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# ‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet

## Measurements Principle of Moment For a body in rotational

Base SI Units Σ Anticlockwise Moment equilibrium,
Kg SI Unit for mass: Kilogram = Σ Clockwise Moment Sum of ACW Moment = sum of
m SI Unit for length: metre CW Moment
s SI Unit for time: second Pressure
A SI Unit for current: Ampere Pressure P = Pressure
K SI Unit for Temperature: Kelvin F F = Force over area, A
mol SI Unit for Amount of substance: molar 𝐏=
A A = Area
Number Prefix Pressure of liquid P = Pressure
n (10-9) nano column ρ = density,
µ (10-6) micro P = hρg h = height of liquid column
m (10-3) milli
g = gravitational field strength.
c (10-2) centi
d (10-1) deci Energy, Work and Power
K (103) Kilo Work Done W = work done
M (106) Mega W = Fd F= force
d= distance in direction of force
Kinematics Power Work done per unit time, t
Average Speed ∆d = total distance travelled (area under P = W/t = Fv
s = ∆d / ∆t speed-time graph) Kinetic Energy Ek = Kinetic Energy
∆x = total displacement 1 m = mass
Average Velocity ∆t = total time taken 𝐄𝐤 = mv 2
2 v = velocity
v = ∆x/∆t ∆v = change in velocity Gravitational Potential g = gravity =9.81 m/s
Acceleration Velocity (slope of displacement-time graph) Energy h = height
a = ∆v/∆t Acceleration (slope of velocity-time graph) Ep = mgh m = mass
v = u + at u = initial velocity Conservation of Energy E1 = Total Energy Before
x = ut + ½ at2 v = final velocity E1 = E2 E2 = Total Energy After
v2 = u2 + 2ax t = time
Energy cannot be created or
a = acceleration destroyed. It can only be
x = displacement
transformed or converted into other
vfree fall = �2𝑔ℎ h = height
forms.
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2
Dynamics Kinetic Model of Matter
Ideal Gas Law P = pressure of fixed mass of gas
Newton’s First Law A body continues to stay in its state
PV ∞ T V = volume occupies by fixed mass
∑ 𝐹⃑= 0 at equilibrium of rest or uniform motion in a
of gas
straight line as long as there is no
T = Temperature of gas
net force/moment acting on the
P1V1 = P2V2 Subscript 1 = initial state
body.
Subscript 2 = final state
Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object is
F= ma directly proportional to the net force Thermal Properties of Matter
acting on it and inversely Specific Heat Capacity c = Specific heat capacity (Energy
proportional to its mass. E = m c ∆T required to raise the temperature of
Newton’s Third Law For every force object A acts 1kg of the object by 1 °C)
on object B, object B will exert an m = mass
equal and opposite ∆T = change in temperature.
force on object A giving rise to Latent Heat Lfusion = latent heat of fusion (Energy
Reaction/Normal Forces For melting, required to change 1kg of solid to
Resolving forces Fvertical Fr E = m Lfusion liquid at the constant temp)
Fhorizontal = Fr cos Ө Lvaporization = latent heat of
Fvertical = Fr sin Ө Ө Fhorizontal For boiling, vaporization (Energy required to
E = m Lvaporization change 1kg of liquid to gas at the
Mass, Weight, Density constant temp)
Weight w = Weight m = mass
w = mg m = mass General Wave Properties
g = gravitational field strength
Wave Velocity v = velocity of a wave
Density ρ = density
m v=fλ f = frequency
ρ= m = mass
λ = wavelength
V V = volume
Wave frequency
Turning effect of Force f=
1 T = Period
Moment of Force M = Moment T f = frequency
M=Fd F = force
d = ⊥ distance from force to pivot

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‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet
Light Practical Electricity
Law of Reflection Normal Electric Power P = Power
Өi = Өr V = voltage
2
Өi Өr P = VI = V2/R = I R R = resistance
Өi = angle of incidence I = current
Өr= angle of reflection Electrical Energy E = energy output
Snell’s Law (refraction) E = Pt = (VI)t P = power
Normal
t = time
n1Sin Өi = n2Sin Өr Өi n1 = refractive index 1 V = voltage
I = current
Өi = angle of incidence Electromagnetism
Өr
Өr = angle of refraction Transformer V = voltage
n2 = refractive index 2
Vp Np N = number of coils
Critical angle =
Normal Vs Ns I = current
(ideal transformer) Subscript p = primary coil
n2 n1 = refractive index 1
sin 𝚯𝐜 = Өc VPIP = VsIs Subscript s = secondary coil
n1 Right hand grip
(special case of Snell’s
law where Өr = 90°) n2 = refractive index 2

## Refractive Index c = speed of light in vacuum.

c v = speed of light in medium
𝐧=
v Higher reflective index of a
medium means light travel slower
(n of air ≈ 1) in the medium
Magnification M = magnification
hi di h = height
𝐌= = d = distance from lens
ho do Fleming’s Right Hand
Subscript i = image
Subscript o = object Rule
Current of Electricity
Current Current = rate of flow of charges
I = Q / ∆t Q = Charge
t=time
Ohm’s Law V = voltage,
Resistance R = resistance
R=V/I I = current
Resistance of a wire ρ = resistivity Fleming’s Left Hand
R = ρL/A L = length of wire Rule
A = cross sectional area
D.C. Circuits
Kirchoff’s 1st Law Conservation of charges.
∑ Iin = Sum of current going into a
junction
� Iin = � Iout
∑ Iout = Sum of current going out
of a junction
Kirchoff’s 2nd Law ∑ V = Sum of potential difference V
across all components in a circuit
E.M.F = Voltage supplied by the
� V = E. M. F Prepared by etuitionx
power supply.
Resistance in Series (http:/physictuition.blogspot.com)
I
R1 R2 R3
Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3

Resistance in Parallel V
R1
1 1 1 1
= + + References
R total R1 R 2 R 3 R2
1. PHYSICS Ordinary Level (Syllabus 5058)
R3
2. Education Haven (http://matchtutor.com.sg)

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