate about either of compared with g. the suspending fibre of a simple pendulum is slightly is that due to the stretched length A particle moves in a smooth tube in the form of a catenary being attracted to the directrix with a force proportional to the distance from the directrix. in a it will reach the pole A cycloidal wire in a vertical is plane. is at rest equiangular spiral under the action of a force /x/(distance)2 towards the pole. with its axis vertical and vertex upwards completely occupied by equal small smooth rings. Prove that the period of oscillation is independent of the amplitude. Prove that it will descend through a vertical height which is a third proportional to the .150 MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. of unit mass. is w{a. where a is the radius of the sphere. 19. a vertical plane. if the constraint at the cusps is removed. Show that the pendulum may two points distant a from the lowest point with an amplitude ^. is isochronous for a force varying as the distance from the centre of the fixed circle. and the modulus of elasticity is twice the weight of the ring. 20. and that the time of an oscillation is where the force per unit of mass at unit distance 21. smooth tube in the form of an of angle a at a distance 2d from the pole. Prove that.Sx)la. w is The point of support of a simple pendulum of length I and weight attached to a massless spring so that it can move to and fro in a horizontal hne. is fi. 15. then in time t the length of the arc cleared of rings will be where I is the length of the cycloid. 18. V. the period of small oscillation of the fibre in the position of equilibrium. generated by the rolling of a circle of radius 6 on a circle of radius a. when the platform has of the platform. W is the weight required to stretch the spring a length A platform is I. being attached by an elastic thread to a fixed point in the plane it starts from a position in which the thread has its natural length. Prove that. and w is the weight of the lead. prove that the time of vibration is where 16. . in time or sec a c?^/V/i. From a point fixed on A ring slides on a smooth wire bent into the form of a curve in 17. where COS a = 2ln^l{gp^). the thread being stretched throughout the motion.
thread of length I. and is let go. m'/m<2 tan a tan i3 . masses Two particles of m and Km are connected by a thread which passes over the top of a smooth circle. the major axis being vertical. which are at a distance a apart and in a horizontal line. the particle of greater mass m will at once pull the other off the plane if 21. Two particles of masses m. Show that. 151 cycloidal tube. is with axis vertical and vertex downwards. and are held on two inclined planes each of angle a placed back to back with their highest points beneath the centre of the pulley. passes over two small smooth pegs A and B. and supports B. Two particles A. where x<Aa — l^ it will reach the vertex in time I where n ve is 8wa + ^. nlj {! + <). of which the radius of the generating circle is a. the ratio of the modulus of the string to the weight of the particle. reach the table if the velocity of projection is less than that due to falling through a height 28. and 1/(1 +k). m' are attached to the ends of a thread passing over a pulley. 24. Show that the motion of from its position of equilibrium will be the same as that m of a free particle starting from the top of the circle. 25.1. being connected by a thread on which is a ring of mass hanging just over the edge of the table. on which A moves. under gravity diminished in the ratio V(l + k^ + 2k cos a) 1 k. and a straight the vertical plane containing the slit with the string straight. 26. if each portion of the thread makes an angle /3 with the corresponding plane. and if n is the ratio of the masses of B and A. B cannot 27. Two particles of masses P and Q lie near to each other on a smooth horizontal table. a being the angle which the connecting : + thread subtends at the centre. An M and m. point of endless thread of length on which are threaded beads of masses AB The hghter bead m is raised to the middle Show that the beads will just meet if (M+m)IM=2^{l/{l\a)}. the particles lying on the circle.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 23. . and contains two elastic placed threads of natural length I fastened at one end of each to the cusps and at their other ends to a particle. slit is cut in the bottom of the groove. Prove that its path is part of an ellipse of semiaxes I. Find the time also when x>^a  1. passes through the slit and supports a particle of mass Km. Prove that. 29. If the particle is moved a distance x from A the vertex. if AC=kI. Prove that it falls with acceleration R ^(l/P+l/0^(l/P+l/$+4/i2). A is projected along the table at right angles to AC. attached at one end to a shot of mass resting in the groove. and is then let go. The suspended particle is held displaced in A straight smooth groove is cut in a A m horizontal table. B are connected by a thread of length I which passes through a small hole C in a smooth horizontal table.
. connected by an inextensible thread of length l. the height of the pulley above the highest point of the groove.AaW + 463 = 0. where 2a and 26 are the principal axes. Two small rings of equal right angles to each other at a distance d apart. V. and the foci. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. The system starts from rest in a A and B form a square position in which the threads and the radii through with C vertically below the centre.152 30. smooth pulley the smaller {m) hangs vertically and the other (J/) moves in a smooth circular groove on a fixed plane of inclination a to the vertical. Prove that after the thread becomes tight the motion is oscillatory and of period 27r {l^(P)/{av'^bu). . if it makes complete revolutions. is a horizontal plane.a^h . on which is a smooth bead of weight w. is if V^<ah'^gl{e{Za^'2. Prove that. . is the focal distance of the bead and 4a the latus rectum of the Two smooth straight horizontal nonintersecting wires are fixed at 35. One of the bodies is particle of weight is W pulled downwards with velocity Ve axis. where r parabola. and they are projected with velocities u and v from points at distances a and 6 from the shortest distance between the wires. velocity of either of them is V{(2V2)a^(l+m7m)}. and that in this case the horizontal pressures. R and R\ on the groove when Prove that. when A and B meet. Prove that. M a point close to the highest point of the groove without initial velocity. 25 cut in a horizontal table. moves in a smooth elliptic groove on a attached to two threads which pass through holes at and each thread supports a body of weight W. 33. To the bead is attached a thread. A horizontal table. (eTw) (er—a)2= const. m are connected by a cord passing over a 31. Prove that the horizontal pressure on the groove when the first particle is at an extremity of the minor axis vanishes if 2a3 . particle where h 32. which passes through a small hole at the centre of the ellipse and supports a particle of equal mass. the Two particles A^ fixed in a vertical plane. the starts from highest point of the groove being vertically under the pulley. Two particles of masses J/.h'^)]^ the particle at the ends of the axes are connected by the equation RIP ~ R'a (3a2 _ 262) =6 Wa%e^. B each of mass m slide on a circular wire of radius a and are connected with a third particle C of mass m! by two threads each equal to the radius. a weight 2c/{el). e is the eccentricity of the ellipse. and 34. is A moves from rest at an extremity of the major axis of a smooth elliptic groove of axes 2a. mass. when the particle is at an end of the minor the threads do not become slack. slide on the wires. being attached to a thread. the radius of the groove must not exceed hmM cos al{m^ — M^ cos^ a). Prove that the tension T of the thread at any stage of the motion is given by an equation of the form fixed in A smooth parabolic wire. which passes through a smooth ring fixed at the focus of the parabola and carries. at its other end.
if right angles to the string with velocities v and v' . lie on One . the lengths of the pieces being a and a!. former being within a smooth fixed horizontal tube and the latter on a smooth table in the horizontal plane of the tube. and lies on a smooth horizontal plane..sin a cos ^ + sin a sin B{1 + k) ^' ^ =0. its Prove that the polar equation of 40. Two particles P. the velocity of each had been unconnected throughout the motion.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 36. Show that the differential vertically. and the particles are projected with 38. at the Initially the thread is just extended and in two straight pieces meeting The particles are projected at ring. if l^'^tra^ the thread will become slack before the particle comes to rest. 153 Two on a vertical circular wire. Q. of the particles is set in prove that each of them is '2./'Trr \~^' Two particles. Q. by a thread of length a. connected table with the thread just straight. and that it will then have turned through an angle whose circular measure 7r is + ^a/^ + 7r(a/Z)2 + f(ff + O(«/0' + .7ra/v. Q hangs moves on the inclined plane. The thread is initially straight and the particle of mass m is projected at right angles to the thread.. throughout the motion. motion at right angles to the thread with velocity v describes a series of cycloids. the tension of the cord varies ively. Show that. 37. is the Prove that. Prove that. : ~ m'J 7^ r'^ Prove also that the other apsidal distances will be equal if mV^=3a' + a : 3a + a'. and Two P equation of P's path is sin 6 sin ad K . OQP respectProve that. are connected by a fine string which passes through a small hole in a smooth inclined plane (inclination a). then m mv^ 41.. of equal mass. the same as if they One end of a thread of length I is attached to the highest point of a fixed horizontal circular cylinder of radius a. Initially OF=OQ. Two a smooth particles of equal mass. on a smooth horizontal table are con nected by a thread passing through a small smooth ring fixed in the table. masses wi. the time of describing any one of which 42. / the distances from the ring. . equal beads connected by a massless rigid rod are placed one being at the highest point. particles P. slide equal velocities along the external bisectors of the angles OPQ. Particles of masses i/and m are attached to the ends of a thread.. T tension at any time and r. (! + '') ^2 + ^^' where k is the ratio (mass of Q mass : of P). particle attached to the other end is dropped from a position in which the thread is straight and horizontal A and at right angles to the axis of the cylinder. when is the other reaches the lowest point. path is of the form r cos m'.which passes through a small smooth ring at 0. the 39. < — 6 j. inversely as OP. on a smooth endless cord OP^.
under the 46. Prove that the time of oscillation is the same as if the rod were smooth. particle Prove that. friction being move on a long straight rough rod. axis vertical and vertex uppermost. ring moves on a rough cycloidal wire with its axis vertical and vertex downwards.m cos a) sin a) 2a being the vertical angle of the cone. from rest at an end of the horizontal diameter. particle of unit mass moves in a rough straight tube action of a central repulsive force from a point C of magnitude X/r at a distance r from C. /x is the coefficient of friction. and if the tangent at the starting point makes with the horizontal an angle greater than a. where a is the least positive angle which satisfies the equation Prove also that. the particle will oscillate. rest at a point close to that point of a A particle starts from is rough cycloidal arc (vertex uppermost) at which it could rest in hmiting equilibrium. m and m describes a circle of radius c on the cone.154 43. perform small oscillations in time 2^ V/[ \Zg c{m'+m) {m' 1 ' . and the particle starts if arc of a rough circle (/x = ^) fixed in a. Prove that it comes to rest when the radius vector from C makes with CA an angle 6 satisfying the equation A AB /i^logsec^ = y2/^. Prove that. sin(aX) = e(*+^)*'^"^sin2X. Show that the velocity at a point at which the tangent makes an angle <^ with the horizon 2 J{ag) sin (<^ f ). the coefficient of under an attraction to a fixed point (not on the rod) varying /*. and the particle is projected from A along the tube with velocity v. as the distance. and that the particle leaves the cycloid e is when the 48. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES Two particles. The point A is the foot of the perpendicular from C on the tube. where the angle of friction. if X is the angle of friction. where d is the distance of the rod from the centre of 44. if it starts from the lowest point with velocity A . A is particle slides vertex downwards. it will Prove that. if slightly disturbed. A particle slides down the 6 is vertical plane. then = Jcos^ + e~^. and that the ring will ultimately come to rest at a point within a length 2/iO? of the rod. cycloid down a rough cycloid whose axis is vertical and Prove that the time of reaching a certain point on the independent of the starting point. A ring can force. 45. velocity is kK^^9) (sin ^e+cos^c). V. and m\ are connected by a thread which masses a hole at the vertex of a smooth right circular cone having its passes through The particle of mass m! hangs vertically. the angle which the radius vector through the velocity is makes with the horizontal when the sin ^ a maximum. where 47. 49. of [CHAP.
a. wire whose centre particle P is free to move on a smooth circular with constant angular velocity in the plane of the wire about a fixed makes complete point 0. _ ^^^ ^^^2 (^ + g)^ t is where a is the radius of the generating circle and if it the angle of friction. 50. a{e^t*''^l)/{iiV)^ rough wire in the form of an equiangular spiral whose angle is placed in a vertical plane. Show that. A point P moves along a plane curve which rotates in its plane about with uniform angular velocity o). Prove also that. the plane at the equation — = V(r2a2)+cosi. moving with constant velocity V relative to same time turning round a fixed axis perpendicular to it with angular velocity a>.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Uq. . during its starts from a cusp with velocity Vq. Prove that at the starting point the coming tangent makes with the horizon an angle 2tan~i/i. and a being the least distance of the r and particle 53. A particle on a plane is it. yjr the angle between OP and the tangent. its velocity u when its direction of motion horizontal is given by is 155 <f> inclined at an angle to the ^^2= (^^2 + 4^^ sin2^) e2«/> tan . to rest at its lowest point. its velocity v descent v'^ is given by = {Vo^ + 4ag C0s2 e) e(*2'^)tane _ ^^^ ^^^2 ^^ _ g). being referred to fixed axes. the pressure between the particle and the wire 54. if CP=30C and the particle just vanishes when revolutions.2 Vra> sin y(r)^ \fA) yjr ( where r is the length OP. particle is projected from a point on the lowest generator of a rough horizontal cylinder of radius « with velocity Fat right angles to the generator. and moves under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface. V the velocity of P relative to the curve. from the axis of rotation. A C revolves CP makes with 00 an angle sec'^B.1 ) sin </> + 3/x cos = 2/i.is the curvature of the curve at P. and that the velocity is greatest when the angle <f) which the direction of motion makes with the cot~^2fi is A horizon is given by the equation (2/bt2 . and / the rate of increase of V. and a heavy particle slides down it. Prove that the path of the particle is given by the 52. A Prove that it returns to the point of projection after a time where fi is the coefficient of friction. 51. a point Prove that the curvature of its path is V{(r V+ 2a>)(V+r(o sin + r(o(Va> sin /cos ylr+r<o^) 72 + rW 4.
. . Prove that a particle can remain at an extremity of the axis major. and the to rotate with uniform angular velocity about a vertical axis the particle. 57.156 65. its — e^)/ea)j where elliptic e is the eccentricity. A bead is initially . 59. A particle made tube is is at rest in a smooth horizontal circular tube. Prove that through a point on the diameter passing through arc bounded by a chord through the centre of the time of describing any rotation is constant. . the major axis being vertical and the particle being at rest at the highest point. the tube is suddenly set in rotation with uniform angular velocity >/{^gl{(i + b)}.rgW) +Xe2/c = const.(a + c cos ^)}. and. Prove the wire made to rotate with uniform angular velocity that the bead will subsequently a> move with velocity y (a^ + c2 + 2ac cos ^) . about their point of intersection. where m is a small constant such that the semiaxes of this new free orbit are equal to those of the original one reduced by fractions inh^jr^ and n{\ + b'^/r^) of themselves. the wire is suddenly stopped. will oscillate in a period 27r V(l 60. A body is describing an ellipse of semiaxes a. as that of the bob of a simple pendulum. 56. b about a centre of gravitation. Two small beads of masses rrii m2 slide along two smooth straight 58. ^2 are the distances of the beads mi (ri2 A smooth elliptic tube rotates about a vertical axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane with uniform angular vislocity co. and when it is at a distance r from this centre it comes under the influence of a small disturbing force directed to the same point and varying Prove that the effect is the same as if inversely as the cube of the distance. V. Prove that the particle will move on the ellipse as if under a force to the centre varying as the distance.ri2a)2) + m^ {r^ . where 2a and 26 are the axes of the ellipse. A particle can move in a smooth tube which can turn about centre in a vertical plane. and r^. the body described under the original force an orbit which at the same time rotated (with the body) round the centre of force with angular velocity n times the angular velocity of the body. The rods are made to revolve uniformly in their plane. where e is from the intersection of the wires at any time. and the beads are connected by an elastic thread of natural length c and modulus X.. A smooth horizontal circular wire rotates uniformly about a point in Prove that the motion of a bead on the wire will be the same its plane. When the bead has moved a distance aO on the wire. at rest on a is smooth circular wire of radius a in a a> horizontal plane about an axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through a point on the diameter through the bead at a distance c from the centre. with angular Prove that throughout the motion velocity a>. if slightly disturbed. the extension of the thread. and. rods which intersect at an angle a. MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES [CHAP. 61.
n a fi cosh (f) ^> where a is of the helix to the horizon. tj=^cl "^ ta. Prove that the particle makes at least one complete revolution round the axis if /3 ^aa)^lg>[{7r + 2y) sin 7 + 2 cos y] sin ^ cot a cosec^ a. the groove from rest at the vertex show that the time of descending through a vertical height k is equal to the time of falling freely through a height . lie A smooth tube bent so as to on a cone of vertical angle 2a and to cut the generators at a constant angle ^. cut on the surface of a right circular cone and vertex upwards in such a manner that the tangent A small smooth groove is is vertical whose axis is particle slides down always inclined to the vertical at the same angle ^3. A and radius a under a Show that the pressure is cannot vanish unless the greatest velocity of the particle 64. another particle circulates in a smooth helical tube described on the cylinder of diameter h whose axis is horizontal. is where 67. A particle a. sin 7 = tan a cot ^3. 63. rest at the vertex. touching the circular tube at the lowest point. the axis of the cone being vertical The tube is made to rotate uniformly about the and the vertex uppermost. moves sphere of radius angular velocity in a smooth tube in the form of a loxodrome on a while the tube turns uniformly about the polar axis with The particle is projected from a point in the equatoreal . ^ 68. w. it will in time t describe along the tube a distance from ^ . if a particle starts axis of the cone with angular velocity Q.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 157 62. with velocity due to a height 2a above the lowest point. and a particle rests in the tube. and a is the radius of the helix. 65. A h sec^ /3. particle slides on a smooth helix of angle a force to a fixed point on the axis equal to /x (distance). Prove that. . = . A smooth helical tube of pitch a has its axis inclined at an angle 66.?^^° r. ds d(f) sec^acoshd) . The tube is made to turn about its axis with uniform angular velocity a. the radius of the cylinder on which the helix lies. fcosh ^ (Qi sin a cos ^) Q2sm2acosi3^ ^ 1]. Prove that the velocity v after describing an arc y2 given by the equations . Prove that the two particles can move so as always to be at the same level. A particle moves on a helical wire s is whose axis is vertical. aflr ^ ^ sec a smhd). Show also that the pressure is constant and makes with the principal normal to the path a constant angle tan 1 (I sin a/^(cos2 „ _ ^032 ^) ^ where 2a is the angle of the cone. While one particle oscillates in a smooth circular tube of radius a in a vertical plane through an arc of height h. (>a) to the vertical. provided that the length of one turn of the helix is equal to the circumference of the circular tube. ay/fiseca. a the inclination and fi the coefficient of friction. . .
158
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that the particle will be to the tube. plane with velocity aa> relative at an angular distance 6 from the equatoreal plane after a time  log (sec $ + tan 6)} /a, {sec a
and that the pressure on the tube
2maa>2
in this position is
(1
+sin a) cos 6,
a the angle of the loxodrome.
m being the mass of the particle and
A particle is fastened to one end of a thread of length I, the other 69. the particle end being fixed to the top of a smooth sphere of radius a describes a horizontal circle with angular velocity a>, and the length of the thread in contact with the sphere is aa. Prove that
;
a>^=g cot al{a sin a + (/ aa) cos a}. A bead can slide on a rough straight wire which is rotating with 70. uniform angular velocity o) about a fixed vertical axis intersecting it, and a Prove that, for the ring to is the inclination of the wire to the horizontal.
be in relative equilibrium,
distance apart
is
^
it
must
lie
between two points on the wire whose
^0)"
sec a {tan (a + X)
— tan (a — X)},
where X
71.
is
the angle of friction.
small ring can slide on a smooth plane cmved wire which rotates with angular velocity cd about a vertical axis in its plane. Find the form of the curve in order that the ring may be in relative equilibrium at any point. Prove that, if the angular velocity is increased to a>\ the ring will still
A
be in relative equilibrium if the wire is rough and the coefl&cient of friction between it and the ring is not less than \ (w'/to — w/o)').
A rod of length 2a rotates in a horizontal plane about one of its 72. ends with uniform angular velocity a. The ends of a thread of length 2/ are attached to the ends of the rod, and a bead can slide on the thread. Prove that, when the motion is steady and the bead is at a distance a\x from
the axis, the acceleration towards the axis
is
its
uniform angular velocity about Prove that a particle cannot rest in the tube anywhere except at the lowest point unless the angular velocity a> of the tube exceeds J{gla\ where a is the radius of the generating circle, and that, when
73.
A smooth cycloidal tube rotates with
is vertical.
base which
exceeds this value, there are two positions of relative equilibrium, the <k> arcdistances of which from the vertex of the cycloid are
2a>V[2a^<»^±2a ^,'{a^(o'^g^)']. in a smooth circular tube of radius a which rotates about a fixed vertical diameter with angular velocity o. Prove that, if 6 is the angular distance of the particle from the lowest point, and if initially it is at rest relative to the tube with the value a for 6 where a cos ^a = ^{gla\ then at any subsequent time t
74.
A particle moves
cot iO
= cot ^a cosh (at sin ^a).
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
159
a
is constrained to remain on the surface of 75. particle of mass sphere of radius a, and is attached to a fixed point of the sphere by a Prove that, if slightly extensible thread of natural length aa and modulus X.
A
m
the particle is projected at right angles to the unstretched thread with velocity V the greatest subsequent elongation is '2.a\~'^mv^cota.
76.
A
particle is projected
smooth cone whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. path when the cone is developed into a plane is the same
particle
77.
horizontally on the interior surface of a Prove that its
as the path of a
under the action of a constant force to a
fixed point.
A
particle
moves on a smooth cone under a
force to the vertex
varying inversely as the square of the distance. Prove that, if the cone is developed into a plane, the path will be a conic having one focus at the vertex
of the cone.
on a right circular cone with a motion can be integrated without elliptic functions, the particle must be below the vertex, and that its distance r from the vertex at time t is given by an equation of the form
where 2a
79.
is
78. particle moves under gravity vertical axis. Show that, if the equations of
A
= 2g cos a{r Tq) {rirf the vertical angle of the cone.
particle
(r
+ 2ro)»,
circular cone of vertical
A
moves on the
inside of a
smooth
angle 2a under a force to the vertex varying inversely as the square of the It is projected from an apse at a distance c from the axis with distance.
Prove that the polar velocity ^^6 of that requisite for circular motion. equation of the projection of the path on a plane perpendicular to the axis is
3c jr =2 + cos (B sin
a),
that the time from one apse to the next is tt (2c cosec a)^/<^fi, and that the pressure is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the vertex.
80.
A
of a right circular cone, whose axis
initial velocity
surface particle is projected horizontally along the smooth inner is vertical and vertex downwards, the
being ^{2ghl(n^ + n)}, where k
its
is
the
is
initial
height above the
vertex. vertex.
Prove that the lowest point of
path
at a height h/n above the
81. right circular cone of vertical angle 2a is placed with one generator vertical and vertex upwards. From a point on the generator of least slope a particle is projected horizontally and at right angles to the generator with velocity v. Prove that it will just skim the surface of the cone without pressure if the distance of the point of projection from the vertex is
A
^v^ cosec^ a/g.
horizontally from a fixed point on the interior surface of a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards. Prove that when it is again moving horizontally its velocity is independent of the velocity of projection.
82.
A particle is projected
160
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that, when a body of mass m moves under gravity on a smooth 83. sphere of unit radius, the osculating plane of the path makes an angle t&n~^ (gh/mt^) with the normal, h being the moment of momentum about the vertical diameter and v the velocity, the osculating plane always cutting the vertical diameter below the centre.
84.
A
particle
moves on the inner surface
of a
smooth bowl
in the
form
of a paraboloid of latus rectum 4a with axis vertical and vertex downwards, being projected along the surface in the horizontal plane through the focus
with velocity J{^iiag).
i8
Prove that the
initial
radius of curvature of the path
2>v/2na/V(lfw2).
85. particle moves inside a smooth paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical and vertex downwards, being projected from the level of the
A
focus with velocity due to a height A in a direction making an angle ^tt with the meridian. Prove that, if I is the latus rectum, the initial radius
of curvature of the path
is
—^ cos tan~i7.
5
oh
the path of a particle moving on a right circular cone cuts the generators at an angle x^ ^^e acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
86.
Prove that,
if
where v
sin x), v^ {dxjds + r the velocity, and r the distance from the vertex. If the axis of the cone is vertical, and the vertex upwards, and
1
~
is
if
the
velocity is that leaves the cone,
due to
falling
from the vertex, prove that, when the particle
2 8in2;^ = tan2a,
2a being the vertical angle of the cone. What happens when tan^a 2 ? A particle moves on a smooth surface of revolution. The velocity is 87. V at a point where the normal terminated by the axis of revolution is of length
v, and this normal makes an angle 6 with the axis prove that, if ds is the element of arc of the path, and x the angle at which it cuts the meridian, the acceleration in the tangent plane to the surface and normal to the path is
;
>
sin
^'^(dx
X cot ^\
88. particle describes a rhumb line on a sphere in such a way that the longitude increases uniformly prove that the resultant acceleration varies as the cosine of the latitude, and that its direction makes with the
;
A
normal an angle equal to the
89.
latitude.
rhumb line on a smooth sphere under a force that the force varies inversely as the fourth power of the distance from the axis and directly as the distance from the diametral
particle describes a
parallel to its axis.
A
Show
plane perpendicular to the axis.
90. particle of unit mass moves on a smooth sphere under two central attractive forces \ilr^r^^ and tijr^ri^ in the distances rj, r^ of the point from the ends of a fixed diameter. Prove that, if the velocity at starting is that due to falling from an infinite distance, the on the is a rhumb line.
A
path
sphere
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
161
91. particle is placed at rest on the smooth inner surface of a vertical circular cylinder, which rotates with uniform angular velocity at about the
A
generator which is initially furthest from the particle. Prove that the pressure vanishes when the particle has descended a distance
92. particle is attached by a thread of length a to a point of a rough fixed plane inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to the angle of friction
A
between the particle and the plane. The particle is projected down the plane at right angles to the thread, which is initially straight and horizontal. Prove that it comes to rest at the lowest point of its path if the square of the initial
velocity is {n
93.

2)figa/^{l +ix^), where
/a
is
the coefficient of friction.
its axis
A rough hollow circular cylinder is made to rotate uniformly about which is horizontal, and a particle within it is projected from the lowest point in a direction contrary to that of the motion of the neighbouring
parts of the cylinder with such velocity that it comes to rest at an end of the horizontal diameter. Prove that, provided the angular velocity is great enough, the next position of instantaneous rest is given by the least positive root of the equation
3/x {e^f"^
 cos e) = (2^2 _ 1
)
sin ^,
being the angle between the axial planes through the two positions of instantaneous rest, and n the coefficient of friction.
94. particle is projected horizontally with velocity V along the interior surface of a rough vertical circular cylinder. Prove that, at a point where the path cuts the generator at an angle ^, the velocity v is given by the
A
equation
agjv^
= sin^
{ag/ V^ +
2ft
log (cot
(f)
+ cosec ^)}
,
and the azimuthal angle and the
I
vertical descent are respectively
— d(b
^9
&nd
I
— cot d) ad).
9
J'i>
J<f>
right circular cone of particle vertical angle 2a under no forces except the pressure and friction of the surface. It is projected at a distance r from the vertex with velocity perpendicular to the generator. Show that, when its path crosses a generator
95.
A
moves on the surface of a rough
V
at an angle x^ the velocity is Ve~'^^^^'^^^^\
and the time
to that point is
^P''g^C0taC0SXcosec2;^C^;t,
fi
being the coefficient of friction.
96.
A particle is projected vertically
is
upwards
in a
medium
in
resistance
k
(velocity)^.
If
u
is
the initial velocity and
is
T the
which the whole time
of motion prove that ^k{2ujg
L.
 T)
positive
and increases as k
increases.
M.
11
162
97.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
in
A
particle is projected vertically
is
upwards in a medium
if U,
which
the resistance
^
(velocity )2.
Prove that,
V are
the velocities with
which the particle leaves and returns to the point of projection,
_i
98.
JL_J_
a:
A
particle falls
from rest under gravity through a distance
;
in a
as the square of the velocity v is the velocity the particle, V the terminal velocity, and Vq the velocity that acquired by would be acquired by falling through a distance x in vacuo ; prove that
medium whose resistance varies
i;2/V =
99.
l^o7^' + 2^V/^*2:^V/F«+...
and when
its
A
is
Earth with velocity
surface
that, if z
upwards from the surface of the is v and its height above the Prove z the resistance is Kv'^l{a\z), where a is the Earth's radius. is always small compared with a, the velocity V with which it
particle is projected vertically
w,
velocity
returns to the point of projection
is
approximately given by the equation
variations of gravity with height being taken into account.
100.
A particle is projected
is
vertically
upwards
:
in a
medium
in which the
kg (velocity)^. Prove that it returns to the point of projection with kinetic energy diminished in the ratio 1 1+^ F^, where F is the velocity
resistance
of projection.
Prove that in the same medium the angle B between the asymptotes of the complete trajectory of a projectile is given by the equation
IJ^lw^
= cot $ cosec 6 + sinh ~
w
^
cot
B,
where Via the terminal velocity and
horizontally.
101.
the velocity
when the
projectile
moves
A
particle
moves under gravity
proportional to the velocity.
in a medium whose resistance Prove that the range on a horizontal plane
is
is
a maximum, for given velocity of projection, when the angle of elevation at first and the angle of descent at last are complementary.
A particle is projected up a plane of inclination a under gravity and 102. a resistance proportional to the velocity. The direction of projection makes an angle /3 with the vertical, the range i2 is a maximum and t is the time of
flight.
Prove that,
if
U
is
the terminal velocity and
F
the velocity of
projection, then
(i) (ii)
(iii)
l+(F/£7)sec^=exp.(5r«C^),
UV{C
+
Fcos/3)/(
UV^ sin /3/( F+
(7 cos /3)
F+ £/cos/3)=^(i2sina+ =gR cos a.
Ut\
103. particle of unit attraction equal to {fi'^ K^)r
A
+
when
mass describes a plane curve under a central it is at a distance r from the origin, in a
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
medium whose
time
t
163
its
resistance is 2k (velocity).
e «
Prove that
coordinates at
are
 ** " "^
+ cos /i^ + {ya
{^0 cos
/i^
1
/i
(wo
1
/i
( vo
+ K^o) sin fit}^ + kt/q) sin ^^},
•^o>
yo being its initial coordinates
and
Wq) ^o its initial velocities.
104. particle moves under gravity in a medium whose resistance varies as the square of the velocity, and u and v are the magnitudes of its velocity at the two instants when its direction of motion makes an angle ^tt with the
A
horizontal.
Prove that, when
it is
moving
horizontally, its velocity is
105.
Defining the instantaneous parabola of a projectile in a
medium
whose resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity as that which would be described if the resistance ceased to act, prove that its latus rectum diminishes at a rate which varies as v^ cos^ 6, where 6 is the inclination to the horizon of the direction of motion at the point where the velocity is v. Prove also that the axis of the parabola moves towards or from the point of
projection according as the projectile is ascending or descending.
106.
Show
that the horizontal and vertical coordinates
in a
^,
y
of a particle
moving under gravity
medium whose
dx^
V* cos^
resistance
is
R satisfy the equation
'
V being the velocity
107.
and
^
the inclination of the tangent to the horizontal.
t,
Prove that the time
the horizontal abscissa x^ and the vertical
ordinate y, at a point where the tangent of the inclination of the velocity to the horizon is jt?, of a trajectory in a medium whose resistance varies as the
nth.
power of the
velocity, are given
by
where
P=
{'^
il+p^)~^ dp,
J p
denoting the terminal velocity in the medium, and a the tangent of the inclination to the horizon at the origin, the point of infinite velocity,
is small, and equal to Prove that the period is unaltered, but that in each semi vibration the amplitude is diminished by ^ko^, where a
w
108.
A
particle in a
medium whose
resistance
K (velocity )2, is executing small vibrations.
is
the original amplitude.
109.
of
medium of which the resistance per unit Prove that, when powers of the arc above the first are neglected, the period is the same as in the absence of resistance, but the time of descent exceeds that of ascent by  ko >J{l^lg), where a is the angular
oscillates in a
A pendulum
mass
is k
(velocity )2,
amplitude of the descent, and
I is
the length of the pendulum.
11—2
164
110.
MOTION UNDER CONSTRAINTS AND RESISTANCES
[CHAP. V.
Prove that in a resisting medium a particle can describe a circle a under the action of a force to a point on the circumference the resistance being varying inversely as the fourth power of the distance, to r~^J{a^r^) when the distance is r. proportional
of diameter
111.
A
;
under a force
retarded
in a resisting medium particle describes an equiangular spiral to the pole, and the rate of description of areas is uniformly
F
prove that
are constants, and find the law of resistance.
resistance of a
where X and
112.
ft
The
medium
is kV^\
in it
by a
particle of unit
mass under a central attraction
prove that the orbit described /x/r^ will be an
equiangular spiral if the velocity of projection is that in a circle at the same distance, and the angle of projection is cos~i (2fi/c).
particle acted on by a central force and moving in a resisting which the resistance is k (velocity )2 describes an equiangular whose pole is the centre of force ; prove that the force is proportional spiral
113.
A
medium
j^Q
in
^SgStrseca^ where a
is
the angle of the spiral.
114. particle of unit mass moves in a resisting medium, of resistance at any point is R, under the action of a radial force
A
which the and a
F
transversal force G.
Prove, with the usual notation of central
orbits, that
de
,, fd'^u
^^
^
~
w3
\
u'^ds'
\
f
„Gdu\
V
115.
A
in a
medium
moves in a field of force having a potential particle of mass in which the resistance is k times the velocity. Prove that, if
t,
m
D is the quantity of energy dissipated in time
TT H
dt
{D F)= const. m^
'
If the resistance is k (velocity )2,
and
if
ds
is
the element of arc of the
path of the
particle,
then
^ + m^
ds
?^(/)_F) = const.
116. smooth straight tube rotates in one plane with uniform angular velocity a about a fixed end, and a particle moves within it under a resistance equal to k times the square of the relative velocity. Prove that, if the particle
is
A
projected so as to
come
to rest at the fixed end, the relative velocity at
is
a distance r from that end
^V2a)»cV(e^'''*2Krl).
particle is suspended so as to oscillate in a cycloid whose vertex is at the lowest point, and starts at a distance a from that point measmed 117.
A
along the curve.
Prove that,
if
the
medium
in
which
it
moves gives a small
c)/gc}y A 2a being the length of the axis. moves under equal constant forces m/ along particle of mass the tangent and normal to its path. particle moves in a medium in which the resistance at any point varies as the density of the medium at the point and as the square of the velocity of the particle. particle moves on a smooth cycloid whose axis is vertical and vertex upwards in a medium whose resistance is (2c) "^ (velocity)'^ per unit of mass. at any point of the path and show that. prove that the time to the cusp is >^{8a (4a . forces are equal at equal distances. 120. the density varies as the acceleration with which the particle would move if constrained to describe the same ellipse under the same forces but without resistance. and the find the density of the medium varying inversely as the nth power of the distance . and the distance of the starting point from the vertex measured along the curve is c . and the resistance is mfv^/k^ when the Prove that the intrinsic equation of the path is velocity ia»y.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 165 resistance < (velocity )2 per unit of mass. and the particle describes an ellipse under the action A of two forces to the foci w = l. then before it next comes to rest energy approximately equal to fxa of the original energy will have been dissipated. . 119. 118. A m where u is the velocity of projection. if .
" In principle it comes to this* : — The two spheres are suspended from two fixed points at the same level by cords. or if they are moving in the same and one overtakes the other. and. i. * The W. See Principia. it is in the sense from m W m . until its centre is at a above the equilibrium position. Let the centres of two spheres move in the same line. heights to which the centres actual construction and method of using the instrument are described by Ricks. 141. London. M. This line must be that joining the centres.' . the impact are measured by observing the rise. after Fig. when the cords are vertical. or if one of them is at rest. Lib. 45. the cord attached it to height let being kept taut. in the same sense and let u and u be the and m' in the same sense after impact. An instrument by which experiments of the kind just considered may be maxie is called a " ballistic balance. 'Axiomata sive leges motus. the spheres are in contact of centres is horizontal (see Fig.CHAPTER VI. THE LAW OF REACTION. It known is ^ then At the instant of impact its velocity is J{2gH). Ballistic balance. 45). Experimental investigations of the kind referred to in the text were made by Newton. 1890. determined by weighing them in a common balance. in opposite senses. When velocities of proper arrangements are made for measuring the velocities. Let U be the velocity of the centre of the sphere m before impact.. m be the masses of the spheres. Elementary Dynamics of Particles and Solids. the velocity of the centre of before impact. The velocities of the spheres immediately fall. m found that m{uU)=^m'{U'u'). 140. radii. Let m. The spheres will come into contact if their centres are moving is the other sense. Direct impact of spheres. and the line The distance between the fixed points is equal to the sum of the One sphere is then raised. and moving towards it. towards m'.
by forces which the spheres exert one on the other. and then it takes the bodies. The lefthand member is the measure of the " change of momen tum" of the sphere m'\ is changed. altered or stopped. The result of Art. This abstract statement may be experience. statement — may be and made precise. with its sign the measure of the change of momentum of the These changes of momentum are produced. The result can be stated in the form : the righthand member. THE NOTION OF MASS 167 Statement of the Law of Reaction. The impulses The result is generalized in the statement : — In any action between by which the motion of either is set up. The result stated in Art.140143] 142." 143. during — of these forces are equal and opposite. form : — is The magnitude of the force exerted by one particle on another equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by the second particle on the firsts the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles. 140 may be expressed in the form "H^lT'm' and this result : — {u— U) _m' generalized. results The proof it of its truth regarded as an induction from is found in the agreement of " deduced from is with results of experiment. and the forces have opposite senses. and these forces are equal and opposite. or for ratio. The statement may be made more precise when the bodies are replaced by particles. the very short time of the impact. This result enables us to assign for any two particles. each body exerts force on the other. a perfectly definite . sphere m.m U). in the In any action between particles the changes of velocity are inversely proportional to the masses. The statement because it frequently called the Law of Reaction " " was briefly expressed by Newton in the phrase action and reaction are equal and opposite. This result leads us to conclude that the forces also are equal and opposite. Massratio. 140 may be written m'u' — m U' = — (mu . any two bodies treated as particles.
either produces in the The massratio of other. by their mutual action. This tendency called there are no forces which produce changes " inertia. applications of force are required." otherwise it " heterogeneous. the massratio of the particles bodie. This result leads us to recognize a tendency in bodies to maintain an esta To produce any blished state of motion when is of motion. or to bring it to rest. In the same way we may define the mean density of any portion of a body. which may be called the particles produces in massratio. Since we body alteration in the velocity of a moving body. VI. the ratio of the determined by the mutual action is. it is customary to state that the quantity of matter in a body is equal to the mass of the body." If the force them accelerations / between the and /' respectively. the ratio of the masses of the This statement enables us to assign masses to bodies without weighing them in a common balance. It is clear that the definition of is more shall general and more fundamental than that by means of weighing. is the " " the body is is said to be " homogeneous. any two particles is the inverse ratio of the accelerations which. Mass.show in Chapter X. Whenever two bodies can be is treated as particles.168 THE LAW OF REACTION " [CHAP. . Whenever the bodies can be masses that feet.s. are accustomed to estimate the qiiantity of matter in a body by weighing the body." or " uniform. Thus the mass of the body provides a measure of its inertia. 144. the massratio is f : f. When the mean density of all parts of the body is the same." . 145. to set the in motion." The impulse of the force required to produce any assigned change of motion in a body is proportional to the mass of the body. as a matter of the same as the ratio that is determined by the operation of mass by means of mutual action weighing. is so weighed. Density. The fraction number of units of mass in the mass of a body number of units of volume in the volume of the body mean density of the body. that the determination of masses by weighing is a We particular case of the determination by means of mutual action.
r' the distances from the Sun to the Earth and the Planet respectThe forces of the Sun's gravitation. r. For example. The densities of sensibly homogeneous substances in assigned circumstances are physical constants. and the force of the are proportional to the masses of the Earth Planet's gravitation. The force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. and they are proportional to the masses of the bodies. we may define the density a point as the limit to which the mean density of a volume containing the point tends when the volume is indefinitely diminished. Density is a physical quantity of dimensions 1 in mass and — 3 in length. Let E and the Planet These thererespectively. the intensity of the field of force at //. fi is be the mass of the Earth. 48." . Gravitation. is then expressed by the formula * Harmonices Mundi. 146. Ex. The result is sometimes called Kepler's "third law of planetary motion. was noted by Kepler*. the density of pure water (at a temperature of 4° Centigrade and a barometric pressure represented by 76 centimetres of mercury) is unity. respectively. where 2a is the major axis of the orbit. we are led to take for fi the form 7^. The periodic time is of a particle describing an elliptic orbit about a focus Stt^^ ^u. the centimetre and the gramme being the units of length and mass. The result that the unit distance is and squares of the periodic times of the Planets. describing orbits about the Sun. P that of any Planet.143146] THE NOTION OF MASS 169 at In the case of a heterogeneous body. Thus the force of the Earth's gravitation. the quantity all the Planets. acting on the Earth ively. that is to say. If the intensity of the field of the same for the Sun's gravitation is denoted by /^/(distancey."^. from the focus (Art. are proportional to the cubes of the major axes of the orbits. or by the Earth on the Sun. 5). and the Planet should accordingly expect the be proportional to the mass of force of the Sun's gravitation the Sun. to We where 8 denotes the mass of the Sun and 7 is a constant independent of the masses. are jxEIr"^ and ^Pjr'K fore are the magnitudes of the forces which the two bodies exert on the Sun. 1619.
and if the m were an attraction of amount * r^ The law of gravitation states that this formula expresses the law of force between particles (taken to be small parts of bodies) at all distances which can be measured by ordinary means {e. Apart from the correction on account of the rotation of the Earth. Boys. by a divided scale). Lib. —1 in mass. Now if we take E R R to be the radius of the Earth. xii. London. From our present point of view. the most important result of the theory is that homogeneous spheres. the resultant force The theory acting on a particle of any one of the bodies may be calculated. it is " constant of called the It is of dimensions. and those of other bodies. t The result is due to Newton. Proc.G. Theory of Attractions. The quantity gravitation. are led to take the intensity of the field of the Earth's is the mass gravitation. 147. Soc. units^. Then we find that the mean density p of the Earth given by the equation ^ • ^nyR C. each of which acted would arise if bodies were made up of small parts. by means of which the calculation is effected is the Theory of Attractions. Sect. this quantity is the acceleration of a free body at the surface. When a body is regarded as made up of particles. it is the same as g. may be treated as a particle. and accounts of it will be found in books on Statics. vol. Mean we density of the Earth. 148." y is a physical constant . act upon each other with forces according to the law of gravitation. The law can be by actual observation of the gravitational force between bodies at the Earth's surface. and at verified all greater distances. if these particles upon each other with forces in the lines joining their force between two particles of masses m and positions. is We denote it by g'. .170 THE LAW OF REACTION Such forces [CHAP. and denotes distance from its centre. or spheres of which the material is arranged in concentric spherical strata of constant density. where of the Earth. and the particles of a body. V. R. (665)108 in c. Since the intensity of the field of the Sun's gravitation is yAS'/(distance)2. attract an external particle as if their masses were condensed at their centres t. Principia. —2 in time. 3 in length.g. By these observations also the value The best determination gives for y the value of y can be determined.s. VI. a knowledge of the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun (365 days) enables us to determine the mass of the Sun. In consequence of the result last stated. i. to be yEjR^. 56 (1894). even at a moderate distance.
this we determine g' (cf. It follows that the attraction at sphere is a point within a homogeneous gravitating that of the concentric sphere which passes through the point. on taking a pendulum down a mine.146150] If GRAVITATING SPHERE if 17 1 we ignore the distinction between g' and g. loc. cit. the attraction of the Earth upon an internal particle at a distance r from its centre would be gfrja^ where g' is the attraction at the surface. and when ^ = a. for the velocity and the constant is determined from the expression given above at the instant of entering the tube.] the distinction between g' and * C. Boys. taking b = a. It will move directly towards the centre with an acceleration ^nypa^/.. Thus the law of gravitation avails for the determination of the mass and the mean density The mean density (in grammes per cubic centimetre) has of the Earth. from the centre. or X. Prove that. the time of vibration is is increased or diminished according as the mean density of the siuface rock greater or less than twothirds of the Earth's mean density. Now suppose a fine and it moves with a simple harmonic motion. Examples. [Neglect g. of density p and radius a. It is a known result in the Theory of Attractions that a homogeneous shell bounded by concentric spherical surfaces exerts no attraction at any point within its inner surface. . been determined* to be 5*527. Prove that the velocity at the centre is V{7rypa2(3_2a/6)}. Chapter 149. 150. or about h\ times the density of water. X from the centre is given by the equation Ji2 ^ 1 7ryp^2 The velocity at a distance _ const. 1. so long as a?>a. Consider the motion of a particle under the action of a uniform fixed gravitating sphere. 2. it will have a velocity given by start iS:^ = i^pa=(liy tunnel to be bored through the centre of the sphere When the particle passes into in the direction of motion of the particle. and suppose the particle to from rest at a distance h{>a) from the centre. Attraction within gravitating sphere. and. the tunnel its acceleration becomes ^rrypx at a distance x from the centre.).v^ at a distance a. find the time of passing through the tunnel. V. If the Earth were a homogeneous sphere of radius a. equation gives us p when y is known.
The momentum of mass m. has been defined to be a vector. Theory of a system of 151. z) at time t. and others from the actions exerted upon particles within the system by particles outside the of particles system. their Satellites afford The Sun and the Planets with an example of a system of bodies. localized in a line through the point. and moves forces. The law of gravitation avails for the determination of the masses of the system as well as for the determination of the motions. The momenta of the particles of a system are a system of vectors localized in lines. z) 2(?7i3/) ' m ' '^~ X^) 2m l(mz) '^~ 2m Im ' where the summations extend to all the particles. Much of theoretical Mechanics has been developed from the theory of the motion of such a system of particles. which can be treated as particles moving under their mutual attractions. some of which are taken within the to arise from the mutual actions system. 153. y. and let the mass of the particle be determined by the equations y. time ^ of a particle of the system. which is a " moment of momentum. Let x. z be the coordinates at . a point {x. particles. Centre of mass." of mass coincides with the defined in books on Statics. of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are mi. my." The .172 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAR VI. y. In general we shall suppose that each under particle of the system has an assigned mass. vectors (see The general theory of the reduction of a system of localized Appendix to this Chapter) shows that the momenta of the particles of a system are equivalent to a " resultant momentum. which is mz." localized in a line through any chosen point. 152. is The centre mass and inertia. Resultant momentum. together with a vector couple. On is centre of gravity account of the relation between " " inertia (Art. This point " defined to be the " centre of mass of the system of particles. 144) it sometimes called the "centre of We shall denote it by the letter G. of a particle at the point {w.
y. The kinetic reaction of a particle of mass m. z^m = ^mz. we Hence the resultant kinetic reaction is the same as the kinetic reaction of the particle G {i. my. all 2 {mz)." localized in a line through any chosen point. and a vector couple. or kinetic reactions.e. . z) at time t. which is at the point {x." Then we have of the system of particles of the particle G. S {my). Now we have x%m = S {mx).151155] resolved MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION parts in the directions of the are 173 axes of the resultant momentum S (mi). mz. S (my). 155. where the summations extend to the particles. has been defined as a vector. localized in a line through the point. and moving with it). The resultant momentum Relative coordinates. S {mz). kinetic reactions of a system of particles are equivalent resultant kinetic reaction. For most purposes it is simplest to take the point either at the origin of coordinates. Now x% (m) = 2 {mx). but the vector couples depend upon the position of the point." The components parallel to the axes of the resultant kinetic reaction of a system of particles are S {mx). which is a " moment of kinetic to a " The reaction. momentum the "particle (r. are the resolved parts The lefthand members of these equations parallel to the axes of the momentum of a fictitious particle. momentum Resultant kinetic reaction. placed at the centre of mass of the system. by dififerentiatiDg the equations such as find such equations as x% (m) = X {mx). and resultant kinetic reaction are independent of the chosen point which is used in reducing the system of momenta. to a resultant and a vector couple. of which the resolved parts in the directions of the axes are m^. and moving so as to be always at the centre of mass of the system of particles. y^m — 2 (my). We is call this fictitious particle the result that the resultant equal to the 154. of mass equal to the sum of the masses of the particles. of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system.
2(m/) = 0.zy')\ The of the term of this expression is the moment about the axis x momentum of the particle G. When the momenta of a system of particles are reduced to a resultant momentum at the centre of mass and a vector couple." Its components are X[m{y'zz'y')\. The moment of momentum of the system about the axis x is ^\m{yzzy)\ See Appendix to this Chapter.174 which take is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP." .. or at the centre of mass." We may therefore state our result in the of a system about any axis equal to the moment of momentum of the particle G.. The sum of the moments momenta of the particles of the system about any axis is of £he the moment of momentum of the system about the axis. " Moment of momentum" is often called "angular momentum. and put yy z to be the x^x + x'. VI. y. It may be called the " resultant moment of momentum sultant at the centre of mass " and its axis " the axis of re moment of momentum. We shall coordinates of the centre of mass. Moment of Momentum.. This expression is equal to 2 [m {{y + y') {i + z') {z + z') (y + y')}l and this reduces to {yz .. follows that 5:(mi..zy) 2 (m) + S [m {y'z' . 156. and the second term is the moment about an axis drawn through G parallel to the axis x of first the system of relative " momenta mx. Xy an arbitrary fixed point.. the couple is the moment of momentum in the motion relative to the centre of mass. or the momenta in the motion : words is —The moment of momentum relative to 6r..') = 0. together with the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G about a parallel axis through G... my'. These are the momenta to parallel axes through G.. y = y + y\ z^z\z\ z' Then x\ y\ of mass. S(m/) = 0. z we have = 0. 2(m^') = 0.') x. mz. are the coordinates of a point relative to the centre From and it the definition of S(ma.
The iX[m(^2 + This expression is ^2_^i2)]. The kinetic energy is \{m\m')V^\ —— . 1. The kinetic energy of a particle half the product of its mass and the square of its velocity. Two particles of masses m.zy)\ and this can be expressed in the form {yz . When the kinetic reactions of a system of particles are reduced to a resultant kinetic reaction at the centre of mass and a vector couple.155159] 157. The sum iP the moments of the kinetic reactions about the axis is 2 [m {yz . Kinetic energy.zy) X (m) + S [m {y'z' . V is the velocity of the centre of mass. 158. is For a particle of mass m at (x.zy')\ Hence the sum fixed axis is of the moments of the kinetic reactions about any of the kinetic reaction of the particle G about the axis together with the moment of kinetic reaction in the motion relative to moment the moment equal to the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the of momentum about the same axis. and this is equal to G about a parallel axis through G. equal to _. z) it is + f + z^. . m' move in any manner. sum of the lm{d^ kinetic energy of a system of particles is the It is the quantity kinetic energies of the particles. and v the velocity of one particle relative to the other. the couple is the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the resultant moment of momentum at the centre of mass. 159.zy)\ or ^ S [m {yz . Examples. fV^. MOMENTUM AND KINETIC REACTION 175 of Moment of kinetic reaction. y. i (^2 + ^2 2) ^m\^t [m {x^ + y'^ + z% : We may state this result in words —The kinetic energy of a G together system of particles is the kinetic energy of the particle with the kinetic energy in the motion relative to G.
m^z^ = ^i mii?i = Xi + X/. The equations of motion of this particle are = Fi + F/. is velocity.176 2. y^. THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Equations of motion of a system of particles. muz^ = Z^\.Zi. Let Wi be the mass of one particle of the system. The moment of a force about an axis is the same at whatever Hence the point in its line of action the force may be applied. to of of internal action.{yZ'zY')=0. resolved parts of these two forces parallel to any axis' vanishes. 160 the result may be written i(Z')=o. mz = Z + Z\ Then {X. X/. 160. ^{xT yX')==0. the resultant moment is at right angles to the the particles and the line of the relative velocity. Z^ the sums of the resolved parts on this particle by parallel to the axes of the forces exerted particles not forming part of the system. l{zX'xZ')=0. Zi. In the same case. I'he sum of the resolved any aocis. l. ?7ii2/i at f Z^.^2. Z') is the is the type of the external forces. VI. The mutual consists of action between any two particles of the system two equal and opposite forces acting upon the two The sum of the particles in the line joining their positions. Z( the sums of the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the forces exerted on the same particle by the remaining particles of the syst. 2:(r)=o. m\m^ moment of momentum . 5:(zo = o. . In the notation of Art. 161. and the suin of the moments about any internal forces between the particles of a system are identically zero.em. plane containing and the axis of resultant mm' jDv. Fj. z^ its coordinates at time t. x^. We shall write as the type of such equations mx^X^X\ my=Y+Y'. ^22/2 = F2 + F2'. Y. Z) (X\ F'. and type of the internal forces. z^ may ma ^2 = X2 + Z2'. sum of the moments about any axis of two equal and opposite forces acting in the same line vanishes. if p is the perpendicular from the position of one the other in the direction of the relative particle to the line drawn through of momentum at the centre of mass. Law all the parts parallel axis. 7?i2 Similarly the equations of motion of a second particle of mass be written (. 2/2. F/.
words: is —The Jt.X {mx)t^t. the kinetic reactions and the external forces are two equivalent systems of localized vectors. L. . was first stated by D'Alembert in his Traite de Dynamique. of the resolved parts in any direction of the kinetic reactions of a system of particles is equal to the sum of the The sum resolved parts of the external forces in the (2) The sum of a of the moments about any axis of the kinetic reactions moments The system of particles is equal to the sum of the of the external forces about the same axis. we form the equation 2[m(2/22y)] In like manner we have = 2(yZ^F). = S (a^F— yX). and remembering that IX' = 0. d'alembert's principle Simplified 177 forms of the equations of motion. 2 [m {zx — xz)] — X {zX — xZ). It is known as D'Alembert's Principle. Xdt. In like manner we have X(m2/)=2F. and X [m {ayy — Our equations may be (1) yx)] stated in words : — same direction. we find such results as X {mx)t^t. change of momentum of the system in any direction equal to the sum of the impulses of the external forces resolved in that direction. By integrating both members of the equations such as ^ (mx) = 2X initial with respect to the time. in ft. between limits which correspond to the and final instants of any interval. = X or. Adding the lefthand members of all the ajequations of motion.by the zs. result may also be briefly stated in the form : — When the external forces are regarded as localized in their lines of action. we obtain the equation S (mx) = SX. 1743. tions Again multiplying the ^'equations by the ys and the yequs. in a slightly different form. This result. 12 . and remembering that ^(yZ' — zY^) = 0. M. and t(mz) = 2Z.159162] 162.
the sum of the resolved parts of the kinetic reactions of the particles parallel to that line is zero.z'y')]..zy) Im] + t{m (y'z . [(yz . like 'ilm^^Z.. mass moves a Motion relative to the centre of mass. 165. From we see that the motion of the determined by the external forces independently and the motion independently of the of any motion relative to the centre of mass.. pm=2F. In the — zy)] = 2 (yZ—zY) put x = x\a)'. VI. . parallel to the velocity of the centre of is of the constant. and These can be stated in words of time) of the : —The rate of increase (per unit in the moment of momentum motion relative to G. In such a case the resolved part. When the resultant external force on a system has no resolved part parallel to a particular line. line. of the about any line through G. under the action of the vector resultant of all the forces applied to the system. Motion of the centre of mass. we see that xl^m^lX. particle. THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. and the righthand member becomes The terms in we thus have such equations [ylZ'zXY] + X(y'ZzY). Since the resultant kinetic reaction of a system is the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the system placed at the centre of mass and moving with so that the centre of it.178 163. 166. of mass equal to the mass of the system. equations such as 2 [m {yz The lefthand member of the equation just written becomes 164. sum moments of the results of the last two Articles centre of mass is Independence of translation and rotation. or the resolved part of the resultant momentum mass parallel to the line is constant. is equal to the the external forces about the same line. square brackets in the two members as are equal.. Conservation of Momentum. Hence the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the resolved part of the resultant momentum of the system parallel to that line is zero. relative to the centre of mass is determined motion of the centre of mass.
12—2 . but that the impulses of 168. . • in drawn Sudden changes of motion. These equations can be expressed words in the statements : — The change of momentum of the particle G in any (1) direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external impulses in that direction. external and internal. . vanish.)}] = t(yZzY). When moments of the external forces about any fixed the sum of the moments of the kinetic reactions vanishes. and the moment of system about the axis is constant. Then we have the equation to the axes In like manner the impulsive changes of velocity parallel y and z will be determined by equations which may be written m (i . the moment of momentum about that axis in the motion vanishes.?) = ^ + ^^ Now it follows from the law of internal action (Art. 161) that XX'. Let x and ^ be the resolved parts parallel to the axis X of the velocity of m just after the instant t and just before this are finite... X \ . of the about that axis vanishes. momentum of the When axis. or that and X\ t. the sum of the moments of the external forces about an a fixed direction through the centre of mass.163168] 167.(yi.. X X X defined by the equations Lt. that act on a particle m and. 82 suppose that and X' do not remain finite at time and X' are finite. As in Art. instant respectively.=o Xdt = X... in X[m{y{zt}. 160. Lt. as in Art. relative to the centre of mass is constant.=o Xdt==X... Hence we have the equations 2[m(ic5)] = 2X. MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 179 the axis sum Conservation of moment of momentum. and X (yZ' — zY').. let X' he the sum of the resolved parts parallel to the axis x of all the forces.
no work is done by the force between them but if the distance varies.z^\ the magnitude of the force between them. the distance between the particles remains unaltered throughout the motion. The components axes of the forces exerted on the particles 1 and 2 parallel to the for definiteness. y^.x. The work done in any displacement is the value of the integral \Frdt or [Fdr..3/2) + («i .^. F denote respectively are F^^izJ^ r ' ^ y^^y^ r py_i:zy.z^\ Fr. the internal force does work. . so that (yi r^^{x. r ^^yi^y^ ^ ^^^^^^. take this force to be repulsive. 170. impulses about that 169.x^ {x^ .^ ' F^_i:ii3 r ' and 2^^::i^i r r i^^^\ r first force The rate (per unit of time) at which the r does work is ^^^v. r force does and the rate at which the second jF work r is r X^ + Jf r 2/2 ^ + P 2^2 Hence the sum of the rates at which the two forces do work is F r or [(a?i .130 (2) THE LAW OF REACTION The change of the [CHAP.y + Also let .y + {z. z^ denote the coordinates of the two and r the distance between them. We form as in Art.x^ I (yi . Let a?i. Work all done by flinction.z^ (ii . time particles at the force between two particles. 86 the work the forces acting on any particle of a system as the . ^1 and t. VI.y. If . x^. about any axis is equal to axis. and. moment of momentum of the system the sum of the moments of the external Work done by 2/i. taken between limits which correspond to the positions of the particles before and after the displacement.2/2) (yi .
For the sake of precision we present our previous statements A system in which the work done by all in the following form the forces on all the particles. i. Potential Energy. 172." a work function exists the system is said to be "con The work function in any position sign changed is the work that would be done by the to the standard forces if the system passed from the position It is defined to be the Potential Energy of the system position. is said to be : — a conservative system and the work done by the forces of such a system. as they pass from one set of positions to another. 171. m' is an attraction ymm'/r^. force Potential energy of gravitating system. is independent of the paths of the particles." prescribed. When the between two particles of masses m. energy of the system in the former set of positions. can possess potential energy. as its particles pass from any set of positions to a prescribed standard set of positions.e. / . in the position A. only con servative systems." It is important to observe that the work done by the internal forces may not in general be omitted from the sum. the initial positions being This function is the " work function. A with its A Only systems for which a work function exists. same value for all paths joining the particles. When servative. is called the potential . it is a function of the coordinates of the final positions. the work done in a displacement by which the distance r between them changes from ro to r^ is ^i mm . this expression has the When the initial and final positions of We " refer to the prescribed initial positions as constituting the standard position.168172] particles ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 181 time t move from their positions at time ^o to their positions at The expression for the sum of the works of all the forces all acting on the particles may be written where the summation extends to all the particles.
Z the sums of the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the . X. any other Energy equation. we choose the standard are infinite. 168 let x.  potential energy = const. y„m'(ii). Art. and this integral can be written in the form kinetic energy 174. z be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the velocity of the particle of mass just after an impulse. m . VI. y. 173. f 97. the value of the work function position to be that in which all the distances in any other position is and the potential energy in this position is „wim' The negative sign indicates that there is less potential energy in state than there is in the state of infinite difiusion.182 and this is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. and consequently we deduce the the forces. result that the increment of kinetic is energy in any displacement equal to the sum of the works done by all When a work function exists this result gives us an integral of the equations of motion. Hence in a gravitating system the work done in any displacement is /mm' where the summation extends to If all mm'\ the pairs of particles. As in Kinetic Energy produced by Impulses. F. \ the similar resolved parts of the velocity just before the impulse. mx = X we form the equation of which the lefthand From the X' \ equations of the type member may be written We deduce the result that the rate of increase (per unit of time) of the kinetic energy of the system is equal to the rate at which work is done by all the forces internal and external.
As we have already ex plained. We Also have such equations as T . just as the internal forces may not be omitted from the energy equation of Art. The Problem of Two to determine the periodic time when the orbits are elliptic. the change of kinetic energy produced by impulses sum of the products of all applied. is the Thus. It is required to show that the relative motion is parallel to a fixed plane. 57—63. The mathe matical problem of integrating the equations of motion of such a system of particles. is known as the "problem of n bodies. supposed to be n in number. X\ Y\ Z' the sums of the similar resolved parts of the internal impulses. The principle of the conservation of momentum shows that the centre of mass of the two particles moves uniformly in a The accelerations of the particles.j) (i? + f ) + two similar terms] =S \{X \^')\{x\\)\.To = JS [m {x" ^f^.two similar terms]. Two particles which attract each other according to the law of gravitation are projected in any manner. and the velocity straight line. and that the relative orbits are conies. the bodies of the Solar system can be treated as a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation. The Problem of the Solar System. Props. Principia.172176] THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES 183 external impulses applied to m. in their directions.i^)] _ \^ [m (f + ^^ + fO] = JS [m {x . It is very important to notice that the internal impulses may not be omitted from the equation here obtained. 173. and 176. Sect." The particular cases of two and three bodies are problem of two bodies and the " problem of three bodies. xi. 175. of the particles means of which they are and just after the impulsive actions. ." The only one of these problems which has been solved completely is the problem of two bodies. The problem of n bodies. i. Lib. * The Problem of Two Bodies was solved by Newton. as the known " " Bodies*. T and T^ the kinetic energies of the system just after and just before the impulses. just before the impulses and the arithmetic to the velocities.
Thus either particle describes + . are unaltered. 46. these equations become ^(^^)=« and it is r motion of m^ would lead clear that the equations of us to the same two equations. The equations last written show that the acceleration of m^ relative to w^. VI. also let r. G r^ be the centre of mass. is 'yim^ m^jr'^. and the velocities of the particles are localized in lines which lie in a plane containing the origin the motion of . = rj + r^. Now particles. and whose origin is at the centre of mass. We shall suppose this to be done. if we refer them to a frame whose axes are parallel to those of the original frame of reference.^ relative to m^. be the distance between the particles at time t The force between them is ym^m^lr^ Then the equations of motion of mj. are Since i\ = m^rl{7n^ + m^. Then the acceleration of each particle is in the line joining it to the origin. or of m. of either relative to the other. m^. m^ the masses of the their distances from G at time t. 6 the angle which the line joining them makes with any fixed line in the plane of motion. »»2 Fig. let rj. and that there is no transverse acceleration. each particle therefore takes place in this plane.184 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP.
position. and radii a. that . 146 7^=1<^ approximately.' cos a < = or > 2y ('/ni + '(fii^\R. E states that [Kepler's Third Law of Planetary motion quoted in Art. to fall it is gravitating spheres of masses m. are allowed together from a position in which their centres are at a distance c. a'. v' in directions con taining an angle a from points whose distance apart is R^ prove that the relative orbit is an ellipse. and the time required is I C J^cLc. t. required to find the time until they are in contact. 172) ymm \c~x)' Hence the energy equation is i. If the particles are projected with velocities v. or hyperbola according as .y2 ^ y'2 _ 2^2. 177] THE PROBLEM OF TWO BODIES 185 a central orbit about the other with acceleration varying inversely as the square of the distance. wi'. and the Earth and 2. 1. . and J mx m\m is of the system ^ \m + m'J \m+m'/ ^ m+m' The potential was c as standard energy. denote the masses of the Sun. parabola. . the major axis of the Planet's orbit is h times that of the Earth's orbit. and. a Planet. P. described about a focus. + ma)} ' Examples. and take x for the distance beween the centres of the spheres at time are equal in magnitude to vr^x Then their velocities m^m Hence the kinetic energy 2 . is (see Art. and the periodic time is. 48. and its periodic time is n years prove. by Art. >S'. its major axis. neglecting the mutual attractions of the Planets. 5 of Art. when the orbit is an ellipse. equal to 27r*^{y (mi 177. by Ex. this orbit is a conic Further. 51. measured from the position in which the distance rt. Kepler's law is approximately correct because S is or E^ great compared with P 3. 2a.176. is the sum of the greatest and least distances between the particles.2=2y(m + wi')(^j. Two We may suppose the centre of mass to be at rest.
In the general case of a system of particles moving under their mutual gravitation we know The principle of the seven first integrals of the equations of motion. velocity V when at a great distance apart. Prove that the relative orbits d. and all but those of a few Satellites lie nearly in one plane. projection. then {E^ Mf H^ EMh =const. and that of a fixed body of mass ^. 1—4. so far. and that the direction of the relative velocity will ultimately be turned through an angle 2tani{F2c?/y(m+m')}. Thus we cannot deduce from the law of gravitation an exact account of the motions of the bodies forming the Solar system. masses m. But there are a number of circumstances which conduce to the possibility of deducing from this law such an approximate account of the motions in question as shall be sufficiently exact to agree Among these we may mention with observation over a long period of time. move under their mutual Prove that. if all three bodies are free. VI. S{E^MfH^{S^E\M)EMh=QO\\^t. pass each other at a minimum distance 4. are hy^^erbolic. The principle of the Conservation of Moment of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the moment of momentum of the system about any axis drawn in a fixed direction through the centre of mass is constant. Tisserand's Trait4de M^canique celeste^ tt. . we have for the required time c^(^ + sin^co3^) V{2y(m+m')} Two gravitating spheres. im!^ moving freely with relative in the absence of gravitation. been obtained. (1) that the mass of the Sun is great com pared with that of the other bodies. (2) that all the orbits are nearly circular. Paris.. describes area about E^ and where h is the rate at which describes area about S.186 If then THE LAW OF REACTION we find [CHAP. the equation becomes 178. if two bodies of masses E and 5. shall an angle Q such that a\a' = c cos^^. It would be outside the scope of this book to explain how these special circumstances can be utilized for the piupose of integrating approximately refer to the equations of motion of the bodies of the Solar system. 18891896. Conservation of Momentum gives us three integrals representing the result that the velocity of the centre of mass in any direction is constant. The most recent comprehensive treatise is F. so that the three are always gravitation M in a fixed plane. which the centre of mass of E and M H is the rate at M Prove that. in the case of three particles these integrals do not suffice for a Except in particular circumstances of no other first integral has. even the mass of Jupiter being less than ic'su*^ P^^ of that of the Sun. would. Even complete description of the motion. General problem of Planetary motion. The energy equation also is an integral of the equations of motion. For this we must books on gravitational Astronomy.
we assume that the forces between parbody string is ticles situated on the two sides of a plane. we assume that they are adjusted so that the distance between any two particles is invariable. If the body is divided in imagination into a very large number of very small compartments. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. We We adjust the masses of the particles so that the sum of the masses of those particles which are in any part of the body shall be equal to the mass of that part of the body. drawn at right angles to the line of the chain. 152. For example.177179] MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL 187 Bodies of finite size. when the body regarded as rigid. are equivalent to a single force directed more along this line. same In general we do not attempt to determine the forces between the particles. as determined in books on Statics. is suppose that the particles move under the actions of forces obeying the law of reaction. in any compartment. of mass equal The to the resultant mass of The the body. momentum is that of a particle. axis through the centre of mass moment of momentum about any . and a particle supposed to be placed in each compartment. This force is the tension of the chain. 179. We deal with the motion of a body in the same way as with the motion of a system of particles. The momentum of a body is equivalent to a certain resultant momentum and a certain moment of momentum. This comes to the thing as taking the mass of a particle. It coincides with the centre of gravity of the body. The centre of mass of a body is found by a limiting process from the formulae of Art. Theory of the motion of a body. A general discussion will be given in Chapter XI. but we assume that they are adjusted so as to secure the satisfaction of certain conditions. to be equal to the product of the volume of the compartment and the density of the body in the neighbourhood. When the is a or chain. the motion of the body is determined when the motions of all the particles are known.
in such a forces Motion of a between the hypothetical particles to the condition that the distance between any two of the particles is to be maintained invariable. The gravitational attractions between particles within the surface and " *' external forces acting on the part particles outside it are also within the surface.188 is THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Like statements hold for the kinetic reaction. " equations of motion of any part of the body are formed The forces exerted upon this part of the body across the surface are now external " which separates it from the rest of the body forces acting on the part in question. The system The of particles subjected to this condition is said to represent a "rigid body. The rate (per unit of time) at which the kinetic energy of a body increases is equal to the sum of the rates at which work is done by all the forces external and internal. of mass equal to the mass of the body. together with the kinetic energy of the motion relative to the centre of mass. The equations of motion of the body express the statements that the resolved part of the resultant kinetic reaction in any direction is equal to the sum of the resolved parts of the external forces in the same direction. Solid bodies often move rigid body. way that no apparent change of size or shape takes To represent the motions of such place in any part of them. which is an integral of the equations of motion. For the three particles . placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. and the moment of kinetic reaction about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments of the external forces about the same axis. If the work done " can be specified by a " work function there is an energy equation. VI. bodies by those of systems of particles we subject the internal 180. the sum of the moments about that axis of the momenta of the particles relative to the centre of mass. The kinetic enei^gy of the body is equal to the kinetic energy of a particle." motion of a rigid body is determined when the motion of three of its particles is determined. The in the same way.
particle to another in the line of action of . To determine the positions of all the particles of a rigid body relative to a frame is therefore the same thing as determining the position of one frame. The equations of motion of this particle are the same as if all the forces acting on the body were applied at the centre of mass. In the cases of a deformable body and a system of isolated particles. rigid body Transmissibility of force. The motion of every is known when the motion of any part of it is known. the motion of determined by that of a fictitious particle. since the line may make any angle depends with one of the axes. 181. of mass equal to the mass of the body. which may be taken to be the angle it makes with the plane drawn through the line parallel to one angles determine the line.179181] MOTION OF A BODY IN GENERAL all 189 the par determine a frame of reference relatively to which ticles of the body have invariable positions. F. Hence the forces may be supposed to act at any points in their lines of action without altering the motion of the body. placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. the coordinates of the point. but these two The position of a plane through a line depends on one quantity. and the plane through it parallel to that axis may make any angle with a coordinate plane. directions and senses being unaltered. The position of a line through a point on two quantities. their magnitudes. but not upon their points of application. The position of a point depends on three quantities. or of any part of the body. This requires the determination of the positions of the origin of the frame F^ of one of its lines of reference. and of a plane through that line. it is manifest that the internal relative motion of the parts of the body or system would be altered by transferring the point of application of a force from one the force. of a rigid body relative Thus the positions of all the particles to a frame are determined when six quantities such as those specified are given. When the body is a rigid body moves without rotation. part of a Now the equations of motion of the body involve the external forces by containing the sums of the resolved parts of these forces in assigned directions and the sums of the moments of these forces about assigned axes. The forces do not enter into the equations in any other way. The resolved parts and moments in question depend upon the lines of action of the forces. of the axes of reference. relative to another.
4 at similarly for the particle of at P. conclude that a force acting on a rigid body may be regarded as a vector localized in a line instead of a vector localized at a point. Each of the bodies regarded as having a particle at P. manner there The condition of continued contact is that the relative velocity just described is localized in a line in the tangent plane at P. relative to B. particle of of contact. contact." In the system of two bodies in contact the pressure does no work for. and the sum of the at which it does work on the two is zero. and the tangential component the "pressure" of on B. In general. which one of the bodies A exerts upon the other B at the point of contact can be resolved into components along The normal comand perpendicular to the common normal. opposite. 182. or that the resolved part of this velocity in the direction of the common normal vanishes. The particle of . Forces between rigid bodies in contact. relative to A. considered as a point of A velocity of the particle the axes of reference drawn through the B the velocity of the point A. The resultant of the pressure and A A friction is often called the " total reaction. VI. let Let P be A. and the action between the two bodies (apart from their mutual gravitation) may be regarded as consisting of a pair of equal and opposite forces applied at the point surfaces of of contact. and the pressures acting upon the two bodies are equal and . B. The two rigid bodies may be regarded as touching at a single point. relative to axes of P B will have a certain velocity. and at P. . so long as the bodies remain in contact. the pressure does (positive or negative) rates (per unit of time) work on both bodies.190 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. In like is an equal and opposite velocity of the point of considered as a point of B. Friction. 183. The to is parallel at P. The force ponent is is the "friction" oi on J5. and R denote the pressure and is the point of contact of two bodies F the friction. the parts in contact have the same velocity in the direction of the normal. This result is We sometimes called the Principle of the transmissihility offorce.
^ fiR. always negative. described as a motion of sliding or slipping. is also specified by means of a work The other internal forces may also do work. considered as a point of \d\ relative to j . the friction does no work on the system of two bodies. and this work may . . but it may do (positive or negative) work on each of the bodies and then the sum of the rates (per unit of time) at which it does work on the two is zero. 160 do the external forces X. of the potential energy. may be stated in the form : — Friction tends F= fiR. parts of the body. is work means of a by When this is the case the also be specified by a work function. A motion of two bodies in contact which is not one of pure rolling is direction of friction to prevent slipping.181184] PRESSUKE AND FRICTION BETWEEN BODIES law of Friction is 191 The at first that the friction acting upon •! p [ P is opposite in sense to the velocity of the point of contact. When the motion is one of is sliding. For a body under the as gravitational attractions of other bodies. which represent the mutual gravitation of the function. Potential energy of a body. When The rule for the When slipping takes place the bodies are sufficiently rough to prevent slipping throughout the motion they are sometimes said to be perfectly rough. F. When is the relative velocity above described is zero. the motion is In order that rolling may take place it described as rolling. by a relation of inequality a constant depending only on the materials of which are connected F the bodies are composed. When the motion is one of rolling. and regarded of Art. and this work 184. portion represents what may be called " internal potential energy. The constant fju is called the coefficient of friction. corresponding to this work function. The second law of pressure Friction is that the friction F and the R is where yu. up of particles. the friction does work on the system. . necessary that the coefficient of friction should exceed generally a certain number depending on the circumstances of the case. Further the work done by those components of the internal forces. made Z in specified any displacement and this work work function." .
function. kinetic energy of the body and the potential energy of the body in the field of external force are variable quantities. In such a case the potential energy is divisible into three potential energy of the body in the field of the external parts : attraction. The potential energy of the mutual gravitation of the parts of a rigid body and the internal potential energy of the body can both be taken to be zero by choosing the actual state of aggregation of the body as the " standard " state. Energy of a rigid body. and we may also regard the portion as free from the action of any other external forces. or with deformable bodies such as elastic strings. For the body may be in contact with other rigid bodies. where X is the modulus of elasticity. and z is the height of that particle above a fixed level. and let its extension be e. so that its length is ^o (1 + e). or with resisting media such as the air and the forces exerted upon the rigid body by bodies with which it is in contact may do work which is not specified by a work . and where above the fixed level. Now let the string be extended further. Mg'z. Potential energy of a stretched string. 169 that the internal forces between the particles of a rigid body never do any work. It follows from the result of Art. This expression is equal to M z is the height of its centre of mass 185. potential energy of the mutual gravitation of the parts field of the body. and the other attached to a body. and internal potential energy. For the purpose of calculating the potential energy we may regard this portion as having one end fixed. Its tension is Xe. body in the of the Earth's gravity is The potential energy of a represented by the expression where m denotes the mass of any of the hypothetical particles. The rate at which the terminal tension does . a portion of the string of natural length l^.192 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. is the mass of the body. The The equations of motion of a rigid body do not always possess an integral in the form of an energy equation. VI. which exerts upon it a tension Xe. Consider 186.
and its value is ^Xloe. In the case of the string are able to assign a certain amount of the potential energy to each piece the string. as an amount of internal Hence the potential energy of potential energy (Art.ASn If this is denoted by c. result holds for a spring. 13 . by the internal forces is —^\lo6\ Since this amount depends only on the initial and final states we can regard it. 184). is When of the string not stretched uniformly. Localization of Potential Energy. so much being located in each piece. moving end. energy as possessed hy the piece of string. We may regard the string as being extended so slowly that no sensible kinetic energy is imparted to it. L. Sq+^^o that of a slightly longer portion. which is of natural length Iq. Then the work done by the internal forces together with that done by the external It follows that the work done forces vanishes. with changed sign. Then we define the extension at the point corresponding to Sq to be . As .184187] POTENTIAL ENERGY OF STRETCHED STRING . a portion of a stretched string. whether extended or conbe the natural length Art. is ^\lo€^. 187. M. we of But the two cases present a marked difierence. We piece can be expressed as ^Xe^ per unit of length (in the natural state). the potential energy of any portion between s^a and SQ =b is b i: The potential energy of a gravitating system and the potential energy of a stretched string are two examples of the potential energy that arises from internal forces between the parts of a system. let Sq any portion measured from one end. 101). can think of this e denoting the extension at any point of the piece. Lidt integral is taken between limits which correspond to the values and e of the extension. s + As be what these lengths become when the string is stretched. in such a way that the amount so assigned corresponds to the state of that piece. Hence the work done from its l^^e is the velocity of the in the extension of the string for natural length to the length 1^(1 + e) is / The Xe. and let s. may therefore say that the energy is located in the The amount located in any string. 193 work (per unit of time) is Xe l^i. when its extension is e. A similar tracted (cf. in the same way as kinetic energy We is possessed by a moving body.
When the mass of any portion is proportional to the length of the portion. 188. . in its direction. or in the Earth. not by the bodies composing the system. per unit of time and the machine is said to be "working up to a j)ower" measured by the . Thus. in the case of a heavy body near the Earth's surface we cannot locate the energy in the body. In general much of the work is done against friction. When the chain is not uniform. locate parts. or by the product of the magnitude of the velocity of the particle and the resolved part. of all these powers is the power of the first system acting on the The power can be measured equally by the rate at which work is done upon the second system or by the rate at which the first system does work. For instance. and that of S diminished. and so on. In general we neglect 189. of the force exerted upon it either of these products measures the rate at which the force does work. energy can be localized. The poicer of a time at which the first system acting on another system is the rate per unit of system does work upon the second. is is The number of units of work done in any number of units of time in the interval short. when the interval the rate at which work indefinitely being done per unit of time. rate at which the work is done. In the case of the gravitating system we are not able to assign a certain of the potential energy to any part of the system in such a way that to changes in the state of that changes of the energy so assigned correspond of changes in the position of the part relative to other part. independently We cannot. which is and. Power. some portion of the energy in one part of the system. or in any definite proportion some of it in the body and some amount in the Earth. We have to think of it as possessed hy the system. a certain amount of energy is expended. and an equal amount of work done. in any way that shall be completely satisfactory. the chain is uniform. another portion in another part of the system. VI. in any machine performing mechanical work. the limit of the ratio of the number of units of mass in the mass of any portion to the number . When work is done by the action of a system S upon a system S' the forces exerted by the particles of >S' upon the particles of In cases where the *S" do work in the displacements of the particles of *S". the thickness of the chain. the energy of the system aS" is increased. but suppose that the mass of any finite length of it is finite. by a quantity equal to the amount of work so done. in its direction. of the velocity of the particle on which it acts. this ratio has a limit. interval bears a definite ratio to the . is Corresponding to each force between particles of the two systems there a certain power measured by the product of the magnitude of the force and the resolved part. The sum second.194 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Motion of a string or chain.
tensions in the two directions from the particle to its in general different.187190] MOTION OF A CHAIN 195 of units of length in the length of the portion. and then passing to a limit by increasing the number of particles. The motion of the chain is determined by forming the equations of motion of any particle. This force is the tension of the chain. m^s the mass of the cor responding particle. The two next neighbours are tends to zero with As. Let each of the hypothetical particles act upon its next neighbours with a force adjusted in number accordance with the law of reaction. The force between two taken to be equal to the tension of the and diminishing the lengths of the small portions of the chain. and if is m is the linedensity of the chain in the neighbourhood. or the linedensity. The chain lies in a curve drawn on the surface. and let the mass of the particle be the supposed mass of that length of the chain. is neighbouring particles chain at the corresponding point. If a (geometrical) plane is at right angles at drawn to cut the line of the chain any point. and denote by F the force of the field per unit 13—2 . In each length let a particle be to be placed. and the pressure and friction of any curve or surface with which the chain is in contact. when the length is diminished indefinitely. If any of the short lengths is As. Let the chain be divided in imagination into a very large of very short lengths. point the acceleration by /. 190. when the chain is in a field of force. We We We resolve the force of the field in the same direction. String or chain of negligible mass in contact with smooth surface. the two parts of the chain which are separated by this plane act one oq the other with a force directed along the line of the chain at the point. but the difference The other forces of the forces acting on the hypothetical particles are the field. resolve the acceleration of any hypothetical particle of the chain in the direction of the tangent to this curve at the denote the resolved part of occupied by the particle. is the mass per unit of length. indefinitely.
Resolve along the tangent to the curve for the motion of the hypothetical particle. the tension constant. j^ dT is mf=mF\^. (t>.= vr. pressure of the surface on the directed at right angles to the tangent Let T be the tension of the chain at the point and let Tj and Tg be the forces acting between the hypothetical particle and its two next neighbours.F\T^ cos '' + Tj cos <^i As . is nearly the same as ^ = 0. holds also for any portion of the chain which is in The form of the argument shows any portion which is free. Hence we conclude if the mass of the chain may be neglected. As is The limiting form of this equation J. of mass in that direction. T^ = T. hypothetical particle is to the curve at the point. The that it result is proved for contact with a smooth surface.196 THE LAW OF REACTION The [CHAP.=^T and ^./= mAs . . If m is very small this equation that. . 0i and <f)^ the angles which their lines In the limit of action make with the tangent to the curve. We have </)2 m^s . VI. = 0.
and a smaller body of mass moving in the same is r. 1. of mass km./2 (m\m) fi ^ w + »i'le'2\ am moving _ '\R is /2 s^ le^ Jr=^ \R 1 a in a straight line with velocity U. at a distance m gravitation. thin spherical shell of small radius. if v is small. R is at a point A. rest. describes a circle of radius with velocity V about a gravitating centre of A . by The bodies attract each other according to the law of line with velocity tc.197 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. the particles also attract each other with a different force varying as the distance between them prove that the orbit of either particle relative to the other is an ellipse and the periodic time is 2Tr/s^{fi + 2fjL'). describes an ellipse of eccentricity e and axis 3. bursts with an explosion which generates velocity v in each fragment directly outwards from the centre of the shell. if m is let go when the distance between the bodies is B. Prove that the smaller body will overtake the other after a 5. A body of mass M followed. Prove that. A body. the eccentricity e' of the subsequent relative orbit is given by the equation (1+^) 4. mass being at Prove that. if is suddenly fixed when the particles are at a distance R. when its centre length 8F3yi2/(F46KV + 2. the eccentricity m' is given by the equation of the orbit subsequently described by . and that. the stream of fragments will form a complete ring after a time approximately equal to ^ttR/v.. m' are describing relatively to their centre of elliptic orbits of eccentricity e and axis major 2a. the force being the same at the same distance in each case . major 2a under the action of a fixed gravitating body of mass m. distance. moving without rotation.4). fi and /x' denoting the forces on unit mass respectively at unit . Two particles are under the action of forces tending to a fixed point and varying as the distance from that point. ?h<S}m e' Two each other gravitating particles of masses m. Prove that the fragments all pass through the line AO within a force and. time / r \f 7rjy(l ?g2)hcosi?g \l + iv) "V{7(^+^)} . 2.
those P23 WI2P31 distances are in the ratios 7711 : : msPi2 Three equal particles A. a and a' being their distances from the centre of mass.')/(! + 0. v is the relative velocity at the instant of the change.. and m is is at rest. e' those of the relative orbit of and *S' (in the absence of §). masses m. THE LAW OF REACTION Two [CHAP. m2. e its eccentricity. Two gravitating paFticles.^0)0 = 3&)^ (r0 + 2a) z<) . Prove that the three particles being set free at the instant of projection.198 6. d being the distance between the bodies. G attracting each other with a force proportional to the distance and equal to /x per unit mass at unit distance. projected with velocity ^{y{M\m)ld} at right angles to the line M M Prove that the joining the bodies. If V is the relative velocity. and the directions of projection are at right angles to PQ. then b = 2b\ and + e) = i(l . being projected in the Two P P P same manner as before. with a velocity due to their distance under the attraction of *S^ only. comes to rest at successive of is a succession of cycloids and that path cusps after equal intervals of time. a v/(3. subject only to their mutual A25 remain at constant distances from one another. prove that the two bodies proceed to describe. circular orbits bodies. if the mass of the second body could be suddenly doubled. All three particles are gravitating.const. particles will first be in a straight line after a time 1 sm^ . and m. parabolas whose latera recta 7. Q are projected from points equidistant on opposite sides of a third particle S. The particle A is projected towards the centre of the triangle w^ith velocity c^fx. (1 . are describing circles uniformly about their common centre of gravity with angular velocity o). W3. and a small general disturbance in the plane of motion is communicated to the system. whose distance is r. relatively to the centre of mass. Prove that. the other 12. 2w .)/(! 11.. . are describing relatively to each other under their mutual gravitation. the eccentricity of the new orbit would be 8. equal particles P. and the line joining the particles is in advance of the position it would have occupied if the steady motion had not been disturbed by the angle ^ obtain the equation . ?«'. and 6'. M is where 9. so that after any time t the distance is rf w. VI.)"" •Jia^Ho'Y . are 2a and 2a'. squares of u and 10. If h is the conjugate axis of the orbit described by either or Q. M M orbit and m the relative In a system of two gravitating bodies of masses an ellipse of semiaxes a and h. and m receives an impulse m V towards m'. are placed at the comers of an equilateral triangle of side 2a. If three bodies of /'23> attractions Psiy masses Wj. B. ^ being neglected. initially In a system of two gravitating bodies.
h)j{b {a + 6)}. 15. and that its velocity v when at a distance y from the major axis of the section is given by the equation v^ = ^iirypy^ a {a. a A particle is projected along a circular section of the surface of {x^\y'^)la^\z^lc^ a smooth uniform oblate spheroid given by the equation Prove that. 2& are the principal axes of where p is the density of the cylinder. attraction of a thin uniform gravitating rod of mass A M Prove that. 6. one moves for a time \trlsJix before the other starts. if it is projected from an end of the minor axis and comes to rest at the end of the major axis through which it first passes. y. while they are : that. Prove that it can move round in contact with A the cylinder. if it = l. they move in the same as the projections of the two extremities of a diameter of a circle line upon a straight 14. each of unit mass. Cz are the components of attraction of the spheroid at a point 17. Prove that their centre mass either remains at rest or moves in a straight line with a velocity which diminishes in geometric progression as the time increases in arithmetic of progression.a  [^ e~^e {a + byj Ol^acosd + a^' Jol where fi is the coefficient of friction. Ay. particle placed at an end of the major axis of a normal section of a uniform gravitating elliptic cylinder of infinite length is slightly disturbed in the plane of the section. and that. are placed in two rough straight intersecting tubes at right angles to each other and the friction is equal to the pressure on each tube prove they are initially at unequal distances from the point of intersection. under the in the line of foci. 2a. 16. medium. of semiaxes a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 13. {x. ring moves on a rough eUiptic wire. mass and the velocity. on which the circle rolls uniformly. then a)2=(Ja2_(7c2)/a2^ where Ax. and normal section. the resistance under the action of which of their is pro mutual which is any function of their distance. and a = (ab)/(a\b). attracting each other with a force (distance). /i 199 Two particles. Two particles move in a portional to the attraction. z). the velocity v of projection is given by the equation V'' = 4yMiJ. if manner approaching the point of intersection of the tubes. . describes the circle with uniform angular velocity w under the attraction of the spheroid.
VI. We shall obtain by (6) the result that a couple can be represented in all respects this unlocalized vector. rule of signs is the rule of the righthanded screw. the sign otherwise. Two and having opposite " couple. a Draw any sense for this line line. Its magnitude the product of the measure of either vector of the couple and the measure of the perpendicular distance between the lines in which the vectors are Its sign is determined when the sense of the line is chosen. whatever line This L is always the same.. . which the vectors two pairs of form a parallelogram. localized in parallel lines. CD. it is  . is sum moments is the moment of the couple. a vector (unlocalized). L The : — L L and that of the other vector are related like the senses of translation is }. and may be stated as follows If the line meets one of the vectors. (Fig. and let the *^^* ^^ vectors of the other couple be of magnitude Q. and the sense of the line localized. Let this be ABCD Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P.200 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. and be localized in the lines AB. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER YI. in opposite senses. The lines in are localized. being parallel lines. and the direction and sense are those of the line Z. of which the magnitude is the magnitude of the of the couple. so long as the chosen sense of the line L remains of the same. and rotation of a righthanded screw. L at The sum this line right angles to the plane of the couple. are equivalent to zero. briefly. REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF LOCALIZED VECTORS." or. are said to equal vectors. CB. and be locaHzed in the lines AD. both in magnitude and in L we take. form a " vector couple. 47). (a) Vector couple. and choose a of the moments (with their proper signs) of the two vectors about sign. Equivalence of couples in the same plane. We shall prove that two couples in the same plane. moment is called the axis of the couple. of equal moments." senses. When the sense of the line L is such that the moment is positive.
P and Q. this line. and a couple of moment Qd. B any points on these the magnitudes of two vectors lines. localized in the line of P. and the sense of the vector it lies between the lines of P P P+Q is that of P or Q. one of which is the line of P. When P and Q are in unlike senses. and having the sense of P. Now the vectors P and Q localized in the lines AB. and proportional to those lines. 48. localized in parallel lines. The sense of this vector is AC. Fig. let two vectors each of magnitude Q be introduced in the line of the vector P and in opposite senses.] SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 201 magnitude. and proportional CA and propor. AC. and a couple of moment Qd. lines. It follows that the set of four vectors P. See Fig. The line of the other vector is at a distance from the line of which is equal to Qd/{P+Q). See Fig. of the parallelogram is of magnitude equal to the moment Hence AD represents Q in magnitude. The two vectors P and Q are equivalent aq to a single vector P + Q in R = Pt0 Fig. AD. Then the vectors P and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude P+Q. and having the opposite sense to P. let Q be the greater. See . CD. 49. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line. localized in the line of and Q are equivalent to a vector of magnitude Q P P P. each of magnitude P\Q. Parallel vectors. Let the unit of length be so chosen that AB represents P in Then the area of the couple. CB. 49. and let the sense of the vector in this line be opposite to that of P. in it and Q. Introduce two Then the vectors vectors each of magnitude Q into the line of action of P. localized in parallel lines. A. d the distance between the When P and Q are in like senses. and propor Also the vectors P and Q localized in the lines to those lines. This theorem shows that a couple the same plane having the same (c) may moment and Q be be replaced by any other couple in sense. Let P. 48. are equivalent to a vector localized in the line tional to that line.APP. The sense of this vector is CA. Q are equivalent to zero. Replace the couple of moment Qd by two vectors.
Equivalence of couples in parallel planes. Hence two vectors localized in parallel lines. See Fig. CD. are equivalent to a resultant vector localized in a parallel line. Fig. and be localized in the AB. Fig. QP localized in parallel lines.P in this line. and The two vectors the sense of the vector QP in it is that of Q. and is at a distance from the line of P which is equal to Qd/{QP) on the side of the line of Q which is remote from the line of P. . other vector it lies . when they are not equal and opposite. 50. and let the The line of the sense of the vector in this line be the same as that of P. 51. THE LAW OF REACTION Replace the couple of [chap. 50. R=QP Fig. We shall prove that two couples in parallel planes having equal moments and opposite senses are equivalent to zero: lines Let the vectors of one couple be of magnitude P. and the moment of the resultant about any axis is equal to the sum of the moments (d) of the components about the same axis. moment Qd by two one of which is vectors each of magnitude the line of P.202 Fig. 51 P and Q are equivalent to a single vector Q. and let the vectors of the other couple be of magnitude ^. VI. 52. and be localized in the lines A'D\ C'B'.
53. Also parallel vectors P localized in lines CD. the other be localized in localized in one of Replace the couple in the other plane by a couple having BA in the sense BA. Th^ sense of this It follows that the set of four vectors P. Composition of couples. indicated. and Q. 2P localized in the same MM'.] Through the couple SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 203 A'D and B'C draw P Q a pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of in the points A^ D. D'. P DC\ and having the senses localized in the line 2P MM' is The sense of this vector MM'. Through the couple AB and CD draw a in the points A\ B\ These two pairs of planes with the planes of the two couples form a parallelepiped. let Let the two vectors be of magnitude P. These vectors are both of magnitude P. and then the other be localized in a certain line FF in the plane of the second couple. Now parallel vectors localized in lines AB. and have the senses indicated by the order of the letters. Let the planes of two couples meet in the line AB. B'A' are equivalent line to a vector of magnitude vector is M'M. Q are equivalent to zero. one of Replace the couple in one plane by any couple having localized in its vectors AB iu the sense AB. and the line CD. are equivalent to a vector of magnitude joining the middle points of AD' and BC. its vectors We will can take these vectors also to be of magnitude P. pair of parallel planes meeting the lines of 6". p P B Fig. P. .A pp. B^ C. This theorem shows that a couple may be replaced by any couple of the same moment (e) in any parallel plane. Replace the couple Q in its plane by an equivalent couple consisting of vectors localized in the lines B'A' and i/C".
figures are seen to be equivalent to a single couple. and having the same senses as those vectors. replace G by two localized vectors. and their areas are These areas are in the ratios Hence if sides will be parallel we turn the triangle BCE through a right angle in and proportional to the axes of the couples. CDFE proportional to the moments of the couples. F couple. each of magnitude R. where is the magnitude of any one of the original vectors. It follows from the preceding theorems that a couple can be regarded as an unlocalized vector represented by its axis. CE. of magnitude F. and let Through in a line there be two vectors each of magnitude and of opposite senses localized in this line. be the resultant of the vectors at 0. AB represent F in magnitude. FE. together with a through a chosen point Fie 54 The resultant vector is the resultant of vectors couple. perpendicular to the plane A OB. Let R If . (f) System of localized vectors any magnitude F be localized line AB. Any given system of vectors in a plane can in this way be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line passing in the plane. together with a couple of moment Fp. and having the sense of the original vector in A B. its plane its Let B'C'E' be the new triangle. where p is the distance of AB from sense. in a plane. Then the system of vectors is F equivalent to a vector localized in the line through parallel to AB. one localized in the line of R through and in the sense opposite to R. and G the moment of the R is not zero. p the perpendicular on its line from 0. See Fig. E. See Fig. It is clear that. />. localized in lines through 0. if E'B' represents the axis of the second couple in sense. of the lengths of BC. equal and parallel to the given The vectors. The whole system is then equivalent to this last vector. F. ABCD^ ABEF. Thus the axis of a couple which has the magnitude. and its axis is This couple has a definite 0. and sense of a line E'C^is the axis of the resultant of two component couples. and are localized in the lines CZ>. the axes of the components having the magnitudes. and the sign of each term is determinate. planes at right angles to AB cutting the lines and through the points A. axis of the couple is perpendicular to the plane and its moment is 2 ( ± Fp). the sense of the first is B'C\ and the sense of the resultant is E'C. and the other in a parallel lirfe at a distance GjR from 0. and let be any point not in the draw a line parallel to AB. B draw CD and EF in the points whose named C. directions. direction.204 Let THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. are rectangles. 53. 55. BE. and senses of two lines E'B' and B'C. VI. This is the vector law. Then the two couples The vectors are of magnitude P. Let a vector of A B.
'^X Y< Fig. The original vector is thus of this vector. and x^ y. {g) Reduction of a system of vectors localized in origin 0. equivalent to a couple. are determinate and unique. The conditions of equivalence of two systems of : vectors localized in lines lying in a plane are these (1) When one system is equivalent to a single vector. be the Take any and any rectangular axes of x. is If R and G are both zero the system equivalent to zero. The magnitudes of these components are Z.] If SYSTEMS OF LOCALIZED VECTORS 205 R is zero the whole system is equivalent to the couple G. of the same one system sense. y. ^Y . 7. of the sense. z. Z. Z resolved parts parallel to the axes of one of the vectors. or the couple. the other equivalent to zero. or _ o/f a couple. . 55. or to zero. Let X. (3) is magnitude and is When one system is equivalent to zero.APP. in the cases is equivalent to a single vector. equivalent to a single vector. of equal and opposite vectors localized in a line through parallel to the line and resolve them into components localized in the axes. 56. localized in the same ^p yIq. z the Introduce a pair coordinates of a point on the line in which it is localized. (2) When is the other equivalent to a couple. the other is same magnitude and line. The where the system single vector. or to a couple whose axis is perpendicular to the plane. Thus any system lying in a plane is of vectors localized in lines equivalent to a single vector localized in a line lying in the plane. T. lines.
Z . and by three couples about replaced by vectors X. z are the coordinates of any point on the The resultant vector. equivalent to component couples about the axes. 2 Y^ 2Z.. zXxZ. whose moments are Z yZzY. the axes.. VI.206 THE LAW OF REACTION [CHAP. Cf. xYyX Hence any system of vectors localized in lines can be replaced by a resultant vector localized in a line through the origin.. y. respectively. is independent of the position of the origin.. whose resolved parts parallel to the axes of coordinates are SA". {yZzY\ 2 {zXxZ\ 2 {xYyX\ where A'. but the vector couple. Y^ are the resolved parts of any one of the original vectors parallel to the axes. and x. F.. localized in the axes. together with a couple. components are '^X. 84. . of which the components are "^{yZzY)^ . Art. of which the line in which that vector is localized. whose moments are 2.. takes different values for different origins.
Sudden Changes of Motion. When two bodies come into contact at a point of each. On the other hand. shall the problem of calculating the deformation from the elastic of the bodies is generally beyond our power. of the great difficulties of our subject is the integration of the differential equations of motion of a system of bodies. the other. 192. but a little observation shows that.CHAPTER YIL MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS. no deformation can take place. Nature of the action between impinging collide. before separation. Further. at first their surfaces bodies. and initial motions. if the bodies are rigid. methods and theories relating to general classes of problems which can be solved by the principles laid down in previous Chapters. and problems in which the principles of energy and momentum supply all the first integrals of the equations of motion. There are other Such cases cases in which the method of integration is known. Now it is clear that. or the motions which ensue upon release from constraint. but there are a number of cases in which all the desired One Such cases information can be obtained without any integration. . if one body is smeared over with soot. include sudden changes of motion. It is clear therefore that during the impact the bodies undergo deformation. there are others in which the recovery of form is practically complete. include small oscillations. properties . they must be in contact over a finite area for example. of We propose in this Chapter to bring together a number 191. will and accordingly we circumstances if be unable to give an account of the we treat the bodies as rigid. There are numberless cases in which the deformation is permanent. after separation. show a sooty patch.
193. then uu' = e{UU').208 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. before impact. has been abundantly proved that the of this kind is of the nature of We must therefore expect that in impulsive changes of motion some mechanical energy will be transformed into heat. In order to formulate in a simple and manner the mechanical collision it is necessary to general by and subsidiary hypotheses. The con Loc." but we avoid this phrase because it is sometimes used a different (in * materials. upon the materials of which the spheres To express this result. let U and U' be the velocities of the two spheres in the line of centres. u and u' their velocities in the same line and in the same sense after impact. for very soft approaches nexion between e and the elasticity of the impinging bodies has " led to its being sometimes called the coefficient of elasticity. and it production of thermal effects a transformation of energy. and this apparent loss of energy can frequently be calculated. 166. such as wool or putty. Nor have we far to seek for the form of energy that is developed in compensation for the apparent loss. Coefficient of restitution. we shall find that one inevitable result of every impulsive action between parts of a system is a loss of kinetic energy in the system. Newton made an elaborate series of experiments* on the impact of spheres which come into contact when their centres are moving in the line joining them. where e is a positive number less than unity. ante. and that the magnitude of the velocity of separation bears to the He found velocity of approach a ratio which is less than unity. He found that the relative velocity of the two spheres after impact was oppositely directed to that before impact. cit. It is a fact of observation when one body strikes against another. of both is raised. effects produced in two bodies have recourse to special experiments Newton^s experimental Investigation. zero. e is called 194. the temperature that. such and ivory. The number the " coeflficient of restitution. that this ratio depends are made." For very hard elastic as glass solids. and in the same sense. . e is little different it from unity . p. VII.
" stood that any such phrase refers to an action between two bodies The coefficient e depends on of the same or different materials.u'){U' + u'). . or ^R[{U+u){U' + u')l L. 209 meaning) in the Theory of For a like reason we avoid the phrase "coefficient of resilience" which has also been sometimes used. We shall speak of such materials as being " " without restitution " and " of perfect restitution respectively.u){JJ+u)^\rd{JJ' . We to be estimated in the of the sphere same sense. This expression accords with the result of Art. Then we have R m R = m{uU) = m\u'U') = {l + e)^^^^^{UU'). these velocities suppose all the velocities being parallel to the line of centres. u. u. viz._ { m' Let . 174. ordinary materials we shall speak " It is.{\mv? + \w!u!% or \m{TJ. Hence we find (mm'e)f7 + m'(l+e)0'' u= . Let the masses m' let the velocities of their centres just . of course. 14 .me) U' + m{\ m+m ^ e)U be the impulsive pressure between the spheres. which is that from the centre m to the centre of the sphere m'. Materials for which e is zero or unity may be regarded as ideal limits to which some bodies approach. m+m . just as the coefficient of friction between two bodies depends on the materials and degree of polish of both. viz. 195. of the spheres be m. Direct impact of elastic spheres. m m \ \ / \ ^ + The kinetic energy lost in the impact is (im U^ + ^m' U'^) . to be underof as having imperfect restitution. and the equation of constancy of momentum of the system. both the materials. M. u. C/'^and just after impact. u' For the determination of Newton's experimental we have the equation given by result. mu + mii! —mJJ\''m!lJ'. before impact be U.192195] IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES Elasticity. R is in the regarded as the impulse of a force acting on the sphere direction opposite to that of U.
196. and rn after impact. and the pressure between them of centres. Let Let U. U'. there is is no friction between them. VII. v and u\ v' be for corresponding velocities m ^857. when we substitute for R. The spheres being smooth. V corresponding velocities of m. resolved along the two impinging common normal to their surfaces at these points. are in the ratio The relative velocities. For the purpose of in which the circumstances applications to problems of collision are less simple than in the case of direct impact of spheres we state result : — the following generalization of Newton's experimental and before impact. v'^y. 197. sphere at right angles to the line of centres have therefore the equations unaltered by the We v^y. and let u. velocities of V be the resolved m in the line of centres and at right angles thereto before impact. the expression for the kinetic energy lost becomes and. where e is the coefficient of restitution. of the points of bodies that come into contact. . impinge. Oblique impact of smooth elastic spheres. of masses m. The generalized Newton's rule gives the equation uxC^eiTJU'). Hence the resolved part of the directed along the line momentum of either is impact. we find that this is equal to i m + mJ.(le^)(UUy.210 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS In virtue of the equation [CHAP. 7n'. mm Generalized Newton's rule. after —e : 1. two smooth uniform spheres.
* _ {m'." The kinetic energy before impact is equal to W W of Cf. and the impinging bodies as rigid both before and after it. rj are unaltered be changed into w by the impact. let w. Let and ^v are the " relative velocity of approach " and the " relative velocity separation. v denote the components of velocity of the centre of mass of the two spheres parallel to the line of centres and at right angles to this line.tio to IF. and this is Newton's rule. Then w. rj the components of the velocity of 7n relative to m' parallel to the same directions. In such systems no internal forces are developed except after wme deformation has taken place. similar form. The quantities by the impact. Solving these equations we find ^ {mm'e)U+m'{l+e)T]' m\m' . Ex. is The impulsive pressure between the spheres same way as in Art. Art.195199] IMPACT OF ELASTIC SPHERES 211 and the equation of constancy of momentum of centres is parallel to the line mu + m'u' = mU \m' U'. 159. 199. IF. The method followed in applying the above rule to treat the impact as instantaneous. Deduction of Newton's rule firom a particular assumption. 195 to be found in the m+m and the kinetic energy Article to be lost is ^ found in the same way as in that mm' ^ m+m ^ ^ ^ 198. so that at the beginning of a motion which is 14—2 . we have the result that w has a constant ra. This method is adequate for the discussion of many is in questions. v. The Hence the kinetic energy after impact can be expressed in a kinetic energy lost in the impact is If we assume that the kinetic energy lost is proportional to the square of the relative velocity of approach. It cannot however give an exact account of the eflfects of impact elastic systems. Blastic systems.me)U' + m (l\e)U is Hence the velocity of each sphere after impact determined. In the motion before impact. 1.
: It is now clear A71 elastic system cannot support an impulse. AB an angle of in e A will start making with AB C an angle tan~^{2{le)'^ tanO]. statement that an elastic system in the action of elastic strings altered suddenly. and the equations given by Newton's Rule ii'w=eV. CA. lie nearly in contact impiiiges directly third hall of equal size and mass the ball so that the line joining its centre C to A makes with the line CAB. the time of the action in which the elasticity of the bodies is concerned being — This statement may conveniently be summed up in the An example of the cannot support an impulse will be found attached to rigid bodies whose motion is impulsive tension in such a string. a direction coeffixiient Prove that. we have been confining our attention to the impulsive action between impinging bodies. The direction of v m AB. and is opposed by finite elastic forces. then just after A strikes B. before striking being the of restitution for either pair of the velocity of Let V be A . ucos<f)v=eu'coa6. of momentum u'ainO=usincf>. the direction of its velocity B We have the equations V=u' + w. u'cos$ = ucos(j> + v. of supporting an impulsive tension. by means of some problems. v the velocity of the direction of iC makes an angle 6 with AB. is that of V. VII. whose centres are A and B. . which continue to act as long as there is any deformation. and starts to move with a finite velocity. proposition that the method founded on Newton's result is of the nature of a compromise. since the impact is direct. an inextensible string is regarded as it (cf. There is no motion of the body immediately after the impulse is exactly the same as if the string were not attached to On the other hand. So far General theory of sudden changes of motion. suddenly produced some part of the system yields at once. Art. the changes of momentum are a system of vectors equivalent to the impulses that produce them. after A strikes it. The general method of treating such changes of motion depends simply on repeated applications of the principle that for every particle in a connected system. if sin S>{1 . 213). We shall illustrate the application of this principle 201. after a finite time a finite deformation is produced. capable 200. Let Let w be its velocity after striking A . Illustrative problems.212 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. Suppose the direction of u to make an angle <^ with AB. Fis localized in w u u' be the velocity of A immediately after C strikes it. Two equal smooth on a smooth tahle^ and a on J. but there are many other changes of motion which take place so rapidly that it is con venient to regard them as suddenly produced.e)/(l +e). balls. I. halls. and the treated as negligible. and for each rigid body in such a system. ^w0.
By . 58. We thus find that t2=eti. ts^et^. flight before the first ti is 6) — gt sin 6. between or Thus A moves A and C.. coejfficient at right angles restitution between the plane and the of plane n times striking Since the velocity parallel to the plane is unaltered by impact. the motion of the particle parallel to the plane is determined by the same equation as if there were no impacts. Find the condition that may stnke the at the nth impact.wa. e being the particle. The Fsin {a'6)—gti cos ^ or ..j from the plane. at the end of ginning of the motion the nth impact. A particle is projected with velocity it V from the foot plane of inclination 6 in a direction making an angle a with {a>6).. (f) = {I e)ic' cos 0. is Hence ^i + ^2+..H^n» —^ le till gcosO ^^ —\ is the interval from the besupposition.199201] whence SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION 2w=V(le).. off as stated. velocity perpendicular to the plane and thus at time ti ^i = 2 Fsin (a — B)/g cos 3.e) w' cos2 + sin le it' sin^ ^>YTr ^'' of a smooth fixed the horizon it which leads to II.Fsin {a. ^n be the times of on.. and tand)=:^ le Fig. Immediately after the impact the velocity at right angles to the plane becomes eFsin {a 6) a. thus at the end of any interval t from the beginning of the motion the velocity parallel to the plane is Fcos {a Let first ^1.. between the and second. 2u'=V{l + e\ 2ic 213 cos ..^gti^ cos ^ = 0. ^>(1 e)/(l +e). and so Then given by Vti sin {a 6). ^2) . impact. .6).e)>iv. provided that there is is no second impact The i (1 condition for this u cos (cf) .
Let its velocity after impact be There is an impulsive tension in the thread and the sphere m is constrained to describe a circle about the fixed end. B of equal mass are connected hy a rigid rod oj negligible mass^ and a third equal particle C is tied to a point of the rod at distances a. '0 AVhua i ^r+ato Fig. C is projected mth velocity u perpendicular to AB. The impulse between the spheres acts in the line of centres so that the direction of motion of m' is unaltered.214 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. be its angles to the thread tion of momentum Fig. The required condition is therefore tan^ = 2tan(a^)(le«)/(le). or this interval is Fees (a — ^)/^ sin ^. Find the velocity with m which m begins to move. 59. b from the two ends. this interval the velocity parallel to the plane vanishes. VII. Kesolving for the system at right we have the equa mu^mv sma=wivsma. . III. wi'sina(l + e) + m' sin^ a m Two particles A. 60. By the generalized Newton's Rule we have v'— %sina=ey. Find the velocity of immediately after the string becomes tight. P C Let V be the velocity of C immediately after the string becomes tight. A smooth sphere of mass is tied to a fixed point hy an inextensihle thready and another sphei'e of mass in' impinges directly on it with velocity v in a direction making an acute angle a with the thread. velocity. v'. Whence IV. It therefore starts to move Let at right ii angles to the thread.
If a ball is projected from a point on one of the sides of length b to strike all The four sides in succession and continually retrace its path. Let 0) be the angular velocity with which the rod begins to turn. 1 a2 orx^r.201202] SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION its is 215 is The Since the impulse on C is along the string velocity with which P starts to move direction of motion v along the string. the coefiBcient of restitution between two bodies. Thus A starts with velocity ?. connected by the equation cot 6 cot {ae) = 2 y{l  e») . moment of momentum about P is ma (v + aa) — mb (v — ba) = 0. if it takes r more leaps in coming down than in going up. one of which is at right angles to the plane prove that. aa>. . The equation of momentum parallel to the string is mv + m{v + a(a)\m{v — h(a)='inu. in order to produce the greatest deviation in the direction of a smooth billiard ball of diameter a by impact on another equal ball at rest. the former must be projected in a direction making an angle with the line (of length c) joining the two centres. So starts with velocity P A + B vhat. is divided at the point of projection. i 2 a^ + b^+ab + 52 — ^» Examples.e2 . Eliminating a> we find a^+b^ or v=202.e^)}l{e^ (1 .(1 .] sides of a rectangular billiard table are of lengths a and b. A 4. projected from the foot of an inclined plane and returns to the point of projection after several rebounds. Prove that. 1. a) m being the mass of either particle. 3. Prove that e^ e^ e l. The and the velocity of velocity of A is compounded of the velocity of relative to P. e is [In these examples 1. particle is projected from a point at the foot of one of two smooth parallel vertical walls so that after three reflexions it may return to the point of projection. the inclination 3 of the plane and the angle of projection a are particle is . The equation of giving = (6a)v/(a2+62). and that A + + = the vertical heights of the three points of impact are in the ratios e2 : 1 .e)}. show that the angle of projection with the side is given by ae cot 6 = c + ec\ where c and c' are the parts into which the side 2. and the last impact is direct. unaltered.
VII. if the two thread. for the particle to be on the horizontal through the point plane. /3. the height through which the sphere must have fallen if the hemisphere is stopped dead is V2 {2MemY . connected by a chain 9. 10. 6. and show that the whole distance descended by the bucket during this interval is 4meh/{{2M+m){ley}. 11. if the coefficient of restitution between the plane and the hemisphere is zero. find the time that elapses before the ball ceases to rebound. y must satisfy the equation (1 . is moving on a smooth horizontal table with uniform speed in a circle. and meet near the centre. of mass «i. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. the tension of the thread is diminished in the ratio i//(J/+m). on a plane with which its base is in contact a sphere of smaller mass m is dropped vertically. velocities of the particles at starting are in the ratios 5:2:1. the angles a. so that the line joining their centres makes an angle 7r/4 with the vertical. Three equal particles are attached to the ends and middle point of a rod of negligible mass. and that between the sphere and the hemisphere is e. and a ball. Prove that they return to the corners with velocities diminished in the ratio e : I. in a plane through normal making an angle a with the line of greatest slope on the inclined A Prove that. and strikes the hemisphere on the side towards which it is moving. is dropped into the centre of the bucket fi*om a height h A above it . just balance each other. and strikes another particle of mass m at rest. ' M 2g \l+efm^ A particle of mass 8.e) cos a tan ^. If there is restitution between the particles and the second one is describand t in the two ing the same circle as the first. direction this particle is projected from the foot of a plane of inclination y in a making an angle ^ with the normal to the plane. of projection when it meets the plane for the nth. of equal mass i/. A smooth uniform hemisphere of mass is sliding with velocity V 7. Show that. Three equal spheres are projected simultaneously from the corners of an equilateral triangle with equal velocities towards the centre of the triangle. An impulsive attraction acts between the centres of two spheres If v is which are approaching each other so as to generate kinetic energy K . prove that the tensions M T threads after impact are connected with their values Tq and by the equation ^o before impact bucket and a counterpoise. and one of the end ones is struck by a blow so that it Prove that the magnitudes of the starts to move at right angles to the rod.216 6.e") tan y = (1 . being attached to the centre by an inextensible Show that. of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley. particles adhere. time.
each particle of it with a certain acceleration. is struck by a vertical blow equal in magnitude to twice Prove that the direction of motion of each of the bodies is instantaneously deflected through half a right angle. Initial Motions. of determining the curvature of the path of a whose velocity is not zero offers no difficulty when the particle velocity and acceleration are known. We suppose that a system held in some definite position in a field of force. the accelerations have been found there is generally no difficulty in determining the initial values of the reactions of of the system is . Two small bodies of equal mass are attached to the ends of a rod of negligible mass . then sin« = sin^'y(l + ^. 203. where 12. This is evident since the kinetic energy must be increased above the value (zero) which it has in the position of rest. make with the line of centres. supports. or internal actions between different bodies and the determination of the unknown reactions object. before and after. and that at a particular instant some one of the constraints ceases to be applied . & the angles which the directions of the relative velocity. so that each of the bodies is describing a horizontal circle. M is the harmonic mean of the masses.202203] INITIAL MOTIONS 217 their relative velocity before the impulse. since the resolved acceleration along the normal to the path is the product of the square of the The The problem This remark enables us resultant velocity and the curvature. easily to determine the initial curvature of the path of a particle when its motion is changed suddenly. is Nature of the problems. . the rod is supported at its centre and is turning uniformly. when one of the bodies its momentum. then the system begins to move. our second senses of the accelerations with which a conservative moves away from a position of instantaneous rest can system sometimes be determined by help of the observation that the motion must be one by which the potential energy is diminished.). Our first object in such a case is to determine the accelerations with When which the parts of the system begin to move. and 6.
and those of P. Since the initial acceleration. Q. 61. purposely choose one of a somewhat complicated character in order to illustrate the various details of the method. (2) that every composition and resolution may be effected by taking the the accelerations can be found. Again. The system to the pairs of held so that all the threads initially is let go. BP are . D). hoi^izontal. as the relative AP. so are those of B. R. It is always possible to determine expressions for the accelerations of all the points of a connected system in terms of a small number of independent accelerations. so that all The expression of the initial accelerations in the proposed manner is facilitated by observing (1) that the velocity of every particle initially vanishes.218 204. R are attached hy pairs C\ (C. and thus the acceleration of relatively to A. is vertical. and It is required to find From the symmetry of the system the accelerations oi A. Also the acceleration of Q Let/. J5 along the smooth horizontal rod. opposite. /i at right angles to angular velocity vanishes. VII.D are at equal a smooth fixed horizontal rod. D are equal and Fig. 205. B)y {B. since the threads AP. We distances on Illustrative Problem . describes a circle. The be better understood after the study of an example.1 is made up of a tangential acceleration and a normal acceleration proportional to the square of the angular velocity Now P P / of AP. we have. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. position of the will method system to be that from which it starts.B. and three other equal and similar rings P. make the the acceleration same angle a with the of each Hng. relative to . at right angles to AP. Method for initial accelerations. and there is always the same number of equations of motion free from unknown reactions. of equal inextensihle threads is rings {A./' be the accelerations of J.C. C. Four equal rings A.
. T. /' cot a + 3 (/+/') tan a =5r whence . and from (2). and resolving vertically for mf'=={T^T^^C0Ba. threads as shown in the figure. moves unifoiTnly on the table with velocity {7nu — m'v)l{m\m').(2). >^" Let G be the centre of mass of the two particles. Let u^ V be the initial velocities of the particles. velocity thus the acceleration of describing a circle of radius m'll{m\m') with angular along the thread is m'l(o^l{m + m'). on substituting for ^2. . T^. and B m/=riCosa. 62. then U\V — l(a. T^ the tensions in the /*. Thus the P /'cot a downwards. f 4 cos 2a = f = cos 2a q sin 2a 12 — 11 cos 2a + cos2 2a* • 206.i P and Q we have + Ta) sin a + mg. G vanishes. mf cot a = 7\ (1) . and m . we have cos a^m (f /+i/').2 Tg sin a + mg. m! connected hy an inextensihle thread of length I are placed on a smooth table with the thread straight^ and are projected at right angles to the thread in opposite senses. Now we have let m be the mass of each. the horizontal acceleration of Q vanishes. (//') cot a + (5/+/') tan a = 2^. As an example of initial curvatures : when the motion does not start from rest we take the following problem Two particles of masses m.. particle and Ii. It is required to find the initial curvatures of their paths. Then G V_^a. \m iff) cot a = . and acceleration f^ of Q relative to B given by the equation /2sina=/'. The to acceleration of and the acceleration of m G is that of a particle w . Then resolving horizontally for J. T^i. =^ (//')• we have therefore the Again. T^^ we have .{l). relative y Yis.( From the set of equations T^ cos a = mf. the particle its horizontal acceleration is \ (/+/')• P AB and Hence giving M/+/') =//i /i sin a sin a. 7^3 cos a=m f (/+/') . accelerations of the particles are expressed in terms of / and /' and Q are ^ (//') cot a and in particular the vertical accelerations of . m(/+/') = (r2ri)cosa. and w the initial angular velocity of the thread.204206] INITIAL MOTIONS 219 thus is always vertically under the middle point oi equal. . Initial curvature.
prove that the tension in the A remaining thread 3. 207. Prove that in the initial motion (i) the acceleration of each particle is vertical. Prove that. of an Examples. when B impinges directly on an obstacle. of a thread Particles of equal mass are attached to the points of trisection C. of the thread Prove that. Supposing the string to be destroyed in any manner. u'^ m its path. : 4. The rings are initially held in such a position that the lowest part of the thread is horizontal and the highest parts make equal angles y with the horizontal. : 6. and the system is suspended by its ends from D is ? (1 + 2 sin a) apart in a horizontal line. the acceleration of VII. the radii of curvature of the paths which A and C begin to describe are equal to ^a. curvature of the path of m' is In like manner the initial m{u+vfl{{m\m')lv'^]. (ii) the tension in the lowest part of the thread is to what it was in equilibrium in the ratio mf mncot^y + 7n\ where in is the mass of a particle and m' the mass of a ring. 2. Three small equal rings rest on a smooth vertical circular wire at the corners of an equilateral triangle with one side vertical. bodies A and B of equal weight are suspended from the Atwood's machine. . DB is cut. of length 3^. with the same velocities.cos^ \^ instantly changed in the ratio 2 cos^ a ACDB B distant AC CD a. Hence. the uppermost being connected with the other two by inextensible threads. One thread being cut. while B consists of a vessel Two is chains full of water in which a cork attached to the bottom by a string. horizontal and equal to I. Bj C of equal masses are attached at the ends and middle point of a thread so that AB = BC=a. ^ such that cot <\) = tan a + 2 cot a. A is rigid. and the particles are moving at right angles to the thread. and the ends of the thread are attached to equal small smooth rings which can slide on a horizontal rod. Three particles A. 1. if there is perfect restitution. A set of '2n equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread. if the portion the tension of I {. if the vertical thread is cut through. the tension in the other thread is instantly diminished in the ratio 3 6. if p is the _ ~ m'l p giving llp m + m'\ /u\v\^ ' I J = m'{u + vf/{(m + m') lu^]. determine the sense in which A begins to move. so that points A. particle is supported by equal threads inclined at the same angle a to the horizontal. which is straight. Prove that.220 this is MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. is suddenly changed in the ratio 2sin2a : 1. initial radius of along the normal to curvature of the path of m. and the rings are let go. : that the initial direction of motion of D is inclined to the vertical at and an angle 4.
160.Z') z']. position of equilibrium This result is usually stated in a form involving infinitesimals. the the particle initial radius of curvature of its path is a (1 + ^ sin^ a). Y') y \{Z\. The equation which expresses the result that the rate of change of . The possible positions of equilibrium of a system are distinguished from other positions by the condition that. if Q is projected horizontally of P's path is 2cv^l{v'^\cg). kinetic energy (per unit of time) is equal to the rate at which work is done (Art. which passes through a small hole in a smooth table. and the other end is fixed to a point on a smooth table on which the particles rest. . the thread M — being in two straight pieces containing an obtuse angle tt a. Hence the result : hand member The rate also vanishes. by hypothesis. Now let the equations of motion be taken in the forms of Art. 208. which work and is called the ' Principle of Virtual Work ' or of ' Virtual Velocities.206208] APPLICATIONS OF THE ENERGY EQUATION 221 and ?ii/. P is projected on the table at right angles to the thread with velocity v prove that the initial radius of curvature Prove also that. hanging vertically. the position is one of equilibrium. so that all the velocities vanish there. nM Two particles P. 173) is S [m {xx' + yy' + ^•^')] = S [(X + X') ^' + ( F + Since. and let the system pass through a position of equi librium with any velocities denoted typically by x\ y' z. Q. Prove that. while P is not moved. or we have the — right is done when a system passes through a with any velocity vanishes.' In forming the expression for the rate at or the expression for the virtual is done. Equilibrium. are connected by a thread of length I 8. of masses 7. the lefthand member at of this equation vanishes. the initial radius of curvature of ^'s Applications of the Energy Equation. with velocity path is v. the accelerations also vanish there. P being at a distance c from the hole and Q. if is projected on the table at right angles to the thread. if the system is at rest in an equilibrium position. point of a thread distant a from one end and to that end. the velocities must be such which work . of equal mass. are attached respectively to a Two particles. work.
<f). When there . we should have to begin by solving the equations determine which among the various sets a true maximum or a true minimum. is a work function W. the rate at which these resistances for manifestly would do work is to be omitted. dW + W==W^"^80 * If the position is one of equilibrium. VII.. if there are any resistances which depend upon velocities.. ^. Further. say .. then •••• dW dW.. any position is The equilibrium positions of a conservative system are positions in which the potential energy is stationary. and vanish with the velocities. Hence we have the equations and the values of ^. the rate at which work is is dW done is — i— If TT a function of any quantities which define 0..222 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP.. In all or "mechanical powers" the positions of the socalled "simple machines" all the parts can be expressed in terms of a single variable.. whether it is a true maximum minimum or not. . Machines. those 209. . such resistances do not affect the positions of equilibrium. as are compatible with the connexions of the system. . in which In the positions to and then proceed of solutions make W de ' ••• we should say or that W is stationary. which satisfy these equations determine the positions of equilibrium. and consequently the The potential energy is determined in terms of a single variable. <j). this vanishes for all values of ^. If we sought the positions in which TT is a maximum or minimum. condition that the potential energy is stationary in the position of equilibrium becomes a relation between the masses of two moving .. : — Since the potential energy of the system in we have the result W. the position of the system.
208211] parts: the EQUILIBRIUM AND SMALL OSCILLATIONS 223 is "power" and the "weight. A may depend upon 6. the equation in of energy determines the whole motion. of the system slightly displaced from a position of We confine is our attention to cases where any position determined by assigning the value of a single 6. or that the term of the first order missing from the series for V. 210. if the standard is the position of Thus F is a function of 6 position equilibrium. In any conservative system in which the positions of all the parts can be expressed in terms of a single variable. descend with acceleration F Prove that the centre of mass of F' and W will g ( WF' . Two bodies are supported in equilibrium on a wheel and axle." This result w^orked out in books on Statics. Again. the position of equilibrium other way so that its value in the position of equilibrium then — Oq can be used instead of 6.W'Ffli W^F' + W'F^) 211. We had an example Examples. In any machine without friction and inertia a body of weight 2. Small oscillations. the velocity of each particle of the system can be exin terms of 6 and 0. if it has been chosen in any is 6o. supports a body of weight Tf. is We have to consider the small motion of a system which equilibrium. 1. and a body whose mass is equal to that of the greater body is suddenly attached to that body. We . Atwood's machine [Ex. and the kinetic energy is thus of pressed Now T the form ^A6^ where with e. ( W+ F'). move vertically. and the inertia of the machine being neglected. 74]. These bodies are replaced by bodies of weights F' and W\ which. a and b being the radii of the wheel and the axle respectively. geometrical quantity as in the case pendulum (Article 119). both hanging by vertical cords. 1 of Art. of the simple circular can always choose to vanish in for. but does not vanish Also the potential energy vanishes with 6. in the subsequent motion. the principle of virtual work shows that is dV vanishes ^n do with 0. V which may be expanded in powers of 6 and the series contains no term independent of 6. Prove that the acceleration with which it moves is agl{2a\b). Thus V can be expressed as a .
oscillations in a real period if (7 is positive. and the expression for V might have been taken to be simply the The term of the series which contains d'\ These simplifications might have been made before differentiating the energy equation.00=^0. and more generally we may say that. and thus The value of (7 for ^= is the value of 77^ for conditions that the conditions for a real period of oscillation are the same as the may have a minimum value in the position of V equilibrium. the motion in where A Thus. when 6 is sufficiently small. beginning with the term in 6'^. . the motion can be small enough for the approximation to be valid otherwise it soon becomes so large that we cannot simplify the equation of motion by neglecting 0\ In . We energy learn that in a position of stable equilibrium the potential is a minimum*. the former case the equilibrium is stable and in the latter unstable. here proved for a special class of cases.224 series MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. The equation of energy accordingly is and on differentiating we have Omitting small quantities of an order higher than the have Ae\. first we and C have their values for ^ = 0. If the period is real. VII. V=^Cd^. ^AO^ Hence there are ^ = 0. positive since otherwise the expression Now A must be could not represent an amount of kinetic energy. quantities have the same sign. where (7 is a function of 6 which is finite when ^ = 0. is if these two simple harmonic with period 2'7r ^(A/G). is true for all conservative systems. the * This result. If we express the kinetic energy correctly to the second order of small quantities in the form ^A 6\ and the potential energy also correctly to the second order of small quantities in the form ^06'^. process which has been adopted shows that we might have reduced the expression for T by substituting zero for ^ in ^.
Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system is {m + m') aji^iw? + w'^ 4. 213. particle is suspended from two fixed points at the same level by equal elastic threads of natural length «. and length I. 212. 2. particle is displaced vertically. Prove that the over the pulley carries at its ends bodies of masses time of a small oscillation in which the pulley moves vertically is 47r M ^{Mma/{M+m) X}. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum hl^{la)l{pc^a). the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is A hl^{la)l{Ph^a). can ring of mass A slide on the thread and the system is in equilibrium with Prove that the time of a small oscillation is 477 M M between A and B. and an inextensible cord passing A and m. Examples. m' connected by a rigid rod of negligible on a smooth vertical circular wire of radius a. Prove that. 4. 3. 1. 3 are at a distance 2c apart. We in marked that there are numerous cases momentum supply all the first L. A is mP and G is mgly simple pendulum of mass so that m AjC^ljg.211213] SMALL OSCILLATIONS 225 In the case of a period of the small oscillations is 27r \/{AIG). if it is slightly displaced parallel to the line joining the fixed ends of the threads. In any other case we may compare the motion with that of a simple pendulum. Two free to slide mass are rings of masses m. and then the quantity gAjC is the length of a simple pendulum which oscillates in the same time as the system. Principles of Energy and Momentum. pulley of negligible mass is hung from a fixed point by an elastic cord of modulus X and natural length a.J{aMP{M>rP)lg (4P2 _ M^f). It is called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations of the system. 15 . is and the if the fixed points in Ex. the rod subtending an angle a at the centre.  5. Prove that. M. . One end of an inextensible thread is attached to a fixed point A^ and the thread passes over a small pulley B fixed at the same height as A and at a distance 2a from it and supports a body of mass P. have rewhich the principles of energy and integrals of the equations of motion of a system.2mm' cos a). and hangs in equilibrium at a depth h with each thread of length I.
and at this instant the The velocity of m continues to diminish particles have equal velocities u. . natural length. Whenever the string is unstretched we have JC—+V. and the velocity of m' continues to . of mass moves on the table with uniform velocity u. The potential energy is „ . and X the modulus of elasticity. : length We can thus describe the whole motion m moves oflf with velocity V which gradually diminishes. placed on a smooth horizontal table. and continues to do so until it attains its greatest length this happens at the end of a quarter of the period of the simple harmonic motion. . — increase until it . which it attains at the instant in question. determine the subsequent motion. —— is .226 and thus position. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS suffice to [CHAP. when a collision takes place. If this is unity. The particles then move with the velocities they have attained until m' overtakes ?/i.^^ so long as x positive. When x vanishes the string has its greatest a+ V^{mm'al{m\rii')X\. u+ m + m' ' m + m' ' Hence the kmetic energy °'' is x^ ^ (m + m ) w42^ '2. so long as x remains positive. length of the string at time t. a being the natural length of the string. until it is reduced to V{mm')l{m + m'). one of the particles is struck by a bloic in the line of the string and away from the other particle. be the mass of the particle struck. and of its hy an elastic string of negligible mass. determine the velocities of the parts of the system in any To iUustrate these principles further particles A and we take the following problem : Two B. Thus the energy equation 2m\m showing that the motion in x is 2m + m is 2a 2 simple harmonic motion of period 27r sj{mm'al{m^m')\}. same instant in the has the value 2mV/{m+m'). There is no tension in the string and thus at first m' has no velocity. The subsequent motion depends on the motion is coefficient of restitution. are connected When the stnng is straight.m + m . In any case the description of the subsequent motion involves nothing new. and this happens at the end of half a period from the beginning of the motion. then the velocities of the particles are The centre = mVI{m+m'). the relative reversed. VII. Let ^ be the increase in the in the line of the string. and m' moves in the same direction from rest with gradually increasing velocity the string begins to extend. Let m velocity with which until it is extended. m' that of the other. these values are attained at the meantime the string contracts to its natural length a. V the m begins to move.
mi are connected ?i by a spring of such strength complete vibrations per second. M placed on a smooth if the muzzle velocity 2F2 g 2.m { m') — {m cos a\m' cos ^)2 {m sin a ^ m' sin ' Two bodies of masses nii is ?«i. Suddenly the lower thread breaks. 15—2 . the two end ones are projected with equal velocities in the same sense at right angles to the thread. if wi2 is held. 214] 214. the velocity of the jjarticle when the thread has its natural length is that due to c^/a. 1. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM 227 Examples. that when held fixed m^ makes thread. 4. Prove that the modulus of elasticity of the upper What 7. particle is attached by an elastic thread of natural length a to a point of a smooth plank which is free to slide on a horizontal table. which natural length «. the particle jumps up to the highest point of the shell and adheres there.213. they will make n J{{mi^m^jmi} vibrations per second. and the system is let go from rest. if both are free. and it is observed that the shell jumps up . equal to the weight of the particle. a external forces produce momentum in the system as a whole ? + h^ Three equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length so that the middle one is at distances a and b from the other two. the vibrations in all cases being in the line of the spring. if Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to an inextensible when the thread is straight. Prove that. Prove that. /3) {m cos a + m' cos ^) {m+ m') JM\. and. Prove that. attached to the highest point by an elastic thread of stretched to length a +6'. the velocity of each of the end particles (at right angles to the part of the thread which is attached to it) at the instant when they impinge is \ <JS of their initial velocity. there are no external forces. and two particles of masses m and m! move on the faces. plank and particle have equal masses. in a horizontal line passing over the A •centre of if the mass of the plank. Prove that the wedge moves with acceleration on a smooth A M ^ 3. being connected by an inextensible thread which passes over a smooth pulley at the summit. l (l + m/J/)tana + (l + m/JI/)2tan2a' smooth wedge of mass whose base angles are a and /3 is placed table. Prove that. and the thread is stretched to a length a + c. A shot of mass m is fired horizontal plane and elevated at of the shot is F. wii will make n \/(wi2Mi)) and that. 5. through a height A spherical shell of radius is a and mass m contains a particle of the eame mass. and the modulus of elasticity of is the thread relative to the plank falling 6. and is also attached to the lowest through a height thread is h. point by an inextensible thread and the shell rests on a horizontal plane. the range is ' from a gun of mass an angle a.
Vll. one of them ^ is on a smooth table and the other is just over the edge.228 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS is [CHAP. the tensions in the two parts of the thread are altered in the ratios 2a + 6 3a : and 2b\a : 36. are struck simultaneously by a ball of radius c moving in the direction of the horizontal common tangent at the point of contact prove that. the impinging ball will be reduced to rest . Prove that. there being no external forces. with its centre in the vertical plane containing and of mass A m . Two equal its balls lie in contact on a table. and (ii) that the initial radius of curvature of the path of A immediately after it leaves the table is ^^ ^^51. : prove that the ratio of the velocities which either ball will receive according as it is struck first or second is 4 3 .e. third sphere of the same radius contact on a smooth horizontal plane. i)rove (i) that the time between successive impacts of the two A balls is Vi/g. (ii) {'^ViV2){vi + V2)l8g that the heights at which they take place are alternately and (3^1 + ^2) (^i'^2)/8^j (i") that the velocities of the balls at the impacts are equal and opposite and alternately 4(^1 — ^2) and i(^i + «'2). the thread being straight and at right angles to the edge. if the middle particle is set free. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Two equal particles are connected by an inextensible thread of length 8. ball is projected vertically with velocity Vi from a point in a rigid 1. Two spheres of equal radius and of masses XiWi and X2m are lying in 4. and 2. Find the velocities I . A third equal ball impinges on them. falls freely. of the particles immediately after they have become free of the table. 3. assuming the restitution in each impact to be ijerfect. and prove (i) that in the subsequent motion the tension of the thread is always half the weight of either particle. if all the balls are of the same material. centre common tangent. if the coefficient of restitution is ^c2(a + c)2/a3(2a+c). moving along a line nearly coinciding \vith a horizontal Assuming that the periods of the impacts do not overlap. Two equal balls of radius a lie in contact on a smooth table. where e is the coefficient of restitution. and when its velocity is Vo a second ball is projected from the same point with velocity Vi . horizontal plane. it The middle one held fixed and the other two describe circles about with the same uniform angular velocity so that the two portions of the thread are always in a straight line.
and prove that the ratio of the sides of the two polygons is where 8. prove that the velocity produced in the sphere of mass XiWi is where v is V V3 (1 + 2X2)/(1 +4X1 + 4X2+12X1X2). . if the coplane. then AD. Prove that. Two unequal particles are attached to a thread which passes over a smooth pulley. Prove that the distance travelled through by the tube when the particle has made (*i + l) impacts is + a(l — e")/(e'*e'*'^^) or a (1 . then DC. so as to strike them simultaneously. efficient of restitution for each impact is e. the velocity of the falling sphere just before impact. BCD AB BC AB : 6. .e" 1) according as n is even or odd. and the other at a height k above the plane. projected in a direction making an angle a with the side first the side BC. ball is projected with velocity Ffrom a point of a plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal the direction of projection is at right angles to the plane. where m. and if e is a root of any equation . a ball is From one comer J. C. the coefficient of restitution in each impact being unity.e** i)/(e" . of a rectangular billiard table A 5. if it returns to the point of projection.^— and j^+S^tt . 10. e is the coefficient of restitution. hollow elliptic cylinder stands on a horizontal plane with its axis From the focus of a horizontal section a particle is projected in a horizontal direction with velocity v.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 229 the centres of the other two. (1 it will have described a length A vertical.\^ c2rtsm(Z?+8) • — '. 2 F^ sin ajg cos^ a 9.ij . e the coefficient of restitution for each 11. Assuming that there is no restitution in any of the impacts. which is on a smooth table.c)^ along the plane. then again. and impact. before ceasing to bound. A is e. Three smooth billiard balls of perfect restitution.tan"! " ^. prove that. and the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the plane . Prove that. ^ c2d8mB — . smooth tube of equal mass. A particle is projected inside a closed at both ends and lies "*" 2a being the length of the tube. AD=e^ cot a\\\e^. if e is the coefficient of restitution. Prove that. each of radius d. S = sin~i Ad\a. the angle of the ball A is to cannon off B on to impact at B must lie between ^irrtani ^ where 7. that it is Show possible to project a small elastic ball inside a regular polygon of n sides so as to describe a regular polygon of the same number of sides. n are any integers and 2a is the major axis. rest if on a smooth table. the height of the section above the table is '^m^ga^jn^v^. Initially the smaller is in contact with a fixed horizontal Prove that. their centres forming a triangle ABC'. it strikes . and then returns to A.
of mass m. so that the line of centres makes an angle a with the thread attached to wi. balls. of the form e"2e + l=0 with ?i integi'al. Prove that. and the threads cross each other at right angles. : . and b the radius of the axle.230 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. is the system will come to rest after a time 2h(l+e)/v (le). lie on a smooth table with the thread straight. vmm' (1 4e) cos^ al{Mm' ^m^a + m Two balls are attached by inextensible threads to fixed points. VII. where e is the coeflicient of restitution. of energy. a being the radius of the wheel. Two equal spheres are in contact. impinges on the other. m and of equal radii.m. The fragments continue to move in the original line of motion of the shell. 17. Prove that their generates an A shell of mass Jfis moving with amount E velocities are 16. A particle of mass w is of masses m' and m". where 15.. describing a circle with velocity u. if e is the costarts with velocity {M\m\m')]. and the particle m is struck by a blow in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the threads so that both threads are jerked. Prove that the initial velocities of m' and m" are in the ratio m + m" m + m'. Prove that m' will start to describe a circle oim sin a cos a (1 + <?)/(?« with velocity cos^ a + m' sin^ a). and 14. one of them. 7. of mass m'. e is the coefficient of restitution between the An internal explosion velocity V. Two of masses M. and thereby breaks the shell into two fragments whose masses are in the ratio mi'. Weights A weight W is P and W equilibrate on a wheel and axle of negligible mass. moving parallel to the thread with velocity v. A fifth equal sphere running along tangent strikes the first two symmetrically so that the threads become tight. and. makes an acute angle a with the line of centres efficient of restitution between on and m'. M m). and a ball of the same radius. the velocity of the ascending weight 2 Tf gb{2ab)/ia'^ + ah + 2b'''). Prove that. Prove that the velocity of the impinging sphere is diminished lies in this common in the ratio 13. at rest. and are attached by equal threads two other equal spheres at rest. m) (Jl/. after the is lapse of another second.12e balls : 19. is weight W attached to P. The particles are placed attached by inextensible threads to particles on a smooth table with the threads in two perpendicular straight lines. strikes the ball m so that the line of centres (m'. The lines of the threads pass through the centres of the spheres to which they are attached and make angles of 30' with that common tangent to the first two at their point of contact which the plane of the four centres. where v mass immediately before to its first the velocity of the particle of greater impact on the plane. and of mass m'. connected by an inextensible thread. 12. after the lapse of one second. another attached to the ascending weight W.
Prove that the sides of the rhombus begin to turn with angular velocity 2w sin a/a (1 42 sin^ a). 23. B. where 2a is the acute angle of the rhombus. Four equal particles are attached at the corners of a rhombus formed of four threads each of length a . and B. one of the extreme Prove that the particles is struck by a blow at right angles to the rod. AB. Prove that the magnitudes of the velocities of the particles are in the ratios 9:2:2:1. intervals to a thread Four small smooth rings of equal mass are attached at equal and rest on a circular wire in a vertical plane. rigid rod of negligible mass. the kinetic energy generated is greater than it would be if the particles were constrained to move in a circular groove. if an impulse is applied to one of the end particles in the direction of the thread attached to it. Two equal rigid rods particles. find when the threads become is tight. The rods and laid out straight. and. is less than it would be if the system were free in the ratio 24 25. lower rings being at the ends of the horizontal diameter. Three particles of equal mass are attached at equal intervals to a system being at rest. the tension is Mg (12 sin* 6). and prove that the velocity of A immediately afterwards F/(3 2 sin2 a) + ^gh sin a/ F. kinetic energy imparted to the system. so as to start to BC move down this line with velocity F. The radius of the wire is onethird of the length of the thread. Three particles J. the two 24. 231 A particle of mass is projected with velocity V in a direction an angle 6 with the horizontal. the : 22. change 19. the line being below the level of A. Four particles of equal masses are tied at equal intervals to a thread. M when the thread becomes immediately after the tight is JfFcos^ 6 cosec 6y and of motion. li A is struck by a blow along the line of greatest slope. and the impulse were applied tangentially. attached &t A. in the ratio cos2a + 4sin2a: cos2a + 2 sin^a. C are connected with by threads of length h sec a which make equal angles a with the line of greatest A slope through A on opposite sides of it. (7 of equal mass are placed on a smooth plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. . being attached to the point of promaking Prove that the jection by an inextensible thread of length T^ cosec^ ^/2^. impulsive tension that. and the system is moving on a horizontal plane with uniform velocity u in the direction of the longer diagonal AC^ when the end A of that diagonal is suddenly fixed. and the rod turns about it. and the system is placed on a smooth table so as to form part of a regular polygon whose angles are each na. 21. Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 18. C being freely hinged at i5. the end A is struck with an impulse at right angles to the rods. BC oi negligible masses carry four equal and at the middle points of the rods. when the other extreme particle is fixed. and the rings are at the four upper cornel's of a regular hexagon inscribed in the circle. 20.
if A is projected at right angles io will begin to ascend or descend according as iii!lm<i or AC with >sina + v2/^a. on the surface of a smooth horizontal circular The cylinder can slide on a horizontal plane. passes through a smooth ring C at the top of a smooth plane of inclination a = a) is along a line of greatest slope. 28.m"^] ~AMmm'm''^ + {m + m!) /i^ ' where /x2 = 2wi'2 m"^ + 2m"2 m^ + 2wi2 m'2 . 25. and to the horizontal.mini! (cos a cos * /S)^ of mass J/. which 27. if the cord supporting m" is cut. being pass over smooth pulleys at points A^ B. if the wire is set free. sphere of mass hangs by a chain. which pass through the particles. and the system is AB and BC make and when C acute angles a and a 4/3 are let go. AB /3). of length h and negligible mass. Cat the edge of the table. wire. rests in equilibrium on a smooth horizontal attached to three particles of masses m. make angles a and fi with the vertical. and that the plane through the chain and the radius from the centre of the sphere to the point of attachment starts to rotate with angular velocity \Q. is m {m + m') g cos a/(w + m' sin^ held at rest in a vertical plane. The arm is seized and made to rotate with angular velocity Q. B oi masses w. the as the highest point of the wire. Prove will begin to move in a direction that. cut between one of the extreme particles and one of the middle in the horizontal part is suddenly diminished in the Particles of masses which rests cylinder of in a vertical plane mass M. The m ^ {m + m!) {M\m sin^ a + m' sin'^ fi) .m'^ . rests and a particle of mass touch at its lowest point a smooth table against it. m' held in a vertical plane so that with the vertical.Q!^ c^ jh). VII. . velocity B Prove that.232 thread MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS is [CHAP. so as to 30.sin 3) + (wi sin a + m'sin /3) {1 cos (a +3)} . which is free to rotate about a fixed vertical axis passing through its other end. to one end of a rigid horizontal arm of length c. when the system is released.m"\ Two particles A. and m' are fastened to the ends of a thread. { Initially AC BC is vertical. the initial tension of has particles of masses m. the tension ratio 5:9. 29.m* . the tension of^the thread immediately becomes M{ism a 4. A particle P. about the radius. m\ m" by cords which table.m')^ . Prove that. m' are connected by a thread. v. 26. Prove that the tension of the chain A m immediately becomes m {g \. and B and C. being supported by an inextensible thread. A B thread it attached to at ABC is fixed at J. A circular wire of mass M m and is secured to a fixed point in the plane of the wire at the same level Prove that. ones. system is initially held at rest so that the radii of the circular section. Prove that. which passes over the is . M making with CP an angle _ J /A (m ~ m') {{m \.
Initially the angle PQR is obtuse and equal to ^.4m cos'^ a). make angles a with on AC AD ^C opposite sides of it.Each pulley and its coimterpoise are suspended by a cord passing over the preceding pulley. •• Hn. the initial radius of curvatiue . of masses m^.. Initially m is held at the level of the fixed end. The suffixes indicate the order in which the pulleys are slung. fj. The highest cord (connecting mi and m) passes over a fixed pulley. Prove that the the particle is projected parallel to initial tension in PQ is /3 M QR with Mm 72 (sin where a is . of its path is twice the length of the thread. so that is a. of masses [ii. C. m. the length of QS. line of greatest slope. {Tp^Jmp+Tp_i/mp_{) = Tp{llmp + llfji^ + 4/mp_i) further. and the two parts of the thread make equal angles a 32. if one of them is projected on the table at right angles to the thread. : 32n/> + l_5 35. and AB. T.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES pressure of the particle upon it 233 is m^g sin^ a/ {M+ 4m sin^^a).. plane. Four particles A. There is a system of n moveable pulleys.. . while the other end carries a particle of mass m.„ and n corresponding counterpoises. the angle RQS is right .. and the the bead m' is g {m' + 2 w cos^ a)l{m' 4. if Ti. connected by equal threads. T^ are the tensions in the cords.2. if the particle m is released. 34. mo. if the mass of each pulley (m) is to the mass of each counterpoise (fi) as 5 3. where a from the highest point of the wire.cos i3)/a (m + Mk. bead of mass m' can slide on a thread. prove that the downward acceleration of the p^^ moveable pulley is 2 . . prove that the tension in each of the lower threads is D instantly diminished in the ratio (l2sin2a)/(H2sin2a). Two equal particles connected by an inextensible thread lie on a smooth table with the thread straight prove that. . I) of equal mass. and the particles B and are released. Prove that. The pulleys are simultaneously set free. are placed on a smooth plane of inclination a(<^7r) to the horizontal.M&m 2/3). one end of which is fixed. velocity V. is immediately diminished by an amount the angular distance of the particle 31. If the uppermost particle A is held. A with the vertical. One end of a thread PQ is fixed to a point P on a smooth horizontal and the other end Q is attached to a small smooth ring of mass m which rests on the plane another thiead passes through the ring and is fixed at one end to a point R of the plane while its other end iS carries a particle of mass M.2. and no cord passes over the lowest pulley w„. the initial tension initial acceleration of in the thread is mm'g co8a/(m' + 4m cos^ a). and 33. . Prove that. B.
framework of the window (which it loosely fits). if are the masses. the initial radius of curvature of the path a{m\'m')lm. the portion between m and being of length a. C are connected by two threads Three particles A. m is projected horizontally at right angles to the thread.234 36. {p + m ) v^/b +pu^/a (p \. B on a 37. Prove that. and m is projected at right angles to this portion. smooth table particles of masses p and q are attached to the ends. and a between A and B. the initial 771. One cord breaks and the window descends with acceleration /. A rests on a rough 39. angles to the wire from a point on it is An inextensible thread passes through two smooth rings A. . v. p. straight wire. A particle of mass m on a smooth table is joined to a particle of mass m' hanging just over the edge the edge. if particle of mass m is attached to a point . Prove that. A small mass ring of on' is mass m rests on a smooth it particle of if connected with m' is projected in a direction at right at a distance a from m. if of the path of wi immediately after by a thread of length a at right angles to the system starts from rest. AC and the system placed in a line on a smooth table. and a. (q+7n) ijfifa f qv^lb {p\q+'m)u^ 41. A window is supported by two cords passing over pulleys in the 42. B. Prove that. and projected horizontally with velocity w.q ^^ m) v^ the other end A particle of mass m is attached to one end of through a bead of mass M and is smooth horizontal table on which the whole rests. VII. of the thread are straight and contain an obtuse angle a. are connected by a fine string . is AB. 38. (/A yiU^I{{yL\\)Vj^ and that the initial radius of curvature of J5's + 1)^. the radius of curvature it leaves the table is {mkm'Y (m + ??i')2 + 2m'2 Two particles J. Show that the coefficient of friction between the window and the framework is «(^3/)/6(^+/). If A is on the point of motion. the initial curvature of its path is {pjOA ~ q/OB)/(p + q + m). where a is the height and b the breadth of the window. horizontal table (coefficient of friction = /x) and hangs vertically at a disis tance I below the edge of the table. q curvatures of the paths of B and C are . show that A will begin to move with B B B an acceleration path will be 40. Prove that. The extreme particles are projected at right angles to the thread with velocities u. b the lengths of the threads. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. and another by a thread of length a. and is connected with counterpoises each equal to half the weight of the window. a thread which passes secured to a point on a Initially the two portions M Prove that the initial radius of curvature of the path of m is a(H4mi/'icos2^a).
For one of the moving bodies in an Atwood's machine a pulley is substituted. round which passes a cord connecting two masses P. find the mass of the single body in order that m' „ . and Q is the weight . A mass is vertically over the middle point of the axle. and its centre of V . from rest is engine is pulling a If train. the horse is working at a rate Wvr sin \l>J{c^ . prove that the time of generating velocity v \w 45. Prove that. A particle of mass M is attached to a cord. Im'm a. fMH. by means of a cord which is wound on a wheel of mass m. . If for bodies of masses one of the bodies a pulley of negligible mass is substituted. if the by the bodies in successive equal intervals of time are in arithmetic progression. may remain . of mass m. Prove that the acceleration of 31 is on a smooth table. where X is the angle of friction between the axle and its bearings. An H units of work per second. The wheel is driven by a constant force. if the bucket just comes to rest at /i Mm the top of the shaft rate of working is t seconds after the beginning of the motion. the greatest 2hM^gH/{Mgf . its the mass of the wheel being regarded as condensed uniformly on 44. H ir^v ^^° ~ Mv\ . the weight of the vehicle exclusive of the axle and wheels is TF. rim. f) ^^^''''^^ twowheeled vehicle is being drawn along a level road with velocity the wheels (radius c) are connected by an axle (radius r) fixed to them.. and supports a pulley. 48. Show that. which hang freely. on^. if the shafts are in a horizontal plane with the tops of the wheels.2/i (J/+ m)}. mass of the other moving body may be found which will keep either and that these values are in the ratio SPQ: 3QP. are is + rn^ 4mi m^ (M+m) (Wi + 7712) + 4?«i {lYii I m ??l2 bodies hang by a cord over a fixed pulley inertia of the pulley is neglected.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 235 A bucket of mass raised from the bottom of a shaft of depth 43. Show that. which is applied tangentially to its rim for a certain time and then ceases. M is and works at a constant power doing the the mass of the whole train and F resistance (supposed constant). 46. P 49.r^ sin'^ X). certain values of the or Q stationary. at rest if initially so. Q. runs is may In an Atwood's machine the groove in the pulley in which the chain cut to that depth at which it is found that the inertia of the pulley be divided equally between the moving bodies. Two : show that. which bodies of masses mi. the spaces described 47. and m and m' slung over it. and The cord passes over the edge of the table carrying another cord to the ends of attached. if the ratio F: Q lies between 3 and ^. and prove that the acceleratioa 01 the T)ulley is .
the moveable pulley will remain at rest if its mass is twice the harmonic mean of the other two masses. Bodies of masses mi and ra^ are hung over J/ by a cord. If Fis the initial subsequent velocity of P. Prove that. 50. where pulley. and supports m at one end and a pulley C of mass p at the other.236 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. are substituted. and bodies of masses m/. Two pulleys each of mass 8m hang at the ends of a chain of negligible mass which passes over a fixed pulley a similar chain passes over each of the two suspended pulleys and carries at its ends bodies of mass 2m. 55. of A body of weight P balances a body of weight W in that system of Prove that. P'. passes over Prove that the acceleration of the pulley and supports a body of is g (2m' . 53. 54. Prove that an additional weight R will P produce acceleration Rg/{2P+2Q\R+ W).cend with acceleration /. Two pulleys of masses and M' are connected by a cord passing over a fixed pulley. 52. and that the velocity of one of the ascending bodies is five times .M' . the pulleys being of equal weight.2. W is the weight of the Two smooth pulley. and P. Q' are in motion from the plane and Q' caught by it almost simultaneously. .W)} = 2^g{2''{P'P)+W'all Tf}. 51. and the initial subsequent velocity when Q' reaches the plane just before V Q rises. of weights P' and such that W /{22«P'+fP + i(2'^ + l)(2"P. fastened to a point A below B. if all the parts of the chain are vertical.m \p)l{Am' f m +p). P' when Q rises just before Q' reaches the plane. Q is raised Initially Q lies on a horizontal plane. . A chain of negligible mass passes over two fixed pulleys and under a moveable pulley. mo are hung over M'. the harmonic mean of mi and 7)12 and fi is the harmonic mean . A is a body of mass chain chain of negligible mass passes over a fixed pulley i5. P' are connected by a cord passing over a and to them are attached equal masses Q.x + 2fi'). and bodies are attached to its ends. equal masses P. prove that F:F' = (2P+^)2:4P(P+^). A mass m is now removed from one of the bodies and attached to one of those which hang over the other pulley prove that the acceleration of each pulley is y^^. A similar (7. Prove also that the two descending bodies move with the same velocity. if bodies pulleys in which each pulley hangs by a separate cord. VIL required to be added to overcome the friction of the axle when equal weights are hung at the ends of the chain. that of the other. P' will des:. Q' by cords. g {M+ 2/i . Q. Prove that either pulley M moves with acceleration where fi is m/ and 7712'. . mass m'.i')l{M+ M' + 2.
Show that the time of a small oscillation of the 59. AC. and they rest on a smooth inclined plane so that the two parts of the string are nearly in a vertical plane. Three particles of masses m. being attached to A by equal elastic threads of natural length I. The portions AB. if there are no external forces. of a thread AE of length 4«. and small equal rings rest on the rods at the middle points of AB.m^ m^ m^m^.mi wig}. Prove that. /3. which 60. BC. to a thread. 237 Three particles. at a distance 2a sin a 57. and if one of the rings is slightly displaced. of negligible mass./{mi^ + mi ^m^. Prove that. m are attached to the points B. are attached. CDj are each of length a and make with the horizontal angles a. of the same radius. A particle of mass M horizontal table of radius a .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 56. Two equal particles of mass Psin a are attached. passes over a small fixed pulley. where m is the mass of each ring and E is the modulus of elasticity. are symmetrically attached to a circular wire. which can move in a smooth circular tube. system is n [a (?? + 2)lgnY. 61. the period of the small oscillations is the same as for a simple pendulum of length sin a sin sin^ ^ sin (a — /3) cos (a . A particle is attached to the middle point of an elastic thread whose 62. and that. and rest C. the period of the small oscillations is 2Tr ^{2almlE {pa U)}. apart. m^. fixed in a vertical plane. the length of the equivalent simple I pendulum is cot ^ cosec j3 cosec a. and connected together by an inextensible thread passing through a fixed smooth ring at the middle point of BC. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple of the system is pendulum of the small oscillations (mi + WI2 + ^3) a/s. Two equal particles are connected by a string of length 21. Prove F that the period of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is the same as that for a simj)le pendulum of length a tan a. m^. and of radius a. Prove that i/'tana= (i/'+2m)tan^. suspended by the ends A. and a that of the plane to the horizon. A triangle ABC is formed of equal smooth rods each of length 2a. to the ends of which particles of mass The thi*ead is hung over two pegs distant 2a apart in a horizontal line. of masses mi. . 58. and each cord supports a mass M.jS) a cos a + sin^ /3 cos /3 is placed at the centre of a smooth circular cords are attached to the particle and pass over n smooth pulleys placed symmetrically round the circumference. if receives a small vertical dis DE M placement. /3 is the two portions of the string to the i)lane when the particles are together.. when they are slightly displaced and the motion is regarded as taking place in a vertical inclination of the plane. /3. a respectively. D E from two points at the same level. The distance ends are attached to two points in the same horizontal plane. M.
fia 27rls/{Sfx). and the parallel being the attraction at distance 65. if J/ is the mass of the body at any constant. of mass m. under the action of a repulsive force. one being midway between the other two. whose surface is . provided that 2nX>mfxc. rigidly attached to hoop of negligible mass and of radius h carries a particle it at a point distant c from its centre. being let go. to 2a between the points and the unstretched length of the thread are each equal and. is under the action of a force fi (distance) per unit mass directed from its centre. which are and in the same plane. Prove that. ? What happens 64. the system performs small oscillations . fixed point. in the position of equilibrium. and u its velocity. the system performs Prove that the angular motion of the lower thread in the case will be the same as that of the upper thread in the second case if 67. Iha \J c^ Two vertically from a are attached to a thread which hangs particles of masses Jf. if this condition not satisfied Three small equal rings are fitted on three smooth rods. and are placed so that the line joining any two of them is nearly perpendicular to the rods. time. simple pendulum of length a(2V22)/(2V2l). Prove that the time of a small oscillation is the same as for a . move with the same velocity v in the same direction in this medium is placed a body of any form and such that all the particles impinging on it adhere. uniform elastic ring. (1) m m m aside a distance h from the position of equilibrium. and natural length 27rc. and its inner surface is constrained to roll on the outer surface of a fixed circle of radius a. which falls vertically with velocity v smooth and spherical. (6>a). modulus X. 68. in the form of a circle. is held slightly pulled being above J/ . a. then M{vit) will remain An umbrella. 63. VII. Prove that its radius will vary harmonically A about a mean length 27rXc/(27rX is — w/xc).238 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. is held in rain and the umbrella itself is drawn . and. the two parts of the thread contain a right angle. the middle ring and the centre of mass of the other two will oscillate in a period other two relatively to each other in period 4iTl^{5fi). if the rings attract each other according to the law of gravitation. being let go. A number of uniformly distributed particles . (2) J/ is held slightly pulled aside a distance k^ small oscillations. Prove that the period of circular A small oscillations of the hoop will be h+c a 66. first without disturbing m^ and. Show that. directed from the centre of the fixed circle and equal to /x times the distance. and the distance between neighbouring rods being a.
. Prove that the average pressure per unit area of the rain falling on the umbrella at a point whose distance from the highest point is ^ is jt? cos^ 6 (v — V)'^lv% where p is the average pressure per unit area of the rain falling on a fixed horizontal plane. never less than a right angle. Prove that. while the charge just found. horizontal plane. send a 32 lb. An M its wedge.part will then be {7n'^m') J{auvl\{m{m')}.V3) yards. Two particles on a smooth table are connected by an elastic thread of natural length a. portions of same velocity v at right angles to the thread. which The ]3asses round a smooth peg in the plane. the angle OAB is line. OAB is again a straight the velocity of B Two particles of masses m. and is if the weight of the gun is n times that of the shot. where X is the modulus of elasticity of the thread.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES vertically 239 downwards with velocity V(<v). where ic and v are their initial velocities. and is the harmonic mean between the masses of the particles. with equilateral wedge of mass lower edges in contact with a smooth vertical wall. directions with the if Prove that. then the range is 6400?i/(4w that + 2 . and that. 69. Two particles A. in the subsequent motion. being given that the initial velocity is 1600 feet per second when the charge is half the weight of the shot. m' are placed close together on a smooth 73. when half that of A. if the greatest particle is projected at right angles to the thread. m one of is placed on a smooth table. the two extreme ones are projected in . and. if the gun is moveable on a smooth horizontal plane. Prove particles are projected away from the peg with equal momenta. two Find the charge of powder required with an elevation of 15° to 74. the velocity of projection is ^{SaX/Sm). ball will descend with acceleration Prove that the 72. when the thread like Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread is straight. shot over a range of 1600 yards. The particle B is projected on the table at AB. so that motion ensues without rotation of the wedge. and are initially at rest at a distance a apart. and are connected by an elastic thread of modulus X. and lie on a smooth table with the thread fixed. so that straight and the end right angles to Bof masses 2m and m are attached to an inextensible OA = AB. One Prove that. that they will come to rest at the same time and that their distance a. thread OAB. the angular velocity of the the thread when they have turned through an angle 6 is its initial value. length of the thread during the subsequent motion is 2a. l/V(l+2sin2^) of 70. and a smooth ball of mass M' is placed in contact with the wall and with one face of the 71. and is of its natural length a. there are no external forces. is Prove that.
it is in MM'mgl{MM' + (if+ M') {m + M') tan2 «} Prove also that the total weight exceeds the pressure on the fixed horizontal plane {( J/4 by M') {M' + m)2 g sin2 a}/{( J/+ M') {M' + m) sin2 a + MM' cos2 a}. smooth bore gun and carriage. Prove that the path of the particle is a parabola of latus rectum after 2M'^{MifM'^m)gt^l{{M+M'\mY\M'^f. is due. which the particle is allowed to fall down the tube. the height to which the velocity of the sphere before reaching the wedge 77. tons. VII. the sphere will ascend through a vertical height M hM^ cos2 a[{{M + m) ( J/'+ m sin2 a)} where h is . a length I feet. if there is no restitution between the wedge and the sphere. . In a truck of mass M is fixed a fine vertical tube inside which is fastened a particle of mass m. Prove that the range on a horizontal plane through the muzzle is 4n (1 +7i) Atana. feet. if the gun is fixed to the carriage. where h is the height through which the gun rises in the recoil. Prove that. moving on the table in a vertical plane which contains the centre of mass of the wedge and a line of greatest slope on its inclined face. 76. then the velocity imparted to the shot is Q^J\^Mgll{m (m + M) Q — m^R]'\ feet per second. together of mass 78. lasting till the shot has traversed the bore. Motion ensues for a time ^. if the powder gas exerts a uniform thrust equal to the weight of Q tons on the shot and gun. The truck is made to slide on a smooth horizontal plane by a massless horizontal chain. and a shot whose mass is Ijii of that of the gun is fired from it. are placed on a railway truck of mass M' tons which runs on a smooth level tons is fired from the gun parallel to the projectile of mass railway. A wedge of mass and angle a rests on a smooth horizontal table. and a small sphere of mass 7n. and if the wedge is high enough. A gun is suspended freely at an inclination a to the horizontal by 75. comes to the edge of the wedge. which passes over a fixed smooth pulley and supports a body of mass M'. and if the resistance to sliding weight of between the gun carriage and the truck is constant and equal to the R tons. The surfaces are all smooth and the motion takes place in a vertical plane. is horizontal. A M A m rails. two equal parallel vertical cords in a vertical plane containing the axis of the gun.240 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS [CHAP. A wedge of angle a and mass is free to move on a fixed horizontal Another wedge of angle a and of mass M' is laid upon it so that its upper surface. on which there is a particle of mass m. Show that. plane. is and the total length of recoil of the gun carriage on the truck iqm{M'{qR)MR)l[R{M\'M'){{M+m) QmR]] 79. M Prove that the pressure of the particle contact is m on the plane with which .
and if the backing against which is inelastic. at any time is ? + s. the position of equilibrium is defined by the equation 4 (sin ^ . 241 of mass J/". a. Prove . Two particles of masses natural length I and modulus edge and m' at a distance I in and m'. Assuming that A railway carriage is the compression proportional to the force. L. if at time t. joined by an elastic thread of at the are placed on a smooth table with X. M. line perpendicular to the edge. : : Two 84. . with the same angular velocity. is fixed . the ratio of the final velocities of the Mv>J{2mM'ffl{l + M'IM)}:Mv + y/{2mMgl{l\MIM')}. Two particles each of mass m are connected by a rod of negligible mass and of length I. One extreme about it Three equal particles are attached at equal intervals to a thread. prove that the other particle will begin to move when the rod makes with the plane an angle a. r. the tensions in the two portions of the thread are diminished in the ratios 1 3 and 1 2. so that the thread is straight. equal particles are connected by a thread.6) 26. : : that. and lie on a rough horizontal plane (coefficient of One of the paiticles is projected vertically upwards with velocity friction /*). The force necessary to compress a buffer carriage through the full extent I is equal to the weight of a mass m. and the other two are describing circles particle A is held fixed with the same angular velocity. An elastic circular ring of radius c sin a is placed unstretched in a 82. 3 sin a + cosec a. Prove that. 81. one point of which and the particles are describing circles of radii a and h about this point.x) + mz= \mgt^. if the length of the thread = 2gs — Xs2 (m + m')lmm'L z Also. moving with velocity v. Find /x also the radius of 16 . if the thread is suddenly released. carriages is if the buffers are driven v exceeds this limit. m has fallen through m' and m' is at a distance 3^ from the edge. then «2 Prove that. the tensions in the two portions are altered in the ratios (a + 6) 2a and (a +. 85. where a ( is the least angle which satisfies the equation a) (cos a V^ — Sgl sin provided that V^/gl is less than curvature of the path immediately afterwards.sin of. The particle m m m is then just pushed over the edge. if the particle A is let go. + sin a) = figl. horizontal plane over a smooth sphere of radius c. Prove that. so that the thread is always straight. impinges on a of mass M' at rest. if it just slips over the sphere. prove that the buffers will not be if completely compressed Prove also that. prove that (l .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 80. a)2 ( 1 + sin a) = tan^ ^ ( 1 .sin 83.
where a is the least positive root of the equation tana = a+7r. In a smooth table are two small holes A^ B Sit a. the t time until the shell again strikes the plane is the smallest positive root of the equation (l + <2)sin7i^ = (l e)nt. if J^>2M'mag tan a. the distance through which M oscillates will . spherical shell contains a particle of equal mass. particle and that the radius of curvature of the path of the upper immediately . strikes directly a fixed plane. M will oscillate to and fro through a distance 2a tan J^ = 2Mmag (tan a .t right angles to AB. . VII. In Ex.242 86. be — 2a^{(sec a sec ^3) (sec a sec /3 + 2)} . in the motion which ensues after the system the plane. rests on the table at the middle point of AB. thread of length of inclination a. each of mass m. Prove that. supported by springs of equal length and strength.tan /3) a. M m A blow Jia applied to M a. and the system. Prove that. l^ [CHAP. Prove that. imperfect restitution (coefficient e) between the shell and the plane. if '^•nln is the period of the free oscillations of the systera. Show that. but if where tan ^3 is positive. each of length a(lfseca). if the coefl&cient of restitution between the shell and the plane is unity. is In Ex. to move In Ex. mass m. the tension of the thread is constant and equal to of \mgal~^ cos^ a after it leaves the plane is 1 (1 .sin a). distance 2a apart 91. 88. MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND APPLICATIONS Two particles. are connected by an inextensible passing over a smooth pulley at the top of a smooth plane on which one of the particles rests at a distance a from the is free top {a<l).sin g cos a [cos2a+^(lsina)2]^ l+^a^~i cos2a(lsina)' 87. 87 the spherical shell is of mass 1cm and the particle of Prove that the shell will or will not strike the plane again according as /:< or > 1+2 cos a. all parts of which are moving in the line A of the springs with the same velocity. 88 prove that the period of oscillation when the shell is free is less than it would be if the shell were held fixed in the ratio l:^{l + \lk). 87 the particle and the shell have equal masses but there 89. which are attached at opposite ends of a diameter . passing through the holes. being a particle of mass connected with a particle of mass hanging beneath the table by two inextensible threads. the shell will strike the plane again after an interval of time equal to half the period of free oscillation. 90.
but the z of each particle remains constant throughout the motion.CHAPTER Vlllt. representing the determined by coordinates of the position of one of the particles. In the case now under discussion we may take the line and plane in question to be parallel to the plane {x. of a line of particles passing through that particle." or "in one plane. the axis of x\ further. and of a plane of particles passing through that line. 16—2 . Then this angle is increasing at t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk in a first one plane. The motion is said to be "in two dimensions. for instance angle invariable . make an angle 6 at time t with a line fixed in the plane. Then the position of the plane is and the position of the line is determined by the which it makes with a fixed line in the plane." Now we saw in Art. a rigid body in cases where every particle of the body moves parallel to a fixed plane. In this CKapter we propose to discuss the motion of 215. and parallel to the plane. of the position of the rigid body (moving in two dimensions) requires the determination of three numbers. and the angle which a line of the body drawn through that particle. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS. makes with a is fixed line. 180 that to determine the position of a rigid body it is requisite and sufficient to determine the positions of a particle of the body. the position of the chosen its particle is Thus the determination coordinates x and y. We can now see in what meant by the angular Let one velocity of a rigid body moving in the body. line of particles. and moving in the plane of its motion. for example the plane {x. In such a case the x and y of a particle of the body vary with the time. y) of a frame of reference. y). fixed (*) may be omitted reading.
z)^ body of density z. Hence particle its moment of momentum about the axis is mr^ay. These expressions become (o\\\p{x^\2/2) dxdydz. and its kinetic energy is ^mr^co^. Moment of Inertia. turns with the same angular velocity. The multiplier moment of inertia presently that it &> and Jw^ in these expressions is called the shall see of the body about the axis. 218. and this is the angular plane velocity of the rigid body. and pass to a limit by diminishing the volumes inThe process will be exemplified in Art. L^et a particle of a body at a distance r from the is Consider a rigid body turning be the mass of m axis. the axis of rotation being the axis of The body integrals are of the body. /9 at a point {x. about an axis with angular velocity o). very small in all their dimensions. a rate We 216. for if it were to change the body would be deformed. and this angle also increases at thus see that every line of particles parallel to the 6. enters into the expressions for the kinetic energy of We . Let any other line of particles be drawn also parallel and let a be the angle which it makes with the first Then a is invariable. [CHAP. Now the second line of particles makes an angle ^ + a with the fixed line. definitely. line. to the plane. multiply the value of p {a^ + y"^) at a point in one of these volumes by this volume. It follows that the moment of momentum of the rigid body about the axis is and the kinetic energy is the summations referring to all the particles. sum the products for all the volumes. that is into a very large volume integrals taken through the volume to say we must divide the volume of the number of volumes. and for a \(jiy^\\\p {x^ + y^) dxdydz. VIII. Then this describing a circle of radius r with velocity ro). y.244 a rate MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS 6.
Let 6 be the angle which any line makes with the axis x. of inertia of a body about an axis depends only its situation with reference to the axis. Let ^. For. be the coordinates of any particle of the system. is the sum of those about any two rectangular axes in the plane which meet in any point on the first axis. The expression moment of inertia about a perpendicular line would be cos2 B2 {mx"^) + sin2 d2my'^ + 2 sin ^ cos 62 {mxy).215217] MOMENTS OF INERTIA 245 and moment of rotation is momentum of a rotating body. y. zf those of the particle m Then x=x{a/^ y=y^y\ z — z + z'A 2maf=0y 2m^=0. z the coordinates of the centre of mass. and thus for the the moment of inertia about the line 2m {y co^6x sin 6f = sin^ 62 {mx^) + cos^ O2 {my^) . of any form. The of inertia of a system about any axis is equal to the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centre of mass together with the moment of inertia about the original axis of the whole mass placed at the moment centre of mass. III.2 sin ^ cos 62mxy. The moment on the shape of the body. The moment To compare the moments parallel axes of inertia of a lamina about different axes in its plane. it. y. whether the axis of fixed or not. y. relative to the centre of mass. z X. The distance of any point {x. x. I. For we can use Theorem I. ^'. For new axes obtained by turning through an angle 6 it has the value _ (cos2^ sin2 6) 2 {mxy) + sin 6 cos 6 {2 (m/) 2 {mx^)). m its mass. about any axis perpendicular to its plane. the moments of inertia about the axes of x and y are respectively 2my'^ and 2mj. is 2m (x^+f) = 2m (af^+y'^) + (^ +y^) 2m.} Now So 2m^2 = 2m (^ + j/)^ = x^2m + 2nu/^ + 2x2mjf 2my^=p2m+lmi/'\ Hence which II. y) from this line is is — ^ sin ^ h^ cos ^. of inertia of a plane lamina. Theorems concerning Moments of Inertia. and the distribution of density within 217. We can always choose the axes of (^. and it will therefore be sufficient to consider axes in different directions through the origin. 2m2f=0. The quantity 2 (mxy) is known as the product of inertia with respect to the axes of x and y (in two dimensions). y.\ and the moment of inertia about the axis of 2 is 2m {x^+y'^). the theorem stated. y) so that this quantity 2 {mxy) . if the axes are taken to be those oi z.
distance of any section from the middle point. Let m be the 2a br. they have the same moment of about any other axis in the plane.246 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. if . The quantity k for any body as the radius of gyration of that body about that axis. vanishes. The directions of the principal axes vary with the point chosen as origin. For a circular ring of Uniform. =2 (wx^). and by Theorem II. known in question. we can always express moment of inertia about any axis in the form mJc\ where k represents the length of a line and thus we see that k is the radius of a ring such that. ellipse This ellipse is known as the of inertia. In the case of a body of any shape. then the moment of inertia about any diameter of it is inversely proportional If an to the square of the length of that diameter. and if their moments of inertia about any three assigned axes in the plane are equal. and the same centre of mass. and of very small section. 218. When this is done the axes of x and y are called Principal axes of the lamina. the same moment of inertia about any axis lying in the plane and passing through the common inertia centre of mass. be the Now let the axes of x and y be principal axes of the lamina at the origin. is drawn on the lamina. =2 {my'^). two plane systems are momental equivalents if they have the same mass. mass m and radius a. If two plane systems in the same plane have the same mass. IV. VIII. Let ^. by Theorem I. the same centre of mass. Uniform rod. the same principal axes at the centre of mass. moment of inertia about the axis y. and 2a its length. they have the same moment of inertia about any axis perpendicular to the plane. and of mass m. ring. the moment of inertia of the ring about its axis would be the same as the moment of inertia of the body about the axis is and any axis II. Such systems are described as momental It is clear that equivalents. they have the same moment of inertia about any axis in or perpendicular to the plane. the thickness of the rod is . the the mass of the body were condensed uniformly upon the ring. the moment of inertia about the axis is ma'^. I. ellipse whose equation is Ax'^\By^ = Gon^t. Radius of gyration of a body. Then the moment of inertia about a line through the origin making an angle 6 with the axis x is Jcos^^ + ^sin'^^. since every element of the mass can be taken to be at the same distance a from the axis. mass of the rod. be the moment of inertia about the axis x. Calculations of moments of inertia. in the first place. and 5. r the The mass of the part between if Therefore. the two systems have by Theorem III. For. and the same moments of inertia about these principal axes.
/: Ta2 ^Trrdr. to divide the sphere into a very large To evaluate this integral we have first number of very small volumes. is a/^d. and finally to pass to a limit by diminishing the small volumes indefinitely. 47rr'''ci?r=— ^. and the distances from the centre of all the lie points in this volume between r and r + br. 216 we must integrate Now it follows from the symmetry '\x'^\y'^) through the volume of the sphere. next point within one of the small volumes to multiply the value of r^ for a by this volume. 218] MOMENTS OF INERTIA 247 disregarded.217. the moment of inertia about right angles to the rod is an axis through the middle point at The III. each of these integrals l\ \ Hence is equal to \{x^+y^\. and r {x^ y^ z) from the centre. According to the general formula of Art. Hence the required integral j I \r^dxdydz= r r^.z^) is dxdy dz or \\\\'r^ dxdydz. Hence the moment of inertia of the disk about an axis drawn through its The mass per unit of area of a uniform thin circular m is m/na^ The area of the narrow ring contained All the circles of radii r and r+8r is 2ir (r + ^dr) 8r. then to sum the all products so formed. is the mass of the sphere. The radius of gyration of the disk about this axis is a/^2. disk of radius a and mass between two concentric particles in such a ring are at distances from the centre which lie between r and r+8r. Uniform sphere. Let a be the radius of the sphere. where the integration denotes the distance of the point taken through the volume of the sphere. is The moment of inertia of the sphere about any diameter therefore where w. p the (constant) density of the material. centre at right angles to its plane „ is r2 . of the sphere that / I \x^dxdydz= i j \y^dxdydz= \ j Iz^dxdydz. where the integrations are taken through the volume of the sphere. which is ^wa^. = ^irpa^. IV. radius of gyration of the rod Circular disk. . and let the origin of coordinates be the centre of the sphere. Now r\br is 47r{r2 the volume contained between two concentric spheres of radii r and + r5rf ^(Sr)2}gr.
We have to find the value of a^b l^^d^drf. = ^npabc. Prove that a momental equivalent of a uniform triangular lamina 6.) 4. y=br). z = c^. 26 about axes through its centre parallel to its edges are Jm6^ and ^ma^. and one of mass }m at each of the ends. VIII. and \7na?. y = bT]. II. which given by the equation x^la^{y^lh^ = change the variables by putting I x=a^. of Art. [It can be shown that the same formula holds for any axis drawn through 7. 1. z are I (62+^2). side 2a about the centre of the cube. is half the radius. This is the same thing as an integration over the area of a circle of unit Hence prove that the moments of inertia of a imiform thin elliptic lamina of semiaxes a. We get a^bcjjj$^d^dr}dC. of Art. Prove that the moment of inertia of a uniform cube of mass m and an axis through its centre parallel to an edge or at right angles to an edge is fma^. change the variables by putting x=a^. where the integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality $^+r]'^1^l. To find the value of ix^dxdydz taken through the volume of the ellipsoid.h^ radius. y. Prove that the moments of inertia of a uniform rectangular lamina of mass m and sides 2a. f(aH62). h and mass m about its principal axes are \w. An ellipsoid is given / / by an equation of the form x^/a^ +y^/b^ + z^/c^ — l. Hence prove that the moments of inertia of the ellipsoid (supposed to be of uniform density />) about the axes of x. 218 the result is 4 — 15 tt. the origin being at the centre of the (Cf. where the integration extends over a range of values given by the inequality This is the same thing as an integration through the volume ^2 + ^2_j_^2^ 1_ of a sphere of unit radius. Examples. (c2+a2). where m. 5. consists of three particles. To evaluate is the integral 1 1 x^dxdy taken over the area within an ellipse \. each onethird of its mass. According to IV.248 219. placed at the middle points of its sides. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. Hence evaluate the integral I ix^dxdy taken over the circle. of Art. 2. area of a circle of radius a. 217 and IV. : Prove that a momental equivalent of a thin rod of mass m consists of three particles one of mass pn at the middle point. 218. is the mass of the ellipsoid. Prove that the radius of gyration of a circular disk about a diameter 3.] .
where M. and let u and v be resolved parts of the velocity of G Let G parallel to the axes x and line y. makes parallel to the axes are wy' and wx. Similarly the momentum of the body parallel to the axis y is Mv.219. MOMENTUM OF Velocity and RIGID BODY 249 Momentum of rigid body. r its distance from G. 220] 220. Hence the resolved velocities of P parallel v to the axes are u— Let (oy and + cox. Fig. be the centre of mass of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. Let P be any other particle of the coordinates relative to body. m be momentum which is of the the mass of the particle at P. and x'. 63. and the velocity of is rw relative to at right angles to the resolved parts of this relative velocity . is the mass of the body. . equal to Mu. since the line P G GP GP with the axis x an angle whose cosine is is x'jr and whose sine y'jr. y' its G at time t Then the GP — is turning with the angular velocity ft) of the rigid body. body parallel to the axis x Then the is resultant Sm {u — (oy'). =Sm.
the kinetic energy of the body is ^Im {(u which + {v + (ox'Y] = iif(M2 + v^ + A. 158). (oy'y is the kinetic energy of the whole mass. the point moves relatively to 6^ in a circle of radius r with angular velocity equal to (a at time t its acceleration relative to G may therefore be resolved into rw at P . 153. The resultant is localized in a line is through G. Thus the momentum of the bod}?^ is the same as the momentum of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with it. ." The fact that the motion of a rigid plane figure in its plane is equivalent to rotation about a point is of importance in many geometrical investigations.) The moment of momentum of the body about an axis through is the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion which is equal %m {x' (v + cox') — y' {u — coy')}y to wSm (x'^ + y'^) or to Mk^co. With the notation of the last Article. The formulae for the velocity of a point show that at each instant the point whose coordinates relative to G are — vjw and ujco has zero velocity.250 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS resultant [CHAP. 221. 156). together with the kinetic energy of the rotation about the centre of mass (Art. (Art. so that the motion of the body at the a motion of rotation about an axis through this point perpendicular to the plane of motion.W). and has resolved parts Mu. moving with the centre of mass. Kinetic Reaction of rigid body. The moment of momentum about any parallel axis is the moment about that axis of the momentum of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it together with the moment Mk^co (Art. The point is called the instant is instantaneous centre of no velocity. Thus the momentum of the rigid body specified by the resultant and couple of a system of vectors localized in lines. and the moment of the couple is Mk^a). or frequently "the instantaneous centre. VIII. where k is the radius of gyration about the axis. Again. Mv in the two chosen directions.
and 2m {i) + wx — to^y'). 221] KINETIC REACTION OF RIGID BODY 251 Hence the resolved parts right angles to GP. the axes which are and these ^m {u — my' — (o^x') are Mu and Mi). (Art. moving with the centre of mass. The moment of the kinetic reactions about any axis perpen dicular to the plane of motion is the moment about that axis of the kinetic reaction of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body. The kinetic reactions may be reduced to a resultant kinetic reaction localized in a line through the centre of mass and a The resultant in question has resolved parts parallel to couple.220. Fig. and this is Mk^oa. The couple is the moment of the kinetic reactions about a line through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion this . 64. 157. of the acceleration of to the axes are parallel P u — my' — (o'^x\ and v + wx — ay^y'.d)x' — co^y') — y'{ii— coy — wV)}. and rm^ along PO. moment is 2m [x' (v 4.) moment . together with the of the couple Mk^m.
and the may be written j^ da {^K(o^). is it to /. 217. This point It is of is called the instantaneous centre of no much less importance than the instantaneous centre of no velocity. 1. 235 and 236 infra. where Hence the above or If j. O) The r=IG. w is the angular velocity of the body. is [This circle 4. velocity of G is rm at right angles to the line joining or we have u'^\v^=r'^(x>^. Prove that. in general. called the " circle of inflexions.252 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. two particles. The equations of motion express the conditions that the kinetic reactions and the external forces may be equivalent systems of vectors. [It follows that this centre can be constructed if we know the directions of motion of 2. K for the I. that particle which is at a cusp on its path. at the instantaneous 223. and V is the resultant velocity of the particle. . acceleration. at any instant. centre (of no velocity) Prove that. When the point / is fixed in the body this can be replaced by Ka. the — mv + —mu\mK^ai. such that B = and write a>. Examples. their paths lie Prove that those particles which at any instant are at inflexions on on a circle. The show that formulae for the acceleration of any point of the body at each instant there is a point which has zero acceleration. 222. the normal to the path of every particle passes through the instantaneous centre (of no velocity). is 5. 3. The coordinates of the instantaneous centre to axes through the centre of moment in question is 0) / being — vjat and uja) referred mass G parallel to the axes of reference. then K=m{k^ + r^) by of Art."] the circle of inflexions Prove that the curvature of the path of any particle which is not on is ay^p^j V^ where p"^ is the power with respect to the circle of the position of the particle. Equations of motion of rigid body. VIII. Other cases in which this formula can be used are noted in Arts.(^ir^co^j + mk'^co^ we take an angle 6 result obtained l^{^^(F + r2)a>2}. moment of inertia about the instantaneous centre /.] Calculation of the moment of the kinetic reactions about the instan taneous centre (of no velocity).
Q. Q be the resolved parts of the force in the directions in which the acceleration of the centre of mass was resolved. De horologio oscillatorlo. but it is clear that there is a class of cases motion in two dimensions persists. and for solving them in general.221225] EQUATIONS OF MOTION 253 be the mass of the body /i. was first published in 1673. A this question in which the cannot be given here. Mk(6 has the same resolved part in any direction. which at some instant moving in two dimensions parallel to a certain plane. or. Mf^. His work. In particular we have and the equations of motion of the body can always be written in this form. N. N Then the system of vectors expressed by Mf^. M force at its centre of Let the forces acting on the body be reduced to a resultant mass and a couple. This class includes all the cases in which the body is symmetrical with respect to a plane and the forces applied to it are directed along lines lying in that plane. the equations arrived at are differential equations. and the same moment about any axis. as the system P. when the forces can be reduced to a single resultant in the plane of symmetry and a couple about an axis perpendicular to that plane. The is question whether a body. A heavy body free to rotate Rigid Pendulum f. « the aagular velocity of the body. about a fixed horizontal axis is known as a "compound pendulum" 225. t Ch. Let P. 224. and the principles which he invoked were among the considerations which ultimately led to the establishment of the Theory of Energy. continues to move parallel to that plane or will general answer to presently be found to be moving in a different manner. In the formation of equations of motion diversity can arise from the choice of directions in which to resolve. and of axes about which to take moments. As in the case of Dynamics of a no rules can be given Particle. and let be the couple. arises Continuance of motion in tw^o dimensions. If however is au equation of energy. or an equation of conservation of momentum. such equations are first the circumstances are such that there integrals of the equations of motion. more generally. . Huygens was the first to solve the problem of the motion of the pendulum. /a the resolved accelerations Let of the centre of mass in any two directions at right angles to each other in the plane of motion.
angles to the axis. but with as centre of suspension instead of S prove that S will be the centre of oscillation. 2. 95 and 119. 6 the angle which GS makes with Let the vertical at time t Then the whole motion takes place in the vertical plane which passes through G and is at right Fig." S is called the " centre of suspension. A uniform rod moves with its ends on a smooth circular wire fixed in . 65.254 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS " " [CHAP. and the position of the pendulum at any time depends only on the angle 6. . we is the same as that of a simple pendulum of + ¥)lh. Let M be the mass of the body. G perpendicular to the plane of The energy velocity of the centre of is mass is hO. and the kinetic The potential energy of the is body in the field of the earth's gravitation Mgh{\co%d\ the standard position being the equilibrium position. Let GS = h. to distinguish it from the simple discussed in Arts. VIII. 119. A the " The point in the line SG at this distance from S is known as centre of oscillation. Hence the energy equation can be written iM{h'' + k') &" = Mgh cos 6 + const." 226." distance between these centres is the " length of the equi valent simple pendulum. Examples. axis. is hung up so that it can oscillate in the same vertical plane as before. 1. pendulum whose motion was G be the centre of mass of the GS the perpendicular from G to the body. Comparing length {k^ see that the motion this equation with that obtained in Art. for which S and are respectively a centre of suspension and the corresponding centre of oscillation. A rigid pendulum. k its radius of gyration about an axis through motion.
Now let Ic M be the mass of the pulley. 6 the angle through which it has turned up to time t. and the expression of the effects of the principles that have been laid down by inertia of a rigid body by means of the moment of inertia. in order to get some idea of the way in which the motion of the pulley affects the result. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the compoimd body will be {mhl + m'h'l')l{mh + m' h'). Prove that the period of oscillation will be prolonged by sliding the bob up or down. which can turn about a fixed horizontal axis. > < Two rigid pendulums of masses and I. 4. if the pendulums are fastened together in the position of equilibrium. the expression of kinematical conditions. The mass of the rope being neglected. and x the distance through has fallen at time t.225227] a vertical plane. Other matters subsidiary interest are the kinematical expression of velocities and accelerations in terms of a small number of independent geometrical quantities. We exemplify the application of the partially working out some problems. . The most important matters to be illustrated are actions between two rigid bodies whether smooth or rough. Inertia of machines.m') gx. RIGID Prove that. and the calculation of resultant of stresses. if it PENDULUM 255 the length of the equivalent simple subtends an angle of 120° at the centre. its Let m m and m' be the masses of the bodies at tached to the rope. and a spherical bob. and m' turn about the same horimass and of oscillation from Prove that. The A. We shall consider Atwood's machine. I. pendulum is equal to the radius of the 3. m zontal axis. to suppose the pulley to be so rough that the particles of the rope and the pulley in contact move with the same velocity along the tangents to the pulley. Then x = a6. A or twice according as the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is the distance of the centre of gravity of the bob from the axis of rotation. 227. To avoid having to take account of the motion of the pulley in our preliminary notice of Atwood's machine (Art. circle. 73) we assumed the pulley to be perfectly smooth. a its radius. A' distances of the centres of the axis are V respectively. which can slide on the rod. which Fig. 32 [his). Illustrative Problems. or that the rope slides over resistance it without frictional and without setting it in motion. the kinetic energy is and the work done is (m . radius of gyration about its axis. It will now be most convenient. compound pendulum consists of a rod.
Let a wheel. the point of contact supposition that v does not exceed aw. . the plane of which is and let the wheel be vertical. the friction and R the pressure at the of contact with the ground. VIII. the mass. so that the energy equation I? \M 2 i^ + ^ w + m') i^ = (m . and written down the equations. The sense of a is the same as that of G and therefore. if the motion In the same case starts from rest. on the aw. and the right The equations of motion. motion hy couple. When v slips on the plane in the sense opposite to that of v. k the radius ot gyration about the axis. Let a be the radius of the wheel. Wheel set in . and then the friction < acts in the sense shown. we may eliminate F fron^ two of our equations. Fig. If v = a(Oj so that the wheel rolls.mg. G the applied couple. ( Thus the acceleration with which m descends is m + m'+Mk^la^ It appears that the effect of the inertia of the pulley is equivalent to an increase of each of the masses in the simple problem (where the pulley is regarded as smooth and II.256 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS is [CHAP. are vertically mv = Fj = R. . be in contact with rough horizontal ground set in motion by a couple about its axis. We have drawn the figiue. and obtain the equation m{k^ + a^)d> = 0. mk^o) = G — Fa. obtained by resolving horizontally and and taking moments about the centre. reactions. 66. v the velocity its centre moves. its mass is neglected) by ^Mk^ja^.m') gx + const. the sense of a> is the same as that of G. point m F Let o> with which be the angular velocity with which the wheel turns. The lefthand figure is the diagram of the kinetic hand figure is the diagram of the applied forces.
but the working out of the details is in general a matter of difficulty. pp. The machinery is so contrived that a couple is exerted on the driving wheel of the locomotive. II. or the centre of the wheel moves Fig. The condition for the production of the motion is the existence of a source of internal energy. mk^a=Fa. so that the friction acts in the sense in which the centre of the wheel moves (the sense shown in Fig. 71) is really the friction of the rails on the driving wheel. The problems of Nos. R. and that the friction at the point of contact is the horizontal force which produces the horizontal momentum. 84. if the friction is great enough. Ball. and equal to Pk^Kk^ + a^). The external forces. which The in friction in this case acts in the sense opposite to that in P acts. The direction of the friction at the point of contact is that of the motion of the train as in No. (Cf. {i. motion by a horizontal force P applied at its centre in its plane. in the coupling is a the frictions at the points It appears that the "pull of the engine" (Art. We Wheel set in motion hy force. In order that this motion may take place it is necessary that Gal{{k^+a^)mg] should not exceed the coefficient of friction. 1888. 6 of Art. in the sense opposite to that if shown The motion will be one of rolling Pk^l{mg{k^\a^)} is less than the coefficient of friction. .227] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 257 F=Gaj{k^\a^\ which is positive. 66). be set III. S. the wheel starts to roll. and F is negative. The way in which a source of internal energy may result in the production of motion. The tension horizontal force setting the vehicle in motion. 214. 207 and Ex. 83. Experimental Mechanics. illustrate the forces that affect the motion of a railicay train. This is the " force " which sets the train in motion.e. are necessary to the successful action of the animal or machine. or the friction is too small. the wheel will begin to roll along the road. we have the equations of motion in mv = P+F. 2nd Edition. through the agency of external forces. 66). 17 . the wheel slips or " skids " on the rail but. FjR or conclude that. 1 of Art. and III. on eliminating F^ wheel rolls. which can be transformed into work done by the couple acting on the driving wheel.) M. and keeps it in motion against the resistances. has already been illustrated in simple cases in Ex. II. If the = Rmg. such as the friction in this problem. With the same notation as before. All the characteristic motions of machines and of living creatures are examples of the same principles. and of contact of the wheels with the rails act as resistances. London. L. we have. III. so that v=aa)j Hence « is positive. if the ground is sufficiently rough. Again let the wheel of No. If this couple is too great. The motion of a wheel of any coach or truck attached to the train is of the character considered in No. II.
where F is positive. . and at this instant o has the value (OQaFo/F. in the sense of F. The particles on the lowest generator have velocity and therefore has the opposite sense. M We Fig. VIII. senses being those shown in Fig. Then so long as aQ)>U the friction in the same sense.a Fq. where h is the radius of gyration about the axis of the cylinder.a Fo . and a velocity of the centre in the opposite sense begins to be generated.Voa^/k^ in the same sense as before. velocity Hence F is negative and to is also negative. whence MaU+MPi> = 0j I U increases and eo diminishes according to the equation a t^+ Fo) = Fo)o . 67. and we have U F MU=F.258 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. IV. the friction is still finite and in the same sense as before. 67. At this instant the lowest point has velocity aatQ. on The F diminishes and the angular velocity Foj also diminishes according to the equation . F+awin the sense of F. F Resolving horizontally we have MV=F. take the problem presented by a uniform and radius a which is set rolling and sliding on a rough cylinder of mass horizontal plane. We shall proceed with the case where Fo<(iDoF/a. Then there must come an instant at which F vanishes. the velocity of the axis. Now let F be the friction between the cylinder and the plane. Let V be and <a the angular velocity at time t. Rolling and sliding. the The system of kinetic reactions reduces to horizontally through the centre of mass. See Fig. 68. where Fq and wq are the values of F and w in the beginning of the motion. and a couple J/Fd) in the sense of w. the angular velocity being initially such that the points on the lowest generator have the greatest velocity. be the velocity in the sense At any later stage of the motion let acts opposite to Vq.a F= Fa>o . Taking moments about the point of contact we have MV ifaFifFw = 0.
the angle 6 which the radius through it makes with the vertical is given by the its axis A homogeneous which is M horizontal. the final friction called into play between either forward wheel and the line is G/Aa. m equation ^i {{M+ 6m) cos 6 — 47n} = if sin 6. has two pairs of wheels of radius a engine of mass such that the moment of inertia of either pair with its axle about its axis of rotation is A locomotive A. \g sin a. ixg and radius a is free to turn about cylinder of mass is placed upon it close and a particle of mass to the highest generator. 17—2' . so long as the cylinder slips. 228] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS equal to aw the value of either is 259 When U becomes and at a(Fa>oaFo)/(a2 cylinder rolls on the plane uniformly. Prove also that. Examples. Prove that. hoop of radius a spinning in a vertical plane where 3. M The engine exerts a couple G on the forward axle. 1. /x is the coefficient of friction between the particle and the cylinder.227. Thereafter the Fig. circular A uniform thin its about centre with angular velocity co is gently placed on a rough plane of inclination a equal to the angle of friction between the hoop and the plane so that the sense of rotation is that for which the slipping at the point of contact is down a line of greatest slope. in this problem. the friction between one of the forward wheels and the line capable of being called into play must not be less than \ G {A\Ma'^)la {2A+Ma^). 68. the constantly equal to y^Mg. a^ + —B — j^ ^ . In the problem just considered prove that the time from the beginning is ^ of the motion until the motion becomes uniform 2. when the particle begins to slip. 228. It is to friction is be noticed that. where ft is the coefficient of friction between the cylinder and the plane. Prove that. if the when the engine only action between an axle and its bearings is a frictional couple varying as the angular velocity of the axle. 4^2)^ this instant the cylinder is rolling on the plane. Prove that the hoop will remain stationary for a time aa>lg sin a before descending with acceleration 4. if both pairs of wheels bite at once starts.
(1). 6 the angle which makes with the vertical. The condition of rolling is that the particles of m and m' that are at circles. A Let m and m' be the masses. Since ration of we have introduced the value of B describes a circle relative to A B relative to A is compounded with angular velocity of {a 6. A horizontal. uniform sphere rolls down a rough plane of inclination a to the Prove that the acceleration of its centre is fg sin a. is therefore compounded of this velocity and V velocity of horizontally. which rolls on a It is required to determine the motion. . in the sense of (a 46) 6. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP.) (considered as a point of m') relative to velocity of to AB. VIII. 70) In the diagram of accelerations V from equation (1). o> the angular velocity of m'. F have the same velocity along the common tangent to the two We therefore have {a + b)0\ba)= aQ. . Fig. angles The The F B is A is b(o at right. relative to is {a + b)6 at right The velocity of angles to AB. the accele + b)d at right angles to AB.260 5. (Fig. but in the opposite sense. This gives us the diagram. 69. Q AB m The condition that m rolls on the plane is V=aQ. ratio of the friction to the pressure is f tan *229. 69._ and {a + b) 6^ in BA. A and B the centres. and the. problem : — Kinematic condition of rolling. angles P m) relative to aQ at right. (2). k and k' the radii of gyration of and m' about their axes. (considered as a point of velocity of to AB. and that the a. V the horizontal velocity of m. B A B (Fig. the angular velocity of m. Consider the following cylinder of radius b rolls on a cylinder of radius a. horizontal plane.
there equation of the form an integral maQ. m'h{a + h)'e\m'atlhco^6\m'Jcf'^m=m'gh^V[\6 and \ mk^Q +ma'^Q. and if it rocks without slipping. the angle 6 which it makes with the horizontal at time t is given by the equation \ ( xV V. about to for the system. (1 \k^la?)\m' {aQ. ILLUSTRATIVE PKOBLEMS 261 form the equations of motion. *230. in the problem just considered. one of them is the energy equation. plane.m'g {a + h) sin 6)'"^ '' One of the quantities co and G can be eliminated by means of equation (2). so as to remain in contact with the cylinder.a)k"^lb} = const. + m' ail {a + {a {h) cos. 70. 6] + m'k^'^a} m'{aifh)d{aith + a cos 6) + m' (a + h) 6^ a sin 6=. Two first integrals of these equations can be obtained .228—230] Now.. take moments about We have P for m\ and (3).^ cos 6 = const. 1. and that 6 and 6 are connected by an equation of the form i{a + b) 6^ [(1 +k'yb^) m' (cos 6 k"^lb^f\{m (1 +F/a2) 4. is Prove that. iai^e' Fig.+ aW) e^ ^ga (cos ^ + ^ sin ^) = const. Examples. 2. {a + b) 6 cos 6 .. A its a with uniform rod of length I rests on a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius middle point at the top prove that. pendulum for small oscillations is and the length of the equivalent simple .^' (1 +/&'2/&2)] 4. and there then remain two unknown quantities in terms of which the motion can be completely expressed by solving the equations that are obtained by substituting from (2) in (3) and (4). if it is displaced in a vertical .
a). Prove that the motion in 6 the same as that of a simple pendulum of length (6 . Let k be the radius of gyration of the ball. coq of co Prove also that coq vanishes. supposed uniform. 5. A ball is at rest in a cylindrical garden . A thread unwinds from a reel of radius a. m{ha)6^ = R — mg cos 6. and a homogeneous sphere rolls in the cavity.a). about an the mass of the ball. Let a be the radius of the ball. and therefore the moment of momentum of the ball about any axis through this point is zero initially.ma {ha)'6= mga sin ^. and the axis of the reel being horizontal.262 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. m Hence obtain the equation mk'^a)o — ma{{b — a)0o.V] = and ^o of ^ for the initial values find the value of Sq. 71. Prove Fig. V the velocity of the roller. Prove also that the value of in any position is R R mg (Y. is (i) that the an gular velocity of the roller F/6. forces acting on the ball pass through the point of contact. Prove that the acceleration of the centre of the reel about of the 4. thread being held fixed. is ga?\{a^\lc^\ where h is the radius of gyration of the reel and that the tension of the thread is F/(F + a2) of the weight A thread passes over a smooth peg and unwinds itself from two cylindrical reels freely suspended from it and having their axes horizontal.cos ^ . Prove that each reel descends with uniform acceleration. its axis. A down a Prove . VIII. when the roller is seized ball. B the angle which the line of centres makes with the vertical.V^) +m F2/(6 . cube containing a spherical cavity slides without friction plane of inclination a. h of the roller. roller. Deduce the condition that the the roller. where is is the pressure of the roller on the ball. ball may roll quite round the interior of 6. and Obtain the equations of motion mk^d> . and made to roll uniformly on a level walk to find the motion of the assuming that it does not slip on the roller. Initially all the impulsive axis through its centre. reel. the unwound part of the thread being vertical. (ii) that the angular velocity (a of the ball is Y\a — {b — a) d/a. the uppermost point of the 3.
Further. the radius of gyration of the disk about its centre of mass. 8. 6 is rough.m) cos a cos 6 gl{a .6) = const. so that.\ra¥ sin e + {M+ m) cos a sin {B . Finally obtain the equation ^ 7. supposed to coincide with circle is Prove that the disk can roll inside a cycloid the radius of whose generating a and whose vertex is lowest so that the angular velocity (p is uniform and equal to Prove that.230] ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 263 that the angle 6. if is the angular velocity of the disk. .L^'^^ contact makes with the vertical. {f {M+ m)m cos^ 6] ^2 _ [M\. The centre of p. where a b is the radius of the sphere. and a. when the plane of Ex. between the normal to the plane and the common normal to the sphere and the cavity. and M and m for the for the distance described by the cube masses of the cube and sphere. curvature of the curve at this point. Velocity of centre = coi = (p + c) Hence obtain the equation of energy ^{p + cY{l+k^le^)^^=g where k is j {p + c)sm(}>d(f). the radius whose generating circle is c and whose vertex is highest.ij\ 6'^'] . obtain the equations of motion by resolving for the system down the plane and at right angles to it and taking moments for the sphere about its point of contact with the cavity. the motion is determined by the equation 3c<j>^ of cos* ^(f>=g (3 + cos (f)) sin2 ^0. the angle which the normal at the point of / I \ \. Investigate the corresponding equation when the curve is concave to the disk. and the instantaneous a> centre of rotation of the disk at the point of contact. taking is the radius of the cavity.e) gj{a — b) = 0. and that the disk leaves the cycloid when cos =f . is connected with the angular velocity o) of the sphere by the equation (ah)6 = ba. e is t friction Prove that. and between it and the cube. Let c be the radius of the disc. the value of 6 at time is the angle of given by the equation 1/7 9 1^ ^{5 (^+ ^) ^^^ € — m cos 6 cos {B . Motion of a circular disk rolling on a given curve under gravity. ^ the disk describes a curve parallel to the given curve and at a distance is c from it. we have <j>. in time t. when the disk is uniform and rolls outside a cycloid. p the ^^~x\ radius of X \ . its centre of figure.
The instantaneous centre / is the intersection of the horizontal through A and the vertical through B. To determine Let AB he the rod. 6. When angle of friction the plane and the wall of Ex. therefore equivalent to a resultant kinetic reaction at and maO^ perpendicular to OG and along GO.f ) + m cos ^ sin  slides.264 9. a being the initial value of 10. and the lower slides on a hori M the plane. the horizontal pressure at A. is always at a distance a from 0. 9 are both rough. and the vertical pressure at B. zontal plane. and the end A move horizon vertically in contact with the .e) + ma^ cos /3 cos e ^^ ^ ' where a its axis. whose centre of gravity is at its centre. . with the same e. . Jc its radius of gyration about the particle and e the angle of friction between it and spheres are in contact. which is the middle point of AB. is m the mass of Two smooth the radius of the wheel. VIII. A uniform rod slides in a vertical plane between a smooth the motion. Hence prove that the motion lum of length a. The system actions is of kinetic re Fig. The forces acting on the rod are its weight at G. so that the centre of mass G.2e). and the thread makes an angle ^ with 11. and is connected with the centre of the wheel by a thread the whole motion takes place in a vertical plane. Prove that the M (F + (a c) a2) cos (/3 . 2a its length. in 6 is the same as that of a simple pendu By resolving horizontally and vertically find the pressures at A and B. If then we take moments about / the pressures do not ' O having components maO enter into the equation.i wall and the end tally in contact B with the plane. and the figure OBIA is a rectangle. 12. let vertical wall and a smooth horizontal plane. 73. prove that the value of 6 at time t is given by the equation a(^ + cos 2e) B . and show that the rod leaves the wall when cos ^ =  cos a. dragging a particle of mass m. The lines of action of the two latter forces meet in /. its mass. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. A wheel. rolls down a rough plane of inclination a.oB^ sin 26 =^ sin {6 . m its mass. the line of greatest slope down which the particle system descends with uniform acceleration Msin a cos (/3 . and a couple mk^d in the sense of increase of the angle 6 which the rod BA makes with the vertical BI. which slides on the plane.
the spheres separate when 3 M+m cos^^J)=2cosa. 6 the angle which the line of makes with whole sysfrom rest. If the tem starts the centre of mass G descends vertically. we express x terms of and 6. since the radius of gyration about the centre of mass is a/v/3. and thus the horizontal velocity of Gis XBy equating this to zero M+m {a + b)0 cos in 3. — a^2 =g (cos 6 cos a). if Find the pressure between the spheres in any position. and prove that. 8=^ a initially. njT *231. then the distance of G from the centre of Jf is m {a\b)/{M+m). its length. it 2a we have..'^8 ^a^ = and where a lations. the amplitude of the oscil Now consider the action between Fig. Stress in a rod. Further. 231] Let centres J/. As an example of the resultant force between two parts of a body we consider the case A^ of a rigid uniform rod swinging as a pendulum about one end. 75. neither acquires any angular velocity. If m is the mass of the rod. is —ctg sin 6. 6 the angle which with the vertical at time ^. for there is no resultant force horizontal on the system.230. Hence prove that the equation of energy can be put in the form K cos ^ \e^ C0S2^)^2 + COS ^ = const. the vertical at time t. a and h the radii. since all the forces acting on either sphere its pass ^^' through centre. Let x be the distance of the centre of the lower sphere (if) from the vertical through the centre of mass at time t. makes . the two parts of the rod exerted across . ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 265 m be the masses.
Impulsive motion. in the opposite senses to those shown. \ m . the centre of mass in two directions (at right angles to each other) the angular velocity before impact in the plane of motion. together with a couple. 168) and the theory of the momentum of a rigid body (Art. We may suppose the action of AP on BP reduced to a force at P and a couple. and we may resolve the force into a tension T in the rod. senses of T. Art. VI. while its centre describes a circle of radius 2a xyi ith the same It moves in this way under the action of the forces T. the resolved velocities of Let be the mass of the body. and by these equations T. turning with angular Now — velocity 6. 6 and known. The action of We BP on having components T. BP the weight mgxja vertically downwards through couple G. or ^mg sin 6 J^^ . and m V H . 232.266 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Let [CHAP. let u.x) 6 = S— mg . and G^ to be those shown in the figure. and a is a rigid uniform rod of mass mxja. We apply the theory of sudden changes of motion of any system (Ch. of amount equal to the product of the angular velocity of the body through the centre of of the whole mass of the and the moment of mass perpendicular ineytia about an axis through the centre of to the plane of motion. In particular the couple G resisting bending is 6^ being imgsme^{ax). S. AP is then reducible to a force at P S. 220). m. and a shearcall the couple G. and suppose the ing force S at right angles to it. we obtain the equations of motion of BP in the form By resolving along AB m(2ax)6^=T'mgGOfie. VIII. and the and at right angles to it. The momentum a resultant of the body was shown to be equivalent to momentum localized in a line mass.{2a .sin 0. its middle point. Sy angular velocity.\x(^ax)6\~ (^\ — — G — mgx sin 6. a section distant 2x from the free end. and by taking moments about P. couple G. S. P be the centroid of this section. We have three equations of impulsive motion expressing that the change of momentum of the body is equivalent to the impulses exerted upon it. and G are completely determined. V be the resolved velocities of the centre of mass in the . and equal to the momentum body moving with the centre of mass. U.
mk'{oyD. in the specified directions. of The impulses exerted on the body can be expressed as a single impulse at any origin and an impulsive couple. Let the 233. and H its angular velocity. F. V. 0) Let X. Thus of mass. The equations of impulsive motion are m{vV) = tY. be the resolved parts parallel to the axes of the Y impulse applied to the body at any point whose coordinates relative to the centre of mass are w. m(v — V).). body move in one plane. U. in the plane of motion. y. of the vector whose resolved parts.. just before the impulses act. Let m be the mass of the body. corresponding quantities just after. Kinetic energy produced by impulses. and the moment about any axis of the vector system mk^((o D. k be the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through the centre of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion. The change of momentum of the system can be expressed as a vector localized in a line through the centre of mass. F. the resolved part. in the specified directions.231—233] same two let SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION and « the angular velocity . whose — U) and resolved parts in the two specified directions are {ii m m{v — V)\ moment together with a couple. of the vector — U) and parts. The equations of impulsive motion express the equivalence of the two systems of vectors. 267 also directions after impact. More whose resolved mk' (co . is equal to the about the same axis of the vector system determined by determined hym(u — U). we can take the equations of impulsive motion to be m{uU) = X. if whose resolved parts the impulses are reduced to an impulse at the centre in the specified directions are X and F. in the same direction. are X and X. . together with a couple N.) = t\xYyX). — moment N.n) =^ K generally. u. in any direction. m{vV)=Y. V resolved velocities of its centre of mass parallel to the axes of reference. are m{u is m (v — V) equal to the resolved part.
Then we have of this equation The righthand member is the sum of the products of the external impulses and the arithmetic means of the velocities of their points of application resolved in their directions before and after. Examples. Find the impulse at and the angular suddenly is P P velocity about P. the diameter may be so chosen that the disk is reduced to rest. which the radius of gyration is ^. P is of a diameter rotating in its plane about one end fixed. when a parallel axis at a distance c becomes fixed. which undergoes a sudden change of motion. and is set in motion by an impulse of magnitude mV. and let The the kinetic energy of the body after the impulses. A uniform rod at rest is Prove that. it would be if the other for A free rigid body is rotating about an axis through its centre of mass. A uniform rod of length 2a and mass m is constrained to move with ends on two smooth fixed straight wires which intersect at right angles. VIII. 174 asserts that the change of kinetic equal to the value of the like sum for all the impulses and external. if the rod angles to its length. Initial motions. if the eccentricity exceeds v'f. and prove that. It follows that the internal impulses between the parts of a rigid body. the point of it which is distant onethird of struck at one end by an impulse at right is free. Prove that the kinetic energy generated is '^V^p^Ja^ where p is the perpendicular from the intersection of the fixed wires on a line parallel to the line of the im pulse and such that the centre of mass is midway between the two is parallels. contribute nothing to this sum. : 3. Now energy is the theorem of Art. Tq that before. Prove that the angular velocity of the body is suddenly diminished in the ratio F c^+k\ 2. No new method — . required for the the same kind as solution of problems concerning rigid bodies of 206 but attention those which were considered in Arts. PP its 4. : greater than length from the other end.268 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS Multiply these equations in order by [CHAP. An when elliptic disk PP'. internal 234. 203 235. to the proper expression of the kinetic reaction of The kinetic reactions are equivalent as we saw in . it begins to turn about its is and that the kinetic energy generated end were fixed in the ratio 4 3. must be paid a rigid body. 1.
of the body at one instant during the period course. oscillations . Illustrative problem. initial motions. displaced position. Let OA^ OB the horizontal. If we take moments about the instantaneous centre in the position of equilibrium the equation is nugatory. 6 the angle between AB and A'B'. Cf. where the letters is have the same meanings as in Art. The take moments about the instantaneous centre in a displaced position. 211 is applied. When the method of Art. 3 of Art. 222. the is the moment of moment of kinetic reaction is Kco.233 — 287] IMPULSES. AB the horizontal be the two wires. at an instant when the velocity vanishes. Sometimes it is convenient to form an equation of motion by taking moments about the instantaneous centre. sufficient for the This approximation purpose of forming the equation of oscillatory motion. It is then to be remarked that. slide with its ends A uniform rod can on two smooth straight wires which It is re are equally inclined to the horizontal and fixed in a vertical plane. where inertia about an axis drawn through the instantaneous centre K at right angles to the plane of motion. 237. 269 resultant kinetic reaction and the Art. quired to find the oscillations about the horizontal position. Small oscillations. and c6 is the angular 236. acceleration. occupied by of oscillation. so also in the case of small oscillations. Ex. The the kinetic reaction about the instantaneous centre correctly to the first order in the displacement moment is of expressed by the formula K(D. 235. the displacement from the equilibrium As in the case of initial motions. the most important matter to attend to is the expression of the potential energy correctly to the second order of the small quantity 6 by which position is specified. This position is. Then 6 is the angular . a the angle which each of them makes with A'B' a position of equilibrium of the rod. 221 to a resultant kinetic reaction and a couple is the same as that of a particle of mass equal to the mass of the body placed at the centre of mass and moving with the acceleration of the centre of mass. it is sometimes convenient to form an equation of motion by taking moments about the instantaneous centre. and at any other instant during the period the instantaneous centre is in method which is now effective is to a slightly different position.
The and the forces acting on the rod are its weight and the pressures at its ends. and thus the moment of the weight about /' is . The instantaneous centre in any position the point of intersection of perpendiculars to OA. Also GG' being ultimately at right angles to IG is horizontal. /' the positions of the instantaneous centre corresponding to AB and A'B\ and by G. Now OF diameter of a circle of which A'B' is the circumference. We find //' = BB' sec a = IBB sec a = a$ cosec a sec a. where m is the mass of the rod and k radius of gyration about centre of mass. O' the corresponding positions of the centre of mass. and the equation becomes ma^ (^ + cot^ a)S=— mgaS (sec a cosec a — cot a). The righthand member is — mga6 tan a. We denote by /.mg {ir — : let GG'). is a lines of action of the pressures pass through /'. GG'=IGe = ae cot a. and thus OF is a chord subtending an angle tt . and same as that of a simple pendulum of length therefore the motion in 6 is the acota(^ + cot2a). MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS and 6 the angular acceleration of the is [CHAP. . With sufficient approximation we may put IG for I'G'. The moment of the kinetic reaction about /' its is m(Ff /'(?'2) its 6. 2a be the length of the rod. rod.2a at of constant length and //' is therefore ultimately at right angles to 01 and horizontal. Hence we have the equation of moments Now m{P + IG^)e=mg{irGG'). VIII. OB drawn from the ends of the rod.270 velocity.
the tension in the other immediately becomes Prove that. if the constraint the pressure on the sphere is instantly diminished in the ratio distance is removed. . {a^ + d{abf}/{b^ac). the ends of the rod are at points where the radius of curvature of the meridian curve is p and the normal makes an angle a with the vertical. Prove that. 2. A uniform rod of length 2a rests in a horizontal position in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical . uniform triangular lamina is supported in a horizontal position by Prove that. make equal angles a with the vertical. INITIAL MOTIONS AND OSCILLATIONS 271 Examples. the centre of mass being at a 3. 5. A small oscillations in the vertical plane through the cords is ^al cos a {1 + 2 cos^ a)f{a + 1 sin^ a). cut. 1. X^rovided that this expression is positive. is positive. is supported in a horizontal rod of length 2a and mass The ends of the position by two equal inextensible cords each of length I. which is above the lowest point of a smooth bowl in the form of a The rod rests in a vertical surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations in the vertical plane through the equilibrium position of the rod is ^ap cos a (1 + 2 cos^ a) /{a — p sin^ a). b{bc) : (62 + 3c2). 1. Into the top of a smooth fixed sphere of radius a is fitted a smooth uniform rod of length 26 rests on the sphere with its upper end constrained to remain on the vertical rod. so that the cords one cord is cut.237. A vertical rod. Prove that. one to either end of the rod. the tension in each of the others is instantly halved. uniform rod of length 2a passes through a smooth ring. uniform rod of length 2a is supported in the way explained in the distance between the fixed points of attachment of the cords being 2 (a r^ sin a). angular accelerations of the remaining cord and the rod are in the ratio a sin a : 3^ cos^ a. A c from the point of contact. cords are attached. if one cord is three equal vertical cords attached to its corners. 4. 238] 238. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for Ex. and the other to a fixed A uniform m point. A fixed at a height b curve at the lowest point. if mg cos a/ and that the initial ( 1 + 3 cos^ a). the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations is ic provided that this expression 6. if c denotes the radius of curvature of the meridian position.
oscillates under gravity about a fixed horizontal tangent as axis. 3 in cyclical order. instant. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. are firmly joined together so 7. each of radius a. of mass of the bob from the axis of suspension when the clock gains ?ii. 2. Prove that. as that of a simple pendulum of length the same ^ (1 — 2 cos A cos B cos C)f. A M . the length of the equivalent simple pendulum when the clock keeps correct time is 2 [xiW {ejej)]/2 [xi (eje^^)i where I. 2. at any 2.. are tangents to a conic. The pendulum of a clock consists of a rod with a moveable bob clamped the position of the centre of mass of the bob on the central line of the rod being adjustable. so rope passes round a rough pulley. the vertical comof the weight of the rod..J{\ — 8 cos A cos B cos C\ where 6. and each of the sums contains three terms obtained by putting 1. it can oscillate Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum (62 + c2) . if Xi^ x^^ X3 are the distances of the centre to it. A thin uniform rod. of all other points on this circle are Prove that. A A its plane. from a horizontal position. when the horizontal component of the pressure on the hinge is a maximum. m. is one end of which can turn about a smooth hinge. 1. which are in contact with the pulley at any instant. the directions of motion of all its particles are tangents to a parabola. Given the angular velocity a of the sphere in the lowest position. If any circle is drawn through the instantaneous centre of no acceler ation.. 3. . which moves in any manner in that the rope remains tight. Two circular rings. in a veitical is 6.a2}. Prove that. A uniform triangular lamina ABC is constrained to move Prove that the motion plane with its corners on a fixed circle.a2}/V {2 (62 + c2) . find the pressure on the axis in any position 9.272 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. fall allowed to ^ uniform sphere. Prove that the directions of motion of all the points of the rope. ponent is 8. ^i = l4ni/1440. n are the numbers 1. 4. straight rod moves in any manner in its plane. 3 successively for I. . of mass and radius a. prove that the accelerations directed to a common point. A uniform triangular lamina ABC is supported own plane (which i {3 is vertical) is so that in its about the angle A. that their planes contain an angle 2a and are placed on a rough horizontal Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is plane. ^a cos a cosec2 a (1 + 3 cos^ a). 7?2j % minutes a day respectively. R is the radius of the circle circumscribing the triangle. VIII.
c the distance of the particle being the coefficient of friction.2 sin a = lO/x. where /x is the coefficient of friction. 11. Prove that the door closes in time The door ^ is ^ "w^j J o J{^^) ' ^^^^ ^^ angular velocity ^{2afl{a^+k% where 2a vertical axis the breadth of the door. in this case. and a straight uniform rod of mass m. A an angle a satisfying the equation 17/i cos a . M. stands open at right angles to the length of the smooth) train when the train starts with an acceleration/. find its previous velocity if the block just turns over. and made to move horizontally parallel to its length with given uniform A Prove that the cylinder will at first slide and afterwards roll on the velocity. A uniform rectangular block. the lower edge of the front face being hinged to the floor of the truck. truck. 2a the length of the lamina perpendicular from that axis. uniform sphere is placed on the highest generator of a rough Prove that. in a position of instantaneous rest. 10. 15. and equal of a railway carriage. with its axis perpendicular to the length of the truck. whose ends can slide on the wire. and which particle is placed on a rough plane lamina which is initially horiis free to turn about a horizontal axis through its centre of mass. minimum. which has its hinges (supposed towards the engine. of mass M. A system consisting of a rough uniform circular wire of mass i/. the m masses of the lamina and the 14.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 273 and prove that. vanish Prove that. 18 . and the truck is suddenly started. stands on a railway truck with two faces perpendicular to the direction of motion. L. the horizontal and vertical pressures on the hinge when the angle which the plane through the hinge and the centre of mass of the block makes with the horizontal has the values sin~i § and sin^ijj respectively. and k the radius of gyration about a through the centre of mass. particle. the sphere will roll on the cylinder until the plane through the centre of the sphere and the axis of the cylinder makes with the vertical cylinder. displaced. A zontal. solid homogeneous cylinder is placed on a truck. and M. and that the total pressure is a to ^Mffy/f^^ when the angle is sin~i§^. 12. if slightly which is fixed with its axis horizontal. If the truck is suddenly stopped. Show that the particle will begin to slip when the plane has turned through an angle tan fji  i{/x^«V (^«^ + 9^c^)} > to the axis. and find the time that elapses before it begins to roll. 13. the line of the resultant pressure will be at right angles to the line drawn from the centre to the point of contact of the sphere with the axis if a)^=^gi/a.
274 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. according as the coefficient of friction between the hemisphere and the plane is greater or less than 25wiac/{26 {M+m) a^\40mc^} . if /x the coefficient of friction <^bn^lg. which is of friction at each of the places of contact. A Prove that the angle between the normals at the coefficient of friction. . VIII. + sin a = 7fxg (y + a)l2bn^.m) sin''^ a + 3i/ cos^ a] disk of radius a is projected on a rough horizontal such that the friction on an element a is c Vhna.aWy= (u^co)/{uo^<oo). Prove that. of mass and radius a. where /x is 18. the rod will come to rest relatively to the wire after a time ( ^^4. The ring is projected from a point A of the curve. A homogeneous solid hemisphere. the rod subtending an angle 2a at the centre of the wire. while the wire is at rest. the corresponding velocities equation (3^2 u. and begins to roll at a point B. {m . moves in one plane under no forces. where y is the least positive . Prove that if neither of the expressions {M+ m) sin^ a + SJIfcos^ a ± is /x sin a cos a {m . plane . the 17. curvature of the curve being everywhere less than that of the ring. is placed with its vertex lowest on a rough horizontal plane.a)/ny root of the equation sin y 20. flat circular is A table which the disk. A and B is fi^ log 2.aW)y{Suo^ . and a particle of mass m is placed on the base at a distance c from the M Prove that the hemisphere begins to roll or slide on the plane centre. if initially the rod has an angular velocity Q about the centre. the changes from rolling to sliding take place at times where r is a positive integer and a is the least positive root of the equation cos a = 7/i^/26n2 prove also that the changes from sliding to rolling (except the first) take place at times {r7r\y)l7i. and the plane is made to move backwards and forwards horizontally. A homogeneous sphere of radius a is initially at rest on a horizontal 19. uniform circular ring moves on a rough curve under no forces. where V is the Prove that. on a rough horizontal plane the plank is suddenly set in motion along its length with velocity V. so that its displacement at time ^ is 6 cos ni. uniform sphere of mass rests on a rough plank of mass M'.m) [{M+ m) sin^ g + 3 Jf cos^^ a + fi^m sin^ a ~ 2/x'^ Jf sin^ a] fxmQ [{M'\. and 0)0 are the initial velocity of the centre of mass and angular velocity of 16. where jx is the coefficient A M . and.ZM) negative (/x being the coefficient of friction). « at any subsequent time satisfy the . if ttQ velocity of the element and m the mass of a unit of area. with a smooth base. Prove that the sphere will first slide and then roll on the plank. and that the whole system will come to rest after a time M'V/fig (M+M') from the beginning of the motion.
and d is the initial distance between the sina . Fine thread radius a rests on a rough floor. if the ring is slightly displaced. is A garden roller. 23. and on Prove that. Prove that.cos a). Prove that. system can start from rest and move so that each cylinder rolls on the table with the constant acceleration Two rough them is where Mg sin 2a/{mi (1 +^iW) + Wg (1 +^27^2^) + 4i/ cos^ a} = (ri''r2)/o?. given by an equation of the form (y{. k. On the top of a fixed smooth sphere rests a fine uniform ring with 26. its ^^2 + cj2 4. 25. weight of the 24. or if M<m[lb\l]a/haybk)/{a^hk^)].MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 275 A board of mass J/ rests on a table. centre in the vertical diameter. The coefficient of friction between the board and the sphere is /a. it will its 18—2 . and its diameter subtends an angle 2a at the centre of the sphere. W are the radius. about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane of projection.(l become uniform. thread will be unwound from the reel. and that the V=) velocity of the board will .2 if it oscillates. /* being the is coiled on the reel so as to lie on a The free end of the cylinder of radius b{<a) and coaxal with the reel.x<. thread is carried in a vertical line over a smooth peg at a height k above the centre of the reel and supports a body of mass m. and a sphere of mass m is set in 21. r2 are put on a rough table. if either the fx<mb/{Mm)a. A circular cylinder of radius a whose centre of inertia is its axis rolls is at a distance b from angular motion on a horizontal plane. /T7 ^\ I ft . (j) k^l{a^+k^)} ^ TTsin ^. motion on the upper surface of the board so that the vertical plane containing the direction of projection of its centre passes through the centre of mass of the board the velocity of projection is V and the sphere has an angular velocity Q. Prove that. the roller. Prove that after a time + the motion will (raa)/. plane on which Show cf> that it will . j2 _ 2ab cos 6) =gb (cos 6 . and the the angle of friction between it and the ground. between the board and the table is neglected. and the friction . the placed a rough plank. under certain conditions. ^^ ^\ A reel of mass M and coefficient of friction. then be ^ 22. and <f) is radius of gyration about the axis. in which the mass of the handle may be neglected. cylinders of radii r^. not roll unless P { sin a sin + cos a cos where a. axes of the cylinders. pulled with a force P in a direction making an angle a with the horizontal it rests.
if the motion is a small oscillation. Prove that at any time t before the thread is entirely unwound the tension is ^mg sin a sin^ {^ t ij{3\/lm)}.3 cos B). down which the disk moves in a vertical plane through a line of greatest sloj^e.. \ mg sin a /i being the coefficient of friction between the cylinders . lying at rest in a smooth sphere. are free to turn about their middle points. each of mass m and length 2«.] 27. homogeneous circular disk of mass m. VIII. equal uniform rods. the right angle on the semicircle which it describes is given by one of the equations <. and the other to the top of a smooth fixed plane of inclination a to the horizontal. [Assume that the pressure between the sphere and the ring acts only at the highest and lowest points of the ring. and a the radius plane. are 28. over two smooth pegs. a uniform sphere of mass horizontal line. which is the line of contact of the straight portion of the thread with the plane. as it leaves the rods. roll with their axes horizontal down a rough plane of Show that their acceleration down the plane is f^rsm. in a horizontal line and move placed Prove that the angular motion of in the vertical plane through the pegs. it of the sphere. if V is the initial velocity of the centre. 31. and are at right angles. and Two M radius c is gently placed upon Prove that. Two a. F2>^a(V2 + i\/202). A uniform rod. bound together by a light elastic T. Two uniform rods of equal length a sl% and of equal mass. The rods are firmly fixed at one extremity of each. — 2m{a^ G^}^. falling freely them through the same height. band of tension inclination equal cylinders of mass wi.f)2 (I a2 _ is (j^Q cos ^0 + c2) + ^g {a cos ^(f>c cos (f>) = const. is of such length that subtends a right angle at the centre. if 9M{a^ + c^y^ = have half the velocity which it would have had after at the point where their ends meet. which are fixed at a distance 2a apart in a The rods being horizontal. distant c apart. one end being fastened to the rim. and. Initially the thread has its natural length I and is entirely wound on the rim of the disk which is at rest at the top. plane has turned through an angle which + a) sin a = 2 cos^ a (2 . the sphere will. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum 29.276 first MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS begin to leave the sphere when is given by the equation sin {6 its [CHAP. (2a2 + 3c2~3ac)(4c~a). The rod is set in motion so that its ends remain on the sphere and make complete revolutions in a vertical Prove that. An elastic thread of modulus X is wound round the smooth rim of a 30.
plane of the wall is at right angles to the plane containing the disk and the rod. A homogeneous sphere. Prove that. and a the body of the waggon. of mass M and radius plane in contact with a vertical wall . Prove that the couple resisting bending is greatest at a point P determined by the condition that the centre of mass of the part FB is the centre of oscillation of the pendulum. of mass m and length 2a. rotates in its plane. and to have rail to is M one extremity on the ground. and of the road. on a horizontal a. the mass m centres being in a vertical plane at right angles to the wall. the spheres will separate when the line joining their centres makes with the horizontal an angle 6 which is given by the equation (a + b) 37. denoting the mass the mass. the other extremity being in contact with a smooth vertical wall. and a second homogeneous sphere. if all the surfaces are smooth. Prove that the stress couple at the middle point C of the arc AB vanishes when AB is vertical if a> = V{(47r)^/(6~7r)a}. Prove that the inclination of the vertical in the ensuing motion (supposed to be in a vertical plane) the equation the given by \6^ sin'2^)a2 + where a [^(1+ is the initial value of ^^ (^—4^acos^yj=5ra(cosacos^). rests the system starting from rest in a position in which 36.m) sin^ 6 + 3m sin ^} = 4m V («&)• A smooth circular cylinder. A semicircular wire A CB^ whose line density varies as the distance 34. = a. and the road is crushed uniformly by the wheels. {{M. the forces which maintain the rotation being applied to the part AC oi the 35. uniform rod of mass has one extremity fastened by a pivot to the centre of a uniform circular disk of mass M. M m mF radius of each pair of wheels. from the diameter AB.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 277 32. pendulum about a horizontal axis through A. 6. . whose density varies in any manner. prove that the accelera tion is (J/ + 2m)8in(ai3) {M+ 2m) cos /3 + 2m¥Ja^ ^' of the the centre of mass being midway between the wheels. with uniform angular velocity a> about the fixed point A. ^3 being an angle depending on the nature A rod AB. A waggon runs down a road inclined at an angle a to the horizon. Prove that the inclination 6 of the rod to the vertical when is it leaves the wall given by the equation cos^ d + Qm cos 6  QM 4m cos a = 0. which rolls on a horizontal A m The plane. is placed in contact with it and the wall. the moment of inertia. which is vertical. with its length in contact with the cylinder. is swung as a 33. smooth horizontal plane is placed so as to rest and radius c. . is at rest on a of mass and a heavy straight rail. of and radius b{<a).
cords which are attached to AB is uniform rod swings in a vertical plane. is sin2 $) ^2 = (ijf +m) \ (if the greatest value of 0. the first cylinder is of inertia of the second about its axis is MK^. while the shell rolls on a horizontal plane. uniform circular hoop of radius a is so constrained that it can and a rolling in a horizontal plane on a fixed horizontal line particle whose mass is l/'X.8inylr)/{2\ + l). The second cylinder is free mass m. is held fixed. Prove that the plane through the axes moves like a simple pendulum of length {ba){l+k^la^). Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is (6a)(lf 7i)/?i. a. projected along it from the point furthest from the fixed t line with velocity y. (cos 6 A circular cylinder. A . of radius a and radius of gyration k. of that of the hoop can slide on the hoop without Prove that. and the moment of . The M friction at the inner surface is neglected.278 MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. being suspended by two its ends and to points A. and I the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of is R K M its m the handle when the roller 41. if initially the hoop is at rest. rolls inside a fixed horizontal cylinder of radius 6. and the cords are not crossed. mass from the axis. and then Prove that the angular motion of the handle about the given by the equation axis of the roller where its radius of gyration about its axis. 38. Show that t is the particle from the vertical diameter at time where a 39. is the mass of the handle. . Prove also that ^ is 42. held at rest. will be where the angle through which the diameter through the particle has turned in the same interval. VIIT. where n = a^/k^ + mb^lMK^ prove also that the pressure between the cylinders is proportional to the depth of the point of contact below a plane which is at a depth 2w6 cos a/( 1+3/1) below the fixed axis. Prove A that. vertical the handle released. if the cords attached to A and B are of lengths a and a+X respectively. The outer surface of a uniform spherical shell of mass is of radius and the inner (concentric) surface is of radius h. 40. h the distance of its centre of and mass. only A move by . is garden roller stands at rest on a level path with the handle is pulled down into a horizontal position. +m the angular distance 6 of given by the equation . the radius of the roller. and the particle is friction. then the angle turned through by the hoop in time (vtja. where 2a is the angle of oscillation. to turn about its axis . B in a horizontal line.cos a) (g/b). equal to the length of the rod. A particle of mass m moves inside the shell.
whose under surface slides without friction on a fixed plane inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. and radius of gyration k about its centre.k^a^) r^ = {MK^ + mc^) {k". 46. and the whole motion to take place in a vertical plane. the horizontal plane. and MK^ its moment of inertia about its 48. 43. the radius of the wheel. and edge is the rough enough to prevent slipping. the angular velocity of the cord attached to A. which is free to turn about a point fixed in it. Assuming the system to move from rest. Prove also that. the rough edge of a disk of mass m. at a distance c from the fixed point.c^)£l\ where MK"^ is the moment of inertia of the rod about the fixed point.gtK ^„ . uniform rod.+ a' + r'^. and an insect of A . the centre of the tube will describe a A uniform sphere of mass m is rolling on the horizontal upper surface of a wedge of mass i/". Prove that in the subsequent motion the distance r of the point of contact from the fixed point rest satisfies A the equation {MK^ + mr^){l\. at the instant when the centre reaches the is one quarter of the weight of the rod. is suddenly communicated to the rod so that the disk also is set in motion. m is at rest at the lowest point. pressure on the table 45. radius a. moving in a circular tube held at rest on a smooth and the tube is let go. A uniform rest in fallen.^\ . if at time t the wedge has slipped a length x along the plane. when inclined to the vertical at an angle 6.„ ———^r. and the sphere has rolled a length s along the surface of the wedge. and not being nearly equal to a right angle. The system being at on a smooth horizontal plane.r=sseca= 7 7 (i/"m)sina ^ . from at rod has its lower end on a smooth table and is released any position. hollow thin cylinder. then .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES where X 279 is small. Show that the velocity of its centre on arriving the table is V(f ^A). is greater than it would be if \ were zero by X (g/2a^)'^ (cos 6 — cos a)2 (tan^ 6  i sec 6 sec a) approximately. of radius a and mass M. an angular velocity Q. a being the value of ^ in a position of rest. If the the rim of the wheel great as a horizontal axis and a fly of mass walk along fly suddenly starts off" to relative to the rim. trochoid. prove that. show that with constant velocity V he cannot ever get to the highest point of the rim unless V is at least as where a is 2y/{ga {nia^jMK^) (1 \'mayMK^)}. If a particle is table. where h is the height through which the centre has 44. A wheel can turn freely about 47. is maintained at rest in a horizontal position on a rough plane of inclination a . touches.
b A particle of mass m impinges directly on a smooth uniform spheroid of mass M and semiaxes may the spheroid being at if rest. uniform circular disk is supported in a vertical plane by two cords attached to the ends of a diameter. if AB = '2. 5 of a uniform rectangular lamina on two smooth fixed rigid wires OA. . BC=4:a. 51. A . VIII. a. (¥\/^)A BCD are free to The corners ^.a)} + ag (cos a . if the relative velocity is maintained and the cylinder rolls uphill. Prove that the impulsive stress couple is greatest at a point (f). whose mass is equal to that of either rod. 1 < Mjm < 6 .a) sin a. which are attached to its corners and to the corners of a similar fixed triangle in a horizontal plane the plane through any two cords makes an 54. of four uniform rods each of length 2«. and can turn freely about one angular point A^ which is fixed. then it will come to instantaneous rest when the insect starts to crawl angle which the radius through the insect makes with the vertical the equation is given by 72 49. lies {1 . if one is cut. Prove that.280 mass MOTION OF A KIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. the tension of the other is diminished in the ratio 2 sin^ a 1 f 2 sin^ a. in any time is t before the insect reaches C. Prove that. .cos square ^) = (1 + Mjm) ag {6 . whose angular distance from the hinge is where 52. A uniform rigid semicircular wire is rotating in its own plane about a hinge at one end. An insect. Prove that. The lamina being in a position of equilibrium with AB horizontal.a. find the velocity produced by an slide impulse applied along the lowest edge CD. and is suddenly brought to rest by an impulse applied at the other end along the tangent at that end. 53. (f) tan ^<j) = l. A rigid ABGD^ formed table. Prove that. and no energy being lost in the impact.cos {B .10ab/{a^ + ¥\ is the point of impact be so chosen that the particle reduced to rest. Prove that. then AB will just rise to coincidence with a wire if the impulse is such as would impart to a mass equal to that of the disk a velocity §V{«5'(42v/2)}. the angle through which the square turns *''""' \/i4 50. m is at rest in the cylinder on the line up the cylinder with of contact with the plane. and the cylinder is released at the same instant. The velocity F. : A uniform equilateral triangular board is suspended by three equal cords. OB at right angles to each other in a vertical plane and equally inclined to the vertical. starts from the corner B to crawl along the rod BC with uniform velocity V on a smooth horizontal relative to the rod. which is horizontal the cords are equally inclined to the horizontal at an angle a.
Prove that. In a heavy plane lamina. 1 : A are in the ratio 56. and is kept in shape by a band round the horizontal great circle.4c aiii^ a. Prove that.4c cos af]lg sin a cos a . The extremities of a uniform rod of length 4a slide without friction on the circumference of a threecusped hypocycloid whose plane is vertical.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES angle a with the horizontal. and radius of gyration k about an angles to if axis through its centre of inertia at right rough parallel rails at of figure. (4c . and prove that these pressures circular ring line. sphere resting on a horizontal plane is divided into a very large of segments by planes through the vertical diameter. vertical angle 2a. slit passes a fixed peg. peg (1) hangs in a vertical plane on two pegs which are in and the line joining the pegs subtends an angle 2a at the One peg is suddenly removed. Q. the equilibrium rr is stable. being in the same horizontal Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the lamina in its own plane. 55. the 2 \. the pegs. a horizontal centre. (1 + j tan^a)^. is \/ g^inAjAPQ^AG^sm^AY where k is the radius of gyration of the lamina about a line through G perpendicular to its plane.h^) apart in a horizontal line. and the upper end of the rod slides on a fixed smooth vertical rod which bisects the line joining the two fixed points. 60. whose centre of gravity is 6*. the pressure on the plane is diminished by the fraction 4577^/2048 of A number itself. thread of length 2a whose ends are fixed to two points distant 2 >J(a^ . 58. (2) when it is rough. such that AG bisects the angle BAG. P. if 26 > a. one of the cusps being at the highest point of the circumscribing circle (radius is 3a). if the band is cut. Through each line. Find the pressure on the remaining when it is smooth. Prove that. the time of a small oscillation about the vertical position is of equilibrium 2v/27ra/v/{3^(26a)}. about a position of equilibrium in which the vertex A of the triangle APQ is upwards. The lower end of a uniform rod of length a slides on an inextensible 57. if one of the cords tensions in the remaining two are diminished in the ratio Ssin'^a : 281 is cut.3A tan a)]. rests with its vertex downwards between two a distance 2c apart in a horizontal plane. 59. Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum ^a. are two narrow straight slits BA^ AC. Prove that. A uniform its axis solid right circular cone of height h. the period of the small oscillations about it is v/[{16F sin2 a + (3A sin a .
and radius of gyration are rigidly connected by an axle of length c and run on a horizontal plane. if the wheels are symmetrically placed between the pegs.282 61. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum of the small oscillations about the position of equilibrium is where F=fc2. Two particles. of the centres of the wheels by cords which pass over smooth pegs in the line of centres. are connected. 26. and d^ = c^¥. solid circular cylinder. Find the position of stable equilibrium. if the wire is rough enough to prevent slipping. each of mass m. radius a. and d the diameter of the cylinder. and slightly displaced by rolling on the plane. Two k about its axis. is laid on its curved surface on a rough horizontal plane. angles with the.d\lM. the time of a small oscillation is where 26 + c is the distance between the pegs. . and prove that. Prove that. A form of an ellipse of axes 2a. equal wheels each of mass J/. then the ratio of the longest and shortest generators is l\4. if I is the length of A the equivalent simple pendulum for a small oscillation. MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO DIMENSIONS [CHAP. VIII. bounded by two planes making given 63. one to each 62. axis. uniform sphere of radius c is placed on a horizontal wire in the Prove that.
Now solve the problem again on the supposition that the impulsive pressure has the value so determined. RIGID BODIES 239. Multiply this pressure by {\\e). AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS. but the deformation that occurs must be taken into account (Art. which is the coefficient of restitution. Further Poisson supposed that the impulse of the pressure between the bodies during the period of restitution bears to the impulse of the pressure during the period of compression the ratio e. are spheres. 273 et seq. on the supposition that there is no restitution. Poisson supposed that this interval could be divided into two periods during the first period the bodies are undergoing compression during the second period : . D. ^ m •\m * This Chapter may be omitted in a first reading. Poissonf introduced a certain hypothesis as to the motion which takes place while the bodies In this short interval of time the bodies may not be regarded as rigid. t. Traite de Mecanique. the equations of the problem. Poisson. 102). This hypothesis leads to the following rule for solving the First solve the problem on the supposition problem of impact that there is no restitution. t S. Impact of two To investigate the motion of solid bodies which are in contact. Let us apply this method to the problem of the direct impact of two With the notation of Art. the restitution of form takes place. 195 in Ch. uu'=0.{UU'). 2nd ed.CHAPTEE IX ^. collide. Paris 1833. 2. . and find the impulsive pressure : — between the bodies.m' U\ between the bodies ' is ^rn(uU) ^ or ^'^^. vii. and the impulsive pressure jffo mu + m'v! =mU\. solid bodies.. pp.
m! at the instant of Also suppose the negative sense of the axis of x Fig. The velocity of P. considered as a point of m^ has U—Q.{r\y\ u — (o{t] —y\ F+ Q (^ . enough to prevent sliding. the velocity system of corresponding quantities after impact. are m{uU)=^^^. AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS The equations between the bodies [CHAP. We may friction is not great 240. IX.U'){l + e\ and the values of u and u' which are found from these equations are the same as those found in Art. provided that the result. P is at the same instant. the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as those that can be deduced from the "generalized Newton's rule" stated in Art..U') = ^^. 77. The direction of R is the common normal at P to the two surfaces. and let ^. the sense of R (Fig. y' those of impact.{UU'){l+e). in the case of the oblique impact of smooth spheres (Art. y be the cobefore impact. fixed line in a Let m and m' be the masses of the bodies. Suppose the bodies to be smooth at P. 196. and let accented letters denote similar quantities for m'. axis of ^ be taken y being any Q. m ordinates of the centre of mass of m and . We shall show that this result holds for the impact of any two bodies. be coordinates of that. as acting on m. v. We sition that the impulsive pressure of the problem. . Also let x. In the case of the direct impact of smooth spheres the results that can be deduced from Poisson's hypothesis are the same as the results that can be deduced from Newton's experimental show in like manner that. 77). Let two rigid bodies moving in the same plane come into contact at a point P.r'.284 RIGID BODIES multiply this by (1+e).{U. w. the axis of perpendicular direction. Let the in this direction. whether smooth or rough.^) before impact. Impact of smooth bodies. 197). V. components and v^(a{^x) after impact. on the suppois {l{e)Ro. 195. Let R be the impulsive pressure between the bodies at P. m' {u'. . at U.
is The equation provided by the ua){T} y) m' + co' generalized Newton's Eule {q accordingly (Vy)= e{U. the rule deduced from Poisson's hypothesis is equivalent to the We generalized Newton's rule.x') '^' before impact. viz. m{vV)=F\ and mJc^{a>Q)=={^x)F+{7)y)R m'iu'U') = R. We shall relative velocity to be the suppose the geometrical condition as regards the same as in the case of smooth bodies.' o)' {r} —y'\ V + Q' (^ . for the impulsive action between rough bodies. the coefficient of friction. as in the case of smooth bodies. the generalized Newton's rule. The equations of moments about axes through the centres of mass perpendicular to the plane of motion are mF where k and question. we find and this equation {l+e) times what it shows that the impulsive pressure with any value of would be if e were zero. a>' in the equation containing e.Q) = i? (77 y\ m'k"^ (o)' a')=R{q. the friction and the pressure having a constant ratio. when there is sliding at the point of contact.Q y) U' + Q' {r). has JJ' — Q. u' — (77 — 3'')? + «' (^  ^') after impact. and taking Writing the same notation as in the last Article.y')}. 241. resolving parallel to the axis of y are m (y  F) = 0. are m{uU)=. Impact of rough bodies.1/\ are the radii of gyration of the bodies about the axes in On substituting for u^ u\ w. for the impulsive friction at the point of contact.239241] The THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT 285 components and velocity of P. The equations obtained by m' {u'  U') = R. considered as a point of m'. and an impulsive friction tending to resist sliding. m'iv'V')=:F. The equations of impulsive motion of the two bodies. we have the equations of impulsive F motion m{uU)^R.R. The impulsive action between two rough bodies which come into contact. kf (o) .l m'k'^<o' Q') = {^a/) F{ri y') R j ^ ^' j ^^^' . is assumed to be expressible by means of an impulsive pressure. e is The result of this Article can be expressed in the statement that the generalized Newton's rule and the rule derived from Poisson's hypothesis are equivalent for any two smooth bodies moving in one plane. m' {v' .V) = 0. obtained by resolving parallel to the axis of ^. when there is sliding at the points that come into contact. shall show that.
7^. Also we have the equation of sliding friction F=i^R «.) = v' + (o'{^x') (1). viz.U'+a'{n !/')]. the result which would be •obtained from Poisson's hypothesis is not in general the same as that which R would be obtained from the generalized Newton's rule. Then equations (1). v'. The first of these equations expresses the condition that there no in relative velocity of sliding at the instant of impact.V'Q'{^x')=0. viz. equations (5) we can form two equations for R and _\m mj mk^ mk^ J mk^ mk^ _ J = (l+e)[UQ{rjy)U' + Q'{r]y% It is clear that the solution of these equations will give •consisting of an expression for R two terms.{^). <»'.286 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. the motion must depend largely on accidental any practical interest because circumstances. is is.. . The efifects of the elasticity of the bodies cannot be so simple as in the previous cases*. u\ v.2/)/^^' in which either V+Q{^x). 242.'{r^y')]. (5). or that the * impact which there Poisson himself did not suppose his hypothesis to be applicable to cases in The question is not really of is sufficient friction to prevent sliding. by the generalized Newton's Rule by elimination of an Uo. viz. We may obtain a provisional solution by assuming that the generalized Newton's rule holds good. (4). but instead of equation (3) we have the condition that there is no sliding. one of them having (1+e) as a factor and the other not containing that factor. When the bodies are sufl&ciently rough to prevent sliding the problem is more complicated. 241 are still valid. Case of no sliding.>{rjy)u' + <^'(r^y')=e{UQ. v + (o{$a. + (^ . (2). The or results would however be the same in any case (I ^)iv.y)..^') in y')lm'k'^=o. From these equations we obtain. shows that R contains (1+e) as a factor and is otherwise This equation independent of e. u. and thus proves the equivalence of the two rules. From F. (2). o). = (l+«)[£^a(>.nd the equation provided (3). IX. (4) of Art. Since is not in general proportional to 1+e.{rjy)U' + Q. •equation for R.
impinges directly on a smooth uniform cube of side 2a and mass m'. uniform rod. the line of motion of the sphere being at a distance b from the centre of mass of the Prove that. satisfied if r}=^y and ^=x\ which would be the case if one bodj is a sphere or a circular disk and the other is a thin rod. if B is the angle of reflexion. if the direction of motion makes angles and /3 with the rod before and 2 (3i/62 + ona^) tan ^3 = 3 (3 Jf 6^ _ ema^) tan a. as it would if the bodies are spheres or circular disks. Prove that. 1. A circular disk of mass M and radius a c impinges on a rod of mass m and length 2a which is free of impact is distant h from of the centre of the disk after collision. and 5. strikes the plane so that the distances of the centre of mass from the point of impact and from the and with velocity plane are r and p. . the kinetic energy lost in the cube. 243. the impulsive pressure is is sufficiently rough to prevent mF(lfe)(F+i?2)/(F + r2). impinges on a vertical cushion. for all values of the coefficient of restitution. Prove that the sphere will rebound at an angle greater or A moving less than if instant of impact 4. the angular velocity of the rod immediately after impact is a maximum if the rod before impact makes with the horizontal an angle cos "^1/^3. moving l''at in its plane without rotation right angles to a fixed plane. the cushion being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. if there is no restitution. "direct. Prove that. the centre moving directly towards the cushion. 6. A sphere whose centre of mass coincides with its centre of figure is in a vertical plane and rotating about an axis perpendicular to that plane when it strikes against a horizontal plane which is sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. there were no friction according as the lowest point of is moving forward or backward. moving without rotation. of it at the A disk any form. of mass w. falling without rotation. Prove that. and the point the pivot." The second is satisfied if r^=^y=y\ that is if the normal at the point of contact passes through the centres of mass of the two It is also bodies. where k is the radius of gyration of the disk about its centre of mass. the edges in contact being sufficiently rough to prevent sliding. the kinetic energy is diminished in the ratio 10 + 14 tan2 ^ : lOe 2 + 49 tan2 <9. A impact is to that of the sphere before impact in the ratio 1 :l + (m/m')(l + f62/«2).241243] THE PROBLEM OF IMPACT 287 an obvious sense. Examples. 2. 3. uniform sphere of radius a and mass wi. then to turn about a pivot at its centre. strikes a smooth horizontal Prove that. if the plane sliding. plane. A ball spinning about a vertical axis moves on a smooth table.
It is required to find how they begin to Let 2a. and. on dividing by c. and fca. c[c{u^x\2y^z)\cz\ + h{{'ilc + h){u+x+y)\hy'\ Kc{u\x + ^y+z)\Kh{u'rX\y)\Kau \ \ 1 = P. h\b{u + x\y)lhy'] + a[{^h\a)u^ax]=0. for. 78. I Subtracting the second and third we get. +a[(2c + 26 + a)w^a^]=0. kc the masses of the rods. Three uniform rods of masses proportional to their lengths are freely jointed together and laid out straight^ and one of the end rods is struck at the free end at right angles to move. u the xla^ yjh^ zJG be the angular velocities with which they begin to move. In illus tration of the application of the equations of impulsive motion to systems of rigid bodies with invariable connexions we take the In the first it will be observed that we do following problems. the last being struck.288 244. 26. and we resolve for the whole system at right angles to the rods. we get x{a + 4b + 2c)+y{dc + 3b)+zc=0. it is unnecessary bodies. Then the system of velocities velocity of the centre of mass of the first. to form equations for each I. Let P be the impulse applied at the end A. is as shown in the figure. and (2b + a)x + by = 0. body separately. We take and about A moments about G for the three rods. not need to introduce explicitly the reactions between the connected The second illustrates the choice of equations. CD. although some of the unknown reactions must be introduced. . and let PA vA Fig. 2c be the lengths of the rods. IX. on simplifying this and the second by using the first. its length. Impulsive motion of connected systems. for the rod CD. c{u+x+2y + %z) + 2b{u+x+y) + 2au = 0. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. k6. We thus obtain the equations \ u\x=0. about B for the rods BC.
Since the figure is always a parallelogram. F corners is set in motion by rhombus formed of four equal uniform rods freely jointed at the an impidse applied to one rod at right angles to it. To find how the rhombus begins to inove. Now hinge at let parallel to BC and R at right angles D the impulsive reaction of the hinge at G be resolved into S to BC^ and the impulsive reaction of the into <S". in which we take them to act on the rod CD. L. 79. it. X AB containing the distance of the point struck from the middle point of the side the impulse. P The centre of mass of the system is the point of intersection of the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides. and the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides are of constant length 2a and turn with the angular velocities of the sides to which they are parallel. and let v be the velocity of the centre of mass. Let these angular velocities be o) and (n' . m the mass of each rod. .244] SUDDEN CHANGES OF MOTION 289 Hence we have IC X y ^ II. These impulses act in opposite senses on the two rods which meet at a hinge. Let 2a be the length of each side of the rhombus A ABCBj a the angle v+aujk Fig. The figure shows the senses 19 M. DAB. R' in the same directions. opposite sides have the same angular velocities. Then the velocities of the centres of mass of the rods and their angular velocities are as shown.
Prove that the kinetic energy generated is greater than it would be if the rods were firmly fastened together so as to form a single rigid : body in the ratio 7 4. a) = ^F:vlma% a>=%P cos ajma. is f (1 + 6) ( V/a) sin a/(l + 3 sin^ a). 1. straight. . if yl^ is struck by a blow at A in the direction DA. (iii) the impulsive action between the two rods upper rods is to the momentum of the system before impact in the ratio ' sin a (3 cos^ a (iv) 1) : 8 cos a (1 + 3 sin^ a). Taking a to be the angle which each rod makes with the vertical and assuming no restitution.j Again. and the system falling in a vertical plane with velocity V strikes against a fixed horizontal plane. (ii) the angular velocity of each rod after the impulse is f ( V/a) sin a/(l + 3 sin^ a). V cos a = ^a(o'.aa') = R + R'. IX. impulse 5. on elimination of and R' by resolving for and AD about B and R and R'. We direction of the impulse form two equations of motion by resolving for the system in the and by taking moments about the centre of mass. square framework A BCD is formed of uniform rods freely jointed at B. Prove that. and one end of one of them is struck by an impulse at right angles to their length. Cf and D. and taking moments for BC A respectively. and AC is struck at C by an impulse in a direction Prove that the velocities of the centres of mass oi AB and parallel to AB. Two equal uniform rods freely hinged at a common end are laid out 2. Examples. the impulsive action at either of the hinges in the horizontal diagonal makes with the horizontal an angle tan~i {(3 cos^ w^l) cot a] In Example 3. m \{v — aco) a cos a — \ o^in'^ = — '^aR. prove that. 3. the ends at A being in contact but free. AC freely jointed at A are at rest with the angle a right angle. is prove that (i) the impulsive action between the two upper directed horizontally. we get Hence 245.290 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a rhombus of side 2a with one diagonal vertical. m \{v + a<ji) acosa — ^a2&)']= — 2aR\ from which. BAC ACin the direction of AB are in the ratio 2 : 7. the angular velocity of each rod after the 4. the initial velocity of A ia A 79 times that of D. ma2 ((o + a)') = P{x + a cos ) a). v=iFlm. we can form three equations containing R CD at right angles to BC. We thus obtain m {v cos a . Two equal rods AB. We thus obtain 4mv = P. . if the coefficient of restitution between the rhombus and the ground is e.
• • • equations provide the means of expressing the x and y of the particle in any position in terms of the values of 6. INITIAL MOTIONS 291 masses A rectangle formed of four uniform rods.) On differentiating be the form of one of the equations we have Reducing in the way that has been explained we obtain 19—2 . substitute for every first differential coefficient of a geometrical quantity the value 0.. define the position of the system. </>. there will be certain values ^o. and ^. Thus if X. this is the When twice with respect to the time. and find the angular centre with angular velocity becomes suddenly velocity of the sides of length 2a. . <^o. n when a point in one of the sides of length 2a Prove that the angular velocity of the sides of length 2b instantly becomes ^?i (3m+w')/(3??i + 2m').. those used in Art. in the results. freely hinged together. Initial motions and initial curvatures. The kinetic reactions of the parts of a connected system of particles and rigid bodies caa always be expressed in terms of a finite number of geometrical quantities which are unconnected by any geometrical This can usually be effected by methods similar to equations. It may however happen that such methods are difficult of case we may begin by writing application. of lengths 2a and 26 and m and m'. initial accelerations of we shall obtain the relations between the the various geometrical quantities involved. and. down the geometrical equations which hold between the coordinates If we differentiate these equations of the points in any position. and for every geometrical quantity the value that it has in the initial position. y are the coordinates of any particle whose acceleration is required.244246] 6.. are a series of geometrical quantities which . is rotating in its plane about its fixed. </>.. x =f(0. 246. we can obtain. 205.. (f). Now the geometrical for these quantities in the initial position.. for that Let position..
^o denote the values of x. BC of masses mi. 6 are freely hinged at B. It is required to determine the initial curvature of the path of any point of BC. and BC an angle with the Fig. TX. + m2ae^ ^b cos {d + ^1 (i«^ + ^«^) ^ + ^2«'<^ {a + ib sin (S + + amn{B\(f))}^b(j)m2acos {B+(f)) ^b<j>^ m2^^b^(j>m2{^b = \miga cos 6 + m2g {a cos 6\^b sin 0). as We have in fact as a first series in ascending powers of the time.292 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS initial [CHAP. Illustrative problem.^n2gb sin <^. By taking moments about obtain the two equations wi2 (j^^ B for BC.. Wa'*" Now denote the values of 8/ 3/ a^'a<^' this process when 6 — = (f) (j>(.. y ^yof^. Let AB make an angle 6 with the horizontal. It will 247.. 6. wi2 and AB A in is AB horizoTiial and BC vertical. and it will at the same time be seen how simplifications may at times suggest themselves. </>) (f>)} cf)) . From such series we can deduce the paths of all initial curvatures of the the particles. A complicated problem has been chosen intentionally. and 6q. we + I'g^^) ^ ~ m2a6\h sin (^ + . Since B describes a circle of radius a about A. be easier to understand how this process is carried out after studying its application to a particular problem. and The system starts from rest in a position in which vertical plane. 80. vertical at time t. a can turn about lengths a. and arranged as a process of approximation for expressing the values of or. Two uniform rods AB. = = approximation ac ^ooot^. and since the centre of mass of BC is diagram of accelerations describes a circle of radius \h relative to B. and about A for the system.m^aJd^^h cos (^ + <^) = . the that shown in Fig. . can be carried further. 80. where ^o. y.
. + 6m2a/? In any position we have.=^^„v(:2). .) . This shows that 0o Qiust be zero. taking as origin the initial position of B.=^ =^ (zWTem. we can write for the coordinates of a point of BC distant r from B^ cc= a(lcos^)+rsin(^. by picking out the terms of order 2 in to ... In fact. 0= if '(^Qt +^4>ot^+. so that the series for 6 begins Going back now to equation (2).246. ^ = 0. and then appears from equation (1) that the lowest power of in 6 is the fourth. ^0 were finite. t and observing that cos^ = l^ t + — .d\ rcoacf). 247] INITIAL CURVATURES factors.+i:^^^„. t^.. cf>) 293 we have Adding the equations. taking equation (2). expanding these we have approximately giving ^=_^^„. 9a^„ «„^ giving *„. picking out the terms in <* in equation (2) we have 3«^ p Now. taking equation see that the lowest (1). the axes of in the figure.. (f) would be of order and 6 of order t^. also 0= 0^t +ieot^+.. 2. 3. by Maclaurin's theorem. if 0o^^ is finite the equation see that t. it we power of in this series is the fourth. and taking x and y horizontal and vertical. a) 9a /Zmi + 67712 gY ' Again. and we have {B (2).^=0. it is clear that ^ contains no term in t^ but there is a term in f^. we can be reduced. and dividing out common (?/ii + ^^) aO — \m^h<j) sin (d + first cf)) — ^^26^^ cos {B + =gcos6{^mi+m2) Also the of the above equations is ^b(j) (1)..^a'S sin In the initial position + (f))had^ cos {$ + (!))= ^ffaincj) ^=0. 2.. y = asm. Again. Now.. ^ _o *^«^' _ ^mi + 6m2 g ^'2m.. <^ = 0. so that the terms would be respectively of orders 1. <.
zontal. and the other end is of the second held at the same level as the fixed end of the first. 249. is 2a6/(3r  26) unless r = 6. and the ends A and can slide on a smooth horizontal rod. the radius of curvature of the path of (7 is fa. we must expand however. 211. . the other so that the rods can turn about it. We find ^^«></>o 61^1 + 27712 initial 6 480^' is correct as far as t^^ and thus the path given by the approximate equation (y§6)3=60a6^(l+2m2/mi). 1. Prove that the initial angular accelerations of the rods are in the ratio 6 .3 cos 2a : make 9 cos 2a  8. initial a horizontal position. middle It is required to find the small oscillation in tvkich the point moves vertically and the rod. in order to get an approximate equation to the path. 2. Three equal uniform rods are freely jointed at B and C so as to form three sides of a quadrilateral A BCD. and can turn equal uniform rods AB. and D) in a symmetrical position with BC lowest and AB and CD equally inclined at angles a to the horiwhen the ends A and D are released. the rod Two at B. Small oscillations. remaining horizontal. and this end is let go. Examples. Two first is fixed end of the the rods equal uniform rods are freely jointed at common ends. IX. if the system is released from freely about A. so that equal angles a with the horizontal. 248. Prove that. BC each of length a are freely jointed Prove that. the pressures at A 1 lsin'^a : and D are changed in the ratio A 5 .3 sin^a. turns round middle point. r=§6. 4. The system is initially held (by means of horizontal D forces applied at A horizontal. 3. and with Prove that. when the initial radius of curvature of the path of a particle distant r from the middle point is {a^jr) tan a.294 RIGID BODIES far as AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS t^. method A uniform rod is supported from its at its ends by two equal vertical cords suspended flawed points. uniform rod of length 2a is held at an inclination a to the horiits zontal in contact with a smooth peg at middle point. to a higher order. is which are correct as Hence the initial path of the point ap proximately a parabola and the radius of curvature of the path If. Illustrative problem. is let go. The following problem illustrates the application of the of Art. [CHAP.
with sufl&cient \ma^\ and the potential energy is. the kinetic energy is. if m is the mass of the rod. Now. \mg{a^ll)6\ The motion pendulum 250. Hence. and I = to the first order. 81. mgz. A number at a common end and of equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely jointed arranged at equal intervals like the ribs of an umbrella. tance through which the middle point has risen at time t. M the mass of the roller alone. cos2a)/(l + 2 cos^a). z the dis The depth of either end A or below the corresponding point of — support is I Zf and the distance or BA^ of an end from the equilibrium time. 1. oscillations of the handle of Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small a garden roller rolling on a horizontal walk is where a is the radius of the roller. this cone of rods is placed in equilibrium over a smooth sphere so that the angle of the cone is 2a. Hence we have this equation shows that when z and 6 are small z=^{a^ll) &^ to the second order. h the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the roller. is the kinetic energy in any position \m{z^^\aW\ and the potential energy is Fig. the angle through which the rod has turned in the same the length of either cord. B AM position of the corresponding cord is 2a sin ^0. in the small approximation. the mass of the handle. Prove that. h its radius of gyration about its axis. and I the length of m the equivalent simple pendulum for the oscillations of the handle when the roller is held fixed. oscillations. for small vertical oscillations of the joint. with sufficient approximation. in 6 is therefore the same as for small oscillations of a simple of length \l. .247250] SMALL OSCILLATIONS I 295 Let 2a be the length of the rod. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum is and \a cos a (1+3 2. the lowest position being the standard position. Examples.
it octahedron is regular and Prove that the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small vertical oscillations of the lowest point is f (^— ^o)? where I and ^o by an elastic thread. Stability of steady motions. Differentiating with respect to the time V . (Cf.296 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. Let be the angle which the radius vector from the centre of the sphere to the particle makes with the downw^ards vertical at time ty a the radius of the sphere. 3. and four other like rods are similarly jointed the other ends of the rods are then jointed in pairs so as to form eight edges of an octahedron. we obtain the equation /ix „sin^acos^ Q n r. The energy equation is \raa^ {e''\^ixi^e^^)^mga (1 cos 6) = const. Four equal uniform rods are freely jointed so as to have a common extremity. Art. 251. ^= with angular velocity o) may be possible. <f> the angle contained between the plane through the particle and the vertical diameter and a fixed plane through the same diameter. eay" +^sin(9 = 3^ sin^ 6 a . so that in equilibrium the the thread vertical. that is a particle moving under gravity on the surface of a sphere so as to describe a The horizontal circle. wish to discover the condition that motion in a horizontal a. the steady motion is possible if o) is so adjusted that This gives us the condition aa)^ = ^seca. IX.. We circle.(2). sin^ 6 = (o sin'^ a. and the equation of constancy of momentum diameter is about the vertical ^^* ma^ sin^ ^<^ = const. <^ We have so that the energy equation may be written const. We shall illustrate the method by considering the steady motion of a spherical pendulum. . (1). One of the joints where four rods meet is fixed and the other is attached to . principles of energy and momentum may frequently be applied to problems concerning the stability of steady motions. 79.) . are the equilibrium length and the natural length of the thread. Now ^ = when 6 — a.
and that. 106. circle. 251 to show that the motion of a particle describing a circular orbit under a force /(r) directed to the centre is stable if [3 + Deduce the c/'(c)//(c)] is positive. . negligible . 252. Prove that. Find the angular velocity with which the wire rotates. the possible steady motion would take place along a slightly different circle . if a small disturbance is made. its period of oscillation 7rV{(r2 + 4a2)/2^a}. results in Art. In the position of relative equilibrium the radius of the circle drawn through the ring makes an angle a with the vertical. . We of equathus find 0.. mass rotates freely about a small heavy ring can slide on the wire without friction. %+% d j^ ^ \^ sin e (g . and prove that the a vertical chord distant c from the centre length of the equivalent simple A circular wire of radius a and of pendulum a)/(c for small oscillations of the ring is a cos a{c{a sin + a sin a (1 + 3 cos^a)}. oscillations take place in time 2. Supposing it to remain circle equal If the particle is projected from a point for which 6 to a. is the latus rectum. where 4a 4. ^ "^ '^a showing that the particle oscillates about the state of steady motion in a period equal to that of a simple pendulum of length a cos a/(l + 3 cos^ a).250252] STABILITY OF STEADY MOTIONS is 297 nearly angular ma^cofim^a about the vertical diameter. but the period of oscillation would be un changed. or the circular below the centre of the sphere.(0^ sin^ a + Scos^a cos a cos 6^ ^^^. is The steady motion path is is stable if cos a positive. Examples. where co is given by (2).^ and reject powers of above the first. c being the radius of the circle. we may put ^ = a + %. 1. 3. in a nearly horizontal direction. orl . expand the terms ~ . pendulum Prove that the steady motion with angular velocity w of a conical of length I is stable. projection) momentum (as well as the direction and point of slightly altered. A particle describes a horizontal circle of radius r is vertical boloid of revolution whose axis if it is slightly on a smooth paraand vertex downwards. If the angular is ^ote. or to depart widely from it. Utilize the method of Art. with an momentum near the tion (1). is disturbed. . then either it tends to remain always very near the = a.
the velocity of the centre of mass MP M 4^(^ + x)sinx and ^{ad + l{e\x)co^x] . equilibrium 5. 83. since ^P makes an angle 6+x ^'^^^ a line fixed in the plane of motion. find the Let 2a be the length of the rod.1 {6 ^x) cob X' Now and ratio of the m G is always at the point dividing in the masses of the particle and the rod. x the angle of the rod produced at time t. IX. Then the velocity of B relative to is aB at right angles to AB. and an equation of motion of the ring must be formed by The angular velocity in relative resolving along the tangent to the circle. if the wire is made to rotate uniformly. and. and. if a is the radius in steady motion. particle motion when there are no forces. Fig.RIGID BODIES Prove also that. M to M is the resultant of these two velocities. the period of the small oscillations about the state of steady motion is V{27r^am/X(4a30}. Let 6 be the angle which AB makes at time t with its initial direction. if these masses are jo relative to O has components respectively. In further illustration of the principles Energy and Momentum consider the following problem : of A uniform rod and a particle are connected hy an inextensihle thread is attached to one end of the rod^ the system is laid out straight^ It is required to and the projected at right angles to the thread. and I is the radius when the ring is unstrained. small oscillations is AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. Consider first the motion of the particle P relative to the centre of mass M of the rod AB.] An elastic circular ring of its mass its m and modulus of elasticity uniformly in own plane about centre under no external forces. the velocity The velocity of P relative of P relative to B is l{B+x) perpendicular to BP. 253. Illustrative problem. Its resolved parts along and perpendicular to AB are accordingly l{6\x)^mx and aB \. which the thread makes with the I line the length of the thread. the period of the same as for a simple pendulum of length a cos a{c\(i sin d)\{c + a sin^a). X rotates Prove that. is the same as before. [In the second case energy is expended in keeping up the angular velocity of the wire.
and the velocity of 299 along and perpendicular to F relative to G has components ^ m\p in the l{e+x)smx and ^^ "^ '^ m+p {ae + 1(6 + x) cos x} same directions.^ {O+x) cos x] Now the centre of mass moves with uniform velocity in a straight line and thus the kinetic energy of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is constant. then the initial values of the moment of momentum and kinetic energy in the motion relative to G are {a{l)Vmpl{m\p) and \V^mpl{m>rp). Let V be the velocity with which the particle was initially projected at right angles to the thread . It is sometimes convenient in calculating the velocities of points in a connected system to use the coordinates of a In the point referred to axes which do not retain the same directions. 253 we might have obtained the velocity of P relative to by taking as axes lines through along and perpendicular to AB. Hence the moment of momentum in the motion relative to G and the kinetic energy in the same relative motion are constants. problem of Art. Kinematical Note. Consider the motion of a particle whose coordinates at time t are x'. When we wish to calculate the velocity of a point in this way we have to attend M M to the fact that the component velocities parallel to the moving axes are not the differential coefficients (with respect to the time) of the coordinates referred to the same axes. y' referred to rectangular axes rotating in their own plane about the origin . motion relative to also twice the kinetic energy in the G is ^a2^2 + _^?£_ [a2^2+^2 (^+^)2 + 2a. . and the moment about any fixed axis of the momentum of the whole mass placed at the centre of mass and moving with it is also constant. P y the coordinates of the particle referred to fixed . Also the kinetic energy of the system and its moment of momentum about any fixed axis are constants. let be the angle which the axis of x' makes with a fixed axis of x in the plane at time U and ^. Hence the moment of momentum in the motion relative to 6^ is or ^aa^e+^[{a + lcoax)(^ + {^ + C'COBx)l{0 + x)].252254] ENERGY AND MOMENTUM AB. Hence throughout the motion we have the equations \{\^mlp)aW +a^(aZcosx) + ^(^+x)(^ + «cosx) = (a + 0^>l l{\\mlp)a^^ + aW+l'^{6+xf\^aie{e + x)ooBX= V^ ^ 254.
3 are the resolved parallel to the axes of x\ y\ then parts of the acceleration of a — u — oiV and ^ = v\a)ii. From these the component P relative to M which were obtained otherwise in that Article might be deduced. to the moving axes of the velocity of the are y' x'. Also let u^ v be component velocities of the particle parallel to the axes of x' and y'. 1. We have to add to the expression given in that moment of momentum in the motion relative to G the term ipl^{B+x). and writing m and p for the masses of AB and BC and 2a and 21 for their lengths. BG^ move in one plane We may use the figure and notation of Art. if we write co for and the resolved parts parallel particle whose coordinates are cd the angular velocity of the moving axes. Then the angular velocity of the moving axes is B. 253. rectangular axes of x and y. w Now. y={y'+x'4>) cos (fi 4. Examples. and to the expression there given for the kinetic energy in the motion relative to O the term ^pl^{0+x)^. 255. if a. taking P to be the middle point of BC. We may P dicular to In the problem of Art. we take axes through along and perpenA B. rods under no forces it is freely jointed at B.'\ (f> (f). 84. Fig.^ and ^sin.300 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. The energy equation and the equation of constancy of moment of momentum determine the motion.^. IX. J x=ucos(f) find — vsm(f).{^''2/'4>) sin 0. </>. is y = vcos(f) + usin(f). v=y'{x'^. We have whence Also x = of cos — 7/ sin y = y' cos ^ + ^ sin 0. required AB. 253. Two uniform . and the M coordinates of velocities of P are a + ^cos. prove in precisely the same way that. y' — toy' and + (nof. to find the motion. Article for the . x = {x'—y'<p)cos(j){^'+x'^)8m(f). Hence we u=x'—y'<j).
Let be any fixed point in the plane of motion. which either radius through the pivot makes with its initial direction at any subsequent time. i. and H' the moment of momentum about The instantaneous vanishing of t'. the momentum of moment of the is BC about it is at the instant t. . although the hne of action of rod.. It is ENERGY AND momeJntum important to observe that the 301 of moment momentum of either is not constant. the tube is started to rotate about that point with angular velocity o). 255] Note. the velocity of the particle relative to the tube when it leaves A it is aa)v/. about the resultant force acting on either rod passes through B. equal circular rings. H' the R moment of point. and the rings are so thin they may be regarded as in the same plane. the pivot is struck by a blow perpen dicular to the line of centres. each of radius a and radius of gyration k are freely pivoted together at a point of their circumferences. if the moment of momentum of BC about B (or 0') at A'. when we take moments about an " fixed " line of a line. . Art. the moment of the kinetic reaction of about is not equal to A. h' being the moment of momentum about 0'. 2. then what we mean by h is at this instant. that to say hm f'f=0 H'H tt . Prove that the angle 6. Kh i't^f) I t This is not equal to H because h! is not equal to H' . If the moment of B momentum of BC^ say. h is identical with H at this instant. Since is a fixed t is kinetic reaction of H If BC . so that their planes are parallel. On the other hand may be a maximum or a minimum at the instant t. about at the instant t is denoted by A. fixed axis with Two about its centre. a geometrical line which is always a If the axis about which we take moments is defined by some axis.254. but the instantaneous vanishing of does not involve the same instant ^ 0. 3. Prove that. or of the system. The system being at rest on a smooth table with the pivot in the line of centres. other point 0' this instant is At the instant t\ B coincides with some and. about at the instant (cf. the axis is moving body. so that the centre of mass of the system starts to move with velocity V. is given by the equation ^2(F + a2sin2^)^2=F2a2. and let be the moment of momentum of BC about at the instant ?. then we are taking moments about a which the moving line coincides at an instant. In reference to this discussion it should be observed that. B coincides with at the instant and H vanishes . the particle being close to the middle point. 157). To see this consider B BG B the meaning of h. uniform straight tube of length 2a contains a particle of equal mass. if there are no external forces. and. at the H H constancy of H. does not involve the constancy of h.
A thread of inertia / attached to a rigid cylinder of radius a and which about it^ axis. Prove that the length subsequent time is given by the equation r of the straight portion at any where c is the initial (/+ ma2) r^p = {/+ m {r^ + a^. 6. and a smooth where M^I/a^. horizontal threads are attached to a circular cylinder of negligible axis is vertical. if the particle is slightly displaced. while the cylinder is free The particle is projected on the plane at right to rotate about the axis. and starts at a distance c from particle of mass the vertex. Prove that. and contains a particle by a force /xm/(distance)2 and is initially at rest at the and moment of axis. angles to the thread with velocity V so that the thread tends to wind up move on round the cylinder. major end of the major axis nearest the centre of force. Prove that. IX. its attached to the particle struck r^ length r at time t is given by the = + 2aVt + ^V^fi. =(/+mr2 sin2a). . if at any subsequent time the particle is at a groove cut in its surface so as to make with A m distance r from the vertex and the cone has turned through an angle r and 6 are connected by the equation (/+wc2sin2a)e2^'^"''^°^^ 0. attracted to one focus with angular velocity Q. and prove that the period of the small oscillations about this state of steady motion is the same as for a simple pendulum of length ^acosa(l+3sin2a)/(l+3cos2a). 2?.302 4. provided that Sin = 2fi7)ie{l/7nP + llI). is rotating freely about its is fixed. One of the particles is struck at right angles to its thread so that it starts Two mass whose oflf Prove that. c'^ the cylinder being free to turn about 5. its axis.% it will come to rest relatively to the tube at an end of the nearer latus rectum. A cone of vertical angle 2a is free to turn about its axis.c2 = 2a Vt + VH'^ml{M+ m). An elliptic its tube of latus rectum eccentricity inertia / about major axis. which is fixed in a vertical position. which of mass m which is e. and carryequal particles which are initially at rest on two smooth horizontal planes. Four equal uniform rods are freely hinged together so as to form a 8. its axis. are coiled in opposite directions round it.c2)} a'^ V\ value of r. the highest point of the rhombus being fixed and the lowest being free to slide on the diagonal. Find the angular velocity in the steady motion in which each rod makes an angle a with the vertical. is the generators an angle /3. and carries a particle of mass is moment is free m to a smooth plane perpendicular to the axis. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. rhombus of side 2a and the system rotates about one diagonal. moves in the groove. equation with velocity V and its thread begins to unwind from the cylinder. where / is the moment of inertia of the cone about 7. and if fjie{l+ey<PQ. if the initial length of the straight portion of the thread is c. Hence prove that ^2 .
162. When the chain forms a curve. the condition takes the form The velocity of a particle. Art. It is important to observe that discontinuous motions such as are considered here in general involve dissipation of energy. It is required to find the motion. Let be the mass per unit length of the chain. resolved : — along the tangent to the curve at the position of the particle. At any time t let x be the length which has fallen over the edge.x^ T=mx^. T the There is no tension in the part tension at the edge in the falling portion. 189. This principle is illustrated in the following (Cf. I. A chain is coiled at the edge of a table with one end just hanging over. Illustrative Problems.255258] MOVING chain 803 Motion of a string or chain. When a chain moves in a straight the condition of inextensibility is that all the particles of it have at any instant the same velocity. line. is the same for all the particles. Hence we have the approximate equation Tt:d=^mxM which passes over into the exact equation . supposed to pass during a very short interval particle from one state of motion to the other. The tension at the place where the motion changes is then to be determined by the principle that the increase of momentum of a system in any interval is equal to the impulse of the force which acts upon it during that interval. Tension at a point of discontinuity. and moves so as to be in contact with a given curve.) of the chain. and that portions of the chain are continually transferred from the part that is moving in one way to the part that is moving in the other way. This principle is to be applied to a hypothetical (Art. 256. 258. and the mass of the hypothetical particle is to be taken to be the mass of the part chain which changes its motion during the interval. 257.) of the problems. coiled up. . It often happens that two parts of a chain move in different ways. Inextensible chain. m During a very short interval A^ a length of the chain which can be taken to be i'Ai is set in motion with velocity x^ and the impulse of the force by which it is set in motion can be taken to be TM.
T the tension ^ at its lower end.r2i. We shall take this curve to be in a vertical plane. Between P and P' we may (/). </> the angle which the normal to the curve at P P makes with the vertical. l{x the length of the part that has come to rest at time t. so that an impulse. Integrating. of a point of the g^urve from a fixed point. and observing. The time until the length is [^ ^ is dx _ /Ox The potential energy lost while the free end falls through x is \mgx\ and the kinetic energy gained is ^mxv^ or ^mgx^ and the amount of energy dissipated in the same time is ^mgx^. Hence we have the exact equation .inx^. which is approximately equal to TAt. for which 5.r under gravity. </> . i?. so that 2x=\gt'^. We shall suppose the chain to be in a rough tube. we have This equation gives the velocity of the falling portion when its length is x. „ or ^^(. IX. ^ this is dv . . The and the free end has fallen through 2. II. falling portion is free from tension. so that the line of it is a given curve.304 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS is [CHAP. A chain. The equation Writing v for of motion of the falling portion therefore mxx = mxg . Constrained motion of a chain under gravity. 85. x = hgt.2) = 2^A2. Let 2^ be the length of the chain. become 5 + As. measured along the curve. and the other end is then let go. Let P' be a point near to P. m the mass per unit length. T=inigH\ at Thus the motion and the tension 259. one end of which is held fixed. + A</>. or in a groove cut on a rough surface. p the radius of curvature of the xmrfe at P. Let s be the distance. is initially held with the other €nd close to the fixed end. that v and x vanish together. destroys an amount of momentum which is approximately equal to hmgH^At. During a very short interval At a length approximately equal to ^gt At passes from motion with velocity gt to rest. any time are determined. B): P Fig.
P equation. and the tension can be found by substituting tension is for v in the known the pressure at equation (1). M. form equations of motion by resolving along the tangent and normal at P. We denote the pressure and friction by RAs and is the pressure per unit of fjuRAs. to approximabe directed along the tangent to the curve at P. take to be directed along the tangent at P. which we may take to be directed along the tangents the pressure of the curve. at P and P\ and the friction. 'to On dividing by As. we have the = mg sin <^ + dT j A'P (1)> m — = mq cos v'^ T (i>\ R first (2). which we may Fig. We regard the particle take. mAs . and lies in uniform chain of length a is laid out straight on a smooth table. A L.AT) sin A</) — RAs. Examples. is smooth we omit fxR from the further. The equations are We mAs . When the any point can be found from the equation 260.= mgAs . t) = mgAs . cos + (Th. which we may tion. so that length. sin <^ + (jT + AT) cos A^T — /jlRAs. with sufficient may as moving under the tensions T and T+AT. the ends of the chain are free. P If the curve If. a line at right angles to the edge of the table. . which we may take to be directed along the normal at P. the velocity v can be determined by means of the energy equation.258260] MOVING CHAIN 805 Let v be the velocity imagine a hypothetical particle of mass mAs. (2). and fi is the R coefficient of friction. of this particle. and passing exact equations of motion mi) the limit. ( 1. One end is put just 20 . 86.
Prove that. Kinematical equations. subtending an angle /3 at the centre of the circular section on which it Prove that.306 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. A to P. greatest slope of a smooth plane of inclination a to the horizontal so that it just reaches to the bottom of the plane where there is a small smooth A W off. the lower end is the first part of to leave the cylinder. The end A is released. of a smooth horizontal circular cylinder. Let A be that of any the position on this curve of a chosen particle. Prove that the chain becomes straight after an interval equal to threequarters of that in which A fell to B. uniform chain is held with its highest point on the highest generator 6.s!mo)l{s!'nh + \/^2). and that the portions of the chains which have become straight increase during the interval with uniform accelerations ^g^m^lis/mi + ^m^) and 2g^mil{>Jmi\^m2). . At any instant the chain forms a curve. and lies on the cylinder in a vertical plane. 4. pulley over which it can run off. the pressure on the table as the coil is formed increases from 2h W/l to (2^ + 3^) W/l. and the other end is at a height h above a smooth table. is placed on a line of uniform chain of length I and weight 5. so that the part of the chain which has run off at any time is vertical. when the chain is let go. Initially the chains are held up in coils and they are released simultaneously without Prove that. Chain moving freely in one plane.sin (</> +^). the thread slips over the pulley with uniform . A uniform chain of length I and weight W is suspended by one end 2. If the chain is inextensible we may regard 5 as a P parameter specifying the particle which is at the point P at . acceleration g {s^m^ . until one of the chains causing any finite impulse in the thread has become entirely uncoiled. upper end J^ at a vertical distance above B equal to the length of the chain. Prove that. the tension at the bottom of the plane is when a length x has run W{\&ma)x{lx)IP. if the edge of the table is rounded off. A it J^ cos {<f) + ^) = sin /3 f sin 261. A uniform chain AB is held with its lower end fixed at B and its 3. and at the instant when it passes B the end B is also released. Two uniform chains whose masses per unit of length are mi and m2 are joined by a thread passing over a fixed smooth pulley. over the edge. IX. and that this happens when the radius drawn through the upper end makes with the vertical an angle </> given by the equation lies. if the upper end is let go. the velocity of the chain as the last element leaves the table is »J{ag). and let s be the arc of the curve measured from other particle. Prove that.
. without regard to sign. s. it is negative. 87. 261] MOVING CHAIN </> 307 time t Let drawn in the sense of increase of . dx in which the differential coefficients are partial.260. i. of which u is directed along the tangent to the curve at P in the sense of increase of and v at t v. is directed along the normal. Also let p be the radius of curvature of the curve at P. that of the normal drawn towards the centre of curvature. to of is r)fh be such that. (See Fig.) is The absolute value of ^. be the angle which the tangent at P to the curve. The sense of the normal is taken Fig.e. makes with a fixed axis of x is estimated as the angle <^ through which a line with the axis of x must turn in the positive sense so as coinciding to coincide with the tangent. is ^ positive. s and independent variables. 87. From these equations we have d^y t being _ d<f> dx d^^dsds' d^x dy _ d¥~~dsds' d(f> 20—2 . y be the coordinates of P. the normal is drawn towards the left hand. . if the curve is described in the sense of increase If this sense s. in the plane We resolve the velocity of the particle of the chain which is P at time into components u. s. otherwise. of the position of the We have the equations particle specified by s at time t Let X.
which is the same as dx d^x ds dsdt dy d'^y _ ^ ' ds dsdt or 9 fdx dx dy dy\ ds dt) d^x dx ds^ dt d^y dy ds^ dt _^ ds\ds dt or du ds dd) ^ OS This equation. IX. have the equation expressed in terms of u and v. We have therefore the ot dt equations _dxdx Since dydy _ _dydx the equation 0. expresses the condition of inextensibility of the chain. and also has components — ^ parallel to the axes of coordinates. dx dy (^) +(o^) =1» we have dt\\ds} ^^(dy^^ Kds. with which the tangent to the curve at the position of the particle specified by s is turning. The ponents u and . _ __d dy d^x ds dsdt j dt dydx dx dy\ d'^y dx d'^x dy '~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds^di~'d^di _ 6 / dydx dx dy\ d<f> (dx dx dy dy\ ~ds\dsdi'^dsdi)'^ds[dsdi'^dsFt) . The angular velocity ^ . velocity of the particle specified by s at time t has comV in the stated directions.308 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. may be We (j)) ^=— or d(j) sin ^ ^ (cos dx d^y ds ^ '^' + cos (/> ^ (sin 0). Further the direction cosines of the normal drawn in the sense — nil and nX already chosen are ^ ^ . combined with the statement that s and t are independent variables.
261263] or MOVING CHAIN 309 ~ dt ds ds' The two equations ds ds ' ds ds dt are the kinematical conditions which must be satisfied at all points of the chain throughout the motion. form the equations of motion by resolving the kinetic reaction of a small element of the chain in the directions We of the tangent and normal to the curve which it instantaneously forms. Invariable form. If S and iV denote the component per unit mass applied to the chain in the directions of the tangent and normal to the curve. that the following kinematical equations points of the chain : must hold at all where e is the extension of the chain at the particle P. it portion of that is P as in the above Art. the particle We may then prove in the same way Sq and t as independent variables. m denotes the mass per unit of length. In discussing such cases it conduces to arise in . 262. 259. Equations of motion. and we may take particle F. The component accelerations in these directions are obtained by the method of Art. 254 in the forms du dt d(b dv dd) dt' dt^ dt is The resultant of the tensions at the ends of the element obtained in the forces same way as in Art. Interesting cases of the motion of a chain which the shape of the curve formed by the chain is invariable. the equations of motion are fdu dct>\ = dT ^ '^[Vt''dt) ^ ds^'^^' ^t^^y^fs^^ where 263. Note. and Sq is the natural length of the contained between a chosen particle A and any other is specified by the parameter Sq. Chain moving freely in one plane. but the chain moves along the curve. If the chain is extensible.
and w is the velocity with which the chain m moves along 2. The kinematical conditions become dw so that the chain ^ d(b deb moves uniformly along of itself. provided that the velocity of the chain along itself is s]{gh). r) equation of the curve must be of the form (^ + 2F/a>)r2=ap + 6. itself. Prove that A uniform chain moves over two smooth level same and is the portion between the rails can be a common catenary. where a and h are constants. we have u = w^ v = 0. that the chain can move steadily in the form of a common catenary. we show Taking now the special case of a uniform chain moving under gravity. Examples. uniform chain moves in a plane under no forces in such a way that the curve of the chain retains an invariable form which rotates about a fixed A point in the plane with uniform angular velocity w. 261. and that the tension is is the greater in the steady motion than in equilibrium by mvfi^ where mass per unit length of the chain.310 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. 1. s = c tan </>. the curve retaining its position as well as its form. and to move along the tube while the tube moves in its plane. Prove that any curve which is a form of equilibrium for a uniform chain under conservative forces is a form which the chain can retain when moving uniformly along itself under the same forces. IX. with the notation of Art. of the shape in question. 3. The velocity of any point of the tube is then determined as the velocity of a point of a rigid body moving in two dimensions. 262 are (/> satisfied by T= mgc sec + mw^^ the curve being the catenary 264. and. The velocity w is in this case the velocity of an element of the chain. The direction of w is that of the tangent to the line of the tube at the point. at the parallel rails distant 2a apart transferred from a coil at a distance h vertically below one rail to a coil at a distance h^h vertically below the other. The equations motion of Art. and the velocity of any element of the chain will be found by compounding a certain velocity lu relative to the tube with the velocity of any point of the tube. while the chain advances relatively to the curve with uniform velocity F. clearness to imagine the chain to be enclosed in a fine rigid tube. Prove that the general (/?. . and its magnitude is variable from point to point in accordance with the kinematical conditions.
. the result of differentiating equation . when the chain has fallen a vertical distance ma. where I is the latus rectum of the ellipse. determined by the equation cot ^e tanh /x = tanh (/x sin e + ^m cos a sin 2e). A uniform chain of length 2L and mass 2Z/i has its ends attached to 6. 8. is When the chain starts from rest in not one of equilibrium the initial velocities are and the equations of motion are simplified by the omission of zero. and contains a uniform chain whose length is equal to a quadrant of the ellipse. the coefficient of friction between the tube and the chain being tan a cos e. Prove that. the square of the angular velocity of the tangent at any element A 7equilibrium over a smooth pulley one end the extremity of the vertical diameter. if 0)2 = 4^/^. B.263265] MOVING CHAIN 311 Prove that is 4. Elastic threads of natural lengths I and l' and moduluses X and X' are fastened to points P and F' of the chain on opposite sides of B and their other ends are fixed to points and 0' vertically below F and F'. a position which Since ^^ vanishes initially. A uniform chain hangs in is fixed to point from the horizontal diameter during the the equation first part of the motion satisfies where I is the length of the chain and 2c is the circumference of the circle. C. A vertical. Initial Motion. and portions hang vertically on both sides. if the end is set free. form. Prove that the time of a complete oscillation 27r sJ{Lll'txl{\l' is + \'l . tube is constrained to rotate with uniform angular major axis which is vertical. C being so close together that the parts of the chain between them may be considered vertical. and the points F and F' are never for any finite time at rest. two points A. 265. the distance y of the lowest 5. the chain will be in 7. Prove that. its velocity is ^ {ag sec a sinh 2fi)j where /a is. uniform chain falls in a vertical plane under gravity. The system oscillates so that the threads are always stretched. rough helical tube of pitch a and radius a is placed with its axis.fxgll')}. Prove that. and a uniform chain is placed within it. At the same time the kinematic conditions are altered in d(l>/dt. the points A. and passes over a smooth peg B between A and C and in the same horizontal line with them. A fine elliptic its velocity a> about stable relative equilibrium with one end at the lowest point.
when the problem has been without limit. The conclusion in such cases must be that the chain becomes slack at the In such cases it is usually conend. found by resolving along the wire. enter into the solution of the equation we have to use the conditions which hold at the ends. In the case of a heavy chain with an end which moves on a smooth straight wire.312 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. 262. cannot be satisfied if the acceleration of the element is finite (not infinite) and the tension is finite (not zero). not perpendicular to the tangent at the end. Differentiating the . applied to an element. solved with this condition we can pass to the case above described by supposing the mass of the ring to be diminished 266. IdT . and it may become slack throughout. one end of the chain is guided to move on a given curve. and T as impulsive tension. We may write the equations of motion in the form du ^ ^ = o H m ^OS ct. to be finite. chain. or at other special points. the equation of motion of an element at the end. first with respect to multiplying the second by ^ and subtracting. Impulsive Motion. of the If. Cases arise in which this method cannot be applied. the acceleration of the extreme particle must be directed along the tangent to the curve. reckoned per unit of mass. we obtain an equation ds \m ds J m p^ ' ds ds This equation serves to determine the initial tension at any To determine the arbitrary constants which point of the chain. and to take the mass of the ring. venient to suppose the end of the chain to be attached to a ring which can slide on the wire. for example. The equations is of impulsive motion of a chain which suddenly set in by the method of Art. at first. We motion are obtained at once have only to regard S and as N the resolved parts of an impulse. \ dt m ds 5. IX. The equations are ds ds .
iV vanish. rod of length 2a is held in a position inclined at an angle a to the and is then let fall on a smooth horizontal plane. In the initial motion of a chain under gravity prove that the tension a satisfies the equation /I dT\ ds T mp^~ 8»\m 2.tan i3 z ^ M f(^a V[ . if the rings rings are initially held so that the tangents to the chain just below them make equal angles y with the horizontal.] If the ends of the chain of Ex. the end of the rod which strikes the plane will leave it immediately after impact provided that the height through which the rod falls is greater than 1. if there is no restitution._. obtaining an equation for T in the form ds \m ds ) mp^ solution of this equation subject to the given terminal conditions gives the impulsive tension at any point of the chain. . ^g a sec a cosec^ a (1 +3 sin'^ a)^. A vertical. [Cf.tan is a. of mass Impulsive tensions Ta Tp are applied at the ends of a piece of chain hanging in the form of a common catenary with terminal tangents M inclined to the horizontal at angles a and /3. 5 in Art.  ) MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 207. 1. „ cos a 3^/3 008/3)2 ^ ^^ + ( Ta^ a—p rr 9 a a\\ sm a COS a Tb^ am ^ COS ^)y. the tension at the lowest point is changed in the ratio 2M' 2M'{Mcot^y. 261 for a chain in continuous motion. M' that of either ring. 267] MOVING CHAIN conditions are the 313 The kinematical same as those which were obtained in Art. and we can eliminate u and v. and the chain is severed at its vertex. . Prove that. ) A uniform chain hangs under gravity with its ends attached to two which are free to slide on a smooth horizontal bar. The Examples. 8 and In case no impulses are applied to the chain except at its ends. and 3. 267. 2 are held fixed. where Mis the mass : of the chain. Prove that the kinetic energy generated 1 . Prove that.^66. prove that the tension at a point where the tangent with the horizontal immediately becomes angle makes an ^ Mgcf) sec 4. . Ex. <^ cos yl{cos y + y sin y). and are let go.
sliding. is A circular disk. A heavy ring of radius a a. its A is sphere (centre 0) with centre of gravity at a point O distant c from dropped vertically upon a plane of inclination a to the horizontal . and the radius of the disk is less is than a cos 5. Show angular intervals. if at the instant the angular velocity is o. restitution.10 sin2 a)/(7 . after striking the bat. and the velocity of the end of the spike at right angles to the spike is F. k is the radius of gyration about the end of a spike.cos*" 7)/( 1 — cos* y). if the ring starts from rest in a position in which it is in contact with two obstacles. A to a of breadth h perpendicular to its path. the ball will descend if the vertical velocity of the bat plane is vertical is which is greater than P^cosa(e + f tana). gravity being neglected. and if there is no slipping. velocity in a direction making a given angle with the horizontal. tt/w. is with n spikes projecting from it in its plane at equal projected with its plane vertical so as to strike a rough horizontal plane (zero restitution) in such a way that the line joining the point of contact to the centre makes an angle tt/ti with the vertical. if there is no slit without jumping is 72 .10 sin2 a)\ cos a where 6 = 2a sin a and 7. and subsequently meets a bat whose ground A and perpendicular to the plane of the ball's motion. 3. and kept moving in the vertical plane of the ball's motion with a uniform Prove that. apart circular cylinder rocks between two parallel rails whose distance than the diameter of the cylinder. rolls with its plane vertical down a piano which of inclination On this plane there is a series of pointed obstacles are equal and at equal distances from each other. given by the equation (1 . Prove that the greatest of the axis above its equilibrium position diminish in geometrical heights is less A progression. the number of spikes which strike the plane is the greatest integer in the value of m that is sin 7r/27i. where 2y when 4. and are sufficiently high to prevent the ring from ever touching the plane. the angle subtended at the centre by two adjacent obstacles the ring touches both.cos a) sin2 a (14 . rough to prevent 6. its angular velocity aa)2 o as 1 it leaves the (7i + l)th obstacle is given by = 2^ sin a sin y cos* y ( .2 sin2 tt/w)*" (Fco + a F) = 2^ ^{ag) where a the radius of the circle on which the ends of the spikes lie. and e being the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the ground the bat and the ground are supposed to be sufficiently . uniform ball moving without rotation with velocity F strikes the at an angle a with the vertical. the condition that it should cross the slit sphere of radius a rolling on a rough table with velocity F comes Prove that. 1 Iga > F2 + lO^a.2a2^ . Prove that.314 2. IX. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. that.> L^Qga (1 .
12. where the radius of gyration of the sphere about an axis through right angles to GO. the inclination of the plank to the horizontal must never exceed a where / (tt f 2a) tan a = ma^. radius a. {M+m)K^Ql{{M+m) K^+ma^}. and a particle strikes the rising half. the kinetic Prove that. Prove that. is Prove that. plank of length 2a is turning about a horizontal axis through its centre of gravity. A and a the inclination to the vertical of the radius passing through the point at which the ball strikes the hoop. h^ about their centres. Two rough circular disks of masses Mi. tution. rough enough to prevent sliding. Prove that the sphere will not rebound unless the mass of the beam is at least three times as great as that of the ball. ball ball is let fall upon a hoop. A homogeneous sphere is allowed to fall on one end of a uniform horizontal horizontal axis through its centre of mass. if e is the coefficient of resti11. radii ai. if the A motion indefinitely repeats itself. 1c is G at' 8. 14. the ball rebounds in a direction making with the horizontal an angle tan~i{(l + ^7i) tanaecota}. ^2 impinge directly. spinning about their centres with angular velocities 12i. and a uniform sphere centre falls in a vertical plane . Prove the coefficient of friction between the sphere and the board exceeds 2MU'/{'7M\2m) (1 + e) F. the relative velocity of the centres before impact being lost in 1 V. and e is the coefficient of restitution. 13. /being the moment of inertia of the plank about its axis. if friction between the board and the table can be neglected. and m the mass of the particle. the coefficient of restitution beam balanced on a being unity. Prove that the angular velocity immediately after impact is its centre. and strikes the other half. rebounds. The coefficient of restitution between the sphere and the board is e. and moment of inertia MK'^ about spinning with angular velocity Q. Prove that. of mass A wedge of mass M is placed m is dropped upon it so that on a its table. A circular disk of mass J/. falls vertically and impinges with velocity V sphere of mass which is moving with velocity C^ on a horizontal against a board of mass table. . 9. the kinetic energy lost in the impact is ^m (1 . there being no restitution. J/2. a2. and radii of gyration ki.e2) V^+mMUy{7M+2m).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES so that is 315 G is above and GO is normal to the plane. the coefficient of restitution being unity. the kinetic energy impact ___F2___ 2 1/Jfi + l/i/2 "^ 2 1/J/i (1 (aiQi + a2Q2)^ + a^lki^) + l/ifa (1 + a^jlc^) ' 10. 1 if there is no restitution. impinges normally on a rough rod of mass m. if the plane energy lost in the impact is to : that of the sphere before impact in the ratio (le2)cos2a + (>J:2sin2a)/{F + (a + c)2} 1. A m M and the that. about which it can turn freely in a vertical plane. of which the mass is 1/n of that of the the hoop is suspended from a point in its circumference.
if at the instant of impact the rod is point of the rod which turning about any point in the vertical line through that is distant a(l+Jsec2^) from the lower end. where 2a point o{ its centre. and strikes the upper face of the first cube along a line parallel to the Prove that. ABCD A small smooth ring of mass m can slide on the side ^jB of a square formed of four rigidly connected rods. smooth oval disk is rotating with angular velocity « on a smooth horizontal plane about its centre of mass.316 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. which is fixed. the where a is (M+m)sin^a if+msin'^a + f (if+m). but that between the wedge and the sphere is is Prove that. and the through the centre of mass of the wedge. A uniform rod of length 2a moving in a vertical plane falls on a horizontal smooth plane so as to make with it an angle 6 at the instant of impact. Prove that. when it strikes a smooth rod of mass at the middle point of the rod. and the cube is at rest with two faces horizontal. where I is the moment of inertia of A m the disk about an axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane. if /x is the coefficient of friction. the angle which the face on which the sphere is dropped makes with the horizontal. fixed axis and at a distance c from the vertical plane through it. IX. kinetic energy is diminished by the impact in the ratio : no restitution. . and e the coefficient of restitution. p the perpendicular from the centre of mass to the normal at the point of contact. Two triangle. 15. assuming no 16. Prove that the initial velocity of in direction the ring is Racj{mc^ + {M+m) F}. A smooth uniform cube of side 2a and radius of gyration k about an axis through its centre is free to turn about an axis which is horizontal and passes through the centres of two opposite faces. so that they are pressed together and begin to slide one over the other. The friction between the wedge table is negligible. Prove that the new angular velocity is {I—'mep^)ail{I+mp^). and prove that. rest the kinetic energy generated in the system restitution. is (l/n^3)Py. and further that if 3^ cos d = aa)^lg the subsequent impacts on the plane will take place at equal intervals of time 2^/0). equal rigid uniform laminae. They are struck at the same instant with equal blows F in opposite directions bisecting the common edge and one other edge of each. the length of a side. 17. Find the velocity v of the point of application of either blow resolved in its direction. the angular velocity a and the vertical component of the velocity of the centre of mass will be immediately reversed. if there great enough to prevent sliding. 19. and there is perfect restitution. is AB. c is the distance of the ring from the middle is the mass of the square and k its radius of gyration about M 18. each in the shape of an equilateral with two edges in contact. An equal cube falls without rotation and with velocity F. An impulse R is applied at C DC.
lie on a smooth table inclined to each other at an angle a turns on a pivot fixed to the table. formed of four equal uniform rods each of length 2a freely jointed at common extremities. the point of impact must be at a distance a{(36 + a)/(36 + 3a)}^ from its centre. A rhombus. sides 2a and 2b. and the end A If ^ 5 is struck at the middle by a blow is P AB If there is a smooth peg touching ^ P2/(. freely jointed at lengths 2a and 26 are cut from the same uniform rod of mass one end of each. Prove that.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES if e is 317 the coefficient of restitution and a the angle which the lower face of the falling cube makes with the horizontal. m + 4m' BC at its middle point on the proper side to give constraint the kinetic energy is . with no motion relative to each other. Prove also that the rectangle cannot begin to rotate as a rigid body unless the direction of motion before impact makes with the impinging side _^ an angle greater than ^^"^ a{3b+af{3b + 3af 6 (26 + 3a) • 25. The rods being at rest in a straight M an impulse MVis applied at the free end of a. An equilateral triangle. Prove that. side is zero. their ends. F 20. the middle point of ^Cas instantaneous centre of rotation. m! . of length 4a cos a. motion of the rods is initially zero. Prove that the kinetic energy when b is free is to that when the further end of b is fixed in the ratio (4a + 36)(3a + 46)/12(a + 6)2. formed of three equal uniform rods hinged at 23. greatest possible angular velocity. the point must be the hinge. Two uniform rods AB. : formed of four uniform rods of the same material and section. when a point in one of the rods is suddenly fixed. the angular velocity imparted to the first cube is c F(l + e)l{c^ + \a^a^ sin 2a). when a side of length 2a impinges on a small rough peg (zero restitution). the impulsive stresses at the upper and lower hinges will be in the ratio ^13 1. if after impact the ABC relative 22. and that of the adjacent sides is f (v/a) sin a. Prove that. for that side to acquire the 24. when the middle point of one of the Prove that the initial angular velocity of that front sides is suddenly fixed. Two and line. if after falling through any height the middle point of the highest rod is suddenly stopped. .I m' cos2 a). BC of masses w. smoothly hinged at the ends. Two uniform rods AB^ BC hinged together at B are moving about 21. is held in a vertical plane with one side horizontal and the opposite corner downwards. being at the moment a right angle. A rectangle. is moving with velocity v in the direction of one of its diagonals. is moving without rotation on a smooth horizontal plane. the kinetic energy of the resulting motion at right angles to they are jointed at 5.
and ©i. of equal uniform rods are jointed together so as to have a common extremity and placed symmetrically so as to be generators of a cone of vertical angle 2a . . 0)1 cosec a . OB. Six equal uniform rods each of mass m are freely jointed and are 31. angular velocity with which each rod begins to turn is V (c cos a '' a sin^ a)/(§ a^ sin^ a + c^ cot^ a — ac sin 2a). Two Prove that. . . if one of the cords is cut. the initial angular acceleration of either rod (8a2c . and that. 00. of length 21. Prove that = 0)2 cosec 2a = =  uja. uniform circular disk is symmetrically suspended by two elastic cords of natural length c. ©2. =27r/(2n + l). if the frame strikes the ground when ^ = 0.h{h. and the framework moves symmetrically through a configuration in which each rod makes an angle 6 with the vertical .1)"P 22« sin2« ( ^ ... 32. an impulse A P along OA. The thread that jo descends with initial acceleration then destroyed. in a straight line and at rest when a blow is struck at the free end Prove that the of the extreme rod in a direction perpendicular to its length. are the initial angular velocities communicated to the rods on each side of OA in order. IX. Twelve equal rods each of length 2a are so jointed together that 26. the kinetic energy is ^M(^aW+'U^). and a particle of is mass p is attached to the middle point of the lowest rod. length 2a are freely jointed at 0. 28. The system rests on two smooth pegs distant 2c apart in a horizontal line. equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely hinged at one and their other extremities are connected by an inextensible thread extremity. is where b is the equilibrium length of each cord. is if the thread is severed. Prove (9m + 3/))^/(10m + 3p). Any number Prove that the metrically a smooth fixed sphere of radius c (no restitution). =P/{(2?^ 1) m]. The hexagon is in a vertical plane with the highest rod fixed and horizontal and the thread also horizontal. . infinite number of equal uniform rods are loosely jointed together. where if is the mass of the framework.318 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. kept in the form of a regular hexagon by a thread joining two opposite comers. and lie in one plane so that any two neighacts bouring rods are inclined at an angle a. they can be the edges of a cube.. the velocity of the centre of mass.. A initial radius of curvature of the path of the centre of the disk 3 cos a. the to the highest point of the disk. An and are F impulse exerted at the hinge at the further end of the n^^ rod is .1^) gl{% aW + 32aV/^2 _ 8a2c^). each of mass m and 29. where 30. if u is l/(l + ^Vcosec2^). u. the system Mling with velocity V strikes sym27. then u is reduced in the ratio prove that. is the initial velocity of OA. inclined at an angle a to the vertical and attached Prove that.c)/{c sin 4a b sin 2a). set of (27i + l) equal rods OA. .
thin uniform rectangular plank of mass is suspended from four points in the same horizontal plane by four parallel chains of equal length and negligible mass attached to the corners. large enough to produce motion. and tension of each chain is equal to I (if +m) is then let go. uniform rods AB. initial angular acceleration of each of the horizontal rods is gc{a + h)l{c\a + h)+a'{la + h)}. of which the side AB is in the horizontal plane.2P//X W) a\v  W= 0. 26. and the angle C in the hinge.B). masses are proportional to their lengths. BC make angles a and /3 with 35. . . are freely jointed so as to form a One of the rods of length 2a is free to turn about a pivot at parallelogram. are The end A is fixed and the system is supported by a freely jointed at B. a distance c from its middle point. and is let go. the initial angular accelerations of AB and BC are I (w + 2m') sin a — 2«i' sin ^ cos {a — ^)g Y" {m + 3m') . in the vertical plane at right angles to the axis of the cylinder till the chains m make an angle a with the vertical. is suddenly applied at one end perpendicularly to the length of the rod. two of length 2a and two of length 26. of masses m. and is initially held in a horizontal Prove that the position so that the figure is a rectangle. . Prove that. Prove that the rod begins to turn 36. Find the initial vertical and horizontal accelerations of C. where x 1 Pa^lfi is the positive root of . whose 34.(1 . 319 A parallel to thin uniform rectangular board. m' and lengths 2a. Four uniform rods. Two the vertical. so that the cross section of the board made by a vertical plane perpendicular to the hinge forms two sides of a triangle ABC.^) h' J^.{m + Zm') plane with of length 2a and weight rests on a rough horizontal horizontal pressure on the plane uniformly distributed. and /M is the coefficient of friction. string attached to C in a position in which AB.4m' cos2 (a ./3) a' ^^^ .2??i cos^ a}. and a uniform cylinder of 37.4w' cos^ (a . hinged along a line in itself one side.2 (m + 2m') sin a cos {afi) (*^^ + ^'^^') sin ^ g ' . is opened out to any angle and placed on a smooth horizontal plane. Prove that the initial (3J/+m) g cos a/{3 {M\m) .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 33. its A uniform rod W A about a point distant x from the equation x^ its middle point. force P. A M mass mass is on the plank with its axis parallel to an edge and its centre of The whole system is drawn aside vertically over that of the plank. if the string is cut. and prove that it starts to move in a direction making with the vertical an angle whose tangent is ^ tan A tan B tan ^{A. BC.
a referred to the hole as origin and the vertical as polar initial line. are hinged 39. r2r=5'(5 + 2V6r+^''(52V6n the constants By C. Prove that.RIGID BODIES or AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS — mfi sin a cos a}. B\ C being determined by the equations X2 + 2Xo=0. if a slight continuous action now begins between the centre. Prove that. + 1 sech log (tanh" ^ 6)]. each of mass ?n. the distance of the bead from the centre. the horizontal component X^r and the vertical component Y2r of the initial action between the 2rth and the (2r + l)th rods are given by X^r^B {b + ^sl^Y + C (52V6r. circular disk (mass M) rotates m /Li/(distance)2. when the rods are let go. r2„=0. will at first increase. together and held so that they are alternately horizontal and vertical. spoke under the action of a force to the centre of the ring equal to and the bead is in relative equilibrium at a distance a from the Prove that. A particle of mass M rests on a smooth table. Prove that. and radius c angular velocity a>. then in the initial 7^0 motion (Jl/+wi) = mucosa.4x^2 [X (o) . 40. of the nature of friction and proportional to the relative angular velocity. [CHAP. a (i/"+ m) ro>^ = Zmg"^ sin^a. Close round it moves a ring of mass The ring carries a rotating about its centre with angular velocity v{<(o). and the angular velocity of the ring. massless smooth spoke along a radius. One end is fixed and the whole is supported in a horizontal line.i/)/(«ic2 +joa2) . a^y=— ^sina. 2F2 + 16ro5m5r=0. and is connected with a particle of mass m by an inextensible thread passing through a hole in the table. where 6 = log (a/^). if m is released from rest in a position in which its coordinates are a. formed of n equal symmetrical rods. disk and the ring. J J/" ( J/"+ m) g cos a/{ J/ + wi sin^ a /* according as the coefficient of friction is greater or less than in a horizontal plane with uniform 38. ^2n=0. V=ro*^3ai9o^ yo'^ = «^o*''+6>=o<^o . each the highest rod is horizontal vertical rod being lower than the preceding . and a bead of mass p can move on the A (M+m) tan a/(3J/'+m). and their values after a short time t will be and 1/ + ^\ (o) . if the supports are simultaneously removed. series of 2/1 equal uniform rods. IX. Also prove that the initial radius of curvature of the path of m is where i?o=>'oj yo=«*<^o.v)l{mc^ ^pa?)] [^jMc^ + l/(wc2 \pa^)\ is where X^ the frictional couple when the relative angular velocity is 6. the free end begins to move with acceleration chain is A ^ [1 +()" 41. each of length 2a and radius of gyration k about its centre of mass. a^^''=g^ sin a cos a (i/'+ Zm)\{M\ m). A and can turn freely round its end which is fixed.
if the its handle is let go. Show that the initial radius 5 is a —4 /413 ^/ ir ' A set of 71 equal rods are jointed together in one straight line and 47. and a uniform sphere of mass m is placed on the plank at a distance h from the axis on the side remote from the centre of mass. system being in equilibrium the string of curvature of the path of is cut. the bodies being freely jointed at B and C. its middle point is a {JI/2 cos2a + ( if + w)2 sin2a} ^ /M(M+ m^. . the plank being held horizontal. Prove that. A garden roller is at rest Show to prevent slipping . the cylinder being homogeneous and of radius a. CB and a sphere The system is free to of diameter BC equal to the length of either rod. Prove that. 26 and masses Ay B are freely hinged common extremity and the other extremity of A is fixed. CB of equal length 2a are freely jointed at C the rod turn in a vertical plane about the point A. 321 of a uniform rod of length 2a and mass m is freely jointed at the centre of mass of the board. where (nl) M{K^ + a^)= ma^. and is the moment of inertia of the plank about the axis. and MK^ the moment of inertia of the cylinder about its axis. Prove that the initial radius of curvature of the One end to a board of M path of 43. is the initial radius of curvature of the path described by centre of inertia cn~^ (sin2 a + n^ cos^ a) *. 46. have initial angular accelerations ©i. system consists of two equal uniform rods AB. is A equal to that of either rod. <Bn ^^ one plane. . if one end is fixed. from a horizontal position of of the further extremity of Prove that the initial radius of cmvature B is + Bf}. and ABCD being Prove that. The rods fall rest. the initial radius of curvature of the path of the centre of the sphere is 216^/(5 . 44. L.11^). and the end B of the attached to A by an inexteusible string of length Aa/^'S. the initial radius of curvature of the path of the free end is (aiwi 48. at a Two uniform rods of lengths 2a. turn about J.. . The . where 3={mb — Mc)l{mb + Ma). 21 . the initial radius of curvature of the path of D is i§ AB. axis of the cylinder a with the horizon. is free to turn in a vertical plane about a rough plank of mass horizontal axis distant c from its centre of mass. + a20)2 + . . if the mass of the sphere initially a horizontal straight line. The rod is held so as to make an angle a with the vertical. A M when the plank is let go. + «w«n^). 2ah {A +BYI{aA'^+h{2A 45. and c is the distance of the centre of mass of the handle from the axis of the cylinder. and is let go. + a„a)„)2/(aiQ)i2 + agtog^ + . on a horizontal plane which is rough enough and the handle is so held that the plane through the and the centre of mass of the handle makes an angle that. wg. . M. Mab Two is 4(7 is free to rod CB rods A C. and the board mass is j)laced on a smooth table.. m its mass.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 42.
remaining veitical. can turn freely about their centres at a distance b apart in a vertical Prove that the time of a small oscillation of the chain under gravity is the pulleys being rough enough to prevent slipping. IX. — Iq). where their period is the same as that of a simple pendulum of I and Iq are the equilibrium length and natural length An elastic circular ring of which the radius when unstrained is a rests on a smooth surface of revolution.a) — sec a/p. then the time of an oscillation of small amplitude is 27r ^{I/Ta). where 1/^ sin a cos a/(r. suspended from a corner. so that the spheres turn through equal angles about their centres and the thread remains in one plane. vertical. jointed at a common vertex so as to form a pyramid. are freely comers are joined by two and of modulus X. and the opposite similar elastic threads of equal uustretched lengths 2a and weight W. Prove that. freely jointed at the corners. . whose axis is vertical. have their centres connected by an elastic thread passing through holes in their surfaces. if small oscillations take place with the string vertical diagonal. is 51. is / M and radius a. Prove that the period of the small oscillations in which each element moves in a vertical plane is the same as for a simple pendulum of length I. if the system is placed so vertical angle 2cot~iV(3+sin2 7r/w). and held in shape by an elastic string occuj^ying the Prove that. An unit length is /i through one continuous half and stretched over two equal rough pulleys each of mass endless flexible and inexteusible chain. 52. p being the radius of curvature of the meridian curve at a point on the ring. and whose edges lie on a cone of Prove that. each of length pendulum of length ^2 WajX. each rod swings about its position of equilibrium like a simple 60. each of radius a and moment of inertia / about its centre. Prove (i) that. Four equal uniform rods. if the system is laid on a smooth horizontal plane and the threads never become slack. length §1 {I of the string. of which the mass per through the other. the length of the equivalent simple for its small oscillations is pendu ^a cos a (1 48 cos2 a)/(l +2 cos^a).322 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. in the form of a circle of radius r. A cubical framework of twelve rods. and a the inclination of the = normal to the 53. as to rest on a smooth sphere with each of its planes inclined to the vertical at an angle A lum a[>sin~i (^ cos tt/ti)]. if in equilibrium the tension of the thread is T. and are set to vibrate symmetrically. which line. Two an axis through equal spheres. 54. jointed so as to form a rhombus. number n of uniform isosceles triangular laminae are smoothly 49. whose base is a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius a.
its radius. its height. and prove that the period of small M oscillation about such a position is where is the pressure on the axis per unit of length. it will oscillate in time 27r?(a2 + ^2)l/ax/(3yTO). The attraction of the spheres alters the position of Prove that the density of equilibrium of the balls by a small distance x. a and 21 the length of the rod. A. They are attracted by a similar gravitating fixed cylinder with a parallel axis at a distance h {>a) from A. and the density of its material.^ of is suspended by its middle point by means of a wire of such torsional elasticity that the system makes a complete oscillation Two equal uniform spheres of in a horizontal plane in time T. D so that AC and BD are each of length h and are in the same horizontal plane with AB and perpendicular to it on opposite sides. about radius a are fixed with their centres at C.] 55. slightly displaced. each of radius c 58. p are the radius of the cylinder. and mass per unit of length. is ranged symmetrically round a rigid framework freely moveable about a fixed axis A^ the axis of each cylinder being parallel to A and at distance a from it. Find the positions of stable equilibrium. where m is the mass of the sphere. then the period of a small oscillation of amplitude a dd a\/\\a) Jo V(lisin2^) [There are no forces besides the tension of the thread and the pressure between the spheres. and the mass of the framework is neglected. prove that it will make small oscillations in a period A where a. Prove that the period of small oscillations is A m A series of n infinitely long uniform circular cylinders. A uniform rod rests in equilibrium on a rough gravitating uniform 56.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES and (ii) 323 is its is that. uniform rod of length 2a moves in a smooth fixed tube under 57. particle is placed on one of the plane faces of a uniform gravitating circular cylinder at a very small distance from the centre of the face . 59. the spheres is 21—2 . at a point distant c from the action of a fixed gravitating particle of mass the tube. if sphere under no forces but the attraction of the sphere. Prove that. if the natural length of the thread is 2a and X modulus of elasticity. X Two negligible mass which equal uniform balls are fixed to the ends of a rod J.
below the centre of a smooth oblate spheroid of >axes 2a. the axis of Prove that. is slightly of a simple >//> of length aHj{a'^ cos2 64.324 60. a the angle which the normal at this point makes with the vertical. Show that the inclination a of the rod to the vertical when the particles are moving with uniform angular velocity <» given by the equation cos a = (m — m') g/ {(m + m') aH}. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for the small oscillations is particle is A rp cos a/(r + 3p cos^ a sin a). + 46^ sin^ describing a circle of radius r in a smooth bowl in the form of a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. IX. diameter. 26. if rotates about the vertical axis with angular velocity a. A the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium is where ^irsf{A a^ Ah'')l2Pg {P + = A 2gl^l(o^ {l^ c^). with angular velocity a> about a vertical axis. which passes through a fixed smooth ring at the lowest point of the Prove that. . the velocity is a cot yjr >J{gd)lh. 65. ZA'% I . Prove that the time of a small oscillation about a position of relative equilibrium is  A p sin a p sin a cos' where p is the radius of curvature at the point of relative equilibrium. radius through the bead in steady motion makes with the vertical. and a the distance of the point from the axis. Two particles of masses m and m' are attached to the ends of a rigid rod is of negligible mass and of length 21. A smooth circular wire is made to rotate uniformly about a vertical A bead of mass m can move on the wire. the circle makes an angle yj^ with the vertical. A particle describes a horizontal circle in steady motion at a depth d 63. which is freely moveable about its middle point. if the tangent plane at any j)oint of revolution being vertical. Prove that. if the particle is slightly disturbed. 62. and is attached to a thread. thread of length I has its ends attached to two points distant o the system apart on a vertical axis. if a is the angle which the circle and supports a body of mass m. where p is the radius of curvature of the meridian curve and a the inclination of the normal to the vertical at any point on the horizontal circle. and the period of the small disturbed is the same as that oscillations when the steady motion pendulum ^/). the steady motion is stable or unstable according as l6sin2a8sin3^a is negative or positive. A particle can move in a smooth plane tube which rotates uniformly 61. KIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. and a bead can slide on the thread Prove that.
Prove that the motion is stable if 3cos^cos^<l. A straight uniform rod passes through a ring on a elastic thread plane. An elastic thread. 325 A particle describes a circle uniformly under the influence of two centres of force which attract inversely as the square of the distance. . . if the system is started to rotate with angular velocity ©. plane lamina of any form has in its surface a flat circular cavity ot radius a. A with a smooth face and a rough edge is in the cavity. are the angles which a radius of the circle subtends at the centres of force. if the rod is rotating about its centre with an angular ring. is the moment of inertia of the lamina about the axis. velocity such that the steady motion is unstable. and the whole system is Prove that rotating steadily about the vertical axis with angular velocity w. Prove that. then if it is slightly disturbed its centre will describe the curve whose polar equation is 67. where d. A uniform rod of length 2b can slide with its ends on a smooth vertical circular wire of radius vertical diameter with a and the wire is <». =sJ{ZglAD\ when each rod makes an angle a with oscillation ABJDC AB. Four equal uniform rods are freely jointed so as to form a rhombus with a vertical spindle by means of a hinge at A. about the axis of symmetry. where B is measured from the apse line.re connected the vertical the system will move steadily. and k tan a is the value of r at the apse. and an (1 f F/r2) sin2 a=cosh2 (3 sin a). and of modulus of elasticity equal to twice the weight of a rod. with angular velocity V(^/c). of natural length equal to § of the value which AD has when AB is inclined to the vertical at an angle a. joins A to D. and it is free to turn about a vertical axis through a point in the circumference of the cavity. radius of gyration of the circular disk about a vertical axis through its A plane tube the equation of which is y'^=f{x) is turning freely 71.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 66. A circular disk of mass m and radius c{<a) 70. which is vertical. k is the radius of gjTation of the rod about its centre. AC a. and that the time of a small about the steady motion is (7r/a>)V(H3sin2a). permitting free motion in the vertical plane BAC. made uniform angular velocity to rotate about a Prove that the lowest horizontal position is stable if 69. smooth horizontal whose natural length is equal to that of the rod has its ends fastened to the ends of the rod and its middle point fixed to the Prove that. the length of the equivalent simple pendulum for small oscillations about the state of steady motion is g{ac) ac'o>^ {c^ + k^)I^Amk^a^ and k is /+m{F + (2ac)2}' the where / centre. 68.
BG m and length 2a are have their middle points joined by an elastic string. smooth rigid uniform circular tube of mass The tube is placed on a table and set in motion particles of masses mi. the radius of curvature of the tube at the lowest point is greater than c. if the bead moves relatively to the rod as repelled from the middle point with a force varying inversely as the cube of the distance. then throughout the motion A M make at time t MimiOi + mJz) + 2?ni?W2 76. where n is the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the thread to the weight of the rod. Prove that the rod can move steadily projecting inwards m towards the centre. A bead is free to slide without friction on a fixed circle.. contains two 75. and V the potential energy of the stretched string. if ^1. are velocity about the angle Prove that. 72. . and suspended by the middle point. a right angle. hinged at B connected by a thread so that ACB and having their revolving in their own plane with uniform angular '' A which is is fixed. Prove that. if 6 is the the angle which the angle between the string and either rod at any time. Two extremities A. equal uniform rods AC. on a rod of negligible mass whose ends slide Prove that. and that this steady motion 'ym>a>^c(c2a)2. string makes with a fixed line. is cotH^cot<9 = 2?i. 62 are the angles which the radii to the particles with a fixed line on the table. (7. if the thread is severed. {\ + cos2 B)^ + cos2 6) 0^ + (^ + sin2 6) 6^] + F= const.326 and a if RIGID BODIES particle of AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. prove that the rod will sink until the parts of the thread are inclined to the horizon at an angle 6 which satisfies the equation 73. the reaction at the is hinge instantaneously changed in the ratio */& 4. if there are no external forces. Prove that. each of mass Two equal uniform rods AB.^2) = 0. = const. mass m is in the tube close to the lowest point. (^1 + 4) sin'^ ^ (^1 . 74. the particle will rise in the tube to a vertical height h which is the least positive root of the equation 2lch = {I'lmch)f{h\ where / is the moment of inertia of the tube about the axis of symmetry. by a blow in a line passing through the centre of mass of the system. IX. CB.{(J 77. 7^2. is stable if rod If an elastic thread whose length is the same as that of a uniform attached to the rod at both ends. One end is matter constrained to of a rigid uniform rod of length 2a formed of gravitating move uniformly in a circle of radius c with angular at the centre velocity cd. and the rod is attracted to a fixed particle of mass of the circle. Prove that. then throughout the motion freely jointed at B and maP. and the system moves in one plane under no forces.
being set in motion by an impulse directed at right angles to the tube when the distance between the middle points of the rod and tube is a. whose other end can slide on the wire.2) + 52 1^2 ^(^gyi =(^ + 52)2. the limits of oscillation are given by 79. if CB subtends at the centre an angle a. to a of a an inextensible thread of length a is attached smooth circular wire of radius a. system moves under no external forces. when the particle has descended a depth velocity of the paraboloid is angular / h. if the tube is struck by a horizontal blow. if no restitution. 81.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 327. and the line joining the particle to the centre at time t makes with the radius to B an angle j3. disk of mass m! and radius a spinning freely about its centre. where 6 is a certain constant depending on the masses and moments of inertia of the rod and tube. of revolution is free to turn round its axis. is 'igha {(A +Ao) sin^ a— a cos^ a} the latus rectum of the paraboloid and / is its moment of inertia its axis. at one end horizontal diameter the other end of the thread is attached to one end rigid uniform rod of length a. and the edge of the disk is rough enough to prevent the bodies will separate after an interval in which the unmolested slipping. system starts from rest with the thread and rod in a horizontal position the velocity of the rod when its middle point has fallen through of . disk would have turned through an angle whose circular measure is there is (m' 82. + 3m)/(m' + m). lying on a horizontal plane contains a and can turn about a point A of its circumference. and a smooth circular cut on the upper face and passes through the centre . whose plane is vertical. is vertical. Prove that. and radius of gyration h about an axis on a smooth horizontal plane. particle at a point cos ^ j3 = 80. Prove that the distance r between the middle points when the system has turned through an angle 6 is given by the equation (^2 + ^. ± ^ sin a. and impinges symmetrically on a uniform circular Prove that. and that. the particle can oscillate about the point B furthest from J. itself A uniform rod of mass m and length 2a moves at right angles to on a smooth table. the V {/+4wa(A + Ao)}{i+4ma(a+A+Ao)cos2a}' where 4a about 83. A uniform cube. its centre. rests is through groove of radius a of mass if. A smooth uniform tube contains a smooth uniform rod and the 78. A solid paraboloid below the vertex. any distance. which and has a groove cut in its surface which makes a constant angle A particle of mass m is placed in the groove at a depth Aq a with the axis. A smooth circular tube (7. One end of a The find . Prove that.
Initially all the threads have their natural lengths. and U. ^2 = ^2 ( j/_. their other ends at the corners of a regular hexagon on a smooth horizontal plane.328 of that face. these ends being connected by six similar elastic threads in the sides of the hexagon. if a0 is with projected along the groove from the arc traversed by the particle. and 6 the angle turned through by the block in any time. axes inclined to each other at an angle 2a and a uniform sphere of radius a rolls between them. equal right circular cones. V the muzzle velocities of the shot when the carriage a A is (1) fixed and (2) allowed a free recoil. Six equal uniform rods are freely jointed at a point and have 85. A particle of mass m is Prove that. and k gyration about an axis through 88. each of length 2a. rifled gun is mounted on a carriage without wheels. p the pitch of the barrel. are fixed with their axes horizontal. of the position of the particle at any time an end of the major axis._ m)l4ma\ rods. where 84. so as to touch along a horizontal generator and to Two . Two rough horizontal cylinders each of radius c are fixed with their . if Prove that. is < or > sin a cos a/(l — sin a)^. Prove that the eccentric angle is <p given by the equation ra2 sin2(f. Prove that the joint will or will not reach the plane according as the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of each thread to the weight of each rod 86.sin (p)/{7 — 5 cos2 a cos2 <^)}. are freely jointed and placed on a smooth table in a straight line parallel to an edge. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. the elevation of the gun. is its where 2a and 26 are the principal axes of the tube. IX. velocity V. and the rods are inclined at an angle a to the vertical. its radius of centre at right angles to its plane. + 62cos2d>+ cL^a^b^)sm^4> n. Prove that the angle 6 through which either rod has turned at time {2 t is given by the equation + w(l + 3sin2^)}a^2=3^sin^. each of vertical angle 2a. Prove that the vertical velocity of its centre in a position in which the radii to the two points of contact angles ^ with the horizontal is sin a cos 89. starting with its centre very nearly above the point of intersection of the highest generators. k the radius of gyration of the shot. and M is the mass of the gun and carriage. (f) make <s/{lOg (a+c) (1 . then 72 {F//)Hsin2a + Jf cos2a/(Jf+m)}= ^72 (1 +F/p2) {sin2a+i/'2 cos2a/(i/+ w)2^ where m is the mass of the shot. and the tube is struck by a blow parallel to the minor axis so that it starts to move parallel to this axis with velocity V. A particle is placed in a smooth elliptic tube of n times its mass at 87. A cord is attached Two uniform to the joint and passing over the edge of the table at right angles supports a body of mass l/n of that of either rod.
and . one of its corners being fixed . : (sin a)^. and X is the modulus of the thread. one of horizontal diagonal are joined a and mass wi. ^ l+3sm2a + — (cosacos<9)^— a '^ma . each of length as to form a rhombus. is the initial value of ^. and the opposite corners are joined by similar Prove that. nm^ and the tube rotates freely about a vertical chord AB {^A above E) which subtends an angle 2a at the centre. is laid on a formed of four similar uniform rods freely jointed at their smooth horizontal table. A circular tube of mass m and radius a contains a particle of mass 90.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 329 have their vertices coincident. The rhombus is laid on a smooth horizontal table freely jointed together. A sphere of radius a rolls between them. falls through a height h to a horizontal plane (no restitution). and the system starts from rest with the tube horizontal.'2)}. if the particle oscillates between C and B^ then aO:^ {( w + 1 ) C0s2 a + ^} is C0s2 a =5r (1 + sin a) ( 1 + 2 cos^ a). A particle of m Four equal rods.."7^ o 9/1NZJ9 + 3sm2(9)^^ = —a^ • . A homogeneous hemisphere of radius a and mass M falls from rest . the greatest value of the angle them in the subsequent motion is 0)7/(0. Prove that. A square extremities. and the tube is set rotating with angular velocity G. 91. formed of four equal uniform rods each of length a. Prove that the angle 6 which the tube makes with the vertical when its angular velocity is a maximum and equal to co is given by the equation ^{rnr^\I)<ii^^ingr(i? QXi%6\mg'^^\v?e = ^^ where /is the moment of inertia of the tube about its middle point. ' sin^a 3X 6a. if any rod makes an angle B with the vertical at time t after the impact. then /I the system (l 18. + 6. show that. and r is the distance of the particle from that point. is slightly extended and the rhombus left free. if one elastic threads of natural lengths 2a cos a and 2a sin a. ' (sin ^ 9 ^ ^. if angular velocities «. where a 94. are freely jointed so whose diagonals is vertical the ends of the by an elastic thread at its natural length. with one angle equal to 2a. 93.''^ ICOSI {f(o)95. the periods during which the two threads are respectively extended in the subsequent motion are A rhombus thread in the ratio (cos a)^ 92. . to' in the plane of the table are communicated between to the rods that meet at this corner. Initially the particle is at the highest point C of the tube. Prove that. Prove that the height z of its centre above the plane of the axes satisfies the equation i^'l+^COt2a+^COt2a(^sec2a + ^j=5r(2ro^). o •  .. . mass is placed in a smooth straight tube which can rotate in a vertical plane about its middle point.sin a)^ ~ sm a .
moving at right angles to their bases with the same velocity V. and impinge so that finite portions of opposing faces come into contact. the line joining their centres meets the opposing faces at a distance x from the centres of the faces which ^2 (. and if is the initial value of the line joining the centres at the instant of impact cuts the opposing faces at an angle ^tt. so long as they remain in contact. equal rigid inelastic uniform hooks A BCD.Tq 72^^2 (^2 + ^2 _ ^. Two equal homogeneous cubes are moving on a smooth table with 96.330 with that its its RIGID BODIES base veitical AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS base horizontal [CHAP. between their centres (measured parallel to their bases) at time t is given by the equations 80^2=. equal and opposite velocities V in parallel lines. and impinge so that the points 97. each in the form of three sides of a square of side 2a.. its Prove that the hemisphere will leave the plane immediately upon becoming vertical if 15 F>16V(a^). show that. : B and D' strike the middle points of B'C and BC. then in the subsequent motion and D' will come to relative rest after if D the sides B'C and BC D moving over distances ^ {S — fJb) a on B'C and BC.r2 satisfies the equation + §a2) (^^2 + 1^2)= . where 2a is a side of either cube. an angle 2^f{tanVf+tanVi}. 18 V53 a Two smooth rigid uniform hemispheres. and separate after an interval (1 + J3) aj V after turning through Prove further that. IX. /84V19^l\ /8+^l9zl V19 a V19 . and that the CD' will impinge upon A'B' and AB after an interval sides CD and from the instant when D p V(44+^2) VJy/5 V(^2_5)«^ and D' were at rest relative to the hooks. .^2)^ x. masses. Prove that the distance a.19^2(^2_l)^ 15 F^ 8 . impinge so that lengths fa of the diameters of their bases in the plane through their centres perpendicular to their bases come into contact. move with equal velocities V in opposite directions parallel to or A'B'. Prove on to a smooth horizontal plane (no restitution). Two ^^ Show that they separate immediately after impact with the velocities of their centres of mass reduced in the ratio 9 53. is pressure on the plane when its is equal to where V is the velocity with which it strikes the plane. base integer. if 675 V^l{10247rag) is an the hemisphere will again strike the plane with its base vertical.. A'B'C'D'. each of radius a and of equal 98. and that. then while the faces are in contact they slip with uniform relative velocity. Prove that the ends and D' are provided with apparatus for clipping so that they can slide on these sides without friction.
A string without weight is soiled mass solid cylinder of M and round a rough horizontal uniform is free radius a which to turn about its axis. uniform chain of mass rrix per unit of length is placed on a smooth table and one end of it is joined by a thread. Prove that the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table 104. where will I is log m a.)} = 2^:11. which is held just at the edge. A quantity of uniform {l'^il + Zh)fl. A 105. through which the cylinder has turned after a time #. satisfies the equation Mla6 = m{\gt^aBY. is completely uncoiled. and is let drop on Prove that when half the chain is on the plane the pressure on f of the weight of the chain. passing over the edge of the table. and the other end put over the edge of the table. and a body of mass equal to that of a length I of the chain is fastened to one end and projected vertically upwards with the velocity due to falling through a height h prove that it will rise to a height . Prove that immediately after leaving the A table the particle is 101. so long as neither 102. is uniform chain of length I is held by its upper end so that its at a height I above a fixed horizontal plane. great length of uniform chain is coiled at the edge of a horizontal platform. and the system released from rest when a length I of one chain is vertical and the rest of that chain and the other chain are coiled on the table. . To m is fully stretched. the plane 100. it Ftanh 106.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 99. chain is coiled on a horizontal plane. 103. and that the maximum velocity is acquired when 2jcll=\og2. A Prove that at time t is down is ultimately acquires a finite terminal velocity F. to one end of another coil of mass m^ per unit of length. the free extremity of the string is attached a uniform chain of mass and length I if the chain is gathered close up and then let go. Prove that if the second coil is let go the straight . A coil of parts of the chains increase with uniform accelerations ^VW(V*^i+\/^2) and ^Vmi/(Vwii + \/wi2). and one end is allowed to hang over until it just reaches another platform distant h below the first. 331 A lower end the plane. is is is uniform chain of length I is coiled at the edge of a table one end attached to a particle of mass equal to that of the chain. moving with velocity \ >J{^gl). . prove that the angle ^. length ^ of a uniform chain of length l{Jc and mass ii{l\k) is coiled at the edge of a table and the length I hangs over the edge. The chain then runs down under gravity. Prove that the chains be momentarily at rest when the length of the vertical portion reduced to ?^. that its velocity (Vt/k). A above a table has attached to is thread of length 2h — l passing over a smooth peg at a height h its ends two uniform chains. and that the length of chain which has then run A log cosh ( Fjf/A). before the chain .
and is coiled on the platform. the chain will be uncoiled at the end of a time sJ{Qal{giaxi\)].332 107. and one end is allowed to slide down. A uniform chain is is vertical and vertex upwards. of a uniform chain of length I and mass is fixed to a horizontal platform of mass (2^l)m. where Two buckets each of mass fixed M mass which passes over a 108. 109. if all the chain is off cylinder and supports a body of mass M. 114. A smooth circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal and vertically over the edge of a table. placed on the arc of a smooth cycloid whose axis Show that. One end m the chain uncoils. on which a length a of a uniform chain of mass ml and length I is coiled .the edge of a table. 112. so long as the chain is wholly in . the amount of energy dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is mass lf. the end of the chain hanging initially just over the edge. Two scalepans each of mass are supported by a cord of negligible mass passing over a smooth pulley. IX. A chain of length I slides from rest down a line of greatest slope on a smooth plane of inclination a to*the horizontal. Prove that. Prove that. whose mass is fxl^ one end of which is attached to a fixed point just above the bottom of the bucket.^ = a+^j:\ye~^'^'^. Prove that. rises vertically and passes over the pulley. A . the velocity of the bucket when there remains upon it a length y of chain is F. if the inclination of the plane is double the angle of friction (X). the chain passes over a smooth fixed As the platform descends vertically. /3. the amount of energy that will have been dissipated by the time the chain leaves the table is ^mga^/l. 113.sin a)] log (cot \a). Prove that the time of leaving the plane is J{llg (1 . circular cylinder is fixed with its axis horizontal on which lies a chain of length I and and one end of the chain is attached to a thread which passes over the /x Prove that. pulley. On the bottom of one of them lies a length I of uniform chain. and prove that the whole chain will have fallen upon it after an M interval ^{\l{4:M+m)IMg]. Prove that.gl{dM^)/{M+f.). and a uniform chain of mass m and length I is held by its upper end above one of the scalepans so that it just reaches the pan. the chain passes over the cylinder and has its free end on a level with the table. the table before any of it reaches the cylinder. if the system starts to move from rest. if this end is slightly displaced downwards. RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. at any time t before the chain is completely uncoiled. A chain of length a is coiled up on a ledge at the top of a rough plane of inclination a to the horizontal. Find the acceleration of the pan when a length x of chain has fallen upon it. are connected by a chain of negligible smooth pulley. smooth vertically above. 111. where a. 110. the depth x of the platform satisfies an equation of the form a. y are constants.
and is a maximum at the middle point. Show that the length of the string in equilibrium tan 6 .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES contact with the cycloid. in the groove under gravity. one end being initially at the vertex. the chain is under no forces but the pressure of the tube. is free is to turn about its axis which whose moment of inertia about its axis is vertical. and length 21 is in a tube of uniform 118. A m — point of the chain is ^mcos^ a{l^ a. A uniform chain falls in a vertical plane with uniform acceleration . the time of a small oscillation A about the position of relative equilibrium (87r/i2)v/{2a2/(16a2_^2). confined within a straight tube to one end of which it is fastened. 115. 6=a(o^ Y' 117. An elastic string (modulus X. m the mass of a unit of length of the chain. unstretched length a) is 116. it will be moving with a velocity cylinder. if 6 is the angle through which the cone has turned when the upper end is at a distance r from the vertex. mass ma. and + 6e^^)/(e^^l). Prove that. A rough circular cylinder of radius c is fixed with its axis vertical. A cone of vertical angle surface so as to /x is /. 121. if i2. The free end of the length a is pulled by a constant force F in the direction Prove that. its end portions of lengths a and b being straight. and the tube rotates about that end with uniform angular velocity w in a horizontal plane. smooth tube in the form of a cycloid generated by a circle of 119. {/cosec2a//x + ^?2cos2^}e2«8i"«cot^^^2+^^cos^ + Z2cos2^ + 7cosec2a//i. radius a rotates uniformly about the base of the cycloid with angular velocity Prove that. and a piece of uniform chain of length 21 is in the tube. ^ /m is a . is 120. chain whose density varies uniformly from p at one end to 3p at is placed symmetrically on a small smooth pulley and is then Prove that it leaves the pulley with velocity ^is^f{lllg\ where 21 is its A length. uniform chain of mass bore in the form of an equiangular spiral which revolves in its plane about Prove that the tension at any its pole with uniform angular velocity &>. and a uniform chain lying on a smooth horizontal plane has a length c/3 in contact with the cylinder. /(IF where /x l^{lbf 1 ?=c//x + (a being the coefficient of friction. is 333 constant the other end let go. the tension at any point of the chain throughout the motion. where a is the angle of the and a^ the arcual distance of the point from the middle point of spiral the chain.^) co^/l. where 2a. when the free end of the length b reaches the of its length. and a fine smooth groove I cut on its make a constant moves A uniform chain of mass and length angle /3 with the generators.
334 RIGID BODIES AND CONNECTED SYSTEMS [CHAP. chain hanging under gravity receives a tangential impulse initial velocity at any point in the direction parallel A uniform at one end. The ends of a chain of variable density are held at the same level. radius a. Show c. and the line density varies inversely as the square of the distance from the diameter The chain is set in motion by equal parallel to the chord joining the ends. generated is ^T^siu^ajM^ where M is the mass of the chain. 125. prove that the curve is an equiangular spiral. / retaining an invariable form. Prove that the to the directrix is proportional to the curvature at the point. prove that the kinetic energy tangential impulses T applied at its ends . while the chain advances along itself with a Prove velocity which at any instant is the same for all points of the chain. IX. Prove that. An endless uniform chain. : 126. that the angle (f) which the tangent at any point of the chain makes with the horizontal. the initial normal velocities at the lowest point and at either end are in the ratio 1 cos 6. and the chain hangs in the form of an arc of a circle subtending an angle 2^ (<7r) at the centre. part of the chain is coiled up on a horizontal platform at a depth k below this line. whose centres are at a distance d apart in the same horizontal line . receives a . if equal tangential impulses are applied at the ends. 6=^ 128. 124. satisfies the two partial differential equations ds dsdt dt ds^ uniform flexible chain passes over two rough equal pulleys of 122. the other end being free. and h can be found by eliminating a between the equations (^=2csinh~i (tan a)— 2a sin a. c?. the vertical parts being between the pulleys. lying in the form of a circle. A uniform chain lies in an arc of the curve r=ae^^ from ^ = to and receives a tangential impulse Tq at ^=0. pulleys rotating with angular velocity that steady motion with this configuration is possible. the part below the pulleys is a catenary of parameter c. and the chain hangs from the second pulley to a platform at a lower level A'. angle with the tangent. Prove that the impulsive tension at any point is 127. considered as a function of the time t and of the arc s measured up to this point from some definite point of the chain. 123. the J{g{h — h')]la^ and that the relation between A=cseca + a cos a. A the part between one pulley and the platform is vertical. A chain of variable density is in the form of an arc of a circle less than a semicircle and subtending an angle 2a at the centre. A uniform chain in motion by an impulsive tension applied lying in a curve on a smooth horizontal plane is set at one end in the direction of the If the initial direction of motion of every element makes the same tangent.
Prove that. if the wire supporting A is removed. and V to which m' is attached. A chain of variable density is placed on a it of the curve in which hanging chain. which are to each other in the ratio of the tensions at the same points in the hanging chain. is instantaneously changed in the ratio (0fa)sin/3 : cos/3(a+3) sin/3. : 133.2«)/(e^. Prove that the whole will move without change of form parallel to the line which was vertical in the 129. the length of this part being a (a + ^) the remainder 130. . when the disk is suddenly moved with velocity F in a direction making an angle a with the radius to the point at which the portion carrying m leaves the disk. the tension at a point P. line so that the tangents at the where Prove also that the tension at the other 1 : tan ^ = (1 +sin2 a + 2a tan a)/sin a cos a. the tangents at its and B making angles a and /3 with the horizontal the ends can slide . which gives it an impulsive tension T^ at that is prove that the impulsive tension at any point . A on fixed wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends. Prove that. ends A chain of variable density hangs under gravity. Prove also that to move in a direction making an angle ^ with the tangent. V which touch the disk at the ends of the arc of contact and particles of masses m and m' are attached at the ends. if the wire supporting one end is removed. its ends being free to slide on two smooth straight wires which make equal Prove that. that end starts to move in a direction making with the horizontal an angle ^. P ^ sinh(27r(9) sinh 27r ' 6 being the angle which subtends at the centre. where tan(/. chain hangs under gravity in the form of a circle. is A heterogeneous diminished in the ratio ^ y + cot y. and two impulsive tensions are applied at its extremities. 131. where J!/'=m4m'+p^ + pZ'.+ e2% smooth table in the form would hang under gravity.cos j3)}] . . where the tangent makes an angle ^ with the horizontal.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 335 point tangential pluck at one point J. m begins to move with velocity M~ V [(m' + pV) (sin a + sin ^) + pa {(a f 1 i3) sin a + (cos a . is the length of the straight portion of chain A uniform chain is suspended from two points in the same horizontal . . AF P starts = (6*'^. uniform flexible inextensible chain of density p rests on a smooth a part of its length is in contact with a smooth circular disk of radius a which lies on the plane. ends make angles a with the horizontal and the ends can slide on fixed straight wires which are at right angles to the tangents at the ends. Prove that. A plane is in . two straight portions of lengths Z. end is diminished in the ratio 1 +^a""i cot a. if the chain is severed at its vertex. angles y with the vertical. with the horizontal the tension at a point where the tangent makes an angle 132.
The sense in which the Sun describes his orbit is the same as the sense in which any particular meridian plane of the Earth turns about the polar axis. Ex. . by which any part of the Earth's surface moves relatively to the stars continually from West to East. consider in the first place the motion of the Sun relative to a frame whose origin is the centre of the Earth and whose lines of reference go out thence to stars so distant as to have no observable annual parallax. stars is very nearly the same as if his motion were an elliptic motion about a focus at the centre of the Earth. if the is called a "sidereal day." Now we have said (Article 3) that the process used for measuring time the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. relative to a frame whose origin is in the Sun and whose lines of reference go out thence to the same stars The Sun's path relative to this frame of Earth and (cf. 268. that is to say the Sun is always t Articles in this Chapter which are marked with an asterisk in a first (*) may be omitted reading. This process of been accepted as a " timemeasuring process.CHAPTER Xt. the sense polar of this axis and the sense of the rotation are related like the senses angles of translation and rotation of a righthanded screw. THE EOTATION OF THE EARTH." axis is supposed to be drawn from South to North. 44). 269. It is a fact of observation that there stars of the Earth and the The rotation is such that. is a relative motion which every star moves relatively to by the Earth continually from East to West. 3 of Art. This motion can be precisely described by saying that the Earth rotates about its The time in which the Earth turns through four right polar axis. To explain this statement. what is geometrically the same thing. Time measured Time and Mean by is this process is called "sidereal time. or. Sidereal it relative rotation has for ages that is to say Solar Time." has been regarded as taking place uniformly. The path and motion of the Sun relative to this frame are the same as the motion (in a planetary orbit) of the Earth.
The Sun passes the line of nodes at the Equinoxes. of gravitation. and the line of intersection of the plane of the orbit with the plane of the Earth's equator (known as the line of nodes) has a small progressive motion in the opposite sense. The variability arises in the first place from the fact that the motion of the Sun in his path. L.e. this rotation and relatively to this frame through an angle equal to 1/86400 of four right angles. then we imagine a second point to move in the plane of the Earth's equator with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth. To define the to the frame of Earth measurement of time by the average rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. The elements of the in particular the apse line has a small elliptic orbit are not quite constant . Now it is to be observed that. so that the time of describing any angle is a constant multiple of the time in which the Earth turns through the same angle). and the periodic is a year (technically a "tropical year"). Any particle of the body is describing a circle about a centre on this axis. Relatively to this frame the Earth rotates about solar its polar axis in an interval called a can be used instead of the rotation relative to the stars as time. and the plane through this line and the polar axis as a plane of reference. 22 . progressive motion in the sense in which the orbit is described. and at such a rate as always to coincide with the Sun at the nearer apse of his path . relative and stars. the line joining the origin to the Mean Sun as a line of reference. is much more nearly elliptic motion about a focus than uniform circular motion. This second point is called the Mean Sun. with a uniform angular motion about the centre of the Earth {i. The specification of the acceleration of the particle. The law rotating. relatively to a frame fixed in the Earth. to axes If we refer the motion which rotate with the Earth the particle has no such acceleration. and at such a rate as always to coincide with the first point at the node corresponding to the Vernal Equinox. and therefore of the forces acting on the body. the Sun makes about 365^ revolutions round the Earth in a year. and therefore has an acceleration directed towards the centre of this circle. but the time of revolution of the Sun is not a constant multiple of the time of revolution of the stars.268270] MEAN SOLAR TIME 337 moving from stars which have a more westerly position towards stars which have a more easterly position in the plane of his path. The unit of time is the time in which the Earth rotates mean day . When we say that the it Earth is we imply that a body at rest relative to is moving round the polar axis. and the stars make about time in the orbit 366 J revolutions. we imagine a point to move (relatively to the frame of Earth and stars) in the Sun's path.measuring process. and time so measured is mean solar time. this unit is the mean solar second. depends upon the axes to which the motion is referred. and in the second place from the fact that the plane of the Sun's path is inclined to the equator. M. 270. We may determine a frame of reference by taking the centre of the Earth as origin.
has been chosen. It may be precisely defined as the initial acceleration. Vl). in a position near the Earth's surface. Let/ denote the acceleration of the Earth's centre of mass referred to the frame specified by the centre of mass of the solar system and the "fixed" stars. is denoted by g. the law implies that a frame of to be specified. not identical with the acceleration produced The latter in the particle by the field of the Earth's gravitation. (ii) The axes are determined by stars so distant as to have no observable annual parallax. (Of Ch. about the Sun and the rotation about the polar 271.) This acceleration is denote the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation. vi. so that 27r/n is the number of mean solar seconds in a sidereal Let H day. of the accelerations / and pVL^\ the acceleration pD? is directed towards the point where the polar axis cuts a plane drawn at right angles to it through the position of the particle. be the mass of the body. Relatively to this frame the Earth as a whole has certain Of these the most conspicuous are the orbital motion motions. X. as determined by the law of Let The forces acting upon it are the force mf gravitation (Ch." is specified by reference to axes fixed in the Earth. and described to gravity. which is at rest relatively to the Earth. The acceleration of a body. The law of gravitation is a statement concerning the forces It implies that the motion that act upon the particles of bodies. Let p denote the distance of a particle from the polar axis. of a particle starting as the "acceleration from rest. the law the origin and axes to which the motion is referred ought In other words. due to the field in which the Earth moves. the force mg' due to m . relative to such axes. and a complete statement of the law reference would involve the specification of this frame of reference. treated as a is compounded particle. When the law is applied to the motions of bodies within the Solar System an adequate frame of reference can be specified by the statements: (i) The origin is the centre of mass of the system. relative to such axes. axis. Gravity. For a complete statement of is referred to some axes or other.338 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. The due acceleration denoted by ^.
270272] GRAVITY AND GRAVITATION field. Let X be the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator. Its kinetic reaction consists of vectors mf. in the "vertical" at the place. Hence is by mf W . now appears ill we neglected when g is defined unaffected by taking account of this 272. its initial acceleration is compounded The forces acting upon it are then those specified of/. pfl^ and g. 274. the relation rotation. The directions and senses of all these vectors have been specified. It as above.) We / The upwards. mpfl^. In obtaining the relation the rotation of the Earth. disregard in this statement the difference in the values of the intensity of the external field at the centre and surface of the Earth. The sense of TT is W The kinetic reaction of the particle is compounded of mf in the direction of the acceleration the acceleration / and mpD. The equation is = mg' sin X — TT sin Form an direction of the acceleration pCl^. Let I be the vertical at a place makes with the plane of the Then I is the (Astronomical) latitude of the place. Form an equation of motion by resolving in the direction of the polar axis.^ in the direction of is pHl Hence the resultant of W and mg' equal to mpil^ in the direction of the acceleration pD. Variation of gravity with latitude. (See Art. angle which the equator. equation of motion by resolving parallel to the The equation I. and the forces acting upon the body are mf. W directly opposed to that of the acceleration g. is W = mg in Chapter that. Consider a body at rest relative to the Earth. W. mg'. direction of it is other words is that of a plumbline at the place. is mpD? = mg' cos \—W cos 22—2 .\ If the particle is released. 339 which keeps the the Earth's gravitational aud a force W particle in relative equilibrium. = mg and the line of action of and mg'. I.
The assumptions enable us to account for the variation of g with of the Earth. approximately equal to This angle is called the "deviation of the plumbline. it is verified that the forces required to support them in equilibrium relative to the Earth are Hence the product mg is the same for both. It follows that the product mg' : : and X is the same for the two bodies. where I is the Astronomical latitude of the place. we have 9' ^ sinZ 9 sinX ^ P^' s\n{l — \) QX quantities in these equations ^. the ratio g ^' is sin X sin I. and E is its mass. X W = mg. regarded as spherical. Now equal at the same place. as determined by the law of gravitation. Mass and weighing. 273. and therefore sin I cos I radians. are equal. and g'. is the angle which the direction of the Earth's gravitational field at the place makes with the plane of the Equator. by weighing them in a common balance. angle. The determination of the mass of a body by weighing it in a common . ^ '' is a small fraction equal to yj^ nearly.340 Since THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. The equations determine is X. and we have If the Earth g'=^r^EIR\ p==Rcos\ where R is the radius of the sin Earth. successively. . the same Hence the masses of the two bodies. When two bodies are found to be of the same weight. Hence (l\) ~ i^n^ _ sin X cos X g ' ^~^ _ ryE sin \ sin I . / are known by observation and p is known in terms of I when the figure of the Of the is Earth known. is the ratio of the forces with which they are attracted by a gravitating body when they occupy. and as made up of concentric spherical strata of equal density. 12. But the ratio of two masses. There is a small correction to the formula for g on account of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. the line of action of the force mg' passes through the centre. as position with respect to that body. determined by the law of gravitation." Also g is approximately equal to ? Now RD?lg — \ is a small ^^ r^E ^(1^i^cos^OWith the above assumptions as to the figure and constitution \ becomes the "geocentric" latitude of the place. latitude.
* See G. the intensity of the external field at the Earth's centre of mass. in the sense of f reversed. Since the difference between / and /' arises mainly from the attraction of the Moon. therefore be regarded as a particular case of the determination action. 5 in Art. In the above discussion we have treated the external the centre of mass as uniform. this effect is generally referred to as the "lunar deflexion of gravity. and let denote the intensity at a point on the surface. sin2X4^g2 cos'^X). is This variation most marked in the case of the Moon on account of its comparatively small distance from the Earth. be determined.272275] balance of DEVIATION OF THE PLUMBLINE 341 may mass by means of mutual was stated in Chapter vi.] If the [In these examples the Earth is regarded as a 1." The direct measurement of this effect is theoretical value can. 274. Darwin. extremely diflicult* Ex. homogeneous sphere. Planets. in any latitude. and m/. vertical is Prove that a pendulum which beats seconds at the Poles will lose is approximately 30m cos^^ beats per minute in latitude ?. force compounded of m/'. 1898. H. The Tides and kindred phenomena in London. prove that. Earth were to rotate so fast that bodies at the equator had no weight. in the sense of /'. 2. A / Let / denote. the Solar system. The effect of this force is to make the direction of the plumbline at a place deviate slightly from the direction which it would take if /' were the same as /. at least in so far as these depend upon the Moon. Cf. The The force which produces the lunar deflexion of gravity is the same as that which produces the tides. Its intensity varies slightly from centre to surface. If the acceleration due to gravity at the Poles is g^ and at the Equator ^e. 275. as above. The force which arises. Examples. where \\m \\ the ratio of the values of g at the Poles and at the Equator. on the basis of the law of gravitation. 275. and that the deviation of the plumbline from the (geometrical) tani{(^o^e) sin X cos X/(^o sin^Xl^^ cos^X)}. is available for producing motion of the body m relative to the Earth. prove that in (geocentric) latitude X the value of ^ is VW 3. however. from the difference between / and /' is the tidegenerating force. as Lunar de&exion of field gravity. the plumbline would be parallel to the polar axis. or as having the same intensity at of the Earth and at any point on its surface. The Moon and external field arises from the gravitational attractions of the Sun. . as before.
(ymE/R^) sin \. also we take the axis of y to be at right angles to this meridian plane and directed towards the East. X. the component velocities of the body parallel to these axes are not x. the axis of z to be the polar axis (from South Pole to North Pole). *276. 272 we take the Earth to be fixed in the Earth. the axis of x to be the intersection of the plane of the equator and the meridian plane near which the motion takes place. = . y. put x = find R cos X I. body are ] z.342 4. and the component accelerations are i.n^x) = . using equations (2) of Art. and y = 0. of motion of the m(x. y + 2nx = = " 9 sin L z X — 2fly . spherical.x. j mz where \ is the angle which the radius of the Earth drawn through the body makes with the plane of the equator. I m(y + 2nxn^y)=: 0. A of latitude in latitude the rails uniform speed v along a parallel Prove that the difference between the pressures on when the train travels due East and when it travels due West is train of I. mass m is travelling with 4mvQ. This system is a We righthanded system. Assuming that the mass is that the Moon's distance of the Moon is ^^ of that of the Earth. Then. where a is the altitude of the Moon at the place of observation.1) seconds per day. 254. 272. as the body remains near a place. owing to the Moon's attraction. i. prove that. we may take X to be constant. cos I approximately. and we may in the terms containing H^. the positive sense of the axis of x being from the centre to the meridian in question. By the results of Art. Hence the equations ~{y + nx)}n(x~ny). but they are xQy.(ymE/E^) cos X. We form take the origin to be at the centre of the Earth. THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. and 60 times the Earth's radius. 5. Now.2 fly . we = — g cos 0. j^{xny)^n(y + nx). Motion of a first free body near the Earth's surface. the equations of motion of the body referred to axes As in Art. a seconds' pendulum at the Earth's surface will be losing at a rate i^jjC^ sin^a. y + D.
J ^'2n2/'sinZ (1). the time from the beginning of the motion. y. We thus obtain the equations = 0. and we is zero. on integration. — y. taking the origin as just explained.275277] Since these MOTION relative to the earth 343 equations contain only differential coefficients of with respect to the time. Initial motion. now. y' = 0. on tuting in the second equation. we may. Suppose the body to fall from rest the relative to the Earth. *277. without making any alteration. suppose the origin to be on the Earth's surface in the X. \ y' z . and neglecting terms of the same order as before. shall The motion first suppose that the initial value of the coordinate ?/' is determined by equations (1) of Art. x=2ny'sml and integrating the third equation. we have z =gt2ay'cosl where t is (2). Then the initial velocities relative to axes at the place of observation are given by the equations x' = 0. so that y' we = ngt'' cos I = ^ngfcosl y' (3). \ + 2n(ir'sin^ + i'cos0=0. and neglecting fl^y\ integration. these equations determine the motion of the body relative to the axes at the place of observation. 276. Substituting in equations (1) and (2). x' axis of y\ and the vertical drawn upwards I \ as We have y' = X sm I — z cos I. transform to the horizontal drawn southwards as axis of x'. I J Xq V are the initial values of x' and /.\gt\ . of these. we have. Substihave. X where and = Xq / = Zo . z latitude and longitude near which the motion takes place. z =^ z sin x cos I. Integrating the we have (1). z = 0. the horizontal shall We drawn eastwards as axis of /. .202/' cQsl^g.
276. z' be the coordinates of the bob referred to the system of axes described in Art. facts. and we have the relation a)'' y'lL. . \ = . J I (2).2mQ. Let a simple circular pendulum of length L be free to move about its point of support. and substituting for / from \m {x'^ + y'^) = const. (Lz')IL. shall integrate these equations on the assumption that the pendulum makes small oscillations. axes fixed on the Earth is In the beginning of the motion the acceleration relative to is directed vertically downwards. . and it what we have called g. I my' + 2mn {x' sin + z' cosl) mz — 2mVly cos / = — mg \T {L — ^')IL.T {x'jL). X. the terms containing n (3). mx . in the integral equation. y'. This result accords well with observed *278. On this assumption we We have approximately z' = w + y")IL (3).^mg {x'^ + y^)IL (4). the eastward deviation in a the East of the starting through a height h being very approximately nV(2/iV^)cosZ.T (y'/L). Now the equations of motion are. Let x'. and add. and let T be the tension of the suspending fibre. To the order of approximation here adopted the vertical component of acceleration remains constant throughout the motion. Motion of a Pendulum. z. then the line of action of T makes with the axes angles whose cosines are ^IL. 276. also vanish z'^ Omitting we have identically. by Art.344 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH [CHAP. + y' + (Lzy = L' (1). which is fixed relatively to the Earth.y' sin ^ = . It appears that the body falls a little to fall point. the origin being at the equilibrium position. The terms containing T vanish identically by (1). and the equation can be integrated. Multiply the equations (2) in order by x\ i/'.
If a is the amplitude of the simple harmonic motion. so that the pendulum has no velocity in the plane of vibration when r = a. and omitting the term in y'z\ we have on integration xy y'x' = D. To start the . Hence the pendulum oscillates so that its plane of vibration turns round the vertical relatively to the Earth with angular velocity O sin I from East to West. r' = Ar'(g/L). we shall r2 + r2<^2 = (^ + 205 sin i) . y —r sin Q. and thus (f> vanishes throughout the motion. \ ^ These equations completely determine the motion. point of support and is set oscillating so as equilibrium position. is showing that the horizontal motion in the plane of vibration simple harmonic motion of period 27r\/ (L/g).r^ {{g\L) + H^ sin^ I]. it follows by the second of equations (7) of the last Article that B must vanish. *279.^ml{x'^^y"')\GOn^t (5). Foucault's Pendulum. if we put have + n^sin^ = <^ (6). ^ and. if The first of equations (7) of the last Article then becomes. its When the pendulum can turn freely about to pass through its Foucault's Pendulum. Introducing polar coordinates in the horizontal plane given by X =r cos 6. multiplying the first of equations (2) by second by x. it will not move as here described unless its angular velocity relative to the Earth is 12 sin I from East to West.277279] MOTION relative to the earth 345 — y\ and the Again. the system is known as a Since r can vanish. adding. we neglect ll^sin^^ in comparison with g/L. r2^ = 5r2nsin^. from equations (4) and (5) we obtain equations of the form r2 + r2^2 = ^r%/Z). It is to be noticed that r and </> are polar coordinates referred to an initial line which rotates about the vertical from East to West with an angular velocity Hsin^.
/3}. I sin a)} + ^ Qgt^ cos I. facts. equilibrium position not sufficient to hold aside from its it must be projected at right angles to the vertical plane containing it with velocity aOsinZ. therefore. .346 THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH it is . and upwards through \ 2. Examples.cos powers of L€^^lg above the first being neglected. and the vertical plane through it makes an angle jS with the meridian (East of South). which turns uniformly about the mean position of the particle in a plane fixed relatively to the A frame with angular velocity a> prove that the acceleration of the particle when at distance r from its mean position is compounded of a radial acceleration (w^ + q>^) r. with a simple harmonic motion of period ^irjn in a line.t (sin I cos ^ cos a + cos z = Vt {sin a + Qt cos I sin /3 cos a} — ^gt^. [CHAP. projectile is projected A from a point on the Earth's surface with at an elevation a in a vertical plane making an angle ^ with the meridian (East of South). Prove that after an interval t it will have velocity V moved southwards through where ^. Q^i/ being neglected. equation its path is given approximately by the "i (r/a)}. particle is observed to move. relatively to a certain frame. 3. 1.r2)/r . 2. Prove that. x= Vt cos a {cos ^ + Qt sin I sin y=Vt {cos a sin ^— Q. eastwards through y. if the bob of a pendulum of length L is let go from a position of rest relative to the Earth when its displacement from its equilibrium position is a. it pendulum. {^e) = n s/{Llg) sin I y{a^ . X. > ) approximately. and a transverse acceleration 2a)r in the sense in . set going it moves like a simple pendulum of the When thus same length in a plane which turns about the vertical from East to angular velocity 11 sin Z. which the line turns. West with This result accords well with observed ^280.
" proportional to the in the direction in . We : give Laws of Motion. the cardinal notion in his philosophy. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF DYNAMICS. and stated that the mass of a body is the quantity of matter which it contains. Galileo discovered by experiment that the velocity of a falling body is proportional to the time during which it has been falling. in the three celebrated called Axiomata sive thereto. He formulated his theory in a series of definitions. and takes place " which that force is impressed.CHAPTER XI. availed for the description of the motions of the bodies System equally with the motion of falling bodies near the Earth's surface. Change of motion "impressed moving force. which could be regarded as subject to no forces. and he was thus led to the notion of acceleration." is "compelled by impressed forces to change is Second Law. w^hich he Leges Motus. existence of force with the production of acceleration. and he made the idea of force. and in the Scholia attached here a translation of the three Laws of Motion "First Law. thus introduced Galileo. " Every body remains in line. moved uniformly in a straight line and he was thus led to connect the . Newton found by of the Solar that the notion of acceleration. He recognized in the motion of a body on a very smooth horizontal plane that a body. as that which produces acceleration. its state of rest or of as it uniform motion in a straight " except in so far its state. Newton also introduced the notion of mass. as distinct from weight.
In the course of this book the theoretical aspect of the science has been developed from two principles which are essentially the same as Newton's laws of motion. and the forces have opposite senses (Art. The attached to the laws contaii^ a demonstration of the theorem of the parallelogram of forces. there is no . II. the lines of action of both the forces coincide with the line joining the particles. is step in the formulation of the principles of Mechanics* the recognition of the vectorial character of such quantities first The as velocity and acceleration. determination of masses by direct experiment with the ballistic The latter is given as a verification of the Third Law. They are The direction (Art. and also in H.348 " SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES Third Law. . and sense kinetic reaction of a particle has the same magnitude as the resultant force acting on the particle The magnitude is of the force exerted another equal to the magnitude by one particle on of the force exerted by the second particle upon the first. London. time this that it and the motion goes on unchanged. case of the second for. if there is no impressed force. Hertz's Principles of Mechanics. In Newton's particular principle was so subversive of current ideas it was necessary to state explicitly. The statement that is velocity is a vector * is the proposition that often called the " parallelogram on p. " " always equal and opposite to action or the actions of two bodies one on the other are always equal and oppositely directed. These principles correspond precisely to the second and third The first law may be regarded as a particular of Newton's laws. XI. and an account of the we now scholia balance. Discussions of the principles of Mechanics will be found in the works cited 357 below. . and as proportional to what call momentum generated in a given interval. for application. 64). 1899." The definitions preceding the laws introduce the notions of mass. change of motion. Reaction is [CHAP. and of impressed moving force as an action on a body by which its state of motion is changed. 142). but are expressed in a form that is more convenient I. Translation.
The inference that some "action" or "force" produces them may. or of one body of the Solar System on which the acceleration is produced. It is inferred that there is some action of the Earth upon bodies in its another." by means of the motion a ball in a moving tube. The occurrence of definite accelerations in definite places is a physical fact. instead of falling through into the air does not move in a ball thrown rests on the . postulates and axioms. or may not. In our Chapter IV it is introduced merely for the purpose of stating results in the same terms as in subsequent Chapters. no matter how its motion is started. In so far as the analytical formulation of the facts is concerned it is unnecessary. say of a body anywhere in the Solar System. but the composition of a velocity relative to one frame with the The analytical formulation velocity of that frame relative to another frame. be legitimate. the notion of velocity as rate of displacement per unit of time. Galileo. is valuable as an illustration but the process that of it illustrates is not the composition of two velocities relative to the same . frame. another step which has physical significance when that the motion of bodies in a field of force is recognize book modified when they are in contact with other bodies.FIELD OF FORCE of velocities. and free from contact with other bodies. In Newton's hands the It was found to be possible to principle was carried further. The establishment recognize of this notion was one of the services rendered to science by We make a body near the Earth's surface that it has such and such an acceleration. step which has physical significance when we the existence of a field of force. He showed that we could say of a free hardly necessary to say that neither Galileo nor anyone else has ever Galileo found how to isolate the effect experimented upon a free body. In our Chapter II it has not been introduced. of this latter process is very simple (see Art. but it is a definition arrived at by gradually is This notion increasing the precision of a notion already formed." and he demonstrated It is the existence and nature of this eflfect conclusively. given in many books as a " proof. The discussion." It is not a physical law. that it had a definite acceleration. by action is called /orce. 27). neighbourhood. A table. We make we A placed on a table to the floor. This hypothetical this inference When we draw we go beyond the facts. nor is it a 349 mathematical proposition capable of mathematical proof from definitions. which we now call the ''acceleration due to gravity.
For example. whatever the magnitude and sense of the velocity may be. We define the . is an action of some sort. Yet action at a distance appears to common sense to be absurd. existence of pressure between bodies in contact seems obvious to common sense. XI. for instance. We that the existence of any action between bodies is verified by our muscular sensations. 58). we We of one body on another. 138. although it was from these sensations that the notion of such action grew up. an acceleration directed along the tangent of its path. should have force. in our (as well as in II and IV).350 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. discuss the motion of a particle which moves in a given field of and has. is that the notion of force is not really to the analytical formulation of those parts of the science in which necessary we pay attention to the motion of one body at a time. parabolic path. in the sense opposite to the velocity. We might. notion of mass is irrelevant. the extension of the spring. would appear from this discussion that the action of one on another is a concept something conceived by us in body terms of which we describe the motions of bodies. is proportional to the weight of the body (as determined by the common balance) is a fact about the elasticity of the verified. We In the same parts of the science the have introduced it in Chapter III solely in order that the statement of the results may take the same form as in the subsequent parts of the theory. nor is its (Art. is steeper in falling than in to be a legitimate inference that there appear rising. spring. whatever that tangent may be. but the trajectory It does whereby the acceleration that a free body would have is modified. The result that. and we state how it is to be measured. Nevertheless it is to be noted that the pressure is just as much inferred from an observation about the motion of the bodies as the action between gravitating bodies is inferred from the motions of these bodies. nearly all the questions disChapters III and Another point to be noted V cussed could be expressed without using the notion of force. We the method and results of Art. The definition can be given in most precise terms when the body acted upon can be treated as a particle. by a body hung on to it. would appear are at liberty to define force in the way that we find most define it as a particular measure of the action convenient. or due to the air. When we The infer such action we assert the existence oi force. due to the table. In like manner it is not shall if make a mistake we suppose measure determined by the use of the spring balance under suitable conditions. and proportional to a power of that velocity. We infer the It — — existence of the action from observed It " " accelerations ^ which we also that regard as produced by the actions. in addition to the acceleration of a free body.
. As has been already pointed out. or of a particle. in the first and we are place. result is the same seems to the present writer to be the central fact of Mechanics. The reciprocal of this ratio is the ratio of the masses of the two bodies. as we begin to discuss the motions of several bodies forming a connected system. the mutual actions of the bodies and the Earth thus led to the massratio of two bodies. corresponding The definition is incomplete until we state what the nature of the dependence of force upon direction is to be taken to be. this Law is equivalent to the statement that the accelerations. been sketched in Art. we must introduce the Law of Reaction. weights when weighed in a common balance. the notions of force and mass are not essential to the analytical formulation of those parts of the science in which we study the motion of one body at a time They are essential as soon (the body being treated as a particle). we may let the bodies collide. From this point of view the " parallelogram of forces " becomes part of a conventional definition. as the ratio of their . may convenient. We may consider. as a matter of One way in which the definition may be arrived at has 61. There are two quite distinct sets of circumstances in which we can observe accelerations or changes of velocity. acting on a particle. these changes of velocity are regarded as produced by mutual actions. and in accordance with our concept of force. which are produced in two bodies by their mutual actions. have a ratio which is always the same so long as the bodies remain the same. define the force acting on a particle as a vector localized at We a point. The definition of what is meant by the To do this force " remains incomplete until we explain " mass of a body. in As has been explained Chapter VI. be regarded as verifications that the definition is. The "proofs" and "verifications" given in most books fact. as the product of the mass of the particle and the acceleration that is produced in it by the action. In the second place.FORCE AND MASS 351 magnitude of any force. and determine their massThe fact that the ratio by the method of the ballistic balance.
In the course of this discussion principles. Volume and surface integrals ' * med in Plnjsics. It has been already explained in Chapter VI how the masses of the hypo thetical particles can be assigned. principle is required for the more complete discussion of the motions of rigid bodies. between based. They have thus histhis theory provides developed into a scheme which successfully coordinates an immense number of disconnected observations concerning matters of fact. There is no reason for thinking that it is incapable of solution '^. Cambridge. Cambridge. (2) that an adequate abstract formulation of the rules the motions of the bodies of the Solar System. actions of bodies. or with the electrons and corpuscles of modern physical We must be on our guard against " The mechanical conception of the constitution of bodies is speculation. Accordingly this theory constitutes a science torically — a logically valid and practically valuable method of representing observed facts by abstract formulas.352 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. and the made up of forces fact. to be adjusted so that the motion of the particles may represent the motions of the bodies. XI. and J. M. It may be stated here that no new of gravitation. . or for the discussion of the motions of deformable solid bodies or of fluids. Macdonald. when applied to bodies which may be treated as rigid. H. 1901 (" Geschaftliche Mitteilungen "). 1905. both of we introduce two subsidiary which were introduced by Newton the law : and the conception of a body as a system of We have already worked out in considerable detail particles. as a matter of historical the two conceptions upon which the existing science of Mechanics is They possess further the advantages. 1902. Appendix B. The conception conception of the of bodies as made up mutual are. or a set of bodies. Leathem. independent of the chemical and electrical conceptions . and cf. (1) that it is possible to found upon them a strictly logical deductive theory. and of obeyed by matter in bulk under ordinary conditions. It appears to be desirable to explain how it may be possible for internal forces between the hypothetical particles of a body. " of the particles identifying the mechanical theory with the atoms and molecules of chemistry and the kinetic theory of gases. G. See the remarks on the 'Beneke Preisstiftung in Gottingen Nachrichten. as of particles. the consequences of these principles. and the problem of bringing the various conceptions into harmony with each other has not been solved. Electric Waves. particles.
which. X^ is of the form COS ^i2 + i^l3 cos ^13 f . Thus the kinetic reactions of the particles can be regarded as known. of the particles. Let the body. where the angles ^12. 2(yZ'2F)=0 But the equations of the types 2wi? = 2 X.STRESS 353 In the case of a free body. or actually to assign these forces. if the particles are sufl&ciently numerous. The \n{n — \) unknown quantities are connected with the known quantities by 3?i equations. +i^i„COS ^i„. These quantities are such that. 2m {y'i zy) = {^Z. be replaced by a system of particles. nevertheless.z T) l... and F^i denotes the force exerted on the particle mi by the particle m2. We regard the bodies which are thus in contact as forming a single "system of bodies. The Zn equations in which mxXi are of the form and X\ are known.. each particle must have a suitable acceleration. or system of bodies. of bodies. the external forces are gravitational attractions between the particles of the body and the particles of other bodies. or the system of bodies. if ^21 is the same as Bxii then ^^21= — ^i2) and therefore the equations of the types 2Z'=0. and Fyi. Let there be n particles in the system. method involves the introduction L. A body which is not free is in all contact with some other body. The of the notion of stress. equations may be satisfied. . and so on. The Zn components of kinetic The magnitudes of the internal forces reaction can be regarded as given. between them are ^71 (n—1) quantities. and the external forces We conclude that. number of ways so that the indeterminate. leaves actually adopted involves a restriction upon the hypothem largely indeterminate.. and the external forces acting on them. are those which the lines joining the particles make with the axis of ^. and so they can be regarded as known. 23 . system We The method that is thetical forces. since the accelerations are supposed to be adjusted correctly. can be represented by the motion of a system of particles. are satisfied." The masses known. are To make the motion of the particles represent the motion of the body. the infinite \n{n—\) quantities Fxi can be adjusted in an 3w. which are the equations of motion of the particles. also are satisfied identically. M. It appears that the forces between the hypothetical particles are largely This result offers no difficulty so long as we do not attempt conclude that the motion of the body.
354 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES field of [CHAP. then these limits are the components of the "stress" " or the " traction across the plane at the point 0. We consider the forces In general let draw on the plane a closed curve thus exerted upon the particles which lie on a chosen side of the plane. Then the part of the body within aS' is to be regarded as a system of particles which move under forces. Since the law of gravitation is assumed to hold for all distances that are measurable by ordinary means (Art 146). ^ denote the Then . Some of the lines of action of forces between neighbouring particles on the two sides of the plane cross the plane within the curve C. the particles below the plane must be regarded as particles exerting upon those above the plane forces which. acting upon those particles which are above the plane. Yy^ Zv the components of the stress or traction across the tangent plane at any point of >S^. Consider the forces Those forces which are due to the Earth's gravity act vertically downwards. plane. When we represent the body by a system of particles we may zontal plane. Let sums of the components of these forces parallel to the axes. on the whole. but the components are directed downwards. r]\S^ (fS are the components of a vector quantity which is " " " " called the average traction across the area >S' of the average stress or The suppose that as the area S is diminished. and the sums of the moments about the axes. suppose that none of the particles are in the plane. of a body. by contracting the towards the point 0. of the forces which >S^ arise on the two sides of are expressed from actions between neighbouring particles by such formulae as where the integration extends over the surface. the components of the average stress tend to definite finite limits. quantities ^//S'. and thus the internal forces between the two sets of particles must be regarded as consisting of other forces besides these vertical forces the centre of attractions. ?. and the sums of the components parallel to the axes. We curve C Let S now denote any closed geometrical surface drawn in the body. Those which are due to the mutual gravitation between the particles below the plane and those above it have horizontal components and vertical components. of which the vertical component would be different from Since the centre of mass of the zero and would be directed downwards. and a plane surface be drawn through a point C of area S containing the point 0. does not move. ^. ?7. . which is called the "resultant stress" or "resultant traction" across the area >S' of the plane. Xu. we must regard the additional forces as being exerted only between particles which are very near together.. the Earth's Consider a body resting on a horizontal plane in the Let the body be imagined to be divided into two parts by a horigravity. ^ are the components of a vector quantity. counteract the gravitational attractions. If these were all the internal mass of the particles which are above the plane would have an acceleration. XI.
on the basis of the mass. a string or chain. drawn is an example of another class of forces. parallel to any fixed direction. by the traction across a plane at a point. The through a body. what is the same thing. This tension is the resultant of the tractions across a plane which is normal to the line of the chain. or. is 355 found to be adequate The stress across a plane at a point of a body is a measurable quantity which can sometimes be determined theoretically and in some cases measured The simplest examples are pressure in a fluid and tension in practically. writer to be the most natural when the science is based upon but Newton's laws of motion. made up of particles at the same time as the notion One difficulty in the way of this method of formulation the difficulty of giving any account of the retained notion of In the Newtonian Mechanics we have.THE PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY This specification of the internal forces by means of stress for the description of the motions of extended bodies. which we call "surface tractions. The introduction of the notion of stress carries with : between two classes of forces — body forces it a distinction and surface tractions. They may be specified by the force per unit of area. act. and are proportional to the areas of the surfaces across which they act. For theoretical purposes we regard such forces as examples of a possible class of forces which we call " body forces. or per unit of mass. It has been proposed also to discard the conception of bodies as of is force. which they of all Gravitational forces are proportional to the masses of the particles on The sum of the components." Another energetic method difficulty in the way of the of formulation is the difficulty of giving any adequate account 23—2 ." They may be specified by the force per unit of volume. In the course of this book the energy equation has been regarded as one of the first integrals of the equations of motion This mode of treatment appears to the of a conservative system. resultant traction across a portion of a geometrical plane. when these areas are small enough. Law of Reaction. seen to be but an example of a general principle applicable to kinds of physical processes. or any equivalent statements modern Physics would assign to the energy equation a much more important rdle. The energy equation in Mechanics is ." These forces act across surfaces. This comes about through the doctrine of the conservation of energy. all Attempts have been made to discard the notion of force. and to develope the theory of Mechanics from the notions of mass and energy. a clear and definite meaning for the term " " " mass. small volume the gravitational forces which act upon the part of a body within any is proportional to the volume.
208. function of the corresponding velocities 0. and the lefthand quadratic member of equation (A) can be expressed in the form 0.. </>'. we can obtain the equations motion of the system without introducing any considerations of forces " or " particles.. for any and an expression for of the rate at which work ** is done... Let these quantities be denoted by Then the kinetic energy T can be expressed as a homogeneous. To explain this statement we consider the case in which the position of the system at any time can be expressed in terms of a finite number of independent geometrical quantities. . In the present state of science we may make a compromise between the two methods. XI.. {it in CD  m ^'* {a © " St *'+•• ' which ^'." choice The formulation of the principles of Mechanics implies that is made of the frame of reference and of the timemeasuring This statement remains true whether the formulation * process. . The important result is that the terms of the equations of motion which. . and destroying the scaffolding of forces and particles by which they are reached. represent what have been called in this book "kinetic reactions*" are expressible in terms of the kinetic energy. represent any set of velocities with which the system The result is due to might pass through the position denoted hy 0. possibility of this intermediate method depends upon an analytical transformation of the equations of motion. of potential energy. as developed in accordance with the Newtonian method. by taking the notions of kinetic energy and work from the Newtonian system. . so all the equations of motion of the system can be deduced from an equation of motion of the form (A) 2[m(^^'+J/y'+B0] = 2[(X+Z')i^' + (F+ r)^' + {Z+Z')z'l which may be obtained by the method of Art. as has been explained in Art.356 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. The masses that occur in this intermediate method The of formulation are then regarded as coefficients in the expression for the kinetic energy. in the Newtonian method. is In some books they are called •' effective forces. of equilibrium of a system can be deduced from an equation of the form 2[(X+Z')^' + (r+F)y'+(^+^)0']=O. (f). of generalization of the principle of virtual work." . These difficulties may perhaps be overcome in the future. 208. if system. It appears from this discussion that. This analytical transformation proceeds by way Just as all the equations. Lagrange. or of work. <j>. an expression for the kinetic energy we can find.. (ji..
' and to the following more recent works ' ' ' : — J. d. Matter and Motion (London. vi. describes what is here called a "kinetic frame" as a "Newtonian base. N. math. the description of the motion is incomplete until the reference system. the place and the acceleration must be specified by reference to some frame or other. Brit. in the Article ' Motion. Lib. reference A * W. Neumann. or the principle of the conservation of energy. . Art. Teil 2. Macaulay cited above and the Article by A. differs from that stated in the text. 357 and force. 1901). What comparatively easy to answer the slightly referencesystems are inadmissible ? The answer system of reference which satisfies the conditions of this " question and answer may be described as kinetic*. not of practical importance. iv. Laws of ' vol. math. both for space and time. H. K. as clearly as may be." In regard to the general question of the relativity of motion. should be made to Newton's original argument in the Principia. it has seemed to the present writer to be desirable to set forth. Maxwell. 1893). 1. 1900). Part I (Cambridge. Bd. A similar statement holds for velocities. Thomson and Tait. But in any problem concerning observable motions of actual bodies. a certain place has a certain acceleration. or in terms of kinetic and work for the two methods require the specification energy When we say that a particle at of accelerations and velocities. it is sufficient to suppose that they have been chosen. Wiss. and it : is question is that no system ought to be admitted which conflicts with the principles of Mechanics. H. H. Natural Philosophy. viz. It Thomson and need hardly be said that the view adopted from Newton by Maxwell and by Tait. 30 (1902). For many theoretical purposes it is unnecessary to specify either the frame of reference or the timemeasuring process. La science et Vhypothese (Paris. the Article by W. Bd. Wiss. 1 (Leipzig. Macaulay. Scholium attached to the Definitiones. Art. Translation (Chicago. 1. The Science of Mechanics. Pearson. Teil. Poincar^. d. Anding in Ency. 1905). C. In regard to the reference system of Astronomy see the Article by E.RELATIVITY OF MOTION carried out in terms of mass . C.D." A frame of in Ency. rather than to emphasize the divergence of this view from those held by others. 1 (Leipzig. is specified. E. that we have knowledge of absolute direction but not of Since the question is absolute position. 1879). The Grammar of Science (London. 1882).). Mach. or the law of gravitation. and the specification of the acceleration involves also the use of some method or other of measuring time. 1870). Voss in Ency. 10th Edition. Ueber die Principien der GalileiNewton' scht Theorie (Leipzig. We may ask two questions: (1) How is ? specified different the system specified ? (2) How ought the system to be It is a little difficult to answer briefly either of these questions. a view which seems to him to be logically defensible.
time. reference which satisfies the conditions will be called a " kinetic frame. On the basis of the law of gravitation and the principle of the conservation of energy. that sidereal time is not kinetic * That is to say a change in the form of the energy by which less of it is rendered available. in other words. as. for they do not take place without friction.358 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. or. but without fixing beforehand what the timemeasuring process is to be. may consider the forces that can of Earth The system and Moon. with the fluid ocean on the Earth. and. in the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. to regard the Earth as exerting forces on other and the law of reaction states that these bodies exert on the Earth." and time measured in accordance with the conditions will be called " kinetic time. Such internal relative motions generally involve dissipation of energy * in a system. in accordance with the illustrate this question. This result implies that the timemeasuring process is not the rotation of the Earth. or that the period of the diurnal rotation (the length of the day) is gradually increasing. and the answer. for example. Thus we cannot choose as a frame of reference axes fixed in the Earth. that the centre of mass of the Earth has certain component accelerations. among which the tides are conspicuous." the motion of the Earth. As an illustration of the restrictions limiting the choice of the timemeasuring process we affect the rotation of the Earth. executes various internal relative motions. We are is thus led to expect that the kinetic energy of the Earth's rotation being dissipated at a finite rate. . The change from the geocentric astronomy of Ptolemy to the heliocentric astronomy of Copernicus may be regarded as an instance of the discarding of an unsuitable frame of reference. To concept of bodies. Observations of falling bodies and Astronomical observations lead us. and at the same time maintain the law of reaction. forces force. let us consider The principles of Mechanics require that the Earth should be regarded as a body having a certain mass and a certain centre of mass. therefore. XI. astronomers have shown that one of the inequalities in the motion of the Moon could be explained by the supposition that such a gradual slackening in the speed of the Earth's rotation is taking place.
to a certain order of approximation. and we may fashion take the interval t to denote t sidereal days. and to take. This discussion suggests also a method by which we might dispense with " the " fixed stars in the choice of a frame of reference. Two estimates are 22 seconds per century and 8 3 seconds per century. See Thomson and Tait. It has proved to be sufficient to take this centre of mass as origin. By means of the law of gravitation we can determine. We know that € is a very small fraction. Let the Earth as a timekeeper be losing at the rate of e seconds per day. that is to say time determined by the rotation of the Earth relative to the stars. We may construct a frame. Darwin). Let t denote sidereal time. of course. Let a new variable r be introduced by the equation '^ ^. lines drawn to " fixed " stars which have no appreciable proper motion or annual parallax. is usually stated in the form that the Earth losing at the rate of so many seconds in a The processes by which we reach a kinetic frame of reference and a kinetic timemeasuring process are approximative. t is. Phil. €_l 86400 2 • It we measure time by r instead it kinetic time so far as of t. of which the origin * is the centre of mass of the Sun. Nat. and the position the masses of the bodies which compose the Solar System relative to these bodies of the centre of mass of the system. by means of the familiar process of changing the independent variable. H. by means of three The rate is variously estimated.SYSTEMS OF REFERENCE 359 The century result is as a timekeeper *. Part II. the quantity r measures has been necessary as yet to determine its measure. measured from some particular epoch. the instant of the occurrence of some assigned event. During this interval the Earth turns through 27rt radians. It has always proved to be possible to correct a choice previously made so as to harmonize the observations of the motions of actual bodies with the principles of Mechanics. . In regard to the measurement of time we have no natural " " fixed stars provide for the system of reference such as the but we can proceed in a different determination of direction . as lines of reference. Appendix G (contributed by G.
according to the law of universal gravitation. it remains true that the centre of mass of the system cannot. and we wish to utilize the results that have been accumulated during three centuries by scientific investigators who. To achieve our object we must state. is a convention. be more apparent if we reflect that. XI. may be taken to coincide with a motion of some instant. in a chosen sense. what our system of reference is. at any for our purpose. and axes pointing to fixed kinetic frame at stars. and Jupiter. at right angles to the plane This frame does not. we relatively to it. with origin at the centre of mass of the Solar System. paid little attention to the question of systems of reference. could determine the position of the kinetic frame in the system after a short interval of time and thus we might by a continued approximation. . rate. However small the forces which thus act upon the bodies of our system may be. We do this when we " say that the system of reference what we have called kinetic. This method has no practical value but it appears to have some theoretical interest. Then we are able to state that the relative the two frames is so small that it has not been detected by any observations. for the most part. continue to be a kinetic frame . there are gravitational forces acting between the bodies of the Solar System and the stars. but we can take it to coincide with a kinetic frame at some instant.360 lines SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES [CHAP. We have set out to describe the motions of bodies . sufficient . . . determine the position of the kinetic frame at any time. instead of any other frame and time. for drawn from the origin. It will then move relatively to the kinetic frame. with. be a proper origin for a kinetic frame. This interest will of these two. and how actual bodies move with reference to is it. of course." we explain how a kinetic frame can be found and when and how kinetic approximation time can be determined. in the long run. Finally it must be said that the choice of a kinetic frame and of kinetic time. The frame which we now adopt. We may take these lines arbitrarily we may draw two of them to the centres of mass of the Earth instance. and the third. and the kinetic frame will move If the relative motion of the two frames were known. as precisely as we can.
or irrational) which is the measure of the object in respect of the property. It may that however great q is taken there is no corresponding number jo. The standard must be an object which possesses the property in question. such that all the parts are identical in respect of the property in question. number of bodies of equal mass. The number is determined by the following (a) rules : — each of which the object can be divided into an integral number n of parts. Thus. and (2) a mode of referring to the standard. Measurement. happen fraction pjq can but that.APPENDIX. rational but not integral. and (2) that in practice the integer q may be taken so large that an integer p may be found for which the fraction piq measures the object within the limits of experimental error. The mode of referring to the standard must be such that it determines a positive number (integral. is congruence. The mathematical theory of measurement rests on (a) the assumed possibility of dividing an object into an integral number of parts which are identical in respect of some property. The measurement of an object in respect of any property requires (1) a unit or standard of comparison. When the object and the standard can be divided into p and q parts respectively {p and q being integers). In the mathematical theory of measiuement the case where no rational measure the object may not be so simply dismissed. is identical with the standard in respect of the property in the measure of the object in respect of that property is n. MEASUREMENT AND UNITS. to measure the length of a segment of a line. and the test of equality of angles division into a tested . where the test of equality of length is conto measure the mass of a body we must suppose it capable of gruence . we must suppose the segment divided into a number of equal segments. the measure of the object in respect of O) When that property is the rational fraction pjq. while the fraction pjq would measure an object somewhat smaller . . Here it is to be noted (1) that the rule (a) is the case of the rule O) for which q = \. question. where equality of mass is by weighing to measure an interval of time we measure the angle this requires the division of turned through by the Earth in the interval an angle into a number of equal angles.
Mathematical equations. this book. . When the unit is stated the magnitude of (b) an object is precisely determined by its measure in terms of the unit. times. greater than. and thus the quantity is not identical with the number expressit. and masses. all the other quantities which occur are derived from these. Mathematical equations. ing is number can express a quantity only when the unit of measurement stated or understood. We may separate all rational numbers into two classes— those whose squares are greater than two. the the Suppose. between numbers expressing quantities are valid expressions of relations between the quantities. and all those in the inferior class are too small. and inequalities. and masses. only if they hold good for all systems of units. and those whose squares are less than two. Every rational number without exception The separation between the two falls into one or other of the two classes. we can think of as measurable in respect of any property. expressing that a certain number which has been arrived at in one way is equal to. is a numbei velocity is measured by a fraction of which the numerator an interva" expressing a length and the denominator is a number expressing of time . are relations between numbers. Fundamental and derived Quantities. and The "object" may be anything which this measure is always a number. classes is marked by the irrational number >/2. and separation between them is marked by an irrational number which is measure of the object. When this is the case the measure sought is an irrational number. pressing an interval of time force is measured by the product of a numbei and all th( expressing a mass and a number expressing an acceleration other magnitudes that occur are in similar ways dependent upon lengths times. for example. The fundamental Physical (c) In Dynamics. Every rational numbers all — — that number without exception falls into one or other of the two classes. We may in fact separate all rational into two classes a "superior" class and an "inferior" class so the numbers in the superior class are too large to be the measure of the object. that we wish to measure the diagonal of a square whose side is the unit of length. and this irrational number is the required measure. When the unit is stated or implied the number A expresses the quantity. and the phrase "magnitude of an object" is thus coextensive in meaning with the word " it quantity. Thus. acceleration is measured by a fraction of which the numeratoi is a number expressing a velocity and the denominator is a number ex. or less than. as considered ic quantities are lengths. a certain number which has been arrived at in another way. the fraction {p + l)/q would measure an object somewhat greater than that to be measured." The quantity does not change when the unit chosen to measure changes. and inequalities.362 APPENDIX than that to be measured. Number and Quantity. . as distinci from the numbers.
We say that the quantity is of p We express this shortly dimensions in length. and (7 is a homogeneous expression of some degree r in numbers expressing masses. is a homogeneous expression of some degree B q in numbers expressing intervals of time. This will be made clear by the consideration of some examples. Thus. [LY[T]^[MJ. is the dimension symbol of the The condition that a mathematical equation or inequality between numbers expressing quantities may be a valid expression of a relation between the quantities is that every term in it must be of the same dimensions. or zero. Constant of Gravitation [LY[T]^\]ir[\ We can frequently determine the form of (/) Method of Dimensions. which expresses a quantity is said to be of If the unit of measurement is altered so that the new unit is a certain multiple x of the old. q dimensions in time. integral or fractional. by saying that the dimension symbol of the quantity is [Z]^[7^«[J/']*".rjni. where [Z]p[7^«[J/]'* quantity. (e) Physical Quantities. The number expressing a derived quantity is. B. q^ r may be positive or negative. we can prove that proportional to the square root of the length. The numbers p. time. ^^p^^. the measure of any quantity in terms of the new units is obtained from its measure in terms of the old units by dividing by x^y^z^. " A number one " dimension in that quantity. in every case. If the units of length. Kinetic Energy Power Density [Z]3[J/]i. Since the quantity to be its length. and mass are changed so that the new units are respectively x. the product of three numbers A.C. and r dimensions in mass. j J j^pf^^. y^ z times the old. a result by consideration of the dimensions of the quantities involved. is expressed an interval of time its expression cannot involve any power of a . We give here a quantities that occur in Dynamics and [LYIT]^' list showing the principal derived their dimension symbols. it is that the period of oscillation of a pendulum can depend only on and the acceleration due to gravity. if we assume its mass.MEASUREMENT AND UNITS {d) 363 DimeTisions. of which ^ is a homogeneous expression of some degree p in numbers expressing lengths. the number expressing the quantity in terms of the new unit is the quotient by x of the number expressing the quantity in terms of the old unit.^j^.f^. Velocity Acceleration [^P[^"^ Moment of Impulsive Couple Reaction Kinetic Momentumj l j l j l j [ipryi.
must be a function mean . Now g has dimension symbol [Z']^[^]~^ and therefore \lijg . The method of dimensions supplies also a useful means of verification. hence the only way in which the expression of the period can contain the length I of the pendulum is by being proThis argument would prove that the period is a portional to its square root. has dimension symbol [^^[^]~i. Again. the Earth supposed to depend on the angular velocity of The density p. product yp has dimension symbol [7^]"^ and thus (o^lyp is a number (angles being measured in radians) the ellipticity being a number. and we have assumed that no mass but the mass of the body can enter into the expression the period is therefore independent of the mass of the body. of (o^lyp. numerical multiple of J{lly). consider the ellipticity of the rotation w. In any piece of mathematical reasoning where the numbers represent quantities all the terms in each equation must be of the same dimensions. to take another example. .364 APPENDIX mass. and the constant of gravitation y.
170 . of a rigid body. 127. 128 Eelative. 341.. 225. initial.. 342 Curve. 174 Angular velocity. 355 . Attractions. 102. 104 Collision. 168 Descent. 42 of two bodies. C. 94. as a time. 298 Envelopes. 170. 250. motion on a plane. 103 Polar in curve. 136 Curvature. H. along normal to surface. 140. 39. 90. 4. Measurement of. 106 . 219. 52 Equations of motion. 106 Centre. 70. 69 components 15 1 257 348 Ballistic balance. 73. 300. 73. Bodies. 171 Earth. 104. 77. along principal normal of tortuous curve. 359 Density. 49 Constraint. 127. 187. of a particle.. 296. 181 . central. Principal. 76. 38 Atwood's macMne. uniform. Kinetic. along normal to plane . Equable description of. 103 . onesided. 2 ferred to polar coordinates in three dimensions. 169 of. Potential. 111. 183. 246 Ball. . 32. body in general. Energy equation. 305. The numbers refer to pages. 3950. 135 . 33 Couples. Eighthanded. 32. 72 Dimensions. 283 Conic. . 93. 23 . isochronism of. 7 Dyne. re 24. 41 . 107 Areas.. 252 Cycloid. 72. Mean density of the. 105 \ Central forces. motion on a tortuous. Eotation of the. 211. 166. 4. disturbed. 207. 177 Darwin. 187. 79 . keeper. 291 . G. three dimensions. Acceleration. Correction for inertia of pulley.. of a chain. radial and transversal. Definition 82. 255 D'Alembert's Principle. 75 Anding. 173. 363 . Internal. 303 Conservative forces. v. 176 of a . Instantaneous. of oscillation. 194. j mass. 309 Lagrange's^ Coordinates. of a system of particles. of. 187. initial. . 102 . 356 . 355. 254 of. 195. Eectangular. Theory of. E. motion of a particle under. Theory of. of Energy. E. Construction of. ! under several. 182 Energy and momentum. ellipticity of the. 23. motion Elliptic motion. 27. 244 Apses. 357 Angular momentum. of path of a particle of a rigid body. 181 . 364 Modulus . . Displacement. 42. 113 269 . 188 252 . 200204 Cox. Polar. 359 Elasticity. 253. 175 . H. 170 Axes. 217 . 111 Central orbits. of. S. Cliain. 39. 336 motion relative to the. relative to rotating frame. 172. of trajectories. the. 342346. 303. Line of quickest. 24.INDEX. 40 . Tension motion of. . 94. 191 Conservation of. 22 . from 94 certain conditions. . 19. 358 Dissipation of. Constitution of. Definition of. 352 Boys.
249 Conservation Heat. MaxweU. J. 76 INDEX Kinematic conditions. Theory 361 20. 27. G. 257 Mass. 208 Hertz. 93. 182. 221 Erg. 170. Corrections of. Measurement. 301 87. 27. 347. 172.. Con176. . 268. on plane. Constant of.366 EquiUbrium. 349 Footpound. 190 . 33. 246 Moment. 179. 209 Kinetic frame and kinetic time. 192 . 347 Leathem. 170 Work done by. . 77 Huygens. 47. 183. 23 I. 246 Inflexions. . 355 . 71 Effective. 18 of forces. . H. Notion of. Momentum. L. 250. 177 of. 68. 244 Ellipse of. 103. 182 produced by impulses. . of a particle. 285 Frame of reference. 343 . 191 136 . 250 . 5. 173 of a rigid body. 352 Line of action. 77. 168 . Simple. 172. Force of. 73. Kepler. 69. . Neumann. . change of. . 75. 72 a system of particles. 17 38. 6771. Notion of. 111 servative. . Central. 306 Kinetic energy. 27. 84. 167. radius of. 171 . Measurement Galileo. Conical. 39. 193 Field of force. Kinematic formula. 23. 129. Moment of. 181 Motion of two bodies under. 76. 212 Impulsive motion. OsciUation. 357 Perpetual motion. 189 of. 86 of Momenta! equivalents. 350 Vectorial character of. Moment of. Horsepower. 337 . See Collision internal. Extension. C. Kesultant. Law of. 176 Body. impulsive. G3rration. J. 80. 343 Inverse square. 76. on curve. 357 of. 356 Coefficient of. 2. M. 269. 169.. 167 . 76 Force. under. See Sudden changes of motion Inertia. Impulse. 348 84. of a particle. Law of. Internal. 69 Massratio. of localized vectors. 181 . 36. 43. 357 Notation. 175. 357 . 294 Osculating plane. 357 Machines. 39. lost in collision. 208. 300 Pearson. effect of. 102. 183. Foucault's pendulum. 178 . 71 of. 68. Transmissibility Forces. .. 71. 52. J. 339. Centre of. H. momentum. External. 43. 345 Friction. 291. 356 sliding. 347. 129 . 68. of localized vector. 78 on surface. Macaulay. 222. Parallelogram. 351 Primitive notion . 351. 338. 77. H.. 338... Determination of. K. 139 in rolling and .. generated in collision. 170. Lagrange. . Particle. 246 of particles. 104 341 . 175 . 357 Macdonald. of a rigid body. 90. 29. Ch. 72 . 30. 168. Change of. 179. C. 217. 169 17. . 49. about a moving of a system . 188 . 70. J. 252 . axis. 311. 183 Gravity. at a point. 357 Newton.. 133. 85.. 106. W. 223. of path of particle. 340. 352 Mach. E. 267 . 260. of Kinetic reaction. 349 . &c. Definition of. 351 of velocities. 253 Impact. 68 Work done by. 71. 187 Gramme. 135. Dynamics of a. 76. 349 of. 140 Parabolic motion. 104 Initial motion. 80. 95 Pendulum. 50 101 Path. Circle of.. 174 .. for velocities. 256259. 105 . 68. 72. 356 Laws of motion. on elastic system. 51 . Free motion Gravitation. 2 . 249.
210. 91 . 86 . 169. 225 Period 345 . 336 Tisserand. 168 Time. 81 of oscillating system. Resisting medium. Definition of. of a locomotive. 104 Tait. of power. 244 . Eevolving. 142 Restitution. Translation and Rotation. 187. 183 Projectile.. 141 127. 208. 2. 170. Independence of. F. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. of.INDEX 83 . 78. of time. 224 . on a surface. 139 . Thomson and Thread. 144 Tycho Brahe. 17 Spheres. Potential energy of. 70. Spring. of circular orbit. 104 . 339.. 81 Simple harmonic motion. 1519 terminal. Rolling. of a string or chain. 257 of matter. 127 77 Vectors. 193 of Stability. 194 Pressure. Rough curve. of of 76 . 74. 357 Screw. of work. 355 at a place of discontinuity. 38 Uniformity of Nature. 253 Sliding. Unit. 128. 260 Rotation. 192 Force of one. 145 . 135 Virtual work. CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY. 209. 186 Traction. 192 . 94. . Tension. 8 Composition and Resolution of. Localized. of frame. M. 18 . valued. of rigid body. Foucault's. 37 . 5. 69 Power. 34 ComposiProduction of. 342 • acceleration. motion of a. 192 of stretched string or spring. Reduction of a . 364 Speed. 249 143. 143 . 25. Simple. Moment of. Reaction. S. 257 Trajectory. 353 . 3 . 24. 134. 188 Energy in two dimensions. 195. 17 Quantity. 362 . 191. 69.. 181 . Pull. 178 Range. 258. Planetary motion. 104 Motion of two bodies connected by a. 68 Work. 70 Pound. 217 Relative motion. 20. 183. 283 Rigid body. 41. A. 38. Motion on a. 113. String. Resistance. 190. Impact of. coefficient of. 88 . 135. 180. 193 . . Definition forces. 132. Equivalent . 69 .A. 286 Position. 166. 69 Poundal. equilibrium. 187 Motion of. 110 . 76. 193 due to gravity. of tion of. found by method of Rigid. Measurement of. . 305 Problem of two bodies. 336 Velocity. 283 Attraction of. . 340 Poincar^. of velocity. of gravitating system. Mean solar. 90. of bodies in contact. righthanded. Surface. Work function. . Motion on a. 351. 357. 186 Plumbline. 337 Seconds' pendulum. 265 . of the Earth. 69 . 283. 167. 258 dimensions. 19 of mass. Weight. 296 Stress. 195 initial. 181 . 191. 190. with surface. . 356 Voss. Definition of. 200206 . 3 Potential.. 359 . 367 pendulum. of rigid body. 86 Second. 171 . 357 Poisson. Localization of. 147 . 20. H. 355 Train. 29. of steady motion. 10 . of. of. Potential energy of. 221. 77. 95 Potential energy. 143. of internal 180 ^ . 131 . Resisted. 350 on a curve. Law 1 . 303 . Determination of. 224. 243. 134 system . 253 of. Surface. 31. 137. 105 . D. of a projectile. . 23 force. Potential function one in a rod. of string in contact of.
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t • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .GENERAL LIBRARY U.C. BERKELEY B00Dia7M37 r.
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