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CHAPTER SIX

STAIRCASE DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
COMPONENTS OF A STAIRCASE
WORKED EXAMPLE
6.0 INTRODUCTION For residential building, the minimum
Staircases are basically used to access or exit waist thickness should be taken as
buildings. There exist different types of 125mm.
staircases, namely: For public or commercial buildings, the
1. Simple staircases – one flight or minimum waist thickness should be
two flights staircases. taken as 150mm.
In the two flights staircase a
landing is required to break the Step 3: Determine the supports and the
flight into two. effective span of the staircase.
It is normally recommended to
have a maximum of 17 steps in Step 4: Calculate the total dead load of the
one flight. staircase per meter, which will include self-
2. Free standing staircase weight of waist, self-weight of steps and
3. Slab less or saw tooth or dog leg characteristic superimposed loads due to tiles
staircase and screed.
4. Helical staircase
5. Spiral staircases – may be in Step 5: Calculate the imposed load per meter.
reinforced concrete (in-situ or
precast) or steel Step 6: Determine the ultimate load, F
6. Pre-cast stairs
Step 7: Determine the Ultimate moment M
6.1 COMPONENTS OF A STAIRCASE
The main features of a staircase are: Step 8: Calculate the area of main
a). Riser, reinforcement as well as the distribution steel.
b). Thread or going and
c). Waist Step 9: Check for deflection criteria
NB: If the stair flight occupies at least
Threa
60% of the span, the Modification
d factor may be multiplied by 15%.

Step 10: Detail the staircase reinforcement.


Riser waist 6.3 WORKED EXAMPLE
8x250

Section through staircase


The optimum dimensions of staircase as laid
down in BS5395 are as tabulated below. All
dimensions are in mm. 9x175

Usage Going Riser Min.


Width
Public 300 150 1000
Semi- 275 165 1000
public
Private 250 175 800 Waist thickness = 125mm
Step 1: Riser = 175mm
6.2 METHODOLOGY Thread= 250mm
Step 1: The Riser and thread should be
determined depending on usage. Step 2:Waist = 125mm

Step 2: The waist of the staircase need to be Step 3:


specified.

1575mm

3000mm
Diameter of main bar = 10mm
Effective depth d = 125-20-(10/2)
= 100mm
Moment coefficient, k = M/fcubd2
Step 4: Dead loads = 15x1000000/(30*1000*100*100)
Consider unit width of staircase, i.e. b = = 0.05
1000mm Lever arm
Slope length of staircase, l = sqrt (horizontal Z= d[0.5 + sqrt(0.25- (k/0.9))]
distance2 + vertical distance2) = 100*[0.5+sqrt(0.25 – (0.05/0.9))]
l = [(32) + (1.5752)]1/2 = 94.09mm
= 3.39m Area of steel reinf.
CSP = M/(0.95fyZ)
Characteristic superimposed load = 1.0kPa = 15000000/(0.95*460*94.09)
Dead load due to CSP = 1.0*3.39*(unit width of = 364.8 mm2/m
staircase = 1m) = 3.39kN Minimum area of steel= 0.13%bh
Waist = 0.13*1000*125/100
Self-weight of waist = 0.125*24 = 162.5mm2/m
= 3.0 kPa Area of steel provided = T10 – 200 equivalent
Dead load due to waist= 3.0*l *(unit width of 396mm2/m
staircase = 1m) Secondary reinforcement = Area of minimum
= 3.0*3.39*1.0 steel = 0.13%bh = 162.5mm2/m = T08-200
= 10.17 kN
Steps Step 9: Deflection check
Self-weight of steps = Service stress, fs = 2*fy*As req/( As prov * 3)
(Thread/1000)*vertical distance*0.5*24*(Unit = 2*460*364.8/(3*396)
width of staircase=1m) = 282.5 N/mm2
= .25*1.575*0.5*24*1.0 Modification factor
= 4.725kN = 0.55 + [(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+(M/bd2))]
Total dead load = load due to CSP + Load due to Waist + = 0.55 + [(477-282.5)/(120*(0.9+(0.05*30)))]
Load due to steps = 1.23
= 3.39 + 10.17 + 4.725 Since flight occupies more than 60% of the span,
= 18.29 kN the modification factor may be increased by
15%.
Step 5: Imposed load Modification factor = 1.23*1.15
The imposed load will act vertically on the stair; hence = 1.41
instead of using the slope length, the projected length Actual l/d ratio = 3000/100
should be used. = 30
Projected length of staircase = 3.0m Basic l/d ratio = 20
Imposed load = 3.0kPa Permissible l/d ratio = 20*1.41
Imposed load on staircase = 3.0*3.0*(unit width of = 28.2
staircase =1m) Since permissible l/d ratio is less than actual l/d,
= 9kN the deflection criterion is not satisfied.
Alternative 1: Increase the reinforcement
Step 6: Ultimate load F provided from T10-200 to T10-175
‘@ULS load F = 1.4*dead + 1.6*Live Therefore area of steel provided = 449mm2/m
= 1.4*(18.29)+1.6*(9)
= 40kN Service stress,
fs = 2*fy*As req/( As prov * 3)
Step 7: Moment at ULS = 2*460*364.8/(3*449)
‘@ULS moment M = Fl/8 = 249 N/mm2
= 40*3/8 Modification factor
= 15kNm = 0.55 + [(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+(M/bd2))]
= 0.55 + [(477-249)/(120*(0.9+(0.05*30)))]
Step 8: Area of reinforcement = 1.34
‘b = 1000mm
Cover = 20mm
Since flight occupies more than 60% of the span,
the modification factor may be increased by
15%.
Modification factor = 1.34*1.15
= 1.54
Actual l/d ratio = 3000/100
= 30
Basic l/d ratio = 20
Permissible l/d ratio = 20*1.54
= 30.8
Since permissible l/d ratio exceeds the actual l/d,
the deflection criterion is satisfied.