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TAYLOR’S+TOOL+LIFE+EQUATION

TAYLOR’S+TOOL+LIFE+EQUATION

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TAYLOR`S TOOL LIFE

EQUATION
Frederick W. Taylor 1856-1915
Contents
Tool Life
Taylor's Tool Life Equation
Numerical
Factors Affecting Tool Life
Application of Taylor's Tool Life Equation
Tool Life For Optimum Cost and Production
Rates
Conclusion
References
TOOL LIFE
Tool life is the time a tool can be reliably used for cutting before
it must be discarded/repaired.
A common method of forecasting tool life is to use Taylor's
equation founded by Frederick Taylor in 1907.
Taylor thought that there is an optimum cutting speed for best
productivity.
This is reasoned from the fact that at low cutting speeds, tools
have higher life but productivity is low, and at higher speeds the
reverse is true.
This inspired him to check up the relationship of tool life and
cutting speed.
Based on the experimental work he proposed the formula for
tool life.
Taylor's Tool Life Equation
The Taylor Equation for Tool Life Expectancy provides a good approximation.
VcTn = C
A more general form of the equation is
where
ø Vc = cutting speed
ø T = tool life
ø D = depth of cut
ø f = feed rate
ø x and y are determined experimentally
ø n and C are constants ; they are properties of tool material, work piece and
feed rate.
NUMERICAL
A lathe running at a speed of 4000 rev./min is cutting Mild Steel
with a H.S.S. tool. The spindle of speed is reduced to 3000
rev./min. Calculate the percentage change in tool life.
V1 = Ìnitial cutting speed.
V2 = Reduced cutting speed.
T1 = Tool life at V1.
T2 = Tool life at V2.
n = 0.125
VTn = C
VT0.125 = C
So T10.125 = C
V1
And T20.125 = C
V2
(T1/T2)0.125 = (C/V2)
(C/V1)
(T2/T1)0.125 = C x V1
V2 C
(T2/T1)0.125 = V1
V2
0.125 (T2/T1)= (V1/V2)
(T2/T1)= 9.99
%%
This shows that reducing cutting speed by 25% increases tool life by
nearly 1000% (under the cutting conditions of this particular setup).
Factors AIIecting Tool LiIe
Cutting conditions: Cutting conditions like speed, feed and depth of cut affects tool
life. As has been discussed, increase in cutting speed decreases tool life. From the
above equation it is clear that if the feed rate or depth of cut is increased, cutting
speed must be decreased and vice-versa. Depending on the exponents, a reduction
in speed can then result in an increase in the volume of material removed, because of
the increased feed rate and/or depth of cut. Ìt therefore necessary to select optimum
feed and depth of cut for optimum tool life.
%ooI geometry: Tool geometry also affects the tool life. Ìncreasing the rake angle
decreases the cutting force and heat produced at the tool tip. However increasing the
rake angle to a large value reduces the tool material available at the tool tip for
conducting heat generated, thus increasing the tool tip temperature. This would
decrease tool life, thus again an optimum value has to be selected.
%ooI materiaI Tool material also affects the tool life. For example carbides have
higher tool life than HSS.
ork materiaI: Work material also affects the tool life. Ìt is not the hardness alone,
but the physical microstructure and the constituent phases which make a large
difference inn the tool life values.
Cutting fIuid: &se of right quality cutting fluid helps improving tool life.
Application oI Taylor`s Tool LiIe
Equation
Economics of Metal Cutting
As with most engineering problems we want to get
the highest return, with the minimum investment. Ìn
this case we want to minimize costs, while
increasing cutting speeds.
EFFÌCÌENCY will be the key term - it suggests that
good quality parts are produced at reasonable cost.
Cost is a primarily affected by
tool life
power consumed
The production throughput is primarily affected by
accuracy including dimensions and surface finish
metal removal rate
There are two basic conditions to trade off
W owcost - characterized by low speeds, low metal removal
rate, longer tool life.
W High5roductionrates - characterized by high speeds,
short tool life, high metal removal rate.
Tool Life For Optimum Cost and
Production Rates
Conclusion
Applicable over a restricted range of cutting
speeds.
Value of C- Larger the value of C, greater the
tool life and superior the material.
Value of n- smaller the value of 'n' steeper
the slope and thus the tool life is very
sensitive to changes in cutting speed.
Values of C and n are random.
Not applicable for many commercial alloys.
ReIerences
Fundamentals of Metal Cutting and Machine
Tools- Juneja and Sekhon
machinetools.netfirms.com/18_Applying%20T
aylors%20Equation.htm - 37k
http//www.eod.gvsu.edu/eod/manufact/manuf
act-26.html

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