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Introduction to GSM
© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001
ROOT 2 technology
Introduction to GSM
This document is provided for training purposes only. Every effort has been made to ensure this document is as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. Root 2 Technology Limited has neither liability nor responsibility for any loss or damages caused to any person or entity arising from the information contained in this document.
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© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001
ROOT 2 technology
Introduction to GSM
The aim of this course is to provide the delegate with an understanding of the functionality and operation of a GSM Network. To explore interconnections between Mobile and Fixed network, studying signalling and al call establishment procedures.
© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001
Call and Handover Proceedures © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .The Radio Air Interface In Module 5 .GSM Terrestrial Interfaces In Module 4 .ROOT 2 technology Introduction to GSM Course Objectives On completion of this course of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: In Module 1 .The GSM Network In Module 3 .An Introduction to GSM Features In Module 2 .Air Interface Optimisation In Module 6 .
ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: - • • • • • • • • • • • Discuss the history surrounding the birth of GSM Explore the reasons for using Cellular Networks List the GSM Cell structures Explain the GSM Frequency spectrums Discuss why Frequency reuse is adopted Define Interference occurring within GSM Networks Explore the reasons for using Cell sectorisation Compare the Noise differences with Analogue and Digital sources List the reasons for using TDMA Identify what Security GSM adopts Discuss the Services available with GSM © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .
During the same year the acronym GSM was changed with focus to the international standard being called. CEPT evolved into a new organisation called.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features The Birth of GSM When the acronym GSM was first used in 1982. competitive standards for mobile services started being defined only after GSM had already been established. and thus expensive technologies of the member countries with an international standard. There are other network elements that will be discussed later. however. whilst giving operators the flexibility of network expansion. which consequently lead to lower prices. The knowledge base and professional approach within the Groupe Speciale Mobile. it stood for ‘Groupe Speciale Mobile’. By 1992. flexibility and convenience. together with the active cooperation of the industry. increased revenue/profit margins. The goal of GSM was to replace the existing analogue purely national networks. In 1991. the Mobile services Switching Centres (MSC). 2. The liberalisation of the monopoly of telecommunications in Europe during the 1990’s and the resulting competition. in the United States and Japan. The task of GSM was to define a new standard for mobile communications around the frequency range of 900MHz using digital technology. For example. the Digital Cellular System 1800 (DCS 1800). already overloaded. 3. The year 1991 also saw the definition of the first derivative of GSM. many European countries had operational networks. the European standardization organisation. the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). Global System for Mobile Communications. These areas will be discussed later in the course. In the course of time. The lack of competition. efficiency and easier re-configuration of networks if required. the first GSM systems were ready and brought into so-called ‘friendly operation’. translating the GSM system into the 1800 MHz frequency range. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 6 of 6 . with GSM starting to attract a worldwide interest. GSM networks comprise of three main components. this did not alter the task of GSM. Base Station Systems (BSS) and the phone itself known as a Mobile Station (MS). GSM also offered additional advantages over the existing analogue networks for both subscribers and network operators. The following factors were major contributors to the success of GSM: PSTN MSC BSS MS MS MS BSS MS MS BSS BSS BSS (Public switched telephone network) (Mobile service switching centre) (Base station system) MS (Mobile station) (Cell coverage area) MS BSS 1. a committee under the umbrella of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT). It gave subscribers mobility.
Small cells cover areas of approximately 200 m and upwards. For example. along with one other key element to the network. 2. The BSS contains one BSC and multiple cells. Cells are provided by the BSS and are controlled by a Base Station Controller (BSC). many though BTS transmit at much lower power levels such 300 m . Network providers would like to use large Macro type cells to reduce installation and maintenance costs. Macro for large cells. this is as a result of the influence of the surrounding terrain. the larger the cell size. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 7 of 7 .70 km as 1 Watt. Areas with few MS subscribers. Urban areas. You may have seen this when you have no signal on your own MS. forests. that of ‘Frequency Allocation’. transmission power. but in practice they are irregularly shaped. then no communication is possible and the MS cannot make or receive calls.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Cellular Technology The GSM network is a ‘Cellular Network’. with no obstruction. Coastal regions. 3. 3. Micro and Pico for smaller cells. The higher the power. Smaller cells are used where there is a requirement to support a large number of MS subscribers. which relays information to the controlling element of the BSS. The cells are normally drawn as hexagonal. 2. with high-rise buildings causing obstructions. TX power requirements. travel much further than that of a cell site in the middle of a city. the BSC. or where a low transmission power is required to reduce the possible effects of interference. then the radio waves will referring to cell size.The number of cells in any given geographical area is determined by the total number of MS subscribers whom operate within that given area. Terrain. planning and the surrounding terrain. Each cell in turn is controlled by a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). depending on network configuration. In GSM. A Cell covers an area in which an MS communicates with the network. meaning that the network comprises of many hundreds of cells. in a small geographical region. if a cell Terms that you may have heard of site was placed on the top of a hill. Typical uses of small cells being: 1. All of these factors inevitably lead to the network being configured with a mixture of both large and small cells. Generally large cells are employed in the following areas: TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX 1. buildings etc). High number of MS subscribers. size of coverage area all have to be taken into account when planning cell size. or of design by the network planners. BTS the maximum power that an MS transmits is approx 8 Watts. allowing also for roaming of additional MS subscribers in and out of that given area and the physical layout of the area (hills. Remote areas. If the MS for whatever reason is not located within a cell. The maximum cell size for GSM is approximately 70 km in diameter BTS dependant though on the terrain over BTS BTS which the cell will cover and other factors such as the power of the MS and BTS BTS the number of MS subscribers. Power will be discussed later as health and safety issues have become a major issue regarding radiation transmission. but realise that this would restrict MS subscriber access and quality of the service that they could offer. There is no correct answer for cell choice when configuring a GSM network.
For each cell in a GSM network at least one ARFCN must be allocated. The list below shows the number of frequencies and total spectrum allocated to GSM. it shares the same physical resources of the network with other mobile stations. For successful duplex operation within GSM. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 8 of 8 .1910 MHz Downlink 1930 . Down link GSM 900 Uplink 890 . dependant on the frequencies used. The RF carrier is divided into eight Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) timeslots. The GSM spectrum is split into Radio Frequency (RF) carriers half allocated to transmission ‘Uplink’ and the others receiving ‘Downlink’. the uplink and downlink frequencies have to be separated by a specific range. more can be allocated by the network to increase capacity to the network. 100K 100K GSM 900 MHz spectrum 892 Freq. This pairing gives GSM its duplex operation.915 MHz Downlink 925 .These uplink and downlink frequencies are linked together forming a pair and are given the name Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). network signalling and messaging is required. Later in the course we will see that although possible. increasing the number of subscribers. Frequency separation can be seen below. obviously though not all of these mobile subscribes could make a call at the same time. the MS only connects to the network over the air interface when required and it is possible to have a single RF carrier supporting many more mobile stations than its eights available timeslots. It is possible for a single RF carrier to support around twenty mobile stations. If this separation is not present. GSM being a ‘Duplex’ network (having the ability to transmit and receive information simultaneously) has to have a frequency allocated in both the uplink and downlink to achieve this. allowing each RF carrier the capability of supporting up to eight simultaneous telephone calls.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Frequency Allocation The frequency spectrum is extremely congested. where every telephone is connected via a pair of fixed wires on a permanent basis.915 MHz Downlink 935 . Therefore without the MS actually knowing. Extended GSM 900 (EGSM). duplex operation will fail due to interference problems incurred over the air interface from other frequencies. but at different times. Unlink the PSTN network. with only narrow slots within the total spectrum being allocated for cellular communications. GSM 1800 (Digital Communications System 1800) and PCS 1900 (Personal Communications System).1990 MHz 870 937 Up link 892 960 100K 935 915 45 MHz 100K 937 Freq. therefore reducing the overall number of timeslots per RF carrier to six or seven and reducing the number of simultaneous calls possible.960 MHz EGSM Uplink 880 .960 MHz GSM 1800 (DCS 1800) Uplink 1850 .
Secondly. we now concentrate all of the antennas energy into a smaller area 60. Each cell uses directional antennas as to not interfere with its neighbours. Sectorization divides single cells into a number of cells. Orange and One2One. with each cell having its own allocated ARFCN and acting independently. 3 / 9 Configuration 4 / 12 Configuration Co-Channel Interference occurs when RF carriers of the same frequency are transmitting in close proximity to each other. In addition. allowing greater capacity access for subscribers. with increased subscribers requiring access operators have to adopt two key features of implementation in order to elevate these problems. It covers a large geographical area with limited access to subscribers. as the cells are focused covering a much smaller geographical area. 120 or 180 degrees rather than 360 degrees. BT Cellnet.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Frequency Re-use One of the limitations with GSM is the actual number of ARFCN that are allocated to individual networks. One antenna requires an ARFCN. is that when the number of MS increases in the same geographical area. If the planner miss calculates either of these co-channel or adjacent channel interference may occur. within the United Kingdom the spectrum is split between four main operators Vodafone. the transmission from one RF carrier interferes with the other carrier. both degrading the networks performance. To increase the number of cells within a given geographical area increases the risk of interference. The entire GSM spectrum has to be allocated between all operators within a country i. When planning the frequency re-use pattern the network planner must take into account how often to use the same frequencies whilst determining the size of each individual cell. it allows us to implement a much closer frequency re-use pattern. As we make omni-directional cells smaller and increase the number used. the operator has to increase the number of cells to cater for the increased requirement of traffic. The problem with employing omnidirectional cells throughout the whole of the network. those being Frequency Re-use and Cell Sectorization. increasing signal strength which is beneficial for built up areas and ‘in building’ coverage. the more ARFCN required.e. Adjacent Channel Interference occurs when the RF source of a nearby frequency interferes with the RF carrier. we introduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference. Sectorization has advantages: Firstly. The cells that we have talked about so far are known as ‘Omni-directional Cells’. so the more antennas that a site has. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 9 of 9 . To gain an increase of capacity within the geographical area we employ a technique called ‘Sectorization’. This is a cell site that typically has one antenna and is allocated a single ARFCN.
so adopting re-use as to not interfere with surrounding sells a separation of 400 KHz minimum must be used. due to the number of ARFCN that an operator is allocated it is extremely difficult to implement using 800 KHz and typically you will only find spacing of around 400 KHz. by sectoring a site we can fit more cells into the same geographical area. When planning the frequency re-use pattern. such as residential or business areas. An example of this is shown.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Cell Sectorization For GSM each carrier has a separation of 200 KHz. increased re-use patterns and the geographical size of cell coverage areas. due to the number of ARFCN that an operator is allocated it is extremely difficult to implement using 800 KHz and typically you will only find spacing of around 400 KHz. GSM specifications state that for optimum performance a separation of 800 KHz should be used. the network planner must take into account how often to use the same frequencies whilst determining the size of each individual cell. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 10 of 10 . An example of this is shown. GSM specifications state that for optimum performance a separation of 800 KHz should be used. If the planner miss calculates either of these co-channel or adjacent channel interference may occur. GSM specifications state that for optimum performance a separation of 800 KHz should be used. therefore increasing the number of MS subscribers that can gain access. 360 degree cells Omni Cell Site 1 Transmit/Receive Antenna Site 120 degree cells Cell Cell Site Cell Cell Cell Cell Site Cell 60 degree cells Cell Cell 6 Cell Site 6 Transmit/Receive Antenna 3 Cell Site 3 Transmit/Receive Antenna Variations in cell configurations lead to increased subscriber capacity. An example of this is shown. In GSM each carrier has a separation of 200 KHz. so adopting re-use as to not interfere with surrounding sells a separation of 400 KHz minimum must be used. Unfortunately. Unfortunately. or where there is a high demand of mobile subscribers. so adopting re-use as to not interfere with surrounding sells a separation of 400 KHz minimum must be used. Unfortunately. due to the number of ARFCN that an operator is allocated it is extremely difficult to implement using 800 KHz and typically you will only find spacing of around 400 KHz. For GSM each carrier has a separation of 200 KHz. The diagram above illustrates how. The sectorization of sites typically occurs in densely populated areas.
therefore producing a competitive and aggressive pricing market. the operator can provide a usable signal in harsh RF environments. along with other countries around the world. House hold appliances (kettle. we have the ability to include sophisticated error correction and detection software. Noise Interference © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 11 of 11 .ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Flexibility and Compatibility Cellular communications networks provide both the subscriber and network many advantages over a standard telephone network. Noise interference is produced by. where analogue systems would fail. To combat noise. in co-operation with one another. GSM networks have grown throughout many European countries. to communicate between the network. and an executive body GSM. television etc). Background radio noise (because the required signal is too weak for transmission). an example being your home radio. was set up to co-ordinate the complicated task for standardization of mobile communications networks. By using digital waveforms. Although analogue radio signals give an excellent form of communication. increasing a networks subscriber access capability. they are extremely vulnerable to noise interference. Through this standardization. An additional advantage on offer to networks being. Due to digital transmission over the GSM air interface. all being compatible with GSM networks. There are though still drawbacks. Noise Robustness With analogue mobile communications such as Analogue/American Mobile Phone Service (AMPS). This in turn. manufactures produce equipment of higher quality. GSM communicates to the network using Digital waveforms. the MS used analogue waveforms (radio signals). It also leads to improved frequency re-use patterns. giving digital signals the ability to withstand more errors incurred from noise as they are transmitted across the air interface. A powerful or nearby source (a vehicle ignition system. The requirement for a common standard between mobile communications networks was therefore obvious. Another transmission system (co-channel or adjacent interference). results in lower pricing structures for the MS subscriber and the operators themselves. a lightning bolt). Compatibility The rapid deployment of early analogue cellular networks during the early 80’s resulted in many different types of networks being incompatible with one another. Total Access Communication Network (TACS) or Nordic Mobile Telephone Service (NMT).
This made network expansion expensive and time consuming as many sites had to be configured and retuned manually. to the user however this is transparent. In order for this the mobile must be capable of working in dual band mode. such as Signalling System No. expansion can be implemented Increased Capacity “FDMA requires up to eight times the equipments than that of a TDMA network”. GSM’s use of a digital air interface makes it more resilient to interference than historical analogue interfaces. every connection to the network required one RF carrier. limiting control and more importantly. It reduces interference and considerably increases the networks available or potential MS subscriber capacity. operating within both frequency spectrums of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz/1900 MHz. GSM equipment however. where FDMA has only one. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 12 of 12 . if capacity of the network was to increase. and by using TDMA. making better use of ARFCN available within the re-use pattern. As we have already discussed. a subscriber can choose only to take their Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) that we will discuss later. overcomes many of these issues due to it being controlled primarily by its software. In addition. and use their phones as if they were at home. This permits the MS subscriber to travel to foreign countries with GSM networks. along with the radio equipment. upgrades to the entire network can be implemented with minimum disruption. GSM has standardised interfaces between network components. FDMA networks required a greater number of equipments. decreasing the size of cells.7 (C7). Multi-band networks and mobile phones now operate. It allows users on the same frequency or nearby frequencies to be co-located in closer geographical areas. and hire a phone whilst travelling abroad. If chosen too.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Increased Capacity With the analogue air interface. time delay and cost. Therefore. As GSM progresses. Multiband operation. with minimum manually intervention. the number of subscribers that can simultaneously access the network. making the analogue system extremely inflexible. per cell. FDMA TDMA Timeslots with less equipment. The reconfiguration of the network can be implemented quickly. A key feature of GSM is that it offers the flexibility of International Roaming. Old analogue systems typically used Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) rather than Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) in GSM. allows the network greater flexibility in planning as it increases the number of frequencies available for the re-use pattern. TDMA has eight timeslots for transmission.
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Short Message Cell Broadcast provides the transmission of a short message to all MS within a cell area. In addition to supporting data transmission. it was virtually non-existent and the unscrupulous were quick to recognise this. to counter interference aiding to cell quality and capacity. Short Message Service (SMS) provides the transmission of an acknowledged short message from a service centre to the MS. 9. Data rates available range from 2.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Security and Services Security was a major problem encountered with analogue networks. both the mobile phone equipment and the subscriber are identified. 4. a process where the MS transmits on a different frequency each time it communicates with the network. current land PSTN services had to be taken into consideration. In addition to these identities. Call Barring where incoming or outgoing calls can be barred. ranging from data transmission options. messages and fax over the GSM network. It was estimated that in some of the earliest networks. In some networks.4 kbit/s. Data services provide the ability to transmit text files. as an example. With GSM. Both of these identities are stored within the network and will be discussed later in the course.6 kbit/s and 14. When services were specified for GSM. 20% of phone calls were stolen. images. Call Forwarding where calls can be forwarded to another number if the MS does not answer. the GSM air interface supports Frequency Hopping. where an operator will charge extra for use of them.8 kbit/s. Although frequency hopping is used as an aid to security. Supplementary services are additional services to a basic telecommunications service. it is also employed to optimise network performance. Multi-party provisions for conference calling. GSM provides Group 3 Fax transmission. making it extremely difficult for a hacker to listen to a specific call. the mobile phone equipment being. The capabilities of the subscriber’s mobile equipment.GSM offers an enhanced range of services compared to those available with analogue networks. International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) and the subscriber.4 kbit/s. The level of service purchased by the subscriber. Extensive measures have been taken within GSM to substantially increase security from both theft of calls and theft of the physical phone itself. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 13 of 13 . Telephony provides normal MS originated / terminated voice calls. Number Identification the receiving party requests that the number be shown. with the services made available based upon three factors: The level of service provided by the network. Speech services involve the transmission of speech information making up the basic service that a network would offer. using separate identities. fax and a wide range of supplementary options.
1910 MHz Downlink 1930 . TX power requirements. (374 ARFCN available) (174 ARFCN available) (124 ARFCN available) © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 14 of 14 . Remote areas. High number of MS subscribers. Convenience. Cellular Technology Large cells are employed in the following areas: 1.1990 MHz Frequencies separated with 200 KHz spacing both uplink and downlink. 3.915 MHa Downlink 925 . To combat noise. allowing each RF carrier the capability of supporting up to eight simultaneous telephone calls. Network Provider . 2. Coastal regions. Frequency Allocation GSM 900 Uplink 890 .915 MHz Downlink 935 .960 MHz EGSM 900 Uplink 880 . Uplink and downlink frequencies are linked together forming a pair and are given the name Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). Typical uses of small cells being: 1.Network Expansion Flexibility.960MHz GSM 1800 Uplink 1850 . Revenue/Profit margins. Increased Capacity The RF carrier is divided into eight Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) timeslots. Flexibility. Urban areas. Efficiency and easier to Re-Configure. Areas with few MS subscribers.Mobility. 3. GSM communicates to the network using Digital waveforms. 2.ROOT 2 technology An Introduction to GSM Features Key Points Flexibility and Compatibility Subscriber .
ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: - • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Identify the GSM Network Configuration Discuss the functions of the Mobile Station List Mobile Station configurations Explore the characteristics of the SIM Explain the operation of the BSS Discuss the functions of the BTS List BTS configurations Discuss the functions of the BSC Discuss the functions of the XCDR Explain the operation of the NSS Explain the operation of the MSC Discuss the functions of the HLR Discuss the functions of the VLR Identify the requirements for GSM Network Databases © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .
the GSM network comprises of many different components (illustrated below). © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 16 of 16 . the network will consist of multiple components. but in reality. The component groups being. being specified by GSM standards. NMC Operations & maintenance system VLR HLR AUC Network Switching System MSC OMC IWF EC EIR XCDR PSTN BSC BTS ME Base Station System SIM Interface/connection Mobile Station Typical GSM Network Architecture consisting of the two core systems. The Mobile Station (MS) – consisting of the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). enabling a network the flexibility to use multi-vendor equipments (not being restricted to one product manufacturer). The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) – provides the radio air interface between the MS and the network. The Operations and Maintenance System – enables the network the ability to control. to which the Operations and Maintenance System is interfaced. Here interconnections between other networks such as the PSTN are controlled. The illustration shows only one occurrence of each component. and the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). the Network Switching System (NSS). all being part of two core systems. the Network Switching System (NSS) and Base Station Subsystem (BSS).ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Network Configuration As already discussed. Each network component communicates over an Interface. configure and maintain the network from a central location. The Network Switching System (NSS) – consisting of the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and associated system control elements.
ROOT 2 technology
The GSM Network
The Mobile Station (MS)
The Mobile Station (MS) consists of two separate components, the Mobile Equipment (ME) and an electronic smart card known as the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card. The ME is the physical hardware, the phone that the subscriber uses to access the network. This hardware has an identity number associated to it, unique to every mobile phone, called the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI), enabling the network to identify individual ME’s. The SIM card interfaces directly with the ME (it is not limited to one ME therefore being transferable between different ME’s). This module identifies the mobile subscriber, identifying the services available to that subscriber, and again is a unique identity. This identity is called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Regarding purchasing of these two components, the ME can be purchased from many stores, but the SIM has to be purchased directly from, or an agent of the mobile network itself. By using these two separate components, GSM has the flexibility of being able to raise a bill against the individual subscriber using the IMSI, rather than the IMEI of the ME (remembering that any one can use a ME, making it difficult to identify the individual subscriber making a call). The ME is the only component of the network that a subscriber is physically likely to see. There are three main types available to a subscriber. Vehicle Mounted – these devices are installed within a vehicle and have their antenna mounted to the outside of the vehicle. Portable Mobile Unit – this equipment maybe hand held, but the unit uses an external antenna, not the antenna of the device itself. Hand Portable Unit – the more commonly used device, the everyday mobile phone. Each ME is identified by a Class Mark, that informs the network of the ME’s maximum power output, services it is able to support and frequency capabilities. This information is transmitted to the network in the ME’s initial message (when the ME is turned on). Class Mark information;
Revision – Identifies GSM phase specifications. (GSM currently has progressed through three phases 1, 2 and presently 2+) RF Power – The maximum power that the ME can transmit at. (GSM handset power transmission ranges from 8 Watts through 5 Watts, 2 Watts and 0.8 Watts) Ciphering Algorithm (Security) – Indicates the type of algorithm that the ME uses. (Phase 1 used only an A5 algorithm, with Phase 2 using A5/0 – A5/7 algorithms) Frequency – Phase 2 and 2+ have the ability of transmitting in all GSM frequency ranges. Short Messaging (SMS) – Phase 2 onward provides SMS for subscribers.
© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 17 of 17
ROOT 2 technology
The GSM Network
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
As previously mentioned, the SIM smart card interfaces directly into the ME giving an individual subscriber their unique identity. The SIM contains several identities utilised by the network for billing, locating and controlling the MS. The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) – the unique identifier of an individual subscriber. Only ever transmitted to the network when the phone is initialised (turned on) or on request by the network. The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) – an identity allocated to the subscriber by the network on initialisation. This identity is used in replacement to the IMSI for added security and is changed periodically by the network. Location Area Identity (LAI) – an identity allocated to a BSS, used by the network for paging purposes (locating the whereabouts of the MS). Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) – used by the network during the authentication process (registration on a network), and added security of transmission over the air interface.
Ki TMSI SERVICES
The Mobile Station International Services Digital Network number (MSISDN) – the actually mobile telephone number, comprising of a Country Code, Network Code and Station Code e.g. 0044 773 675432. Most information held on the SIM is protected, some information though inconstantly updated by the network, the LAI for example. As the MS roams throughout the network this identity will change, therefore being updated. The SIM itself has been designed with high degrees of added security, some being imposed by the user in allocating a password Personal Identity Number (PIN), similar to a pin code with a credit card. The SIM card can also store addition information such as charging records if the operator makes the services available. It also is responsible for algorithm calculations during the authentication process.
© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 18 of 18
ROOT 2 technology
The GSM Network
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the GSM system that provides and controls the physical radio air interface (communication between the MS and the NSS). It consists of three major network components. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) – this provides the physical radio air interface connection between the MS and the GSM network. The Base Station Controller (BSC) – the BSC is the controlling element of a BSS. It controls all BTS that are present within a BSS, therefore controlling the air interface even though it does not physically provide the connection to the MS. The Transcoder (XCDR) – is used to reduce the rate at which traffic (voice/data) is transmitted across the air interface and will be discussed later in the course.
Base Station SubSystem Switching SubSystem
“Normally the size of a BTS is defined by the number of RF carriers, some of the larger ones having upto 24 carriers”
2Mbt x n
Base Station Controller
2Mbt x n
Base Station Site
The BSC provides the control for the BSS with functions being: Controls all BTS within the BSS. Switches traffic and signalling information between BTS and the NSS. Connects Terrestrial Circuits and channels on the air interface. Controls handover performed by the BTS under its control. Any operational information required by the BTS will be forwarded under the control of the BSC, likewise information required by the NSS about/from the BTS will be obtained by the BSC. The BSC connects radio channels from the air interface, to terrestrial circuits between the BSS and the MSC via the use of a Digital Switching Matrix. It also uses this matrix to perform handover between the BTS under its control without involving the MSC. Handover will be covered later in greater depth. The BTS provides the following functions of the BSS. Channel Coding / Decoding. Timing advance, dependant on the MS location within the given geographical area. Measurement reporting. Power control, paging, frequency hopping, traffic channel management and encryption are also functions of the BTS/BSC.
© ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 19 of 19
The BTS maybe located at the same site as a BSC being ‘Co-located’. as a great deal of emphasis is place on the reliability of ‘hub’ elements. Hub Spoke and Loop being a few. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 20 of 20 . Hub Spoke – a method used when initially commissioning a network. HUB & SPOKE BSS BTS BSS BTS TRX BTS TRX BTS BTS LOOP Topologies have both advantages and disadvantages when used within Networks. but via another BTS or chain of BTS equipment. A BSS is configured using various topologies. but individual specifications of manufacturer’s equipment do vary. or located at a different site. This topology reduces connections but decreases network redundancy. ‘Remote’. Daisy chaining. The Daisy Chain – a BTS need not communicate directly with its controlling BSC. but can lead to transmission delay through the BSS.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network BSS Configurations The maximum number of BTS that a BSC can control is not specified within GSM. It is common to find most BTS remotely configured due mainly to their being a larger number of BTS within the network compared too BSC. BTS TRX BTS TRX BTS TRX DAISY CHAIN The Loop – these increase the redundancy of connectivity within a network as each BTS has a least two paths for communicating to the BSC. Daisy chaining reduces the number of connections required within a network and is cheap to implement.
The MSC carries out different functions depending upon its location within the GSM network (as discussed earlier a GSM network will comprise of more than one MSC). Both the IWF and EC can be considered as part of the MSC due to their functionality being required for switching. the GSM network will have multiple components. Note: .The NSS comprises of many different components. If the MSC provides an interface between the GSM network and the PSTN.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Network Switching System (NSS) The Network Switching System (NSS) controls the GSM network.only one of each component is shown where in reality. carrying out the physical switching functions. HLR Operations & maintenance system AUC NMC EIR Network Switching Sub system (G)MSC OMC PSTN IWF VLR The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) The main function of the MSC is to provide all switching functions. Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Authentication Centre (AUC) Inter Working Function (IWF) Echo Canceller (EC) The diagram shows a typical NSS interconnection. However. authentication procedures used for security and overall Mobility Management (MM). the same as any telephone network switch. because of the additional complications involved in the control and security aspects of the GSM network and the wide range of subscriber features offered the MSC has to be capable of fulfilling many additional functions. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 21 of 21 . it is known as a Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC). being. Here additional network components such as the EC and IWF are located providing speech and data connections between the MS and adjoining networks. Its main function is to manage communications between the GSM network and other telecommunications networks.
Each HLR handles a portion of the data with each subscriber being allocated to a specific HLR. Inter-working – manages interfaces between the GSM network and connecting networks such as the PSTN. Call Processing – includes control of voice/data call setup. allowing components of the home GSM network or other networks access to this information. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 SUBSCRIBER PROFILE IMSI IMEI MOBILE STATUS TRIPLETS SERVICES MSRN MSISDN HOME LOCATION REGISTER Page 22 of 22 . inter-BSS and inter-MSC handover. some information however. One MSC is capable of providing service cover for a region with approximately one million inhabitants (not all will connect to the network simultaneously though). Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) MS Status. Functions of the MSC are listed below. Subscriber information is entered into the database by the network provider upon subscriber registration. and MM for all subscribers within its given geographical area. IMSI and MSISDN MS VLR location. Operation and Maintenance – management of databases and monitoring of traffic measurements for GSM operation centres. Billing – collects call billing data relating to MS terminated and originating calls. is dynamically allocated and updated continuously by the GSM network. with data being accessed by all MSC’s and VLR’s within the network. HLR information consists of: Subscriber ID. although there is only one mobile subscriber record per subscriber. On or Off Authentication Key and AUC functionality Supplementary service information (Call forward number if activated) Permitted supplementary services (International roaming) The HLR is the master database for all subscribers to the GSM network. The data is accessed by use of either the IMSI or MSISDN.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Home Location Register (HLR) The MSC provides services for all MS located within a given geographical area. Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a database that contains references for mobile subscribers. Due to the amount of subscriber data the GSM network often has more than one HLR. Its provides all switching required for mobile terminated and originating calls. Various identification numbers and addresses are stored along with individual authentication codes for each mobile subscriber.
busy/free/no answer etc Location Area Identity (LAI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) Location Area Identity (LAI) – cells within the GSM network are grouped together into geographical areas with each area being assigned an identity. (Typically there will be a VLR co-located with each MSC within the GSM network. again providing a high standard of security. It is therefore possible that duplicate information can be present as well as the more precise data relevant to a subscriber. therefore informing the network of the subscriber’s location. When required. a GSM network increases a subscriber’s security). The data exists for only as long as the MS is active within the given VLR area. whether being their home network or visiting network. The function of the VLR eliminates the requirement of constant communication with the HLR for subscriber references. a Location Area Identity.) © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 23 of 23 . so as a subscriber roams within the network the LAI will be updated within the VLR. The TMSI is updated when: During Call setup On entry to a new LAI On entry to a new VLR area Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) – this number is used for routing calls from an external network to an MS via the GMSC. The TMSI is updated frequently. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) – this identity is allocated by the VLR to use in replacement of the IMSI (by reducing the number of times that an IMSI is transmitted over the air interface.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Visitor Location Register (VLR) Like the HLR the Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database. reducing setup times and cost to the operator. The VLR provides a local database for subscribers wherever they are geographically located within the GSM network. therefore switching the call through the correct MSC. the VLR address will be updated within the HLR. A VLR controls several LAI’s. making it extremely difficult to trace calls. containing up to 30 cells. The MSRN identifies the current MSC/VLR area that a subscriber is connected too. often being referred too as an MSC/VLR area. Additional data stored in the VLR: Mobile status. but instead of providing permanent storage of data it only provides temporary storage.
xxx.xxx IMEI. It has two main functions: Data Rate Adaption – provides data rate conversions (increasing / decreasing data speeds) for access to / from the GSM Network. Grey List – this list contains IMEI numbers that do not fall into either of the other two catogories.xxx IMEI. The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a centralized database that stores the IMEI of all subscribers on the GSM Network.xxx.xxx IMEI.xxx.xxx. E.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI. dependant on the type of network too which it is connected.xxx. that have not been reported stolen nor refused network services. one of which being the IMEI. hardware problems or customer payment delays. EIR’s are remotely accessed by an MSC/VLR during the authentication process.xxx IMEI. Protocol Conversion – ensures the correct protocol (communication tool) is used.xxx IMEI.xxx.xxx. limited services.xxx IMEI.xxx.xxx.xxx. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 WHITE LIST IMEI.xxx. or denied access for what reason to network services.xxx IMEI. and is generally co-located with the HLR.xxx.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Security Databases Equipment Identity Register As we have already discussed each MS has two identities.xxx. The database concentrates on the physical ME. Certain networks may require additional IWF functionality.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI. White List – this contains IMEI numbers of ME’s that have been allocated to a valid subscriber. reported stolen. If the IMEI number is found in the black list the associated MS will not be permitted access to the network.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI. and not the subscriber whom may be using it to make or receive calls.xxx EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER BLACK LIST IMEI. Interworking Function The Interworking Function (IWF) provides a GSM Network the capability of interfacing with private or public data networks.xxx.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI.xxx IMEI.xxx GREY LIST IMEI. The Database is continuously updated by network programmers and by the network obtaining information from a central database to which all networks can be connected (not all networks are connected though). exchanging data with a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).xxx. as it is continuously requested to produce new authentication keys for mobile subscriber records.xxx. The authentication procedure will be discussed later in the course.xxx. It consists of a bank of modems that act as the GSM Data Communication Equipment (DCE).xxx.xxx. The EIR database comprises of three database lists being a specific IMEI list or range of IMEI numbers.xxx Page 24 of 24 .g. an MS in the GSM network. Black List – contains a list of IMEI numbers that have been bared by other networks. or any other network containing the same EIR database information.xxx.xxx IMEI.xxx. Authentication Centre The Authentication Centre (AUC) is a processing database that provides the GSM Network with security keys for the authentication procedure called Triplets.
The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) – provides the radio air interface between the MS and the network. Here interconnections between other networks such as the PSTN are controlled. The Network Switching System (NSS) – consisting of the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and associated system control elements. SIM Card Identities The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) Location Area Identity (LAI) Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) The Mobile Station International Services Digital Network number (MSISDN) BSS Components The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The Base Station Controller (BSC) The Transcoder (XCDR) NSS Components The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Authentication Centre (AUC) © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 25 of 25 . The Operations and Maintenance System – enables the network the ability to control.ROOT 2 technology The GSM Network Module 2 Key Points GSM Network Components The Mobile Station (MS) – consisting of the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). configure and maintain the network from a central location.
ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: - • • • • • • • • Explore the differing Terrestrial Interfaces used within GSM Discuss PCM Theory Explain the structure of a 2Mbit Trunk List the reasons for using ITU-T CCS No.7 Protocols Discuss the Link Access D Channel Protocol Explain why LAPDm is used accross the Um Interface Explore transmission rates accross the various GSM Interconnections © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .7 Signalling Explain the uses of CCS No.
25 . apart from the Um or air interface. all complying with ITU-T specifications (International Telecommunications Union . the collection of statistical information and messages required for O&M operations (Maintenance and Control). The terrestrial interfaces transport all of the messages throughout the system that are required to perform system functions.7 . The interfaces are the message transport mediums for GSM.25 Applications C7 Applications 3 2 1 OSI LAYERS X. They transport all data for software up and downloads.Link Access Protocol Data (D Channel) X. The standard interfaces used within GSM are: PCM 2 Mbit Links Signalling System No. The use of these standards provides the flexibility that can be seen today within multi-platform GSM networks. They are shown in the diagram below connecting the various components together.25 MTP (C7) LAPB Abis LAPD 2 Mbit Trunks VLR EIR B F D HLR H C AUC A MSC Um Abis BSC BTS OMC Um A C E - LAPDm BSSAP MAP ISUP Abis B D H - LAPD MAP C7 C7 © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 27 of 27 .ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces Terrestrial Interfaces The terrestrial interfaces comprise of all of the connections between the GSM network components.(Packet Switch Data for OMC interface) 4-7 X.(ITU-T SS7 or CCS7) LAPD Protocol .Telecoms).
The recommendation also covers the codes for frame and multiframe alignment. but any timeslot can be used for this purpose. Then diagram below shows a breakdown of 2 Mbit Frame.048Mbit/s services.544Mbit/s services and higher order services. If the 2Mbit frame is using C7 signalling.31 Use Frame Alignment/Error Checking/Signalling Traffic Voice/Data Signalling Traffic Voice/Data The 2 Mbit Frame comprises of 32 Timeslots. The control information may contain C7. Some operators choose to use Timeslot 1 for signalling purposes. Timeslots are also referred to as D and B Channels (D Channel for signalling and B Channel for Traffic).ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces 2 Mbit/s PCM 30 Trunks The 2 Mbit PCM 30 Trunk is the primary layer 1 transport medium used within GSM. Each Timeslot is 64Kbits in size. It is typical to find Timeslot 16 used for signalling information. 8 Bits Control TS 0 Signalling TS 16 Frame Duration = 0. the D Channel can support signalling for 480 B Channels. LAPD or X. data or control information. the D Channel can only support signalling for one frame (30 B Channels).25 formatted information. It complies too the international standard CCITT (ITU-T) Recommendation G.125ms ITU-T G. “ Gives functional characteristics of interfaces associated with: Network Nodes and PCM Multiplexing equipment.704.15 16 17 . If using Channel Associated Signalling (CAS).” G. resulting in a total frame size of 2. however the recommendation also covers 1.704 is generally held to describe the frame structure and alignment of 2.704 Frame Structure TS 0 1 . Each 2 Mbit frame provides thirty channels for the transmission of speech. transmitted within Timeslot 0.048Mbits. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 28 of 28 .
Between the MSC and BSC. The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is used between the MSC and the VLR. The Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) is used to send messages between the MSC and the MS. EIR and HLR. the Base Station System Management Application Part (BSSMAP) is used. For external connections. The diagram below shows the breakdown of how the C7 protocol stack is configured. or for interfacing the ISDN. the ISDN User Part (ISUP). the MSC performs all call signalling functions by using the Telephone User Part (TUP). Acronyms: BSSAP BSSMAP DTAP ISUP MAP SCCP TUP TCAP Base Station System Application Part Base Station System Management Application Part Direct Transfer Application Part ISDN User Part Mobile Application Part Signalling Connection Control Part Telephone User Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part MAP TUP ISUP TCAP BSSAP 4 SCCP 3 2 1 C7 LAYERS MTP Level 3 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1 2 Mbit Trunks © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 29 of 29 .ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces C7 Signalling The following message protocols are used to communicate between the different GSM components.
The Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI) is used to identify the information being transmitted. This unfortunately means that one manufactures range of equipments will not necessarily work with another’s. the functionality of the BTS is governed by the BSC. In short.ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces Link Access Protocol D Channel Because of the specific format of the signalling and control information being passed over the 2 Mbit links between the BSC and remotely sited BTS. With using the normal LAPD format 260 – 272 octets of information can be sent. Signalling or Short Message Services (SMS). (62 and 63 are dedicated for use by the BTS. The 23 octets formation is used for TCH’s and a 21 Octets format for SACCH. having a maximum length of 23 octets. The GSM specifications for the Abis interface are not completely standardised. a different type of interface is required. 62 = O&M and 63 = Layer 2 Management.704 for 2Mbit links. generally leading to BSS selection comprising of a sole manufactures equipment range.21 Octets Address Control Information LAPDm SAPI N(S) N(R) There is a limitation on the amount that can be transmitted across the air interface. 0 = Signalling information. Flag Flag 0 . GSM uses Link Access Protocol D Channel for this operation. The LAPDm format does not require flags as it uses the ‘already synchronised path’ air interface.) N(S) related to the frame number being sent and N(R) corresponding to the next expected frame within the transmission sequence. Due to the restrictions GSM uses the LAPDm format. as per ITU-T G.260 Octets Address Control Information FCS LAPD SAPI TEI N(S) N(R) 0 . 3 = SMS. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 30 of 30 . As we have already discussed. In addition it does not require a Frame Check Sequence (FCS).
will depend on which signalling part is used. Timeslot zero is always used for control and frame alignment purposes.MSC. TCAP. MSC MTL OMC. MTP) X.MS Operations and Maintenance Interface All call processing functions These interfaces are commonly transported on a 2 Mbit/s link. used for traffic. BSC . referred to as the A Interface.25) LAPD LAPD BTS BTS BTS Each 2 Mbit link provides 32. MAP. with one other being used for signalling. typically Timeslot 16 and the remainder.R BSC OML (X. The signalling protocols used with a GSM Network are: LAPD – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot CCS7 – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot (BSSAP. (DTAP is used for the transfer of messages between the MSC and MS.25 – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot (Used between the BSC and OMC) CCS7 is used for transmission between the MSC and BSS.) © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 31 of 31 . SCCP. a subset of BSSAP. 64Kbit/s channels or Timeslots. The interface supports the following connections: BSC .BTS and MSC .ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces Interconnections The Interface between the BSC and MSC uses the standardised ITU-T CCS7 interface. dependent upon the type of signalling required.
LAPD or X.(ITU-T SS7 or CCS7) LAPD Protocol . TCAP.ROOT 2 technology GSM Terrestrial Interfaces Module 3 Key Points Standard GSM Interfaces: PCM 2 Mbit Links Signalling System No. The 23 octets formation is used for TCH’s and a 21 Octets format for SACCH. resulting in a total frame size of 2.25 – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot (Used between the BSC and OMC) Base Station System Application Part Base Station System Management Application Part Direct Transfer Application Part ISDN User Part Mobile Application Part Signalling Connection Control Part Telephone User Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 32 of 32 .25 formatted information.7 . data or control information.048Mbits. MAP. Each 2 Mbit frame provides thirty channels for the transmission of speech. Interfaces The signalling protocols used with a GSM Network are: LAPD – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot CCS7 – 1 x 64Kbit/s timeslot (BSSAP. having a maximum length of 23 octets. MTP) X.(Packet Switch Data for OMC interface) PCM 30 The 2 Mbit Frame comprises of 32 Timeslots. Each Timeslot is 64Kbits in size.25 . SCCP. Due to the restrictions GSM uses the LAPDm format. The control information may contain C7. C7 Protocols BSSAP BSSMAP DTAP ISUP MAP SCCP TUP TCAP LAPD There is a limitation on the amount that can be transmitted across the air interface. With using the normal LAPD format 260 – 272 octets of information can be sent.Link Access Protocol Data (D Channel) X.
ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: - • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Explain Modulation Techniques Discuss the reasons for using TDMA Frames Explore Physical Channels used within GSM List the Logical Channels Explain the Broadcast Control Channel Explore all Common Control Channels Explore all Dedicated control Channels Define Mobile Access Explain channels used for Handover Examine the GSM Burst List the GSM Burst Types Identify the requirement for using Multi Frames Define GSM Timing Discuss the Speech Encoding process Discuss the GSM Authentication Procedure © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .
which leads to poor transmission quality over larger distances. there are problems with using this form of modulation. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 34 of 34 . When the signal changes phase abruptly. Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) With GMSK. Digital signals must be converted prior to tramsmission over a normal telephone network A carrier signal Is modulated by the digital output from a data terminal equipment to produce Amplitude change Amplitude modulation Frequency change Frequency modulation or Phase change Phase modulation Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Although phase modulation provides a high tolerance to noise. GSM utilises digital transmission over the air interface. the phase change does not occur instantaneously as within PSK. GSM has limited available bandwidth. therefore drastically reducing high frequency components and distortion. A Gaussian Digital Filter is used for this operation. The use of PSK in its most basic form is not a viable option. AM is very susceptible to interference from noise. phase modulation being the most tolerant to noise can easily be implemented in GSM. Digital signals can use any of the above methods of modulation. increasing the time in which the phase change has to occur. so utilisation has to be in the most efficient way possible. Digital signals are transmitted in the form of logic 0 and logic 1 (On or Off). requiring greater bandwidth. Phase modulation does not suffer the same set backs when transmitting digital signals and is known as Phase Shift Keying (PSK) when applied to digital signals. so GSM utilises a more complex form of PSK called Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). Amplitude Modulation (AM) Amplitude modulation is the most basic form of modulation. FM provides a greater tolerance to noise than AM. As we have already discussed. These states are referred to as ‘Phases’. GMSK introduces a transition period.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Modulation Techniques There are three methods of modulating a signal so that it can be transmitted over an air interface. high frequency components are produced causing distortion when the signal is received. due to the information being transmitted through variations in a waveform’s frequency. but unlike analogue. where the information is transmitted through variations in a waveform’s amplitude. two states completely opposite to one another. Phase Modulation Phase modulation provides the best tolerance to noise but remains complex in implementing and is rarely used when transmitting analogue signals. Frequency Modulation (FM) Frequency modulation is slightly more complicated to implement than AM.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 TDMA Frame 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 TDMA frame is transmitted continuously.615ms. that are arranged in sequential order from 0 – 7 (as can be seen from the diagram). Each MS telephone call occupies one timeslot (0 – 7) within the frame until the call is terminated. Each frame is broken down into eight equal segments called ‘Timeslots’. Each burst occupying its allocated timeslot within successive frames. as timeslot zero is required for controlling elements. or handover occurs. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 35 of 35 . In order for the system to work correctly. Each MS is allocated an individual Timeslot for a call. by using the allocated timeslot. T RS BU lot es im 1T Failure to do this will result in the information being lost. at exactly the right moment. provides GSM with the physical channel for carrying logical channels between the MS and BTS.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Physical Channels A GSM carrier comprises of one complete Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame. This information is transmitted in the form of a ‘burst’. Due to there being a limited number of timeslots available within the frame. The MS or BTS must transmit information relating to a call. it limits the number of simultaneous MS users to seven. Therefore each timeslot lasts for an approximate time period of 577 microseconds. transmitting information within a burst. or corruption of consecutive timeslots. timing of timeslot transmissions to and from the MS is critical. The TDMA frame (Carrier) is transmitted continuously and lasts for a time period of 4.
There are three groups. The group consists of the following channels. TCH’s working at 2.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Logical Channels There are two main groups of logical channels. are the channels used within GSM for controlling the air interface.4Kbit/s. The group consists of the following channels.8Kbit/s. Random Access Channel (RACH) Paging Channel (PCH) Access Grant Channel (AGCH) Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) Dedicated Control Channel Group Dedicated Control Channels are allocated to individual MS for the purpose of call setup and subscriber validation. The BCCH also contains information relating to Synchronisation (SCH) and frequency (FCH). There are two TCH’s available for use with GSM.4Kbit/s are available. For Data transmission. The BCCH transmits information from the network regarding the MS’s present location and surrounding cells. 4. 9. Control Channels Control channels as named. Traffic Channels The Traffic Channel (TCH) is the channel used within GSM to carry speech and data information. Common Control Channel Group The Common Control Channels are transmitted in both uplink and downlink directions. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Broadcast Control Channel Group Um Interface DCCH CCCH Control Channels BCCH TCH Traffic Channels The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is transmitted in the downlink only (from the BTS to the MS). Full Rate Speech working at 13Kbit/s and Half Rate speech at 6. Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) Associated Control Channels (ACCH) © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 36 of 36 .5Kbit/s.6Kbit/s and 14. traffic channels and control channels.
a ‘dummy burst’ will be transmitted to ensure continuity over the air interface. it has the necessary information stored to move between cells with ease and quickly resynchronise with the new cell. The MS uses this power monitoring to identify if handover is required (covered later in the course). The BCCH is transmitted at a constant power. Synchronisation is key to the success of the air interface and is therefore essential when making or receiving a call. Um Interface BCCH FCCH SCH LAI BSIC DTX CBCH Broadcast Control Channel © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 37 of 37 . to obtain the following information. The MS monitors the BCCH periodically (at least once every 30 seconds) when it is not associated in making or receiving a call. Synchronisation Channel (SCH) The Synchronisation Channel is utilised to enable the MS to synchronise with an associated TDMA frame over the air interface. if no traffic requires transmitting. The MS will monitor the BCCH carrier from surrounding cells. if the MS should roam within the network. Because of the importance of the BCCH carrier. Location Area Identity (LAI) List of surrounding cells that the MS monitors for handover purposes Frequency information Power control information Access Control for Paging Note: Additional information is transmitted within the BCCH. Frequency Correction (Control) Channel (FCCH) This channel is frequently transmitted within timeslots on the BCCH carrier allowing the MS to tune its frequency to that being transmitted by the associated BTS. Again for the purpose of handover. with its signal strength being monitored by the MS. storing information from the six strongest cells.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Broadcast Control Channel The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is continuously transmitted by the BTS on the BCCH carrier.
regarding Location Area Updates or Short Messaging Services (SMS). or to respond with requested information. Um Interface RACH PCH CBCH AGCH Common Control Channel Paging Channel (PCH) The Network uses the Paging Channel in order to contact an MS (paging can be performed using either the IMSI. when the MS requests to initiate a call or responds to a PCH sent by the network. in response to the receipt of a RACH from the MS. it is considered a CCCH as all MS within the given cell can receive that message. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 38 of 38 . both being transmitted constantly on the carrier by the BTS.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Common Control Channels The Common Control Channel (CCCH) is responsible for transferring controlling information between all MS within a BTS area. It is only used in the uplink. Random Access Channel (RACH) The Random Access Channel is used by the MS to gain access to the network. The MS will then move to the DCCH in order to proceed with the call set-up. Although this channel really uses a DCCH to transmit the messages. Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) This channel is used by the network to transmit broadcast messages to all MS’s within a given cell. Access Grant Channel (AGCH) This is used by the BTS to assign a Dedicated Control Channel to an MS. All MS frequently monitor both the BCCH and CCCH within their associated cell. TMSI or IMEI identities). This control is necessary for implementing ‘Call Origination’ and ‘Paging’ functions.
it allows efficient passing of control information without wasting valuable capacity that can be used for carrying additional call traffic. All of the control channels are required for system operation and have to share timeslots over the air interface just like MS’s using the limited TCH’s. GSM uses a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) to pass information across the air interface. We therefore organise the limited timeslots over the air interface to carry either control or traffic information. They are used to carry information associated with handover whilst a simultaneous process is being carried out by either an SDCCH or a TCH. Um Interface SDCCH SACCH FACCH Dedicated Control Channels Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) This channel is used to convey power and timing information in the downlink and passes Receive Signal Strength Indications (RSSI) and link quality reports from the MS in the uplink.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Dedicated Control Channels Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH) are used to convey specific information over the air interface. containing specific information that is required for the handover procedure. the authentication process. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 39 of 39 . Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) The FACCH is used to perform handover and also authentication when an MS is involved in a physical call (having been allocated a TCH). This SDCCH carries information for call setup. location updating and SMS. working in both directions between the BTS and MS. By sharing the timeslots. SACCH is also used for the handover procedure when the MS is idle (not involved in a physical call). Associated Control Channels These channels are associated with either the SDCCH or a TCH. It is transmitted within the burst of the TCH.
ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface GSM Burst Format The diagram below shows the format of a GSM burst. where actually the physical burst only requires 0.577ms) 148 Bits GUARD PERIOD 4 INFO TRAINING SEQUENCE INFO 4 GUARD PERIOD TAIL BITS STEALING FLAGS TAIL BITS Training Sequence This is used by the receiver to estimate the quality and transfer characteristics of the physical path (air interface) between the MS and BTS. It consists of differing elements dependant upon the burst in use. FACCH steals one of these info fields (all 57 Bits) to transmit the specific information required. Guard Period This period is designed to allow both the BTS and MS additional time to receive and decode the transmitted burst. The training sequence consists of 26 Bits of information. Tail Bits The tail bits act as flags. Each field contains 57 Bits of information (Voice call or Data). The elements described below form a Normal Burst. the end or in both areas of the burst format. identifying the beginning and end of the burst. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 40 of 40 .031ms time difference between actually burst transmission and the actually time available.577ms for the burst to be successfully transmitted.546ms. Stealing Flags These flags comprise of a single bit each and indicate whether call or FACCH information is present within the information field. The timeslot allows 0. 0 1 2 TDMA Frame 3 4 5 6 7 156 Bits (0. This 8 Bit guard period can be transmitted at either the beginning. This difference in time relates to 8 Bits or 0. If during the call procedure handover is required. used for transmitting Voice Call and Data information. Info Field There are two info fields within the normal burst.
All bursts. Frequency Correction Burst . where the timeslot is the specific period of time that the burst must arrive in order to be successfully decoded.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Burst Types The diagram below shows the five types of burst employed over the GSM air interface.carries the FCCH in the downlink only. to correct the frequency of the MS.25) TAIL BITS Dummy Burst . the BTS does not know the exact location of the MS.this burst is much shorter in duration than the other bursts described. to synchronise timing of the MS with the BTS and therefore Network. consist of 156 Bits of information allowing them successful transmission within the allotted 0. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 41 of 41 .carries the SCH in the downlink only.577ms timeslot. Normal Burst . to retain continuity over the air interface. 156 Bits (0. When an Access Burst is transmitted.577ms) TAIL BITS INFO (57) TRAINING SEQUENCE (26) INFO (57) TAIL BITS TAIL BITS FIXED BITS (142) TAIL BITS TAIL BITS ENCODED (39) SYNCHRONISATION SEQUENCE (64) ENCODED (39) TAIL BITS TAIL BITS FIXED BITS (57) TRAINING SEQUENCE FIXED BITS (57) TAIL BITS TAIL BITS SYNCH SEQUENCE (41) ENCRYPTED BITS (36) GUARD PERIOD (68. It has an increased guard period due to the time of transmission being unknown.this burst is transmitted to fill unused timeslots on the BCCH carrier (downlink only). The burst is a sequence of information bits transmitted by network components. Synchronisation Burst . so therefore cannot accurately identify the timing of the message. Access Burst . whatever type. The use of the larger guard period counters this problem.the normal burst carries traffic and control channels both up and downlink apart from those listed below.
The 26 Frame Multiframe . 12 bursts of traffic and finally 1 idle frame. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 42 of 42 . (The timings shown are not exact timings but are approximate timings) The 26 Frame Multiframe comprises of 26 frames. Each TDMA frame lasts for duration of 4.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Multiframes and Timing As we have discussed there are eight timeslots within each TDMA frame. The multiframe follows a pattern of. acting as a flag indicating the end of the previous or beginning of the next multiframe.615ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26 FRAME MULTIFRAME E 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 IDLE SACCH 120ms Frame No 25 is always set to idle. In order to understand how the sharing of logical channels is achieved. 0. Frame No 12 (actually the 13th) on the multiframe is always reserved for SACCH. each physical channel may be shared by a number of logical channels. passing network information between the MS and BTS. there the total duration of the multiframe is 120ms (the duration of 26 TDMA). enabling eight physical channels to share an RF carrier. 1 burst of SACCH. we have to introduce ‘Multiframe’ structures. the TDMA frame and 26 Frame Multiframe. where in addition.577ms BURST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA Frame 4. containing information from consecutive timeslots on the associated TDMA frames.Call Traffic The diagram below shows the relationship between the timeslot allocated to an MS for the duration of a call.615ms. 12 bursts of traffic.
ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface 51 Frame Multiframe The 51 Frame Multiframe is slightly more complicated than the 26 Frame Multiframe as it is associated with the control channels. T/S 0’S OF TDMA FRAMES 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 51 FRAME MULTIFRAME 0 10 20 30 40 50 BCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH FCCH SCH 235. of a BCCH/CCCH multiframe. This idle frame acts as a flag. from TDMA frame timeslot zeros. is the last timeslot in the multiframe and is always set to idle. The 51 Frame Multiframe is constructed from 51 consecutive frames. indicating the next frame received is the start of a new 51 Frame Multiframe. each timeslot zero contains differing information. T/S 1 by SCH and the following four timeslots 2-5. The diagram shows the breakdown in the downlink.365 ms IDLE Starting at frame 0 of the 51 frame structure. The multiframe structure can vary. T/S 50. Then follows in timeslots 10 and 11. As can seen. Timeslots 6-9 are allocated to CCCH traffic. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 43 of 43 . by the BCCH. that is for either PCH or AGCH information. depending on the type of control channel and network functionality requirements. The final timeslot. four further CCCH burst and so on. a repeat of the frequency and synchronisation bursts. T/S 0 is occupied by FCCH.
with an additional 4 tail bits being added (for decoding purposes) prior to the convolutional encoding process. these coding rates differ. These bits pass through a parity check where 3 additional bits are added. to produce 456 bits. Speech information is grouped into three groups depending on its sensitivity and importance. comprising of 260 bits of information. The coding and interleaving schemes used depend on the type of logical channel being encoded. the Class 3 bits are added to the combined and encoded Class 1 and 2 bits. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 44 of 44 . generally the entire block is ignored. These 132 bits are combined with the Class 1 bits. Speech Channel Coding Speech is divided into 20ms periods. After the encoding and interleaving procedure.Here 132 bits are not parity checked. that every bit of data information is vitally important.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Speech Channel Encoding To protect the logical channels from transmission errors that may be introduced over the air interface. The reason being. but due in addition to varying standards of protection required.These 50 bits carry the most sensitive information. These bits are important. All logical channels require a form of Convolutional Encoding. 456 bits are transmitted within 8 bursts. Data Channel Encoding Data transmission are spread over 22 bursts. If errors are found within these bits. Class 1 . Class 2 . various coding schemes are utilised. after the convolutional encoding proceed. so by increasing the number of bursts used.These bits are the least sensitive bits that do not require encoding. we can minimise interference aspects incurred over the air interface. but not as important as the 50 Class 1 bits. Class 3 . As can be seen from the diagram. and if corrupted can lead to speech intelligibility. CLASS 1 50 BITS CLASS 2 132 BITS CLASS 3 78 BITS PARITY CHECKING NO PARITY CHECKING 50 3 132 4 78 CONVOLUTIONAL ENCODING 378 78 456 BITS Over the air interface speech or data is transmitted at a rate of 22.8 Kbit/s (456 Bits every 20ms). therefore reducing reproduction problems should interference cause problems over the air interface.
They consist of three separate elements. The AUC produces these triplets through the use of two algorithms. The MS produces the triplet and returns either the SRES or Kc (depending on request) to the VLR. where results are processed and authentication granted. GSM uses an Authentication Centre (AUC) Database for providing a network’s security elements. an A3 and an A8. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 45 of 45 . location updating and activation of supplementary services. It provides the network the ability to monitor a users access rights for call setup. a Signed Response (SRES) and a Key Code (Kc). the network Ki key will be allocated to their IMSI. the MS in turn should produce the same Triplet results. the Random Number (RAND). When a subscriber first purchases a phone from a provider. when the RAND used by the AUC in producing the Triplet is passed to the MS for authentication. the Ki will be opened and only then is susceptible to copying. Due to both network algorithms being assigned to the AUC and Network SIM cards.ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface GSM Authentication One of the major drawbacks with analogue systems was the ease that an air interface transmission could be compromised. RAND Ki RAND A3 Algorithm SRES HLR AuC A8 Algorithm Kc TRIPLET TRIPLET MSC/VLR RAND SRES RAND BTS RAND Ki RAND A3 Algorithm SRES SRES SIM A8 Algorithm Kc TRIPLET Triplets Triplets are produced by the AUC for use throughout the authentication procedure. the MS will not be granted access. If the results differ. On initial setup (first activation). both of which are matched with the same algorithms on the SIM.
Call Traffic The 51 Frame Multiframe . They consist of three separate elements. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 46 of 46 . the Random Number (RAND).ROOT 2 technology The Radio Air Interface Module 4 Key Points Modulation Types Amplitude Modulation (AM) Frequency Modulation (FM) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) Control Channels Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) BCCH Location Area Identity (LAI) List of surrounding cells that the MS monitors for handover purposes Frequency information Power control information Access Control for Paging GSM Bursts Normal Burst Frequency Correction Burst Synchronisation Burst Dummy Burst Access Burst Multi Frames The 26 Frame Multiframe . a Signed Response (SRES) and a Key Code (Kc).Signalling Authentication Triplets are produced by the AUC for use throughout the authentication procedure.
ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: - • • • • • • • • Explain the requirement for Timing Advance Discuss Timeslot allocation List GSM elements associated with Power Control Describe DRX and its uses Explore Multipath Fading Discuss Antenna Diversity Explain GSM Equalisation Define Frequency Hopping and reasons for its use © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .
FRAME 1 DOWNLINK 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BTS . GSM specifications state that a timing offset of three timeslots must be incorporated. If the network is configured for a maximum cell size with a radius of approximately 35km. GSM offsets the timing between TDMA frames.233ms.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Transmission Timing Advance To simplify the design of the MS.MS UPLINK 0 MS . The synchronisation of TDMA frames is critical due to bursts having to be transmitted and received within ‘real time’ timeslots allocated to them. again being shown in the diagram.BTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 TS OFFSET FRAME 1 0 1 2 3 TIMING ADVANCE Timing advance information is sent to the MS twice every second using the SACCH (the 13th frame on the 26 Frame Multiframe). © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 48 of 48 . by it not having to transmit and receive information simultaneously. the maximum timing advance will be approximately 0. The diagram below shows an example of this. The BTS caters for this problem by instructing the MS to advance its timing (to transmit earlier) to compensate for this increased delay. Timing advance is not required on the BTS due to being configured for simultaneous transmission and reception. This advance is superimposed upon the timeslot offset. The further that the MS is from the BTS the longer it takes for the burst to be transmitted between them.
two of which being Power Control and Discontinuous Reception. adjusting power setting accordingly.8 Watts 0. The closer the MS is to the BTS.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation MS Power Control One of the main factors restricting the physical size of the MS is its battery. with reports being sent to the BSS. several features are utilised.8 Watts 1 Watt A B C Power control BTS 2 Watts 1. In addition to saving power. Power Control 0. the less power required to transmit that distance. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 49 of 49 . typically though the BTS will transmit at a continuous power setting. The demand has increased for smaller. allowing the network not only to compensate for the timing distance. Within GSM. (A BTS controls multiple MS so by adjusting power settings to compensate for an individual MS it could seriously affect others. The battery must be large enough to hold sufficient power to maintain calls for a period of time prior to the MS requiring a recharged. lighter phones. therefore leading to the requirement of smaller and lighter batteries. Both Uplink and Downlink power setting can be controlled. It monitors the receive power of both the MS and BTS.4 Watts This is a feature of the air interface. by reducing in accordance to distance it aids in the reduction of air interface interference (reducing co-channel and adjacent channel interference). but additional to allow the MS to control its power output in comparison to the distance required for successful transmission to the BTS. therefore increasing the MS’s battery life.) The BSS controls the power of both the MS and BTS.
When DRX is used. the FCCH and SCH.365 ms BCCH C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 MS Paged during C1 once every 235ms Or C5 on Combined Multiframes BCCH C0 C1 C2 C3 235 ms C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 BCCH C9 C10 C11 C12 470 ms C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 BCCH C18 C19 C20 C21 705 ms C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 BCCH C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 MS Paged once every 705ms DRX may only be used when the MS is in an idle state. This Paging Group may appear at the same time during every multiframe. the BCCH informs the MS of which Paging Group it is to listen too. it can ‘switch off’ through the time period where the information being transmitted is not meant for its reception. the MS is exactly aware of the frame number and format. and can identify where the information relevant is being transmitted. not physically making or receiving a call.) 235. or once during a series of multiframe transmissions. again saving on battery life. (The Network specifies multiframe transmission. With the MS knowing this information. By the MS monitoring the BCCH. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 50 of 50 .ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Discontinuous Reception Discontinuous Reception (DRX) allows the MS to ‘switch off’ when information being transmitted is not intended for it.
or its path being altered by atmospheric pressures. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 51 of 51 . The diagram shows an example of differing routes that a signal may take in travelling from a BTS to an MS. Equalisation Diversity Frequency Hopping Interleaving Channel Coding Buildings Mulitiple Paths MS BSS As the MS moves. Each of the paths has suffered a varying number of losses through transmission. The worst possible effect will be that the received signals arrive 180∞ out of phase with each other. If this happens the result is zero signal. On arrival at the receiver. the exact phase of the receive path will change. With this constant change. to a bad signal. continuously. Received signals will therefore arrive at differing times and possibly out of phase with one another. To over come this variation.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Multipath Fading Multipath Fading results from a signal travelling to a receiver over a multiple number of routes. GSM adopts several techniques to counter Multipath Fading. the signals combine either constructively or destructively. therefore cancelling each other out. a distance of approx 15cm may be all that is required to alternate from a good. the signal being reflected off of objects such as buildings. This can be caused by. such as weather. Within the GSM frequency bands. hence a variation in received signal amplitudes. the combination of received signal strength will also change.
a Training Sequence Code is transmitted at the centre of each burst. the equaliser searches for the training sequence code to identify how distorted it has become. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 52 of 52 . therefore reducing additional air interface interference by disregarding foreign bursts. When a burst of information is received.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Equalisation Due to signal distortion caused through multipath fading. although operating on the same frequency will use different training sequence codes. These two antennas are placed several wavelengths apart. The two received signals are combined at the BTS. signals arrive at an antenna from multiple paths. numbered 0 to 7. producing the most intelligent and strongest signal possible from the two received signals (one from each of the receive antennas). To aid in identification. Nearby cells. meaning some signals will combine to produce strong signals and others. This is a set combination of bits. NORMAL BURST GUARD PERIOD INFO TRAINING SEQUENCE INFO GUARD PERIOD TAIL BITS STEALING FLAGS TAIL BITS => 10 Wave Lengths COMBINER Diversity Intelligent Result of Combiner Diversity As we have discussed. a receiver cannot be sure exactly when a burst will arrive. When diversity is implemented within GSM. subtract producing weak or no signal. The signals are therefore received in different phases and at different strengths. ensuring that there is minimum correlation between the two receive paths. how distorted the remainder of the burst has become and identify the most probable signal outcome. It will then be able to identify through comparison. known by both the transmitter and receiver. There are eight different Training Sequence Codes used within GSM. two receive antennas are used.
so networks are configured for frequency hopping and allocated cells. using the same timeslot. It allows the MS to change the ARFCN used for each transmission (every 4. the order in which the MS hops through the available ARFCN’s and a Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO). Interference Averaging – assumes that radio channel interference does not exist on every allocated ARFCN due to the MS changing to a new ARFCN every 4.ARFCN Sequence order BSS MAIO . the start point within the ARFCN hopping sequence. as well as providing protection against signal fading. the overall communication received only experiences interference part of the time. Not all cells support frequency hopping. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 53 of 53 . This provides a high degree of immunity to interference.615ms). which is controlled by the BSS. but different carrier. due to interference averaging.615ms or frame. ARFCN 41 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ARFCN 44 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ARFCN 47 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HSN . Therefore.Sequence start position All mobile subscribers can use frequency hopping. a Hopping Sequence Number (HSN). The BSS provides the MS with two identities.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping is used within GSM to limit the effects caused by multipath fading.
Multipath Fading GSM utilises the following processes to limit Multipath fading: Equalisation Diversity Frequency Hopping Interleaving Channel Coding © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 54 of 54 . (A BTS controls multiple MS so by adjusting power settings to compensate for an individual MS it could seriously affect others.ROOT 2 technology Air Interface Optimisation Module 5 Key Points Timing Advance The synchronisation of TDMA frames is critical due to bursts having to be transmitted and received within ‘real time’ timeslots allocated to them. Power Control Both Uplink and Downlink power setting can be controlled.) Discontinuous Reception (DRX) Discontinuous Reception (DRX) allows the MS to ‘switch off’ when information being transmitted is not intended for it. The BTS caters for this problem by instructing the MS to advance its timing (to transmit earlier) to compensate for this increased delay. The further that the MS is from the BTS the longer it takes for the burst to be transmitted between them. typically though the BTS will transmit at a continuous power setting.
ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures Module Objectives On completion of this module of instruction the delegate will have gained an understanding of: Mobile to PSTN Call • • Discuss the Mobile to PSTN call procedure Explain key stages of the procedure PSTN to Mobile Call • • Discuss the Mobile to PSTN call procedure Explain key stages of the procedure Inter BSS Handover • • Discuss the procedure taken during a GSM Handover Explain key stages of the procedure Location Updates • • Discuss the procedure for Location Updates Explain key stages of the procedure Authentication Procedure • Explore the procedure and reasons for Authentication © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 .
The MSC then sends a Call Complete Message (CC) to the BSS for set up initiation. which in turn relays the message to the VLR (At this stage the VLR can initiate the authentication process if required where it will obtain parameters for the HLR). The PSTN negotiates with the called number and responds with an Address Complete Message (AC). 3. AR CR CC PSTN AC TCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH MSC SDCCH TCH FACCH BSS 5. where billing of the call commences. which in turn notifies the MS to proceed with the call. The BSS then assigns a Dedicated Control Channel. Upon completion of this allocation the TCH is connected between the MS and called number. The MSC informs the BSS to assign a TCH to the MS for the call. The request for service (Call Request message . 7. SDCCH to the MS by using an AGCH. 6. FACCH is used to monitor the status of the TCH in case a Handover is required. 2. 4. The MS requests service by sending a RACH to the BSS.ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures Mobile to PSTN Call 1.CR) is passed to the MSC. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 56 of 56 . Throughout the duration of the call. The MSC accesses the PSTN with an Address Request Message (AR).
Throughout the duration of the call. FACCH is used to monitor the status of the TCH in case a Handover is required. 9. Upon completion of this proceed (including authentication if required). The MSC then informs the BSS to assign a TCH to the MS for the duration of the call. The TCH is then connected and the call is established. the MSC sends an Address Complete Message (AC) to the PSTN. The PSTN through the use of C7 Messaging contacts the GMSC with an MSISDN. The PSTN sends an Answer Message (ANS) to the MSC confirming connection.ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures PSTN to Mobile Call 1. GMSC HLR/VLR MSISDN MSRN MSRN MSISDN PSTN AC ANS PCH TCH RACH AGCH SDCCH MSC SDCCH TCH FACCH BSS 6. SDCCH to the MS by using an AGCH. 5. 4. 8. The BSS then assigns a Dedicated Control Channel. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 57 of 57 . The controlling MSC then informs the BSS to page the MS using a PCH. 7. The GMSC passes the MSISDN to the HLR and responses with an MSRN (the identity of the MSC/VLR area to which requested MS is attached). 3. The MS responds to the PCH with a RACH. 2.
8. Clear Down FACCH FACCH 2. HO Complete SACCH nBSS Inter BSS Handover 4. The MSC then targets the new BSS (nBSS) for the MS. 3.ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures Inter BSS Handover While the MS is involved in a call (i. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 58 of 58 . it is continuously compiling measurements and reporting to the BSS. When a Handover is required. The nBSS communicates with the MS Using FACCH to establish full connection. 5. 1. has a TCH allocated). Once all necessary information has been transferred the MSC is informed and Handover is complete.e. via the oBSS orders the MS to change to the nBSS using FACCH. HO Required SACCH FACCH oBSS 4. HO Request Info MSC 3. Upon completion. The MSC. 7. typically due to low Receive Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). 1. 6. The nBSS assigns a new TCH for the MS to use and passes relevant information back to the MSC. the originating BSS (oBSS) notifies the MSC. 2. through its TMSI. freeing the radio resource for another MS to use (The channel is not cleared until the nBSS can fully accommodate the MS). the MS continues to periodically measure the RSSI values and reports to the nBSS. The MSC now sends a Clear Down command to the oBSS.
containing the new TSMI and LAI to the MS. the MS will be assigned an SDCCH by the BSS. The MSC informs the VLR that the update has been successful. A location update occurs when an MS detects that it has entered a new location area (LAI). Once an SDCCH has been assigned. (This information will also be sent to the HLR if it is the first update transmitted by the MS.ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures Location Update 1. 2. the MS responds with an Update Complete Message (UC) to the MSC. Its transmits a location Update Accept Message (UA). 5. The MSC finally informs the BSS to release the SDCCH. The LAI is transmitted on the BCCH. 6. the MS will transmit a Location Update Message (LU) to the MSC. for the duration of the update procedure. When the MSC receives this message it sends the new LAI and current TMSI to the VLR. 3. The VLR can now assign a new TMSI (if required) to the MS. If this occurs. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 59 of 59 . When the MS has successfully received and stored the updated information.) VLR LAI TMSI TMSI RACH AGCH LU UA UC SDCCH MSC SDCCH SDCCH BSS SDCCH MS Location Update 4. 7.
the MS will be denied its request and service will be refused. 3. for call setup. The AGCH carries the RAND and information regarding the SDCCH that the MS will use to respond. If authentication fails. which in turn sends it to the MS attached to a AGCH.e. The VLR initiates the authentication process by sending an authentication message to the MSC. © ROOT 2 technology Limited 2001 Page 60 of 60 .ROOT 2 technology Call and Handover Proceedures Authentication Procedure The authentication procedure maybe executed in addition to switch on. 6. where authentication will be confirmed. the HLR will be updated. 1. VLR RAND SRES RAND SRES AGCH Complete MSC SDCCH SDCCH BSS MS Authentication 4. International roaming. 5. If authentication is successful the MS will be able to continue with its request for service as an example. The MSC then sends the RAND to the BSS. along with the associated RAND. location updating or applications for other services i. The SRES is passed to the VLR via the MSC. The MS responds to the request using the SDCCH passing the SRES. 2.
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